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Sample records for heavily sprayed areas

  1. RAINWATER RETENTION ON THE HEAVILY INDUSTRIALIZED AREAS

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    Bartosz Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dimensioning of retention reservoirs indicator method regarding to the German DWA-A 117 guideline, recommended for small rainfall catchments (with an area of 200 ha. A comparative calculation of the retention reservoirs overflow useful volume were conducted for 4 variants of catchment development (degree sealing surface varied from 60% to 90%, under the assumed sewage outflow from the tank at the level of the urban basin natural runoff. At given conditions required unit volume of retention reservoirs, from 145.4 m3 to 206.7 m3 for each 1 ha of catchment area were determined. The obtained results confirmed the fact that useful volume of the tanks were decreased, when Blaszczyk’s pattern reliable rainwater streams were used for calculations. Because the DWA-A 117 guideline method should be applied to a small rainfall catchments, it is recommended to verify the hydraulic capacity of dimensioned channels and objects using hydrodynamic simulations at different load of rainfall catchment scenarios, variable in time and space.

  2. Ecophysiological characterization of early successional biological soil crusts in heavily human-impacted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyja, Michelle; Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    Ecophysiological characterizations of photoautotrophic communities are not only necessary to identify the response of carbon fixation related to different climatic factors, but also to evaluate risks connected to changing environments. In biological soil crusts (BSCs), the description of ecophysiological features is difficult, due to the high variability in taxonomic composition and variable methodologies applied. Especially for BSCs in early successional stages, the available datasets are rare or focused on individual constituents, although these crusts may represent the only photoautotrophic component in many heavily disturbed ruderal areas, such as parking lots or building areas with increasing surface area worldwide. We analyzed the response of photosynthesis and respiration to changing BSC water contents (WCs), temperature and light in two early successional BSCs. We investigated whether the response of these parameters was different between intact BSC and the isolated dominating components. BSCs dominated by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and dominated by the green alga Zygogonium ericetorum were examined. A major divergence between the two BSCs was their absolute carbon fixation rate on a chlorophyll basis, which was significantly higher for the cyanobacterial crust. Nevertheless, independent of species composition, both crust types and their isolated organisms had convergent features such as high light acclimatization and a minor and very late-occurring depression in carbon uptake at water suprasaturation. This particular setup of ecophysiological features may enable these communities to cope with a high variety of climatic stresses and may therefore be a reason for their success in heavily disturbed areas with ongoing human impact. However, the shape of the response was different for intact BSC compared to separated organisms, especially in absolute net photosynthesis (NP) rates. This emphasizes the importance of measuring intact BSCs under natural

  3. Atmospheric depositions around a heavily industrialized area in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2005-01-01

    Clear and throughfall bulk depositions were collected in the downwind of a highly industrialized region in Sonbhadra district of India to estimate the influence of anthropogenic activities on chemical composition of depositions. Significant spatial and temporal variations in depositions of cations and anions were observed. Depositions were higher near the thermal power stations and coalmines as compared to distantly situated site. Seasonally summer samples showed maximum cation and anion depositions followed by winter and minimum in rainy season. The mean pH of the depositions indicates that rainfall in the area is alkaline. Among the anions, maximum deposition was recorded for SO 4 2- followed by NO 3 - and minimum for Cl - . Among the cations, Ca 2+ deposition was maximum followed by NH 4 + . Na + , K + and Mg 2+ deposition rates showed more or less similar values. The depositions of cations and anions as well as pH were higher in throughfall than clearfall samples. Results of the present study suggest that atmospheric depositions are strongly modified due to thermal power stations and coal mines in the area. - Atmospheric abundance of cations have neutralized the acidity of depositions around a heavily industrialized area in India

  4. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  5. Age standardized cancer mortality ratios in areas heavily exposed to methyl mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-08-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) was discharged from a chemical factory in Minamata, and consequently spread throughout the Shiranui Sea in Kumamoto, Japan. Although many studies have focused on MeHg-induced neurological disorders, the association between MeHg and malignant neoplasms has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, we explored this association using the age standardized mortality ratio (ASMR) in an ecologic study over a wide area allowing for a long empirical induction period. The subjects were residents in areas around the Shiranui Sea. We divided these areas into exposure groups 1 (Minamata and Ashikita regions) and 2 (Amakusa region). Exposure group 1 was contaminated from the late 1930s, and exposure group 2 was contaminated from the late 1950s. In addition, exposure group 1 was contaminated more heavily than exposure group 2. There were 92,525 and 152,541 residents in each group in 1960, respectively. We analyzed the cancer ASMR in both exposure groups using data from two reference populations (Japan and Kumamoto prefecture) from 1961 to 1997. There were 94,301,494 and 1,856,192 people in each reference group in 1960, respectively. We abstracted population and mortality data from the censuses and the vital statistics of the prefecture and Japan. An increased leukemia ASMR and a decreased gastric cancer ASMR were observed in both exposure groups, while other ASMRs were around unity and less precise. Furthermore, the leukemia ASMRs were elevated differently between the two exposure groups: the leukemia ASMR was already elevated early in the study period in exposure group 1 and increased gradually in exposure group 2. While the negative association between MeHg and gastric cancer might be explained by salt intake, the positive association between MeHg and leukemia could not be explained by potential confounders. Despite some limitations mainly due to its ecologic design, this study indicates the necessity of an individual-level study evaluating the

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern.

  7. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7–13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city. PMID:27834903

  8. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-11-10

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7-13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city.

  9. Characteristics, distribution and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal sediments from the heavily industrialized area of Asalouyeh, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Asadgol, Zahra; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Seifi, Morteza; Moradi, Masoud; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2017-12-01

    In this research, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in the marine sediments of Asaluyeh harbor, in the Persian Gulf. The samples were taken from industrial, semi-industrial and urban regions. The mean concentration levels of total (Σ) 18 detected PCBs were 514.32, 144.67 and 31.6 pg/g dw for the industrial, semi-industrial and urban sampling stations, respectively. Based on a multivariate statistical analysis, it was found that high contamination levels of PCBs in sediments collected along the Persian Gulf were associated with releases from local industries. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of PCB congeners. World Health Organization toxic equivalents (TEQs) for PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.66 pg TEQ/g dry weight (dw) in the coastal sediments. The TEQ values in this study were higher than many reported worldwide in the literature for sediments. This suggests that there are high levels of contamination in the area due to industrial and other human activities.

  10. Correlations between Socioeconomic Drivers and Indicators of Urban Expansion: Evidence from the Heavily Urbanised Shanghai Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urban expansion resulting in increased impervious surfaces causes a series of urban environmental problems, e.g., the urban heat island and urban forest fragmentation. Urban expansion is a serious threat to human quality of life and living environments. It has been studied from a variety of aspects, but its driving factors and time series expansion characteristics (i.e., expansion intensity, pattern and direction need to be better explained in order to devise more effective management strategies. This study examined how social and economic factors are linked in driving urban expansion. Based on multi-temporal aerial images, a rapid urban expansion period, 2000–2010, in Shanghai was analysed. The urban area expanded from 1770.36 to 2855.44 km2 in the period, with a mean annual expansion rate of 108.51 km2. Urban expansion in 2000–2005 (40.42% was much faster than in 2005–2010 (14.86%, and its direction was southeast, southwest and south. The main pattern was edge expansion in both sub-periods. Social factors, especially population density, significantly affected urban expansion. These findings can help understand the urban expansion process and its driving factors, which has important implications for urban planning and management in Shanghai and similar cities.

  11. SEROPREVALENCE OF AVIAN INFLUENZA IN LAYERS OF HEAVILY POPULATED AREAS IN TOBA TEK SINGH AND ADJOINING LOCALITIES

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    M. Numan and M. Siddique

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey based on collection of serum samples for the determination of prevalence of avian influenza (AI in non-vaccinated layer flocks was carried out in an area of Punjab having complaints similar to those represented by AI. Paired serum sampling was done from 14 non-vaccinated flocks against any subtype of AI virus (AIV. A total of 204 serum samples were collected (148 soon after exhibiting signs and symptoms and 56 after three weeks interval from positive farms for AIV antibodies from 14 commercial layer farms. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI test was performed for the determination of serum antibodies against AIV. The results showed that out of 14 sampled farms, three farms had antibodies against only H7 subtype, two farms had antibodies against H9 and two farms showed antibodies against both subtypes, H7 and H9, while remaining 7 farms were negative for antibodies to AI. Furthermore, out of these positive farms only one farm was found seroconverted for H7 subtype.

  12. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  13. Filtering fens: mechanisms explaining phosphorus-limited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke; Fernandez, Filippo; van Wirdum, Geert; Geurts, Jeroen J M; van Loon, E Emiel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Lamers, Leon P M

    2014-05-15

    vegetation requires larger areas, as long as eutrophication has not been seriously tackled. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric concentrations, distributions and air-soil exchange tendencies of PAHs and PCBs in a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu; Yurdakul, Sema; Keles, Melek; Celik, Isil; Ozturk, Fatma; Dogan, Cevdet

    2017-09-01

    Dilovasi is one of the heavily industrialized areas in Turkey with serious environmental problems. In this study, the atmospheric concentration of PAHs and PCBs were measured for a whole year at 23 sites. The average ambient air Σ 15 PAH and Σ 41 PCB concentrations were found as 285 ± 431 ng m -3 and 4152 ± 6072 pg m -3 , respectively. PAH concentrations increased with decreasing temperature especially in urban areas, indicating the impact of residential heating. However, PCB concentrations mostly increased with temperature probably due to enhanced volatilization from their sources. The gradient obtained for PCBs, rural air were higher in industrial-urban areas than rural sites, showing that soil was a secondary source for PAHs. Fugacity ratios of PCBs were mostly <1.0 for the whole sampling period. Although the source/sink tendency of soil for some PCBs depends on their volatility, considering the whole data, PCBs were generally deposited to soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Defect-Free Large-Area (25 cm2 Light Absorbing Perovskite Thin Films Made by Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Habibi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on reproducible fabrication of defect-free large-area mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx thin films by scalable spray coating with the area of 25 cm2. This is essential for the commercialization of the perovskite solar cell technology. Using an automated spray coater, the film thickness and roughness were optimized by controlling the solution concentration and substrate temperature. For the first time, the surface tension, contact angle, and viscosity of mixed halide perovskite dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF are reported as a function of the solution concentration. A low perovskite solution concentration of 10% was selected as an acceptable value to avoid crystallization dewetting. The determined optimum substrate temperature of 150 °C, followed by annealing at 100 °C render the highest perovskite precursor conversion, as well as the highest possible droplet spreading, desired to achieve a continuous thin film. The number of spray passes was also tuned to achieve a fully-covered film, for the condition of the spray nozzle used in this work. This work demonstrates that applying the optimum substrate temperature decreases the standard deviation of the film thickness and roughness, leading to an increase in the quality and reproducibility of the large-area spray-on films. The optimum perovskite solution concentration and the substrate temperature are universally applicable to other spray coating systems.

  16. Soil concentrations and source apportionment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and trace elements around a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Air pollutants are transported by dry deposition, wet deposition, and gas exchange accumulated in soil. Therefore, soil is an important environmental medium reflecting the level and the spatial distribution of air pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. Soil concentrations of seven PBDE congeners and 21 trace elements were determined in a heavily industrialized region (Dilovasi) in Kocaeli, Turkey. At all sites, Σ7PBDE concentrations ranged from 0.70 to 203 with a mean value of 26.3 μg kg(-1) (dry weight). The congener profiles and mass inventories of PBDEs and their interactions with soil organic matter (SOM) were also investigated. BDE-209 was the dominant congener at all sites, followed by BDE-99 and/or -47. The estimated inventory of PBDEs for the Dilovasi district was 310 kg. However, there are several additional industrial regions in Kocaeli city. Considering the total land area, the potential inventory would be much larger for this city. The relationship between the PBDE concentrations in soil and SOM content indicated that factors other than soil properties have a greater influence on soil concentrations. Crustal enrichment factors (EFs) were determined; correlation analysis and factor analysis (FA) were also applied to generated data set to identify and apportion the sources polluting the soil. Sn, Mn, Ca, As, Zn, Pb, and Cd had significantly high average EF values, indicating that their soil concentrations were mainly influenced by anthropogenic activities. In FA, six factors were extracted with a cumulative variance of 84.4 % and industrial activities and traffic were found to be the main factors affecting the soil profile.

  17. Mesoporous high surface area Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 synthesized by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Mats; Wang, Hsiang-Jen; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous gadolinium doped cerium dioxide with high surface area was produced by spray drying using Pluronic 123 as surfactant. The powder, when calcined at 400 °C, had a BET surface area of 136 m2 g−1 and was polycrystalline as confirmed by XRD and TEM. XEDS confirmed Ce, Gd and O, as the only......, corresponding to the crystallite size calculated from XRD data. The similar size range of the mesopores and the observed crystallite size indicates that the porosity is partly formed from intergranular mesoporosity. Using the spray drying method of a surfactant assisted liquid precursor solution it can...

  18. Thermal equilibrium concentration of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped silicon crystals - Theoretical study of formation energy and formation entropy in area of influence of dopant atoms-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamaoka, S.; Sueoka, K.; Vanhellemont, J.

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that p-type, neutral and n-type dopants affect the intrinsic point defect (vacancy V and self-interstitial I) behavior in single crystal Si. By the interaction with V and/or I, (1) growing Si crystals become more V- or I-rich, (2) oxygen precipitation is enhanced or retarded, and (3) dopant diffusion is enhanced or retarded, depending on the type and concentration of dopant atoms. Since these interactions affect a wide range of Si properties ranging from as-grown crystal quality to LSI performance, numerical simulations are used to predict and to control the behavior of both dopant atoms and intrinsic point defects. In most cases, the thermal equilibrium concentrations of dopant-point defect pairs are evaluated using the mass action law by taking only the binding energy of closest pair to each other into account. The impacts of dopant atoms on the formation of V and I more distant than 1st neighbor and on the change of formation entropy are usually neglected. In this study, we have evaluated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped Si crystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain the formation energy (Ef) of the uncharged V and I at all sites in a 64-atom supercell around a substitutional p-type (B, Ga, In, and Tl), neutral (C, Ge, and Sn) and n-type (P, As, and Sb) dopant atom. The formation (vibration) entropies (Sf) of free I, V and I, V at 1st neighboring site from B, C, Sn, P and As atoms were also calculated with the linear response method. The dependences of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of trapped and total intrinsic point defects (sum of free I or V and I or V trapped with dopant atoms) on the concentrations of B, C, Sn, P and As in Si were obtained. Furthermore, the present evaluations well explain the experimental results of the so-called ;Voronkov criterion; in B and C doped Si, and also the observed dopant dependent void sizes in P and As doped Si

  19. Spray-Deposited Large-Area Copper Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes and Their Uses for Touch Screen Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsun-Chen; Chang, Yen-Chen; Lin, Yow; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Wei-Chung; Li, Guo-An; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2016-05-25

    Large-area conducting transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were prepared by a fast, scalable, and low-cost spray deposition of copper nanowire (CuNW) dispersions. Thin, long, and pure copper nanowires were obtained via the seed-mediated growth in an organic solvent-based synthesis. The mean length and diameter of nanowires are, respectively, 37.7 μm and 46 nm, corresponding to a high-mean-aspect ratio of 790. These wires were spray-deposited onto a glass substrate to form a nanowire conducting network which function as a TCE. CuNW TCEs exhibit high-transparency and high-conductivity since their relatively long lengths are advantageous in lowering in the sheet resistance. For example, a 2 × 2 cm(2) transparent nanowire electrode exhibits transmittance of T = 90% with a sheet resistance as low as 52.7 Ω sq(-1). Large-area sizes (>50 cm(2)) of CuNW TCEs were also prepared by the spray coating method and assembled as resistive touch screens that can be integrated with a variety of devices, including LED lighting array, a computer, electric motors, and audio electronic devices, showing the capability to make diverse sizes and functionalities of CuNW TCEs by the reported method.

  20. Estimating representative background PM2.5 concentration in heavily polluted areas using baseline separation technique and chemical mass balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yanling; Mao, Jian; Ma, Zhenxing; Cong, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xian; Tian, Shasha; Azzi, Merched; Chen, Li; Bai, Zhipeng

    2018-02-01

    The determination of background concentration of PM2.5 is important to understand the contribution of local emission sources to total PM2.5 concentration. The purpose of this study was to exam the performance of baseline separation techniques to estimate PM2.5 background concentration. Five separation methods, which included recursive digital filters (Lyne-Hollick, one-parameter algorithm, and Boughton two-parameter algorithm), sliding interval and smoothed minima, were applied to one-year PM2.5 time-series data in two heavily polluted cities, Tianjin and Jinan. To obtain the proper filter parameters and recession constants for the separation techniques, we conducted regression analysis at a background site during the emission reduction period enforced by the Government for the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in Beijing. Background concentrations in Tianjin and Jinan were then estimated by applying the determined filter parameters and recession constants. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was also applied to ascertain the effectiveness of the new approach. Our results showed that the contribution of background PM concentration to ambient pollution was at a comparable level to the contribution obtained from the previous study. The best performance was achieved using the Boughton two-parameter algorithm. The background concentrations were estimated at (27 ± 2) μg/m3 for the whole year, (34 ± 4) μg/m3 for the heating period (winter), (21 ± 2) μg/m3 for the non-heating period (summer), and (25 ± 2) μg/m3 for the sandstorm period in Tianjin. The corresponding values in Jinan were (30 ± 3) μg/m3, (40 ± 4) μg/m3, (24 ± 5) μg/m3, and (26 ± 2) μg/m3, respectively. The study revealed that these baseline separation techniques are valid for estimating levels of PM2.5 air pollution, and that our proposed method has great potential for estimating the background level of other air pollutants.

  1. Treatment of heavily contaminated storm water from an industrial site area by filtration through an adsorbent barrier with pine bark (Pinus Silvestris), polonite and active carbon in a comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Ribé, Veronica; Carlsson, Peter; Eneroth, Peder; Odlare, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate a simple and robust filtration method for separation of of heavy metals from storm water. The storm water, collected at a metals manufacturing site, is heavily contaminated with heavy metals, A first analysis of a water sample collected from the site in mid Sweden showed exceptionally high concentrations of especially Zn, which was present in concentrations exceeding 200 mgL-1. The basic idea is to filter the water as it flows out of the industry area through a pas...

  2. Use of biocidal products (insect sprays and electro-vaporizer) in indoor areas--exposure scenarios and exposure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Koch, Wolfgang; Gerling, Susanne; Kock, Heiko; Appel, Klaus E

    2009-09-01

    Five commercially available insect sprays were applied in a model room. Spraying was performed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and in an overdosed manner in order to simulate worst-case conditions or an unforeseeable misuse. In addition, we examined electro-vaporizers. The Respicon aerosol monitoring system was applied to determine inhalation exposure. During normal spraying (10 seconds) and during the following 2-3 minutes, exposure concentrations ranged from 70 to 590 microg/m3 for the pyrethroids tetramethrin, d-phenothrin, cyfluthrin, bioallethrin, and the pyrethrins. Calculated inhalable doses were 2-16 microg. A concentration of approximately 850 microg chlorpyrifos/m(3) (inhalable dose: approximately 20 microg) was determined when the "Contra insect fly spray" was applied. Highest exposure concentrations (1100-2100 microg/m3) were measured for piperonyl butoxide (PBO), corresponding to an inhalation intake of 30-60microg. When simulating worst-case conditions, exposure concentrations of 200-3400microg/m3 and inhalable doses of 10-210microg were determined for the various active substances. Highest concentrations (4800-8000 microg/m3) were measured for PBO (inhalable: 290-480 microg). By applying the electro-vaporizer "Nexa Lotte" plug-in mosquito killer concentrations for d-allethrin were in the range of 5-12microg/m3 and 0.5-2 microg/m3 for PBO while with the "Paral" plug-in mosquito killer concentrations of 0.4-5microg/m3 for pyrethrins and 1-7 microg/m3 for PBO were measured. Potential dermal exposures were determined using exposure pads. Between 80 and 1000microg active substance (tetramethrin, phenothrin, cyfluthrin, bioallethrin, pyrethrins, chlorpyrifos) were deposited on the clothing of the total body surface area of the spray user. Highest levels (up to 3000 microg) were determined for PBO. Worst-case uses of the sprays led to 5-9 times higher concentrations. Also a 2-hour stay nearby an operating electro-vaporizer led to a

  3. 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) methodologies applied on selected heavily urbanized areas of the basin of Mexico to detect buried fractures and subsidence problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Segura, R. E.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Tejero, A.; Hernandez, E.

    2012-12-01

    Urban development in modern cities require of a more integral knowledge of the subsurface, mainly on those areas, where human concentrations increase. Mexico City is one of such an example, where it constitutes one of the largest concentrations of human activities in the world. Most of the urban area is underlain by lacustrine sediments of the former lakes, and confined by important volcanic ranges. Such sediments offer poor foundation conditions for constructive purposes. Therefore, high risk areas have to be identified to prevent accidents and disastrous events. Geophysical techniques can be employed to understand the physical characteristics of the subsurface. Two examples are presented in this investigation. A residential complex named La Concordia is located towards the central portion of the basin that consists of six four storey buildings in an area of 33x80 m2. Finally, a block of small houses (50x50 m2) is found to the southern limit of the basin; close to the Chichinautzin range within the town of Tecomitl. Both zones suffer of strong damage in their structures due to fractures and subsidence within the subsoil. Therefore, Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was carried out to characterize the subsoil beneath these urban complexes. A special array ('horse-shoe' geometry) 'L' employing Wenner-Schlumberger techniques, in addition to equatorial-dipole and minimum-coupling arrays were carried out to fully 'illuminate' beneath the constructions. Computed resistivity models for both examples depicted the buried fracture pattern affecting the urban complexes. Such patterns seem to extend beyond the limits of the surveyed areas, and are probably part of a more complex fracture system. It is very likely that fractures have been produced due to the poorly consolidated clays that cover most of the central part of the Valley of Mexico; the intense water extraction, that form 'voids' in the subsoil causing subsidence effects and finally the existence of regional

  4. Suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly populations over mountainous areas through aerial phloxine B - protein bait sprays: Regional Medfly programme in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Peck, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    spray. A second spray cycle was begun in December 1997, targeted to start before the annual Mediterranean fruit fly population increase. The sprays were continued until early February 1998, after which a weekly release of sterile Mediterranean fruit flies was started and was planned to continue through mid-June, 1998. Here, we describe the 1997-1998 large area phloxine B protein bait spray programme in southwestern Guatemala. We present the catch results of traps monitored throughout the weekly spray programme, as well as trap catch results from the initial ten weeks of sterile fly release which followed the spray programme. Additionally, we discuss issues which may affect the success of large area suppression programmes which target Mediterranean fruit fly or other tephritid fruit fly species using xanthene dye protein bait sprays

  5. Preliminary fundamental aspects on the thyroid volume and function in the population of long term heavily polluted area in East Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tajtakova, M. [Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia). First Clinic of Internal Medicine; Kocan, A. [Slovak Health Univ. - IPCM, Bratislava (SK). Research Base] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Our previous examinations of employees of chemical factory formerly producing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) repeatedly showed increased thyroid volume as measured by ultrasound as well as increased frequency of thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. At the same time a considerable PCB pollution of soil, waters and food chain in large area surrounding that chemical factory was found. The aim of present preliminary evaluation of data obtained within the EC project PCBRISK was to search for further interrelations between long-term organochlorine pollution and fundamental markers of thyroid volume and function in large cohorts of population from three districts of East Slovakia.

  6. Effectiveness of a large-scale health and nutritional education program on anemia in children younger than 5 years in Shifang, a heavily damaged area of Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Chuan; Yang, Hui; Yang, Huiming; Yang, Sufei; Yu, Tao; Tang, Zhanghui; Ji, Qiaoyun; Li, Fengyi; Shi, Hua; Mao, Meng

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to explore an ideal way to prevent anemia among children younger than 5 years after disasters especially when health care facilities are not enough. A preliminary survey was carried out involving 13 065 children younger than 5 years. Pretested questionnaires were used for data collection and hemoglobin levels were measured. After 12-month intervention, the impact survey involving 2769 children was conducted. Results showed that there were some improvements both in feeding knowledge and practice related to anemia. The total prevalence of anemia decreased from 14.3% to 7.8% (P education could be an ideal way to combat anemia after disasters especially in less developed areas with multiparty cooperation. The methods and experiences of this study may be well worth learning and implementing. © 2013 APJPH.

  7. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten oxide (WO3 is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL for organic solar cells (OSCs. The properties of the WO3 transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO3, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO3, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  8. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ran; Zheng, Ding; Zhou, Chang; Cheng, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Li, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Tungsten oxide (WO₃) is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL) for organic solar cells (OSCs). The properties of the WO₃ transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO₃, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO₃, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  9. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and comp...

  10. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation proc...

  11. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-09-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  12. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-01-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair—as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) ‘in-the-city-control’ people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher.

  13. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  14. A comprehensive aerosol spray method for the rapid photocatalytic grid area analysis of semiconductor photocatalyst thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafizas, Andreas; Mills, Andrew; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2010-01-01

    Indicator inks, previously shown to be capable of rapidly assessing photocatalytic activity via a novel photo-reductive mechanism, were simply applied via an aerosol spray onto commercially available pieces of Activ TM self-cleaning glass. Ink layers could be applied with high evenness of spread, with as little deviation as 5% upon UV-visible spectroscopic assessment of 25 equally distributed positions over a 10 cm x 10 cm glass cut. The inks were comprised of either a resazurin (Rz) or dichloroindophenol (DCIP) redox dye with a glycerol sacrificial electron donor in an aqueous hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) polymer media. The photo-reduction reaction under UVA light of a single spot was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and digital images attained from a flat-bed scanner in tandem for both inks. The photo-reduction of Rz ink underwent a two-step kinetic process, whereby the blue redox dye was initially reduced to a pink intermediate resorufin (Rf) and subsequently reduced to a bleached form of the dye. In contrast, a simple one-step kinetic process was observed for the reduction of the light blue redox dye DCIP to its bleached intermediates. Changes in red-green-blue colour extracted from digital images of the inks were inversely proportional to the changes seen at corresponding wavelengths via UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and wholly indicative of the reaction kinetics. The photocatalytic activity areas of cuts of Activ TM glass, 10 cm x 10 cm in size, were assessed using both Rz and DCIP indicator inks evenly sprayed over the films; firstly using UVA lamp light to activate the underlying Activ TM film (1.75 mW cm -2 ) and secondly under solar conditions (2.06 ± 0.14 mW cm -2 ). The photo-reduction reactions were monitored solely by flat-bed digital scanning. Red-green-blue values of a generated 14 x 14 grid (196 positions) that covered the entire area of each film image were extracted using a custom-built program entitled RGB Extractor(C). A homogenous

  15. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  16. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  17. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  18. Evaluation of chemical spraying and environmental management efficacy in areas with minor previous application of integrated control actions for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2017-12-01

    Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that are transmitted to humans through the bite of Leishmania-infected phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae). The main proved vector of visceral leishmaniais (VL) in the New World - Lutzomyia longipalpis - is well-adapted to urban areas and has extensive distribution within the five geographical regions of Brazil. Integrated public health actions directed for the vector, domestic reservoir and humans for the control of VL are preferentially applied in municipalities with higher epidemiological risk of transmission. In this study, we evaluated the individual impact of two main vector control actions - chemical spraying and environmental management - in two districts with no reported cases of human VL. Although belonging to an endemic municipality for VL in Brazil, the integrated control actions have not been applied in these districts due to the absence of human cases. The number of L. longipalpis captured in a two-year period was used as indicator of the population density of the vector. After chemical spraying a tendency of reduction in L. longipalpis was observed but with no statistical significance compared to the control. Environmental management was effective in that reduction and it may help in the control of VL by reducing the population density of the vector in a preventive and more permanent action, perhaps associated with chemical spraying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A new method for spray deposit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester M. Himel; Leland Vaughn; Raymond P. Miskus; Arthur D. Moore

    1965-01-01

    Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are distributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual recognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and nontarget portions of sprayed areas.

  20. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  1. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  2. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P.; Snaith, Henry J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices. PMID:27161379

  3. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P; Snaith, Henry J; Grant, Patrick S

    2016-05-10

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices.

  4. Gram-scale synthesis of catalytic Co9S8 nanocrystal ink as a cathode material for spray-deposited, large-area dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Hao; Lu, Ming-De; Tung, Yung-Liang; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2013-10-22

    We report the development of Co9S8 nanocrystals as a cost-effective cathode material that can be readily combined with spraying techniques to fabricate large-area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices and can be further connected with series or parallel cell architectures to obtain a relatively high output voltage or current. A gram-scale synthesis of Co9S8 nanocrystal is carried out via a noninjection reaction by mixing anhydrous CoCl2 with trioctylphosphine (TOP), dodecanethiol and oleylamine (OLA) at 250 °C. The Co9S8 nanocrystals possess excellent catalytic ability with respect to I(-)/I3(-) redox reactions. The Co9S8 nanocrystals are prepared as nanoinks to fabricate uniform, crack-free Co9S8 thin films on different substrates by using a spray deposition technique. These Co9S8 films are used as counter electrodes assembled with dye-adsorbed TiO2 photoanodes to fabricate DSSC devices having a working area of 2 cm(2) and an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.02 ± 0.18% under AM 1.5 solar illumination, which is comparable with the PCE of 7.2 ± 0.12% obtained using a Pt cathode. Furthermore, six 2 cm(2)-sized DSSC devices connected in series output an open-circuit voltage of 4.2 V that can power a wide range of electronic devices such as LED arrays and can charge commercial lithium ion batteries.

  5. Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Nabipour, Iraj; Ostovar, Afshin; Asadgol, Zahra; Abuee, Ehsan; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-05-01

    Sediment samples from the coastal area of Asaluyeh harbor were collected during autumn and spring 2015. The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) were measured to assess the sediment quality and potential ecological risks. The average concentrations (and relative standard deviation (RSD)) of AVS in the industrial sediments were 12.32 μmol/g (36.91) and 6.34 μmol/g (80.05) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 0.44 μmol/g (123.50) and 0.31 μmol/g (160.0) in autumn and spring, respectively. The average concentrations of SEM (and RSD) in the industrial sediments were 15.02 μmol/g (14.38) and 12.34 μmol/g (20.65) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 1.10 μmol/g (43.03) and 1.06 μmol/g (55.59) in autumn and spring, respectively. Zn was the predominant component (34.25-86.24 %) of SEM, while the corresponding value for Cd, much more toxic ingredient, was less than 1 %. Some of the coastal sediments in the harbor of Asaluyeh (20 and 47 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had expected adverse biological effects based on the suggested criterion by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), while most stations (80 and 53 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had uncertain adverse effects.

  6. Resurgence of Malaria Following Discontinuation of Indoor Residual Spraying of Insecticide in an Area of Uganda With Previously High-Transmission Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouf, Saned; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Kigozi, Ruth; Sserwanga, Asadu; Rubahika, Denis; Katamba, Henry; Lindsay, Steve W; Kapella, Bryan K; Belay, Kassahun A; Kamya, Moses R; Staedke, Sarah G; Dorsey, Grant

    2017-08-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary tools for malaria prevention in Africa. It is not known whether reductions in malaria can be sustained after IRS is discontinued. Our aim in this study was to assess changes in malaria morbidity in an area of Uganda with historically high transmission where IRS was discontinued after a 4-year period followed by universal LLIN distribution. Individual-level malaria surveillance data were collected from 1 outpatient department and 1 inpatient setting in Apac District, Uganda, from July 2009 through November 2015. Rounds of IRS were delivered approximately every 6 months from February 2010 through May 2014 followed by universal LLIN distribution in June 2014. Temporal changes in the malaria test positivity rate (TPR) were estimated during and after IRS using interrupted time series analyses, controlling for age, rainfall, and autocorrelation. Data include 65 421 outpatient visits and 13 955 pediatric inpatient admissions for which a diagnostic test for malaria was performed. In outpatients aged malaria morbidity to pre-IRS levels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  8. Positron trapping in heavily irradiated semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.; Pautrat, J.L.; Corbel, C.; Hautojarvi, P.

    1985-01-01

    Vacancy processes are studied in several heavily irradiated semiconductors. Specimens are ZnTe, CdTe, CdTe (In), InP, InP (Cr), InP (Zn) and Ge. Irradiations are made at 20 K using a 3 MeV Van de Graaff electron accelerator. Doses are 4 x 10 18 e - /cm 2 . Lifetime measurements are made at 77 K at each step of an isochronal annealing (30 min 20 K). In each specimen, the results show a significant increase of the lifetime (+ 30 at + 50 ps) which anneals out in different steps restoring the initial lifetime. The steps are sharp (ΔT/T=0.3) with the exception of InP, InP(Cr), InP(Zn), (ΔT/T=0.9). Tentative interpretations are given

  9. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  10. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-01-01

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste

  11. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  12. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  13. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  14. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  15. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  16. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  17. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  18. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  19. A study on the macroscopic spray behavior and atomization characteristics of biodiesel and dimethyl ether sprays under increased ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Park, Su Han [Graduate School of Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Chang Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the spray behaviors of biodiesel and dimethyl ether (DME) fuels using image processing and atomization performance analysis of the two fuel sprays injected through a common-rail injection system under various ambient pressure conditions in a high pressure chamber. In order to observe the biodiesel and DME fuel spray behaviors under various ambient pressures, the spray images were analyzed at various times after the start of energization using a visualization system consisting of a high speed camera and two metal halide light sources. In addition, a high pressure chamber that can withstand a pressure of 4 MPa was used for adjusting the ambient pressure. From the spray images, spray characteristics such as the spray tip penetration, cone angle, area, and contour plot at various light intensity levels were analyzed using image conversion processing. Also, the local Sauter mean diameters (SMD) were measured at various axial/radial distances from the nozzle tip by a droplet measuring system to compare the atomization performances of the biodiesel and DME sprays. The results showed that the ambient pressure had a significant effect on the spray characteristics of the fuels at the various experimental conditions. The spray tip penetration and spray area decreased as the ambient pressure increased. The contour plot of the biodiesel and DME sprays showed a high light intensity level in the center regions of the sprays. In addition, it was revealed that the atomization performance of the biodiesel spray was inferior to that of the DME spray at the same injection and ambient conditions. (author)

  20. Distribuição da calda herbicida por pontas de pulverização agrícola utilizadas em áreas de reflorestamento com eucalipto Herbicide distribution by spraying nozzles used in eucalyptus reforestation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo da C. Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a distribuição de calda por pontas de pulverização hidráulicas para a aplicação de herbicidas em pré-emergência das plantas daninhas, em função do espaçamento na barra utilizada em áreas de reflorestamento com eucalipto. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Ciência das Plantas Daninhas do Departamento de Fitossanidade da UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal. Foram utilizados os modelos com indução de ar AIUB 025, AI 110025, TTI 110015 e DB 12002, considerando o espaçamento de 0,8; 1,0; 1,2 e 1,5 m entre eles. A avaliação da distribuição da calda pulverizada foi realizada em mesa de deposição. Pulverizou-se água com 0,1% do adjuvante não iônico alquilfenol. Os valores observados foram utilizados para a obtenção das curvas de deposição e do coeficiente de variação. Para a sobreposição de dois exemplares de pontas, conclui-se que o modelo AIUB 025 possui menores coeficientes de variação, resultando em melhores características operacionais em relação à AI 110025, TTI 110015 e DB 12002. Para a utilização de três exemplares de pontas, seguindo somente o critério da distribuição da calda, a melhor combinação foi entre AIUB 025 e DB 12002, como intercalar. A utilização da ponta intercalar aumentou significativamente o consumo de calda.This work aimed to evaluate spray distribution by spraying hydraulic nozzles for the application of herbicides in the pre-emergence of weeds, due to the spacing in spraying boom used in areas reforested with eucalyptus. The trial was carried out at the Weed Science Laboratory from the Phytosanitary Department, UNESP - Jaboticabal Campus - SP, Brazil. It was used air induction nozzles AIUB 025, AI 110025, TTI 110015 and DB 12002, on spacing 0.8; 1.0; 1.2; and 1.5 m, between them. The spraying liquid distribution evaluation was done in patternator table. It was sprayed water plus 0.1% of non-ionic adjuvant alkylphenol . The observed

  1. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)

  2. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--Co permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating Co--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--Co magnets, sprayed from Sm-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million G-Oe and coercive forces of approximately 6000 Oe. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates

  3. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  4. Simulation of Heavily Irradiated Silicon Pixel Sensors and Comparison with Test Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chiochia, Vincenzo; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Swartz, Morris; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Charge collection measurements performed on heavily irradiated p-spray DOFZ pixel sensors with a grazing angle hadron beam provide a sensitive determination of the electric field within the detectors. The data are compared with a complete charge transport simulation of the sensor which includes signal trapping and charge induction effects. A linearly varying electric field based upon the standard picture of a constant type-inverted effective doping density is inconsistent with the data. A two-trap double junction model implemented in the ISE TCAD software can be tuned to produce a doubly-peaked electric field which describes the data reasonably well. The modeled field differs somewhat from previous determinations based upon the transient current technique. The model can also account for the level of charge trapping observed in the data.

  5. Enhancing Corn Productivity through Application of Vermi Tea as Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Bulalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major commodities in the Province of Apayao is corn. In the municipality of Conner, a previous study conducted showed that corn farmers heavily rely on the use of inorganic fertilizers and still produce low yield. This study was then conducted to compare traditional farming against the use of an intervention using Vermi Tea as supplemental spray. Results of this endeavor showed that the farms applied with supplemental organic spray performed better that that of the usual farmer’s practice in various aspects of corn growth and yield. Findings show that vermi tea, when used as a foliar spray can significantly improve the growth and yield of corn . Due to the presence of plant growth regulators, and its ability to improve the condition of the soil, the corn farm sprayed with vermi tea produced taller corn crops with longer and thicker ears. As reflected in this study, corn when applied with the vermi tea can have an increased yield which can go as high as two tons/ha. More importantly, vermi tea promotes the use of organic fertilizer which does not entail high cost and can be prepared using agricultural wastes and other locally available materials. This will not only contribute to the reduction of the amount of total waste but will also help minimize the use of chemical fertilizers. The technology intervention promoted in this project complements and supports various government agency thrusts and priorities which are geared towards improving the agriculture industry, maintaining environmental quality and sustainable use of resources, climate change adaptation and mitigation; and production of excellent researches that will promote quality education and contribute to the upliftment of the country and encourage multisectoral/ multidisciplinary research along the priority areas like food safety and security among others.

  6. Mathematical evaluation of community level impact of combining bed nets and indoor residual spraying upon malaria transmission in areas where the main vectors are Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumu Fredros O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are commonly used together even though evidence that such combinations confer greater protection against malaria than either method alone is inconsistent. Methods A deterministic model of mosquito life cycle processes was adapted to allow parameterization with results from experimental hut trials of various combinations of untreated nets or LLINs (Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0®, Icon Life® nets with IRS (pirimiphos methyl, lambda cyhalothrin, DDT, in a setting where vector populations are dominated by Anopheles arabiensis, so that community level impact upon malaria transmission at high coverage could be predicted. Results Intact untreated nets alone provide equivalent personal protection to all three LLINs. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, community level protection is slightly higher when Olyset® or PermaNet 2.0® nets are added onto IRS with pirimiphos methyl or lambda cyhalothrin but not DDT, and when Icon Life® nets supplement any of the IRS insecticides. Adding IRS onto any net modestly enhances communal protection when pirimiphos methyl is sprayed, while spraying lambda cyhalothrin enhances protection for untreated nets but not LLINs. Addition of DDT reduces communal protection when added to LLINs. Conclusions Where transmission is mediated primarily by An. arabiensis, adding IRS to high LLIN coverage provides only modest incremental benefit (e.g. when an organophosphate like pirimiphos methyl is used, but can be redundant (e.g. when a pyrethroid like lambda cyhalothin is used or even regressive (e.g. when DDT is used for the IRS. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, supplementing IRS with LLINs will only modestly improve community protection. Beyond the physical protection that intact nets provide, additional protection against transmission by An. arabiensis conferred by insecticides will be remarkably small, regardless of

  7. Infant mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years after Chernobyl. Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortality in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. Saeuglingssterblichkeit nach Tschernobyl in der BRD. Untersuchung der Auswirkungen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl im April 1986 auf die Saeuglingssterblichkeit in schwach- und hochbelasteten Gebieten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, W; Scholz, H; Hacker, C; Beushausen, S; Heydenreich, B; Platiel, G

    1991-04-01

    Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortility in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. In connection with this scientific study, official quarterly reports on population developments released by the Wiesbaden-based Federal Office of Statistics were subjected to a time-dependent analysis. On the basis of generally applicable stastical laws infant mortality curves plotted after 1958 were examined for changes after Chernobyl. In view of regional differences in the effects from radioactive precipitations due to the Chernobyl ractor accident, the examinations were performed in subgroups that were largely derived from the results of a study covering all of the Federal territory. The analysis revealed the following links: The curve of the infant mortality rates for the first 7 days after delivery (7-day mortalities) pointed to a linear-exponential relationship between the point of time investigated and number of infants dying. In heavily contaminated areas the 7-day mortality rates determined after 1986 show statistically significant deviations from developments as expected from normal rates. (orig./MG).

  8. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  9. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  11. An Experimental Study on the Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel in a Constant Volume Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhan Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the macroscopic spray characteristics of different 0%–100% blends of biodiesel derived from drainage oil and diesel (BD0, BD20, BD50, BD80, BD100, such as spray tip penetration, average tip velocity at penetration, spray angle, average spray angle, spray evolution process, spray area and spray volume under different injection pressures (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 MPa and ambient pressures (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 MPa using a common rail system equipped with a constant volume chamber. The characteristic data was extracted from spray images grabbed by a high speed visualization system. The results showed that the ambient pressure and injection pressure had significant effects on the spray characteristics. As the ambient pressure increased, the spray angle increased, while the spray tip penetration and the peak of average tip velocity decreased. As the injection pressure increased, the spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray area and spray volume increased. The increasing blend ratio of biodiesel brought about a shorter spray tip penetration and a smaller spray angle compared with those of diesel. This is due to the comparatively higher viscosity and surface tension of biodiesel, which enhanced the friction effect between fuel and the injector nozzle surface and inhibited the breakup of the liquid jet.

  12. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  13. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  14. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  17. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  18. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... 5 sprays into the air away from the face. If you have not used it for 2 ...

  19. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  20. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  1. ROTARY SPRAY DUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nechaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of hydraulic resistance, ablation of splashes and efficiency of dedusting in the rotor spray dust collector are given. Influence of frequency of rotation of the spray, the specified speed of gas and diameter of spattering holes on hydraulic resistance, size ablation of splashes and efficiency of a dedusting the device by diameter 0,25 m is investigated. As model liquid water is used. Results of mathematical processing are presented.

  2. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to...

  3. Further considerations for damping in heavily insulated pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Lindquist, M.R.; Severud, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years a body of test data has been accumulated which demonstrates that damping in small diameter heavily insulated pipe systems is much larger than presently recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.61. This data is generally based on pipe systems using a stand-off insulation design with a heater annulus. Additional tests have how been completed on similar pipe systems using a strap-on insulation design without the heater annulus. Results indicate some reduction in damping over the stand-off designs. Test data has also been obtained on a larger sixteen-inch diameter heavily insulated pipe system. Results of these two additional test series are presented. Revised damping values for seismic design of heavily insulated pipe systems are then recommended

  4. Further considerations for damping in heavily insulated pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Lindquist, M.R.; Severud, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years a body of test data has been accumulated which demonstrates that damping in small diameter heavily insulated pipe systems is much larger than presently recommended by Regulatory Code 1.61. This data is generally based on pipe systems using a stand-off insulation design with a heater annulus. Additional tests have now been completed on similar pipe systems using a strap-on insulation design without the heater annulus. Results indicate some reduction in damping over the stand-off designs. Test data has also been obtained on a larger sixteen-inch diameter heavily insulated pipe system. Results of these two additional test series are presented. Revised damping values for seismic design for heavily insulated pipe systems are then recommended

  5. Calculations for reproducible autologous skin cell-spray grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Vives, Roger; Young, Matthew T; Zhu, Toby; Beiriger, Justin; Pekor, Chris; Ziembicki, Jenny; Corcos, Alain; Rubin, Peter; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2016-12-01

    Non-cultured, autologous cell-spray grafting is an alternative to mesh grafting for larger partial- and deep partial-thickness burn wounds. The treatment uses a suspension of isolated cells, from a patient's donor site skin tissue, and cell-spray deposition onto the wound that facilitates re-epithelialization. Existing protocols for therapeutic autologous skin cell isolation and cell-spray grafting have defined the donor site area to treatment area ratio of 1:80, substantially exceeding the coverage of conventional mesh grafting. However, ratios of 1:100 are possible by maximizing the wound treatment area with harvested cells from a given donor site skin tissue according to a given burn area. Although cell isolation methods are very well described in the literature, a rational approach addressing critical aspects of these techniques are of interest in planning clinical study protocols. We considered in an experimental study the cell yield as a function of the donor site skin tissue, the cell density for spray grafting, the liquid spray volume, the sprayed distribution area, and the percentage of surface coverage. The experimental data was then used for the development of constants and mathematical equations to give a rationale for the cell isolation and cell-spray grafting processes and in planning for clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  7. New atomization nozzle for spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, H.C. van; Houben, R.J.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    A new atomization nozzle based on ink jet technology is introduced for spray drying. Application areas are the food and dairy industry, in the first instance, because in these industries the quality demands on the final powders are high with respect to heat load, powder shape, and size distribution.

  8. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  9. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J 2 /He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated

  10. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  11. Preliminary Design of Aerial Spraying System for Microlight Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zamri; Idris, Nurfazliawati; Rahim, M. Zulafif

    2017-10-01

    Undoubtedly agricultural is an important sector because it provides essential nutrients for human, and consequently is among the biggest sector for economic growth worldwide. It is crucial to ensure crops production is protected from any plant diseases and pests. Thus aerial spraying system on crops is developed to facilitate farmers to for crops pests control and it is very effective spraying method especially for large and hilly crop areas. However, the use of large aircraft for aerial spaying has a relatively high operational cost. Therefore, microlight aircraft is proposed to be used for crops aerial spraying works for several good reasons. In this paper, a preliminary design of aerial spraying system for microlight aircraft is proposed. Engineering design methodology is adopted in the development of the aerial sprayer and steps involved design are discussed thoroughly. A preliminary design for the microlight to be attached with an aerial spraying system is proposed.

  12. a Study of Oxygen Precipitation in Heavily Doped Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Robert Kurt

    Gettering of impurities with oxygen precipitates is widely used during the fabrication of semiconductors to improve the performance and yield of the devices. Since the effectiveness of the gettering process is largely dependent on the initial interstitial oxygen concentration, accurate measurements of this parameter are of considerable importance. Measurements of interstitial oxygen following thermal cycles are required for development of semiconductor fabrication processes and for research into the mechanisms of oxygen precipitate nucleation and growth. Efforts by industrial associations have led to the development of standard procedures for the measurement of interstitial oxygen in wafers. However practical oxygen measurements often do not satisfy the requirements of such standard procedures. An additional difficulty arises when the silicon wafer has a low resitivity (high dopant concentration). In such cases the infrared light used for the measurement is severely attenuated by the electrons of holes introduced by the dopant. Since such wafers are the substrates used for the production of widely used epitaxial wafers, this measurement problem is economically important. Alternative methods such as Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy or Gas Fusion Analysis have been developed to measure oxygen in these cases. However, neither of these methods is capable of distinguishing interstitial oxygen from precipitated oxygen as required for precipitation studies. In addition to the commercial interest in heavily doped silicon substrates, they are also of interest for research into the role of point defects in nucleation and precipitation processes. Despite considerable research effort, there is still disagreement concerning the type of point defect and its role in semiconductor processes. Studies of changes in the interstitial oxygen concentration of heavily doped and lightly doped silicon wafers could help clarify the role of point defects in oxygen nucleation and precipitation

  13. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N.; Carvalho, Joao; Panao, Miguel R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  14. Heavily nitrogen doped, graphene supercapacitor from silk cocoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Vikrant; Grover, Sonia; Tulachan, Brindan; Sharma, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Gaurav; Roy, Manas; Saxena, Manav; Sethy, Niroj; Bhargava, Kalpana; Philip, Deepu; Kim, Hansung; Singh, Gurmeet; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak; Sharma, Raj Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Doping of graphene with nitrogen is of much interest, since it improves the overall conductivity and supercapacitive properties. Besides conductivity, nitrogen doping also enhances the pseudo-capacitance due to fast and reversible surface redox processes. In this work, we have developed a cheap and easy process for synthesizing heavily nitrogen doped graphene (15% nitrogen) from non-mulberry silk cocoon membrane (Tassar, Antheraea mylitta) by pyrolyzing the cocoon at 400 °C in argon atmosphere. Further we have investigated the performance of this heavily ‘nitrogen doped graphene’ (NDG) in a supercapacitor device. Our results suggest that NDG obtained from cocoon has improved supercapacitor performance. The improved performance is due to the high electronegativity of nitrogen that forms dipoles on the graphene surface. These dipoles consequently enhance the tendency of graphene to attract charged species to its surface. This is a green and clean synthesis approach for developing electronic materials for energy applications

  15. Growth and characterization of heavily doped silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, R.; Porrini, M. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, via Nazionale 59, 39012 Merano (Italy); Borionetti, G. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, viale Gherzi 31, Novara (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Silicon crystals grown with the Czochralski method are still the most common material used for the production of electronic devices. In recent years, a growing need of large diameter crystals with increasingly higher doping levels is observed, especially to support the expanding market of discrete devices and its trend towards lower and lower resistivity levels for the silicon substrate. The growth of such heavily doped, large-diameter crystals poses several new challenges to the crystal grower, and the presence of a high dopant concentration in the crystal affects significantly its main properties, requiring also the development of dedicated characterization techniques. This paper illustrates the recent advances in the growth and characterization of silicon crystals heavily doped with antimony, arsenic, phosphorus and boron. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Superconductivity in heavily boron-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kriener, Takahiro Muranaka, Junya Kato, Zhi-An Ren, Jun Akimitsu and Yoshiteru Maeno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond in 2004 and silicon in 2006 have renewed the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily boron-doped silicon carbide. The sample used for that study consisted of cubic and hexagonal SiC phase fractions and hence this led to the question which of them participated in the superconductivity. Here we studied a hexagonal SiC sample, free from cubic SiC phase by means of x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and ac susceptibility.

  17. Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Boehncke, Andrea; Könnecker, Gustav; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Holthenrich, Dagmar; Koch, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a

  18. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  19. Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan; Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jiří; Dvorská, Alice; Magulová, Katarína; Al-Zadjali, Said; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-04-15

    In Oman, DDT was sprayed indoors during an intensive malaria eradication program between 1976 and 1992. DDT can remain for years after spraying and is associated with potential health risk. This raises the concern for human exposure in areas where DDT was used for indoor spraying. Twelve houses in three regions with a different history of DDT indoor spraying were chosen for a sampling campaign in 2005 to determine p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) levels in indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil. Although DDT was only sprayed indoor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were also found in outdoor soil. The results indicate that release and exposure continue for years after cessation of spraying. The predicted cancer risk based on concentrations determined in 2005, indicate that there was still a significant cancer risk up to 13 to 16years after indoor DDT spraying. A novel approach, based on region-specific half-lives, was used to predict concentrations in 2015 and showed that more than 21years after spraying, cancer risk for exposure to indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil are acceptable in Oman for adults and young children. The model can be used for other locations and countries to predict prospective exposure of contaminants based on indoor experimental measurements and knowledge about the spraying time-schedule to extrapolate region-specific half-lives and predict effects on the human population years after spraying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental and analytical study on biodiesel and diesel spray characteristics under ultra-high injection pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangang; Huang Zuohua; Kuti, Olawole Abiola; Zhang Wu; Nishida, Keiya

    2010-01-01

    Spray characteristics of biodiesels (from palm and cooked oil) and diesel under ultra-high injection pressures up to 300 MPa were studied experimentally and analytically. Injection delay, spray penetration, spray angle, spray projected area and spray volume were measured in a spray vessel using a high speed video camera. Air entrainment and atomization characteristics were analyzed with the quasi-steady jet theory and an atomization model respectively. The study shows that biodiesels give longer injection delay and spray tip penetration. Spray angle, projected area and volume of biodiesels are smaller than those of diesel fuel. The approximately linear relationship of non-dimensional spray tip penetration versus time suggests that the behavior of biodiesel and diesel sprays is similar to that of gaseous turbulent jets. Calculation from the quasi-steady jet theory shows that the air entrainment of palm oil is worse than that of diesel, while the cooked oil and diesel present comparable air entrainment characteristics. The estimation on spray droplet size shows that biodiesels generate larger Sauter mean diameter due to higher viscosity and surface tension.

  1. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  2. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  3. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  4. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Barnett, B.M.; Bartalina, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the authors show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of ∼4 x 10 14 p/cm 2 , no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at T < 120 K. Besides confirming the previously observed Lazarus effect in single diodes, these results establish, for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments

  5. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  6. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  7. Radiolysis of spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habersbergerova, A.; Janovsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)

  8. Development of process data capturing, analysis and controlling for thermal spray techniques - SprayTracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, C.; Marke, S.; Trommler, U.; Rupprecht, C.; Weis, S.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal spraying processes are becoming increasingly important in high-technology areas, such as automotive engineering and medical technology. The method offers the advantage of a local layer application with different materials and high deposition rates. Challenges in the application of thermal spraying result from the complex interaction of different influencing variables, which can be attributed to the properties of different materials, operating equipment supply, electrical parameters, flow mechanics, plasma physics and automation. In addition, spraying systems are subject to constant wear. Due to the process specification and the high demands on the produced coatings, innovative quality assurance tools are necessary. A central aspect, which has not yet been considered, is the data management in relation to the present measured variables, in particular the spraying system, the handling system, working safety devices and additional measuring sensors. Both the recording of all process-characterizing variables, their linking and evaluation as well as the use of the data for the active process control presuppose a novel, innovative control system (hardware and software) that was to be developed within the scope of the research project. In addition, new measurement methods and sensors are to be developed and qualified in order to improve the process reliability of thermal spraying.

  9. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  10. Radiometric investigation of factors, influencing the spray characteristics of aerosol flasks filled with propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkoe, Gy.; Stampf, Gy.; Csontos, A.; Gyarmati, L.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 16 sprayheads, 5 valve systems and 3 propellant mixtures has been investigated in influencing the spray characteristics of pharmaceuticals. The distribution of matter has been determined with the aid of radiometry. The 14 C activity of spray spots has been measured in a mosaic-like way determining the activity of each area of 1 cm 2 in the right-angles spot-coordinate system. A Frieseke-Hoepfner type, PB gas current scaler has been used for measuring activity. According to the results spray heads play a decisive role in influencing the spray characteristics of aerosol flasks filled with propellants. The different propellant mixtures and valve systems influence the spray characteristics only in a small degree and only when adjusted to a given spray head. The method is well applicable for qualification of spray heads in practice of both factories and hospitals. (K.A.)

  11. Analysis of processes in DC arc plasma torches for spraying that use air as plasma forming gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V; Ivanov, D; Toropchin, A

    2014-01-01

    Developed in Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University technological processes of air-plasma spraying of wear-resistant, regenerating, hardening and decorative coatings used in number of industrial areas are described. The article contains examples of applications of air plasma spraying of coatings as well as results of mathematical modelling of processes in air plasma torches for spraying

  12. Production of ceramic formed parts by means of plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, K.

    1989-01-01

    Open and closed pipes and tubes, nozzles and crucibles, conical parts and other molded articles of ceramic materials such as aluminium oxide, magnesium-aluminium spinel, zirconium oxide, zirconium silicate and special ceramics can be fabricated by spray application to a core which is afterwards removed. Because at the same time these are mainly high temperature materials and high temperature application areas, plasma spraying is preferred. The process and examples of application are described, the advantages and disadvantages are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  13. User friendliness, efficiency & spray quality of stirrup pumps versus hand compression pumps for indoor residual spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Chowdhury, Rajib; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sinha, Gunjan; Hussain, Saddam; Huda, M Mamun; Kroeger, Axel; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a proven tool to reduce visceral leishmaniasis vectors in endemic villages. In India IRS is being done with stirrup pumps, whereas Nepal, Bangladesh, and other countries use compression pumps. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare the efficiency, cost and user friendliness of stirrup and compression pumps. The study was carried out in Gorigawan village of the Vaishali district in north Bihar and included a total population of 3259 inhabitants in 605 households. Spraying with 50 per cent DDT was done by two teams with 6 persons per team under the supervision of investigators over 5 days with each type of pump (10 days in total using 2 stirrup pumps and 3 compression pumps) by the same sprayers in an alternate way. The spraying technique was observed using an observation check list, the number of houses and room surfaces sprayed was recorded and an interview with sprayers on their satisfaction with the two types of pumps was conducted. On average, 65 houses were covered per day with the compression pump and 56 houses were covered with the stirrup pump. The surface area sprayed per squad per day was higher for the compression pump (4636 m²) than for the stirrup pump (4102 m²). Observation showed that it was easy to maintain the spray swath with the compression pump but very difficult with the stirrup pump. The wastage of insecticide suspension was negligible for the compression pump but high for the stirrup pump. The compression pump was found to be more user friendly due to its lower weight, easier to operate, lower operation cost, higher safety and better efficiency in terms of discharge rate and higher area coverage than the stirrup pump.

  14. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-01-01

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10 18 and 3 × 10 20  cm −3 . Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis

  15. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-10-03

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery.

  16. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko ten; Soema, Peter C.; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery. PMID:28925794

  17. Visualization research on spray atomization, evaporation and combustion processes of ethanol–diesel blend under LTC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Sheng; Deng, Peng; Huang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaowen; Ma, Yinjie; Dai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Spray combustion of E20 diesel in LTC condition shows a U-shape flame structure. • The chasing behavior of fuel spray exists near the spray axis. • Fuel ignition doesn’t initiate at the spray tip but in peripheral regions behind it. • An improper chamber structure may lead to a long post-combustion duration. - Abstract: Utilization of ethanol in diesel engines has been widely studied by means of engine experiments and emission detection. However, pertinent studies on the spray combustion process of ethanol–diesel blends are scarce. In order to verify the effect of ethanol in modern diesel engines, an experiment is conducted to visualize the spray combustion process of ethanol–diesel blend under LTC conditions. Stages including atomization, evaporation and combustion, are investigated individually to realize synergistic analysis. Meanwhile, considering the long time scale of combustion after fuel injection finishes, characteristics during and after injection period are both targeted in this paper. Moreover, measurement of macroscopic characteristics, such as spray tip penetration, spray spreading cone angle and flame lift off length, provides a quantitative profile of the spray structure. Results show that, evaporation, different from atomization, has little influence on spray penetration, but promotes the spray spreading angle and spray projected area. So does combustion, which enlarges the spray projected area further. Ignition takes place on the periphery behind the spray tip, then quickly extends to the whole head of the spray and forms a U-shape diffusion structure. After the injection period, the residual spray tail develops into wavelike structures due to absence of subsequent entrainment force. Also, the penetration speed falls greatly to an extent much slower than flame propagation, which frees the flame from the lift-off effect. Subsequently, the flame propagates upstream towards the nozzle orifice. After consumed all fuel in

  18. Sea spray aerosol chemical composition: elemental and molecular mimics for laboratory studies of heterogeneous and multiphase reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Timothy H; Cochran, Richard E; Grassian, Vicki H; Stone, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-03

    Sea spray aerosol particles (SSA), formed through wave breaking at the ocean surface, contribute to natural aerosol particle concentrations in remote regions of Earth's atmosphere, and alter the direct and indirect effects of aerosol particles on Earth's radiation budget. In addition, sea spray aerosol serves as suspended surface area that can catalyze trace gas reactions. It has been shown repeatedly that sea spray aerosol is heavily enriched in organic material compared to the surface ocean. The selective enrichment of organic material complicates the selection of representative molecular mimics of SSA for laboratory or computational studies. In this review, we first provide a short introduction to SSA formation processes and discuss chemical transformations of SSA that occur in polluted coastal regions and remote pristine air. We then focus on existing literature of the chemical composition of nascent SSA generated in controlled laboratory experiments and field investigations. We combine the evidence on the chemical properties of nascent SSA with literature measurements of SSA water uptake to assess SSA molecular composition and liquid water content. Efforts to speciate SSA organic material into molecular classes and specific molecules have led to the identification of saccharides, alkanes, free fatty acids, anionic surfactants, dicarboxylic acids, amino acids, proteinaceous matter, and other large macromolecules. However to date, less than 25% of the organic mass of nascent SSA has been quantified at a molecular level. As discussed here, quantitative measurements of size resolved elemental ratios, combined with determinations of water uptake properties, provides unique insight on the concentration of ions within SSA as a function of particle size, pointing to a controlling role for relative humidity and the hygroscopicity of SSA organic material at small particle diameters.

  19. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  20. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  1. Cytogenetic abnormalities of the descendants of permanent residents of heavily contaminated East Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Madiyeva, Madina; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takeichi, Nobuo; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Urazalina, Nailya; Dovgal, Galina; Rymbaeva, Tamara; Tokanova, Sholpan; Beisengazina, Meruert; Kembayeva, Kulypash; Inoue, Ken

    2017-11-01

    More than 400 nuclear explosion tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and significant radioactive substances were released. The long-term consequences of the activities at the SNTS and the appearance of any hereditary effects remain insufficiently studied about 25 years after the test site was closed. The population living in villages near the SNTS are considered to have been heavily exposed to external and internal radiation. This study aims to perform an assessment and comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the inhabitants living near the SNTS, and their first-(F1) and second-(F2) generation children. Residents of the East Kazakhstan region living in the area covered by the former SNTS were included in the study. To evaluate the hereditary effects of nuclear testing, comprehensive chromosome analyses were performed in lymphocytes using conventional Giemsa and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods in 115 F1 and F2 descendants in the villages of Dolon and Sarzhal, which were heavily contaminated. The parents of the subjects had permanently lived in the villages. A higher number of stable-type chromosome aberrations such as translocations was found in these residents than in 80 residents of the control area, Kokpecty, which indicates the possibility that radiation had biological effects on the exposed subjects.

  2. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  3. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  4. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  5. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  6. Solidification Sequence of Spray-Formed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon, Guilherme; Ellendt, Nils; Uhlenwinkel, Volker; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2016-02-01

    Solidification in spray-forming is still an open discussion in the atomization and deposition area. This paper proposes a solidification model based on the equilibrium solidification path of alloys. The main assumptions of the model are that the deposition zone temperature must be above the alloy's solidus temperature and that the equilibrium liquid fraction at this temperature is reached, which involves partial remelting and/or redissolution of completely solidified droplets. When the deposition zone is cooled, solidification of the remaining liquid takes place under near equilibrium conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to analyze the microstructures of two different spray-formed steel grades: (1) boron modified supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) and (2) D2 tool steel. The microstructures were analyzed to determine the sequence of phase formation during solidification. In both cases, the solidification model proposed was validated.

  7. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  8. Spray deposition and spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Stallinga, H.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the latest data on spray drift in orchard spraying in the Netherlands, and measurements of surface water quality parameters show that the current legislation and measures are insufficient to protect the surface water. To meet the national and European objectives regarding surface

  9. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  10. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do; Lee, Hyun Seop

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  11. The Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Prevalence of Malaria Parasite Infection, Clinical Malaria and Anemia in an Area of Perennial Transmission and Moderate Coverage of Insecticide Treated Nets in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Gimnig

    Full Text Available Insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS have been scaled up for malaria prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few studies on the benefit of implementing IRS in areas with moderate to high coverage of ITNs. We evaluated the impact of an IRS program on malaria related outcomes in western Kenya, an area of intense perennial malaria transmission and moderate ITN coverage (55-65% use of any net the previous night.The Kenya Division of Malaria Control, with support from the US President's Malaria Initiative, conducted IRS in one lowland endemic district with moderate coverage of ITNs. Surveys were conducted in the IRS district and a neighboring district before IRS, after one round of IRS in July-Sept 2008 and after a second round of IRS in April-May 2009. IRS was conducted with pyrethroid insecticides. At each survey, 30 clusters were selected for sampling and within each cluster, 12 compounds were randomly selected. The primary outcomes measured in all residents of selected compounds included malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria (P. falciparum infection plus history of fever and anemia (Hb<8 of all residents in randomly selected compounds. At each survey round, individuals from the IRS district were matched to those from the non-IRS district using propensity scores and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed based on the matched dataset.At baseline and after one round of IRS, there were no differences between the two districts in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria or anemia. After two rounds of IRS, the prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 6.4% in the IRS district compared to 16.7% in the comparison district (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22-0.59, p<0.001. The prevalence of clinical malaria was also lower in the IRS district (1.8% vs. 4.9%, OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20-0.68, p = 0.001. The prevalence of anemia was lower in the IRS district but only in children under 5 years of age (2

  12. Epibenthic diversity and productivity on a heavily trawled Barents Sea bank (Tromsøflaket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kędra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shallow Arctic banks have been observed to harbour rich communities of epifaunal organisms, but have not been well-studied with respect to composition or function due to sampling challenges. In order to determine how these banks function in the Barents Sea ecosystem, we used a combination of video and trawl/dredge sampling at several locations on a heavily trawled bank, Tromsøflaket – located at the southwestern entrance to the Barents Sea. We describe components of the benthic community, and calculate secondary production of dominant epifaunal organisms. Forty-six epibenthic taxa were identified, and sponges were a significant part of the surveyed benthic communities. There were differences in diversity and production among areas, mainly related to the intensity of trawling activities. Gamma was the most diverse and productive area, with highest species abundance and biomass. Trawled areas had considerably lower species numbers, and significant differences in epifaunal abundance and biomass were found between all trawled and untrawled areas. Trawling seems to have an impact on the sponge communities: mean individual poriferan biomass was higher in untrawled areas, and, although poriferans were observed in areas subjected to more intensive trawling, they were at least five times less frequent than in untrawled areas.

  13. Stored energy and annealing behavior of heavily deformed aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamikawa, Naoya; Huang, Xiaoxu; Kondo, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that a two-step annealing treatment, including a low-temperature, long-time annealing and a subsequent high-temperature annealing, is a promising route to control the microstructure of a heavily deformed metal. In the present study, structural parameters...... are quantified such as boundary spacing, misorientation angle and dislocation density for 99.99% aluminium deformed by accumulative roll-bonding to a strain of 4.8. Two different annealing processes have been applied; (i) one-step annealing for 0.5 h at 100-400°C and (ii) two-step annealing for 6 h at 175°C...... followed by 0.5 h annealing at 200-600°C, where the former treatment leads to discontinuous recrystallization and the latter to uniform structural coarsening. This behavior has been analyzed in terms of the relative change during annealing of energy stored as elastic energy in the dislocation structure...

  14. Measurement of surface recombination velocity on heavily doped indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, P.; Ghalla-Goradia, M.; Faur, M.; Bailey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the published low values of surface recombination velocity (SRV) in n-InP, solidified in recent years when modeling of existing n/p InP solar cells revealed that the front surface SRV had to be higher than 1 x 10 6 cm/sec in order to justify the poor blue response that is characteristic of all n/p InP solar cells. In this paper, SRV on heavily doped (>10 18 cm -3 )n-type and p-type InP is measured as a function of surface treatment. For the limited range of substrates and surface treatments studied, SRV and surface stability depend strongly on the surface treatment. SRVs of ∼10 5 cm/sec in both p-type and n-type InP are obtainable, but in n-type the low SRV surfaces were unstable, and the only stable surfaces on n-type had SRVs of >10 6 cm/sec

  15. Einstein's photoemission emission from heavily-doped quantized structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields  that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials  and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring   physical properties in the presence of intense light waves w...

  16. Plasma sprayed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.; Bauser, S.; Liu, S.; Huang, M.

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrated that the plasma spray deposition method is an alternative process for producing Nd-Fe-B magnets in addition to the two existing principal processes: the powder metallurgy process for producing sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets and the melt spinning process for bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets. Plasma spray is a potentially better process for producing magnetic parts with complicated shape, large area, thin thickness, small dimension, or unusual geometry. High intrinsic coercivity greater than 15 kOe was readily obtained for Nd 16 Dy 1 Fe 76 B 7 even in the as-deposited condition when the substrate was preheated. The plasma spray process contains only three steps: melting, crushing, and plasma spray, which is much simpler than the powder metallurgy and melt spinning processes. Without preheating the substrate, the coercivity was usually very low (∼0.1 kOe) in the as-deposited condition and it increased to 10 to >15 kOe after anneal. Evidence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy was observed in plasma sprayed Nd 15 Dy 1 Fe 77 B 7 magnets when the substrate was not preheated. It is believed that a crystal texture was developed during the plasma spray as a result of the existence of a temperature gradient in the solidifying melt

  17. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The

  18. Wind tunnel measurement of spray drift from on-off controlled sprayer nozzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Jensen, Peter Kryger; Miller, Paul

    wide surface area with a length of 200 mm. The test was conducted in the wind tunnel at Silsoe Spray Applications Unit in the UK. The measurements consisted of two test series; airborne drift was collected on polyethylene lines more than 375 mm away from the centerline of the nozzle and ground deposits...... and arranged to deliver a pulse of spray using the WeedSeeker valve. The tests were conducted to determine accumulated spray deposit at different crosswind and forward speeds. In general, the deposits, especially those measured downwind close to the target zone showed significant increase as the crosswind......Sensor-based precision weed control system at a high resolution requires a high spray application accuracy to keep the spray in a small target zone. The objective of this research was to investigate the target accuracy and spray drift from individual controlled sprayer nozzles targeting a 250 mm...

  19. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ou-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70 under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30 in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting.

  1. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings.

  2. DepositScan, a Scanning Program to Measure Spray Deposition Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DepositScan, a scanning program was developed to quickly measure spray deposit distributions on water sensitive papers or Kromekote cards which are widely used for determinations of pesticide spray deposition quality on target areas. The program is installed in a portable computer and works with a ...

  3. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  4. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  5. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  6. Study on fuel particle motion of a diesel spray; Diesel funmu ryushi no kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, N. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsujimura, K.

    1998-08-25

    This study was performed to clarify the mechanism of mixture formation at peripheral area of diesel spray with PIV technique. Two dimensional cross-sectional photographs of diesel spray were taken with double pulse laser sheet. Local fuel spray particles were analyzed with an auto-correlation method and velocity vector and vorticity of the fuel spray particle were obtained. The vortex number increased and vorticity scale became smaller and its value grew higher with both smaller injection nozzle diameter and higher fuel injection velocity. With this injection condition, the mixing of fuel spray with ambient gas seems to be improved and the turbulence is expected to increase in the regions of higher vortex number, higher vorticity and smaller vorticity scale. Based on above results, the branch-like structure of diesel fuel spray was considered to be caused by vortices which formed in the shear layer between the spray and the ambient gas. 14 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlach, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

  8. Cavitation Erosion of Plasma -sprayed Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. J.; Park, J. S.; Jeon, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten Carbide, chromium carbide and chromium oxide coatings were obtained on a 304 stainless steel substrate by plasma spraying technique. The coated samples were exposed to cavitation generated in distilled water by a 20KHz ultrasonic horn. The results of investigation reveal that all the samples tested are significantly eroded even within ten minutes of exposure, indicative of a short incubation period. The eroded surfaces can be characterized as having large pits and flat smooth areas. The latter may be associated with the poor cohesive strength of the coatings, which leads to the failures between individual lamellae

  9. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  10. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  11. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

  12. Characterization of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders synthesized by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Chen, Weiwu; Lundberg, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders were synthesized by spray drying and successive calcinations. The phase purity, BET surface area, and particle morphology of as-sprayed and calcined powders were characterized. After calcination above 300 °C, the powders were single phase and showed a BET surface area of 68...

  13. Application of an antibacterial dressing spray in the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... with a long-acting anti-microbial material. ... of JUC is sprayed on skin surface or mucosal area, it immediately solidifies ... Grade 2 healing indicated wound with the reactions ..... depletion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes associated with Fas li- ... Isolation of opportunistic pathogens in dental plaque, saliva.

  14. Mometasone furoate nasal spray for the treatment of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    are the key stone in the treatment of both diseases. Mometasone furoate is a potent synthetic steroid with a very high receptor affinity and a low bioavailability and shown to be superior compared to other inhaled corticosteroids. It is not clear whether the use of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS......) is associated with an improvement in asthma control. AREAS COVERED: This current paper reviews the current knowledge on the effect of mometasone furoate nasal spray in the treatment of asthma and includes clinical trials in which both subjective and objective outcomes are assessed. EXPERT OPINION: To date, only...

  15. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  16. Plasma spraying process of disperse carbides for spraying and facing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Vishnevetskaya, I.A.; Kostyukovich, T.G.; Ostapovich, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    A possibility to metallize carbides in plasma of impulsing capacitor discharge is considered. Powders granulation occurs during plasma spraying process, ceramic core being completely capped. X-ray phase and chemical analyses of coatings did not show considerable changes of carbon content in carbides before and after plasma processing. This distinguishes the process of carbides metallization in impulsing plasma from the similar processing in arc and high-frequency plasma generator. Use of powder composites produced in the impulsing capacitor discharge, for plasma spraying and laser facing permits 2-3 times increasing wear resistance of the surface layer as against the coatings produced from mechanical powders mixtures

  17. 3rd International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Gutheil, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the results of the 2nd and 3rd International Workshops on Turbulent Spray Combustion. The focus is on progress in experiments and numerical simulations for two-phase flows, with emphasis on spray combustion. Knowledge of the dominant phenomena and their interactions allows development of predictive models and their use in combustor and gas turbine design. Experts and young researchers present the state-of-the-art results, report on the latest developments and exchange ideas in the areas of experiments, modelling and simulation of reactive multiphase flows. The first chapter reflects on flame structure, auto-ignition and atomization with reference to well-characterized burners, to be implemented by modellers with relative ease. The second chapter presents an overview of first simulation results on target test cases, developed at the occasion of the 1st International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion. In the third chapter, evaporation rate modelling aspects are covered, while the fourth ...

  18. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  19. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  20. Comparison on mechanical properties of heavily phosphorus- and arsenic-doped Czochralski silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kang; Sun, Yuxin; Lu, Yunhao; Liang, Xingbo; Tian, Daxi; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2018-04-01

    Heavily phosphorus (P)- and arsenic (As)-doped Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) wafers generally act as the substrates for the epitaxial silicon wafers used to fabricate power and communication devices. The mechanical properties of such two kinds of n-type heavily doped CZ silicon wafers are vital to ensure the quality of epitaxial silicon wafers and the manufacturing yields of devices. In this work, the mechanical properties including the hardness, Young's modulus, indentation fracture toughness and the resistance to dislocation motion have been comparatively investigated for heavily P- and As-doped CZ-Si wafers. It is found that heavily P-doped CZ-Si possesses somewhat higher hardness, lower Young's modulus, larger indentation fracture toughness and stronger resistance to dislocation motion than heavily As-doped CZ-Si. The mechanisms underlying this finding have been tentatively elucidated by considering the differences in the doping effects of P and As in silicon.

  1. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  2. Hot spots and heavily dislocated regions in multicrystalling silicon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanism and the electrical consequences of hot spots have been investigated in multicrystalline solar cells. The hot spots were revealed by means of an infrared camera when the cells are reverse biassed in the dark. The minority carrier diffusion length (L n ), the photovoltage (V oc ) and the photocurrent (J sc ) were measured in the hot spot area and far from this zone thanks to mesa diodes. Dark forward I-V curves lead to values of ideality factor (M) and reverse saturation current (J o ). It is found that J o and M are higher in the hot spot area, while J sc , V oc and at a less extent L n are smaller. Large densities of dislocations and lineages structures are revealed in the abnormally heated regions

  3. CONCHAS-SPRAY, Reactive Flows with Fuel Sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutman, L.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Amsden, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Description of program or function: CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite- difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two- dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included

  4. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  5. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  6. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  7. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  8. Study on spraying water soluble resin to reduce pollution for Fukushima daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiong; Guo Ruiping; Zhang Chunming; Han Fujuan; Hua Jie; Zhang Jiankui

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima nuclear accident, Tokyo electric power company used the method of spraying water soluble resin synthesis at the scene of the accident, to restrain and control the spread of the radioactive dust, by forming consolidation layer in pollution area surface. This paper briefly introduced the accident, motivation of spraying water soluble resin, spraying range and implementation process. According to the relevant report on Fukushima nuclear accident, the effect of spraying water soluble resin for reducing pollution was analyzed. The mechanism of reducing pollution for water soluble resin and the application prospect were discussed. Spraying water soluble resin for fixing radioactive dust has reasonable reducing pollution effect. It is worth to use as reference and study in China. (authors)

  9. Mechanisms of catalytic activity in heavily coated hydrocracking catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, M.; Adell, C.; Hinojosa, C.; Herod, A.A.; Kandiyoti, R. [University of London Imperial College Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Catalyst deactivation by coke deposition has a direct impact on the economic viability of heavy hydrocarbon upgrading processes, such as coal liquefaction and oil residue hydroprocessing. Coke deposition is responsible for rapid loss of catalytic activity and it mostly takes place in the early stages of hydrocracking. The effect of carbonaceous deposition on the catalytic activity of a chromium pillared montmorillonite has been studied in the present work. Its catalytic activity in hydrocracking a coal extract was evaluated based on the boiling point distributions of feed and products obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and their characterisation by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and UV-Fluorescence spectroscopy (UV-F). A large deposition on the catalyst was observed after two successive 2-hour long runs in which the catalyst recovered from the first run was reused in the second. The pillared clay retained its activity even though it showed high carbon loading, a large drop in surface area and complete apparent pore blockage. Some observations may contribute to explain this persistent catalytic activity. First, there is evidence suggesting the dynamic nature of the carbonaceous deposits, which continuously exchange material with the liquid, allowing catalytic activity to continue. Secondly, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on the used Cr montmorillonite has shown preferential deposition on some regions of the catalyst, which leaves a fraction of the surface relatively exposed. Finally, evidence from SEM coupled to X-ray microanalysis also suggest that deposits are thinner in areas where the active phase of the catalyst is present in higher concentrations. Hydrogenation on the active sites would make the deposits more soluble in the liquid cleaning of surrounding area from deposits.

  10. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Chunhai; Duan, Yaozong; Tian, Zhisong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  11. Theoretical Design and First Test in Laboratory of a Composite Visual Servo-Based Target Spray Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to spray onto the canopy of interval planting crop, an approach of using a target spray robot with a composite vision servo system based on monocular scene vision and monocular eye-in-hand vision was proposed. Scene camera was used to roughly locate target crop, and then the image-processing methods for background segmentation, crop canopy centroid extraction, and 3D positioning were studied. Eye-in-hand camera was used to precisely determine spray position of each crop. Based on the center and area of 2D minimum-enclosing-circle (MEC of crop canopy, a method to calculate spray position and spray time was determined. In addition, locating algorithm for the MEC center in nozzle reference frame and the hand-eye calibration matrix were studied. The processing of a mechanical arm guiding nozzle to spray was divided into three stages: reset, alignment, and hovering spray, and servo method of each stage was investigated. For preliminary verification of the theoretical studies on the approach, a simplified experimental prototype containing one spray mechanical arm was built and some performance tests were carried out under controlled environment in laboratory. The results showed that the prototype could achieve the effect of “spraying while moving and accurately spraying on target.”

  12. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  13. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  14. Atmospheric transport of pesticides in the Sacramento, California, metropolitan area, 1996-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Michael S.; Baston, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Weekly composite, bulk air was sampled with respect to wind speed and direction from January 1996 through December 1997 in one urban and two agricultural locations in Sacramento County, California. The sampling sites were located along a north-south transect, the dominant directions of the prevailing winds. The samples were analyzed for a variety of current-use pesticides, including dormant orchard spray insecticides and rice herbicides. A variety of pesticides were detected throughout the year, predominantly chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and trifluralin. The data obtained during the winter and spring suggest that some pesticides used in agricultural areas become airborne and may be transported into the urban area. Confirmation of this drift is difficult, however, because these three predominant pesticides, as well as other detected pesticides, also are heavily used in the urban environment. The spring data clearly show that molinate and thiobencarb, two herbicides used only in rice production, do drift into the urban environment.

  15. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  16. Effect of formulation- and administration-related variables on deposition pattern of nasal spray pumps evaluated using a nasal cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2011-08-01

    To systematically evaluate the effect of formulation- and administration-related variables on nasal spray deposition using a nasal cast. Deposition pattern was assessed by uniformly coating a transparent nose model with Sar-Gel®, which changes from white to purple on contact with water. Sprays were subsequently discharged into the cast, which was then digitally photographed. Images were quantified using Adobe® Photoshop. The effects of formulation viscosity (which influences droplet size), simulated administration techniques (head orientation, spray administration angle, spray nozzle insertion depth), spray pump design and metering volume on nasal deposition pattern were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the deposition area associated with sprays of increasing viscosity. This appeared to be mediated by an increase in droplet size and a narrowing of the spray plume. Administration techniques and nasal spray pump design also had a significant effect on the deposition pattern. This simple color-based method provides quantitative estimates of the effects that different formulation and administration variables may have on the nasal deposition area, and provides a rational basis on which manufacturers of nasal sprays can base their patient instructions or post approval changes when it is impractical to optimize these using a clinical study.

  17. Identifying Indicators of Progress in Thermal Spray Research Using Bibliometrics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.-T.; Khor, K. A.; Yu, L.-G.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the research publications on thermal spray in the period of 1985-2015 using the data from Web of Science, Scopus and SciVal®. Bibliometrics analysis was employed to elucidate the country and institution distribution in various thermal spray research areas and to characterize the trends of topic change and technology progress. Results show that China, USA, Japan, Germany, India and France were the top countries in thermal spray research, and Xi'an Jiaotong University, Universite de Technologie Belfort-Montbeliard, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, ETH Zurich, National Research Council of Canada, University of Limoges were among the top institutions that had high scholarly research output during 2005-2015. The terms of the titles, keywords and abstracts of the publications were analyzed by the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model and visually mapped using the VOSviewer software to reveal the progress of thermal spray technology. It is found that thermal barrier coating was consistently the main research area in thermal spray, and high-velocity oxy-fuel spray and cold spray developed rapidly in the last 10 years.

  18. Sprayed films of europium complexes toward light conversion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Sabrina A.; Aoki, Pedro H.B.; Constantino, Carlos J.L.; Pires, Ana Maria, E-mail: anapires@fct.unesp.br

    2014-09-15

    Rare-earth complexes have become subject of intensive research due to the high quantum efficiency of their emission, very narrow bands, and excellent fluorescence monochromaticity. The chemical design and characterization of Eu complexes based on β-diketone ligands hexafluoroacetylacetate (hfac) and dibenzoylmetanate (dbm) is reported here. K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] and K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] complexes were immobilized as thin films by using the spray technique, a promising methodology for practical applications. The latter provides not only a faster layer deposition but also larger coated areas compared to conventional methods, such as layer-by-layer (LbL) and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB). The growth of the sprayed films was monitored through microbalance (QCM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy, which reveal a higher mass and absorbance per deposited layer of K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film. Micro-Raman images display a more homogeneous spatial distribution of the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] complex throughout the film, when compared to K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film. At nanometer scale, atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicate that the roughness of the K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that for the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film, which pattern is kept at micrometer scale according to micro-Raman measurements. The photoluminescence data show that the complexes remain as pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. Besides, the quantum efficiency for the sprayed films are found equivalent to the values achieved for the powders, highlighting the potential of the films for application in light conversion devices. - Highlights: • Rare earth complexes thin films based on β-diketone ligands. • Spraying procedures to fabricate layer-by-layer (LbL) luminescent thin films. • Chemical design of Eu complexes based on hfac and dbm β-diketones ligands immobilized as sprayed films. • Pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. • Sprayed

  19. Geographic correlation between tapeworm carriers and heavily infected cysticercotic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth E O'Neal

    practical control intervention for rural endemic areas.

  20. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    -risk foci may be an effective and practical control intervention for rural endemic areas. PMID:23285305

  1. Misdiagnosis of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa in a choroideremia patient with heavily pigmented fundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, A; Salvetti, A P; Martinez-Fernandez de la Camara, C; MacLaren, R E

    2018-06-01

    Inherited retinal diseases are thought to be the leading cause of sight loss in the working age population. Mutations found in the RPGR and CHM genes cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and choroideremia, respectively. In the first instance, an X-linked family history of visual field loss commonly raises the suspicion of one of these two genes. In choroideremia, the classic description of a white fundal reflex secondary to the widespread chorioretinal degeneration was made over a hundred years ago in Caucasians. But, it is not so obvious in heavily pigmented fundi. Hence, the clinical diagnosis of CHM in non-Caucasian patients may be challenging in the first stages of the disease. Here we report a case of a Southeast Asian gentleman who has a family history of X-linked retinal degeneration and was found to have a confirmed in-frame deletion of 12 DNA nucleotides in exon 15 of the RPGR gene. Later in life, however, his fundal appearance showed unusual areas of circular pigment hypertrophy and clumping. He was therefore tested for carrying a disease-causing mutation in the CHM gene and a null mutation was found. Since gene therapy trials are ongoing for both of these conditions, it has now become critically important to establish the correct genetic diagnosis in order to recruit suitable candidates. Moreover, this case demonstrates the necessity to remain vigilant in the interpretation of genetic results which are inconsistent with clinical features.

  2. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  3. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  4. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  5. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  6. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vardelle, A.; Moreau, Ch.; Akedo, J.; Ashrafizadeh, H.; Berndt, C. C.; Berghaus-Oberste, J.; Boulos, M.; Brogan, J.; Bourtsalas, A.C.; Dolatabadi, A.; Dorfman, M.; Eden, T.J.; Fauchais, P.; Fisher, G.; Gaertner, F.; Gindrat, M.; Henne, R.; Hyland, M.; Irissou, E.; Jordan, E.H.; Khor, K.A.; Killinger, A.; Lau, Y.C.; Li, C.-J.; Li, L.; Longtin, J.; Markocsan, N.; Masset, P.J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mauer, G.; McDonald, A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Sampath, S.; Schiller, G.; Shinoda, K.; Smith, M.F.; Syed, A.A.; Themelis, N.J.; Toma, F.-L.; Trelles, J.P.; Vassen, R.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2016), s. 1376-1440 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anti-wear and anti-corrosion coatings * biomedical * electronics * energy generation * functional coatings * gas turbines * thermal spray processes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11666-016-0473-x

  7. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  8. Investigation of adsorption properties of alumina produced by vacuum spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrustaleva, K; Voronova, G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper nanopowders obtained by vacuum spray method were studied. The phase composition of the obtained powders is γ - Al 2 O 3 . Obtained nanopowders have specific surface area about 200 m 2 /g. Adsorptive properties of these powders were studied by static adsorption from solutions. The anionic dye eosin was selected as adsorbate. It has been found that the powders obtained by vacuum spray method have significant capacity to adsorb eosin. (paper)

  9. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  10. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  11. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  12. Multiphysics modelling of the spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, J.; Grant, P.S.; Fritsching, U.; Belkessam, O.; Garmendia, I.; Landaberea, A.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated, multiphysics numerical model has been developed through the joint efforts of the University of Oxford (UK), University of Bremen (Germany) and Inasmet (Spain) to simulate the spray forming process. The integrated model consisted of four sub-models: (1) an atomization model simulating the fragmentation of a continuous liquid metal stream into droplet spray during gas atomization; (2) a droplet spray model simulating the droplet spray mass and enthalpy evolution in the gas flow field prior to deposition; (3) a droplet deposition model simulating droplet deposition, splashing and re-deposition behavior and the resulting preform shape and heat flow; and (4) a porosity model simulating the porosity distribution inside a spray formed ring preform. The model has been validated against experiments of the spray forming of large diameter IN718 Ni superalloy rings. The modelled preform shape, surface temperature and final porosity distribution showed good agreement with experimental measurements

  13. Heat-Treated TiO2 Plasma Spray Deposition for Bioactivity Improvement in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, titanium di-oxide (TiO2) coating has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition. Followed by plasma spraying, heat treatment of the sprayed sample has been carried out by isothermally holding it at 823 K (550 °C) for 2 h. Microstructural analysis shows the presence of porosity and unmelted particles on the as-sprayed surface, the area fraction of which reduces after heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the phase transformation from anatase (in precursor powder) to rutile (in as-sprayed coating and the same after heat treatment). There is an improvement in nano-hardness, "Young's modulus" and wear resistance in plasma-sprayed TiO2 coating (as-sprayed as well as post-heat-treated condition) as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V, though post-heat treatment offers a superior hardness, "young's modulus" and wear resistance as compared to as-sprayed coating. The corrosion behavior in "hank's solution" shows decrease in corrosion resistance after plasma spraying and post-heat treatment as compared to as-received substrate. A significant decrease in contact angle and improvement in bioactivity (in terms of apatite deposition) were observed in TiO2-coated surface as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V.

  14. Macro controlling of copper oxide deposition processes and spray mode by using home-made fully computerized spray pyrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Mohammed Sh.; Chiad, Bahaa T.; Shafeeq, Omer Sh.

    2017-09-01

    Thin Films of Copper Oxide (CuO) absorption layer have been deposited using home-made Fully Computerized Spray Pyrolysis Deposition system FCSPD on glass substrates, at the nozzle to substrate distance equal to 20,35 cm, and computerized spray mode (continues spray, macro-control spray). The substrate temperature has been kept at 450 °c with the optional user can enter temperature tolerance values ± 5 °C. Also that fixed molar concentration of 0.1 M, and 2D platform speed or deposition platform speed of 4mm/s. more than 1000 instruction program code, and specific design of graphical user interface GUI to fully control the deposition process and real-time monitoring and controlling the deposition temperature at every 200 ms. The changing in the temperature has been recorded during deposition processes, in addition to all deposition parameters. The films have been characterized to evaluate the thermal distribution over the X, Y movable hot plate, the structure and optical energy gap, thermal and temperature distribution exhibited a good and uniform distribution over 20 cm2 hot plate area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature and can be assigned to monoclinic CuO structure. Optical band gap varies from 1.5-1.66 eV depending on deposition parameter.

  15. Head spray nozzle in reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Shun-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, a head spray nozzle is used for cooling the head of the pressure vessel and, in view of the thermal stresses, it is desirable that cooling is applied as uniformly as possible. A conventional head spray is constituted by combining full cone type nozzles. Since the sprayed water is flown down upon water spraying and the sprayed water in the vertical direction is overlapped, the flow rate distribution has a high sharpness to form a shape as having a maximum value near the center and it is difficult to obtain a uniform flow rate distribution in the circumferential direction. Then, in the present invention, flat nozzles each having a spray water cross section of laterally long shape, having less sharpness in the circumferential distribution upon spraying water to the inner wall of the pressure vessel and having a wide angle of water spray are combined, to make the flow rate distribution of spray water uniform in the inner wall of the pressure vessel. Accordingly, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly and thermal stresses upon cooling can be decreased. (N.H.)

  16. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  17. Simulation of the coating film appearance for spray application

    OpenAIRE

    Seeler, Fabian; Hager, Christian; Schneider, Matthias; Tiedje, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The coating film topography depends on the substrate structure, the application parameters and the coating material’s levelling properties. Substrates consisting of several materials with different surface structures and differently inclined areas make a homogenous coating film structure difficult. By means of simulations, the paint film structure is intended to be controlled so that the theoretical optimum is reached and the experimental effort can be reduced. The focus is on spray applicati...

  18. Flame spray technology method for production of nanopowders

    CERN Document Server

    Trommer, Rafael M

    2015-01-01

    This books presents a complete and updated overview of Flame Spray process, from its History to the Apparatus necessary for the synthesis of nanostructures. It addresses not only the materials produced by this technique, but also their properties, such as crystallinity and crystallite size, specific surface area, particle size and morphology. Also, the principles of nanoparticle formation are described. It is a useful read to all those interested in low cost synthesis of nanostructured powders and coatings.

  19. Effects of nozzle type and spray angle on spray deposition in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Nuyttens, David

    2011-02-01

    Fewer plant protection products are now authorised for use in ornamental growings. Frequent spraying with the same product or a suboptimal technique can lead to resistance in pests and diseases. Better application techniques could improve the sustainable use of the plant protection products still available. Spray boom systems--instead of the still predominantly used spray guns--might improve crop protection management in greenhouses considerably. The effect of nozzle type, spray pressure and spray angle on spray deposition and coverage in ivy pot plants was studied, with a focus on crop penetration and spraying the bottom side of the leaves in this dense crop. The experiments showed a significant and important effect of collector position on deposition and coverage in the plant. Although spray deposition and coverage on the bottom side of the leaves are generally low, they could be improved 3.0-4.9-fold using the appropriate application technique. When using a spray boom in a dense crop, the nozzle choice, spray pressure and spray angle should be well considered. The hollow-cone, the air-inclusion flat-fan and the standard flat-fan nozzle with an inclined spray angle performed best because of the effect of swirling droplets, droplets with a high momentum and droplet direction respectively. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  1. Aerial electrostatic spray deposition and canopy penetration in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray deposition on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces along with canopy penetration are essential for insect control and foliage defoliation in cotton production agriculture. Researchers have reported that electrostatically charged sprays have increased spray deposit onto these surfaces under widel...

  2. Asymmetrical bonding in cold spraying of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, R.; Seyedein, S. H.; Kheirandish, S.; Assadi, H.; Jodoin, B.

    2018-06-01

    Characteristics of particle bonding, especially for dissimilar materials, remains a key question in cold spray deposition. There are limited reports in direct correlation to particle/substrate bonding and peripheral shear zones. Cold spraying experiments and numerical simulations are conducted to characterise and analyse the correlation between bonding and peripheral shear zones for asymmetric particle/substrate pairs of intermetallic-forming elements of nickel and titanium. The correlation between metallic bonding and highly strained areas is explored in view of the growth of the intermetallic phase at the particle/substrate interface during subsequent heat treatments. Characterisation of the as-sprayed samples reveal that for the Ni(particle)/Ti(substrate) pair, plastic deformation of the particle is dominating over substrate deformation. However, for the Ti(particle)/Ni(substrate) pair, it is observed that the substrate and particle deform to similar extents. Characterisation of the samples after a brief heat treatment at 700 °C indicate that intermetallic formation, and hence metallurgical bonding of the pairs is more likely to occur at the particle peripheries where the interface areas are highly strained, and rarely achieved at the particle base. Results also reveal that bonding extends from peripheries toward the central part of the interfaces with increasing the impact velocity. The kinetics of interfacial intermetallic formation at peripheral areas and its correlation to particle bonding is discussed in view of deformation-enhanced interdiffusion.

  3. Effect of Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler Spray Characteristics and Particle Size Distribution on Drug Delivery Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Morteza; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2017-10-01

    A key issue in pulmonary drug delivery is improvement of the delivery device for effective and targeted treatment. Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are the most popular aerosol therapy device for treating lung diseases. This article studies the effect of spray characteristics: injection velocity, spray cone angle, particle size distribution (PSD), and its mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) on drug delivery. An idealized oral airway geometry, extending from mouth to the main bronchus, was connected to a pMDI device. Inhalation flow rates of 15, 30, and 60 L/min were used and drug particle tracking was a one-way coupled Lagrangian model. The results showed that most particles deposited in the pharynx, where the airway has a reduced cross-sectional area. Particle deposition generally decreased with initial spray velocity and with increased spray cone angle for 30 and 60 L/min flow rates. However, for 15 L/min flow rate, the deposition increased slightly with an increase in the spray velocity and cone angle. The effect of spray cone angle was more significant than the initial spray velocity on particle deposition. When the MMAD of a PSD was reduced, the deposition efficiency also reduces, suggesting greater rates of particle entry into the lung. The deposition rate showed negligible change when the MMAD was more than 8 μm. Spray injection angle and velocity change the drug delivery efficacy; however, the efficiency shows more sensitivity to the injection angle. The 30 L/min airflow rate delivers spray particles to the lung more efficiently than 15 and 60 L/min airflow rate, and reducing MMAD can help increase drug delivery to the lung.

  4. Simultaneous rota-stenting and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for patients with heavily calcified coronary stenosis and aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tsai Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that coronary artery disease (CAD in octogenarians undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI often presents with more complex lesions and extensive calcification, rotational atherectomy (RA may be needed in some cases before stenting. However, data regarding the feasibility and safety of simultaneous RA during TAVI using the Medtronic CoreValve (MCV; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA system are lacking. Three out of 107 (2.8% patients (2 females, average age 85.6 years, mean aortic valve area 0.5 cm2, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 39%, mean Logistic EuroScore 70%, with complex, heavily calcified coronary stenosis, and severe valvular aortic stenosis (AS were treated with TAVI and RA due to high surgical risk. After balloon valvuloplasty, all coronary lesions were successfully treated with RA and stenting, immediately followed by transfemoral TAVI with a self-expandable MCV. Our data suggested that in the very elderly patients with severe and heavily calcified CAD and AS who were turned down for cardiac surgery, RA and stenting followed by TAVI may be performed successfully in a combined, single-stage procedure.

  5. A model for describing the eutrophication in a heavily regulated coastal lagoon. Application to the Albufera of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio Fernández, Pilar; Gómez, Andrés García; Alba, Javier García; Díaz, César Álvarez; Revilla Cortezón, José Antonio

    2012-12-15

    A simplified two-dimensional eutrophication model was developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of chlorophyll-a in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. This model considers the hydrodynamics of the whole study area, the regulated connexion of the lagoon with the sea, the variability of the input and output nutrient loads, the flux from the sediments to the water column, the phytoplankton growth and mortality kinetics, and the zooplankton grazing. The model was calibrated and validated by applying it to the Albufera of Valencia, a hypertrophic system whose connection to the sea is strongly regulated by a system of sluice-gates. The calibration and validation results presented a significant agreement between the model and the data obtained in several surveys. The accuracy was evaluated using a quantitative analysis, in which the average uncertainty of the model prediction was less than 6%. The results confirmed an expected phytoplankton bloom in April and October, achieving mean maximum values around 250 μg l(-1) of chlorophyll-a. A mass balance revealed that the eutrophication process is magnified by the input loads of nutrients, mainly from the sediments, as well as by the limited connection of the lagoon with the sea. This study has shown that the developed model is an efficient tool to manage the eutrophication problem in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of spray pressure leads to less emission and better deposition of spray liquid at high-volume spraying in greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Michielsen, J.M.G.P.; Corver, F.J.M.; Berg, van den J.V.; Bruins, M.A.; Porskamp, H.A.J.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an experimental greenhouse, growing a tomato crop, it was investigated if a reduction in spray pressure could improve the spray result, while, simultaneously, emission to the ground could be reduced. Spray deposition on the leaves and the emission to the ground was evaluated at different spray

  7. Holodiscus (K. Koch) Maxim.: ocean-spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney

    2008-01-01

    Holodiscus is a taxonomically complex genus including about 6 species of western North America and northern South America (Hitchcock and others 1961; Ley 1943). The 2 generally recognized North American species (table 1) - creambush ocean-spray and gland ocean-spray - are deciduous, multistemmed shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, toothed to shallowly lobed,...

  8. Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Monat, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

  9. Summary of the Blackmo 88 spray experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Miller; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus; D. E. Anderson; K. Mierzejewski

    1991-01-01

    The Blackmo 88 spray trial experiment was conducted for two primary purposes: To quantify the effects of local micrometeorological processes, in and near the canopy, on the deposition patterns of aerially applied BT in a mature oak forest; To generate a data set containing simultaneous measurements of spray deposition and detailed micrometeorology, in a canopy of known...

  10. The spray-drying process is sufficient to inactivate infectious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jianqiang; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2014-11-07

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is considered an emergent pathogen associated with high economic losses in many pig rearing areas. Recently it has been suggested that PEDV could be transmitted to naïve pig populations through inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) into the nursery diet which led to a ban of SDPP in several areas in North America and Europe. To determine the effect of spray-drying on PEDV infectivity, 3-week-old pigs were intragastrically inoculated with (1) raw porcine plasma spiked with PEDV (RAW-PEDV-CONTROL), (2) porcine plasma spiked with PEDV and then spray dried (SD-PEDV-CONTROL), (3) raw plasma from PEDV infected pigs (RAW-SICK), (4) spray-dried plasma from PEDV infected pigs (SD-SICK), or (5) spray-dried plasma from PEDV negative pigs (SD-NEG-CONTROL). For the spray-drying process, a tabletop spray-dryer with industry-like settings for inlet and outlet temperatures was used. In the RAW-PEDV-CONTROL group, PEDV RNA was present in feces at day post infection (dpi) 3 and the pigs seroconverted by dpi 14. In contrast, PEDV RNA in feces was not detected in any of the pigs in the other groups including the SD-PEDV-CONTROL group and none of the pigs had seroconverted by termination of the project at dpi 28. This work provides direct evidence that the experimental spray-drying process used in this study was effective in inactivating infectious PEDV in the plasma. Additionally, plasma collected from PEDV infected pigs at peak disease did not contain infectious PEDV. These findings suggest that the risk for PEDV transmission through commercially produced SDPP is minimal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spray characteristics and spray cooling heat transfer in the non-boiling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Long; Han, Feng-Yun; Liu, Qi-Nie; Fan, Han-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Spray cooling is an effective method for dissipating high heat fluxes in the field of electronics thermal control. In this study, experiments were performed with distilled water as a test liquid to study the spray cooling heat transfer in non-boiling regime. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to study the spray characteristics. The effects of spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature on spray cooling heat transfer were investigated. It was found that the parameters affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and working fluid thermophysical properties. Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%, which were based upon the orifice diameter, the Weber and Reynolds numbers of the orifice flow prior to liquid breakup, dimensionless spray height and spray cross-section radius. The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%, which was mainly associated with the working fluid thermophysical properties, the Weber and Reynolds numbers hitting the heating surface, dimensionless heating surface temperature and diameter. -- Highlights: → The spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and the working fluid thermophysical properties. → Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauer mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%. → The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%.

  12. Impact of residual spraying on Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata in the department of Zacapa in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nakagawa

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available As a vector control program to control Chagas disease in Guatemala, residual spraying of Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata was performed, and its impact was measured in the department of Zacapa. In order to identify infested villages and determine the degree of infestation, a baseline entomological survey to identify municipalities infested with vectors followed by an additional vector survey in areas known to be infested was conducted. Residual spraying using pyrethroid insecticides was performed at all the villages identified as being infested with the vectors. The residual spraying was shown to be highly effective against both vectors by the decrease in infestation indices after spraying. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of the spraying showed that the average cost of insecticides per house is high when compared with that in Southern Cone countries.

  13. Review of US Nanocorp - SNL Joint Development of Thermal-Sprayed Thin-Film Cathodes for Thermal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID E.

    2000-11-14

    The use of plasma spray to deposit thin metal-sulfide cathode films is described in this paper. Conventional electroactive stack components in thermal batteries are constructed from pressed-powder parts that are difficult to fabricate in large diameters in thicknesses <0.010. Plasma-sprayed electrodes do not steer from this difficulty, allowing greater energy densities and specific energies to be realized. Various co-spraying agents have been found suitable for improving the mechanical as well as electrochemical properties of plasma-sprayed cathodes for thermal batteries. These electrodes generally show equal or improved performance over conventional pressed-powder electrodes. A number of areas for future growth and development of plasma-spray technology is discussed.

  14. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ~ 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength...

  15. Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances exploiting heavily-doped Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Sakat, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Calandrini, E.; Samarelli, A.; Gallacher, K.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Paul, D. J.; Ortolani, M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the behavior of mid-infrared localized plasmon resonances in elongated germanium antennas integrated on silicon substrates. Calculations based on Mie theory and on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constant allow us to study the tunability and the figures of merit of plasmon resonances in heavily-doped germanium and to preliminarily compare them with those of the most established plasmonic material, gold.

  16. Gemcitabine and capecitabine for heavily pre-treated metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and gemcitabin (GemCap) in heavily pre-treated, therapy-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients and the clinical importance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) measurement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients' inclusion criteria included...

  17. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  18. Becoming a Heavily Tattooed Young Body: From a Bodily Experience to a Body Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vitor Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Why some young people start to tattoo their bodies? And why some of them keep going on with this practice, until having all body tattooed? What doing so means to them? These are some of the questions that underlie a qualitative research project carried out in Portugal on heavily tattooed young people. In this article, the author discusses their…

  19. Dual Inhibition of EGFR and VEGF in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn Ole; Markussen, Alice; Nielsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    : The combination of irinotecan, bevacizumab, and cetuximab/panitumumab is safe and shows a toxicity profile corresponding to what is expected from the agents alone. The results indicate that the combination in the 4th line may result in a high rate of disease control in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic...

  20. Wear Resistant Thermal Sprayed Composite Coatings Based on Iron Self-Fluxing Alloy and Recycled Cermet Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki SARJAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spray and WC-Co based coatings are widely used in areas subjected to abrasive wear. Commercial  cermet thermal spray powders for HVOF are relatively expensive. Therefore applying these powders in cost-sensitive areas like mining and agriculture are hindered. Nowadays, the use of cheap iron based self-fluxing alloy powders for thermal spray is limited. The aim of this research was to study properties of composite powders based on self-fluxing alloys and recycled cermets and to examine the properties of thermally sprayed (HVOF coatings from composite powders based on iron self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders (Cr3C2-Ni and WC-Co. To estimate the properties of  recycled cermet powders, the sieving analysis, laser granulometry and morphology were conducted. For deposition of coatings High Velocity Oxy-Fuel spray was used. The structure and composition of powders and coatings were estimated by SEM and XRD methods. Abrasive wear performance of coatings was determined and compared with wear resistance of coatings from commercial powders. The wear resistance of thermal sprayed coatings from self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders at abrasion is comparable with wear resistance of coatings from commercial expensive spray powders and may be an alternative in tribological applications in cost-sensitive areas.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1338

  1. Increase the foliage area of Asparagus Officinalis L. Cv. UC 157 F1 “asparagus” by the spraying of Gibberellin (AG3 and 6 – Benzilaminopurine (6 – BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paraguay Mercado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to study the increment of the leaf area of Asparagus Officinalis L., for they were used it asparagus crown with 5 yolks, to those that were applied by aspersion, different concentrations of the hormones of gibberellic acid and 6-bencilaminopurina which were applied at the 25, 60, 110 and 160 days respectively. It was found that in the different rehearsed treatments one doesn't observe differential significant in the increment of the number of plants, plant height, number of yolks and dry weight of foliage. However it was observed that the combined application of the phytohormonas in the range of 0.110 at 0.230 m of gibberllic acid and 0.037 to 0.075 m of 6-Bencilaminopurin a bigger number of yolk is achieved (13%, sprout (7%, plant height (11.3% and dry weight (7.3% in the treated plants. Concluded to continue making studies of sinergism of these two phytohormonas, gibberellic (AG3 and 6-bencilaminopurina (6-BAP, seeking to achieve adequate levels of leaf area increase of the leaf area in the asparagus.

  2. Evaluation of droplet velocity and size from nasal spray devices using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2010-03-30

    To determine aerosol deposition during the inhalation drug delivery, it is important to understand the combination of velocity and droplet size together. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to simultaneously characterize the aerosol velocity and droplet size distribution (DSD) of three nasal spray pumps filled with water. Thirteen sampling positions were located in the horizontal cross-sectional area of the nasal spray plumes at a distance of 3cm from the pump orifice. The results showed droplet velocities near the center of the spray plume were higher and more consistent than those near the edge. The pumps examined showed significant differences in their aerosol velocity at the center of the spray plume, which suggest that this metric might be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of nasal sprays. Droplet size measurements performed using PDA were compared with results from laser light scattering measurements. The ability of PDA to provide simultaneous measurements of aerosol velocity and size makes it a powerful tool for the detailed investigation of nasal spray plume characteristics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Assessment of differences between products obtained in conventional and vacuum spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Melo RAMOS

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, an experimental unit of a vacuum spray dryer was built. This prototype attempted to combine the advantages of freeze-drying (drying at low temperatures due to vacuum and spray drying (increase of surface area aiming the improvement of heat transfer efficiency. Maltodextrin solutions were dried in the vacuum operated equipment and in conventional spray dryer. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed obtaining powder at low temperatures due to the lowering of pressure conditions (2-5 kPa inside the drying chamber. The products obtained in the two systems were characterized and compared for particle size distribution, moisture content, water activity, bulk density and solubility in water. The processes yields were also evaluated and compared. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed the production of larger, more soluble and less dense particles than those obtained in the conventional configuration of the equipment, resulting in drier and, therefore, with lower water activity particles. Thus, the use of the vacuum spray dryer as a drying technique may be an alternative for the production of powder rich in thermosensitive compounds.

  4. Nano crystalline high energy milled 5083 Al powder deposited using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, M.R., E-mail: mohammadreza.rokni@mines.sdsmt.edu [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Widener, C.A. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Nardi, A.T. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Champagne, V.K. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Electron microscopy and nanoindentation are used to investigate the relationship between microstructure and nanohardness of a non-cryomilled, nanocrystalline 5083 Al alloy powder before and after being deposited by cold spray. Microstructural investigations observed the presence of nano grains in the powder microstructure, ranging from 20 to 80 nm and with a typical grain size of 40–50 nm. It was also revealed that the nanocrystalline structure of the powder is retained after cold spraying. As a result, almost no change in nanohardness was indicated between the powder and the particles interior in the cold sprayed layer. However, hardness was substantially higher in some regions in the cold sprayed layer, which was attributed to the particle–particle interfaces or other areas with very small nano grain size. The presence of some un-joined particle remnant lines was also found in the deposition and explained through Critical Velocity Ratio (CVR) of powder particles. Although cold spray is a high deformation process, there is little evidence of dislocations within the nanograins of the cold sprayed layer. The latter observation is rationalized through intragranular dislocation slip and recovery mechanisms.

  5. Transient analysis of intermittent multijet sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panao, Miguel R.O.; Moreira, Antonio Luis N. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, IN, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Durao, Diamantino G. [Universidade Lusiada, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    This paper analyzes the transient characteristics of intermittent sprays produced by the single-point impact of multiple cylindrical jets. The aim is to perform a transient analysis of the intermittent atomization process to study the effect of varying the number of impinging jets in the hydrodynamic mechanisms of droplet formation. The results evidence that hydrodynamic mechanisms underlying the physics of ligament fragmentation in 2-impinging jets sprays also apply to sprays produced with more than 2 jets during the main period of injection. Ligaments detaching from the liquid sheet, as well as from its bounding rim, have been identified and associated with distinct droplet clusters, which become more evident as the number of impinging jets increases. Droplets produced by detached ligaments constitute the main spray, and their axial velocity becomes more uniformly distributed with 4-impinging jets because of a delayed ligament fragmentation. Multijet spray dispersion patterns are geometric depending on the number of impinging jets. Finally, an analysis on the Weber number of droplets suggests that multijet sprays are more likely to deposit on interposed surfaces, thus becoming a promising and competitive atomization solution for improving spray cooling. (orig.)

  6. Effect of spray angle and spray volume on deposition of a medium droplet spray with air support in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2014-03-01

    Spray boom systems, an alternative to the predominantly-used spray guns, have the potential to considerably improve crop protection management in glasshouses. Based on earlier experiments, the further optimization of the deposits of a medium spray quality extended range flat fan nozzle type using easy adjustable spray boom settings was examined. Using mineral chelate tracers and water sensitive papers, the spray results were monitored at three plant levels, on the upper side and the underside of the leaves, and on some off-target collectors. In addition, the deposition datasets of all tree experiments were compared. The data showed that the most efficient spray distribution with the medium spray quality flat fan nozzles was found with a 30° forward angled spray combined with air support and an application rate of 1000 L ha(-1) . This technique resulted in a more uniform deposition in the dense canopy and increased spray deposition on the lower side of the leaves compared with the a standard spray boom application. Applying 1000 L ha(-1) in two subsequent runs instead of one did not seem to show any added value. Spray deposition can be improved hugely simply by changing some spray boom settings like nozzle type, angling the spray, using air support and adjusting the spray volume to the crop. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. On the modeling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Christer

    1997-12-01

    This report concerns on the modelling of fuel sprays in a non-combustible case using an own developed fuel spray code module. The spray code is made as an independent module to simplify the use of different gas flow solvers together with the spray module. This enables the possibility to use different turbulence models. In the report two turbulence models has been used, the standard k-{epsilon} and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model. The report presents results obtained from a sensitivity study of both numerical and physical parameters on an evaporating spray under diesel like conditions (light duty diesel engine) with the spray code module attached to a cylindrical gas phase flow solver. The results from the sensitivity analysis showed that these effects were not so pronounced as has been reported. It was suggested that this was due to the `easy` nature of the investigated case, where the flow field could be sufficiently resolved without violating the droplet void fraction criteria and break-up, collision and combustion that may increase the grid spacing sensitivity were not modelled. An investigation was performed to valuate the feasibility of using LES as turbulence model. Calculations of the initial phase of a developing jet were made and it was found that in the initial phase of the spray and the flow structure were similar to that of a spatially developing jet flow, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Results from LES calculations on a developing spray jet was also compared with k-{epsilon} based ones. This result showed that the spray-LES approach captured the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow field with an increase in turbulent kinetic energy k along the injection direction 45 refs, 37 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH{sub 3}I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH{sub 3}l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large ({approx}38 m{sup 3}) facility, where accident conditions are closely simulated. Iodine and CH{sub 3}I removal rates have been determined for a number of solutions, including 1 wt% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH and 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH. The additive has very little effect in removal of I{sub 2} with half-lives of less than 1 mm typical for any aqueous solution. These same solutions remove CH{sub 3}I with a half-life of one hour. Analytical models for the removal processes have been developed. Consideration is also being given to corrosion, thermal and radiation stability of the solutions. Radiation studies have indicated the loss

  9. Historical data reveal 30-year persistence of benthic fauna associations in heavily modified waterbody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Callaway

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline surveys form the cornerstone of coastal impact studies where altered conditions, for example through new infrastructure development, are assessed against a temporal reference state. They are snapshots taken before construction. Due to scarcity of relevant data prior to baseline surveys long-term trends can often not be taken into account. Particularly in heavily modified waterbodies this would however be desirable to control for changes in anthropogenic use over time as well as natural ecological variation. Here, the benthic environment of an industrialized embayment was investigated (Swansea Bay, Wales, UK where it is proposed to build a tidal lagoon that would generate marine renewable energy from the tidal range. Since robust long-term baseline data was not available, the value of unpublished historical benthos information from 1984 by a regional water company was assessed with the aim to improve certainty about the persistence of current benthic community patterns. A survey of 101 positions in 2014 identified spatially discrete benthic communities with areas of high and low diversity. Habitat characteristics including sediment properties and the proximity to a sewage outfall explained 17-35% of the variation in the community structure. Comparing the historical information from 1984 with 2014 revealed striking similarity in the benthic communities between those years, not just in their spatial distribution but also to a large extent in the species composition. The 30-year-old information confirmed spatial boundaries of discrete species associations and pinpointed a similar diversity hotspot. A group of five common species was found to be particularly persistent over time (Nucula nitidosa, Spisula elliptica, Spiophanes bombyx, Nephtys hombergii, Diastylis rathkei. According to the Infauna Quality Index (IQI linked to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD the average ecological status for 2014 was ‘moderate’, but eleven samples

  10. Polydisperse effects in jet spray flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Noam; Greenberg, J. Barry

    2018-01-01

    A laminar jet polydisperse spray diffusion flame is analysed mathematically for the first time using an extension of classical similarity solutions for gaseous jet flames. The analysis enables a comparison to be drawn between conditions for flame stability or flame blow-out for purely gaseous flames and for spray flames. It is found that, in contrast to the Schmidt number criteria relevant to gas flames, droplet size and initial spray polydispersity play a critical role in determining potential flame scenarios. Some qualitative agreement for lift-off height is found when comparing predictions of the theory and sparse independent experimental evidence from the literature.

  11. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, Jesper Saederup; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  12. Spray deposition using impulse atomization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellendt, N.; Schmidt, R.; Knabe, J.; Henein, H.; Uhlenwinkel, V.

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique, impulse atomization, has been used for spray deposition. This single fluid atomization technique leads to different spray characteristics and impact conditions of the droplets compared to gas atomization technique which is the common technique used for spray deposition. Deposition experiments with a Cu-6Sn alloy were conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of impulse atomization to produce dense material. Based on these experiments, a model has been developed to simulate the thermal history and the local solidification rates of the deposited material. A numerical study shows how different cooling conditions affect the solidification rate of the material

  13. Experimental investigation of water sprayed finned heat exchanger tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, A.

    1987-07-01

    Experimental investigations have been made to study the performance of two finned tube-bundle heat exchangers (FORGO type) when wetted by water sprays. The heat exchangers are designed to cool water in a dry cooling tower. The test-elements had a frontal area of 1 m 2 . The water sprays were created by 20 nozzles, 200 mm in front of the heat exchangers. Air velocities at the inlet of the coolers were in the range 0,8 m/s to 12 m/s and initial temperature differences ITD reached 45 degrees C. The test facility was designed to determine the combined latent and sensible heat fluxes in the wetted heat exchanger, the airside pressure drop and the air humidity and temperature at the exchanger inlet and outlet, and to measure the weight of the water wetting the cooler's surface. The sprayed test elements were investigated in different positions, but most of the experiments were carried out in the position with the fins horizontal

  14. Inorganic photovoltaic devices fabricated using nanocrystal spray deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Edward E; Yoon, Woojun; Lumb, Matthew P; Tischler, Joseph G; Townsend, Troy K

    2013-09-25

    Soluble inorganic nanocrystals offer a potential route to the fabrication of all-inorganic devices using solution deposition techniques. Spray processing offers several advantages over the more common spin- and dip-coating procedures, including reduced material loss during fabrication, higher sample throughput, and deposition over a larger area. The primary difference observed, however, is an overall increase in the film roughness. In an attempt to quantify the impact of this morphology change on the devices, we compare the overall performance of spray-deposited versus spin-coated CdTe-based Schottky junction solar cells and model their dark current-voltage characteristics. Spray deposition of the active layer results in a power conversion efficiency of 2.3 ± 0.3% with a fill factor of 45.7 ± 3.4%, Voc of 0.39 ± 0.06 V, and Jsc of 13.3 ± 3.0 mA/cm(2) under one sun illumination.

  15. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Matejková, M.; Dlouhý, I.; Šiška, Filip; Kay, C.M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovařík, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 758-768 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cold spray * Fatigue * Grit-blast Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015

  16. Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Ciarlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spray adjuvants are often applied to crops in conjunction with agricultural pesticides in order to boost the efficacy of the active ingredient(s. The adjuvants themselves are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are therefore subject to minimal scrutiny and toxicological testing by regulatory agencies. Honey bees are exposed to a wide array of pesticides as they conduct normal foraging operations, meaning that they are likely exposed to spray adjuvants as well. It was previously unknown whether these agrochemicals have any deleterious effects on honey bee behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An improved, automated version of the proboscis extension reflex (PER assay with a high degree of trial-to-trial reproducibility was used to measure the olfactory learning ability of honey bees treated orally with sublethal doses of the most widely used spray adjuvants on almonds in the Central Valley of California. Three different adjuvant classes (nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, and organosilicone surfactants were investigated in this study. Learning was impaired after ingestion of 20 µg organosilicone surfactant, indicating harmful effects on honey bees caused by agrochemicals previously believed to be innocuous. Organosilicones were more active than the nonionic adjuvants, while the crop oil concentrates were inactive. Ingestion was required for the tested adjuvant to have an effect on learning, as exposure via antennal contact only induced no level of impairment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A decrease in percent conditioned response after ingestion of organosilicone surfactants has been demonstrated here for the first time. Olfactory learning is important for foraging honey bees because it allows them to exploit the most productive floral resources in an area at any given time. Impairment of this learning ability may have serious implications for foraging efficiency at the colony level, as well as potentially many

  17. Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Ki; Kang, Suk Bong

    2003-01-01

    An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

  18. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  19. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  20. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  2. Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, J.L.; Kahler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

  3. LSPRAY-V: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    LSPRAY-V is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with unstructured grids and massively parallel computers. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray encountered over a wide range of operating conditions in modern aircraft engine development. It could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-V, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  4. Structure of Non-evaporating diesel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.R.; Baluch, A.H.; Tahir, Z.R.

    2008-01-01

    Need is always felt of some rational experimental information on fuel spray jet formation, its development and dispersion in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The latest study uses computational fluid dynamics for the modeling of engine flows. The original experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by a single-hole orifice type nozzle using a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of non-evaporating diesel sprays. The correlations derived can be used to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure and combustion chamber pressure. (author)

  5. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    G Nasr; A Whitehead; A Yule

    2016-01-01

    Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's). The Spray Research Group (SRG) have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA) for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coatin...

  6. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  7. Cold Spray for Repair of Magnesium Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Readiness Center East GM General Motors He helium hex-Cr hexavalent chromium HP-Al High Purity Aluminum HVOF High Velocity Oxygen Fuel ID inner...process is the hexavalent chromium (hex-Cr) permissible exposure limit (PEL) as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...project related to replacement of hard chrome plating on helicopter dynamic components using HVOF thermal spray coatings. FRC-E has a thermal spray

  8. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  9. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  10. Operation of heavily irradiated silicon detectors in non-depletion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Li, Z.; Haerkoenen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.

    2006-01-01

    The non-depletion detector operation mode has generally been disregarded as an option in high-energy physics experiments. In this paper, the non-depletion operation is examined by detailed analysis of the electric field distribution and the current pulse response of heavily irradiated silicon (Si) detectors. The previously reported model of double junction in heavily irradiated Si detector is further developed and a simulation of the current pulse response has been performed. It is shown that detectors can operate in a non-depletion mode due to the fact that the value of the electric field in a non-depleted region is high enough for efficient carrier drift. This electric field originates from the current flow through the detector and a consequent drop of the potential across high-resistivity bulk of a non-depleted region. It is anticipated that the electric field in a non-depleted region, which is still electrically neutral, increases with fluence that improves the non-depleted detector operation. Consideration of the electric field in a non-depleted region allows the explanation of the recorded double-peak current pulse shape of heavily irradiated Si detectors and definition of the requirements for the detector operational conditions. Detailed reconstruction of the electric field distribution gives new information on radiation effects in Si detectors

  11. A comparison of biological effect and spray liquid distribution and deposition for different spray application techniques in different crops

    OpenAIRE

    Larsolle, Anders; Wretblad, Per; Westberg, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a selection of spray application techniques with different application volumes, with respect to the spray liquid distribution on flat surfaces, the deposition in fully developed crops and the biological effect. The spray application techniques in this study were conventional spray technique with three different nozzles: Teelet XR, Lechler ID and Lurmark DriftBeta, and also AirTec, Danfoil, Hardi Twin, Kyndestoit and Släpduk. The dynamic spray liquid ...

  12. Reconstructing historical trends in metal input in heavily-disturbed, contaminated estuaries: studies from Bilbao, Southampton Water and Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundy, A.B.; Croudace, I.W.; Cearreta, A.; Irabien, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Estuaries may be important reservoirs for contaminants as they tend to act as sinks for fine, contaminant-reactive sediments, and, historically, they have acted as centres for industrial and urban development. Analysis of dated sediment cores from these areas may allow historical trends in heavy metal input to be reconstructed, and recent and historical inputs of metal contaminants to be compared. Undisturbed saltmarsh settings have been used widely in the reconstruction of historical trends in metal input as saltmarshes provide a stable, vegetated substrate of dominantly fine sediments, and are less prone to erosion and reworking than adjacent mudflat areas. In comparison, much less research on historical pollution trends has been undertaken at estuarine sites which are prone to severe local disturbance, such as intertidal areas which are routinely dredged or where sedimentary processes have been modified by human activities such as shipping, salt working, port activities, land claim etc. This paper assesses the usefulness of 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating, combined with geochemical studies, in reconstructing historical trends in heavy metal input and sediment accretion in 3 heavily-modified, industrialised estuarine areas in Europe: the Bilbao estuary (Spain), Southampton Water (UK), and the Mulinello estuary (Sicily). Of these sites, only a salt marsh core from the Mulinello estuary provides a high-resolution record of recent heavy metal inputs. In Southampton Water only a partial record of changing metal inputs over time is retained due to land-claim and possible early-diagenetic remobilisation, while at Bilbao the vertical distribution of heavy metals in intertidal flats is mainly controlled by input on reworked sediment particles and variations in sediment composition. Where 137 Cs and 210 Pb distributions with depth allow a chronology of sediment deposition to be established, and early-diagenetic remobilisation has been minimal, mudflat and saltmarsh cores from

  13. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.M.; Yee, I.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  14. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  15. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Hamatani, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1989-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 were considered to be around 100 and 80 μm, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 μm on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications

  17. Addition of sunitinib to cetuximab and irinotecan in patients with heavily pre-treated advanced colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Camilla; Jensen, Benny Vittrup; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht

    2010-01-01

    Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented.......Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented....

  18. Heavy duty plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, G.C.; Klein, J.F.; Lander, R.D.; Thompson, H.C.; Trapani, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A heavy duty plasma spray gun for extended industrial service is disclosed. The gun includes a gas distribution member made of a material having a coefficient of expansion different from that of the parts surrounding it. The gas distribution member is forcibly urged by a resilient member such as a coiled spring against a seal so as to assure the plasma gas is introduced into the gun arc in a manner only defined by the gas distribution member. The gun has liquid cooling for the nozzle (anode) and the cathode. Double seals are provided between the coolant and the arc region and a vent is provided between the seals which provides an indication when a seal has failed. Some parts of the gun are electrically isolated from others by an intermediate member which is formed as a sandwich of two rigid metal face pieces and an insulator disposed between them. The metal face pieces provide a rigid body to attach the remaining parts in proper alignment therewith

  19. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping, although this is an event of extremely low probability. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21 mole percent oxygen with humidity. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabatic pressure rise which peaks in several seconds. This analytical tool has indicated reasonable agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen and water vapor concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  20. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-10-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21% oxygen. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabtic pressure pulse peaking in a matter of seconds. This analytical tool has indicated good agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  2. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  3. Development of spraying methods for high density bentonite barriers. Part 3. Field investigation of spraying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Toida, Masaru; Fukuda, Katsumi; Sato, Tatsuro; Nonaka, Katsumi; Gozu, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of constructing high density bentonite barriers by means of a wet spraying method. Using this method, backfill material can be placed in narrow upper and side parts in a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Using a new supplying machine for bentonite, spraying tests were conducted to investigate the conditions during construction. On the basis of the test results, the various parameters for the spraying method were investigated. The test results are summarized as follows: 1. The new machine supplied about twice the weight of material supplied by a screw conveyor. A dry density of spraying bentonite 0.05 Mg/m 3 higher than that of a screw conveyor with the same water content could be achieved. 2. The dry density of sprayed bentonite at a boundary with concrete was the same as that at the center of the cross section. 3. The variation in densities of bentonite sprayed in the vertical downward and horizontal directions was small. Also, density reduction due to rebound during spraying was not seen. 4. Bentonite controlled by water content could be sprayed smoothly in the horizontal direction by a small machine. Also rebound could be collected by a machine conveying air. (author)

  4. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...

  5. Spray Drift Reduction Evaluations of Spray Nozzles Using a Standardized Testing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 14-02, ASTM...Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Non- imaging Light-Scattering Instruments 22. AGDISP Model

  6. 3D Imaging with a Sonar Sensor and an Automated 3-Axes Frame for Selective Spraying in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Reiser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous selective spraying could be a way for agriculture to reduce production costs, save resources, protect the environment and help to fulfill specific pesticide regulations. The objective of this paper was to investigate the use of a low-cost sonar sensor for autonomous selective spraying of single plants. For this, a belt driven autonomous robot was used with an attached 3-axes frame with three degrees of freedom. In the tool center point (TCP of the 3-axes frame, a sonar sensor and a spray valve were attached to create a point cloud representation of the surface, detect plants in the area and perform selective spraying. The autonomous robot was tested on replicates of artificial crop plants. The location of each plant was identified out of the acquired point cloud with the help of Euclidian clustering. The gained plant positions were spatially transformed from the coordinates of the sonar sensor to the valve location to determine the exact irrigation points. The results showed that the robot was able to automatically detect the position of each plant with an accuracy of 2.7 cm and could spray on these selected points. This selective spraying reduced the used liquid by 72%, when comparing it to a conventional spraying method in the same conditions.

  7. SPRAYTRAN 1.0 User’s Guide: A GIS-Based Atmospheric Spray Droplet Dispersion Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Bird, S. L.; Thistle, Harold W.

    2006-09-20

    SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) is a comprehensive dispersion modeling system that is used to simulate the offsite drift of pesticides from spray applications. SPRAYTRAN functions as a console application within Environmental System Research Institute’s ArcMap Geographic Information System (Version 9.x) and integrates the widely-used, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved CALifornia PUFF (CALPUFF) dispersion model and model components to simulate longer-range transport and diffusion in variable terrain and spatially/temporally varying meteorological (e.g., wind) fields. Area sources, which are used to define spray blocks in SPRAYTRAN, are initialized using output files generated from a separate aerial-spray-application model called AGDISP (AGricultural DISPersal). The AGDISP model is used for estimating the amount of pesticide deposited to the spray block based on spraying characteristics (e.g., pesticide type, spray nozzles, and aircraft type) and then simulating the near-field (less than 300-m) drift from a single pesticide application. The fraction of pesticide remaining airborne from the AGDISP near-field simulation is then used by SPRAYTRAN for simulating longer-range (greater than 300 m) drift and deposition of the pesticide.

  8. Assessment of nasal spray deposition pattern in a silicone human nose model using a color-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    To develop a simple and inexpensive method to visualize and quantify droplet deposition patterns. Deposition pattern was determined by uniformly coating the nose model with Sar-Gel (a paste that changes from white to purple on contact with water) and subsequently discharging sprays into the nose model. The color change was captured using a digital camera and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop. Several tests were conducted to validate the method. Deposition patterns of different nasal sprays (Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam) and different nasal drug delivery devices (Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer) were compared. We also used the method to evaluate the effect of inhaled flow rate on nasal spray deposition. There was a significant difference in the deposition area for Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam. The deposition areas of Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer (2 min and 5 min) were significantly different. Inhaled flow rate did not have a significant effect on the deposition pattern. Lower viscosity formulations (Ayr, Afrin) provided greater coverage than the higher viscosity formulation (Zicam). The nebulizer covered a greater surface area than the spray pump we evaluated. Aerosol deposition in the nose model was not affected by air flow conditions.

  9. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  10. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1993-01-01

    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.

  11. Mobile soak pits improve spray team mobility, productivity and safety of PMI malaria control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David F; Brown, Annie S; Bouare, Sory Ibrahima; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Norris, Laura; Longhany, Rebecca; Chandonait, Peter J

    2016-09-15

    In the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)-funded Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project (AIRS), end-of-day clean-up operations require the safe disposal of wash water resulting from washing the exterior of spray tanks and spray operators' personal protective equipment. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) programs typically use soak pits - large, in-ground filters - to adsorb, filter and then safely degrade the traces of insecticide found in the wash water. Usually these soak pits are permanent installations serving 30 or more operators, located in a central area that is accessible to multiple spray teams at the end of their workday. However, in remote areas, it is often impractical for teams to return to a central soak pit location for cleanup. To increase operational efficiency and improve environmental compliance, the PMI AIRS Project developed and tested mobile soak pits (MSP) in the laboratory and in field applications in Madagascar, Mali, Senegal, and Ethiopia where the distance between villages can be substantial and the road conditions poor. Laboratory testing confirmed the ability of the easily-assembled MSP to reduce effluent concentrations of two insecticides (Actellic 300-CS and Ficam VC) used by the PMI AIRS Project, and to generate the minimal practicable environmental "footprint" in these remote areas. Field testing in the Mali 2014 IRS campaign demonstrated ease of installation and use, resulted in improved and more consistent standards of clean-up, decreased transportation requirements, improved spray team working conditions, and reduced potential for operator exposure to insecticide. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are colorless, non-toxic, easily vaporized and nonflammable. Also, some of them are liquids of a high density, low surface tension, low latent heat and low specific heat. These particular chemical and physical properties of fluoro-organic compounds permit their use in very different fields such as electronics, medicine, tribology, nuclear and material science. The Sonatol process was developed under a contract with the DOE. The Sonatol process uses an ultrasonic agitation in a PFC solution that contains a fluorinated surfactant to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. They applied the Sonatol process to the decontamination of a heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibited an excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents a transportation of such a waste to a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing dry decontamination technologies applicable to a decontamination of a highly radioactive area loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. This contamination has occurred as a result of an examination of a post-irradiated material or the development of the DUPIC process. The dry decontamination technologies developed are the carbon dioxide pellet spray method and the PFC spray method. As a part of the project, PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology was developed in 2004. The PFC spray decontamination method which is based on the test results of the PFC ultrasonic method has been under development since 2005. The developed PFC spray decontamination equipment consists of four modules (spray, collection, filtration and distillation). Vacuum cup of the collection module gathers the contaminated PFC solution, then the solution is moved to the filtration module and it is recycled. After a multiple recycling of the spent PFC solution, it is purified in the distillation

  13. Nice Guys Finish Last: Are People with Higher Tax Morale Taxed more Heavily?

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Denvil Duncan; Clemens Fuest; Andreas Peichl

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to provide evidence of efficient taxation of groups with heterogeneous levels of 'tax morale'. We set up an optimal income tax model where high tax morale implies a high subjective cost of evading taxes. The model predicts that 'nice guys finish last': groups with higher tax morale will be taxed more heavily, simply because taxing them is less costly. Based on unique cross-country micro data and an IV approach to rule out reverse causality, we find empirical support fo...

  14. Thermal conductivity of high-porosity heavily doped biomorphic silicon carbide prepared from sapele wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; Cabezas-Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2012-08-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of high-porosity (˜52 vol %, channel-type pores) bio-SiC samples prepared from sapele wood biocarbon templates have been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. An analysis has been made of the obtained results in comparison with the data for bio-SiC samples based on beech and eucalyptus, as well as for polycrystalline β-SiC. The conclusion has been drawn that the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of bio-SiC samples based on natural wood are typical of heavily doped polycrystalline β-SiC.

  15. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Hai, Pham Nam; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga_1_−_x,Fe_x)Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  16. In situ observation of triple junction motion during recovery of heavily deformed aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hughes, Darcy A.; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    -junctions are pinned by deformation-induced interconnecting and lamellar boundaries, which slow down the recovery process and lead to a stop-go migration pattern. This pinning mechanism stabilizes the deformation microstructure, i.e. the structure is stabilized by balancing the driving and pinning forces controlling......Microstructural evolution during in situ annealing of heavily cold-rolled aluminum has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, confirming that an important recovery mechanism is migration of triple junctions formed by three lamellar boundaries (Y-junctions). The migrating Y...

  17. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the experiments in UHV At the surface of freshly cleaved samples, we have observed sodium nano-precipitates with shapes, which depend on the irradiation dose and the volume fraction of the radiolytic Na...

  18. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 748242 (Viet Nam); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Anh, Le Duc [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-05-09

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  19. An X-ray wave theory for heavily distorted crystals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.; Hashimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction theory is developed of monochromatic waves having spherical wave front, which is applicable to an interpretation of divergent X-ray diffraction images of crystals containing arbitral types of strain field. The theory is divided into two parts. In part I, Takagi's theory is expanded by introducing amplitude and phase correction functions and a new improved representation for the X-ray diffraction theory is given. In part II dispersion surfaces in heavily distorted crystals are discussed, and in the discussion the resonance shift functions are introduced. These formulations can lead to a complete understanding of the extinction phenomena. (author)

  20. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  1. Are pre-spraying growing conditions a major determinant of herbicide efficacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riethmuller-Haage, I.C.P.; Bastiaans, L.; Kempenaar, C.; Smutny, V.; Kropff, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-spraying growing conditions on herbicide efficacy, two years of experimentation were conducted in which Persicaria maculosa plants were exposed to different light intensities for 1¿4 days before metribuzin treatment. Specific leaf area, rather than plant growth rate or

  2. Influence of Mobility Models in Precision Spray Aided by Wireless Sensor Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, L B L; Neves, L A; Zafalon, G F D; Costa, F G; Ueyama, J; Montez, C; Pinto, A S R

    2015-01-01

    Precision Spray is a technique to increase performance of Precision Agriculture. This spray technique may be aided by a Wireless Sensor Network, however, for such approach, the communication between the agricultural input applicator vehicle and network is critical due to its proper functioning. Thus, this work analyzes how the number of nodes in a wireless sensor network, its type of distribution and different areas of scenario affects the performance of communication. We performed simulations to observe system's behavior changing to find the most fitted non-controlled mobility model to the system

  3. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  4. Micro-structural investigations of spray hydrolyzed TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhotiya, H. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India); Singh, Ripandeep; Bahadur, J. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sen, D., E-mail: debasis@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Das, Avik; Mazumder, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Paul, B. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sastry, P.U. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Lemmel, H. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • Titania microstructure formation by spray hydrolysis. • Morphological transition during spray hydrolysis process. • Hollow microspheres and fractal like grains depending on precursor concentration. • Use of scattering and microscopy techniques in probing mesoscopic structures. • A plausible mechanism regarding the morphological transition is also introduced. -- Abstract: Hydrolysis across tiny spray droplet allows a facile one step synthesis of interesting sub-micrometric structures owing to the large available surface area unlike bulk hydrolysis. In the present work, it has been demonstrated that titania precursor concentration plays a significant role in effecting morphological transformation during spray hydrolysis. While hollow microspheres are formed primarily at low precursor concentration, fractal like grains, having two levels of hierarchy, result at high precursor concentration. Mesoscopic structure of these spray hydrolyzed grains has been investigated by ultra small-angle neutron scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal evolution of initial amorphous phase of titania into crystalline rutile phase, through intermediate anatase and brookite phases, is followed by high temperature X-ray diffraction. A plausible mechanism has been elucidated for the observed morphological transition with variation of precursor concentration.

  5. Evaluation of StereoPIV Measurement of Droplet Velocity in an Effervescent Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ghaemi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Particle image velocimetry (PIV is a well known technique for measuring the instantaneous velocity field of flows. However, error may be introduced when measuring the velocity field of sprays using this technique when the spray droplets are used as the seed particles. In this study, the effect of droplet number density, droplet velocity profile, and droplet size distribution of a spray produced by an effervescent atomizer on velocity measurement using a StereoPIV has been investigated. A shadowgraph-particle tracking velocimetry (S-PTV system provided measurement of droplet size and velocity for comparison. This investigation demonstrated that the StereoPIV under-estimates velocity at near-field dense spray region where measurement accuracy is limited by multi-scattering of the laser sheet. In the dilute far-field region of the spray, StereoPIV measurement is mostly in agreement with velocity of the droplet size-class which is close to the mean diameter based on droplet number frequency times droplet cross sectional area.

  6. Controlling in situ crystallization of pharmaceutical particles within the spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Meng Wai; Lee, May Ginn; Shakiba, Soroush; Mansouri, Shahnaz

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous solidification and in situ crystallization (or partial crystallization) of droplets within the drying chamber are commonly encountered in the spray drying of pharmaceuticals. The crystallinity developed will determine the functionality of the powder and its stability during storage. This review discusses strategies that can be used to control the in situ crystallization process. Areas covered: The premise of the strategies discussed focuses on the manipulation of the droplet drying rate relative to the timescale of crystallization. This can be undertaken by the control of the spray drying operation, by the use of volatile materials and by the inclusion of additives. Several predictive approaches for in situ crystallization control and new spray dryer configuration strategies are further discussed. Expert opinion: Most reports, hitherto, have focused on the crystallinity of the spray dried material or the development of crystallinity during storage. More mechanistic understanding of the in situ crystallization process during spray drying is required to guide product formulation trials. The key challenge will be in adapting the mechanistic approach to the myriad possible formulations in the pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  8. The design and scale-up of spray dried particle delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khattawi, Ali; Bayly, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The rising demand for pharmaceutical particles with tailored physicochemical properties has opened new markets for spray drying especially for solubility enhancement, improving inhalation medicines and stabilization of biopharmaceuticals. Despite this, the spray drying literature is scattered and often does not address the principles underpinning robust development of pharmaceuticals. It is therefore necessary to present clearer picture of the field and highlight the factors influencing particle design and scale-up. Areas covered: The review presents a systematic analysis of the trends in development of particle delivery systems using spray drying. This is followed by exploring the mechanisms governing particle formation in the process stages. Particle design factors including those of equipment configurations and feed/process attributes were highlighted. Finally, the review summarises the current industrial approaches for upscaling pharmaceutical spray drying. Expert opinion: Spray drying provides the ability to design particles of the desired functionality. This greatly benefits the pharmaceutical sector especially as product specifications are becoming more encompassing and exacting. One of the biggest barriers to product translation remains one of scale-up/scale-down. A shift from trial and error approaches to model-based particle design helps to enhance control over product properties. To this end, process innovations and advanced manufacturing technologies are particularly welcomed.

  9. Solvent exposure and related work practices amongst apprentice spray painters in automotive body repair workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, C; Turner, P J

    1992-08-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary study into the health effects of solvents, workplace assessments and airborne solvent vapour monitoring was conducted in 46 spray painting workshops in the Sydney metropolitan area. Breathing-zone samples were taken from 50 apprentices and 14 experienced spray painters. An interview schedule was developed to obtain information about the use of acrylic or two-pack paint systems, the use of engineering controls, the use of personal protective equipment and the availability of material safety data sheets. Contaminants typical of the chemical products used in this industry were encountered (aromatic hydrocarbons, C5-C7 aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters). The results of airborne solvent monitoring indicate a total solvent exposure in the range 1-99% of a combined Worksafe Australia exposure standard, with a mean of 19%. Solvent exposure was highest when spraying acrylic paint in the open workshop and lowest when spraying two pack paint in a spray booth. Much the same personal protective equipment was available in all workshops, but wide variation in its use was observed. Material safety data sheets were not observed in any of the workshops.

  10. Nanosilver conductive lines made by spray coating and aerosol jet printing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminski, Jakub; Wroblewski, Grzegorz; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Lucja; Lepak, Sandra; Jakubowska, Malgorzata

    2017-08-01

    Printing electronics even though the printing techniques are known for a long time, are gaining in importance. The possibility of making the electronic circuits on flexible, big-area substrates with efficient and cheap technology make it attractive for the electronic industry. Spray coating, as a one of printing methods, additionally provide the chance to print on the non-flat, complicated shaped substrates. Despite the spray coating is mostly used to print a big pads, it is reachable to spray the separate conductive lines both as a quickly-produced prototype and as a fully manufactured circuit. Our work presents the directly printed lines with spray coating technique. For the printing process self-made ink was used. We tested three different approaches to line formation and compare them in the terms of line edge, resistivity and thickness. Line profiles provide the information about the roughness and the line size. In the end we showed the aerosol jet printed meander to give an overview of this similar to spray coating but more sophisticated technique.

  11. Ultra-low-volume space sprays in mosquito control: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, J A S

    2012-06-01

    The availability of tools to control mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors that transmit disease is often limited by a variety of economic, environmental and social issues. In emergency conditions (epidemics, hurricanes, floods etc.), the application of pesticides as space sprays (either by ground or air) is the common method of choice in order to rapidly limit adult local mosquito production in the affected area. Space spray application now employs ultra-low-volume technology for the control of adult mosquitoes. However, the use of space sprays often raises social and environmental concerns by the general public that is served. This review will define and illustrate modern ultra-low-volume technology for the purpose of application as a space spray, as well as describing the engineering controls that have been developed to minimize the environmental impact. The primary social concern is validity and efficacy of application. To address this point, the review will attempt to synthesize the global literature to address the effectiveness of space sprays to significantly impact mosquito vectors in relation to human disease. © 2012 The Author. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Filtering fens: Mechanisms explaining phosphorus-limited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusell, C.; Kooijman, A.; Fernandez, F.; van Wirdum, G.; Geurts, J.J.M.; van Loon, E.E.; Kalbitz, K.; Lamers, L.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The conservation of biodiverse wetland vegetation, including that of rich fens, has a high priority at a global scale. Although P-eutrophication may strongly decrease biodiversity in rich fens, some well-developed habitats do still survive in highly fertilized regions due to nutrient filtering

  13. Determination of traffic noise nuisance as a function of traffic type and density in a heavily populated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerl, G.; Holzmann, E.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of a study including noise level measurements during the day and night and 1125 interviews with residents, it was found that railway noise creates less of a disturbance than street traffic noise. By far the largest majority of respondents experienced the greatest disturbance during the day. The difference in nuisance decreases as noise level rises.

  14. Hypoxic areas, density-dependence and food limitation drive the body condition of a heavily exploited marine fish predator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Käll, Filip; Hansson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the factors regulating fish condition is crucial in ecology and the management of exploited fish populations. The body condition of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea has dramatically decreased during the past two decades, with large implications for the fishery relying on this re...

  15. Investigation on the Cathodic Protection Effect of Low Pressure Cold Sprayed AlZn Coating in Seawater via Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold spray can deposit a composite coating simply by spraying mechanically-mixed Al and Zn powders, while no quantitative data has been reported on the anti-corrosion performance of different composite cold-sprayed coatings. In the present work, the finite element method was used to estimate the cathodic protection effect by simulating the potential distribution on a damaged cold-sprayed AlZn coating on Q235 steel. The results indicate that AlZn coating can only provide a limiting cathodic protection for substrate, because it can only polarize a very narrow zone negative to −0.78 V (vs. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. The remaining area of the steel substrate still has a very high residual corrosion rate. Computational methods can be used to predict the corrosion rate of AlZn coating, and the simulation results were validated by the results of a weight loss experiment.

  16. Treatment Satisfaction, Product Perception, and Quality of Life in Plaque Psoriasis Patients Using Betamethasone Dipropionate Spray 0.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Del Rosso, James Q; Pakunlu, Refika I; Sidgiddi, Srinivas

    2017-11-01

    Objective: To assess patient-reported satisfaction, efficacy, and tolerability associated with the use of betamethasone dipropionate spray 0.05% when applied twice daily in subjects with moderate plaque psoriasis. Design: This was an open-label, multicenter study involving 45 patients with moderate plaque psoriasis, with the aim of evaluating patient-reported outcomes with betamethasone dipropionate spray 0.05%. Patients treated all affected areas twice daily with betamethasone dipropionate (BD) spray 0.05% for 28 days per label instructions. Measurements: Outcome measures included the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Investigators Global Assessment (IGA), and Total Sign Score (TSS). In addition, the lesions were photographed at baseline (Day 1) and on Day 8, Day 14, and Day 29. Results: The results indicated that BD spray 0.05% treatment is associated with improved quality of life. BD spray 0.05% also led to improved IGA and TSS values and a reduction in the percentage of body surface area affected. Conclusion: In subjects with moderate plaque psoriasis, BD spray 0.05% demonstrated good levels of patient satisfaction and quality of life measures, in combination with improvements in the global assessment of disease and the level of itching experienced by subjects.

  17. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Taylor

    Full Text Available Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  18. Long-Term Stability of Oxide Nanowire Sensors via Heavily Doped Oxide Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhang, Guozhu; He, Yong; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2017-12-22

    Long-term stability of a chemical sensor is an essential quality for long-term collection of data related to exhaled breath, environmental air, and other sources in the Internet of things (IoT) era. Although an oxide nanowire sensor has shown great potential as a chemical sensor, the long-term stability of sensitivity has not been realized yet due to electrical degradation under harsh sensing conditions. Here, we report a rational concept to accomplish long-term electrical stability of metal oxide nanowire sensors via introduction of a heavily doped metal oxide contact layer. Antimony-doped SnO 2 (ATO) contacts on SnO 2 nanowires show much more stable and lower electrical contact resistance than conventional Ti contacts for high temperature (200 °C) conditions, which are required to operate chemical sensors. The stable and low contact resistance of ATO was confirmed for at least 1960 h under 200 °C in open air. This heavily doped oxide contact enables us to realize the long-term stability of SnO 2 nanowire sensors while maintaining the sensitivity for both NO 2 gas and light (photo) detections. The applicability of our method is confirmed for sensors on a flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. Since the proposed fundamental concept can be applied to various oxide nanostructures, it will give a foundation for designing long-term stable oxide nanomaterial-based IoT sensors.

  19. Yield strength of a heavily drawn Cu-20% Nb filamentary microcomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    It has been well documented that heavily-drawn, copper-niobium microcomposites possess high strength and high conductivity. Since niobium has little solubility in copper, the conductivity of the copper is not strongly affected by the addition of niobium. Following extensive mechanical deformation of Cu-Nb, niobium dendrites transform into fine niobium ribbons as a result of the niobium texture upon drawing. This nanostructure contributes to the ultrahigh strength of Cu-Nb microcomposites. The strength of heavily deformed Cu-Nb exceeds that predicted by the rule-of-mixtures (ROM), and a fundamental understanding of the strengthening mechanisms involved has been the subject of much discussion. Spitzig and his coworkers suggests a barrier strengthening model while Funkenbusch and Courtney believe that stored dislocations have a role in substructural hardening. Hangen and Raabe recently proposed an analytical model for the calculation of the yield strength of Cu-Nb microcomposite. The model of Hangen and Raabe and that of Spitzig and his coworkers have a great deal of resemblance since both models attribute the strength to the difficulty of propagating plastic flow through the interface. The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the strengthening mechanisms associated with Cu-Nb microcomposites by examining the previous studies on mechanical and microstructural stability of Cu-based microcomposites

  20. Computational Analysis of Spray Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Utsav

    There is a boost in the utilization of renewable sources of energy but because of high energy density applications, combustion will never be obsolete. Spray combustion is a type of multiphase combustion which has tremendous engineering applications in different fields, varying from energy conversion devices to rocket propulsion system. Developing accurate computational models for turbulent spray combustion is vital for improving the design of combustors and making them energy efficient. Flamelet models have been extensively used for gas phase combustion because of their relatively low computational cost to model the turbulence-chemistry interaction using a low dimensional manifold approach. This framework is designed for gas phase non-premixed combustion and its implementation is not very straight forward for multiphase and multi-regime combustion such as spray combustion. This is because of the use of a conserved scalar and various flamelet related assumptions. Mixture fraction has been popularly employed as a conserved scalar and hence used to parameterize the characteristics of gaseous flamelets. However, for spray combustion, the mixture fraction is not monotonic and does not give a unique mapping in order to parameterize the structure of spray flames. In order to develop a flamelet type model for spray flames, a new variable called the mixing variable is introduced which acts as an ideal conserved scalar and takes into account the convection and evaporation of fuel droplets. In addition to the conserved scalar, it has been observed that though gaseous flamelets can be characterized by the conserved scalar and its dissipation, this might not be true for spray flamelets. Droplet dynamics has a significant influence on the spray flamelet and because of effects such as flame penetration of droplets and oscillation of droplets across the stagnation plane, it becomes important to accommodate their influence in the flamelet formulation. In order to recognize the

  1. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  2. Autoignition of liquid-fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzutani, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the published autoignition data of liquid fuel sprays that were extensively reviewed by classifying them into the following three categories; liquid fuels injected into a stagnant hot atmosphere, liquid fuels injected into a hot air stream (vitiated or unvitiated), and droplet cluster ignited behind an incident or reflected shock. Comparison of these data with the counterparts of gaseous fuels and single droplets revealed that it was the ignition process dominated by droplet evaporation whereas it was the one dominated by chemical kinetics. It consisted, depending on the experimental condition, of the data and of the ignition process dominated by the shattering of droplets by an incident shock. In addition, theoretical works on spray autoignition were reviewed, pointing out that they were still far from universally predicting the ignition delays of liquid fuel sprays

  3. Radio frequency induction plasma spraying of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) induction plasma was used to make free-standing deposition of molybdenum (Mo). The phenomena of particle melting, flattening, and stacking were investigated. The effect of process parameters such as plasma power, chamber pressure, and spray distance on the phenomena mentioned above was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the plasma-processed powder, splats formed, and deposits obtained. Experimental results show that less Mo particles are spheroidized when compared to the number of spheroidized tungsten (W) particles at the same powder feed rate under the same plasma spray condition. Molten Mo particles can be sufficiently flattened on substrate. The influence of the process parameters on the flattening behavior is not significant. Mo deposit is not as dense as W deposit, due to the splash and low impact of molten Mo particles. Oxidation of the Mo powder with a large particle size is not evident under the low pressure plasma spray

  4. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  5. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  6. Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

  7. Micrometeorological measurements during the Blackmo 88 spray trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; Y. S. Wang; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation was arrayed on a 120 foot tower to detail the local atmospheric conditions during the Blackmo 88 spray experiment. Measurements were continuous for 30 minute periods encompassing each spray pass.

  8. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruins, Henderikus B

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design a retort rack that would maximize the retort capacity of a 1400 style spray retort and to select a material that would withstand the harsh retort spray environment...

  9. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  10. Spray droplet size, drift potential, and risks to nontarget organisms from aerially applied glyphosate for coca control in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Andrew J; Solomon, Keith R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    A wind tunnel atomization study was conducted to measure the emission droplet size spectra for water and Glyphos (a glyphosate formulation sold in Colombia) + Cosmo-flux sprays for aerial application to control coca and poppy crops in Colombia. The droplet size spectra were measured in a wind tunnel for an Accu-Flo nozzle (with 16 size 0.085 [2.16 mm] orifices), under appropriate simulated aircraft speeds (up to 333 km/h), using a laser diffraction instrument covering a dynamic size range for droplets of 0.5 to 3,500 microm. The spray drift potential of the glyphosate was modeled using the AGDISP spray application and drift model, using input parameters representative of those occurring in Colombia for typical aerial application operations. The droplet size spectra for tank mixes containing glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux were considerably finer than water and became finer with higher aircraft speeds. The tank mix with 44% glyphosate had a D(v0.5) of 128 microm, while the value at the 4.9% glyphosate rate was 140 microm. These are classified as very fine to fine sprays. Despite being relatively fine, modeling showed that the droplets would not evaporate as rapidly as most similarly sized agricultural sprays because the nonvolatile proportion of the tank mix (active and inert adjuvant ingredients) was large. Thus, longer range drift is small and most drift that does occur will deposit relatively close to the application area. Drift will only occur downwind and, with winds of velocity less than the modeled maximum of 9 km/h, the drift distance would be substantially reduced. Spray drift potential might be additionally reduced through various practices such as the selection of nozzles, tank mix adjuvants, aircraft speeds, and spray pressures that would produce coarser sprays. Species sensitivity distributions to glyphosate were constructed for plants and amphibians. Based on modeled drift and 5th centile concentrations, appropriate no-spray buffer zones (distance from the

  11. Experimental and theoretical study on spray behaviors of modified bio-ethanol fuel employing direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremani Amirreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key solutions to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines is direct injection of bio-fuels. A new modified bio-ethanol is produced to be substituted by fossil fuels in gasoline direct injection engines. The key advantages of modified bio-ethanol fuel as an alternative fuel are higher octane number and oxygen content, a long-chain hydro-carbon fuel, and lower emissions compared to fossil fuels. In the present study spray properties of a modified bio-ethanol and its atomization behaviors have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Based on atomization physics of droplets dimensional analysis has been performed to develop a new non-dimensional number namely atomization index. This number determines the atomization level of the spray. Applying quasi-steady jet theory, air entrainment and fuel-air mixing studies have been performed. The spray atomization behaviors such as atomization index number, Ohnesorge number, and Sauter mean diameter have been investigated employing atomization model. The influences of injection and ambient conditions on spray properties of different blends of modified bio-ethanol and gasoline fuels have been investigated performing high-speed visualization technique. Results indicate that decreasing the difference of injection and ambient pressures increases spray cone angle and projected area, and decreases spray tip penetration length. As expected, increasing injection pressure improves atomization behaviors of the spray. Increasing percentage of modified bio-ethanol in the blend, increases spray tip penetration and decreases the projected area as well.

  12. Treatment for snoring. Combined weight loss, sleeping on side, and nasal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, H M; Block, A J; Perri, M G

    1995-05-01

    We sought to find a combination of noninvasive treatments for snoring by adding weight loss to previously studied treatments, including the combination of sleeping on one's side and using a decongestant nasal spray. Twenty asymptomatic men who snore heavily were studied previously on a control night and on a night when they slept on their side and used a nasal spray. With these two treatments, minor improvements in apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) were seen, but no improvement occurred in snoring frequency. Nineteen of these subjects subsequently completed a 6-month weight loss program, and 12 lost weight. These 19 subjects comprise the study population of this report. At the conclusion of the weight loss program, a repeated sleep study was done from which the effect of adding weight loss to the two previously studied treatments could be assessed. Those 12 subjects who lost any amount of weight showed a very mild reduction in snores per hour from 328 using two modalities of treatment to 232 per hour with the addition of weight loss (p = 0.15). The nine subjects who lost > or = 3 kg reduced the number of snores per hour from 320 to 176 (p = 0.0496). Three subjects losing an average of only 7.6 kg showed virtual elimination of snoring after weight loss. Subjects who gained weight had no improvement in snoring. Weight loss added to the other two modalities of treatment had no effect on the AHI. In most cases, the combination of weight loss, sleeping on one's side, and the administration of a nasal decongestant significantly reduces the frequency of snoring in asymptomatic men who snore heavily. The major effect appears to be related to weight loss.

  13. Development of design solutions for spray ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, M.P.; Minasyan, R.G.; Kranzfeld, Ja.L.; Zaruba, V.C.; Baranov, Yu.A.; Sorokin, M.Ja.; Jegorov, A.V.; Khashchina, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of process design of spray cooling systems for responsible consumers of up-to-date reactor building are discussed in this paper. Development in design principles with respect to problem solving of operational reliability increase and ecological efficiency of nuclear power equipment is shown. The structural solutions of basin antifiltration shield are spoken in detail. The results of experimental physical-mathematical and climatic studies as well as comparative tests of bituminous asphalt emulsive mastic and mushy asphalt are reported. The directions of up-to-date researches on improvement of concept of spray coolers are indicated

  14. Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0095 Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display Yukiharu Uraoka NARA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Final Report 11/26/2016...DATES COVERED (From - To)  20 Mar 2013 to 19 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT...NUMBER FA2386-13-1-4024 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Yukiharu Uraoka 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.   WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  15. WWER-type NPP spray ponds screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, M.; Jordanov, M.; Denev, J.; Markov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a protection screen of WWER-type NPP spray ponds. The screen design is to ensure reduction of the water droplets blown by the wind and, if possible, their return back to the spray ponds. The cooling capacity of the ponds is not to be changed below the design level for safety reasons. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to assess the influence of each design variant on the behavior of the water droplets distribution. Two variants are presented here. The one with plants is found not feasible. The second variant, with steel screen and terrain profile modification is selected for implementation. (author)

  16. Plasma-sprayed tantalum/alumina cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.M.

    1977-12-01

    Cermets of tantalum and alumina were fabricated by plasma spraying, with the amount of alumina varied from 0 to 65 percent (by volume). Each of four compositions was then measured for tensile strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion. In general, strength and strain to failure decreased with increasing alumina content: 62 MPa for 100 percent Ta to 19 MPa for 35 v percent Ta. A maximum of 0.1 percent strain was observed for the sprayed 100 percent Ta specimens. The coefficient of thermal expansion measured for the pure Ta was 6.2 (10 -6 )/K

  17. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  18. A Numerical Study of the Temperature Reduction by Water Spray Systems within Urban Street Canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chen Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce energy demand (both fossil fuel and renewable energy for cooling the urban heat island environment, some solutions have been studied. Among these methods, the water spray system is considered more flexible due to its dynamic controls. This study investigated the cooling effect of water spray systems in the street canyon under different aspect ratios and high relative humidity environments using a computational fluid dynamics model. This model was validated with water channel and wind tunnel experiments. The results showed that the most effective cooling area was the area just under the spray nozzles. However, in a narrow street canyon, people in the middle of the street may feel the cooling effect because of the dispersion and accumulation of the cooled air. Our simulations demonstrated that air under the nozzles was saturated and this revealed that under drier conditions the water spray systems will have higher cooling performance. We also found that using large water droplets created a wider cooling area in the middle of the street canyon, and this phenomenon was not changed much if the nozzle height was increased from 2.5 m to 3.5 m.

  19. Thin films by metal-organic precursor plasma spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Sailer, Robert A.; Payne, Scott; Leach, James; Molz, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    While most plasma spray routes to coatings utilize solids as the precursor feedstock, metal-organic precursor plasma spray (MOPPS) is an area that the authors have investigated recently as a novel route to thin film materials. Very thin films are possible via MOPPS and the technology offers the possibility of forming graded structures by metering the liquid feed. The current work employs metal-organic compounds that are liquids at standard temperature-pressure conditions. In addition, these complexes contain chemical functionality that allows straightforward thermolytic transformation to targeted phases of interest. Toward that end, aluminum 3,5-heptanedionate (Al(hd) 3 ), triethylsilane (HSi(C 2 H 5 ) 3 or HSiEt 3 ), and titanium tetrakisdiethylamide (Ti(N(C 2 H 5 ) 2 ) 4 or Ti(NEt 2 ) 4 ) were employed as precursors to aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and titanium nitride, respectively. In all instances, the liquids contain metal-heteroatom bonds envisioned to provide atomic concentrations of the appropriate reagents at the film growth surface, thus promoting phase formation (e.g., Si-C bond in triethylsilane, Ti-N bond in titanium amide, etc.). Films were deposited using a Sulzer Metco TriplexPro-200 plasma spray system under various experimental conditions using design of experiment principles. Film compositions were analyzed by glazing incidence x-ray diffraction and elemental determination by x-ray spectroscopy. MOPPS films from HSiEt 3 showed the formation of SiC phase but Al(hd) 3 -derived films were amorphous. The Ti(NEt 2 ) 4 precursor gave MOPPS films that appear to consist of nanosized splats of TiOCN with spheres of TiO 2 anatase. While all films in this study suffered from poor adhesion, it is anticipated that the use of heated substrates will aid in the formation of dense, adherent films.

  20. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  1. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  2. Formation of monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Kathryn; Wu, Winston Duo; Wu, Zhangxiong; Liu, Wenjie; Selomulya, Cordelia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a protocol to synthesize monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via a unique microfluidic jet spray-drying route is reported for the first time. The microparticles demonstrated highly ordered hexagonal mesostructures with surface areas ranging from ~900 up to 1500 m(2)/g and pore volumes from ~0.6 to 0.8 cm(3)/g. The particle size could be easily controlled from ~50 to 100 μm from the same diameter nozzle via changing the initial solute content, or changing the drying temperature. The ratio of the surfactant (CTAB) and silica (TEOS), and the amount of water in the precursor were found to affect the degree of ordering of mesopores by promoting either the self-assembly of the surfactant-silica micelles or the condensation of the silica as two competing processes in evaporation induced self-assembly. The drying rate and the curvature of particles also affected the self-assembly of the mesostructure. The particle mesostructure is not influenced by the inlet drying temperature in the range of 92-160 °C, with even a relatively low temperature of 92 °C producing highly ordered mesoporous microparticles. The spray-drying derived mesoporous silica microparticles, while of larger sizes and more rapidly synthesized, showed a comparable performance with the conventional mesoporous silica MCM-41 in controlled release of a dye, Rhodamine B, indicating that these spray dried microparticles could be used for the immobilisation and controlled release of small molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  4. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  5. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation of...

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Spray Deposition with Water-Sensitive Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray droplets, discharged from the lower six nozzles of an airblast sprayer, were sampled on pairs of absorbent filter and water-sensitive papers at nine distances from sprayer. Spray deposition on filter targets were measured by fluorometry and spray distribution on WSP targets were assessed by t...

  7. Numerical Modeling of Diesel Spray Formation and Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekdemir, C.; Somers, L.M.T.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    A study is presented on the modeling of fuel sprays in diesel engines. The objective of this study is in the first place to accurately and efficiently model non-reacting diesel spray formation, and secondly to include ignition and combustion. For that an efficient 1D Euler-Euler spray model [21] is

  8. Influence of the spray characteristics of a piezo-A-nozzle on the inflammation at spray guided combustion processes; Einfluss der Spraycharakteristik einer Piezo-A-Duese auf die Entflammung beim strahlgefuehrten Brennverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuninger, Tobias; Schmidt, Juergen [Magdeburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Stroemungstechnik und Thermodynamik (ISUT); Hese, Martin; Tschoeke, Helmut [Magdeburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Mobile Systeme (IMS); Kufferath, Andreas [Robert Bosch GmbH, Schwieberdingen (Germany); Altenschmidt, Frank [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The spray-guided combustion process offers a significant potential for improvement on the fuel consumption in partial-load engine operation. Due to the very close positioning of the injector to the spark plug, there is only very little time for the fuel mixture generation which leads to the presence of still liquid fuel particles next to already evaporized one. Furthermore the fuel-mixture generation is primarily driven by the dynamics of the fuel spray. In this article the spray characteristics of a Piezo-A-injector under pressure-chamber conditions as well as the combustion behavior on a one-cylinder test motor are analyzed. The global spray dispersion is analyzed using high-speed visualization while laser-optical measurements are used to observe the ignition-area. The mean diameter as well as the velocity of fuel droplets are determined using the phase-doppler-anemometry (PDA). An extinction-measuring methodology is used to quantify the liquid fuel particles. Analyzing the evaluated misfire-rate as a function of the spray-attributes allows for rating the spray-sections according to their ignition behavior. (orig.)

  9. Structural coarsening during annealing of an aluminum plate heavily deformed using ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and softening behaviour have been investigated in an aluminum plate heavily deformed by equal channel angular extrusion and subsequently annealed at 170 °C. It is found that at this temperature the microstructure evolves by coarsening with no apparent signs of recrystallization...... even after 2 h of annealing. Both coarsening and softening are rapid within first 10 minutes of annealing followed by a slower evolution with increasing annealing duration. Evidence of triple junction (TJ) motion during coarsening is obtained by inspecting the microstructure in one region using...... the electron backscatter diffraction technique both before and after annealing for 10 minutes. The fraction of fast-migrating TJs is found to strongly depend of the type of boundaries composing a junction. The greatest fraction of fast-migrating TJs is in the group, where all boundaries forming a junction...

  10. Anomalous transmission through heavily doped conducting polymer films with periodic subwavelength hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-08-01

    We observed resonantly enhanced (or anomalous transmission) terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF 6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The anomalous transmission spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the resonantly enhanced transmission peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy(PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, indicating that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy(PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  11. Heavily doped GaAs:Te layers grown by MOVPE using diisopropyl telluride as a source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniltsev, V. M.; Demidov, E. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N., E-mail: drozdyu@ipmras.ru; Kraev, S. A.; Surovegina, E. A.; Shashkin, V. I.; Yunin, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The capabilities of GaAs epitaxial layers extremely heavily doped with tellurium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy using diisopropyl telluride as a source are studied. It is shown that tellurium incorporation into GaAs occurs to an atomic concentration of 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} without appreciable diffusion and segregation effects. Good carrier concentrations (2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) and specific contact resistances of non-alloyed ohmic contacts (1.7 × 10{sup –6} Ω cm{sup 2}) give grounds to use such layers to create non-alloyed ohmic contacts in electronic devices. A sharp decrease in the electrical activity of Te atoms, a decrease in the electron mobility, and an increase in the contact resistance at atomic concentrations above 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} are detected.

  12. Spin relaxation through lateral spin transport in heavily doped n -type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Oka, T.; Fujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Saito, Y.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally study temperature-dependent spin relaxation including lateral spin diffusion in heavily doped n -type silicon (n+-Si ) layers by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance in small-sized CoFe/MgO/Si lateral spin-valve (LSV) devices. Even at room temperature, we observe large spin signals, 50-fold the magnitude of those in previous works on n+-Si . By measuring spin signals in LSVs with various center-to-center distances between contacts, we reliably evaluate the temperature-dependent spin diffusion length (λSi) and spin lifetime (τSi). We find that the temperature dependence of τSi is affected by that of the diffusion constant in the n+-Si layers, meaning that it is important to understand the temperature dependence of the channel mobility. A possible origin of the temperature dependence of τSi is discussed in terms of the recent theories by Dery and co-workers.

  13. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa.

    1994-01-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author)

  14. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1994-11-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author).

  15. Launch prices for new pharmaceuticals in the heavily regulated and subsidized Spanish market, 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; López-Valcárcel, Beatriz González

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the explanatory factors affecting introductory prices of new pharmaceuticals in a heavily regulated and highly subsidized market. We collect a data set consisting of all new chemical entities launched in Spain between 1997 and 2005, and model launch prices following an extended version of previous economic models. We found that, unlike in the US and Sweden, therapeutically "innovative" products are not overpriced relative to "imitative" ones after having controlled for other factors. Price setting is mainly used as a mechanism to adjust for inflation independently of the degree of innovation. The drugs that enter through the centralized EMA approval procedure are overpriced, which may be a consequence of market globalization and international price setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Facilitating political decisions using species distribution models to assess restoration measures in heavily modified estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells in heavily exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1986-01-01

    Seven hundred and ten bone marrow cells from 13 A-bomb survivors, who were heavily exposed to atomic radiation, were examined using chromosome banding method. An average frequency of chromosome aberrations was 17 %. The most common structural abnormality was translocation (47 %), followed by complex aberrations involving three or more chromosomes (32 %). These abnormalities were frequently seen in A-bomb survivors exposed to estimated doses of 3.5 - 4.0 Gy. Eighty two percent of the structural aberrations were stable. Diploid cells were seen in 0.4 % and tetraploid cells were seen in 0.7 %. The frequency of breakpoint sites was high in chromosomes 1 and 17; while it was low in chromosomes 3, 6, 9, and 11. Abnormal clones were seen in one of the 13 survivors. Chromosome aberrations common to the bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes were not seen in the same individual. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Induction hardening of tool steel for heavily loaded aircraft engine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokicki P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction hardening is an innovative process allowing modification of the materials surface with more effective, cheaper and more reproducible way to compare with conventional hardening methods used in the aerospace industry. Unfortunately, high requirements and strict regulation concerning this branch of the industry force deep research allowing to obtain results that would be used for numerical modelling of the process. Only by this way one is able to start the industrial application of the process. The main scope of presented paper are results concerning investigation of microstructure evolution of tool steel after single-frequency induction hardening process. The specimens that aim in representing final industrial products (as heavily loaded gears, were heat- -treated with induction method and subjected to metallographic preparation, after which complex microstructure investigation was performed. The results obtained within the research will be a basis for numerical modelling of the process of induction hardening with potential to be introduced for the aviation industrial components.

  19. Effect of impurity correlation on the density of states in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Nhat Quang; Nguyen Nhu Dat; Dinh Van An

    1993-07-01

    A theory is developed of the electron density of states (DOS) in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors which undergo a thermal treatment. The calculation is carried out within the semiclassical approach to the random impurity field, taking adequately into account high-temperature correlation among the impurities and low temperature screening due to the free carriers as well. Then, a simple analytic expression for the DOS is obtained which exhibits the same energy dependence as in the case of a random impurity distribution, but now with some correlation-induced changes in the coefficients. A numerical estimation on non-compensated n-type sample of GaAs at a doping level of 5 x 10 18 cm -3 shows that in the tail region the correlated DOS turns out to be somewhat larger and cut less sharply than the random one. (author). 45 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Optical Gaps in Pristine and Heavily Doped Silicon Nanocrystals: DFT versus Quantum Monte Carlo Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, R; Tokár, K; Somogyi, B; Gali, Á; Štich, I

    2017-12-12

    We present a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) study of the optical gaps of light-emitting nanomaterials, namely, pristine and heavily B- and P-codoped silicon crystalline nanoparticles. Twenty DFT exchange-correlation functionals sampled from the best currently available inventory such as hybrids and range-separated hybrids are benchmarked against ultra-accurate quantum Monte Carlo results on small model Si nanocrystals. Overall, the range-separated hybrids are found to perform best. The quality of the DFT gaps is correlated with the deviation from Koopmans' theorem as a possible quality guide. In addition to providing a generic test of the ability of TDDFT to describe optical properties of silicon crystalline nanoparticles, the results also open up a route to benchmark-quality DFT studies of nanoparticle sizes approaching those studied experimentally.

  1. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  2. Mechanical Properties of Plasma Sprayed Alumina Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářík, O.; Nohava, Jiří; Siegel, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 129-145 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma sprayed alumina coatings, fatigue test, metalography, fractography, residual stress, microhardness, Young's modulus , four-point bending Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  3. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel; Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel

    -, č. 31 (2005), s. 315-321 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Optical microscopy * electrical properties * silicates * insulators * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2005

  4. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  5. Examining Thermally Sprayed Coats By Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1994-01-01

    True flaws distinquished from those induced by preparation of specimens. Fluorescence microscopy reveals debonding, porosity, cracks, and other flaws in specimens of thermally sprayed coating materials. Specimen illuminated, and dye it contains fluoresces, emitting light at different wavelength. Filters emphasize contrast between excitation light and emission light. Specimen viewed directly or photographed on color film.

  6. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervenka, J.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many large molecular complexes are limited in thin film applications by their insufficient thermal stability, which excludes deposition via commonly used vapour phase deposition methods. Here we demonstrate an alternative way of monolayer formation of large molecules by a simple spray coating method

  7. Plasma Sprayed Coatings for RF Wave Absorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, Jiří; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Chráska, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil

    307-311, - (2002), s. 1334-1338 ISSN 0022-3115 Grant - others: COST (XE) Euratom DV4/04(TWO) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide, thermal spray coatings, fusion materials, RF wave absorption Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2002

  8. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy

  9. Metallization of Various Polymers by Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hanqing; Chu, Xin; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous results have shown that metallic coatings can be successfully cold sprayed onto polymeric substrates. This paper studies the cold sprayability of various metal powders on different polymeric substrates. Five different substrates were used, including carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyethylenimine (PEI); mild steel was also used as a benchmark substrate. The CFRP used in this work has a thermosetting matrix, and the ABS, PEEK and PEI are all thermoplastic polymers, with different glass transition temperatures as well as a number of distinct mechanical properties. Three metal powders, tin, copper and iron, were cold sprayed with both a low-pressure system and a high-pressure system at various conditions. In general, cold spray on the thermoplastic polymers rendered more positive results than the thermosetting polymers, due to the local thermal softening mechanism in the thermoplastics. Thick copper coatings were successfully deposited on PEEK and PEI. Based on the results, a method is proposed to determine the feasibility and deposition window of cold spraying specific metal powder/polymeric substrate combinations.

  10. Consolidation of tungsten disilicide by plasma spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Ctibor, Pavel; Matějíček, Jiří; Rohan, Pavel; Janča, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 311-320 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tungsten disilicide * plasma deposition * thermal spray coatings Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  11. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7 ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  12. X-ray vision of fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    With brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources, microsecond time-resolved synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography have been used to elucidate the detailed three-dimensional structure and dynamics of high-pressure high-speed fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region. The measurement allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in the optically impenetrable region owing to the multiple scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. X-radiographs of the jet-induced shock waves prove that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions and that the quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock waves can also be derived from the most direct measurement. In other situations where extremely axial-asymmetric sprays are encountered, mass deconvolution and cross-sectional fuel distribution models can be computed based on the monochromatic and time-resolved X-radiographic images collected from various rotational orientations of the sprays. Such quantitative analysis reveals the never-before-reported characteristics and most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of highly transient fuel sprays

  13. Rapid enhancement of nodal quasiparticle mass with heavily underdoping in Bi2212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Ino, Akihiro

    2018-05-01

    We report substantial advance of our low-energy angle-resolved photoemission study of nodal quasiparticles in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The new data cover the samples from underdoped down to heavily underdoped levels. We also present the nodal Fermi velocities that determined by using an excitation-photon energy of hν = 7.0 eV over a wide doping range. The consistency between the results with hν = 8.1 and 7.0 eV allows us to rule out the effect of photoemission matrix elements. In comparison with the data previously reported, the nodal effective mass increases by a factor of ∼ 1.5 in going from optimally doped to heavily underdoped levels. We find a rapid enhancement of the nodal quasiparticle mass at low doping levels near the superconductor-to-insulator transition. The effective coupling spectrum, λ (ω) , is extracted directly from the energy derivatives of the quasiparticle dispersion and scattering rate, as a causal function of the mass enhancement factor. A steplike increase in Reλ (ω) around ∼ 65 meV is demonstrated clearly by the Kramers-Kronig transform of Imλ (ω) . To extract the low-energy renormalization effect, we calculated a simple model for the electron-boson interaction. This model reveals that the contribution of the renormalization at | ω | ≤ 15 meV to the quasiparticle mass is larger than that around 65 meV in underdoped samples.

  14. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erden, Ayse, E-mail: ayse.erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Sahin, Burcu Savran, E-mail: bsavrans@hotmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Orgodol, Horolsuren, E-mail: hoogii99@yahoo.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Erden, Ilhan, E-mail: erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Biyikli, Zeynep, E-mail: zeynep.biyikli@gmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  15. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erden, Ayse; Sahin, Burcu Savran; Orgodol, Horolsuren; Erden, Ilhan; Biyikli, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  16. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  17. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  18. Characterization of the full cone pressure swirl spray nozzles for the nuclear reactor containment spray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Manish [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); John, Benny [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Prabhu, S.V., E-mail: svprabhu@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Full cone spray pressure swirl nozzle with X-Vane is studied. • Laser illuminated imaging technique is used. • Correlations for coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle and SMD are suggested. • Droplet size and mass fraction distribution is measured. • Inviscid theory predicts the coefficient of discharge. - Abstract: The objective of the present study is to characterize a full cone pressure swirl nozzle for the Containment Spray System (CSS) of Indian Pressurized heavy Water reactors (IPHWR). The influence of Reynolds number and geometric parameters on the coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle, mass flux density distribution, droplet size distribution, Sauter mean diameter (SMD is studied for full cone pressure swirl full cone nozzles. The nozzles of orifice diameter range from 1.3 to 7.2 mm are studied. Experiments are conducted with water at room temperature as the working medium. The nozzles are operated with the pressure ranging from 1 to 8 bar. The measurements of the drop size distributions are performed with laser illuminated imaging technique. The spray cone-angle of the full cone nozzles is measured by the evaluation of images recorded with a camera using IMAGE J software. Correlations for coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle and Sauter mean diameter are suggested on the basis of the experimental results. Rosin–Rammler model and Nukiyama–Tanasawa distributions predict the mass fraction distribution reasonably well. However, the droplet size distribution is predicted by Nukiyama-Tanasawa model only.

  19. Elimination of the containment spray additive for Vogtle electric generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the details for elimination of the spray additive portion of the containment spray system (CSS) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant. A particular emphasis is placed on nuclear power plant design associated with operation and maintenance (O and M), cost control strategies, and reliability initiatives. The CSS is an engineered safeguard system that functions to reduce reactor containment building pressure and temperature and the quantity of airborne fission products in the containment atmosphere subsequent to a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Pressure and temperature reduction is accomplished by spraying water into the containment building atmosphere. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is added to the containment spray water to increase its pH. Results of recent studies on the behavior of fission products in the post-LOCA containment environment have demonstrated that the iodine removal can be effectively performed by boric acid sprays without the NaOH additive and by deposition on the internal surfaces of the containment building. Thus, the NaOH, the SAT, the chemical injection system (eductor) which delivers the additive to the spray system, and the related testing and maintenance required by the Technical Specifications can be eliminated. The NaOH will be replaced by TSP in baskets in the containment sump area. The TSP is needed for pH control during the recirculation phase following a LOCA. The deletion of the requirement for the SAT will result in a reduction of regulatory requirements in that the level of surveillance will be reduced. The safety analysis acceptance limits will still be met

  20. Design and performance of atomizing nozzles for spray calcination of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.A.; Stout, L.A.

    1981-05-01

    A key aspect of high-level liquid-waste spray calcination is waste-feed atomization by using air atomizing nozzles. Atomization substantially increases the heat transfer area of the waste solution, which enhances rapid drying. Experience from the spray-calciner operations has demonstrated that nozzle flow conditions that produce 70-μ median-volume-diameter or smaller spray droplets are required for small-scale spray calciners (drying capacity less than 80 L/h). For large-scale calciners (drying capacity greater than 300 L/h), nozzle flow conditions that produce 100-μ median-volume-diameter or smaller spray droplets are required. Mass flow ratios of 0.2 to 0.4, depending on nozzle size, are required for proper operation of internal-mix atomizing nozzles. Both internal-mix and external-mix nozzles have been tested at PNL. Due to the lower airflow requirements and fewer large droplets produced, the internal-mix nozzle has been chosen for primary development in the spray calciner program at PNL. Several nozzle air-cap materials for internal-mix nozzles have been tested for wear resistance. Results show that nozzle air caps of stainless steel and Cer-vit (a machineable glass ceramic) are suceptible to rapid wear by abrasive slurries, whereas air caps of alumina and reaction-bonded silicon nitride show only slow wear. Longer-term testing is necessary to determine more accurately the actual frequency of nozzle replacement. Atomizing nozzle air caps of alumina are subject to fracture from thermal shock, whereas air caps of silicon nitride and Cer-vit are not. Fractured nozzles are held in place by the air-cap retaining ring and continue to atomize satisfactorily. Therefore, fractures caused by thermal shocking do not necessarily result in nozzle failure

  1. Comparison of microscopic method and computational program for pesticide deposition evaluation of spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaim Aldemir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to compare two methods to estimate the deposition of pesticide applied by aerial spraying. Hundred and fifty pieces of water sensitive paper were distributed over an area of 50 m length by 75 m width for sampling droplets sprayed by an aircraft calibrated to apply a spray volume of 32 L/ha. The samples were analysed by visual microscopic method using NG 2 Porton graticule and by an image analyser computer program. The results reached by visual microscopic method were the following: volume median diameter, 398±62 mum; number median diameter, 159±22 mum; droplet density, 22.5±7.0 droplets/cm² and estimated deposited volume, 22.2±9.4 L/ha. The respective ones reached with the computer program were: 402±58 mum, 161±32 mum, 21.9±7.5 droplets/cm² and 21.9±9.2 L/ha. Graphs of the spatial distribution of droplet density and deposited spray volume on the area were produced by the computer program.

  2. Treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation by open spray cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkız Uyar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although gingival hyperpigmentation is not a medical problem, people who have moderate or severe gingival pigmentation, particularly patients having a gummy smile, frequently request cosmetic treatment. For gingival depigmentation, different treatment modalities have been reported such as surgical treatment, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with gingival melanin pigmentation were included in the study. We applied liquid nitrogen to the hyperpigmented area for 5-10 seconds using open spray technique with a cryogun. Clinical observations for intensity of pigmentation were recorded at baseline and 3 months after the treatment. Clinical parameters, such as bleeding, swelling, redness, and healing, were evaluated immediately after the cryotherapy and 24 hours, and 1 week after the treatment. We used a numeric pain scale to evaluate the pain level. Results: Three months after the treatment, the mean gingival melanin pigmentation score decreased from 41.62±16.58 to 19.28±11.85. The difference between pretreatment and posttreatment mean scores was found to be statistically significant.Discussion: Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation can be performed safely by open spray cryotherapy in dermatology clinics.

  3. Drift curves from spray applications on commom bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Bueno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to avoid the occurrence of drift in pesticide applications, it is fundamental to know the behavior of sprayed droplets. This study aimed to determine drift curves in pesticide applications on common bean crop under brazilian weather conditions, using different nozzle types and compared them with the "German" and "Dutch" drift prediction models. The experiment was conducted in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais/Brazil, in completely randomized design with ten replications and 4 x 20 split-plot arrangement in space. Drift deposited on collectors located over ground level was resulted by 150 L ha-1 carrier volume applications through four nozzle types (XR 11002 (fine droplets; AIXR 11002 (coarse droplets; TT 11002 (medium droplets; TTI 11002 (extremely coarse droplets, collected in 20 downwind distances, parallel to the crop line outside the target area, spaced by 2.5 m. The tracer rhodamine B was added to the spray to be quantified by fluorimetry. Drift prediction models adjusted by exponential functions were obtained considering the 90th percentile for XR, TT, AIXR and TTI nozzles. It is suggested to use the estimated drift models from this study for each nozzle type in drift prediction evaluations on bean crops under brazilian weather conditions.

  4. Response of breeding birds to aerial sprays of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-Oil) in Montana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, L.R.; Henny, C.J.; Floyd, R.L.; Bobal, K.A.; Schultz, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding density, food, nesting success, and mortality of 20 bird species were monitored at Beaverhead National Forest, Montana, in 1975 in conjunction with experimental applications of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-oil) to western budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis). Bird species on nine 350- to 550-ha forested plots (three controls and three treated with each pesticide) were studied before and for 14 days after the spraying of trichlorfon at 1.1 kg in?9.4 L of Panasol AN3 per ha (1 pound active ingredient in 1.0 gallon/acre) and of carbaryl at 1.1 kg in 4.7 L of diesel oil per ha (l pound active ingredient in 0.5 gallon/acre). No significant decrease in bird numbers was detected from breeding-pair estimates or live bird counts after the spraying. Of the breeding pairs present before spraying, 92% remained on control plots, 89% on trichlorfon plots, and 92% on carbaryl plots. Counts of live birds made before and after spraying in three types of habitat supported the. results of the breeding-pair estimates. Nests with eggs or with young at the time of spraying were 74 and 97% successful, respectively, in control plots, 83 and 100% in plots sprayed with trichlorfon, and 86 and 100% in plots sprayed with carbaryl. No sick or dead birds were found after the spraying, although budworms were found in bird stomachs, and tracer-dye from the pesticide occurred on the feathers or feet of 74% of the 202 birds collected. Species dwelling in the tree canopy encountered the dye (and thus the pesticide) at a slightly higher rate (80%) than did species below the treetops (71 %) or near the ground and in open areas (70%).

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of the spray formation in confinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampa, A.; Fritsching, U.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Process stability of confined spray processes is affected by the geometric design of the spray confinement. • LES simulations of confined spray flow have been performed successfully. • Clustering processes of droplets is predicted in simulations and validated with experiments. • Criteria for specific coherent gas flow patterns and droplet clustering behaviour are found. -- Abstract: The particle and powder properties produced within spray drying processes are influenced by various unsteady transport phenomena in the dispersed multiphase spray flow in a confined spray chamber. In this context differently scaled spray structures in a confined spray environment have been analyzed in experiments and numerical simulations. The experimental investigations have been carried out with Particle-Image-Velocimetry to determine the velocity of the gas and the discrete phase. Large-Eddy-Simulations have been set up to predict the transient behaviour of the spray process and have given more insight into the sensitivity of the spray flow structures in dependency from the spray chamber design

  6. Fluctuations of a spray generated by an airblast atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batarseh, Feras Z.; Gnirss, Markus; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Chair of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics

    2009-06-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the aerodynamic instability of the spray generated by an airblast atomizer. As a result of this instability the spray shape and its velocity fluctuate with a certain frequency, which depends on the operational parameters of the atomizer. The effect of three parameters, namely; chamber pressure, liquid phase flow rate and the gas phase flow rate on the spray fluctuating frequency are investigated. The velocity vector of the drops in the spray and the arrival times to the detection volume are measured using the laser Doppler instrument. The slotting technique is applied to the data of axial velocity and arrival times of the drops in order to estimate the dominating spray frequencies. Additionally, the shape of the spray has been observed using the high-speed video system. The frequencies of the shape fluctuations are estimated using proper orthogonal decomposition of the time-resolved images of the spray. We show that the frequencies of the spray velocity and those exhibited by spray shape coincide over a wide range of spray parameters. Finally, a simple scaling for the spray frequency is proposed and validated by the experimental data. (orig.)

  7. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Burson, S.B. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  8. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13183

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Schonewill, P.P.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, J.; Kurath, D.E.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate, and the release fraction which is the ratio of generation rate to spray flow rate, of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the release fraction decreases with increasing orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size. (authors)

  9. A spray flamelet/progress variable approach combined with a transported joint PDF model for turbulent spray flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Olguin, Hernan; Gutheil, Eva

    2017-05-01

    A spray flamelet/progress variable approach is developed for use in spray combustion with partly pre-vaporised liquid fuel, where a laminar spray flamelet library accounts for evaporation within the laminar flame structures. For this purpose, the standard spray flamelet formulation for pure evaporating liquid fuel and oxidiser is extended by a chemical reaction progress variable in both the turbulent spray flame model and the laminar spray flame structures, in order to account for the effect of pre-vaporised liquid fuel for instance through use of a pilot flame. This new approach is combined with a transported joint probability density function (PDF) method for the simulation of a turbulent piloted ethanol/air spray flame, and the extension requires the formulation of a joint three-variate PDF depending on the gas phase mixture fraction, the chemical reaction progress variable, and gas enthalpy. The molecular mixing is modelled with the extended interaction-by-exchange-with-the-mean (IEM) model, where source terms account for spray evaporation and heat exchange due to evaporation as well as the chemical reaction rate for the chemical reaction progress variable. This is the first formulation using a spray flamelet model considering both evaporation and partly pre-vaporised liquid fuel within the laminar spray flamelets. Results with this new formulation show good agreement with the experimental data provided by A.R. Masri, Sydney, Australia. The analysis of the Lagrangian statistics of the gas temperature and the OH mass fraction indicates that partially premixed combustion prevails near the nozzle exit of the spray, whereas further downstream, the non-premixed flame is promoted towards the inner rich-side of the spray jet since the pilot flame heats up the premixed inner spray zone. In summary, the simulation with the new formulation considering the reaction progress variable shows good performance, greatly improving the standard formulation, and it provides new

  10. To spray or not to spray? Understanding participation in an indoor residual spray campaign in Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Bauer, Karin M; Hunter, Gabrielle C; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Arriola, Vanessa D; Rivera-Lanas, Daniel; Rodriguez, Geoffrey H; Toledo Vizcarra, Amparo M; Mollesaca Riveros, Lina M; Levy, Michael Z; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2018-01-01

    Current low participation rates in vector control programmes in Arequipa, Peru complicate the control of Chagas disease. Using focus groups (n = 17 participants) and semi-structured interviews (n = 71) conducted in March and May 2013, respectively, we examined barriers to and motivators of household participation in an indoor residual spray (IRS) campaign that had taken place one year prior in Arequipa. The most common reported barriers to participation were inconvenient spray times due to work obligations, not considering the campaign to be necessary, concerns about secondary health impacts (e.g. allergic reactions to insecticides), and difficulties preparing the home for spraying (e.g. moving heavy furniture). There was also a low perception of risk for contracting Chagas disease that might affect participation. The main motivator to participate was to ensure personal health and well-being. Future IRS campaigns should incorporate more flexible hours, including weekends; provide appropriate educational messages to counter concerns about secondary health effects; incorporate peer educators to increase perceived risk to Chagas in community; obtain support from community members and leaders to build community trust and support for the campaign; and assist individuals in preparing their homes. Enhancing community trust in both the need for the campaign and its operations is key.

  11. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  12. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  13. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  14. SPRAY FOAM IN ACCESSIBLE SPACES:BEST PRACTICES AND CASE STUDIES FOR RETROFIT IN MIXED-HUMID CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gant, Kathy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-12-01

    Heating and cooling the house is one of the homeowners major expenses. Reducing these costs, saving energy, and creating a healthier, more comfortable indoor environment are good reasons to consider improving the building thermal envelope. Improvements usually consider increasing the amount of insulation, reducing the infiltration of outside air, and controlling moisture in existing buildings. This report describes the use of spray foam materials to insulate, seal, and control moisture. This discussion is limited to treating areas that are accessible. What is accessible, however, can vary depending on the type of renovation. If the building has been gutted or exterior surfaces removed, there are more options. This report will look at areas to consider for spray foam application and discuss the types of spray foams available and their uses. A number of case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of this retrofit in existing houses based on performance data.

  15. Plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeper, T.J.; Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E.; Riggs, W.L. II; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the air plasma spraying (APS) of alumina-titania powder using argon-hydrogen working gases. This powder system is being used in the fabrication of heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coatings. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, surface profilometry, image analysis, optical metallography, and x-ray diffraction. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. attempts are made to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters

  16. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers

  17. Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.; Unger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected

  18. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J., E-mail: jeanne.malet@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Saclay (France); Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr [Electricité de France, EDF MF2E, Chatou (France); Manzini, G., E-mail: giovanni.manzini@rse-web.it [RSE, Milano (Italy); Xiao, J., E-mail: jianjun.xiao@kit.edu [IKET, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Vyskocil, L., E-mail: vyl@ujv.cz [UJV Rez (Czech Republic); Siccama, N.B., E-mail: siccama@nrg.eu [NRG, Safety and Power (Netherlands); Huhtanen, R., E-mail: risto.huhtanen@vtt.fi [VTT, PO Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety.

  19. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Mimouni, S.; Manzini, G.; Xiao, J.; Vyskocil, L.; Siccama, N.B.; Huhtanen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety

  20. Precise Th/U-dating of small and heavily coated samples of deep sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomitschka, Michael; Mangini, Augusto

    1999-07-01

    Marine carbonate skeletons like deep-sea corals are frequently coated with iron and manganese oxides/hydroxides which adsorb additional thorium and uranium out of the sea water. A new cleaning procedure has been developed to reduce this contamination. In this further cleaning step a solution of Na 2EDTA (Na 2H 2T B) and ascorbic acid is used which composition is optimised especially for samples of 20 mg of weight. It was first tested on aliquots of a reef-building coral which had been artificially contaminated with powdered ferromanganese nodule. Applied on heavily contaminated deep-sea corals (scleractinia), it reduced excess 230Th by another order of magnitude in addition to usual cleaning procedures. The measurement of at least three fractions of different contamination, together with an additional standard correction for contaminated carbonates results in Th/U-ages corrected for the authigenic component. A good agreement between Th/U- and 14C-ages can be achieved even for extremely coated corals.

  1. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Xu, A; Galstyan, E; Delgado, L; Cantoni, C

    2015-01-19

    REBa2Cu3Ox ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50K and fields of 2-30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J(c)) above 20 MA/cm(2) at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol.% Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J(c) typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m(3) have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J(c) (ratio of J(c) at 30 K, 3 T to the J(c) at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 x 10(11) cm(-2) as well as 2-3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J(c) films. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  2. Heavily T2-weighted MR myelography vs CT myelography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-F; Lirng, J-F; Fuh, J-L; Hseu, S-S; Wang, S-J

    2009-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Patients with SIH were recruited prospectively, and first underwent MRM and then computed tomographic myelography (CTM). The results of MRM were validated with the gold standard, CTM, focusing on 1) CSF leaks along the nerve roots, 2) epidural CSF collections, and 3) high-cervical (C1-3) retrospinal CSF collections. Comparisons of these 3 findings between the 2 studies were made by kappa statistics and agreement rates. Targeted epidural blood patches (EBPs) were placed at the levels of CSF leaks if supportive treatment failed. Nineteen patients (6 men and 13 women, mean age 37.9 +/- 8.6 years) with SIH completed the study. MRM did not differ from CTM in the detection rates of CSF leaks along the nerve roots (84% vs 74%, p = 0.23), high-cervical retrospinal CSF collections (32% vs 16%, p = 0.13), and epidural CSF collections (89% vs 79%, p = 0.20). MRM demonstrated more spinal levels of CSF leaks (2.2 +/- 1.7 vs 1.5 +/- 1.5, p = 0.011) and epidural collections (12.2 +/- 5.9 vs 7.1 +/- 5.8, p localizing CSF leaks for patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. This noninvasive technique may be an alternative to computed tomographic myelography before targeted epidural blood patches.

  3. Pollination with heavily irradiated pollen in Nicotiana: induced parthenogenesis and embryological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musial, K.; Przywara, L.

    1999-01-01

    Nicotiana crosses were pollinated in situ and in vitro with heavily irradiated pollen (500, 700, 1000 Gy) to induce parthenogenesis and to study the development of embryo and endosperm. Haploids were obtained after in situ pollination only; however, parthenogenetic proembryos occurred also after in vitro pollination. It was demonstrated that ovule culture following pollination offers a better chance to produce haploids than undisturbed pollination does. Pollination with irradiated pollen (PwIP) stron gly decreased the number of endosperm cells and the size of embryo sacs, and it affected the development of embryos; no significant differences between applied irradiation doses were found. Ovules with endosperm only, embryo only, and with both embryo and endosperm were observed. The most frequent were the ovules with endosperm only, the rarest with embryo only. A small amount of storage products occurred in the endosperm cells. The diploid chromosome number counted in the endosperm produced after PwIP points to their origin without fertilization. An interesting phenomenon observed after PwIP was vigorous growth of endothelium. (author)

  4. Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: composition of the microbial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA S. MILIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation, a process that utilizes the capability of microorganism to degrade toxic waste, is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. The technology is very effective in dealing with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The aim of this study was to examine the composition of the microbial consortium during the ex situ experiment of bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products from the Oil Refinery Pančevo, Serbia. After a 5.5-month experiment with biostimulation and bioventilation, the concentration of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH had been reduced from 29.80 to 3.29 g/kg (89 %. In soil, the dominant microorganism population comprised Gram-positive bacteria from actinomycete-Nocardia group. The microorganisms which decompose hydrocarbons were the dominant microbial population at the end of the process, with a share of more than 80 % (range 107 CFU/g. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that a stable microbial community had been formed after initial fluctuations.

  5. Do the VOCs that evaporate from a heavily polluted river threaten the health of riparian residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, Der-Fong; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Chin; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the potential threat of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the health of residents living close to a heavily polluted river, this study investigated the species and the concentration of VOCs evaporating from a river and surveyed the health condition of the nearby residents. Air samples were taken seasonally at the upstream, midstream, and downstream water surfaces of the river, and at different locations at certain distances from the river. These samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through gas chromatography and electron capture detector (GC/ECD) for chlorinated organic compounds, and through gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC/FID) for ordinary hydrocarbons. The health data obtained from valid health questionnaires of 908 residents were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Twenty-six species of VOCs were identified in the environment adjacent the river, many of which are carcinogenic or believed to be carcinogenic to humans. However, results of this study shows that the VOCs evaporating from the polluted river have not been definitively identified as a major factor of cancer in the residents. However, the risk of suffering from certain chronic diseases may increase in residents living less than 225 m away from the river due to the high levels of evaporated VOCs. Residents living less than 225 m away from the river and with nearby specific industries are 3.130 times more at risk of suffering from chronic diseases than those with no nearby specific industries.

  6. The origin of double peak electric field distribution in heavily irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V; Li, Z

    2002-01-01

    The first observation of double peak (DP) electric field distribution in heavily neutron irradiated (>10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2) semiconductor detectors has been published about 6 yr ago. However, this effect was not quantitatively analyzed up to now. The explanation of the DP electric field distribution presented in this paper is based on the properties of radiation induced deep levels in silicon, which act as deep traps, and on the distribution of the thermally generated free carrier concentration in the detector bulk. In the frame of this model, the earlier published considerations on the so-called 'double junction (DJ) effect' are discussed as well. The comparison of the calculated electric field profiles at different temperatures with the experimental ones allows one to determine a set of deep levels. This set of deep levels, and their charge filling status are essential to the value and the distribution of space charge in the space charge region in the range of 305-240 K, which is actual temperature ran...

  7. Quantifying the importance of diffuse minewater pollution in a historically heavily coal mined catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, W.M.; Gozzard, E.; Potter, H.A.B.; Jarvis, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in developing treatment systems for point sources of minewater pollution in recent years; however, there remains a knowledge gap in the characterisation and remediation of diffuse minewater sources. Data are presented from the River Gaunless catchment, a historically heavily coal mined catchment in the northeast of England. Instream iron (Fe) loadings were monitored alongside loadings arising from point minewater discharges over a 12-month period to assess the dynamic importance of diffuse sources of minewater pollution. In low flow, diffuse sources account for around 50% of instream loading, a proportion which increases to 98% in high flow conditions. The low flow sources appear to be dominated by direct discharge of contaminated groundwater to surface waters in lower reaches of the catchment. In high flow, resuspended Fe-rich sediments, which are both naturally occurring and derived from historic mining, become the dominant diffuse source of Fe in the water column. - Diffuse sources of minewater pollution significantly contribute to instream contaminant loadings under varying flow conditions

  8. Road Environments: Impact of Metals on Human Health in Heavily Congested Cities of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiec, Ewa

    2017-06-29

    Road dust as a by-product of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions can be a major cause of systemic oxidative stress and multiple disorders. Substantial amounts of road dust are repeatedly resuspended, in particular at traffic lights and junctions where more braking is involved, causing potential threat to pedestrians, especially children. In order to determine the degree of contamination in the heavily traffic-congested cities of Poland, a total of 148 samples of road dust (RD), sludge from storm drains (SL) and roadside soil (RS) were collected. Sixteen metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in all samples. Chemical evaluation followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that road environments have been severely contaminated with traffic-related elements. Concentration of copper in all road-environment samples is even higher, exceeding even up to 15 times its average concentrations established for the surrounding soils. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment revealed that the hazard index (HI) for children in all road-environment samples exceeds the safe level of 1. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to potential health risks caused by the ingestion of traffic-related particles during outdoor activities.

  9. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Kléber, X. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2015-09-17

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing.

  10. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Kléber, X.; Sauvage, X.; Mari, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing

  11. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren; Lu, Yunhao

    2014-01-01

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B 2 I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition

  12. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn; Yang, Deren [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lu, Yunhao, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-20

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B{sub 2}I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition.

  13. Comparison of the Thermal Degradation of Heavily Nb-Doped and Normal PZT Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Suong; Kang, YunSung; Kang, Inyoung; Lim, SeungMo; Shin, Seung-Joo; Lee, JungWon; Hur, Kang Heon

    2017-03-01

    The degradation of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and two types of PZT thin films were investigated. Undoped PZT, two-step PZT, and heavily Nb-doped PZT (PNZT) around the morphotropic phase boundary were in situ deposited under optimum condition by RF-magnetron sputtering. All 2- [Formula: see text]-thick films had dense perovskite columnar grain structure and self-polarized (100) dominant orientation. PZT thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO x bottom electrode on Si wafer, and PNZT thin film was on Ir/TiW electrode with the help of orientation control. Sputtered PZT films formed on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope and the degradation rates were compared at different temperatures. PNZT showed the best resistance to the thermal degradation, followed by two-step PZT. To clarify the effect of oxygen vacancies on the degradation of the film at high temperature, photoluminescence measurement was conducted, which confirmed that oxygen vacancy rate was the lowest in heavy PNZT. Nb-doping PZT thin films suppressed the oxygen deficit and made high imprint with self-polarization. This defect distribution and high internal field allowed PNZT thin film to make the piezoelectric sensors more stable and reliable at high temperature, such as reflow process of MEMS packaging.

  14. Experiment and simulation on the thermal instability of a heavily deformed Cu-Fe composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Lei; Wang Engang; Zuo Xiaowei; Zhang Lin; He Jicheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Fe fibers undergo thermal instability at temperature above 600 deg. C. → Longitudinal boundary splitting is the dominant instability process. → Instability of cylindrical fibers is controlled by breakup, growth and coarsening. → Breakup times can be predicted by Rayleigh perturbation model accurately. → The increase of fiber diameters is due to the coarsening and growth. - Abstract: The thermal instability of the Fe fibers in the heavily deformed Cu-12.8 wt.%Fe composites is investigated experimentally and numerically. The fiber evolution is characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the dominant instability of the Fe fibers is the longitudinal boundary splitting which is determined by the greater cross sectional aspect ratio (width/thickness, w/t) and the larger ratio of boundary to interfacial energy (γ B /γ S ). The longitudinal boundary splitting makes the ribbon-like Fe fibers evolve into a series of cylindrical fibers. Then the cylindrical Fe fibers undergo the instability process in terms of the breakup, growth and coarsening concurrently. The breakup times are accurately predicted by the Rayleigh perturbation model. The growth process primarily contributes to the higher increasing rate of the fiber radius during isothermal annealing at 700 deg. C than that calculated by the coarsening theory developed for cylindrical fibers, since the Cu-matrix of composites is highly supersaturated after casting/cold-working process.

  15. Thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of heavily doped phosphorus polycrystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birouk, B.; Madi, D. [Universite de Jijel, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Modelisation en Electrotechnique (LAMEL), Cite Ouled Aissa, BP 98, Jijel (Algeria)

    2011-08-15

    The study reported in this paper contributes to better understanding the thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of polycrystalline silicon heavily in situ P-LPCVD films. The deposits, doped at levels 3 x 10{sup 19} and 1.6 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, have been elaborated from silane decomposition (400 mTorrs, 605 C) on monosilicon substrate oriented left angle 111 right angle. The thermal oxidation was performed at temperatures: 850 C during 1 hour, 1000, 1050, and 1100 C during 15 minutes. The XRD spectra analysis pointed out significant left angle 111 right angle texture evolution, while in the case of left angle 220 right angle and left angle 311 right angle textures, the intensities are practically invariant (variations fall in the uncertainty intervals). The optical characterizations showed that refractive index and absorption coefficient are very sensitive to the oxidation treatment, mainly when the doping level is not very high. We think that atomic oxygen acts as defects passivating agent leading to carriers' concentration increasing. Besides, the optical behavior is modeled in visible and near infrared, by a seven-term polynomial function n {sup 2}=f({lambda} {sup 2}), with alternate signs, instead of theoretically unlimited terms number from Drude's model. It has been shown that fitting parameters fall on Gaussian curves like they do in the theoretical model. (orig.)

  16. Heavily-doped 2D-quantized structures and the Einstein relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya P

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing ma...

  17. REVIEW ON SPRAY DRIED SOLID DISPERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Zambre Radhika Ashok, Dr. Shendge R.S, Narode Pravin Ravindra, Sonawane Swapnil Prakash

    2018-01-01

    The drug solubility is the most challenging aspect for the formulation development. The poorly soluble drug has poor dissolution and absorption of drug. The low aqueous solubility of drug is required to formulate the drug into more soluble and hence bioavailable drug product. The different technique is being used to enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. Spray dried solid dispersion of drug is one of the most widely used technology to enhance the solubility of the poorly water ...

  18. Plasma spraying of cerium-doped YAG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kubát, J.; Pala, Zdeněk; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 19 (2014), s. 2344-2351 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.647, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.251

  19. Vapor generator steam drum spray heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasnacht, F.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and cooldown water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure

  20. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  1. Antibacterial characteristics of thermal plasma spray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, M; Saviz, Sh; Ghoranneviss, M; Salar Elahi, A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate antibacterial characteristics of a thermal plasma spray system. For this purpose, copper powder was coated on a handmade atmospheric plasma spraying system made by the stainless steel 316 substrate, which is preheated at different temperatures before spraying. A number of deposition characteristics such as antibacterial characteristics, adhesion strength and hardness of coating, was investigated. All of the spray parameters are fixed except the substrate temperature. The chemical composition was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and back scattering electron microscopy (BSE) were used to show the coating microstructure, its thickness and also the powder micrograph. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to analyze the coating particles. Hardness of the deposition was examined by Vickers tester (HV0.1). Its adhesion strength was declared by cross cut tester (TQC). In addition, the percentage of bactericidal coating was evidenced with Staphylococcus aurous and Escherichia coli bacteria. Study results show that as the substrates temperature increases, the number of splats in the shape of pancake increases, the greatness and percentage of the deposition porosity both decrease. The increment of the substrate temperature leads to more oxidation and makes thicker dendrites on the splat. The enhancement of the substrate temperature also enlarges thickness and efficiency of coating. The interesting results are that antibacterial properties of coatings against the Escherichia coli are more than Staphylococcus aurous bacteria. However the bactericidal percentage of the coatings against Staphylococcus aurous and Escherichia coli bacteria roughly does not change with increasing the substrate temperature. Furthermore, by increment of the substrate temperature, coatings with both high adhesion and hardness are obtained. Accordingly, the temperature of substrate can be an

  2. Planar measurements of spray-induced wall cooling using phosphor thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomirov, Plamen; Mendieta, Aldo; Abram, Christopher; Fond, Benoît; Beyrau, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The wall cooling induced by spray impingement is investigated using phosphor thermometry. Thin coatings of zinc oxide (ZnO) phosphor were applied with a transparent chemical binder onto a steel surface. Instantaneous spatially resolved temperatures were determined using the spectral intensity ratio method directly after the injection of UV-grade hexane onto the surface using a commercial gasoline injector. The investigations showed that 2D temperature measurements with high spatial and shot-to-shot precision of, respectively, 0.5 and 0.6 K can be achieved, allowing the accurate resolution of the cooling induced by the spray. The presence of a liquid film over the phosphor coating during measurements showed no noticeable influence on the measured temperatures. However, in some cases a change in the intensity ratio at the spray impingement area, in the form of a permanent "stain", could be observed after multiple injections. The formation of this stain was less likely with increasing annealing time of the coating as well as lower plate operating temperatures during the injection experiments. Finally, the experimental results indicate a noticeable influence of the thickness of the phosphor coating on the measured spray-induced wall cooling history. Hence, for quantitative analysis, a compromise between coating thickness and measurement accuracy needs to be considered for similar applications where the heat transfer rates are very high.

  3. The role of electric field during spray deposition on fluorine doped tin oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Anuj, E-mail: anujkumarom@gmail.com; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Fluorine doped tin oxide deposition by spray technique. • The growth reaction of tin oxide, controlled by the electric field on the substrate surface. • Deposit on large scale substrate 10 cm × 10 cm by single nozzle. • Obtained good quality of thin film. -- Abstract: The fluorine doped tin oxide film has been deposited on 10 cm × 10 cm glass substrate by using spray technique with a voltage applied between the nozzle and an annular electrode placed 2 mm below the nozzle. The effect of the electric field thus created during the spray deposition on structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2}:F (FTO) film was studied. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the presence of cassiterite structure with (2 0 0) orientation for all the FTO film. SEM study revealed the formation of smooth and uniform surface FTO film under the electric field over the entire substrate area. The electrical measurements show that the film prepared under the electric field (for an applied voltage of 2000 V) had a resistivity ∼1.2 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm, carrier concentration ∼4.21 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} and mobility ∼14.48 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The sprayed FTO film have the average transmission in the visible region of more than about 80%.

  4. Development of process maps for plasma spray: case study for molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath, S.; Jiang, X.; Kulkarni, A.; Matejicek, J.; Gilmore, D.L.; Neiser, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    A schematic representation referred to as 'process maps' examines the role of process variables on the properties of plasma-sprayed coatings. Process maps have been developed for air plasma spraying of molybdenum. Experimental work was done to investigate the importance of such spray parameters as gun current, primary gas flow, auxiliary gas flow, and powder carrier gas flow. In-flight particle temperatures and velocities were measured and diameters estimated in various areas of the spray plume. Empirical models were developed relating the input parameters to the in-flight particle characteristics. Molybdenum splats and coatings were produced at three distinct process conditions identified from the first-order process map experiments. In addition, substrate surface temperature during deposition was treated as a variable. Within the tested range, modulus, hardness and thermal conductivity increases with particle velocity, while oxygen content and porosity decreases. Increasing substrate deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and modulus, while simultaneously increasing coating oxide content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher substrate temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by substrate temperature, although not to a great extent by particle conditions within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high substrate temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in a wear test. The mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context relational maps, which have been proposed

  5. Calculations of condensed moisture escape from a NPP spray pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratuta, Eh. G.; Yaroshenko, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating water losses due to condensed moisture escape with a wind away from a spray pond used for cooling steam turbine condensator water and emergency nuclear reactor cooling is developed. The method is based on solving a three-dimensional equation of single drop motion, assuming that during the whole flight only gravity and aerodynamic resistance forces act on a drop. The basic parameter variation ranges are the following: 0-18 m/s wind velocity, 0.04-0.12 MPa pressure drop at the nozzle output, 1-2 m height of sprayers above the pond mirror. The given method permits to determine both the amount of circulation water loss and the local liquid flow rate distribution pattern as well as the area around the pond receiving the escaped moisture that is necessary for estimating the ecological situation near a NPP

  6. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Yuichi; Monde, Masanori; Hidaka, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m 2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔT sub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔT sub . The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔT sub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔT sub . (author)

  8. Structure of nonevaporating sprays - Measurements and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Shuen, J.-S.; Zhang, Q.-F.; Faeth, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Structure measurements were completed within the dilute portion of axisymmetric nonevaporating sprays (SMD of 30 and 87 microns) injected into a still air environment, including: mean and fluctuating gas velocities and Reynolds stress using laser-Doppler anemometry; mean liquid fluxes using isokinetic sampling; drop sizes using slide impaction; and drop sizes and velocities using multiflash photography. The new measurements were used to evaluate three representative models of sprays: (1) a locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model, where slip between the phases was neglected; (2) a deterministic separated flow (DSF) model, where slip was considered but effects of drop interaction with turbulent fluctuations were ignored; and (3) a stochastic separated flow (SSF) model, where effects of both interphase slip and turbulent fluctuations were considered using random sampling for turbulence properties in conjunction with random-walk computations for drop motion. The LHF and DSF models were unsatisfactory for present test conditions-both underestimating flow widths and the rate of spread of drops. In contrast, the SSF model provided reasonably accurate predictions, including effects of enhanced spreading rates of sprays due to drop dispersion by turbulence, with all empirical parameters fixed from earlier work.

  9. Structure of steam water mixture spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Yuki; Mizutani, Hiroya; Sanada, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    The flow structure of steam and water mixture spray is studied both numerically and experimentally. The velocity and pressure profiles of the single phase flow are calculated using numerical methods. Using calculated flow fields, the droplet behavior is predicted by the one-way interaction model. This numerical analysis clarifies that the droplets are still accelerated after they are sprayed from the nozzle. In the experiments, the spray of the mixture is observed by using ultra high-speed video camera, and the velocity field is measured by using PIV technique. Along with this PIV velocity field measurement, the velocities and diameters of droplets are measured by phase Doppler anemometry. Furthermore, mixing process of steam and water, and atomization process of liquid film are observed through the transparent nozzle. The high-speed photography observation reveals that the flow inside the nozzle forms the annular flow and the most of the liquid film is atomized at the nozzle outlet. Finally, the optimum method of processing mixture of steam and water is proposed. (author)

  10. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  11. Maltodextrin: A consummate carrier for spray-drying of xylooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangqing; Zeng, Xianhai; Fu, Nan; Tang, Xing; Sun, Yong; Lin, Lu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of spray-drying on the powder qualities and microstructures of prebiotic xylooligosaccharides (XOS). The relationships between glass transition temperature (T g ) and XOS retention, moisture content, drying yield as well as specific surface area under different inlet air temperatures and maltodextrin concentrations were investigated. Antioxidant activity retention, hygroscopicity, color attributes, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the spray-dried XOS product were also assessed. The results indicated that an increase in inlet air temperature decreased the moisture content, hence the T g value was increased. Higher maltodextrin concentration increased the T g value, and was attributed to the molecular weight increase. The wall deposition was a tendency to occur when the temperature beyond the T g , reduced the drying yield. Higher temperature and wall deposition promoted the decomposition of XOS into monosaccharide. The crust formation rate of droplets and stickiness of microparticles were affected by T g , and hence, influenced the specific surface area. The antioxidant activity retention of XOS exhibited a concentration-dependent behavior. The hygroscopicity of the microparticles could be reduced by both of the low inlet air temperature and high maltodextrin concentration. According to the results of color attributes, XRD and SEM, the particles were colorless and amorphous, and tended to become more spherical and scattered with the addition of maltodextrin. The FT-IR analysis confirmed that no chemical reaction occurred between XOS and agent, which indicated that maltodextrin is a promising carrier for producing bioactive XOS powder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation of oblique evaporating diesel sprays, and comparison with empirical correlations and simulated straight sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, I.A.; Mirza, M.R.; Rashid, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The innovation in software analysis and various available programming facilities have urged the designers at various levels to do indispensable calculations for engine flows. Presently, the 3-D analysis approach is under practice to do simulations for various parameters involving engine operations using various soft wares, 'Fluent' being the trendiest at the moment for CFD modeling. The present work involves CFD modeling of diesel fuel sprays at a specified angle with cylinder axis. Fuel spray modeling includes sub-models for aerodynamic drag, droplet oscillation and distortion, turbulence effects, droplet breakup, evaporation, and droplet collision and coalescence. The data available from existing published work is used to model the fuel spray and the subsequent simulation results are compared to experimental results to test validity of the proposed models. (author)

  13. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  14. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study: Plasma spray process development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal-barrier coatings to aircraft gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical blade positioner incorporating two interlaced six-degree-of-freedom assemblies; a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem; a microprocessor-based adaptive system controller; and commercial plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage turbine blades specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of + or - 53 micrometers, much better than is achievable manually. Factors limiting this performance were identified and process modifications were initiated accordingly. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were initiated. One of the preliminary evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation.

  15. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum-4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  16. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  17. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  18. Model Stickiness in Spray Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas

    only slightly and then typically moved slightly away before either stopping with contact (sticky) or bouncing with no contact (non-sticky). Sticky particles had a large apparent contact angle, similar to what would be expected for a liquid with poor wetting properties. The velocity did not seem...... to change this much, although slight deformation was seen when the impact velocity was at the highest used values. The phenomenon did not appear to change noticeable when the droplet was dried in a high relative humidity environment. The qualitative difference observable between Teon and stainless steel...... was very limited. On Stainless steel the droplet seemed to wet slightly more after the initial impact while the contact area was constant for Teon. Modelling work was carried out to help understand the phenomenon, but also to investigate how the impact scaled for particle size. This was done using...

  19. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.; Minor, James C.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Rollny, Lisa R.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Kopilovic, Damir; Thon, Susanna; Carey, Graham H.; Chou, Kang Wei; Zhitomirsky, David; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, E. H.

    2014-01-01

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  20. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2014-11-10

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  1. Model of the macrostructure formation of plasma sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedovets, A.G.; Kalita, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    A 3D discrete ballistic model of plasma sprayed coatings structure formation is presented. The effect of a spraying angle on porous macrostructure of coatings is investigated by numerical computations.Computer simulation results as well as experimental data show that at a sputtering angle less than 45 deg the mechanism of surface relief formation is changed and the relief consists of valleys and ridges under such conditions of plasma spraying [ru

  2. Mechanical Properties of Spray Cast 7XXX Series Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of spray deposited and extruded 7xxx series aluminium alloys were investigated in peak aged condition. To study the influence of Zn additions on the mechanical behaviour of spray deposited materials, three alloy compositions were selected, namely: SS70 (11.5% Zn), N707 (10.9% Zn) and 7075 (5.6% Zn). After ageing treatment, notched and unnotched specimens of spray deposited alloys were subjected to tensile tests at room temperature. Experimental results showed...

  3. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Gharahcheshmeh, M. Heydari; Xu, A.; Galstyan, E.; Delgado, L.; Cantoni, C.

    2015-01-01

    REBa 2 Cu 3 O x ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50 K and fields of 2–30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J c ) above 20 MA/cm 2 at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol. % Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba 2 Cu 3 O x superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J c typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m 3 have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J c (ratio of J c at 30 K, 3 T to the J c at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO 3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 × 10 11  cm −2 as well as 2–3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J c films

  4. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ∼ 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Aird, J. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W 120th Street, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Koss, M., E-mail: g.b.lansbury@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2014-04-10

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N {sub H}) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at >10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N {sub H}. (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at >8 keV with a no-source probability of <0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N {sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}). We find that for quasars at z ∼ 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (<10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  5. Oral etoposide in heavily pre-treated metastatic breast cancer: A retrospective series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, G; Milani, A; Ghisoni, E; Genta, S; Mittica, G; Montemurro, F; Valabrega, G

    2018-04-01

    Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) can derive clinical benefit from several subsequent lines of chemotherapy. However, in heavily pre-treated patients, agents with clinical activity, a favourable side effects profile and a convenient administration modality are preferred. We retrospectively analyzed 110 patients with previously treated MBC, who received oral etoposide at the dose of 50 mg/day for 20 days in 28 days cycles, between 2003 and 2017. Because this was not a prospectively planned study, to describe the clinical performance of oral etoposide we adopted the approach suggested by Dzimitrowicz and colleagues (J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34:3511-17); Tumour Response (TR) was defined as the proportion of physician-reported clinical or imaging response; Prolonged Duration on Therapy (PDT) as the proportion of non-progressing patients whose treatment lasted more than 6 months. Furthermore, we evaluated median duration on therapy (TD) and median Overall Survival (OS) by the Kaplan Meier method. The median number of previous chemotherapy lines was 5 (range 2-8). TR, PDT, median TD and median OS were 6.4%, 18.2% 4 (range 3.5-4.5) and 10.6 (range 8.4-12.8) months respectively. Interestingly, etoposide activity was unrelated to the number of previous lines and type of metastatic involvement. Oral etoposide was well tolerated with only two patients discontinuing therapy due to toxicity. In this large, single Institution, real practice analysis oral etoposide is a valuable and safe option for pre-treated metastatic breast cancer patients and might be considered in patients failing other approaches, but still suitable for chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  8. Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

    2013-10-01

    Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.

  9. Suspension plasma sprayed composite coating using amorphous powder feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dianying; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 composite coatings were deposited by the suspension plasma spray process using molecularly mixed amorphous powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the as-sprayed coating is composed of α-Al 2 O 3 and tetragonal ZrO 2 phases with grain sizes of 26 nm and 18 nm, respectively. The as-sprayed coating has 93% density with a hardness of 9.9 GPa. Heat treatment of the as-sprayed coating reveals that the Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 phases are homogeneously distributed in the composite coating

  10. Characteristics of combustion flame sprayed nickel aluminum using a Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar for off-normal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Reid S.

    A novel flame spray collar called the Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar (CSM) has been tested for use on the Sulzer Metco 5P II combustion flame spray gun. A comparison study of the stock nozzle and the CSM has been performed by evaluating the porosity, surface roughness, microhardness, tensile strength and microscopy of normal and off-normal sprayed NiAl deposits. The use of the CSM collar resulted in the need to position the sprayed coupons closer to the gun, which in turn affected the particle impact energy and particle temperatures of the NiAl powder. For the CSM, porosities had a larger scatterband, surface roughness was comparably the same, microhardness was lower, and tensile strength was higher. The microscopy analysis revealed a greater presence of unmelted particles and steeper intersplat boundaries for the CSM. For both processes, the porosity and surface roughness increased and the microhardness decreased as the spray angle decreased.

  11. Evaluation of the use of polymer modified bitumen in the production of high modulus asphalt for heavily-trafficked roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), has been introduced to South Africa to provide an optimum solution for the design and construction of heavily trafficked roads. Implementation of EME technology in South Africa...

  12. The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM–Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probe...

  13. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former

  14. Advances in developing a new test method to assess spray drift potential from air blast sprayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grella, M.; Gil, E.; Balsari, P.; Marucco, P.; Gallart, M.

    2017-07-01

    Drift is one of the most important issues to consider for realising sustainable pesticide sprays. This study proposes and tests an alternative methodology for quantifying the drift potential (DP) of air blast sprayers, trying to avoid the difficulties faced in conducting field trials according to the standard protocol (ISO 22866:2005). For this purpose, an ad hoc test bench designed for DP comparative measurements was used. The proposed methodology was evaluated in terms of robustness, repetitiveness and coherence by arranging a series of trials at two laboratories. Representative orchard and vineyard air blast sprayers in eight configurations (combination of two forward speeds, two air fan flow rates, and two nozzle types) were tested. The test bench was placed perpendicular to the spray track to collect the fraction of spray liquid remaining in the air after the spray process and potentially susceptible to drift out of the treated area. Downwind spray deposition curves were obtained and a new approach was proposed to calculate an index value of the DP estimation that could allow the differences among the tested configurations to be described. Results indicated that forward speed of 1.67 m/s allows better discrimination among configurations tested. Highest DP reduction, over 87.5%, was achieved using the TVI nozzles in combination with low air fan flow rate in both laboratories; conversely, the highest DP value was obtained with the ATR nozzles in combination with high air fan flow rate. Although the proposed method shows a promising potential to evaluate drift potential of different sprayer types and nozzles types used for bush and tree crops further research and tests are necessary to improve and validate this method.

  15. Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, Michele; Grimaldi, Carlo Nazareno

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ► Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ► Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ► Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ► Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

  16. Macroscopic Properties of Hollow Cone Spray Using an Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector in GCI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Penghui

    2016-01-01

    distinction of spray morphology has been noticed. Spray morphology and propagation have shown strong dependencies on ambient pressure and ambient tempera- ture while injection pressure has a negligible effect on spray shape. Increasingly compact and bushier

  17. A new device for vein localization and effect of application of disinfectant spray on its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Jan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A functional device was developed to immediately show the localization of veins by detecting a temperature increase on the skin directly above them. Our new idea, compared to other developments, is the comparison of temperatures between a small, ideally punctiform, skin area, and a larger circularly surrounding area. This is realized by two infrared temperature sensors, one with a small field of view, and the other one with a larger field of view. The position of the vein is indicated by two laser modules, which beams cross in one spot, when the device is held in a defined distance to the skin. If the device is held over a vein, the laser spot lightens up. The device was tested in ten study participants. Cooling of the skin by disinfectant spray prior to the measurements increases the temperature gradient and thereby improves the efficiency of the device. Temperature profiles of four skin areas of each study participant were measured before and one minute after application of disinfectant spray. After application of disinfectant spray, a temperature difference of more than 0.3 K between a measuring point above a vein and points 15 mm next to this could be found in 36 out of 40 measurements (90%, compared to 26 out of 40 (65% before disinfection. The mean temperature gradient could be increased from 0.476 K to 1.03 K (p < 0.001.

  18. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  19. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  20. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  1. Effect of directed-spray glyphosate applications on survival and growth of planted oaks after three growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Josh L. Moree; Rory O. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of acres of oak (Quercus spp.) plantations are established across the South annually. Survival and growth of these plantings have been less than desirable. Several techniques have been utilized in attempts to achieve improved success in these areas. One such technique that has been recommended is the application of directed-spray herbicide...

  2. Effects of spray axis incident angle on heat transfer performance of rhombus-pitch shell-and-tube interior spray evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ru-Li; Chang, Tong-Bou; Liang, Chih-Chang

    2012-01-01

    An interior spray method is proposed for enhancing the heat transfer performance of a compact rhombus-pitch shell-and-tube spray evaporator. The experimental results show that the shell-side heat transfer coefficient obtained using the proposed spray method is significantly higher than that achieved in a conventional flooded-type evaporator. Four different spray axis incident angles (0 .deg., 45 .deg., 60 .deg. and 75 .deg.) are tested in order to investigate the effect of the spray inclination angle on the heat transfer performance of the spray evaporator system. It is shown that the optimal heat transfer performance is obtained using a spray axis incident angle of 60 .deg.

  3. Plasma spraying of refractory metals and refractory hard materials. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.; Lugscheider, E.; Jaeger, D.

    1989-01-01

    Suitable spraying processes for manufacturing refractory metals, refractory hard materials as well as spray materials with refractory components are the VPS- and IPS-spraying techniques. The advantages of these special spraying process variations are described. The reactive spraying materials are systematically organized. The characteristical properties used in purpose of improving the substrate surfaces are explained. Finally some examples of the latest results of research concerning plasma spraying of reactive materials are shown. 16 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  4. Computational sensitivity study of spray dispersion and mixing on the fuel properties in a gas turbine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, Holger; Szász, Robert-Zoltán [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University (Sweden); Cao, Le [Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Fuchs, Laszlo, E-mail: holger.grosshans@uclouvain.be [Department of Mechanics, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-04-15

    A swirl stabilized gas turbine burner has been simulated in order to assess the effects of the fuel properties on spray dispersion and fuel–air mixing. The properties under consideration include fuel surface tension, viscosity and density. The turbulence of the gas phase is modeled applying the methodology of large eddy simulation whereas the dispersed liquid phase is described by Lagrangian particle tracking. The exchange of mass, momentum and energy between the two phases is accounted for by two-way coupling. Bag and stripping breakup regimes are considered for secondary droplet breakup, using the Reitz–Diwakar and the Taylor analogy breakup models. Moreover, a model for droplet evaporation is included. The results reveal a high sensitivity of the spray structure to variations of all investigated parameters. In particular, a decrease in the surface tension or the fuel viscosity, or an increase in the fuel density, lead to less stable liquid structures. As a consequence, smaller droplets are generated and the overall spray surface area increases, leading to faster evaporation and mixing. Furthermore, with the trajectories of the small droplets being strongly influenced by aerodynamic forces (and less by their own inertia), the spray is more affected by the turbulent structures of the gaseous phase and the spray dispersion is enhanced. (paper)

  5. Application of persulfate-oxidation foam spraying as a bioremediation pretreatment for diesel oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajagain, Rishikesh; Lee, Sojin; Jeong, Seung-Woo

    2018-05-15

    This study investigated a persulfate-bioaugmentation serial foam spraying technique to remove total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) present in diesel-contaminated unsaturated soil. Feeding of remedial agents by foam spraying increased the infiltration/unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of reagents into the unsaturated soil. Persulfate mixed with a surfactant solution infiltrated the soil faster than peroxide, resulting in relatively even soil moisture content. Persulfate had a higher soil infiltration tendency, which would facilitate its distribution over a wide soil area, thereby enhancing subsequent biodegradation efficiency. Nearly 80% of soil-TPHs were degraded by combined persulfate-bioaugmentation foam spraying, while bioaugmentation foam spraying alone removed 52%. TPH fraction analysis revealed that the removal rate for the biodegradation recalcitrant fraction (C 18 to C 22 ) in deeper soil regions was higher for persulfate-bioaugmentation serial foam application than for peroxide-bioaugmentation foam application. Persulfate-foam spraying may be superior to peroxide for TPH removal even at a low concentration (50 mN) because persulfate-foam is more permeable, persistent, and does not change soil pH in the subsurface. Although the number of soil microbes declines by oxidation pretreatment, bioaugmentation-foam alters the microbial population exponentially. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative characterization of near-field fuel sprays by multi-orifice direct injection using ultrafast x-tomography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Im, K.S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Hung, D.L.S.; Winkelman, J.R.; Tate, M.W.; Ercan, A.; Koerner, L.J.; Caswell, T.; Chamberlain, D.; Schuette, D.R.; Philipp, H.; Smilgies, D.M.; Gruner, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    A low-pressure direct injection fuel system for spark ignition direct injection engines has been developed, in which a high-turbulence nozzle technology was employed to achieve fine fuel droplet size at a low injection pressure around 2 MPa. It is particularly important to study spray characteristics in the near-nozzle region due to the immediate liquid breakup at the nozzle exit. By using an ultrafast x-ray area detector and intense synchrotron x-ray beams, the interior structure and dynamics of the direct injection gasoline sprays from a multi-orifice turbulence-assisted nozzle were elucidated for the first time in a highly quantitative manner with μs-temporal resolution. Revealed by a newly developed, ultrafast computed x-microtomography technique, many detailed features associated with the transient liquid flows are readily observable in the reconstructed spray. Furthermore, an accurate 3-dimensional fuel density distribution, in the form of fuel volume fraction, was obtained by the time-resolved computed tomography. The time-dependent fuel density distribution revealed that the fuel jet is well broken up immediately at the nozzle exits. These results not only reveal the near-field characteristics of the partial atomized fuel sprays with unprecedented detail, but also facilitate the development of an advanced multi-orifice direct injector. This ultrafast tomography capability also will facilitate the realistic computational fluid dynamic simulations in highly transient and multiphase fuel spray systems.

  7. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  8. PLASMA SPRAYING OF REFRACTORY CERMETS BY THE WATER-STABILIZED SPRAY (WSP®) SYSTEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, V.; Cheong, D.-I.; Chráska, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 241-253 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * cermet coatings * microhardness * zirconium carbide * tungsten Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  9. Cryogen spray cooling: Effects of droplet size and spray density on heat removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkula, B M; Torres, J H; Tunnell, J W; Anvari, B

    2001-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is an effective method to reduce or eliminate non-specific injury to the epidermis during laser treatment of various dermatological disorders. In previous CSC investigations, fuel injectors have been used to deliver the cryogen onto the skin surface. The objective of this study was to examine cryogen atomization and heat removal characteristics of various cryogen delivery devices. Various cryogen delivery device types including fuel injectors, atomizers, and a device currently used in clinical settings were investigated. Cryogen mass was measured at the delivery device output orifice. Cryogen droplet size profiling for various cryogen delivery devices was estimated by optically imaging the droplets in flight. Heat removal for various cryogen delivery devices was estimated over a range of spraying distances by temperature measurements in an skin phantom used in conjunction with an inverse heat conduction model. A substantial range of mass outputs were measured for the cryogen delivery devices while heat removal varied by less than a factor of two. Droplet profiling demonstrated differences in droplet size and spray density. Results of this study show that variation in heat removal by different cryogen delivery devices is modest despite the relatively large difference in cryogen mass output and droplet size. A non-linear relationship between heat removal by various devices and droplet size and spray density was observed. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Preparation of cellulose based microspheres by combining spray coagulating with spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jingquan; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song; Xia, Lin Hua

    2014-10-13

    Porous microspheres of regenerated cellulose with size in range of 1-2 μm and composite microspheres of chitosan coated cellulose with size of 1-3 μm were obtained through a two-step spray-assisted approach. The spray coagulating process must combine with a spray drying step to guarantee the formation of stable microspheres of cellulose. This approach exhibits the following two main virtues. First, the preparation was performed using aqueous solution of cellulose as precursor in the absence of organic solvent and surfactant; Second, neither crosslinking agent nor separated crosslinking process was required for formation of stable microspheres. Moreover, the spray drying step also provided us with the chance to encapsulate guests into the resultant cellulose microspheres. The potential application of the cellulose microspheres acting as drug delivery vector has been studied in two PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) solution with pH values at 4.0 and 7.4 to mimic the environments of stomach and intestine, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spray swath patterns of small aircraft and vertical distribution of microbial spray deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. G. Yendol

    1985-01-01

    Each year in Northeastern United States over 500,000 acres of oak forests are aerially sprayed to prevent massive defoliation by the gypsy moth. In Pennsylvania alone 400,000 acres were proposed for treatment in 1983 with commercial preparation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).

  12. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fan, E-mail: f.li.1@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Pérez-Tomás, Amador [ICN2 – Institut Catala de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Myronov, Maksym [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fisher, Craig [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Leadley, David [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mawby, Phil [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen is fully activated by 1175 °C annealing for 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} doped 3C-SiC. • Free donor concentration is found to readily saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. • 3C-SiC is found to have complete donor thermal ionization above 150 K. • Donor in 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} nitrogen implanted 3C-SiC has an energy level ∼15 meV. • The SiO{sub 2} cap is found to have a bigger influence on low and medium doped samples. - Abstract: A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO{sub 2} layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO{sub 2} cap.

  13. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients with Heavily Pretreated Liver Metastases and Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanciano, Rachelle; Lamond, John; Yang, Jun; Feng, Jing; Arrigo, Steve; Good, Michael; Brady, Luther, E-mail: rlancmd@gmail.com [Philadelphia CyberKnife, Drexel University, Havertown, PA (United States)

    2012-03-09

    We present our initial experience with CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in a heavily pretreated group of patients with liver metastases and primary liver tumors. From October 2007 to June 2009, 48 patients were treated at the Philadelphia CyberKnife Center for liver metastases or primary liver tumors. We report on 30 patients with 41 discrete lesions (1–4 tumors per patient) who received an ablative radiation dose (BED ≥ 79.2 Gy10 = 66 Gy EQD2). The treatment goal was to achieve a high SBRT dose to the liver tumor while sparing at least 700 cc of liver from radiation doses above 15 Gy. Twenty-three patients were treated with SBRT for metastatic cancer to the liver; the remainder (n = 7) were primary liver tumors. Eighty-seven percent of patients had prior systemic chemotherapy with a median 24 months from diagnosis to SBRT; 37% had prior liver directed therapy. Local control was assessed for 28 patients (39 tumors) with 4 months or more follow-up. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 10–40 months), 14/39 (36%) tumors had documented local failure. A decrease in local failure was found with higher doses of SBRT (p = 0.0237); 55% of tumors receiving a BED ≤ 100 Gy10 (10/18) had local failure compared with 19% receiving a BED > 100 Gy10 (4/21). The 2-year actuarial rate of local control for tumors treated with BED > 100 Gy10 was 75% compared to 38% for those patients treated with BED ≤ 100 Gy10 (p = 0.04). At last follow-up, 22/30 patients (73%) had distant progression of disease. Overall, seven patients remain alive with a median survival of 20 months from treatment and 57 months from diagnosis. To date, no patient experienced persistent or severe adverse effects. Despite the heavy pretreatment of these patients, SBRT was well tolerated with excellent local control rates when adequate doses (BED > 100 Gy10) were used. Median survival was limited secondary to development of further metastatic disease in the majority of patients.

  15. Spray deposition of steam treated and functionalized single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotube films for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xin; Chu, Bryan T T; Johnston, Colin; Sykes, John M; Grant, Patrick S; Ballesteros, Belen; Wang Weiliang

    2009-01-01

    Steam purified, carboxylic and ester functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) films with homogeneous distribution and flexible control of thickness and area were fabricated on polymeric and metallic substrates using a modified spray deposition technique. By employing a pre-sprayed polyelectrolyte, the adhesion of the carbon nanotube (CNT) films to the substrates was significantly enhanced by electrostatic interaction. Carboxylic and ester functionalization improved electrochemical performance when immersed in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 and the specific capacitance reached 155 and 77 F g -1 for carboxylic functionalized SWNT and MWNT films respectively. Compared with existing techniques such as hot pressing, vacuum filtration and dip coating, the ambient pressure spray deposition technique is suggested as particularly well suited for preparing CNT films at large scale for applications including providing electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors and paper batteries.

  16. Nickel–copper hybrid electrodes self-adhered onto a silicon wafer by supersonic cold-spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kang, Byungjun; Kim, Donghwan; Song, Hee-eun; Kim, Jooyoung; Jung, Woonsuk; Lee, Dukhaeng; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; James, Scott C.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2015-01-01

    High-performance electrodes are fabricated through supersonic spraying of nickel and copper particles. These electrodes yield low specific resistivities, comparable to electrodes produced by screen-printed silver paste and light-induced plating. The appeal of this fabrication method is the low cost of copper and large area scalability of supersonic spray-coating techniques. The copper and nickel electrode was fabricated in the open air without any pre- or post-treatment. The spray-coated copper–nickel electrode was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Although both SEM and TEM images confirmed voids trapped between flattened particles in the fabricated electrode, this electrode’s resistivity was order 10 −6 Ω cm, which is comparable to the bulk value for pure copper

  17. Nanostructure of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, E.I.; Klechkovskaya, V.V.; Bobrovsky, V.V.; Khamchukov, Yu.D.; Klubovich, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings were studied by high-resolution transmission microscopy, microdiffraction, and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Coatings were prepared by spraying hydroxyapatite targets onto copper, nickel, and chromium substrates and onto NaCl and BaF 2 single crystals in an argon plasma at a gas pressure of ∼1 Pa; the sputter power was about 200 W; and the RF-generator frequency was 13.56 MHz. Under the conditions used, thin layers of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite were formed regardless of the nature of the substrate

  18. Annual budget of Gd and related Rare Earth Elements in a river basin heavily disturbed by anthropogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Guignard, Cédric; François Iffly, Jean; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The real environmental impact of micropollutants in river systems can be difficult to assess, essentially due to uncertainties in the estimation of the relative significance of both anthropogenic and natural sources. The natural geochemical background is characterized by important variations at global, regional or local scales. Moreover, elements currently considered to be undisturbed by human activities and used as tracers of continental crust derived material have become more and more involved in industrial or agricultural processes. The global production of lanthanides (REE), used in industry, medicine and agriculture, for instance, has increased exponentially from a few tons in 1950 to projected 185 kt in 2015. Consequently, these new anthropogenic contributions impact the natural cycle of the REE. Gd and related REE are now worldwide recognized as emergent micropollutants in river systems. Nevertheless, there is still a gap concerning their temporal dynamics in rivers and especially the quantification of both the anthropogenic and natural contributions in surface water. The acquisition of such quantitative information is of primordial interest because elements from both origins may present different bioavailability and toxicity levels. Working at the river basin scale allows for quantifying micropollutant fluxes. For this reason, we monitored water quality and discharge of the Alzette River (Luxembourg, Europe) over two complete hydrological cycles (2010-2013). The substantial contamination, is principally due to the steel industry in the basin, which has been active from 1875 until now, and to the related increase of urban areas. The particulate and dissolved fractions of river water were monitored using a multitracer approach (standard parameters for water quality including REE concentrations, Pb, Sr, Nd radiogenic isotopes) with two sampling setups (bi-weekly and flood event based sampling). This extensive sampling design allowed quantifying the annual

  19. Fabrication of polymer/cadmium sulfide hybrid solar cells [P3HT:CdS and PCPDTBT:CdS] by spray deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neetesh; Dutta, Viresh

    2014-11-15

    This paper investigates fabrication of surfactant free CdS nanoparticles (NPs) and application in the fabrication of P3HT:CdS and PCPDTBT:CdS bulk-heterojunction hybrid solar cells using high-throughput, large-area, low cost spray deposition technique. Both the hybrid active layers and hole transport layers are deposited by spray technique. The CdS/Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and CdS/Poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) hybrid devices are fabricated by spray deposition process at optimized conditions (i.e. film thickness, spray solution volume, distance between sample and spray nozzle, substrate temperature, etc.). The power conversion efficiency of η=0.6% and 1.02% is obtained for P3HT:CdS and PCPDTBT:CdS hybrid devices, respectively. Spray coating holds significant promise as a technique capable of fabricating large-area, high performance hybrid solar cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  1. Agricultural sprays in cross-flow and drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, M.; Balachandar, R.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai

    2001-01-01

    The droplet size and velocity characteristics of an agricultural spray were studied in a wind tunnel in the presence of a non-uniform cross-flow. The spray was generated at three nozzle-operating pressures. The droplet size and velocity was measured in both the cross-flow direction and the vertical...

  2. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this

  3. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  4. Production of amorphous starch powders by solution spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad B. K.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The spray drying of starch/maltodextrin formulations was evaluated as a potential technology for the manufacturing of amorphous thermoplastic starches. Mixtures of starches with high to low amylose (Am)amylopectin (Ap) ratios were spray-dried from water-based solutions and granular dispersions. The

  5. 9 CFR 590.540 - Spray process drying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying facilities. 590.540 Section 590.540 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.540 Spray process drying facilities. (a) Driers shall be of a...

  6. The preparation of steatite suspension for spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirousek, L.; Spicak, K.

    1983-01-01

    Liquifying agents were investigated for preparation of highly concentrated steatite suspensions which are to be spray-dried. Organic additives for improving the molding properties and strength of green compacts are described. Demands on properties of the spray-dried granules are defined with regard to shrinkage of the molded compacts.

  7. Assessment of spray deposition with water-sensitive paper cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial distributions of spray droplets discharged from an airblast sprayer, were sampled on pairs of absorbent paper (AP) and water-sensitive paper (WSP) targets at several distances from the sprayer. Spray solutions, containing a fluorescent tracer, were discharged from two size nozzles to achiev...

  8. Tableting properties of an improved spray-dried lactose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassu, G.; Eissens, A. C.; Bolhuis, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Spray-dried lactose is one of the most widely used filler-binders for direct compaction. The compactibility is a function of both primary particle size and the presence of amorphous lactose. Commercially available spray-dried lactose contains 15-20% amorphous lactose and 80-85% alpha-lactose

  9. Comparison of the CAS-POL and IOM samplers for determining the knockdown efficiencies of water sprays on float coal dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Clara E; Shahan, Michael R; Beck, Timothy W; Mischler, Steven E

    2018-03-01

    Float coal dust, generated by mining operations, is distributed throughout mine airways by ventilating air designed to purge gases and respirable dust. Float coal dust poses an explosion hazard in the event of a methane ignition. Current regulation requires the application of inert rock dust in areas subjected to float coal dust in order to mitigate the hazard. An alternate method using water sprays, which have been effective in controlling respirable dust hazards, has been proposed as a way to control float coal dust generated on longwall faces. However, the knockdown efficiency of the proposed water sprays on float coal dust needs to be verified. This study used gravimetric isokinetic Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) samplers alongside a real-time aerosol monitor (Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with polarization; CAS-POL) to study the effects of spray type, operating pressure, and spray orientation on knockdown efficiencies for seven different water sprays. Because the CAS-POL has not been used to study mining dust, the CAS-POL measurements were validated with respect to the IOM samplers. This study found that the CAS-POL was able to resolve the same trends measured by the IOM samplers, while providing additional knockdown information for specific particle size ranges and locations in the test area. In addition, the CAS-POL data was not prone to the same process errors, which may occur due to the handling of the IOM filter media, and was able to provide a faster analysis of the data after testing. This study also determined that pressure was the leading design criteria influencing spray knockdown efficiency, with spray type also having some effect and orientation having little to no effect. The results of this study will be used to design future full-scale float coal dust capture tests involving multiple sprays, which will be evaluated using the CAS-POL.

  10. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  11. The Influence of Shaping Air Pressure of Pneumatic Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhuo; Chen, Yan; Pan, Haiwei; Zhang, Weiming; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The shaping air pressure is a very important parameter in the application of pneumatic spray gun, and studying its influence on spray flow field and film thickness distribution has practical values. In this paper, Euler-Lagrangian method is adopted to describe the two-phase spray flow of pneumatic painting process, and the air flow fields, spray patterns and dynamic film thickness distributions were obtained with the help of the computational fluid dynamics code—ANSYS Fluent. Results show that with the increase of the shaping air pressure, the air phase flow field spreads in the plane perpendicular to the shaping air hole plane, the spray pattern becomes narrower and flatter, and the width of the dynamic film increases with the reduced maximum value of the film thickness. But the film thickness distribution seems to change little with the shaping air pressure decreasing from 0.6bar to 0.9bar.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  13. Unit thermal performance of atmospheric spray cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.W.; Jain, M.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal performance of an open atmospheric spray pond or canal depends on the direct-contact evaporative cooling of an individual spray unit (spray nozzle or module) and the interference caused by local heating and humidification. Droplet parameters may be combined into a dimensionless group, number of transfer units (NTU) or equivalent, whereas large-scale air-vapor dynamics determine interference through the local wet-bulb temperature. Quantity NTU were implied from field experiments for a floating module used in steam-condenser spray canals. Previous data were available for a fixed-pipe nozzle assembly used in spray ponds. Quantity NTU were also predicted using the Ranz-Marshall correlations with the Sauter-mean diameter used as the characteristic length. Good agreement with experiments was shown for diameters of 1--1.1 cm (module) and 1.9 mm

  14. [Investigation on Spray Drying Technology of Auricularia auricular Extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Chen, Hui; Xie, Yuan; Chen, Peng; Wang, Luo-lin

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of spray drying technology of Auricularia auricular extract and its optimum process. On the basis of single factor test, with the yield of dry extract and the content of polysaccharide as indexes, orthogonal test method was used to optimize the spray drying technology on the inlet air temperature, injection speed and crude drug content. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography(TLC) and pharmacodynamics as indicators, extracts prepared by traditional alcohol precipitation drying process and spray drying process were compared. Compared with the traditional preparation method, the extract prepared by spray drying had little differences from the polysaccharide content, TLC and the function of reducing TG and TC, and its optimum technology condition were as follows: The inlet air temperature was 180 °C, injection speed was 10 ml/min and crude drugs content was 0. 4 g/mL. Auricularia auricular extract by spray drying technology is stable and feasible with high economic benefit.

  15. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application

  16. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus casei by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rebeka Cristiane Silva; Finkler, Leandro; Finkler, Christine Lamenha Luna

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of spray drying to produce microparticles of Lactobacillus casei. Microorganism was cultivated in shaken flasks and the microencapsulation process was performed using a laboratory-scale spray dryer. A rotational central composite design was employed to optimise the drying conditions. High cell viability (1.1 × 10(10) CFU/g) was achieved using an inlet air temperature of 70 °C and 25% (w/v) of maltodextrin. Microparticles presented values of solubility, wettability, water activity, hygroscopicity and humidity corresponding to 97.03 ± 0.04%, 100% (in 1.16 min), 0.14 ± 0.0, 35.20 g H2O/100 g and 4.80 ± 0.43%, respectively. The microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and thermally stable. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. casei during storage. After 60 days, the samples stored at -8 °C showed viable cell concentrations of 1.0 × 10(9) CFU/g.

  17. Vacuum-plasma-sprayed silicon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Bancke, G.A.; Burchell, T.D.; Romanoski, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying produces well-bonded dense stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this study, silicon metal was deposited on graphite to study the feasibility of preventing corrosion and oxidation of graphite components for nuclear reactors. Operating parameters were varied in a Taguchi design of experiments to display the range of the plasma processing conditions and their effect on the measured coating characteristics. The coating attributes evaluated were thickness, porosity, microhardness and phase content. This paper discusses the influence of the processing parameters on as-sprayed coating qualities. The paper also discusses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere. The diffraction spectrum for a sample that experienced a 1600degC temperature cycle indicated that more than 99% of the coating transformed to β-SiC. The silicon coatings protected the graphite substrates from oxidation in one experiment. (orig.)

  18. Spray-on transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    Transdermal drug delivery possesses superior advantages over other routes of administration, particularly minimizing first-pass metabolism. Transdermal drug delivery is challenged by the barrier nature of skin. Numerous technologies have been developed to overcome the relatively low skin permeability, including spray-on transdermal systems. A transdermal spray-on system (TSS) usually consists of a solution containing the drug, a volatile solvent and in many cases a chemical penetration enhancer. TSS promotes drug delivery via the complex interplay between solvent evaporation and drug-solvent drag into skin. The volatile solvent carries the drug into the upper layers of the stratum corneum, and as the volatile solvent evaporates, an increase in the thermodynamic activity of the drug occurs resulting in an increased drug loading in skin. TSS is easily applied, delivering flexible drug dosage and associated with lower incidence of skin irritation. TSS provides a fast-drying product where the volatile solvent enables uniform drug distribution with minimal vehicle deposition on skin. TSS ensures precise dose administration that is aesthetically appealing and eliminates concerns of residual drug associated with transdermal patches. Furthermore, it provides a better alternative to traditional transdermal products due to ease of product development and manufacturing.

  19. Impact Response of Thermally Sprayed Metal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Hall, A. C.; Moore, N. W.; Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Scherzinger, W. M.; Brown, D. W.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the impact response of tantalum specimens that were additively manufactured using a controlled thermal spray deposition process. Velocity interferometer (VISAR) diagnostics provided time-resolved measurements of sample response under one-dimensional (i . e . , uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging between 1 and 4 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, and high-pressure yield strength of the thermally deposited samples for comparison to published baseline results for conventionally wrought tantalum. The effects of composition, porosity, and microstructure (e . g . , grain/splat size and morphology) are assessed to explain differences in the dynamic mechanical behavior of spray-deposited versus conventional material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Spray pond design for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.; Asce, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a complex methodology for assessing the performance of spray ponds in ultimate heat sink service at nuclear power plants. A spray pond performance model, developed in the companion paper, is used in conjunction with on-site and off-site meteorological data to predict the highest temperature and greatest 30 day water loss which can reasonable be expected to occur during the lifetime of the plant. The performance model for heat and mass transfer is used to develop an efficient phenomenological model used to scan the long-term meteorological records. Refined estimates of temperature or water loss may then be based on more complicated models if necessary. Short-term onsite data are correlated to the long-term off-site data to formulate correction factors for the difference in location. Cumulative distribution functions for temperature and water loss are determined from the long-term meteorological records to predict the occurrence of these quantities which are less severe that the peak. The methodology is demonstrated using data and parameters from the Palo Verde nuclear plant as an example

  1. Characteristics of droplet motion in effervescent sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedelský Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Time resolved droplet size and velocity measurement was made using Phase-Doppler anemometry in an effervescent spray at GLR of 6 % and operation pressure drops 21 – 52 kPa. The spray shows a size dependent variation of mean as well as fluctuating axial and radial velocities of droplets similarly for all operation regimes. Particles under 13 μm follow the gas flow, axially decelerated due to gas expansion. Velocity of medium sized particles is positively size correlated and larger particles keep high velocity, given them during discharge. Fluctuating radial velocity of small particles is larger than that of large particles while fluctuating axial velocity increases with size. Small particles thus reach a ratio of radial to axial velocity fluctuations ~ 0.6 but large particles only ~ 0.1, which indicates large transverse dispersion of small particles. Overall fluctuating velocity ratios smaller than 0.5 document an anisotropic character of the liquid mass fluctuations. Power spectral density (PSD of axial velocity fluctuations of large droplets is uniform up to 1 kHz, while PSD of smaller particles drops down with frequency for frequencies > 100 Hz. Large particles thus preserve the fluctuations imposed during discharge while the gas turbulence drops with frequency. Turbulence intensity reaches 14 to 21 % depending on pressure. Such high-turbulence character of the flow probably results from a heterogeneous gas–liquid mixture at the discharge.

  2. Characteristics of droplet motion in effervescent sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedelský, Jan; Zaremba, Matouš; Malý, Milan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    Time resolved droplet size and velocity measurement was made using Phase-Doppler anemometry in an effervescent spray at GLR of 6 % and operation pressure drops 21 - 52 kPa. The spray shows a size dependent variation of mean as well as fluctuating axial and radial velocities of droplets similarly for all operation regimes. Particles under 13 μm follow the gas flow, axially decelerated due to gas expansion. Velocity of medium sized particles is positively size correlated and larger particles keep high velocity, given them during discharge. Fluctuating radial velocity of small particles is larger than that of large particles while fluctuating axial velocity increases with size. Small particles thus reach a ratio of radial to axial velocity fluctuations ~ 0.6 but large particles only ~ 0.1, which indicates large transverse dispersion of small particles. Overall fluctuating velocity ratios smaller than 0.5 document an anisotropic character of the liquid mass fluctuations. Power spectral density (PSD) of axial velocity fluctuations of large droplets is uniform up to 1 kHz, while PSD of smaller particles drops down with frequency for frequencies > 100 Hz. Large particles thus preserve the fluctuations imposed during discharge while the gas turbulence drops with frequency. Turbulence intensity reaches 14 to 21 % depending on pressure. Such high-turbulence character of the flow probably results from a heterogeneous gas-liquid mixture at the discharge.

  3. Fractal analysis of agricultural nozzles spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Agüera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fractal scaling of the exponential type is used to establish the cumulative volume (V distribution applied through agricultural spray nozzles in size x droplets, smaller than the characteristic size X. From exponent d, we deduced the fractal dimension (Df which measures the degree of irregularity of the medium. This property is known as 'self-similarity'. Assuming that the droplet set from a spray nozzle is self-similar, the objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for calculating a Df factor associated with a given nozzle and to determine regression coefficients in order to predict droplet spectra factors from a nozzle, taking into account its own Df and pressure operating. Based on the iterated function system, we developed an algorithm to relate nozzle types to a particular value of Df. Four nozzles and five operating pressure droplet size characteristics were measured using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA. The data input consisted of droplet size spectra factors derived from these measurements. Estimated Df values showed dependence on nozzle type and independence of operating pressure. We developed an exponential model based on the Df to enable us to predict droplet size spectra factors. Significant coefficients of determination were found for the fitted model. This model could prove useful as a means of comparing the behavior of nozzles which only differ in not measurable geometric parameters and it can predict droplet spectra factors of a nozzle operating under different pressures from data measured only in extreme work pressures.

  4. Molybdenum disilicide composites produced by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.; Bartlett, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    The intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2 ) is being considered for high temperature structural applications because of its high melting point and superior oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. The lack of high temperature strength, creep resistance and low temperature ductility has hindered its progress for structural applications. Plasma spraying of coatings and structural components of MoSi 2 -based composites offers an exciting processing alternative to conventional powder processing methods due to superior flexibility and the ability to tailor properties. Laminate, discontinuous and in situ reinforced composites have been produced with secondary reinforcements of Ta, Al 2 O 3 , SiC, Si 3 N 4 and Mo 5 Si 3 . Laminate composites, in particular, have been shown to improve the damage tolerance of MoSi 2 during high temperature melting operations. A review of research which as been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory on plasma spraying of MoSi 2 -based composites to improve low temperature fracture toughness, thermal shock resistance, high temperature strength and creep resistance will be discussed

  5. Deposition characteristics of copper particles on roughened substrates through kinetic spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Bae, Gyuyeol; Lee, Changhee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic study of copper particle deposition behavior on polished and roughened surfaces (aluminum and copper) in kinetic spray process has been performed. The particle deformation behavior was simulated through finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS explicit 6.7-2. The particle-substrate contact time, contact temperature and contact area upon impact have been estimated for smooth and three different roughened substrate cases. Copper powders were deposited on smooth and grit-blasted copper and aluminium substrates and characterized through scanning electron microscopy and Romulus bond strength analyzer. The results indicate that the deformation and the resultant bonding were higher for the roughened substrates than that of smooth. The characteristic factors for bonding are reported and discussed. Thus the substrate roughness appears to be beneficial for the initial deposition efficiency of the kinetic spray process.

  6. High-power electronics thermal management with intermittent multijet sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panão, Miguel R.O.; Correia, André M.; Moreira, António L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal management plays a crucial role in the development of high-power electronics devices, e.g. in electric vehicles. The greatest energy demands occur during power peaks, implying dynamic thermal losses within the vehicle’s driving cycle. Therefore, the need for devising intelligent thermal management systems able to efficiently respond to these power peaks has become a technological challenge. Experiments have been performed with methanol in order to quantify the maximum heat flux removed by a multijet spray to keep the 4 cm 2 surface temperature stabilized and below the threshold of 125 °C. A multijet atomization strategy consists in producing a spray through the multiple and simultaneous impact of N j cylindrical jets. Moreover, the spray intermittency is expressed through the duty cycle (DC), which depends on the frequency and duration of injection. Results evidence that: i) a shorter time between consecutive injection cycles enables a better distribution of the mass flow rate, resulting in larger heat transfer coefficient values, as well as higher cooling efficiencies; ii) compared with continuous sprays, the analysis evidences that an intermittent spray allows benefiting more from phase-change convection. Moreover, the mass flux is mainly affecting heat transfer rather than differences induced in the spray structure by using different multijet configurations. - Highlights: ► Intermittent spray cooling (ISC) is advantageous for intelligent thermal management. ► Distributing the mass flow rate through ISC improves heat transfer. ► Multijet sprays with increasing number of jets have higher heat transfer rates. ► ISC with multijet sprays benefit more from phase-change than continuous sprays.

  7. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying to produce an influenza subunit vaccine powder for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Amorij, J-P.; Kapteyn, J. C.; de Boer, A. H.; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate two different processes to produce a stable influenza subunit vaccine powder for pulmonary immunization i.e. spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). The formulations were analyzed by proteolytic assay, single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID),

  8. Spray layer-by-layer films based on phospholipid vesicles aiming sensing application via e-tongue system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, P.H.B.; Volpati, D.; Cabrera, F.C.; Trombini, V.L.; Riul, A.; Constantino, C.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique via spraying (spray-LbL) has been applied as new and alternative methodology to fabricate ultrathin films due to its versatility in relation to the conventional dipping-LbL method, mainly in terms of faster layer deposition and larger coated area. In this work, the possibility of immobilizing vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG) phospholipid onto alternating layers of the polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) using the spray-LbL method was investigated, being the results compared to the conventional dipping-LbL method. The growth of (PAH/DPPG) n spray-LbL films was systematically monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy, revealing a linear increase of the absorbance vs deposited layers. In relation to a possible electrostatic interaction between the groups PO 4 − (DPPG) and NH 3 + (PAH), it was observed through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy that the spectrum recorded for the spray-LbL film is basically a simple superposition of the FTIR spectra from PAH and DPPG casting films. The latter indicates a weak interaction between both materials, differently of the trend observed for (PAH/DPPG) n grown via dipping-LbL method. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of spray-LbL films showed evidences that the DPPG vesicles present in the aqueous dispersion are not destroyed when submitted to pressure conditions during the spray deposition. However, comparing to dipping-LbL, the DPPG vesicles do not cover completely the PAH layer for the spray-LbL film, which was further confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. Moreover, the AFM analysis showed that the spray-LbL deposition led to thicker PAH/DPPG bilayers in average than via dipping-LbL for the same concentrations of PAH solution and DPPG dispersion, which is consistent with QCM and UV–vis absorption results. PAH/DPPG films deposited by

  9. Theoretical investigation of the heavily-doped semiconductor aspect of ultra-dilute GaAsN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukpitak, Jessada; Sa-yakanit, Virulh

    2015-12-01

    The model of GaAs1- y N y ( y = 0.001) as a heavily-doped semiconductor in the ultra-dilute region is attentively examined. The model enables GaAsN to be viewed as a disordered assembly of three-dimensional quantum dots (potential wells) caused by random potential fluctuations from nitrogen pairs in the system. Consequently, Feynman's path-integration technique is applied in order to quantify the density of states (DOS) in the vicinity of the conduction band edge. The obtained DOS tail, even though overestimated, still clearly shows a much shorter tail than that the experimental result does. This shows that the heavily-doped semiconductor viewpoint is not proper for GaAsN, not even in the ultra-dilute region. Furthermore, this also suggests that the impurity wave function overlap is not a basic mechanism of band gap reduction.

  10. Predominance of heavily calcified coccolithophores at low CaCO3 saturation during winter in the Bay of Biscay

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen E. K.; Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Dumousseaud, Cynthia; Legge, Oliver J.; Birchenough, Sarah; Pettit, Laura R.; Garley, Rebecca; Hartman, Sue E.; Hartman, Mark C.; Sagoo, Navjit; Daniels, Chris J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Hydes, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Coccolithophores are an important component of the Earth system, and, as calcifiers, their possible susceptibility to ocean acidification is of major concern. Laboratory studies at enhanced pCO2 levels have produced divergent results without overall consensus. However, it has been predicted from these studies that, although calcification may not be depressed in all species, acidification will produce “a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores” [Ridgwell A,...

  11. Stereoselective, nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascades for the direct synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Jakubec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A versatile nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade for the direct stereoselective synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles has been developed. A highly enantioenriched substituted 5-nitropiperidin-2-one was synthesised in a four component one-pot reaction combining an enantioselective organocatalytic Michael addition with the diastereoselective nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade. Protodenitration and chemoselective reductive manipulation of the heterocycles was used to install contiguous and fully substituted stereocentres in the synthesis of substituted piperidines.

  12. Comparison of the Characteristics and Performance of Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg Spray for Sore Throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Shephard, Adrian; Adams, Verity; Lidster, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Sore throat sprays provide targeted relief by delivering the active ingredient directly to the site of pain. Different sprays vary in characteristics, thus affecting delivery of the active ingredient to the throat, which can impact compliance. The characteristics and performance of FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY were compared with 12 other sprays. Parameters assessed included spray angle and pattern, droplet size distribution, shot weight uniformity and shot weight throughout life. Among all sprays tested WICK Sulagil Halsspray had the smallest spray angle (46°) and also the smallest diameter spray pattern (X=32.8 mm; Y=34.4 mm). Thiovalone® Buccal Spray Suspension had both the largest spray angle (82°) and largest diameter spray pattern (X=62.6 mm; Y=78.0 mm). Hasco Sept® Aerosol Spray had the smallest droplet size (Dv90=118.4 μm) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray had the largest (Dv90=214.34 μm). In terms of shot weight uniformity, TANTUM® VERDE GOLA 0.25% spray showed the least variation (2% RSD) between shots and UNIBEN Aerosol Spray the most (23.4% RSD). Shot weight throughout life studies showed that FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the least deviation from shot weight (1.77%) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray deviated the most (44.9%). FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the second smallest spray angle/pattern and droplet size distribution and also the least variation in shot weight. Different sore throat sprays vary in different attributes, affecting delivery of the active ingredient. FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY performed well overall, ranking first among all sprays tested, and providing a dose which is targeted and uniformly delivered throughout the life of the bottle. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P; Montavon, G; Lima, R S; Marple, B R

    2011-01-01

    From the pioneering works of McPherson in 1973 who identified nanometre-sized features in thermal spray conventional alumina coatings (using sprayed particles in the tens of micrometres size range) to the most recent and most advanced work aimed at manufacturing nanostructured coatings from nanometre-sized feedstock particles, the thermal spray community has been involved with nanometre-sized features and feedstock for more than 30 years. Both the development of feedstock (especially through cryo-milling, and processes able to manufacture coatings structured at the sub-micrometre or nanometre sizes, such as micrometre-sized agglomerates made of nanometre-sized particles for feedstock) and the emergence of thermal spray processes such as suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques have been driven by the need to manufacture coatings with enhanced properties. These techniques result in two different types of coatings: on the one hand, those with a so-called bimodal structure having nanometre-sized zones embedded within micrometre ones, for which the spray process is similar to that of conventional coatings and on the other hand, sub-micrometre or nanostructured coatings achieved by suspension or solution spraying. Compared with suspension spraying, solution precursor spraying uses molecularly mixed precursors as liquids, avoiding a separate processing route for the preparation of powders and enabling the synthesis of a wide range of oxide powders and coatings. Such coatings are intended for use in various applications ranging from improved thermal barrier layers and wear-resistant surfaces to thin solid electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell systems, among other numerous applications. Meanwhile these processes are more complex to operate since they are more sensitive to parameter variations compared with conventional thermal spray processes. Progress in this area has resulted from the unique combination of modelling activities, the evolution of

  14. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Montavon, G.; Lima, R. S.; Marple, B. R.

    2011-03-01

    From the pioneering works of McPherson in 1973 who identified nanometre-sized features in thermal spray conventional alumina coatings (using sprayed particles in the tens of micrometres size range) to the most recent and most advanced work aimed at manufacturing nanostructured coatings from nanometre-sized feedstock particles, the thermal spray community has been involved with nanometre-sized features and feedstock for more than 30 years. Both the development of feedstock (especially through cryo-milling, and processes able to manufacture coatings structured at the sub-micrometre or nanometre sizes, such as micrometre-sized agglomerates made of nanometre-sized particles for feedstock) and the emergence of thermal spray processes such as suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques have been driven by the need to manufacture coatings with enhanced properties. These techniques result in two different types of coatings: on the one hand, those with a so-called bimodal structure having nanometre-sized zones embedded within micrometre ones, for which the spray process is similar to that of conventional coatings and on the other hand, sub-micrometre or nanostructured coatings achieved by suspension or solution spraying. Compared with suspension spraying, solution precursor spraying uses molecularly mixed precursors as liquids, avoiding a separate processing route for the preparation of powders and enabling the synthesis of a wide range of oxide powders and coatings. Such coatings are intended for use in various applications ranging from improved thermal barrier layers and wear-resistant surfaces to thin solid electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell systems, among other numerous applications. Meanwhile these processes are more complex to operate since they are more sensitive to parameter variations compared with conventional thermal spray processes. Progress in this area has resulted from the unique combination of modelling activities, the evolution of

  15. An evaluation of the electric arc spray and (HPPS) processes for the manufacturing of high power plasma spraying MCrAIY coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacriste, D.; Goubot, N.; Dhers, J.; Ducos, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2001-06-01

    The high power plasma torch (PlazJet) can be used to spray refractory ceramics with high spray rates and deposition efficiency. It can provide dense and hard coating with high bond strengths. When manufacturing thermal barrier coatings, the PlazJet gun is well adapted to spraying the ceramic top coat but not the MCrAIY materials that are used as bond coat. Arc spraying can compete with plasma spraying for metallic coatings since cored wires can be used to spray alloys and composites. In addition, the high production rate of arc spraying enables a significant decrease in coating cost. This paper discusses the performances of the PlazJet gun, and a twin-wire are spray system, and compares the properties and cost of MCrAIY coatings made with these two processes. For arc spraying, the use of air or nitrogen as atomizing gas is also investigated.

  16. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  17. Vision-aided Monitoring and Control of Thermal Spray, Spray Forming, and Welding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, John E.; Bolstad, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Vision is one of the most powerful forms of non-contact sensing for monitoring and control of manufacturing processes. However, processes involving an arc plasma or flame such as welding or thermal spraying pose particularly challenging problems to conventional vision sensing and processing techniques. The arc or plasma is not typically limited to a single spectral region and thus cannot be easily filtered out optically. This paper presents an innovative vision sensing system that uses intense stroboscopic illumination to overpower the arc light and produce a video image that is free of arc light or glare and dedicated image processing and analysis schemes that can enhance the video images or extract features of interest and produce quantitative process measures which can be used for process monitoring and control. Results of two SBIR programs sponsored by NASA and DOE and focusing on the application of this innovative vision sensing and processing technology to thermal spraying and welding process monitoring and control are discussed.

  18. Melt extrusion vs. spray drying: The effect of processing methods on crystalline content of naproxen-povidone formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haser, Abbe; Cao, Tu; Lubach, Joe; Listro, Tony; Acquarulo, Larry; Zhang, Feng

    2017-05-01

    Our hypothesis is that melt extrusion is a more suitable processing method than spray drying to prepare amorphous solid dispersions of drugs with a high crystallization tendency. Naproxen-povidone K25 was used as the model system in this study. Naproxen-povidone K25 solid dispersions at 30% and 60% drug loadings were characterized by modulated DSC, powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, and solid-state 13 C NMR to identify phase separation and drug recrystallization during processing and storage. At 30% drug loading, hydrogen bond (H-bond) sites of povidone K25 were not saturated and the glass transition (T g ) temperature of the formulation was higher. As a result, both melt-extruded and spray-dried materials were amorphous initially and remained so after storage at 40°C. At 60% drug loading, H-bond sites were saturated, and T g was low. We were not able to prepare amorphous materials. The initial crystallinity of the formulations was 0.4%±0.2% and 5.6%±0.6%, and increased to 2.7%±0.3% and 21.6%±1.0% for melt-extruded and spray-dried materials, respectively. Spray-dried material was more susceptible to re-crystallization during processing, due to the high diffusivity of naproxen molecules in the formulation matrix and lack of kinetic stabilization from polymer solution. A larger number of crystalline nucleation sites and high surface area made the spray-dried material more susceptible to recrystallization during storage. This study demonstrated the unique advantages of melt extrusion over spray drying for the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions of naproxen at high drug level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental investigation of spray characteristics of alternative aviation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical properties of GTL fuel are different from those of conventional jet fuels. • Spray characteristics of GTL and Jet A-1 fuels are experimentally investigated using phase Doppler anemometry. • Regions near the nozzle are influenced by differences in fuel physical properties. • Spray characteristics of GTL can be predicted by empirical relations developed for conventional jet fuels. - Abstract: Synthetic fuels derived from non-oil feedstock are gaining importance due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. This work investigates spray characteristics of two Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) synthetic jet fuels from a pilot-scale pressure swirl nozzle and compares them with those of the conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The microscopic spray parameters are measured at 0.3 and 0.9 MPa injection pressures at several points in the spray using phase Doppler anemometry. The results show that the effect of fuel physical properties on the spray characteristics is predominantly evident in the regions close to the nozzle exit at the higher injection pressure. The lower viscosity and surface tension of GTL fuel seems to lead to faster disintegration and dispersion of the droplets when compared to those of Jet A-1 fuel under atmospheric conditions. Although the global characteristics of the fuels are similar, the effects of fuel properties are evident on the local spray characteristics at the higher injection pressure

  20. Skin Sterility After Application of a Vapocoolant Spray Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Karolina; Lyahn, Hwang; Richards, Bryson; Schleicher, William; Bassiri Gharb, Bahar; Procop, Gary; Tuohy, Marion; Zins, James

    2015-08-01

    Refrigerant sprays have been used for pain relief at the time of minor office procedures. However, their sterility remains in question. This study investigates the microbiologic effect of this vapocoolant when sprayed after 70 % isopropyl alcohol skin preparation. In 50 healthy volunteers, three skin culture samples were collected: Group 1 prior to alcohol application; Group 2 after preparation with alcohol, and Group 3 after preparation with alcohol followed with vapocoolant spray. Samples were cultured in a blinded fashion and analyzed after 5 days of incubation. Gram staining was performed when cultures were positive. Bacterial growth was found in 98 % of samples prior to any skin preparation. This was reduced to 54 % after alcohol use (Group 2). Spraying with the skin refrigerant further reduced bacterial growth to 46 % (Group 3). The results showed a significant reduction in the number of positive bacterial cultures following skin preparation with alcohol and when alcohol prep was followed by vapocoolant spray (p < 0.001) compared to initial cultures. No statistical difference was observed between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.74). The use of the vapocoolant spray does not compromise the sterility of the skin following alcohol prep. Both 70 % isopropyl alcohol antiseptic preparation and skin preparation followed by vapocoolant spray significantly reduce skin colonization when compared to unprepared skin (p < 0.001).