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Sample records for heavily pretreated patients

  1. Gemcitabine and capecitabine for heavily pre-treated metastatic colorectal cancer patients

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    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and gemcitabin (GemCap) in heavily pre-treated, therapy-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients and the clinical importance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) measurement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients' inclusion criteria included...... histopathologically-verified mCRC refractory to standard chemotherapy, adequate organ function and performance status. Treatment included capecitabine (2,000 mg/m(2) day on days 1-7 q2w) and gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) on day 1). The number of DNA alleles was measured in pre-treatment plasma samples using an in......-house developed qPCR. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients were included in the study. GemCap was well-tolerated in the majority of patients. Disease control rate was 30%, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by intention-to-treat were 2.7 (95%CI=2.6-2.8) and 6.8 (95%CI=5.0-7.7) months. Median...

  2. Efficacy and safety of palbociclib in heavily pretreated patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer.

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    Ban, Marija; Miše, Branka Petrić; Majić, Ana; Dražić, Ivanka; Vrdoljak, Eduard

    2017-11-22

    CDK4/6 inhibitors in the first and second treatment line in patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in combination with hormonal therapy improve progression free survival. Role of CDK4/6 inhibitors in further treatment lines remains unclear. Retrospective analysis of 24 HR+/HER2- heavily pretreated mBC patients is presented. A total of 58.3% patients achieved stable disease. No objective response was observed. Median progression free survival was 4.8 months; median overall survival was 11 months. Treatment was well tolerated. Favorable toxicity profile and efficacy of palbociclib/aromatase inhibitors (AI) combination in heavily pretreated luminal mBC patients in this study emphasize the need for further investigation of such drugs in this population.

  3. Treatment inferred from mutations identified using massive parallel sequencing leads to clinical benefit in some heavily pretreated cancer patients.

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    Zick, Aviad; Peretz, Tamar; Lotem, Michal; Hubert, Ayala; Katz, Daniela; Temper, Mark; Rottenberg, Yakir; Uziely, Beatrice; Nechushtan, Hovav; Meirovitz, Amichai; Sonnenblick, Amir; Sapir, Eli; Edelman, David; Goldberg, Yael; Lossos, Alexander; Rosenberg, Shai; Fried, Iris; Finklstein, Ruth; Pikarsky, Eli; Goldshmidt, Hanoch

    2017-05-01

    Molecular portraits of numerous tumors have flooded oncologists with vast amounts of data. In parallel, effective inhibitors of central pathways have shown great clinical benefit. Together, this promises potential clinical benefits to otherwise end-stage cancer patients. Here, we report a clinical service offering mutation detection of archived samples using the ion Ampliseq cancer panel coupled with clinical consultation.A multidisciplinary think tank consisting of oncologists, molecular-biologists, genetic counselors, and pathologists discussed 67 heavily pretreated, advanced cancer patient cases, taking into account mutations identified using ion Ampliseq cancer panel, medical history, and relevant literature.The team generated a treatment plan, targeting specific mutations, for 41 out of 64 cases. Three patients died before results were available. For 32 patients, the treating oncologists chose not to include the panel recommendation in the treatment plan for various reasons. Nine patients were treated as recommended by the panel, 5 with clinical benefit, and 4 with disease progression.This study suggests that routine use of massive parallel tumor sequencing is feasible and can judiciously affect treatment decisions when coupled with multidisciplinary team-based decision making. Administration of personalized based therapies at an earlier stage of disease, expansion of genetic alterations examined, and increased availability of targeted therapies may lead to further improvement in the clinical outcome of metastatic cancer patients.

  4. Carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with heavily pretreated multiple myeloma: A phase 1 study in Japan.

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    Suzuki, Kenshi; Ri, Masaki; Chou, Takaaki; Sugiura, Isamu; Takezako, Naoki; Sunami, Kazutaka; Ishida, Tadao; Izumi, Tohru; Ozaki, Shuji; Shumiya, Yoshihisa; Ota, Kenji; Iida, Shinsuke

    2017-03-01

    This is the first study in which the carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) regimen was evaluated in heavily pretreated multiple myeloma. This study is a multicenter, open-label phase 1 study of KRd in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients. The objectives were to evaluate the safety, tolerability, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the regimen. Carfilzomib was administrated intravenously over 10 min on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15 and 16 of a 28-day cycle. In cycle 1, the dosage for days 1 and 2 was 20 mg/m(2) , followed by 27 mg/m(2) . Lenalidomide and dexamethasone were administered at 25 mg (days 1-21) and 40 mg (days 1, 8, 15 and 22), respectively. Twenty-six patients were enrolled. Patients had received a median of four prior regimens and 88.5% and 61.5% received previous bortezomib and lenalidomide, respectively. High-risk cytogenetics were seen in 53.8% of patients. The overall response rate was 88.5%. A higher rate of hyperglycemia was observed than in a previous carfilzomib monotherapy study, but this was attributed to dexamethasone. Carfilzomib pharmacokinetics were not affected by lenalidomide and dexamethasone. The KRd regimen was well tolerated and showed efficacy in Japanese RRMM patients. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. Dual Inhibition of EGFR and VEGF in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

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    Larsen, Finn Ole; Markussen, Alice; Nielsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining irinotecan, bevacizumab, and cetuximab/panitumumab as a 4th-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods: All patients had KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer and had previously...... received fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and cetuximab/panitumumab in a 1st, 2nd, and 3rd line setting. Most patients had previously received bevacizumab as well. All patients had progressed within 3 months after the last given treatment before starting the triple combination therapy every...... second week. Results: Sixty-three patients were evaluated. The triple combination therapy was well tolerated. The median progression-free survival was 6.1 months, and the median overall survival was 11.9 months. Four patients (6%) obtained a partial response, and 40 (63%) had stable disease. Conclusion...

  6. Clinical efficacy of daratumumab monotherapy in patients with heavily pretreated relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma

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    Usmani, Saad Z; Weiss, Brendan M; Plesner, Torben

    2016-01-01

    relapsed after or were refractory to ≥2 prior therapies and a phase 2 study of patients previously treated with ≥3 prior lines of therapy (including a proteasome inhibitor [PI] and immunomodulatory drug [IMiD]) or were double refractory. Among the pooled population, patients received a median (range) of 5...... (2-14) prior lines of therapy, and 86.5% were double refractory to a PI and IMID. Overall response rate was 31.1%, including 13 very good partial responses, 4 complete responses, and 3 stringent complete responses. The median duration of response was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-not...

  7. Topotecan Monotherapy in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Progressive Advanced Stage Neuroendocrine Carcinomas

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    Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich; Federspiel, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    neuroendocrine carcinomas (Ki67>20%, G3) successively treated with oral topotecan 2.3 mg/m(2) d1-5 every 3 weeks. All patients had previously received treatment with carboplatin/etoposide. Demographic, clinical and pathological features were recorded. CT-evaluations according to RECIST 1.1 were performed after...

  8. A case series of low dose bevacizumab and chemotherapy in heavily pretreated patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Carlotta Defferrari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy prolongs progression free survival in the first line treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, but its cost/effectiveness is debated. We assessed the safety and activity of a lower dose of bevacizumab in pretreated advanced stage EOC. Methods We treated 15 patients, mostly with platinum resistant EOC, who had received a median of four prior cytotoxic regimens, with bevacizumab 5–7.5 mg/kg q21 days in combination with either carboplatin (n = 8, oral cyclofosfamide (n = 5 or weekly paclitaxel (n = 2. Bevacizumab was administered until disease progression. Tumor response was assessed by CA125 and fusion 18 F-FDG PET/contrast enhanced CT. Results The median number of bevacizumab cycles was 21 (range 3–59. The median baseline CA125 was 272 U/ml and decreased to 15.2 U/ml at nadir. Tumor response was 4 complete response (CR (26.7% and 7 partial response (PR (46.7% by chemotherapy (CT, with an overall response rate of 73.4% (95% CI, 51.0 – 95.8 according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST, and 6 CR (40% and 4 PR (26.7% by PET, for an overall metabolic response rate of 67% (95%CI, 42.8 – 90.6 according to PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST. Median progression free survival (PFS was 21 months and median overall survival (OS was 24 months. Grade 3 adverse events related to bevacizumab were hypertension (n = 2, proteinuria (n = 1 and epistaxis (n = 5. Treatment was delayed in five patients for nasal bleeding or uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusions Low-dose bevacizumab and chemotherapy was well tolerated and active in a heavily pretreated population of advanced EOC. Further studies should assess the activity of low dose bevacizumab in EOC.

  9. Raltitrexed combined with bevacizumab in heavily pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer

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    Ke Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No standard chemotherapy regimen has been established for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC after progression on 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan. Here, we report the combination of raltitrexed and bevacizumab as a salvage regimen for the treatment of three heavily pretreated patients with KRAS mutant mCRC. All three patients had stable disease (SD according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST criteria, progression free survival (PFS were 3.0, 3.2 months for the first two patients and have not been reached for over 5 months for the third patient and no severe adverse effect was observed. The combination of raltitrexed plus bevacizumab in mCRC seems worthy of further investigation.

  10. Bevacizumab Demonstrates Prolonged Disease Stabilization in Patients with Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Agostino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are now a variety of therapies approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC. These include the immunotherapeutics, alfa-interferon, and interleukin-2, and agents that target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR via its tyrosine kinase, such as sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib, or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, such as temsirolimus and everolimus. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the ligand, VEGF, has shown activity against RCC as a single agent in patients who had failed prior cytokine therapy and as first line therapy in combination with interferon. The activity of bevacizumab in patients who had received and failed prior therapy has not been described. We report our experience in 4 patients with metastatic RCC who had failed prior cytokine, TKI, and mTOR inhibitors who were treated with bevacizumab as single agent therapy. These heavily pretreated patients sustained very prolonged periods of stable disease (median of 12 months with very little toxicity and excellent quality of life. The activity of this agent in patients who had failed prior therapies directed against the VEGFR and mTOR suggests that therapy targeting the ligand, VEGF, is still a viable approach in these patients and deserves further study.

  11. Preliminary phase II results of selinexor, an oral selective inhibitor of nuclear export in patients with heavily pretreated gynecological cancers

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    Vergote, Ignace; Lund, Bente; Havsteen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding resection of the primary tumour with few or absent symptoms in patients with synchronous unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). A potential benefit of resection of the primary tumour is to prevent complications of the primary tumour in later s...

  12. Radiation therapy is an effective modality in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma, even in heavily pretreated patients.

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    Haque, Waqar; Voong, K Ranh; Shihadeh, Ferial; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Mazloom, Ali; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Romaguera, Jorge; Rodriguez, Alma; Wang, Michael; Allen, Pamela; Dabaja, Bouthaina

    2014-12-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma has an aggressive clinical course and continuous relapse pattern with a median survival of 3 to 7 years. Multiple courses of chemotherapy are the basis of treatment. Radiotherapy is underutilized in this disease. We undertook this study to assess the role of radiation therapy. A total of 41 consecutive patients with mantle cell lymphoma diagnosed from December, 1999 to January, 2010 who received radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The main endpoint was in-field lymphoma response at each irradiated disease site. There were 39 evaluable patients (68 symptomatic sites). Sites treated included: nodal stations (n = 31), soft tissue (n = 13), mucosal sites (n = 11), central nervous system (n = 10), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), and bone (n = 1). Median maximum tumor size at presentation was 3.5 cm (range, 1.3 cm-9.6 cm). The median dose of radiation was 30.6 Gy (range 18-40 Gy). Median follow-up post radiation per site was 12.3 months (range, 0.6-80.9 months). Response to treatment was complete in 47 sites (69.1%), partial in 16 sites (23.5%), and 5 sites (7.4%) had stable disease. In 9 (13.2%) sites local relapse occurred (median 7 months; range 2-21). The mean size of lymphoma at time of RT correlated with relapse, with tumors with local relapse larger than those without a local relapse (P = .005). Our data add to accumulating evidence that mantle cell lymphoma is a radio-sensitive disease with excellent responses to relatively low radiation doses, even in patients with chemo-refractory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preference of elderly patients' to oral or intravenous chemotherapy in heavily pre-treated recurrent ovarian cancer: final results of a prospective multicenter trial.

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    Chekerov, Radoslav; Harter, Philipp; Fuxius, Stefan; Hanker, Lars Christian; Woelber, Linn; Müller, Lothar; Klare, Peter; Abenhardt, Wolfgang; Nedkova, Yoana; Yalcinkaya, Isil; Heinrich, Georg; Sommer, Harald; Mahner, Sven; Wimberger, Pauline; Koensgen-Mustea, Dominique; Richter, Rolf; Oskay-Oezcelik, Gülten; Sehouli, Jalid

    2017-01-01

    Palliative systemic treatment in elderly gynaecological cancer patients remains a major challenge. In recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), treosulfan an active alkylating drug showed similar cytotoxicity whether as oral (p.o.) or intravenous (i.v.) application. The aim of this innovative trial was to evaluate the preference of elderly patients (≥65 years) for p.o. or i.v. chemotherapy focusing compliance, outcome, toxicities, and geriatric aspects as secondary endpoints. Patients with ROC had the free choice between treosulfan i.v. (7000 mg/m 2 d1, q29d) or p.o. (600 mg/m 2 daily d1-28, q57d). Only indecisive participants were randomized. Overall 123 patients with 2 nd to 5 th recurrence were registered and 119 received at least one cycle of chemotherapy. 85.7% preferred treosulfan i.v. and 14.3% oral, where only three patients were randomized. Main reasons for i.v. preference associated with individual expectations of lower rate of gastrointestinal disorders, higher activity and tolerability of treatment. Median of applied chemotherapies was three (range 1-12 cycles), with most common grade 3/4 toxicities thrombopenia (18.7%), leukopenia (15.7%), ascites (7.6%), bowel obstruction (6.7%), and abdominal pain (4.2%). Median time until progression/overall survival was 5.2/7.8 months (i.v.), and 5.6/10.4 months (p.o.), respectively, without significant differences in efficacy. Elderly patients with recurrent ovarian cancer asked and demonstrated active participation in the decision-making process of their oncological treatment and favoured predominantly the i.v. application. Treosulfan was generally well-tolerated despite comorbidities and heavy pre-treatment. Our study demonstrates that patients' preference did not influence prognosis negatively and remains important in gynaecologic oncology decision practice. 2004-000719-25; NCT 00170690.

  14. Docetaxel monotherapy in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer: a multicenter, community-based feasibility trial.

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    Schmidinger, M; Budinsky, A C; Wenzel, C; Locker, G J; Pluschnig, U; Brodowicz, T; Kubista, E; Maca, S; Zabernigg, A; Ilsinger, P; Seewann, L; Hojas, S; Blach, M; Zielinski, C C; Steger, G G

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of docetaxel in heavily pretreated and anthracycline-resistant patients with metastatic breast cancer in an outpatient setting. Between February 1996 and June 1998, 98 consecutive patients who had progressed during or relapsed following prior anthracycline-containing chemotherapy were enrolled into the trial. Docetaxel was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m2 by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks. The administration of colony-stimulating factors was at the discretion of the attending physician. Premedication with dexamethasone was mandatory for all patients. Of the 98 patients, 93 were evaluable for toxicity and response. Patients had received two palliative regimens (median, range 1-5) prior to docetaxel treatment. The most frequent toxicity observed was leukopenia grade III and IV (WHO grading system) which occurred in 47% of patients (grade IV only in 14%). Except for alopecia grade III (64% of patients), nonhematologic side effects grade III-IV were rare (1-7% of patients) and included nausea, stomatitis, diarrhea, peripheral neuropathy, fluid retention and pulmonary toxicities. There were no treatment-related deaths. Objective responses occurred in 40% of patients (CR 6%, PR 34%), and stable disease in 38% of patients. The median duration of response was 5.3 months (range 0.7-18.1 months) while the median survival was 15 months (range 2 36 months). Docetaxel is a highly active agent in patients with anthracycline-resistant metastatic breast cancer, even in heavily pretreated patients, with moderate toxicity.

  15. Biweekly Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (Caelyx) in Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Phase 2 Study.

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    Jehn, Christian F; Hemmati, Philipp; Lehenbauer-Dehm, Silvia; Kümmel, Sherko; Flath, Bernd; Schmid, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has shown to be as effective as conventional doxorubicin in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer but provides a lower risk of cardiotoxicity. This phase 2 study in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer was initiated to evaluate a biweekly instead of a 4-week schedule of PLD in order to obtain a more flexible and tolerable regimen. A total of 25 patients with 2 or more prior lines of chemotherapy for metastatic disease were treated with PLD (25 mg/m2) at 2-week intervals for a maximum of 12 courses. Pretreatment with anthracyclines was allowed as long as the cumulative doxorubicin dose at study entry was below 400 mg/m2. Most patients were pretreated with anthracyclines, taxanes, vinorelbine, alkylating agents, and capecitabine. The clinical benefit rate, ie, objective response or stable disease, for at least 6 months was 22.7% for all patients and 22.2% in anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated patients, respectively. Median duration of clinical benefit and median time to progression were 12.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-32.3) and 7 weeks (95% CI, 5.4-8.6), respectively. Median overall survival was 9.6 months (95% CI, 5.4-13.9). One- and 2-year survival rates were 38% and 4%, respectively. Myelosuppression was low, with no grade 3 or 4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Most common nonhematologic toxicities were nausea, alopecia, asthenia, and hand-foot syndrome. The low rate of hematologic toxicity and hand-foot syndrome is clinically noteworthy. Biweekly PLD is an easily manageable schedule with a favorable toxicity profile. Efficacy was moderate in heavily pretreated patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Augmented CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD56(-) cells in cytokine-induced killer cells cultured with engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement from heavily pretreated patients with solid tumor.

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    Wang, Lili; Yi, Yongxiang; Yin, Dandan; Zhou, Zhenxian; Fan, Jing; Ye, Wei; Zhao, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs) were shown to be a promising tool in the quest for new therapeutic approaches in the setting of metastatic solid tumors refractory to standard treatments. However, there is a practical clinical problem of different expansion rates and cell function as individual variability exists. Stimulatory molecular 4-1BB could promote division and survival of T cells and enhance effector activity including cytokine production. This study aimed to invest the contribution of co-stimulation signal to CIKs production for exploring new strategies, which increase the expansion and reliability of CIKs generation to improve access to CIKs therapy. We studied the larger-scale expansion of CIKs cultured with engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement (ECCE) consisting of K562 cells that expressed 4-1BBL in heavily pretreated patients with solid tumor. The proliferation and cytotoxic capacity of CIKs were evaluated. Phenotypes of CIKs were analyzed using flow cytometry. Cytokine levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proliferation and cytotoxic activity of CIKs were significantly up-regulated by ECCE. The percentages of CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD56(-) CIKs were significantly increased while the percentage of CD3(+)CD56(+) CIKs was decreased. In addition, the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α by CIKs could also be enhanced significantly when ECCE were added into the culture system. This study suggests that ECCE may improve the efficacy of CIKs therapy and make CIKs therapy possible for the patients whose CIKs would be hard to be cultured using conventional methods. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radium-223 in Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

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    Modi, Dipenkumar; Hwang, Clara; Mamdani, Hirva; Kim, Seongho; Gayar, Hesham; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Joyrich, Richard; Heath, Elisabeth I

    2016-10-01

    Radium-223 is a bone-targeting radiopharmaceutical that extends survival in mCRPC. Postapproval data are limited, and the value of biochemical and radiologic monitoring during radium therapy is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study of 29 patients with mCRPC who received radium-223 at 1 of 3 participating institutions between August 2013 and December 2014. Trend of PSA, radiographic changes, and association of biochemical and clinical variables with PSA trend were measured. The median age of patients was 70 years, 79% of patients (N = 23) were European Americans, and 17% of patients (N = 5) were African Americans. Twenty patients (69%) had received at least 3 lines of prior therapies. Some 38% of patients (N = 11) received all 6 cycles of radium-223. Twenty patients (69%) had an increase in PSA during radium therapy, and 4 patients (14%) had a decline in PSA levels. Five patients had visceral metastases on computed tomography imaging performed during the course of radium-223. Radium therapy in mCRPC was associated with an increase in PSA in the majority of these heavily pretreated patients. The development of visceral disease was not uncommon, suggesting a need for follow-up computed tomography monitoring during radium-223 therapy. The significance of early increases in PSA and pain with radium-223 is still uncertain. Although pain and PSA flare have been reported in patients who subsequently have a dramatic response to therapy, we observed that a PSA increase or pain flare correlates to an improvement in bone scans only in a minority of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A phase II study of irofulven in women with recurrent and heavily pretreated ovarian cancer.

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    Seiden, Michael V; Gordon, Alan N; Bodurka, Diane C; Matulonis, Ursula A; Penson, Richard T; Reed, Eddie; Alberts, Dave S; Weems, Garry; Cullen, Michael; McGuire, William P

    2006-04-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of a novel illudin S derivative, irofulven (MGI-114), in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who had received extensive prior chemotherapy. The trial was an open label phase II study. Patients initially enrolled in this study were treated every 14 days with a dose of 24 mg/m2. Unexpected retinal toxicity associated with this dose and schedule lead to modification of the dosing to 0.55 mg/kg on the same schedule with a maximum individual dose of 50 mg. Dose reductions were permitted based on both hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities. Seventy-four women were accrued and stratified into two cohorts including 58 women with platinum-resistant disease and 16 with platinum-sensitive disease. Non-hematologic toxicities included nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. Thirty-one women had between one and six visual symptoms, most were Grade 1 and 2 in nature. The majority of visual toxicities resolved either during treatment or post-treatment with irofulven. There was one partial response in each cohort with 19 (33%) and 8 (50%) of women having stable disease in the platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive cohorts, respectively. Irofulven at 24 mg/m2 on every 14-day schedule is associated with significant retinal toxicity in this patient population. Dosing at 0.55 mg/kg has persistent retinal toxicity, yet demonstrated only limited anti-tumor activity in a population of women who had received extensive prior chemotherapy.

  19. [Potentially inappropriate prescription according to the "STOPP" Criteria in heavily polymedicated elderly patients].

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    Terán-Álvarez, L; González-García, M J; Rivero-Pérez, A L; Alonso-Lorenzo, J C; Tarrazo-Suárez, J A

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate prescribing is especially relevant in elderly people. The objective of this study is to analyse the potentially inappropriate prescription (PIP) in heavily polymedicated elderly patients according to the criteria Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Primary Care on patients assigned to the Siero-Sariego (Asturias) Health Centre, who were over 64 years old and heavily polymedicated (consumption >10 drugs for six months). The 65 Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions criteria were reviewed in the electronic Primary Care patient records, collecting sociodemographic variables, prescribed medications, and chronic diseases. Frequency distributions were made for each criterion, and causes related to PIP were explored using contingency tables, the Spearman correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. A total of 349 polymedicated elderly patients were analysed with a prevalence of 6.4 (95% CI:5.76-7.08), a mean age of 79.2 years (SD:3.7), 62.2% were female, 14% institutionalised, a Charlson index of 2.9. The mean of number of drugs was 11.5 (SD:1.7), and the most frequent pathologies were high blood pressure (64%), diabetes (46%), and osteoarticular diseases (41%). There was at least one PIP in 72.9% of heavily polymedicated elderly patients [(Mean: 1.32 (SD:1.2)]. The Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions criteria least complied with were: therapeutic duplication (25.2%), use of long-acting benzodiazepines (15.8%), and inappropriate use of aspirin (10.9%). An association was found between having any inappropriate prescription and the number of medications prescribed (OR=1.22 [95% CI:1.04-1.43]) and inversely to the Charlson index (OR=0.76 [95% CI:0.65-0.89]). PIP is common in heavily polymedicated elderly patients. Special attention must be paid to the use of psychotropic drugs, which are implicated in a high volume of PIP. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de

  20. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as third- or later-line therapy in patients with heavily treated metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Q

    2015-09-01

    , patients with a primary colon tumor might have had a longer overall survival than patients with a primary rectal tumor (18.8 months vs 11.1 months, respectively; P=0.037. Common chemotherapy-related toxicities were nausea/vomiting (48.6%, fatigue (34.3%, leucopenia (40%, neutropenia (42.9%, and anemia (42.9%, with one patient with grade 3 neutropenia, and two patients with grade 3 thrombocytopenia. The common bevacizumab-associated toxicity was hypertension (31.4%. None of the patients discontinued therapy or died because of bevacizumab-associated toxicities.Conclusion: Our data showed that adding bevacizumab to third- or later-line therapy might lead to tumor control and improved survival in heavily pretreated mCRC patients. In addition, preliminary data suggested that primary colon cancer was more likely to benefit from bevacizumab-containing regimens. Toxicities were acceptable, and no new toxicity was identified. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.Keywords: bevacizumab, chemotherapy, metastatic colorectal cancer

  1. Peptichemio in pretreated patients with plasmacell neoplasms.

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    Paccagnella, A; Salvagno, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Bolzonella, S; De Besi, P; Frizzarin, M; Pappagallo, G L; Fosser, V P; Fornasiero, A; Segati, R

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-one patients with alkylator-resistant plasmacell neoplasms were treated with Peptichemio (PTC) at a dose of 40 mg/m2 for 3 days every 3 weeks or, in the case of persistent leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia, at the single dose of 70 mg/m2 every 2-3 weeks according to haematological recovery. Seventeen patients, 10 with multiple myeloma and seven with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), were fully evaluable. Six of 17 patients (35%) responded: three of seven EMP patients had a complete remission and 3 of 10 multiple myeloma patients had an objective response greater than 50%. The median duration of response was 8.5 months. An EMP patient obtained a complete response lasting for 16 months. The most frequent toxic effect were phlebosclerosis, occurring in all the patients, and myelosuppression, which was severe in only one case. PTC appears to be an active drug in patients with plasmacell neoplasms even if resistant to alkylating agents.

  2. Successful Chemotherapy with Nab-Paclitaxel in a Heavily Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient: A Case Report

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    Mikiko Ishihara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for the majority of all lung cancers. A 69-year-old female with postoperatively recurrent NSCLC was treated weekly with nanoparticle-albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel monotherapy every 4 weeks as a tenth line chemotherapy, and stable disease was achieved by seven cycles of this regimen. The patient developed grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 leukopenia, but none of the other toxicities, including febrile neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy, were severe, and thus she was able to tolerate this salvage chemotherapy. To our knowledge this is the first report of the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in a heavily treated NSCLC patient.

  3. Nelfinavir and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Salvage Regimes in Heavily Hiv Pretreated Patients

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    Jean-Guy Baril

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of nelfinavir mesylate (NFV in combination with delavirdine mesylate(DLV or efavirenz (EFV and other antiretroviral agents following virological failure on other protease inhibitor (PI-based regimens.

  4. Pretreatment circulating monocyte count associated with poor prognosis in patients with oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Duan; Wang, Chao-Ping; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lin, Li-Wen; Hwang, Tzer-Zen; Lu, Li-Fen; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Chung, Fu-Mei; Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the pretreatment total and differential leukocyte counts can predict the prognosis of patients with oral cavity cancer. In a retrospective analysis of patients treated between 2004 and 2011, medical records of 202 patients with oral cavity cancer were evaluated. Patients with oral cavity cancer, the peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) count, monocyte, and neutrophil counts and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio increased with the advancement of clinical stage. In contrast, the lymphocyte count decreased. Further, total WBC, monocyte, and neutrophil counts were increased in those with pathologic stage T4 and poor tumor differentiation, and the monocyte count was also increased in those with lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the pretreatment circulating monocyte count was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival. A higher pretreatment circulating monocyte count can be considered as a useful prognostic marker in patients with oral cavity cancer. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pretreatment with ACE inhibitors improves acute outcome of electrical cardioversion in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Veldhuisen Dirk J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent atrial fibrillation (AF is difficult to treat. In the absence of class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs sinus rhythm is maintained in only 30% of patients during the first year after electrical cardioversion (ECV. One of the remodeling processes induced by AF is fibrosis, which relates to inducibility and maintenance of AF. The renin-angiotensin system may play a important role in this. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor use on efficacy of ECV, and occurrence of subacute recurrences. Methods One hundred-seven consecutive patients with persistent AF underwent ECV. In twenty-eight (26% patients ACE inhibitors had been started before initiation of the present episode of AF ('pre-treated' patients. Results ECV was successful in 96% of patients who were on ACE inhibitors before start of the present episode of AF compared to 80% of the patients not pre-treated (p = 0.04. After 1 month of follow-up 49% of the pre-treated patients and 50% of those not pre-treated with ACE inhibition were still in sinus rhythm (p=ns. Multivariate analysis showed that pre-treatment with ACE inhibitors and a smaller left atrial size were independent predictors of successful ECV (OR = 5.8, C.I. 1.3–26.1, and OR = 5.6, C.I. 1.2–25.3, respectively. Conclusions Pre-treatment with ACE inhibitors may improve acute success of ECV but does not prevend AF recurrences.

  6. Combination of phenotype assessments and CYP2C9-VKORC1 polymorphisms in the determination of warfarin dose requirements in heavily medicated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, V; Vanier, M-C; Brouillette, D; Roy, D; Verret, L; Noel, N; Taillon, I; O'Hara, G; Gossard, D; Champagne, M; Goodman, K; Renaud, Y; Brown, A; Phillips, M; Ajami, A M; Turgeon, J

    2008-05-01

    The relative contribution of phenotypic measures and CYP2C9-vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) polymorphisms to warfarin dose requirements at day 14 was determined in 132 hospitalized, heavily medicated patients. Phenotypic measures were (1) the urinary losartan metabolic ratio before the first dose of warfarin, (2) the S:R-warfarin ratio at day 1, and (3) a dose-adjusted international normalized ratio (INR) at day 4. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes were determined by gene chip analysis. In multivariate analyses, the dose-adjusted INR at day 4 explained 31% of variability observed in warfarin doses at day 14, whereas genotypic measures (CYP2C9-VKORC1) contributed 6.5%. When S:R-warfarin ratio was used, genotypes contributed more significantly (23.5%). Finally, urinary losartan metabolic ratio was of low predictive value. The best models obtained explained 51% of intersubject variability in warfarin dose requirements. Thus, combination of a phenotypic measure to CYP2C9-VKORC1 genotypes represents a useful strategy to predict warfarin doses in patients receiving multiple drugs (11+/-4 drugs/day).

  7. Bevacizumab in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan after failure of cetuximab and irinotecan in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn Ole; Pfeiffer, Per; Nielsen, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of concurrent administration of irinotecan with the two monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and bevacizumab as fourth line therapy in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were evaluated.......The efficacy and safety of concurrent administration of irinotecan with the two monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and bevacizumab as fourth line therapy in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were evaluated....

  8. Pretreatment blood concentrations of chloroquine in patients with malaria infection: relation to response to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quashie, Neils Ben; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Goka, Bamenla Q

    2005-01-01

    Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine has been reported in many areas in Ghana. Most of these reports, which are from hospital-based studies, indicate RI and RII rather than RIII type of resistance. Since high pretreatment levels of chloroquine have also been measured in patients wit...

  9. Respiratory gated radiotherapy-pretreatment patient specific quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Thiyagarajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ motions during inter-fraction and intra-fraction radiotherapy introduce errors in dose delivery, irradiating excess of normal tissue, and missing target volume. Lung and heart involuntary motions cause above inaccuracies and gated dose delivery try to overcome above effects. Present work attempts a novel method to verify dynamic dose delivery using a four-dimensional (4D phantom. Three patients with mobile target are coached to maintain regular and reproducible breathing pattern. Appropriate intensity projection image set generated from 4D-computed tomography (4D-CT is used for target delineation. Intensity modulated radiotherapy plans were generated on selected phase using CT simulator (Siemens AG, Germany in conjunction with "Real-time position management" (Varian, USA to acquire 4D-CT images. Verification plans were generated for both ion chamber and Gafchromic (EBT film image sets. Gated verification plans were delivered on the phantom moving with patient respiratory pattern. We developed a MATLAB-based software to generate maximum intensity projection, minimum intensity projections, and average intensity projections, also a program to convert patient breathing pattern to phantom compatible format. Dynamic thorax quality assurance (QA phantom (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems type is used to perform the patient specific QA, which holds an ion chamber and film to measure delivered radiation intensity. Exposed EBT films are analyzed and compared with treatment planning system calculated dose. The ion chamber measured dose shows good agreement with planned dose within ± 0.5% (0.203 ± 0.57%. Gamma value evaluated from EBT film shows passing rates 92–99% (96.63 ± 3.84% for 3% dose and 3 mm distance criteria. Respiratory gated treatment delivery accuracy is found to be within clinically acceptable level.

  10. Pretreatment depression severity in breast cancer patients and its relation to treatment response to behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, Derek R; Clark, C G; Cannity, Kerry; Bell, John L

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is prevalent in breast cancer patients. There is a paucity of research on variables associated with depression severity and the link between depression severity and response to psychotherapy. To provide optimal mental health services to breast cancer patients, examining correlates of depression severity and its relation to treatment response is critical. In the context of a randomized trial of behavior activation and problem-solving therapy for depressed breast cancer patients, this study evaluated demographic (marital status, age, education), psychosocial (social support, environmental reward, anxiety, number of coexistent anxiety disorders), and cancer-related (bodily pain, length of diagnosis, cancer stage) variables associated with pretreatment depression severity. Second, the relation of pretreatment depression severity with posttreatment and 12-month response and remission was assessed. For pretreatment depression severity, the overall regression model accounted for 40% of the variance, F(5, 74) = 9.87, p depression severity. Depression severity was unrelated to treatment remission but was a significant moderator of treatment response at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up; individuals with higher depression severity were more responsive to therapy. For patients treated with behavior activation, environmental reward significantly mediated the relationship between pre- and posttreatment depression. Consistent with behavioral models of depression, less environmental reward and greater anxiety might influence depression severity in breast cancer patients. Data support the efficacy of behavior therapy for breast cancer patients, particularly those with more severe depression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Pretreatment organ function in patients with advanced head and neck cancer: clinical outcome measures and patients' views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasch Coen RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this study is to thoroughly assess pretreatment organ function in advanced head and neck cancer through various clinical outcome measures and patients' views. Methods A comprehensive, multidimensional assessment was used, that included quality of life, swallowing, mouth opening, and weight changes. Fifty-five patients with stage III-IV disease were entered in this study prior to organ preserving (chemoradiation treatment. Results All patients showed pretreatment abnormalities or problems, identified by one or more of the outcome measures. Most frequent problems concerned swallowing, pain, and weight loss. Interestingly, clinical outcome measures and patients' perception did no always concur. E.g. videofluoroscopy identified aspiration and laryngeal penetration in 18% of the patients, whereas only 7 patients (13% perceived this as problematic; only 2 out of 7 patients with objective trismus actually perceived trismus. Conclusion The assessment identified several problems already pre-treatment, in this patient population. A thorough assessment of both clinical measures and patients' views appears to be necessary to gain insight in all (perceived pre-existing functional and quality of life problems.

  12. Heavily lipidized, calcified giant cell glioblastoma in an 8-year-old patient, associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1): report of a case with long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroh, H; Matyja, E; Marchel, A; Bojarski, P

    2004-01-01

    Giant cell glioblastoma (GCG-BM) with predominance of bizarre, multinucleated giant cells is a rare subtype of glioblastoma, however, its clinical behavior and histological features are still not fully understood. We report an unusual case of a heavily lipidized form of giant cell glioma corresponding mostly to GCGBM in a young patient with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Histologically, the tumor revealed numerous characteristic histopathological features of giant cell glioblastoma including cellular pleomorphism with numerous giant tumor cells, pseudopalisades around necrotic foci and mitotic activity, accompanied by additional unique morphological elements such as massive lipidization of the neoplastic cells, abundant microcalcifications and angiomatous pattern of vascularization. Such aberrant morphology might be associated with the unusually long survival period of 12 years without clinical evidence of tumor recurrence. The coexistence of intracerebral heavily lipidized, calcified giant cell glioblastoma with NF1 has not been previously reported in literature.

  13. [The centric relation-maximum intercuspation discrepancy in adult angle's class II pretreatment patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao; Wan, Zhe; He, Shu-shu; Wamalwa, Peter; Chen, Song; Zhang, Zhi-yi

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the differences in condylar position between centric relation (CR) and maximum intercuspation (MI) in Angle's Class II orthodontic patients before treatment. 80 cases, who were Angle's Class II pretreatment patients, and 50 cases, who were normal(ideal) occlusion were accepted. Dental casts were mounted on Panadent articulator with CR bite record, taken by bilateral manipulation and load testing. The differences in condylar position between CR and MI in all three spatial planes were measured using the Panadent condylar position indication (CPI). (1) The positive rate of CR-MI discrepancy was 92.50%(74 cases) in the group of Angle's Class II malocclusion and 10.00% (5 cases) in the group of normal occlusion(Pocclusion present occlusion interferences which located at the posterior teeth. The results suggested that orthodontists should be aware of a high incidence of condylar displacement in Angle's Class ii pretreatment patients, and measure condylar displacement before the start of comprehensive orthodontic treatment to unmask real jaw relationships and avoid possible misdiagnoses.

  14. 131I therapy for 345 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism: Without antithyroid drug pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Xing, Jialiu; Fang, Yi; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Long, Yahong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and long-term results of (131)I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment. From January 2002 to December 2012, 408 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with (131)I alone. Among them, 345 were followed up for 1 to 10 years for physical examination, thyroid function, and thyroid ultrasound. Complete Blood Count (CBC) liver function, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) thyroid imaging were performed as indicated. The 345 patients had concomitant conditions including thyrotoxic heart disease, severe liver dysfunction, enlarged thyroid weighing 80 to 400 g, severe cytopenia, and vasculitis. One to two weeks prior to (131)I therapy, all patients were given low-iodine diet. The dose of (131)I therapy was 2.59 to 6.66 MBq (70 to180 µCi) per gram of thyroid with an average of 3.83 ± 0.6 MBq (103.6 ± 16.4 µCi); and the total (131)I activity administrated for the individuals was 111 to 3507.6 MBq (3.0 to 94.8 mCi, mean 444 ± 336.7 MBq (12.0 ± 9.1 mCi)). Out of the 408 patients, 283 were cured, 15 with complete remission, and 47 with incomplete remission. No treatment failure or significant clinical worsening was noted in these patients. Our data indicated that (131)I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment is safe and effective. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  15. 131I therapy for 345 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism: Without antithyroid drug pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jialiu; Fang, Yi; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Long, Yahong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and long-term results of 131I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment. From January 2002 to December 2012, 408 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with 131I alone. Among them, 345 were followed up for 1 to 10 years for physical examination, thyroid function, and thyroid ultrasound. Complete Blood Count (CBC) liver function, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) thyroid imaging were performed as indicated. The 345 patients had concomitant conditions including thyrotoxic heart disease, severe liver dysfunction, enlarged thyroid weighing 80 to 400 g, severe cytopenia, and vasculitis. One to two weeks prior to 131I therapy, all patients were given low-iodine diet. The dose of 131I therapy was 2.59 to 6.66 MBq (70 to180 µCi) per gram of thyroid with an average of 3.83 ± 0.6 MBq (103.6 ± 16.4 µCi); and the total 131I activity administrated for the individuals was 111 to 3507.6 MBq (3.0 to 94.8 mCi, mean 444 ± 336.7 MBq (12.0 ± 9.1 mCi)). Out of the 408 patients, 283 were cured, 15 with complete remission, and 47 with incomplete remission. No treatment failure or significant clinical worsening was noted in these patients. Our data indicated that 131I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment is safe and effective. PMID:26341470

  16. Ensuring head and neck oncology patients receive recommended pretreatment dental evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Danielle N; Losi, Stephanie M; Tishler, Roy B; Schoenfeld, Jonathan D; Ann Fugazzotto, Jo; Stephens, Josie; Cebulski, Amy L; Hammerstrand, Elizabeth L; Ma, Laura; Lopes, Holly M; Haddad, Robert I; Treister, Nathaniel S; Frustino, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Head and neck (H&N) cancer therapy can have a detrimental effect on oral health by increasing the risk of dry mouth, dental caries, dental infection, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Pretreatment dental evaluations are recommended for patients with H&N cancer before radiation therapy to minimize the risk of acute and long-term adverse effects. In an earlier effort to educate patients and community dentists about the importance of pretreatment dental evaluations, we created a dental instructional guide (DIG) that outlines the necessary components of the preradiation dental evaluation. Yet our program did not have a system for documenting which patients received the DIG. The aim of this project was to create a reliable system to ensure that patients are given the DIG before radiation therapy and that such patients are readily identifiable, allowing us to confirm that their dental evaluations are complete before starting treatment. We implemented a tracking template within the H&N oncology program at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute that documents the date, patient, and clinician who gave the DIG. We used the Model for Improvement methodology and performed plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles to test and monitor the results of the template implementation. We showed a significant improvement in the rate of DIG documentation from a baseline of 0% (range, 0% to 0%) to a mean of 53% (range, 0% to 100%) over 3 months (P dental evaluation, thereby decreasing the risk of dental complications from H&N cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Pretreatment depression as a prognostic indicator of survival and nutritional status in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Ae; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Lee, Sang-Ah; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Sung-Bae; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The emotional status of cancer patients is associated with disease course and treatment outcomes. In this study, the authors evaluated associations between the presence of pretreatment depression and pretreatment quality of life (QOL), nutritional status, and survival outcomes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). For this prospective study, 241 patients with previously untreated HNSCC who underwent curative treatments were enrolled. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 30-item Core QOL Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), and the EORTC QLQ Head and Neck Cancer module (QLQ-H&N35). EORTC QLQ scores were compared between depressive and nondepressive patients, as determined according to pretreatment BDI-II scores ≥ 14 and nutritional status and laboratory data. Pretreatment depression was present in 60 patients (24.9%). In depressive and nondepressive patients, the 3-year overall survival rates were 70.8% and 82.7%, respectively (P = .045), and the 3-year DFS rates were 63.5% and 79.1%, respectively (P = .015). After controlling for clinical factors, the presence of depression was predictive of 3-year DFS (P = .032). EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HN35 scores on all items except feeding tube, nutritional supplement, and problem with mouth opening differed between depressive and nondepressive patients (P nutritional status, and survival outcomes in patients with HNSCC. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  18. Pretreatment of sinus aspirates with dithiothreitol improves yield of fungal cultures in patients with chronic sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Karen M; Getsinger, Diane; Vaughan, Winston; Hwang, Peter H; Banaei, Niaz

    2013-12-01

    Mold pathogens are a leading cause of chronic rhinosinusitis. Successful isolation of mold on culture is helpful in establishing a diagnosis and guiding therapy. Though mucolytic agents are commonly used in European countries, they are not part of everyday use in North America. In this case-control prospective study, we investigated the yield of fungal culture before and after treatment of sinus aspirates with the mucolytic agent dithiothreitol in a United States hospital. Over a 5-month period during 2011-2012, 359 sinus aspirates from 294 patients with symptoms suspicious for chronic sinusitis or allergic fungal sinusitis were collected. Aspirates were cultured on fungal medium before and after treatment with dithiothreitol. Of the 359 pairs of cultures, 62 (17.3%) demonstrated mold growth on at least 1 of the plates, 9 (14.5%) of which grew more than 1 species of mold. A total of 75 molds were identified, 41 (54.7%) of which were successfully cultured only when the mucus was pretreated with dithiothreitol (p sinus cultures after pretreatment of samples with dithiothreitol. Further studies are needed to correlate these findings with clinical outcome. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  19. Associations between quality of life, coping styles, optimism, and anxiety and depression in pretreatment patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Debbie J; Smith, Helen E; McGurk, Mark; Weinman, John; Herold, Jim; Altman, Keith; Llewellyn, Carrie D

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is often diagnosed at a late stage and consequently radical treatment is necessary. The pretreatment phase is a time of high anxiety and depression for patients. This study aimed to investigate whether anxiety and depression are related to quality of life, coping styles, and dispositional optimism. One hundred and three patients were recruited after diagnosis to a questionnaire study. Measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; SF12v2 Health Survey; Brief COPE, and the Revised Life Orientation Test. Quality of life, in particular emotional role explained a large proportion of the variance in pretreatment anxiety and depression. In addition, the use of negative coping styles was related to high anxiety levels and low levels of optimism were related to higher levels of depression. There are a small but significant proportion of pretreatment patients that may benefit from individualized support. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  20. Beam-centric algorithm for pretreatment patient position correction in external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Supratik; Shukla, Himanshu; Maltz, Jonathan [Oncology Care Systems Group, Siemens Medical Solutions (USA), 4040 Nelson Avenue, Concord, California 94520 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: In current image guided pretreatment patient position adjustment methods, image registration is used to determine alignment parameters. Since most positioning hardware lacks the full six degrees of freedom (DOF), accuracy is compromised. The authors show that such compromises are often unnecessary when one models the planned treatment beams as part of the adjustment calculation process. The authors present a flexible algorithm for determining optimal realizable adjustments for both step-and-shoot and arc delivery methods. Methods: The beam shape model is based on the polygonal intersection of each beam segment with the plane in pretreatment image volume that passes through machine isocenter perpendicular to the central axis of the beam. Under a virtual six-DOF correction, ideal positions of these polygon vertices are computed. The proposed method determines the couch, gantry, and collimator adjustments that minimize the total mismatch of all vertices over all segments with respect to their ideal positions. Using this geometric error metric as a function of the number of available DOF, the user may select the most desirable correction regime. Results: For a simulated treatment plan consisting of three equally weighted coplanar fixed beams, the authors achieve a 7% residual geometric error (with respect to the ideal correction, considered 0% error) by applying gantry rotation as well as translation and isocentric rotation of the couch. For a clinical head-and-neck intensity modulated radiotherapy plan with seven beams and five segments per beam, the corresponding error is 6%. Correction involving only couch translation (typical clinical practice) leads to a much larger 18% mismatch. Clinically significant consequences of more accurate adjustment are apparent in the dose volume histograms of target and critical structures. Conclusions: The algorithm achieves improvements in delivery accuracy using standard delivery hardware without significantly increasing

  1. Pretreatment prostate specific antigen doubling time as prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharinov, Gennady M; Bogomolov, Oleg A; Neklasova, Natalia N; Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2017-01-01

    Despite the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum level commonly uses as tumor marker in diagnosis of prostate cancer, it seems that PSA doubling time (PSADT) could be more useful indicator of tumor behavior and of prognosis for patients. The results of hormone and radiation therapy were evaluated for 912 prostate cancer having at least 2 PSA tests before the treatment was started. Clustering procedure (selection of homogenous group) was performed by using PSADT as the classification marker. The rate of PSADT was estimated for different dissemination rate, age, Gleasons's score and education level. PSADT index inversely correlated with the rate of prostate cancer dissemination, Gleason's score and the level of education were directly correlated with the age of patients. Survival time was longer and PSADT index was higher in "slow" tumor growing subgroups in local, local-advanced and metastatic prostate cancer patients than these in "fast" subgroups. The study confirmed the prognostic value of pretreatment PSADT in prostate cancer patients independently of cancer progression. No significant relationship exists between the authors and the companies/organizations whose products or services may be referenced in this article.

  2. PRETREATMENT NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND LOCOREGIONAL FAILURE IN PATIENTS WITH HEAD AND NECK CANCER UNDERGOING DEFINITIVE CONCURRENT CHEMORADIATION THERAPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Mary E.; Reid, Mary E.; Wilding, Gregory E.; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Rigual, Nestor R.; Hicks, Wesley L.; Popat, Saurin R.; Warren, Graham W.; Sullivan, Maureen; Thorstad, Wade L.; Khan, Mohamed K.; Loree, Thom R.; Singh, Anurag K.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to determine if markers of nutritional status predict for locoregional failure following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 78 patients with SCCHN who received definitive CCRT. We compared patient factors, tumor characteristics, and nutritional status indicators between patients with and without locoregional failure. Results Fifteen of 78 patients (19%) experienced locoregional failure. Median follow-up for live patients was 38 months. On univariate analysis, pretreatment percentage of ideal body weight (%IBW) (p cancer undergoing definitive CCRT based on pre-treatment %IBW should be examined further. PMID:21990220

  3. Pretreatment nutritional status and locoregional failure of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Mary E; Reid, Mary E; Wilding, Gregory E; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Rigual, Nestor R; Hicks, Wesley L; Popat, Saurin R; Warren, Graham W; Sullivan, Maureen; Thorstad, Wade L; Khan, Mohamed K; Loree, Thom R; Singh, Anurag K

    2011-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine if markers of nutritional status predict for locoregional failure following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). We performed a retrospective chart review of 78 patients with SCCHN who received definitive CCRT. We compared patient factors, tumor characteristics, and nutritional status indicators between patients with and without locoregional failure. Fifteen of 78 patients (19%) experienced locoregional failure. Median follow-up for live patients was 38 months. On univariate analysis, pretreatment percentage of ideal body weight (%IBW) (p cancer undergoing definitive CCRT based on pretreatment %IBW should be examined further. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of Pre-treatment Education Programs on the Anxiety of Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: An Integrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety in cancer patients are caused by disease diagnosis, unfamiliar experiences, and therapy-related problems. In addition to the short duration of radiotherapy, receiving and understanding of the information about this treatment could be difficult for patients due to anxiety, fatigue, and mental pressure. Training of cancer patients about radiotherapy via educational programs could reduce pre-treatment anxiety. Aim: This systematic review aimed to integrate the information regarding the effects of pre-treatment educational training on the level of anxiety and distress symptoms of cancer patients receiving RT. Method: This systematic review was conducted to identify the studies comparing different methods of pre-treatment patient education before radiotherapy via searching in databases such as MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalKey, ProQuest, and PubMed. Selected studies included clinical reports on the effects of educational interventions on the anxiety of patients receiving radiotherapy. Excluded samples were commentaries and studies without intervention. Results: In total, we reviewed eight articles assessing the effect of educational interventions before radiotherapy on the anxiety of cancer patients. Educational interventions used in these studies included face-to-face consultation with a radiotherapist, group instructions with routine individual training using visual materials (e.g., brochures, booklets, videotapes, and PowerPoint presentations, group discussions, electronic instructions, written materials, and phone contact with a nurse. Implications for Practice: According our findings, pre-treatment education could reduce the anxiety of cancer patients before radiotherapy. These educational programs could be performed using written, visual, electronic, or face-to-face instructions. However, considering the condition of cancer patients and their treatment, selection of the appropriate training method

  5. Moving from gamma passing rates to patient DVH-based QA metrics in pretreatment dose QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Heming; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 and Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to explore the usefulness of the gamma passing rate metric for per-patient, pretreatment dose QA and to validate a novel patient-dose/DVH-based method and its accuracy and correlation. Specifically, correlations between: (1) gamma passing rates for three 3D dosimeter detector geometries vs clinically relevant patient DVH-based metrics; (2) Gamma passing rates of whole patient dose grids vs DVH-based metrics, (3) gamma passing rates filtered by region of interest (ROI) vs DVH-based metrics, and (4) the capability of a novel software algorithm that estimates corrected patient Dose-DVH based on conventional phan-tom QA data are analyzed. Methods: Ninety six unique ''imperfect'' step-and-shoot IMRT plans were generated by applying four different types of errors on 24 clinical Head/Neck patients. The 3D patient doses as well as the dose to a cylindrical QA phantom were then recalculated using an error-free beam model to serve as a simulated measurement for comparison. Resulting deviations to the planned vs simulated measured DVH-based metrics were generated, as were gamma passing rates for a variety of difference/distance criteria covering: dose-in-phantom comparisons and dose-in-patient comparisons, with the in-patient results calculated both over the whole grid and per-ROI volume. Finally, patient dose and DVH were predicted using the conventional per-beam planar data as input into a commercial ''planned dose perturbation'' (PDP) algorithm, and the results of these predicted DVH-based metrics were compared to the known values. Results: A range of weak to moderate correlations were found between clinically relevant patient DVH metrics (CTV-D95, parotid D{sub mean}, spinal cord D1cc, and larynx D{sub mean}) and both 3D detector and 3D patient gamma passing rate (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm) for dose-in-phantom along with dose-in-patient for both whole patient volume and filtered per-ROI. There was

  6. Pre-treatment Symptom Cluster in Breast Cancer Patients is Associated with Worse Sleep, Fatigue and Depression during Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianqi; Fiorentino, Lavinia; Natarajan, Loki; Parker, Barbara A.; Mills, Paul J; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Rissling, Michelle; He, Feng; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Objective The concept of symptom clusters is relatively new in cancer patients' symptom management. This study, which spanned four cycles of chemotherapy, combined three commonly seen pre-treatment symptoms in cancer patients (i.e., sleep disturbances, fatigue and depression) into one symptom cluster, to explore the associations between pre-treatment cluster categories and longitudinal profiles of these same symptoms during chemotherapy. Methods This was a prospective study. Seventy-six women with newly diagnosed stage I–III breast cancer, scheduled to receive at least four cycles of adjuvant or neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy participated. Data were collected at seven time points before and during treatment. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Fatigue was measured with the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D). Patients were divided into three groups based on the number of symptoms they experienced before the start of chemotherapy (i.e., no symptoms, 1–2 symptoms or all three symptoms) and a symptom cluster index (SCI) was computed. Results All women reported worse sleep, more fatigue and more depressive symptoms during treatment compared to baseline (all p's <0.01); however, those women with a higher symptom cluster index (i.e., more symptoms pre-treatment) continued to experience worse symptoms during treatment compared to those who began with fewer symptoms (all p's <0.01). Conclusions A higher clinically relevant-based pre-treatment symptom cluster was associated with more sleep disturbances, greater fatigue and more depressive symptoms during chemotherapy. Specific interventions for these pre-treatment symptoms may improve the frequency and severity of these same symptoms during chemotherapy, when they are most severe and most disruptive to quality of life. PMID:18677716

  7. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Procalcitonin in Bacterial Meningitis Patients with Empiric Antibiotic Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Sun, Xiaolong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Qiong; Ma, Yue; Jiang, Yongli; Yang, Xiai; Yang, Fang; Ma, Lei; Jiang, Wen

    2017-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (BM) relies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram staining and bacterial culture, which often present high false-negative rates because of antibiotic abuse. Thus, a novel and reliable diagnostic biomarker is required. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been well demonstrated to be specifically produced from peripheral tissues by bacterial infection, which makes it a potential diagnostic biomarker candidate. Here, we performed a prospective clinical study comprising a total of 143 patients to investigate the diagnostic value of CSF PCT, serum PCT, and other conventional biomarkers for BM. Patients were assigned to the BM (n = 49), tuberculous meningitis (TBM) (n = 25), viral meningitis/encephalitis (VM/E) (n = 34), autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) (n = 15), or noninflammatory nervous system diseases (NINSD) group (n = 20). Empirical antibiotic pretreatment was not an exclusion criterion. Our results show that the CSF PCT level was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in patients with BM (median, 0.22 ng/ml; range, 0.13 to 0.54 ng/ml) than in those with TBM (median, 0.12 ng/ml; range, 0.07 to 0.16 ng/ml), VM/E (median, 0.09 ng/ml; range, 0.07 to 0.11 ng/ml), AIE (median, 0.06 ng/ml; range, 0.05 to 0.10 ng/ml), or NINSD (median, 0.07 ng/ml; range, 0.06 to 0.08 ng/ml). Among the assessed biomarkers, CSF PCT exhibited the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.881; 95% confidence interval, 0.810 to 0.932; cutoff value, 0.15 ng/ml; sensitivity, 69.39%; specificity, 91.49%). Our study sheds light upon the diagnostic dilemma of BM due to antibiotic abuse. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02278016.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Patients' pre-treatment interpersonal problems as predictors of therapeutic alliance in long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Pekka; Knekt, Paul; Heinonen, Erkki; Lindfors, Olavi

    2016-07-30

    Information on how the patient's interpersonal problems predict alliance development during long-term therapy is lacking. The aim of this study was to explore how the patient's pre-treatment interpersonal problems predict the development of alliance in long-term psychotherapy. Altogether 128 adult outpatients experiencing mood or anxiety disorder were assigned to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) total score and the eight octant scores, assessed at baseline, were used as predictors. The trajectories of change in patient- and therapist-rated Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) were used as outcome measures at 7, 12, and 36 months of follow-up after baseline. Study of the changes by time showed that the patient-rated alliance was significantly improved by the 36-month follow-up, i.e. the most usual end-point of therapy, in persons with higher pre-treatment level of the IIP total score. Low total IIP score and low to moderate level of hostile type problems showed no slope of improvement of patient-rated alliance during follow-up. The therapist-rated alliance showed a similar course as the patient-rated alliance with the exception of a faster improvement for higher IIP scores. In conclusion, a higher level of patients' interpersonal problems predicted favorable alliance development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Robert; Damber, Jan Erik; Hagerman, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prognostic risk factors for cardiovascular events during treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients with high-dose parenteral polyoestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin®) or combined androgen deprivation (CAD) with special emphasis on pretreatment cardiovascular ...

  11. Virological failure and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among naive and antiretroviral pre-treated patients entering the ESTHER program of Calmette Hospital in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In resource limited settings, patients entering an antiretroviral therapy (ART program comprise ART naive and ART pre-treated patients who may show differential virological outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study, conducted in 2010-2012 in the HIV clinic of Calmette Hospital located in Phnom Penh (Cambodia assessed virological failure (VF rates and patterns of drug resistance of naive and pre-treated patients. Naive and ART pre-treated patients were included when a Viral Load (VL was performed during the first year of ART for naive subjects or at the first consultation for pre-treated individuals. Patients showing Virological failure (VF (>1,000 copies/ml underwent HIV DR genotyping testing. Interpretation of drug resistance mutations was done according to 2013 version 23 ANRS algorithms. RESULTS: On a total of 209 patients, 164 (78.4% were naive and 45 (21.5% were ART pre-treated. Their median initial CD4 counts were 74 cells/mm3 (IQR: 30-194 and 279 cells/mm3 (IQR: 103-455 (p<0.001, respectively. Twenty seven patients (12.9% exhibited VF (95% CI: 8.6-18.2%, including 10 naive (10/164, 6.0% and 17 pre-treated (17/45, 37.8% patients (p<0.001. Among these viremic patients, twenty-two (81.4% were sequenced in reverse transcriptase and protease coding regions. Overall, 19 (86.3% harbored ≥1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs whereas 3 (all belonging to pre-treated patients harbored wild-types viruses. The most frequent DRMs were M184V (86.3%, K103N (45.5% and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs (40.9%. Two (13.3% pre-treated patients harbored viruses that showed a multi-nucleos(tide resistance including Q151M, K65R, E33A/D, E44A/D mutations. CONCLUSION: In Cambodia, VF rates were low for naive patients but the emergence of DRMs to NNRTI and 3TC occurred relatively quickly in this subgroup. In pre-treated patients, VF rates were much higher and TAMs were relatively common. HIV genotypic assays before ART initiation and for ART pre-treated

  12. SINGLE AGENT DOCETAXEL AS SECOND- LINE CHEMOTHERAPY FOR PRETREATED PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT NON- SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

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    Deyan N. Davidov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Single agent Docetaxel is a standard therapy for patients with non- small cell lung cancer after the failure of platinum- containing regimens. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of Docetaxel monotherapy as second- line chemotherapy in pretreated patient with inoperable non- small cell lung cancer. Methods: From January 2005 to May 2008 thirty- six consecutive patients with locally advanced or metastatic morphologically proven stage IIIB/ IV non- small cell lung cancer entered the study after failure of previous platinum- based regimens. Treatment schedule consist of Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 administered every three weeks with repetition after 21 days with Dexamethasone premedication. Results: Overall response rate, median time to progression and median survival was 16,6 %, 4,5 months and 5,6 months respectively. The main hematological toxicity was neutropenia. Conclusions: That data suggest that single agent Docetaxel remain reasonable choices for the chemotherapy in pretreated patients with non- small cell lung cancer.

  13. Prostate cancer-specific death in brachytherapy treated high-risk patients stratified by pre-treatment PSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Fiano, Ryan; Adamovich, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM) in a cohort of high-risk patients treated with a permanent prostate brachytherapy approach, stratified by pre-treatment PSA. Material and methods 448 high-risk patients (NCCN criteria) underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. High risk patients were stratified by pre-treatment PSA (≤ 10.0, 10.1-20, and > 20 ng/ml). Biochemical failure (BF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), distant failure (DM), and overall mortality (OM) were assessed as a function of prognostic group. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on outcome. Results The 10-year OM, BF, and PCSM for the entire cohort were 28.5%, 13.3%, and 4.9%, respectively. At 10 years, PCSM was 2.5%, 10.7%, and 4.5% in the PSA ≤ 10, 10.1-20, and > 20 ng/ml groups, respectively. No statistically significant differences in BF or overall survival (OS) were noted when stratified by pre-treatment PSA. DF was the most common in the 10.1-20 ng/ml cohort (8.6% at 10 years). In multivariate analysis, PCSM was most closely related to percent positive biopsies (p = 0.001) and tobacco (p = 0.042). Conclusions High-risk prostate cancer treated with permanent prostate brachytherapy and supplemental external beam radiotherapy resulted in excellent long-term biochemical control and PCSM. Overall, PCSM was low in all cohorts but highest in the intermediate PSA group (10.1-20 ng/ml). PMID:28951747

  14. Pretreatment with myo-inositol in non polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing multiple follicular stimulation for IVF: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisi Franco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this pilot study is to examine the effects of myo-inositol administration on ovarian response and oocytes and embryos quality in non PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS patients undergoing multiple follicular stimulation and in vitro insemination by conventional in vitro fertilization or by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Methods One hundred non-PCOS women aged Results Total length of the stimulation was similar between the two groups. Nevertheless, total amount of gonadotropins used to reach follicular maturation was found significantly lower in group B. In addition, the number of oocytes retrieved was significantly reduced in the group pretreated with myo-inositol. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the addition of myo-inositol to folic acid in non PCOS-patients undergoing multiple follicular stimulation for in-vitro fertilization may reduce the numbers of mature oocytes and the dosage of rFSH whilst maintaining clinical pregnancy rate. Further, a trend in favor of increased incidence of implantation in the group pretreated with myo-inositol was apparent in this study. Further investigations are warranted to clarify this pharmacological approach, and the benefit it may hold for patients.

  15. Heparin pre-treatment in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and the risk of intracoronary thrombus and total vessel occlusion. Insights from the TASTE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Sofia; Andell, Pontus; Mohammad, Moman A; Koul, Sasha; Olivecrona, Göran K; James, Stefan K; Fröbert, Ole; Erlinge, David

    2017-08-01

    Pre-treatment with unfractionated heparin is common in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) protocols, but the effect on intracoronary thrombus burden is unknown. We studied the effect of heparin pre-treatment on intracoronary thrombus burden and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow prior to percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with STEMI. The Thrombus Aspiration in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Scandinavia (TASTE) trial angiographically assessed intracoronary thrombus burden and TIMI flow, prior to percutaneous coronary intervention, in patients with STEMI. In this observational sub-study, patients pre-treated with heparin were compared with patients not pre-treated with heparin. Primary end points were a visible intracoronary thrombus and total vessel occlusion prior to percutaneous coronary intervention. Secondary end points were in-hospital bleeding, in-hospital stroke and 30-day all-cause mortality. Heparin pre-treatment was administered in 2898 out of 7144 patients (41.0%). Patients pre-treated with heparin less often presented with an intracoronary thrombus (61.3% vs. 66.0%, ppre-treatment was independently associated with a reduced risk of intracoronary thrombus (odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.65-0.83) and total vessel occlusion (OR 0.64, 95% CI=0.56-0.73), prior to percutaneous coronary intervention. There were no significant differences in secondary end points of in-hospital bleeding (OR 0.84, 95% CI=0.55-1.27), in-hospital stroke (OR 1.17, 95% CI=0.48-2.82) or 30-day all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% CI=0.60-1.30). Heparin pre-treatment was independently associated with a lower risk of intracoronary thrombus and total vessel occlusion before percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with STEMI, without evident safety concerns, in this large multi-centre observational study.

  16. Pretreatment of chronic active hepatitis C in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus reduces the hepatotoxicity associated with subsequent antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; De Bona, Anna; Morsica, Giulia; Galli, Laura; Gallotta, Giulia; Boeri, Enzo; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2003-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an independent risk factor for antiretroviral-related hepatotoxicity, but little is known about the frequency of severe liver toxicity in patients with HIV-HCV coinfection first treated for HCV (pretreated). The aim of this prospective study of 105 patients was to compare the incidence of progression to severe antiretroviral-related liver toxicity in 66 patients pretreated (36 with interferon-alpha [IFNalpha], 30 with IFNalpha plus ribavirin), and 39 patients not pretreated. The subjects could choose whether to receive anti-HCV therapy. Severe liver toxicity was defined as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level > or =5-times the upper limit of normal in patients with normal baseline levels and > or =3.5-times in those with increased baseline levels. The authors also estimated the hepatotoxicity-related risk of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy. During antiretroviral therapy, 10 subjects (9.5%) experienced severe hepatotoxicity: 4 of 66 pretreated patients and 6 of 39 untreated patients (24-month survival: 94% +/- 2.9% vs. 85% +/- 5.8%). After adjusting for baseline CD4 cell counts, ALT levels, histologic scores, HCV and HIV viremia, HCV genotype (genotype 1 in 29% of pretreated patients and 20% of patients not pretreated), and previous anti-HCV therapy, the risk of discontinuing anti-HIV treatment was significantly higher in the anti-HCV untreated patients (RR = 10.4; 95% CI: 1.6-66; p =.0127) and in those with increased baseline ALT levels (RR = 1.014; 95% CI: 1.006-1.021; p =.0005). The authors' data suggest that previous treatment of chronic active HCV is an independent factor associated with a decrease of severe liver toxicity as the result of a subsequent antiretroviral regimen. The authors also confirm that the baseline level of ALT is an important prognostic factor for increased liver damage during antiretroviral therapy.

  17. Predictive value of pretreatment lymphocyte count in stage II colorectal cancer and in high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Huixun; Huang, Liyong; Li, Dawei; Li, Qingguo; Li, Xinxiang

    2016-01-05

    Pretreatment lymphocyte count (LC) has been associated with prognosis and chemotherapy response in several cancers. The predictive value of LC for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and for high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) has not been determined. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 1332 consecutive stage II CRC patients who underwent curative tumor resection was conducted. A pretreatment LC value risk, 459 (62.2%) of whom received AC. Patients with low LCs had significantly worse 5-year OS (74.6% vs. 90.2%, p risk patients with low LCs had the poorest DFS (p value or combined with high-risk status were both independent prognostic factors(p risk, AC-treated patients with high LCs had significantly longer DFS than untreated patients (HR, 0.594; 95% CI, 0.364-0.970; p = 0.035). There was no difference or trend for DFS or OS in patients with low LCs, regardless of the use of AC (DFS, p = 0.692; OS, p = 0.522). Low LC was also independently associated with poorer DFS in high-risk, AC-treated patients (HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.112-3.196; p = 0.019). Pretreatment LC is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II CRC. Furthermore, pretreatment LC reliably predicts chemotherapeutic efficacy in high-risk patients with stage II CRC.

  18. Pretreatment axillary ultrasonography and core biopsy in patients with suspected breast cancer: Diagnostic accuracy and impact on management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ortega, Maria Jose, E-mail: rserranogan@telefonica.net [Breast Imaging Center, Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Alvarez Benito, Marina, E-mail: marinaalvarezbenito@telefonica.net [Breast Imaging Center, Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Fuentes Vahamonde, Elena, E-mail: elena.fuentes.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es [Pathology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Rioja Torres, Pilar, E-mail: priojat@yahoo.es [Clinical Management Unit, Department of General and Digestive Surgery, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Benitez Velasco, Ana, E-mail: abvelazco@yahoo.es [Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Martinez Paredes, Maria, E-mail: mariaparedes@uco.es [Radiology and Physical Medicine Area, University of Cordoba Medical School, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Preoperative diagnosis of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients enables treatment planning. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of axillary ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy, both alone and in combination, in detecting axillary metastases in patients with breast cancer and to assess the impact of these techniques on the patients' management. Materials and methods: Retrospective study of consecutive patients with suspected breast cancer examined between October 2006 and December 2008. The diagnosis of a primary tumor was histologically confirmed in all patients. All patients underwent axillary ultrasonography and percutaneous core biopsy (14G) of suspicious lymph nodes. We evaluated the morphological characteristics of the lymph nodes by ultrasonography. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography and of core biopsy, and assessed the impact of these techniques on patients' treatment. Results: We evaluated 675 axillary regions and performed 291 core biopsies of axillary lymph nodes in 662 patients. In 650 patients, breast cancer was histologically confirmed and in 12 patients malignant tumors in other locations were confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of axillary ultrasonography were 63.2% and 88.7%, respectively. The absence of a fatty hilum within the lymph node was the ultrasonographic finding with the highest positive predictive value for malignancy (93.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of axillary core biopsy were 69.1% and 100%, respectively. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was avoided in 33% of initial candidates and immediate breast reconstruction was undertaken in 35.1% of the patients with mastectomy and negative axillary core biopsy. Conclusions: Ultrasonography and axillary core biopsy enable adequate pretreatment staging in patients with breast cancer and has a positive impact on their management.

  19. Changes from 1992 to 2002 in the pretreatment delay for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of larynx or pharynx: a Danish nationwide survey from DAHANCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; Nielsen, Anni Linnet; Larsen, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark, a general impression of prolonged pretreatment delay for patients with head and neck cancer led to a nationwide study of time spans from symptom debut over first health care contact to start of treatment. Charts of consecutive new patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx...

  20. Pretreatment Serum Cystatin C Levels Predict Renal Function, but Not Tumor Characteristics, in Patients with Prostate Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of Cystatin C (Cys-C in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa, we retrospectively collected the clinical information from the records of 492 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 48 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and 173 PCa patients, whose disease was newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed. Pretreatment serum Cys-C levels were compared across the various groups and then analyzed to identify relationships, if any, with clinical and pathological characteristics of the PCa patient group. There were no significant differences in serum Cys-C levels among the three groups (P > 0.05. In PCa patients with normal SCr levels, patient age was correlated with serum Cys-C level (P ≤ 0.001 but did not correlate with alkaline phosphatase (AKP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, prostate specific antigen (PSA, Gleason score, or bone metastasis status (P > 0.05. Age and SCr contributed in part to the variations in serum Cys-C levels of PCa patients (r = 0.356, P ≤ 0.001; r = 0.520, P ≤ 0.001. In conclusion, serum Cys-C levels predict renal function in patients with prostate neoplasia, but were not a biomarker for the development of prostate neoplasia, and were not correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of PCa.

  1. Low pre-diagnosis attrition but high pre-treatment attrition among patients with MDR-TB: An operational research from Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Nair, Dina; Klinton, Joel S; Parmar, Malik; Lavanya, J; Murali, Lakshmi; Gupta, Vivek; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Swaminathan, Soumya; Kumar, Ajay M V

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide, there's concern over high pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attritions or delays in Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment pathway (DTP). We conducted this operational research among patients with presumptive MDR-TB in north and central Chennai, India to determine attrition and turnaround times (TAT) at various steps of DTP and factors associated with attrition. Study was conducted in Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting. It was a retrospective cohort study involving record review of all patients with presumptive MDR-TB (eligible for DST) in 2014. Of 628 eligible for DST, 557 (88%) underwent DST and 74 (13%) patients were diagnosed as having MDR-TB. Pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attrition was 11% (71/628) and 38% (28/74) respectively. TAT [median (IQR)] to test from eligibility for DST and initiate DR-TB treatment from diagnosis were 14 (9,27) and 18 (13,36) days respectively. Patients with smear negative TB and detected in first quarter of 2014 were less likely to undergo DST. Patients in first quarter of 2014 had significantly lower risk of pre-treatment attrition. There was high uptake of DST. However, urgent attention is required to reduce pre-treatment attrition, improve TAT to test from eligibility for DST and improve DST among patients with smear-negative TB. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pretreatment weight status and weight loss among head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy: implications for nutrition integrated treatment pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Mary E; Myrick, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Susan A; Gupta, Vishal; Reid, Mary E; Wilding, Gregory E; Cohan, David; Arshad, Hassan; Rigual, Nestor R; Hicks, Wesley L; Sullivan, Maureen; Warren, Graham W; Singh, Anurag K

    2013-10-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of pretreatment weight status on loco-regional progression for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) after receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). In an expanded cohort of 140 patients, we retrospectively reviewed weight status and loco-regional progression of SCCHN patients treated with CCRT between 2004 and 2010. Pretreatment ideal body weight percentage (IBW%) was statistically significantly different for patients with disease progression than for those without progression (p = 0.02) but was not an independent predictor of progression. Median pretreatment IBW% was 118 (72-193) for the progression-free group and was 101.5 (73-163) for the group with progression. Both groups suffered clinically severe weight loss of approximately 9 % from baseline to end treatment. Pretreatment weight status, a very crude indicator of nutrition status, may have prognostic value in patients with SCCHN undergoing definitive CCRT. Inadequate nutritional status in these patients has been associated with poor clinical outcomes and decreased quality of life. Based on this report and others, the best next steps include routine validated malnutrition screening and the testing of evidence-based nutrition care protocols with the goals of minimizing weight loss and improvement of quality of life.

  3. Importance of specimen pretreatment for the low-level detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurentius, Lars B; Crawford, Alexis C; Mulvihill, Timothy S; Granger, Jennifer H; Robinson, Ryan; Spencer, John S; Chatterjee, Delphi; Hanson, Kimberly E; Porter, Marc D

    2016-12-19

    Patient care and prevention of disease outbreaks rely heavily on the performance of diagnostic tests. These tests are typically carried out in serum, urine, and other complex sample matrices, but are often plagued by a number of matrix effects such as nonspecific adsorption and complexation with circulating proteins. This paper demonstrates the importance of sample pretreatment to overcome matrix effects, enabling the low-level detection of a disease marker for tuberculosis (TB). The impact of pretreatment is illustrated by detecting a cell wall component unique to mycobacteria, lipoarabinomannan (LAM). LAM is a major virulence factor in the infectious pathology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and has been successfully detected in the body fluids of TB-infected individuals; however, its clinical sensitivity - identifying patients with active infection - remains problematic. This and the companion paper show that the detection of LAM in an immunoassay is plagued by its complexation with proteins and other components in serum. Herein, we present the procedures and results from an investigation of several different pretreatment schemes designed to disrupt complexation and thereby improve detection. These sample pretreatment studies, aimed at determining the optimal conditions for complex disruption, were carried out by using a LAM simulant derived from the nonpathogenic M. smegmatis, a mycobacterium often used as a model for Mtb. We have found that a perchloric acid-based pretreatment step improves the ability to detect this simulant by ∼1500× with respect to that in untreated serum. This paper describes the approach to pretreatment, how pretreatment improves the detection of the LAM simulant in human serum, and the results from a preliminary investigation to identify possible contributors to complexation by fractionating serum according to molecular weight. The companion paper applies this pretreatment approach to assays of TB patient samples.

  4. Cinacalcet effectively reduces parathyroid hormone secretion and gland volume regardless of pretreatment gland size in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Shohei; Fujimori, Akira; Tanaka, Motoko; Shin, Jeongsoo; Shibuya, Koji; Nishioka, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirohito; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2010-12-01

    Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume. This 52-week, multicenter, open-label study enrolled hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (intact PTH >300 pg/ml). Doses of cinacalcet were adjusted between 25 and 100 mg to achieve intact PTH size at baseline, week 26, and week 52. Findings were also compared with those of historical controls. Of the 81 subjects enrolled, 56 had parathyroid glands smaller than 500 mm(3) (group S) and 25 had at least one enlarged gland larger than 500 mm(3) (group L). Treatment with cinacalcet effectively decreased intact PTH by 55% from baseline in group S and by 58% in group L. A slightly greater proportion of patients in group S versus group L achieved an intact PTH 30% reduction from baseline (88 versus 78%), but this was not statistically significant. Cinacalcet therapy also resulted in a significant reduction in parathyroid gland volume regardless of pretreatment size, which was in sharp contrast to historical controls (n = 87) where parathyroid gland volume progressively increased with traditional therapy alone. Cinacalcet effectively decreases serum PTH levels and concomitantly reduces parathyroid gland volume, even in patients with marked parathyroid hyperplasia.

  5. Pretreatment Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Ketoconazole: Association with Outcome and Predictive Nomogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Rosenbaum, Eli; Kovel, Svetlana; Pili, Roberto; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Carducci, Michael A.; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Sella, Avishay

    2012-01-01

    Background. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammation marker, is prognostic in several cancers. We assessed the association between the pretreatment NLR and outcome of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with the CYP17 inhibitor ketoconazole. Methods. This was an international, retrospective study of 156 mCRPC patients treated with ketoconazole. The independent effect of the pretreatment NLR and factors associated with treatment outcome were determined by multivariate analysis. Results. Seventy-eight patients (50%) had a ≥50% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 8 months. Excluded from the analysis were 23 patients without available data on their NLR and those with a recent health event or treatment associated with a blood count change. Sixty-two patients (47%) had a pretreatment NLR >3. Risk factors associated with the PFS outcome were a pretreatment NLR >3 and PSA doubling time (PSADT) <3 months and a prior response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist of <24 months or to an antiandrogen of <6 months. The number of risk factors was used to form a predictive nomogram by patient categorization into favorable (zero or one factor), intermediate (two factors), and poor (three or four factors) risk groups. Conclusions. In mCRPC patients treated with ketoconazole, the pretreatment NLR and PSADT, and prior response to androgen-deprivation therapy, may be associated with the PFS time and used to form a risk stratification predictive nomogram. PMID:22971522

  6. Breast Cancer Patients' Perceptions of a Virtual Learning Environment for Pretreatment Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Yobelli Alexandra; Wang, Wei; Stuart, Kirsty; Cumming, Steven; Thwaites, David; Lewis, Sarah

    2017-02-10

    The process and technicalities of radiation therapy (RT) for cancer treatment can be challenging for patients to understand as RT involves complex procedures, highly specialised equipment, and radiation itself has limited sensory characteristics. Hence, it is imperative that education programs are specifically planned and developed to suit the needs of patients, address radiation as an entity and include salient visual aids. In this context, the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) system, primarily created for RT practitioner simulation, may provide unique opportunities for patient education. This article reports on patient feedback of a newly developed breast cancer patient education program, which integrates the VERT system as the focal education tool. The education program content included RT immobilisation, simulation, planning and treatment components, along with an introduction to the VERT system. Nineteen breast cancer patients (n = 19) completed an evaluation questionnaire at the completion of their VERT education program. Open-ended questions were used to detect the least and most useful aspects of the education session. Patient feedback indicated a high regard for the comprehensiveness of the education program, with particular acknowledgement of the three dimensional visual features of the VERT system. It is proposed that VERT's high visual impact should be exploited in tailored patient education programs in order to obtain maximum patient engagement and make significant gains in effective knowledge transfer.

  7. Pretreatment insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations predict radiographic osteoarthritis in acromegalic patients with long-term cured disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermasz, N R; Wassenaar, M J E; van der Klaauw, A A; Pereira, A M; Smit, J W A; Roelfsema, F; Wolterbeek, R; Kroon, H M; Kloppenburg, M; Romijn, J A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing the development of osteoarthritis during long-term control of acromegaly, focusing on disease-specific parameters, GH and IGF-I concentrations, and duration of disease, adjusted for the well-known determinants of primary osteoarthritis. We conducted a follow-up study. We studied 67 patients with adequate biochemical control of acromegaly for a mean of almost 13 yr. Study parameters were the results of radiological assessment of the spine, hip, knee, and hand. Osteoarthritis was defined as radiological osteoarthritis using the scoring system developed by Kellgren and Lawrence. Correlations between potential factors of influence and osteoarthritis were performed by analysis of covariance and adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index. Patients with pretreatment IGF-I sd scores in the highest tertile had an almost 4-fold increased risk for radiological osteoarthritis of the hip when compared with patients in the lowest tertile. After adjustment for age, gender, BMI, and disease duration, pretreatment IGF-I sd scores predicted radiographic osteoarthritis in all joint sites. Osteoarthritis was not predicted by other factors, including pretreatment GH levels, type of treatment, and duration of follow-up. This is the first study to document pretreatment IGF-I concentration as a predictor of radiographic osteoarthritis in acromegalic patients with long-term disease control.

  8. Patients' pretreatment beliefs about recovery influence outcome of a pain rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrick, D; Sjölund, B H

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to monitor the outcome of a five-week cognitive-behavioral interdisciplinary rehabilitation program for patients disabled by chronic pain, utilizing data collected for a national quality registry. METHODS: The study included 255 consecutive patients from a universit...

  9. Dispersion relations in heavily-doped nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the dispersion relation in heavily doped nano-structures. The materials considered are III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, GaP, Ge, Platinum Antimonide, stressed, GaSb, Te, II-V, HgTe/CdTe superlattices and Bismuth Telluride semiconductors. The dispersion relation is discussed under magnetic quantization and on the basis of carrier energy spectra. The influences of magnetic field, magneto inversion, and magneto nipi structures on nano-structures is analyzed. The band structure of optoelectronic materials changes with photo-excitation in a fundamental way according to newly formulated electron dispersion laws. They control the quantum effect in optoelectronic devices in the presence of light. The measurement of band gaps in optoelectronic materials in the presence of external photo-excitation is displayed. The influences of magnetic quantization, crossed electric and quantizing fields, intense electric fields on the on the dispersion relation in heavily doped semiconductors and super-lattices are also disc...

  10. Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Pretreatment Evaluation, Predictive Factors, and Assessment during Radio-Chemotherapy, Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, Nerina; Merlano, Marco C; Russi, Elvio G

    2013-09-01

    Progress in head and neck cancer (HNC) therapies has improved tumor response, loco-regional control, and survival. However, treatment intensification also increases early and late toxicities. Dysphagia is an underestimated symptom in HNC patients. Impairment of swallowing process could cause malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration, and pneumonia. A comprehensive literature review finalized in May 2012 included searches of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and CAB abstracts) and scientific societies meetings materials (American Society of Clinical Oncology, Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica, Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Cervico-Cefalica, American Head and Neck Society, and European Society for Medical Oncology). Hand-searches of HNC journals and reference lists were carried out. Approximately one-third of dysphagia patients developed pneumonia requiring treatment. Aspiration pneumonia associated mortality ranged from 20% to 65%. Unidentified dysphagia caused significant morbidity, increased mortality, and decreased the quality of life. In this review we underline definition, causes, predictive factors of dysphagia and report on pretreatment and on-treatment evaluation, suggesting some key points to avoid underestimation. A multi-parameter assessment of swallowing problems may allow an earlier diagnosis. An appropriate evaluation might lead to a better treatment of both symptoms and cancer.

  11. Pretreatment Lymphocyte Monocyte Ratio Predicts Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Digestive System Tumor: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte monocyte ratio (LMR in digestive system cancer patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker and assess its consistency in digestive system tumors. Methods. We searched “PubMed,” “Embase,” and “CBM” for published eligible studies before June 2016 and conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs for disease recurrence and mortality focusing on LMR. Subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results. A total of 22 cohort studies enrolling 12829 patients with digestive system cancer were included. The summary results showed that lower LMR was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and tumor disease or recurrence-free survival (DFS/RFS in analyses using the studies reporting HRs either by the univariate analyses (HR = 1.32, HR = 1.35, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp. or by multivariate analyses (HR = 1.21, HR = 1.18, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.. Conclusion. Our results support the fact that decreased LMR indicates worse prognosis in multiple digestive system tumors.

  12. Pre-treatment and post-treatment changes in platelet indices in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Serdal; Uslu, Ali U; Aydin, Bahattin; Dogan, Ozgur; Sencan, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    To investigate if there is a correlation between pre- and post-treatment mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet size deviation width (PDW), and platecrit (PCT) values and to investigate whether we can use them as laboratory parameters to estimate the relapses of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients. Patients with ITP diagnosed at the Hematology Clinic, School of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey between January 2005 and December 2011 were evaluated by a retrospective review of our patients' records. Eighty-one patients with ITP were collected. The first relapse was termed as the hospitalization day before second-line therapy, and the second relapse was termed as the hospitalization day before alternate second-line therapy. We provided the following data of ITP patients at diagnosis, before and after first relapses, and before and after second relapses: presenting symptoms, platelet count, MPV, PDW, and PCT values. We obtained significant statistical differences between MPV values after initial treatment and before second-line therapy (first relapse) (p=0.005), between MPV values after splenectomy and before immunosuppressive or immune modulator therapy (second relapse) (p=0.028), and also, between PCT values after splenectomy and before second relapse (p=0.043). Mean platelet volume is gradually increasing before first and second relapses, and again normal values are being obtained after appropriate therapies. We conclude that MPV is a useful parameter as a predictor of relapses.

  13. Pre-treatment preferences and characteristics among patients seeking in vitro fertilisation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony Ph

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study sought to describe patient features before beginning fertility treatment, and to ascertain their perceptions relative to risk of twin pregnancy outcomes associated with such therapy. METHODS: Data on readiness for twin pregnancy outcome from in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was gathered from men and women before initiating fertility treatment by anonymous questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 206 women and 204 men were sampled. Mean (+\\/- SD) age for women and men being 35.5 +\\/- 5 and 37.3 +\\/- 7 yrs, respectively. At least one IVF cycle had been attempted by 27.2% of patients and 33.9% of this subgroup had initiated >\\/=3 cycles, reflecting an increase in previous failed cycles over five years. Good agreement was noted between husbands and wives with respect to readiness for twins from IVF (77% agreement; Cohen\\'s K = 0.61; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.70). CONCLUSION: Most patients contemplating IVF already have ideas about particular outcomes even before treatment begins, and suggests that husbands & wives are in general agreement on their readiness for twin pregnancy from IVF. However, fertility patients now may represent a more refractory population and therefore carry a more guarded prognosis. Patient preferences identified before IVF remain important, but further studies comparing pre- and post-treatment perceptions are needed.

  14. Outcomes from intracerebral hemorrhage among patients pre-treated with statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins, have been associated with improved clinical outcomes after ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but with an increased risk of incidental spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. We investigated whether the statin use before ICH, was associated with functional independence, 90 days after treatment. METHOD: We analyzed 124 consecutive ICH patients with 90-day outcome data who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study between 2006 and 2009. Eighty-three patients were included in this study. Among ICH survivors, univariate Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to determine subject characteristics that were associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Statin usage was determined through interviewing the patient at the time of ICH and confirmed by reviewing their medical records. Independent status was defined as Glasgow Outcome Scale grades 4 or 5. RESULTS: Statins were used by 20 out of 83 patients (24% before ICH onset. There was no effect from pre-ICH statin use on functional independence rates (28% versus 29%, P=0.84 or mortality (46% versus 45%, P=0.93. CONCLUSION: Pre-ICH statin use is not associated with changes to ICH functional outcome or mortality.

  15. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  16. Predictors of bone metastasis in pre-treatment staging of asymptomatic treatment-naïve patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, M; Cheki, M; Salehi-Marzijarani, M; Amuchastegui, T; Gholamrezanezhad, A

    2013-01-01

    There is no general consensus on the optimal criteria for the application of bone scintigraphy in screening of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer. Our study was conducted to assess the value of bone scan for pre-treatment staging of asymptomatic treatment-naïve patients with prostate cancer. A total of 203 consecutive asymptomatic and treatment-naïve patients with prostate cancer (age: 67.6±6.4 years) who were referred to our department for whole body bone scintigraphy were enrolled in the study. Three hours after intravenous injection of 20mCi (99m)Tc-MDP, all patients underwent whole body bone scanning using a single head gamma camera. The planar images were supplemented with SPECT as needed for questionable abnormalities or those having uncertain location on planar images. The mean serum PSA levels, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Gleason score (GS) were 42.41±37.1ng/ml, 223.9±129.9IU/L and 6.7±1.1, respectively. A total of 55 cases (27.1%) out of 203 patients had bone metastases. The univariate analysis showed that serum PSA levels, GS and ALP were all significant predictors of bone metastases. However, only serum PSA and ALP levels were found to be independent predictors of bone metastasis in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The combination of PSA and ALP (in which patients with either elevated PSA [>20ng/ml] or elevated ALP were considered as positive) had the best screening value, with 98.2% sensitivity and 48.6% specificity. Serum ALP screening can be employed as a tool to detect the subgroup of patients who are at high risk of bone metastases, while having a PSA of bone metastasis in newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer, without affecting staging accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. Pretreatment prostate specific antigen doubling time as prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zharinov, Gennady M.; Bogomolov, Oleg A.; Neklasova, Natalia N.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum level commonly uses as tumor marker in diagnosis of prostate cancer, it seems that PSA doubling time (PSADT) could be more useful indicator of tumor behavior and of prognosis for patients. The results of hormone and radiation therapy were evaluated for 912 prostate cancer having at least 2 PSA tests before the treatment was started. Clustering procedure (selection of homogenous group) was performed by using PSADT as the classification marker. ...

  18. Potential role of pemetrexed in metastatic breast cancer patients pre-treated with anthracycline or taxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yan Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This article reviews pharmacology, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, and safety in metastatic breast cancer patients, as well as the predictive biomarkers for outcome of treatment with pemetrexed-based regimens. Methods: PubMed, Embase, OVID, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched from the beginning of each database without any limitations to the date of publication. Search terms were ‘‘pemetrexed’’ or ‘‘LY231514’’ or “Alimta”, “metastatic breast cancer”, and “advanced breast cancer”. Results: There were 15 studies (n = 1002 meeting our criteria for evaluation. Eight single-agent trials (n = 551 and seven using combinations with other agents (n = 451 were identified that evaluated pemetrexed for use in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Response rates to pemetrexed as a single agent varied from 8% to 31%, and with combination therapy have been reported to be between 15.8% and 55.7%. With routine supplementation of patients with folic acid, dexamethasone, and vitamin B12, the toxicity profile of these patients was mild, including dose-limiting neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, as well as lower grades of reversible hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal toxicity. Expression of thymidylate synthase (TS and other biomarkers are associated with the prognosis and sensitivity for pemetrexed in breast cancer. Conclusion: Pemetrexed has shown remarkable activity with acceptable toxicities for treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients. Translational research on pemetrexed in breast cancer identified biomarkers as well as additional genes important to its clinical activity and toxicity. Further research is needed to clarify the role of pemetrexed in breast cancer treatment in order to guide oncologists. Keywords: Metastatic breast cancer, Chemotherapy, Pemetrexed, Anthracycline, Taxane

  19. The difference in condylar position between centric relation and centric occlusion in pretreatment Japanese orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; Takada, Kenji

    2002-08-01

    This study investigates the differences in condylar position between centric relation (CR) and centric occlusion (CO) in Japanese orthodontic patients before treatment. We employed 150 consecutive cases (age range: 6-57 years) for the study. Dental casts were mounted on a Panadent articulator with a power centric CR bite record. The differences in condylar position between CR and CO in all three spatial planes were measured using the Panadent Condyle Position Indicator (CPI). The subjects were divided into groups by age, gender, mandibular plane angle or angle classification. No significant differences in the magnitude of CPI measurements were found among the groups. The three-dimensional distances of condylar displacement on both sides were almost identical, and the superoinferior displacement (S-I) was greater (P < .0001) than the anteroposterior displacement (A-P). The S-I was greater (P = .02) on the left side than on the right side, while the A-P displacement was smaller (P < .0001) on the left side than that on the right side. Significant condylar displacement (2.0 mm for S-I and A-P, 0.5 mm for the lateral displacement, L) was found frequently in L (31.3%), S-I, and A-P, in that order. Fifty-eight (38.7%) of the subjects had significant displacement in L, S-I, or A-P. Moreover, Angle Class III subjects tended to have significant condylar displacement toward the left side. The results suggest that orthodontists should be aware of a high incidence of condylar displacement in Japanese orthodontic patients and measure condylar displacement before the start of comprehensive orthodontic treatment to unmask real jaw relationships and avoid possible misdiagnoses.

  20. Prognostic Impact of Pretreatment Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography SUVmax in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Simona; Perrone, Anna Myriam; Castellucci, Paolo; Macchia, Gabriella; Buwenge, Milly; Cammelli, Silvia; Cilla, Savino; Ferioli, Martina; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Galuppi, Andrea; Salizzoni, Eugenio; Rubino, Daniela; Fanti, Stefano; De Iaco, Pierandrea; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of SUVmax fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) measured in the primary tumor, pelvic and para-aortic node with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. A total of 92 patients with histological diagnosis of locally advanced cervical cancer are treated with radiochemotherapy plus brachytherapy boost from January 2008 to April 2014 in our Institution. A pretreatment FDG-PET/CT for staging and radiotherapy planning was performed, and the value of SUVmax measured in primary tumor and positive nodes was related to DFS and OS. Univariate analysis showed that DFS is related to FDG-PET/CT positive para-aortic nodes (P = 0.01), International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage of disease (P = 0.01), and primary tumor SUVmax (P = 0.02), and OS is related to positive para-aortic nodes (P = 0.01) and primary tumor SUVmax (P = 0.02).In multivariate analysis, DFS is modified by FDG-PET/CT positive para-aortic lymph nodes, stage and high T SUVmax (P = 0.02; P = 0.003; P = 0.04), but the only worse prognostic factor of OS is the high SUVmax in the primary tumor (P = 0.01). We found that T SUVmax, stage, and para-aortic lymph node status assessed by FDG-PET were independent prognostic factors of DFS, whereas only T SUVmax correlated with OS.

  1. Pre-treatment differences and early response monitoring of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients using magnetic resonance imaging: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevos, R.; Wildberger, J.E. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Smidt, M.L. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.G. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Goethem, M. van [University Hospital of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Beets-Tan, R.G.; Lobbes, M.B.I. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    To assess whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify pre-treatment differences or monitor early response in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PubMed, Cochrane library, Medline and Embase databases were searched for publications until January 1, 2012. After primary selection, studies were selected based on predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers assessed study contents using an extraction form. In 15 studies, which were mainly underpowered and of heterogeneous study design, 31 different parameters were studied. Most frequently studied parameters were tumour diameter or volume, K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, V{sub e}, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Other parameters were analysed in only two or less studies. Tumour diameter, volume, and kinetic parameters did not show any pre-treatment differences between responders and non-responders. In two studies, pre-treatment differences in ADC were observed between study groups. At early response monitoring significant and non-significant changes for all parameters were observed for most of the imaging parameters. Evidence on distinguishing responders and non-responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using pre-treatment MRI, as well as using MRI for early response monitoring, is weak and based on underpowered study results and heterogeneous study design. Thus, the value of breast MRI for response evaluation has not yet been established. (orig.)

  2. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, following pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Lynn R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is a common type of neuropathic pain that can severely affect quality of life. NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, is a localized treatment that can provide patients with significant pain relief for up to 3 months following a single 60-minute application. The NGX-4010 application can be associated with application-site pain and in previous clinical trials pretreatment with a topical 4% lidocaine anesthetic was used to enhance tolerability. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate tolerability of NGX-4010 after pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% anesthetic cream. Methods Twenty-four patients with PHN were pretreated with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream for 60 minutes before receiving a single 60-minute application of NGX-4010. Tolerability was assessed by measuring patch application duration, the proportion of patients completing over 90% of the intended treatment duration, application site-related pain using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, and analgesic medication use to relieve such pain. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs and dermal irritation using dermal assessment scores. Results The mean treatment duration of NGX-4010 was 60.2 minutes and all patients completed over 90% of the intended patch application duration. Pain during application was transient. A maximum mean change in NPRS score of +3.0 was observed at 55 minutes post-patch application; pain scores gradually declined to near pre-anesthetic levels (+0.71 within 85 minutes of patch removal. Half of the patients received analgesic medication on the day of treatment; by Day 7, no patients required medication. The most common AEs were application site-related pain, erythema, edema, and pruritus. All patients experienced mild dermal irritation 5 minutes after patch removal, which subsequently decreased; at Day 7, no irritation was evident. The maximum recorded dermal assessment

  3. Prediction of lung density changes after radiotherapy by cone beam computed tomography response markers and pre-treatment factors for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigates the ability of pre-treatment factors and response markers extracted from standard cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to predict the lung density changes induced by radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS...... AND MATERIALS: Density changes in follow-up computed tomography scans were evaluated for 135 NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy. Early response markers were obtained by analysing changes in lung density in CBCT images acquired during the treatment course. The ability of pre-treatment factors and CBCT...... markers to predict lung density changes induced by radiotherapy was investigated. RESULTS: Age and CBCT markers extracted at 10th, 20th, and 30th treatment fraction significantly predicted lung density changes in a multivariable analysis, and a set of response models based on these parameters were...

  4. A model-based 3D patient-specific pre-treatment QA method for VMAT using the EPID

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, P. M.; Asuni, G.; van Beek, T.; van Uytven, E.; Kujanpaa, K.; McCurdy, B. M. C.

    2017-02-01

    This study reports the development and validation of a model-based, 3D patient dose reconstruction method for pre-treatment quality assurance using EPID images. The method is also investigated for sensitivity to potential MLC delivery errors. Each cine-mode EPID image acquired during plan delivery was processed using a previously developed back-projection dose reconstruction model providing a 3D dose estimate on the CT simulation data. Validation was carried out using 24 SBRT-VMAT patient plans by comparing: (1) ion chamber point dose measurements in a solid water phantom, (2) the treatment planning system (TPS) predicted 3D dose to the EPID reconstructed 3D dose in a solid water phantom, and (3) the TPS predicted 3D dose to the EPID and our forward predicted reconstructed 3D dose in the patient (CT data). AAA and AcurosXB were used for TPS predictions. Dose distributions were compared using 3%/3 mm (95% tolerance) and 2%/2 mm (90% tolerance) γ-tests in the planning target volume (PTV) and 20% dose volumes. The average percentage point dose differences between the ion chamber and the EPID, AcurosXB, and AAA were 0.73  ±  1.25%, 0.38  ±  0.96% and 1.06  ±  1.34% respectively. For the patient (CT) dose comparisons, seven (3%/3 mm) and nine (2%/2 mm) plans failed the EPID versus AAA. All plans passed the EPID versus Acuros XB and the EPID versus forward model γ-comparisons. Four types of MLC sensitive errors (opening, shifting, stuck, and retracting), of varying magnitude (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mm), were introduced into six different SBRT-VMAT plans. γ-comparisons of the erroneous EPID dose and original predicted dose were carried out using the same criteria as above. For all plans, the sensitivity testing using a 3%/3 mm γ-test in the PTV successfully determined MLC errors on the order of 1.0 mm, except for the single leaf retraction-type error. A 2%/2 mm criteria produced similar results with two more additional detected

  5. A model-based 3D patient-specific pre-treatment QA method for VMAT using the EPID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, P M; Asuni, G; van Beek, T; van Uytven, E; Kujanpaa, K; McCurdy, B M C

    2017-02-21

    This study reports the development and validation of a model-based, 3D patient dose reconstruction method for pre-treatment quality assurance using EPID images. The method is also investigated for sensitivity to potential MLC delivery errors. Each cine-mode EPID image acquired during plan delivery was processed using a previously developed back-projection dose reconstruction model providing a 3D dose estimate on the CT simulation data. Validation was carried out using 24 SBRT-VMAT patient plans by comparing: (1) ion chamber point dose measurements in a solid water phantom, (2) the treatment planning system (TPS) predicted 3D dose to the EPID reconstructed 3D dose in a solid water phantom, and (3) the TPS predicted 3D dose to the EPID and our forward predicted reconstructed 3D dose in the patient (CT data). AAA and AcurosXB were used for TPS predictions. Dose distributions were compared using 3%/3 mm (95% tolerance) and 2%/2 mm (90% tolerance) γ-tests in the planning target volume (PTV) and 20% dose volumes. The average percentage point dose differences between the ion chamber and the EPID, AcurosXB, and AAA were 0.73  ±  1.25%, 0.38  ±  0.96% and 1.06  ±  1.34% respectively. For the patient (CT) dose comparisons, seven (3%/3 mm) and nine (2%/2 mm) plans failed the EPID versus AAA. All plans passed the EPID versus Acuros XB and the EPID versus forward model γ-comparisons. Four types of MLC sensitive errors (opening, shifting, stuck, and retracting), of varying magnitude (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mm), were introduced into six different SBRT-VMAT plans. γ-comparisons of the erroneous EPID dose and original predicted dose were carried out using the same criteria as above. For all plans, the sensitivity testing using a 3%/3 mm γ-test in the PTV successfully determined MLC errors on the order of 1.0 mm, except for the single leaf retraction-type error. A 2%/2 mm criteria produced similar results with two more additional detected

  6. Pemetrexed plus carboplatin versus pemetrexed in pretreated patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer : treating the right patients based on individualized treatment effect prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruijsdijk, R. C. M.; Visseren, F. L. J.; Boni, L.; Groen, H. J. M.; Dingemans, A. M. C.; Aerts, J. G. J. V.; van der Graaf, Y.; Ardizzoni, A.; Smit, E. F.

    In this study, it is shown that there is important heterogeneity in the effects of pemetrexed-carboplatin versus pemetrexed on progression-free survival in pretreated patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Treatment effect can be predicted for individual patients using a

  7. Prognostic impact of pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with first-line docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigliero, Consuelo; Pisano, Chiara; Tucci, Marcello; Vignani, Francesca; Bertaglia, Valentina; Iaconis, Davide; Guglielmini, Pamela; Numico, Gianmauro; Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Di Maio, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a measure of systemic inflammatory response, has been associated with poor outcome in several solid tumors, including prostate cancer. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic role of pretreatment NLR in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with first-line docetaxel. All CRPC patients treated with first-line docetaxel at two Italian institutions, with available data about baseline neutrophil and lymphocyte values, were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were divided in two groups according to NLR ratio (low NLR: ≤3; high NLR: >3). Outcome measures were progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS), measured from the start of docetaxel treatment. Univariate and multivariate analysis (adjusting for baseline prostate-specific antigen, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin, albumin, performance status, use of opioids and presence of visceral disease) were performed. One hundred and seventy-nine patients treated between 2004 and 2016 were analyzed and 110 had information about pretreatment NLR. Forty-six patients (42%) had low NLR and 64 (58%) had high NLR. Median PFS was 8.8 months in patients with low NLR versus 7.3 months in those with high NLR [hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.69, p = .58]. Median OS was 34.9 months in patients with low NLR versus 20.2 months in those with high NLR (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.07-3.19, p = .02). At multivariate analysis, NLR confirmed an independent impact on OS (HR 3.16, 95% CI 1.50-6.65, p = .002). In this retrospective series, metastatic CRPC patients who started first-line docetaxel with a low pretreatment NLR had a significantly better survival. In addition to known prognostic factors, NLR can be useful to improve prognostic evaluation of patients in this setting.

  8. The Predictive Value of Pretreatment (18)-F-FDG-PET-CT in Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients Treated Definitively with Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemo-Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Hala A; Khedr, Gehan A; Rostom, Yousri; Refaat, Tamer

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of pretreatment 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET-CT) as a predictor of disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC) patients treated definitively with docetaxel-based induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation (CRT). This is a retrospective study approved by the institutional review board and included LANC patients treated definitively and consecutively between January 2008 and December 2012 with induction chemotherapy; docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-flurouracil (TPF) followed by CRT utilizing weekly cisplatin. All patients had baseline pretreatment (18)F-FDG-PET-CT. We studied the association between the baseline primary tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and the treatment outcomes; OS and DFS. The study included 70 eligible LANPC patients. The 4-year OS and DFS rates were 86.7% and 78.6%, respectively. The median OS and DFS intervals were not reached. On a univariate analysis, the 4-years DFS was significantly higher in patients with pretreatment SUVmax <8 compared versus ≥ 8 (95% vs 57.7%, P=0.002). Furthermore, DFS was significantly correlated with pretreatment T stage (P=0.01), N stage (P=0.02), treatment response (P<0.001) and treatment breaks (P<0.001). On a multivariate analysis, the SUVmax category was the only factor correlated with 4-year DFS (Hazard ratio=10.2, 95% C I 1.3-116.8, P=0.035) but not OS (P=0.085). There is no actual or potential conflict of interest with the production and publication of this work. No author has a direct or indirect commercial financial incentive associated with the publication of this article. This study shows that the pretreatment primary tumor (18)F-FDG-PET-CT SUVmax is a potential independent prognostic predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with LANC treated definitively with TPF induction chemotherapy followed by CRT. Further controlled clinical

  9. Phase II study of single-agent bosutinib, a Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer pretreated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, M; Bondarenko, I; Brincat, S; Hotko, Y; Munster, P N; Chmielowska, E; Fumoleau, P; Ward, R; Bardy-Bouxin, N; Leip, E; Turnbull, K; Zacharchuk, C; Epstein, R J

    2012-03-01

    This phase II study evaluated single-agent bosutinib in pretreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Patients received oral bosutinib 400 mg/day. The primary end point was the progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 16 weeks. Secondary end points included objective response rate, clinical benefit rate, 2-year overall survival rate, safety, and changes in levels of bone resorption/formation biomarkers. Seventy-three patients were enrolled and treated. Median time from diagnosis of metastatic disease to initiation of bosutinib treatment was 24.5 months. For the intent-to-treat population, the PFS rate at 16 weeks was 39.6%. Unexpectedly, all responding patients (n = 4) were hormone receptor positive. The clinical benefit rate was 27.4%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 26.4%. The main toxic effects were diarrhea (66%), nausea (55%), and vomiting (47%). Grade 3-4 laboratory aminotransferase elevations occurred in 14 (19%) patients. Myelosuppression was minimal. No consistent changes in the levels of bone resorption/formation biomarkers were seen. Bosutinib showed promising efficacy in prolonging time to progression in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Bosutinib was generally well tolerated, with a safety profile different from that of the Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib in a similar patient population.

  10. Pre-treatment patient-specific stopping power by combining list-mode proton radiography and x-ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Brousmiche, Sébastien; Hansen, David C.; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2017-09-01

    The relative stopping power (RSP) uncertainty is the largest contributor to the range uncertainty in proton therapy. The purpose of this work was to develop a systematic method that yields accurate and patient-specific RSPs by combining (1) pre-treatment x-ray CT and (2) daily proton radiography of the patient. The method was formulated as a penalized least squares optimization problem (argmin(\\Vert {A}{x}-{b}\\Vert _22 )). The parameter A represents the cumulative path-length crossed by the proton in each material, separated by thresholding on the HU. The material RSPs (water equivalent thickness/physical thickness) are denoted by x. The parameter b is the list-mode proton radiography produced using Geant4 simulations. The problem was solved using a non-negative linear-solver with {x}≥slant0 . A was computed by superposing proton trajectories calculated with a cubic or linear spline approach to the CT. The material’s RSP assigned in Geant4 were used for reference while the clinical HU-RSP calibration curve was used for comparison. The Gammex RMI-467 phantom was first investigated. The standard deviation between the estimated material RSP and the calculated RSP is 0.45%. The robustness of the techniques was then assessed as a function of the number of projections and initial proton energy. Optimization with two initial projections yields precise RSP (⩽1.0%) for 330 MeV protons. 250 MeV protons have shown higher uncertainty (⩽2.0%) due to the loss of precision in the path estimate. Anthropomorphic phantoms of the head, pelvis, and lung were subsequently evaluated. Accurate RSP has been obtained for the head (μ =0.21+/-1.63% ), the lung (μ=0.06+/-0.99% ) and the pelvis (μ=0.90+/-3.87% ). The range precision has been optimized using the calibration curves obtained with the algorithm, yielding a mean R80 difference to the reference of 0.11  ±0.09%, 0.28  ±  0.34% and 0.05 +/- 0.06% in the same order. The solution’s accuracy is limited by the

  11. Association of Pretreatment Anemia with Pathological Response and Survival of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhu

    Full Text Available Anemia related to adjuvant chemotherapy might predict compromised survival in patients with breast cancer. The present population-based study was to investigate the correlation of pretreatment anemia with pathological response and long-term prognosis of breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT.From 1999 to 2011, a total of 655 patients with operable or locally advanced breast cancer who underwent NCT before definitive surgery were reviewed. The patients were subdivided into anemic (baseline hemoglobin (Hb<12.0 g/dL and non-anemic (Hb≥12.0 g/dL groups. Comparison was made between anemic and non-anemic groups concerning the rate of pathological complete response (pCR, relapse-free survival (RFS, overall survival (OS and cancer-specific survival (CSS. Logistic and Cox regression models were utilized to determine the predictive value of pretreatment anemia in outcomes of patients undergoing NCT.166 women (25.3% were anemic before treatment. Patients in the anemic group were less likely to achieve pCR in NCT than their non-anemic counterparts (odds ratio (OR 0.428, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.198-0.927, p = 0.031. Patients with baseline anemia displayed inferior 10-year RFS (59.1% vs 66.0%, p = 0.022 by log-rank, OS (75.3% vs 90.9%, p<0.001 and CSS (82.4% vs 94.4%, p<0.001 compared with those without. After adjustment for confounders, pretreatment anemia was demonstrated to correlate with elevated risk of relapse (hazard ratio (HR 1.453, 95% CI 1.077-1.962, p = 0.015, cancer-specific mortality (HR 2.961, 95% CI 1.679-5.222, p<0.001 and all-cause mortality (HR 2.873, 95% CI 1.757-4.699, p<0.001.Pretreatment anemia was associated with worse pathological response to NCT as well as survival status in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to identify optimal interventions and improve the prognosis of this subgroup.

  12. Evaluation of pretreatment serum interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha as a potential biomarker for recurrence in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrinjar, Ivana; Brailo, Vlaho; Vidovic-Juras, Danica; Vucicevic-Boras, Vanja; Milenovic, Aleksandar

    2015-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 3 percent of all cancers with predominant occurrence in middle aged and elderly males. Tumour recurrence worsens disease prognosis and decreases quality of life in patients with OSCC. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) have been suggested to play a certain role in variety of tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of pretreatment serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels on tumour recurrence in patients with OSCC in order to identify potential biomarkers for the early detection of disease recurrence. The patients with newly diagnosed OSCC were treated and followed from the first visit from November 2006 until January 2008. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were measured. The records of the patients were re-examined in July 2012 and data were recorded about cancer characteristics and tumour recurrence. Disease free survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Serum IL-6 was shown as an independent risk factor for tumour recurrence. Pretreatment serum IL-6 concentration may be a useful biomarker for identification of OSCC patients with increased risk of the disease recurrence.

  13. Elevated Pretreatment Serum Concentration of YKL-40-An Independent Prognostic Biomarker for Poor Survival in Patients With Metastatic Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thom, I.; Andritzky, B.; Schuch, G.

    2010-01-01

    of YKL-40 has not been established in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Pretreatment serum levels of YKL-40 were determined in 189 patients with NSCLC (143 men and 46 women; median age, 62 years;, age range, 41-76 years). Twelve percent of patients had stage IIIB disease, and 88% had stage IV......BACKGROUND: The glycoprotein YKL-40 is synthesized both by cancer cells and by tumor-associated macrophages and plays a functional role in tumor progression. Consequently, high serum YKL-40 levels have been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with several cancer types. However, the role...... disease. Ninety-eight patients received combined gemcitabine and vinorelbine, and 91 received combined gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy. The median overall survival was 37 weeks. RESULTS: Patients had a median serum YKL-40 level of 209 ng/mL (range, 19-2153 ng...

  14. Pretreatment direct bilirubin and total cholesterol are significant predictors of overall survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Jianlin; Lou, Yuqing; Hu, Song; Yu, Keke; Li, Rong; Zhang, Xueyan; Jin, Bo; Han, Baohui

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the prediction of pretreatment circulating bilirubin and cholesterol for overall survival in 459 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Circulating total bilirubin, direct bilirubin (DB), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured at baseline. The mean age (standard deviation) of all study patients was 58.7 (10.5) years, and 42.9% of them was males. Ever smokers accounted for 27.0% and lung adenocarcinoma for 90.4%. The median follow-up time and survival time were 29.5 and 34.9 months, respectively. Patients with higher DB had a 1.68-fold increased risk of death compared with patients with lower DB (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.30, p = 0.001), while patients with higher TC were at a 63% reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower TC (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.20-0.67, p = 0.001). As for HDL-C, patients with higher levels had the risk of death reduced by 46% (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-1.00, p = 0.049) compared with patients with lower levels. After the Bonferroni correction, only DB and TC were significantly associated with NSCLC survival. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that pretreatment DB was identified as a significant risk factor, yet TC as a protective factor, for overall survival in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations. © 2016 UICC.

  15. Combination chemotherapy with intermittent erlotinib and pemetrexed for pretreated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase I dose-finding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Seigo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erlotinib and pemetrexed have been approved for the second-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. These two agents have different mechanisms of action. Combined treatment with erlotinib and pemetrexed could potentially augment the antitumor activity of either agent alone. In the present study, we investigated the safety profile of combined administration of the two agents in pretreated NSCLC patients. Methods A phase I dose-finding study (Trial registration: UMIN000002900 was performed in patients with stage III/IV nonsquamous NSCLC whose disease had progressed on or after receiving first-line chemotherapy. Patients received 500 mg/m2 of pemetrexed intravenously every 21 days and erlotinib (100 mg at Level 1 and 150 mg at Level 2 orally on days 2–16. Results Twelve patients, nine males and three females, were recruited. Patient characteristics included a median age of 66 years (range, 48–78 years, stage IV disease (nine cases, adenocarcinoma (seven cases and activating mutation-positives in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (two cases. Treatment was well-tolerated, and the recommended dose of erlotinib was fixed at 150 mg. Dose-limiting toxicities were experienced in three patients and included: grade 3 elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, repetitive grade 4 neutropenia that required reduction of the second dose of pemetrexed and grade 3 diarrhea. No patient experienced drug-induced interstitial lung disease. Three patients achieved a partial response and stable disease was maintained in five patients. Conclusions Combination chemotherapy of intermittent erlotinib with pemetrexed was well-tolerated, with promising efficacy against pretreated advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.

  16. Pretreatment tumor SUV{sub max} predicts disease-specific and overall survival in patients with head and neck soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Seung Cheol; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungsu S.; Moon, Hyojeong; Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Head and neck soft tissue sarcoma (HNSTS) is a rare type of tumor with various histological presentations and clinical behaviors. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is being increasingly used for staging, grading, and predicting treatment outcomes in various types of human cancers, although this modality has been rarely studied in the survival prediction of HNSTS. Here we examined the prognostic value of tumor metabolic parameters measured using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with HNSTS. This study included 36 consecutive patients with HNSTS who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning prior to treatment at our institution. Tumor gross total volume (GTV) was measured from pretreatment contrast-enhanced CT scans, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured using pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to identify associations between imaging parameters and disease-specific survival (DSS) or overall survival (OS). Univariate analyses showed that SUV{sub max}, MTV, and TLG, but not GTV, were significantly associated with DSS and OS (all P < 0.05). After controlling for clinicopathological factors, SUV{sub max}, MTV, and TLG were significantly associated with DSS and OS (all P < 0.05). Patients with a tumor SUV{sub max} value of >7.0 experienced an approximately fivefold increase in mortality in terms of DSS and OS relative to those with a tumor SUV{sub max} <7.0. Quantitative metabolic measurements on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can yield values that are significantly predictive of survival after treatment for HNSTS. (orig.)

  17. Effects of prasugrel pretreatment on angiographic myocardial perfusion parameters in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Leor; Sasson, Liat; Weissler-Snir, Adaya; Greenberg, Gabriel; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Kornowski, Ran; Assali, Abid; Lev, Eli I

    2015-12-01

    Prasugrel is a third-generation thienopyridine, with significant pharmacodynamic and clinical advantages over clopidogrel. There are few data on the effects of prasugrel therapy, as compared with clopidogrel, in terms of perfusion during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 128 patients with STEMI, pretreated with prasugrel 60 mg loading dose (mean age=55.9±9.1; 10.9% were women and 18.0% had diabetes), were compared with 128 propensity-matched patients pretreated with clopidogrel 600 mg (mean age=58.7±10.7; 10.2% were women and 19.5% had diabetes) for the primary endpoint of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow and myocardial blush grade at completion of the PCI. Secondary endpoints included the combined sum of major adverse events: death, reinfarction or target vessel revascularization at 1 year. Mean TIMI flow grade pre-PCI was similar between the two groups (1.31±1.3 in the prasugrel group and 1.30±1.2 in the clopidogrel group, P=0.96). However, after intervention, it was higher in the prasugrel group (2.94±0.24 vs. 2.84±0.37, respectively, P=0.016), as was myocardial blush (2.70±0.76 vs. 2.31±0.52, respectively, P<0.001). The percentage of TIMI 3 after intervention was also higher in the prasugrel group (97.70 vs. 90.60%, P=0.02). The combined rate of major adverse events at 1 year (8.7 vs. 11.6%, P=0.11), as well as total mortality (3.1±5.6 vs. 4.7±9.1%, P=0.52), did not differ between the two groups. In patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, pretreatment with prasugrel resulted in better angiographic perfusion results, as compared with pretreatment with clopidogrel.

  18. Effect of oral contraceptive pill pretreatment on ongoing pregnancy rates in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonists and recombinant FSH for IVF. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Papanikolaou, Evangelos G; Camus, Michel; Tournaye, Herman; Van Steirteghem, Andre C; Devroey, Paul

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effect of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment on the probability of ongoing pregnancy in patients treated with a GnRH antagonist for IVF. A fixed dose of 200 IU recombinant FSH (rFSH) was started in 425 patients either on day 2 of the menstrual cycle (non-OCP group: n = 211) or 5 days after discontinuing the OCP (OCP group: n = 214). GnRH-antagonist was initiated on day 6 of stimulation, and triggering of final oocyte maturation was performed with 10,000 IU of HCG. Ongoing pregnancy rates per started cycle in the non-OCP and OCP group were 27.5% and 22.9%, respectively [95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference: -3.7 to +12.8]. Pregnancy loss was significantly increased in the OCP (36.4%) compared with the non-OCP group (21.6%) (95% CI of the difference: -28.4 to -2.3). Pretreatment with OCP, as compared with initiation of stimulation on day 2 of the cycle in patients treated with GnRH antagonist and recombinant FSH, appears to be associated with a not significant difference in ongoing pregnancy rates per started cycle and results in a significantly higher early pregnancy loss.

  19. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; Pstatin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients with prior treatment. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE is significant for

  20. Phase I trial of irofulven (MGI 114) in pediatric patients with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomgaars, Lisa R; Megason, Gail C; Pullen, Jeanette; Langevin, Anne-Marie; Dale Weitman, Steve; Hershon, Linda; Kuhn, John G; Bernstein, Mark; Blaney, Susan M

    2006-08-01

    We performed a Phase I trial of irofulven (MGI 114) to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and the plasma pharmacokinetics of irofulven in children Irofulven daily x 5 days every 28 days over 10 min, following pre-treatment with ondansetron (0.45 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (12 mg/m(2)). The initial dose of irofulven was 8 mg/m(2) daily, with subsequent escalations to 10, 13, and 17 mg/m(2). Plasma pharmacokinetic samples were obtained in a subset patients. Thirty-two patients were assessable for toxicity, and 30 were assessable for response. In heavily pre-treated patients, dose-limiting thrombocytopenia was observed in two patients at the 8 mg/m(2)/day, and in one patient at the 6 mg/m(2)/day dose level. In less heavily pre-treated patients, proteinuria and elevated creatinine were dose limiting in two patients at the 17 mg/m(2)/day dose level. At 13 mg/m(2)/day, constipation, hyperkalemia with elevated creatinine, and thrombocytopenia was dose limiting in three patients. There were no complete or partial responses. One patient with poorly differentiated carcinoma had stable disease and received 11 courses of therapy. Patients demonstrated a lower systemic exposure and greater clearance than adults treated at similar dose levels. The MTD of irofulven administered daily x 5 every 28 days with concomitant ondansetron and dexamethasone is 6 mg/m(2)/day in heavily pre-treated patients and 10 mg/m(2)/day in less heavily pre-treated patients.

  1. A comparative study of luteal estradiol pre-treatment in GnRH antagonist protocols and in micro dose flare protocols for poor-responding patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davar, Robab; Rahsepar, Mozhgan; Rahmani, Elham

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to verify if luteal estradiol pre-treatment improves IVF/ICSI outcomes in a GnRH antagonist protocol as compared with a micro dose GnRH agonist protocol in poor-responding patients. A total of 116 IVF/ICSI cycles were included in this prospective randomized single blind clinical trial. The selected women were randomly assigned to receive an estradiol pre-treatment in a GnRH antagonist protocol (daily oral Estradiol Valerate 4 mg preceding the IVF cycle from the 21st day until the first day of the next cycle) or in oral contraceptive pill micro dose GnRH agonist protocol. The patients in the luteal estradiol protocol required more days of stimulation (10.9 ± 1.6 vs. 10.2 ± 1.8) and a greater gonadotropin requirement (3,247.8 ± 634.6 vs. 2,994.8 ± 611 IU), yet similar numbers of oocytes were retrieved and fertilized. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the implantation rates (9.8 vs. 7.9 %) and the clinical pregnancy rates per transfer (16.3 vs. 15.6 %). This study demonstrates that the use of estradiol during a preceding luteal phase in a GnRH antagonist protocol can provide similar IVF outcomes when compared to a micro dose GnRH agonist protocol.

  2. Effect of hemodialysis session on the dynamics of carnitine ester profile changes in L-carnitine pretreated end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiky, Botond; Bene, Judit; Wittmann, Istvan; Sulyok, Endre; Melegh, Bela

    2013-06-01

    Carnitine deficiency is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) treatment. We investigated the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on acyl carnitine (AC) profile and the changes of distinct ACs during a single HD session in long-term L-carnitine pretreated ESRD patients. Twenty non-diabetic adult patients and 37 healthy controls were studied. Blood samples were drawn before and after 12 weeks of carnitine supplementation, then hourly during an HD session, as well as 30 min after the end of the session. Free and individual AC plasma levels were determined by using ESI MS/MS technique. HD patients showed lower free- and total carnitine levels and elevated ACs and acyl/free carnitine ratio before carnitine supplementation. The L-carnitine supplementation resulted in dramatic elevation of all carnitine esters. The HD session induced a progressive decline in free, short-chain, and dicarboxylic ACs (~80 % of pre-HD amount was washed out); the decrease of medium-chain ACs proved to be more moderate (~60 % washed out), whereas the long-chain ACs remained unaffected. Already 30 min after HD, a substantial increase was seen in free carnitine concentration (reaching 26 % of predialysis level) and the ACs also started to replenish (to 21-52 % of predialysis levels), without further exogenous carnitine load. The washout induced by HD session results in variable depletion of short-, medium-, and long-chain carnitine esters in carnitine-pretreated patients; the recovery of the circulating carnitine esters from the body stores occurs within 30 min after the cessation of the HD procedure.

  3. [24 weeks treatment with pegylated interferon alfa plus ribavirin may be possible in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients with rapid virological response who have low pretreatment viremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Soo; Kang, Hyoun Gu; Seo, Jeong Ah; Jung, Eun Uk; Lee, Sang Heon; Park, Sung Jae; Lee, Youn Jae; Seol, Sang Yong

    2010-07-01

    The standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 is a combination of pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin over a 48 weeks period. It is unclear if 24 weeks treatment is possible for patients showing a rapid virological response (RVR) without compromising the sustained virological response (SVR) in Korea. Between June 2005 and September 2008, among patients chronically infected with the HCV genotype 1 who were treated with pegylated interferon alfa subcutaneously once weekly plus ribavirin based on body weight, 55 patients who had low pretreatment viral load (<600,000 IU/mL) and RVR were enrolled. A total of 55 patients were divided into 24 weeks treatment group (n=29) and the standard treatment group (n=26). The HCV RNA was quantitatively assessed before treatment, and after 12 weeks of treatment, and also qualitatively assessed after 4 weeks of treatment, at end of treatment (24 weeks), and 24 weeks after end of treatment. RVR was defined as undetectable HCV RNA at the 4 weeks of treatment. Among the 55 patients, SVR was achieved in 100% (29/29) of the patients in 24 weeks treatment and 96.2% (25/26) of the patients in the standard treatment (p=0.473). HCV genotype 1 infected patients with a low baseline HCV RNA concentration who become HCV RNA negative at week 4 may be treated for 24 weeks without compromising sustained virological response. However, an additional trial will be needed to optimize the treatment duration.

  4. Pre-treatment mortality and loss-to-follow-up in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy in The Gambia, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko Francis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High early mortality rate among HIV infected patients following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource limited settings may indicate high pre-treatment mortality among ART-eligible patients. There is dearth of data on pre-treatment mortality in ART programmes in sub-Sahara Africa. This study aims to determine pre-treatment mortality rate and predictors of pre-treatment mortality among ART-eligible adult patients in a West Africa clinic-based cohort. Methods All HIV-infected patients aged 15 years or older eligible for ART between June 2004 and September 2009 were included in the analysis. Assessment for eligibility was based on the Gambia ART guideline. Survival following ART-eligibility was determined by Kaplan-Meier estimates and predictors of pre-treatment mortality determined by Cox proportional hazard models. Result Overall, 790 patients were assessed as eligible for ART based on their clinical and/or immunological status among whom 510 (64.6% started treatment, 26 (3.3% requested transfer to another health facility, 136 (17.2% and 118 (14.9% were lost to follow-up and died respectively without starting ART. ART-eligible patients who died or were lost to follow-up were more likely to be male or to have a CD4 T-cell count Conclusion Approximately one third of ART-eligible patients did not start ART and pre-treatment mortality rate was found high among HIV infected patients in our cohort. CD4 T-cell count

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging for pretreatment evaluation and prediction of treatment effect in patients undergoing CT-guided injection for lumbar disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Xiang Ke [Dept. of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University, Chengdu (China); Bhetuwal, Anup; Yang, Han Feng [Schuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging and Dept. of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong (China)

    2015-08-15

    To determine whether a change in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could predict early response to CT-guided Oxygen-Ozone (O{sub 2}-O{sub 3}) injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation. A total of 52 patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy received a single intradiscal (3 mL) and periganglionic (5 mL) injection of an O{sub 2}-O{sub 3} mixture. An ADC index of the involved side to the intact side was calculated using the following formula: pre-treatment ADC index = ([ADC involved side - ADC intact side] / ADC intact side) x 100. We analyzed the relationship between the pre-treatment Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the ADC index. In addition, the correlation between ODI recovery ratio and ADC index was investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of the ADC index for predicting response in O{sub 2}-O{sub 3} therapy was determined. Oswestry Disability Index and the ADC index was not significantly correlated (r = -0.125, p = 0.093). The ADC index and ODI recovery ratio was significantly correlated (r = 0.819, p < 0.001). When using 7.10 as the cut-off value, the ADC index obtained a sensitivity of 86.3% and a specificity of 82.9% for predicting successful response to therapy around the first month of follow-up. This preliminary study demonstrates that the patients with decreased ADC index tend to show poor improvement of clinical symptoms. The ADC index may be a useful indicator to predict early response to CT-guided O{sub 2}-O{sub 3} injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation.

  6. Looking for the best immune-checkpoint inhibitor in pre-treated NSCLC patients: An indirect comparison between nivolumab, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passiglia, Francesco; Galvano, Antonio; Rizzo, Sergio; Incorvaia, Lorena; Listì, Angela; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2017-10-28

    Immune-checkpoint inhibitors represent the new standard of care in patients with advanced NSCLC who progressed after first-line treatment. This work aim to assess any difference in both efficacy and safety profiles among Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab and Atezolizumab in pre-treated NSCLC patients. Randomized clinical trials comparing immune-checkpoint inhibitor versus docetaxel in pre-treated patients with advanced NSCLC were included and direct comparison meta-analysis of selected trials have been performed. Subsequently the summary estimates of Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab and Atezolizumab emerging from the direct meta-analysis were selected to provide the pooled estimates of hazard ratio (HR) and relative risk (RR) for the indirect comparisons among these agents. A total of 5 studies met the selection criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Indirect comparisons for efficacy outcomes showed the RR for ORR nivolumab versus atezolizumab 1.66 (95% CI 1.07-2.58), pembrolizumab versus atezolizumab 1.94 (95% CI 1.30-2.90). No significant differences in both PFS and OS have been observed. Indirect comparisons for safety showed the RR for G3-5 AEs nivolumab versus pembrolizumab 0.41 (95% CI 0.29-0.60), nivolumab versus atezolizumab 0.50 (95% CI 0.35-0.72). No significant differences in both pneumonitis and discontinuation rate have been observed. The results of this work revealed that nivolumab and pembrolizumab are associated with a significant increase of ORR as compared to atezolizumab and nivolumab is associated with a significant lower incidence of G3-5 AEs as compared to the other drugs. These evidences could support the oncologists to select the best drug for each patient. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Pretreatment Beck Depression Inventory score is an important predictor for Post-treatment score in infertile patients: a before-after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezanzadeh Fatemeh

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The experience of infertility can be extremely stressful. Some of the risk factors for depression in infertility are being female, repeated unsuccessful treatment cycles or a 2 to 3 year history of infertility, low socioeconomic status, foreign nationality, lack of partner support, life events and previous depression. In this study, we analyzed the Beck Depression Inventory score at the beginning and the end of infertility treatment, to determine which factors may influence the BDI score after treatment of infertility. Methods In a before-after study, in a university-affiliated teaching hospital, 251 women who had been visited for assisted reproductive technology infertility treatment participated in the study. BDI score was assessed before and after treatment of infertility. Results The mean BDI score rose after unsuccessful treatment and dropped after successful treatment. Those with lower education levels had a higher BDI score before treatment. BDI score after treatment was positively correlated with pretreatment BDI scoreand duration of infertility. Conclusion BDI score after treatment was strongly connected to the BDI score before treatment, the result of therapy and to the duration of infertility. The influence of duration of infertility on BDI score after treatment of infertility is weak. So a simple method to screen patients at risk of depression after infertility treatment is determining pretreatment BDI score and predicting the result of infertility treatment by other risk factors.

  8. Prognostic value of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by regional lymph nodes on pretreatment PET/CT in patients with resectable colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Lim, Ilhan; Kim, Byung Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Mi; Shin, Ui Sup [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We evaluated the ability of pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by regional lymph nodes to predict the survival of patients with resectable colorectal cancer. The records of 78 patients with AJCC stage III colorectal cancer (pathologically confirmed node-positive disease without evidence of distant metastasis) treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The maximum standardized uptake values of the primary tumor (SUVp) and regional lymph nodes (SUVn) were measured by pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The ROC curve analyses and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to analyze whether SUVp, SUVn, and clinicopathologic parameters could predict disease-free survival. Although there were no significant differences between the median SUVp in the event group and that in the non-event group, the median SUVn was significantly higher in the event group (1.7) than in the non-event group (0.8, p = 0.023). Based on the ROC curve analysis, SUVn predicted the event for disease-free survival (AUC = 0.668, p = 0.02) with the optimal criterion, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of > 1.2, 71 %, 63 %, and 65 %, respectively. However, SUVp did not predict disease-free survival (AUC = 0.570, p = 0.349). Univariate analysis revealed that SUVn (p = 0.011) and venous invasion (p = 0.016) were associated with disease-free survival, but pathologic N stage was not (p = 0.09). By multivariate analysis, only SUVn > 1.2 independently shortened the disease-free survival (relative risk, 2.97; 95 % CI, 1.14-7.74, p = 0.026). SUVn before surgery may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with AJCC stage III colorectal cancer. (orig.)

  9. Efficacy and safety of teriparatide in bisphosphonate-pretreated and treatment-naive patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture: Post hoc analysis of a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiki, Fumito; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Taketsuna, Masanori; Kajimoto, Kenta; Enomoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Teriparatide is the first anabolic agent shown to reduce the risk of fractures in patients with osteoporosis. In Japan, teriparatide is prescribed to treat patients at high risk of fracture. Given that bisphosphonates are commonly used prior to teriparatide as treatment for osteoporosis, information on the effectiveness and safety of teriparatide with or without previous bisphosphonate treatment is helpful for physicians in clinical practice. This study aims to report the effectiveness and safety of teriparatide in treatment-naive and bisphosphonate-pretreated patients in Japan as real-world evidence. A post hoc analysis of a postmarketing surveillance study was conducted in Japanese patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture who received 24-month treatment of daily teriparatide. Changes in bone turnover biomarkers and bone mineral density and incidence of new fractures were analyzed in treatment-naive as well as bisphosphonate-pretreated patients. The analysis included 1433 patients (treatment-naive, n = 659; bisphosphonate-pretreated, n = 774). Bone mineral density increased significantly from baseline at 24 months in both treatment-naive (lumbar spine, 13.45%; femoral neck, 5.16%; total hip, 4.46%) and bisphosphonate-pretreated (lumbar spine, 11.20%; femoral neck, 2.22%; total hip, 0.67%) patients. The incidence rates of new vertebral and nonvertebral fractures at 24 months were 1.69% and 3.37%, respectively, in treatment-naive patients and 3.60% and 5.56%, respectively, in bisphosphonate-pretreated patients. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 6% in treatment-naive patients and 10% in bisphosphonate-pretreated patients. The most common adverse drug reaction in treatment-naive and bisphosphonate-pretreated patients was nausea (0.91%) and hyperuricaemia (1.81%), respectively. In this post hoc analysis, no new safety concerns and similar effectiveness of teriparatide were observed in Japanese patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture

  10. In non-transplant patients with multiple myeloma, the pre-treatment level of clonotypic cells predicts event-free survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulien Kyle J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In multiple myeloma (MM, the immunoglobulin heavy chain VDJ gene rearrangement is a unique clonotypic signature that identifies all members of the myeloma clone independent of morphology or phenotype. Each clonotypic MM cell has only one genomic copy of the rearranged IgH VDJ. Methods Pre-treatment bone marrow aspirates from myeloma patients at diagnosis or in relapse were evaluated for the number of clonotypic cells using real time quantitative PCR (RPCR. RPCR measured the level of clonal cells, termed VDJ%, in 139 diagnosis and relapse BM aspirates from MM patients. Results Patients with a VDJ% below the median had a significantly longer event free survival (EFS then those with a VDJ% higher than the median (p=0.0077, HR=0.57. Further, although the VDJ% from non-transplant patients predicted EFS (p=0.0093, VDJ% failed to predict outcome after autologous stem cell transplant (p=0.53. Conclusions Our results suggest that for non-transplant patients, the tumor burden before treatment, perhaps reflecting cancer stem cell progeny/output, is an indirect measure that may indicate the number of MM cancer stem cells and hence event free survival.

  11. Superior survival with capecitabine plus docetaxel combination therapy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer: phase III trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Miles, David; Vukelja, Svetislava; Moiseyenko, Vladimir; Ayoub, Jean-Pierre; Cervantes, Guadalupe; Fumoleau, Pierre; Jones, Stephen; Lui, Wing-Yiu; Mauriac, Louis; Twelves, Chris; Van Hazel, Guy; Verma, Shailendra; Leonard, Robert

    2002-06-15

    Docetaxel and capecitabine, a tumor-activated oral fluoropyrimidine, show high single-agent efficacy in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and synergy in preclinical studies. This international phase III trial compared efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine/docetaxel therapy with single-agent docetaxel in anthracycline-pretreated patients with MBC. Patients were randomized to 21-day cycles of oral capecitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1 to 14 plus docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 (n = 255) or to docetaxel 100 mg/m(2) on day 1 (n = 256). Capecitabine/docetaxel resulted in significantly superior efficacy in time to disease progression (TTP) (hazard ratio, 0.652; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.545 to 0.780; P =.0001; median, 6.1 v 4.2 months), overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.775; 95% CI, 0.634 to 0.947; P =.0126; median, 14.5 v 11.5 months), and objective tumor response rate (42% v 30%, P =.006) compared with docetaxel. Gastrointestinal side effects and hand-foot syndrome were more common with combination therapy, whereas myalgia, arthralgia, and neutropenic fever/sepsis were more common with single-agent docetaxel. More grade 3 adverse events occurred with combination therapy (71% v 49%, respectively), whereas grade 4 events were slightly more common with docetaxel (31% v 25% with combination). The significantly superior TTP and survival achieved with the addition of capecitabine to docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), with the manageable toxicity profile, indicate that this combination provides clear benefits over single-agent docetaxel 100 mg/m(2). Docetaxel/capecitabine therapy is an important treatment option for women with anthracycline-pretreated MBC.

  12. Pretreatment drug use characteristics and experiences among patients in a voluntary substance abuse treatment center in Malaysia: A mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Archana; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Ghani, Mansur A; Khan, Farrah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Drug use in Malaysia remains a significant public health and social problem despite implementation of harsh punitive drug policies such as forcibly placing suspected drug users into compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs). Following criticism over human right violations in CDDCs, Malaysia has begun to transition towards voluntary drug treatment centers known as Cure & Care (C&C) centers. To best serve the needs of regional C&C centers, data on drug use are essential among patients accessing treatment. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors examined pretreatment drug use characteristics and experiences with addiction treatment among C&C patients in Kelantan-a religiously conservative state in northeast Malaysia with high prevalence of drug use but where limited data are available on drug use patterns. A mixed-methods study utilizing surveys (n = 96) and semistructured interviews (n = 20) was conducted among a convenience sample of inpatients and outpatients at the Pengkalan Chepa C&C Center in Kelantan. Survey results showed that 89.6% of participants met screening criteria for moderate to severe addiction severity. Nearly 90% reported lifetime illicit amphetamine (syabu, meth, ice, and pil kuda) use, followed by alcohol (60.4%) and opioids (52.1%). Qualitative results pointed to the powerful influence of peer networks in drug initiation and relapse, and the positive effect of the C&C center on drug rehabilitation. The drug use profile of the Kelantan C&C center enrollees shows extensive pretreatment amphetamine use, polysubstance use, and injection drug use, including high-risk behaviors such as sharing needles, syringes, and containers. Evidence points to the need for integration of social support-oriented practices and behavioral interventions into the rehabilitation of drug users in this region.

  13. Combined pre-treatment MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT parameters as prognostic biomarkers in patients with cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miccò, Maura, E-mail: miccom@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Burger, Irene A. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Kollmeier, Marisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 1006 (United States); Goldman, Debra A. [Department of Epidemiology-Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 307 E 63rd Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Park, Kay J. [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R. [Department of Surgery, Gynecologic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Hricak, Hedvig; Sala, Evis [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To determine the associations of quantitative parameters derived from multiphase contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI), diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with clinico-histopathological prognostic factors, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and materials: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study of 49 patients (median age, 45 years) with histopathologically proven IB-IVB International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) cervical cancer who underwent pre-treatment pelvic MRI and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT between February 2009 and May 2012. Maximum diameter ({sub max}TD), percentage enhancement (PE) and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC{sub mean}) of the primary tumor were measured on MRI. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured on 18F-FDG PET/CT. Correlations between imaging metrics and clinico-histopathological parameters including revised 2009 FIGO stage, tumor histology, grade and lymph node (LN) metastasis at diagnosis were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Cox modeling was used to determine associations with DFS and OS. Results: Median follow-up was 17 months. 41 patients (83.6%) were alive. 8 patients (16.3%) died of disease. Progression/recurrence occurred in 17 patients (34.6%). Significant differences were observed in ADC{sub mean}, SUV{sub max}, MTV and TLG according to FIGO stage (p < 0.001–0.025). There were significant correlations between ADC{sub mean}, MTV, TLG and LN metastasis (p = 0.017–0.032). SUV{sub max} was not associated with LN metastasis. FIGO stage (p = 0.017/0.033), LN metastases (p = 0.001/0.020), ADC{sub mean} (p = 0.007/0.020) and MTV (p = 0.014/0.026) were adverse predictors of both DFS/OS. {sub max}TD (p = 0.005) and TLG (p

  14. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  15. Recurrent Pseudomembranous Colitis in an Ovarian Cancer Patient Undergoing Carboplatin Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Valerie A.; Manahan, Kelly J; Geisler, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diarrhea is a common problem in ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and Clostridium difficile infection has been identified as a cause. The proper diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea are critical to patient care, especially to prevent the serious complications from a severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Case. We present a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient who developed recurrent pseudomembranous colitis while receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. Despite...

  16. Source camera identification for low resolution heavily compressed images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alles, E.J.; Geradts, Z.J.M.H.; Veenman, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to exploit photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) to identify the source camera of heavily JPEG compressed digital photographs of resolution 640 times 480 pixels. Similarly to research reported previously, we extract the PRNU patterns from both reference and

  17. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  18. Heavily skewed pricing in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; Tieman, Alexander F.

    A common feature in two-sided markets is the prevalence of heavily skewed pricing strategies in which price markups are much higher on one side of the market than the other. We show that maximal skewed pricing is profit maximizing under constant elasticity of demand. The most elastic side of the

  19. Successful Reperfusion With Mechanical Thrombectomy Is Associated With Reduced Disability and Mortality in Patients With Pretreatment Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score ≤6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilles, Jean-Philippe; Consoli, Arthuro; Redjem, Hocine; Coskun, Oguzhan; Ciccio, Gabriele; Smajda, Stanislas; Labreuche, Julien; Preda, Cristian; Ruiz Guerrero, Clara; Decroix, Jean-Pierre; Rodesch, Georges; Mazighi, Mikael; Blanc, Raphaël; Piotin, Michel; Lapergue, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    In acute ischemic stroke patients, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) is correlated with infarct volume and is an independent factor of functional outcome. Patients with pretreatment DWI-ASPECTS ≤6 were excluded or under-represented in the recent randomized mechanical thrombectomy trials. Our aim was to assess the impact of reperfusion in pretreatment DWI-ASPECTS ≤6 patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy. We analyzed data collected between January 2012 and August 2015 in a bicentric prospective clinical registry of consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Every patient with a documented internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusion with pretreatment DWI-ASPECTS ≤6 was eligible for this study. The primary end point was a favorable outcome defined by a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 90 days. Two hundred and eighteen patients with a DWI-ASPECTS ≤6 were included. Among them, 145 (66%) patients had successful reperfusion at the end of mechanical thrombectomy. Reperfused patients had an increased rate of favorable outcome (38.7% versus 17.4%; P =0.002) and a decreased rate of mortality at 3 months (22.5% versus 39.1%; P =0.013) compared with nonreperfused patients. The symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate was not different between the 2 groups (13.0% versus 14.1%; P =0.83). However, in patients with DWI-ASPECTS <5, favorable outcome was low (13.0% versus 9.5%; P =0.68) with a high mortality rate (45.7% versus 57.1%; P =0.38) with or without successful reperfusion. Successful reperfusion is associated with reduced mortality and disability in patients with a pretreatment DWI-ASPECTS ≤6. Further data from randomized studies are needed, particularly in patients with DWI-ASPECTS <5. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Circulating LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR may identify pre-treatment IVF patients at risk of OHSS and poor implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Anne E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful pregnancy via in vitro fertilization (IVF depends on the recovery of an adequate number of healthy oocytes and on blastocyst implantation following uterine transfer. Two hormones, LH and hCG, utilize a common LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR, variations in which have profound implications in human reproduction. Soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR is released from experimental cell lines and placental explants and it can be detected in the follicular fluid and serum. Methods To evaluate the impact of circulating soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR in fertility treatment, we measured sLHCGR and LH-sLHCGR complex in serum from women seeking IVF using specifically developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Following an IVF cycle of treatment, patients were grouped according to oocyte yield into low (lower than or equal to 7 oocytes, intermediate (8-14 oocytes and high (greater than or equal to 15 oocytes responders and pregnancy outcome noted. Results Pre-treatment sLHCGR identified many women at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation. Low levels of sLHCGR were associated with pregnancy in both high and low responders but sLHCGR did not significantly affect the treatment outcome of intermediate responders. Low responders who failed to become pregnant had high levels of circulating sLHCGR bound to LH (LH-sLHCGR. Conclusions Pre-treatment measurement of sLHCGR could be used to tailor individual fertility treatment programs and improve outcomes by avoiding ovarian hyperstimulation and poor embryo implantation.

  1. Cetrorelix in an oral contraceptive-pretreated stimulation cycle compared with buserelin in IVF/ICSI patients treated with r-hFSH: a randomized, multicentre, phase IIIb study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, J.A.; Hugues, J.N.; Pirard, C.; Fischl, F.; Sage, J.C.; Pouly, J.L.; Obruca, A.; Braat, D.D.M.; Loenen, A.C. van; Lambalk, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the non-inferiority of an oral contraceptive (OC)-pretreated cetrorelix regimen and a buserelin regimen in IVF/ICSI patients treated with r-hFSH in terms of total number of oocytes retrieved. METHODS: Multicentre, randomized study. One hundred and

  2. Pretreatment levels of urinary deoxypyridinoline as a potential marker in patients with prostate cancer with or without bone metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, L. F.; Groenier, K.; Schuurman, J.; Boomsma, J. H.; Elferink, R. O.; Mensink, H. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive role of the bone markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), as indicators of bone turnover, at baseline in patients with prostate cancer. PATIENTS, SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Urinary DPD, serum ALP and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were

  3. The Role of Pretreatment FDG-PET in Treating Cervical Cancer Patients With Enlarged Pelvic Lymph Node(s) Shown on MRI: A Phase 3 Randomized Trial With Long-Term Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shinn-Yn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chien-Sheng [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Chen [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Molecular Imaging Center and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ng, Koon-Kwan [Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kao, Wei-Heng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chyong-Huey [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong, E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung University and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: This report is the second analysis of a prospective randomized trial to investigate the impact of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on cervical cancer patients with enlarged pelvic lymph nodes identified by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer with enlarged pelvic lymph nodes but free of enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive either pretreatment FDG-PET (PET arm) or not (control arm). The whole pelvis was the standard irradiation field for all patients except those with FDG-avid extrapelvic findings. Results: In all, 129 patients were enrolled. Pretreatment PET detected extrapelvic metastases in 7 patients. No new patient experienced treatment failure during the additional 4-year follow-up period. There were no significant differences between the PET arm and the control arm regarding overall survival, disease-free survival, and freedom from extrapelvic metastasis. In the control arm, 8 of 10 patients with PALN relapse had limited extrapelvic nodal failures; their 5-year disease-specific survival was 34.3%. By contrast, only 1 of 5 patients with PALN relapse in the PET arm experienced such limited failures; their 5-year survival rate was 0%. Conclusions: Although the pretreatment detection of PALN did not translate into survival benefit, it indeed decreased the need for extended-field concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  4. Folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in the pretreatment of patients for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Ariana; de Carvalho, Aline Martins; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Juliana; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Aguiar, Samuel

    2015-06-02

    To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples from 161 patients were drawn for the assessment of serum folate. A moderate correlation was found between serum concentrations of folate, folate intake and the dietary folate equivalent (DFE) of synthetic supplements. Mulatto or black male patients with a primary educational level had a higher intake of dietary folate. Of patients obtaining folate from the diet alone or from dietary supplements, 11.00% and 0.10%, respectively, had intake below the recommended level. Of the patients using dietary supplements, 35% to 50% showed high levels of folic acid intake. There was a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamins B2, B6 and B12, ranging from 12.10% to 20.18%, while 13.76% to 22.55% of patients were likely to have adequate choline intake. The considerable percentage of patients with folate intake above the recommended levels deserves attention because of the harmful effects that this nutrient may have in the presence of established neoplastic lesions.

  5. Folate and Nutrients Involved in the 1-Carbon Cycle in the Pretreatment of Patients for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Ariana; de Carvalho, Aline Martins; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Juliana; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Aguiar, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples from 161 patients were drawn for the assessment of serum folate. A moderate correlation was found between serum concentrations of folate, folate intake and the dietary folate equivalent (DFE) of synthetic supplements. Mulatto or black male patients with a primary educational level had a higher intake of dietary folate. Of patients obtaining folate from the diet alone or from dietary supplements, 11.00% and 0.10%, respectively, had intake below the recommended level. Of the patients using dietary supplements, 35% to 50% showed high levels of folic acid intake. There was a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamins B2, B6 and B12, ranging from 12.10% to 20.18%, while 13.76% to 22.55% of patients were likely to have adequate choline intake. The considerable percentage of patients with folate intake above the recommended levels deserves attention because of the harmful effects that this nutrient may have in the presence of established neoplastic lesions. PMID:26043032

  6. Folate and Nutrients Involved in the 1-Carbon Cycle in the Pretreatment of Patients for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Ferrari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Blood samples from 161 patients were drawn for the assessment of serum folate. A moderate correlation was found between serum concentrations of folate, folate intake and the dietary folate equivalent (DFE of synthetic supplements. Mulatto or black male patients with a primary educational level had a higher intake of dietary folate. Of patients obtaining folate from the diet alone or from dietary supplements, 11.00% and 0.10%, respectively, had intake below the recommended level. Of the patients using dietary supplements, 35% to 50% showed high levels of folic acid intake. There was a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamins B2, B6 and B12, ranging from 12.10% to 20.18%, while 13.76% to 22.55% of patients were likely to have adequate choline intake. The considerable percentage of patients with folate intake above the recommended levels deserves attention because of the harmful effects that this nutrient may have in the presence of established neoplastic lesions.

  7. Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, S. R.; Yusuf, S.; Peters, R. J.; Bertrand, M. E.; Lewis, B. S.; Natarajan, M. K.; Malmberg, K.; Rupprecht, H.; Zhao, F.; Chrolavicius, S.; Copland, I.; Fox, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the use of aspirin, there is still a risk of ischaemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to find out whether, in addition to aspirin, pretreatment with clopidogrel followed by long-term therapy after PCI is superior to a strategy of no pretreatment and

  8. Pretreatment and outcome correlates of sexual and physical trauma in an epidemiological cohort of first-episode psychosis patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conus, Philippe; Cotton, Sue; Schimmelmann, Benno G; McGorry, Patrick D; Lambert, Martin

    2010-01-01

    .... Few studies have explored this issue in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. We assessed rate of stressful events, as well as premorbid and outcome correlates of past sexual and/or physical abuse (SPA...

  9. Do male and female patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain differ in their pre-treatment expectations of rehabilitation outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Antje; Reneman, M.F.; Stewart, R.E.; Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.

    Purpose: To analyse differences between males and females in expectations about rehabilitation outcome. Methods: Design: cross-sectional study. Setting: a general rehabilitation centre. Patients: n=616, mean age 44 years, with chronic musculoskeletal pain, referred for multidisciplinary pain

  10. Pretreatment advanced imaging in patients with stroke treated with IV thrombolysis: evaluation of a multihospital data base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J S; Fan, J; Kallmes, D F; Cloft, H J

    2014-03-01

    CT angiography, CT perfusion, and MR imaging have all been advocated as potentially useful in treatment planning for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We evaluated a large multihospital data base to determine how the use of advanced imaging is evolving in patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving IV thrombolytic therapy from 2008 to 2011 were identified by using the Premier Perspective data base. Mortality and discharge to long-term care rates were compared following multivariate logistic regression between patients who received head CT only versus those who received CTA without CT perfusion, CT perfusion, or MR imaging. Of 12,429 included patients, 7305 (59%) were in the CT group, 2359 (19%) were in the CTA group, 848 (7%) were in the CTP group, and 1917 (15%) were in the MR group. From 2008 to 2011, the percentage of patients receiving head CT only decreased from 64% to 55%, while the percentage who received cerebral CT perfusion increased from 3% to 8%. The use of CT angiography and MR imaging marginally increased (1%-2%). Outcomes were similar between CT only and advanced imaging patients, except discharge to long-term care was slightly more frequent in the CTP group (OR = 1.17 [95% CI, 0.96-1.43]; P = .0412) and MR group (OR = 1.14 [95% CI, 1.01-1.28]; P = .0177) and mortality was lower in the MR group (OR = 0.64 [95% CI, 0.52-0.79]; P < .0001). Use of advanced imaging is increasing in patients treated with IV thrombolysis. While there were differences in outcomes among imaging groups, the clinical effect of advanced imaging remains unclear.

  11. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants’ trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822

  12. Predicting Response to Subacromial Injections and Lidocaine/Tetracaine Patch from Pretreatment Pain Quality in Patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammaitoni, Arnold R; Trudeau, Jeremiah J; Radnovich, Richard; Galer, Bradley S; Jensen, Mark P

    2015-07-01

    No existing pain treatment is effective for all pain problems, and response to pain treatment is highly variable. Knowledge regarding the patient factors that predict response to different treatments could benefit patients by providing an empirical foundation for patient-treatment matching. This study sought to test the hypothesis that improvements following two treatments thought to operate via similar mechanisms would be predicted by similar baseline pain qualities. Prospective prediction analysis using data from a previously published open label trial comparing a heated lidocaine/tetracaine patch versus subacromial corticosteroid injection for the treatment of pain in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. Consistent with the study hypothesis, the response to the two treatments were predicted by similar baseline pain qualities; specifically, higher baseline levels of unpleasant, electric, and sensitive pain predicted subsequent improvements in sleep interference, work/activity interference, and patient global ratings of improvement, respectively. The findings are consistent with the combined ideas that (1) those who have the most to gain (i.e., those reporting the highest levels of various pain qualities) can expect the best response to effective treatments and (2) different pain qualities may be associated with different types of outcomes. The findings support further research to examine how pain quality measures may be used to improve patient-treatment matching, and therefore, ultimately improve the efficiency, efficacy, and overall benefit-risk of pain treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pretreatment Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Can Predict the Prognosis in Bladder Cancer Patients Who Receive Gemcitabine and Nedaplatin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Ohtake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR has been suggested to be a simple marker of the systemic inflammatory response in critical care patients. We previously assessed the utility of NLR as a biomarker to predict tumor recurrence and cancer death in bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic impact of NLR in bladder cancer patients who received gemcitabine and nedaplatin (GN chemotherapy. Methods. A total of 23 patients who received GN chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer were enrolled in this study. The cut-off point of NLR according to the sensitivity and specificity levels was derived from the area under receiver operator characteristics (AUROC curve plotted for disease progression or overall mortality. Results. The NLR cut-off point was determined as 4.14 for both tumor progression and overall mortality. Median progression-free survival (PFS/overall survival (OS in the higher NLR group (NLR ≥ 4.14 and lower NLR group (NLR < 4.14 were 194/468 days versus 73/237 days, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that higher NLR significantly correlated with poorer PFS (p=0.011 and OS (p=0.045. Conclusions. NLR may serve as a new biomarker to predict responses to GN-based chemotherapy in advanced bladder cancer patients and/or their prognosis.

  14. NRS-2002 for pre-treatment nutritional risk screening and nutritional status assessment in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orell-Kotikangas, Helena; Österlund, Pia; Saarilahti, Kauko; Ravasco, Paula; Schwab, Ursula; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of nutritional risk screening-2002 (NRS-2002) as a nutritional risk screening and status assessment method and to compare it with nutritional status assessed by subjective and objective methods in the screening of head and neck cancer patients. Sixty-five consecutive patients (50 male), with a median age of 61 years (range, 33-77), with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were enrolled prior to cancer therapy. Nutritional status was assessed by NRS-2002, patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength (HGS) and mid-arm muscle area (MAMA). Twenty-eight percent of patients were at nutritional risk based on NRS-2002, and 34 % were malnourished according to PG-SGA, while 43 % had low HGS. NRS-2002 cut-off score of ≥3 compared with the nutritional status according to PG-SGA showed 77 % specificity and 98 % sensitivity (K = 0.78). NRS-2002 was able to predict malnutrition (PG-SGA BC) both in men (p nutrition screening in head and neck cancer patients prior to oncological treatment.

  15. False and true pre-treatment predictors of weight loss in obese patients starting a program for lifestyle change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, Barbara; Pala, Laura; Poggiali, Roberta; Guarnieri, Cosetta; Mannucci, Edoardo; Bigiarini, Michela; Rotella, Carlo Maria

    2014-12-01

    Weight loss treatment effectiveness and cost-effectiveness may be improved by the identification of patients who are more prone to participate and gain benefit from specific interventions. Aim of the present study is to identify easily available additional predictors of weight loss among data usually present in the medical records of obese/overweight patients attending an outpatient clinic for a non-pharmacological lifestyle change program. 268 patients, 74 men and 195 women (age 43.2 ± 11.9 years, BMI 38.9 ± 6.8 kg/m(2)) were enrolled. Among these patients, only 35.6 % men and 22.7 % women completed the 6-month protocol. Among participants, 50.7 % lost at least 5 % initial body weight after 6 months (SUCCESSES), while 49.3 % failed (FAILURES). Baseline nutritional parameters (total Kcal, lipid, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol intake) were not significantly different in successes when compared to failures, while a significant difference between groups was observed for baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP); free fat mass (FFM); muscle mass (MM); total body water (TBW); HDL cholesterol; ALT; AST; γGT. After dividing into quartiles the not-normally distributed variables, successes had AST values above median (3rd and 4th quartiles; χ (2) = 0.003). At multivariate analysis (linear regression), the OR was 3.34 (1.42-7.85; p = 0.006). In our patients, baseline liver enzyme levels (AST in particular), but not baseline quantitative and qualitative dietary intake, were significantly different in successes versus failures and could therefore represent a predictor of success. In conclusion, AST could represent a usually available biomarker that could be used as a predictor of outcome (weight loss) in obese patients starting a lifestyle change program.

  16. Pretreatment Evaluation of Microcirculation by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Survival in Primary Rectal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, Alexander Friedrich [Department of Radio-Oncology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch (Austria); Piringer, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.piringer@hotmail.com [Department of Oncology, Wels-Grieskirchen Medical Hospital, Wels (Austria); Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Saely, Christoph Hubert [Department of Medicine and Cardiology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch (Austria); Lukas, Peter [Department of Radio-Oncology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Öfner, Dietmar [Department of Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of the perfusion index (PI), a microcirculatory parameter estimated from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability, to predict overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with primary rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients with stage cT3 rectal cancer requiring neoadjuvant chemoradiation were investigated with DCE-MRI before start of therapy. Contrast-enhanced dynamic T{sub 1} mapping was obtained, and a simple data analysis strategy based on the calculation of the maximum slope of the tissue concentration–time curve divided by the maximum of the arterial input function was used as a measure of tumor microcirculation (PI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability. Results: In 39 patients (47.0%), T downstaging (ypT0-2) was observed. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 71 ± 29 months, 58 patients (69.9%) survived, and disease-free survival was achieved in 45 patients (54.2%). The mean PI (PImean) averaged over the group of nonresponders was significantly higher than for responders. Additionally, higher PImean in age- and gender-adjusted analyses was strongly predictive of therapy nonresponse. Most importantly, PImean strongly and significantly predicted disease-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.85 [ 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.54; P<.001)]; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.81 [1.30-2.51]; P<.001) as well as overall survival (unadjusted HR 1.42 [1.02-1.99], P=.040; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.43 [1.03-1.98]; P=.034). Conclusions: This analysis identifies PImean as a novel biomarker that is predictive for therapy response, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer.

  17. [Compassionate use of abiraterone and cabazitaxel: first experiences in docetaxel-pretreated castration-resistant prostate cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, M M; Höppner, M; Horn, T; Thalgott, M; Gschwend, J E; Retz, M

    2012-03-01

    First clinical experiences with abiraterone and cabazitaxel for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients following docetaxel chemotherapy are reported. We describe PSA response rates and disease control rates determined by imaging studies at 3 months as well as side effects in the daily routine. All patients were treated within the"compassionate use" programs of cabazitaxel and abiraterone or treated according to their inclusion and exclusion criteria at the "Technische Universität München". Of 54 patients, 15 were treated with cabazitaxel and 39 with abiraterone. In patients treated with cabazitaxel, after 3 months of therapy the PSA reduction rate > 50% was 46.2%, the PSA progression rate was 15.4%, and the disease control rate was 83.3%. Main grade 3/4 hematotoxicities were neutropenia (40%) and anemia (20%). Febrile neutropenia was observed in 2 of 15 (13.3%) patients. Main non-hematological grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea (13.3%) and polyneuropathy (13.3%). In patients treated with abiraterone, after 3 months of therapy the PSA reduction rate >50% was 35.1%, the PSA progression rate was 46.0%, and the disease control rate was 47.1%. Main grade 3/4 hematotoxicities were anemia (5.1%) and thrombocytopenia (5.1%). Main non-hematological toxicities were fatigue (20.5%), sweating (17.9%), and constipation (10.3%). Utilization of cabazitaxel and abiraterone in the daily routine show response rates comparable to their approval studies with acceptable side effects.

  18. Superconductivity in heavily boron-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kriener, Takahiro Muranaka, Junya Kato, Zhi-An Ren, Jun Akimitsu and Yoshiteru Maeno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond in 2004 and silicon in 2006 have renewed the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily boron-doped silicon carbide. The sample used for that study consisted of cubic and hexagonal SiC phase fractions and hence this led to the question which of them participated in the superconductivity. Here we studied a hexagonal SiC sample, free from cubic SiC phase by means of x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and ac susceptibility.

  19. Recovery by triple junction motion in heavily deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2015-01-01

    is briefly considered, whereas recovery in samples deformed to much higher strains is discussed in more detail. An example is Al, where a new and important recovery mechanism is triple junction motion, which can remove thin lamellae and consequently increase the thickness of neighbouring lamellae...... controlling the rate of recovery by triple junction motion. Operation of triple junction motion in other heavily deformed metals, such as Ni and Cu, is also briefly discussed....

  20. Geometric analysis of loco-regional recurrences in relation to pre-treatment hypoxia in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Simon; Thorwarth, Daniela; Mönnich, David; Pfannenberg, Christina; Reischl, Gerald; La Fougère, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Mauz, Paul-Stefan; Paulsen, Frank; Zips, Daniel; Welz, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    A previous pattern-of-failure study has suggested that up to 50% of the loco-regional failures (LRF) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) occur outside the initial hypoxic volume determined by [18F]-fluoromisonidazole-PET ([18F]-FMISO-PET). The aim of the present analysis was to correlate spatial patterns of failure with respect to the pretherapeutic dynamic [18F]-FMISO-PET/CT in HNSCC after radiochemotherapy (RCT). Within a running phase 2 trial using [18F]-FMISO-PET imaging prior to RCT in HNSCC patients (n = 54), we have observed so far 11 LRF with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. For nine patients, LRF imaging (CT or [18F]-FDG-PET/CT) for pattern-of-failure analysis was available. Analysis included the static 4-h hypoxic subvolume (VH) as well as a M-parameter volume (VM), which is derived from modeling of dynamic PET. Deformable image registration of the CT scan with the recurrent tumor to the pre-treatment [18F]-FMISO-PET/CT and the planning CT was done to quantify the hypoxic subvolumes compared to the recurrent tumor volume. Moreover, a point-of-origin analysis was performed. A total of five local, two regional and two loco-regional recurrences were detected. After deformable image registration of the CT scan with the recurrent tumor to the pre-treatment [18F]-FMISO-PET/CT and the planning CT, a significant overlap of the recurrence volume with [18F]-FMISO-positive subvolumes in the initial gross tumor volume (GTV) was observed. Median overlap of 40.2%, range 9.4-100.0%, for VH and 49.0%, range 4.4-96.4%, for VM was calculated. The point-of-origin analysis showed median distances of 0.0 mm, range 0.0-11.3 mm to VH and 8.6 mm, range 0.0-15.5 mm to VM, respectively. Our data suggest that loco-regional recurrences after RCT originate from the initial GTV (primary tumor and/or lymph node metastases) containing hypoxic subvolumes, which supports the concept of hypoxia imaging-based dose escalation.

  1. Pretreatment quality of life predicts for locoregional control in head and neck cancer patients : A radiation therapy oncology group analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional

  2. Telaprevir- and boceprevir-based tritherapies in real practice for F3-F4 pretreated hepatitis C virus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Delphine; Guivarch, Matthieu; Bérard, Emilie; Combis, Jean-Marc; Remy, Andre Jean; Glibert, Andre; Payen, Jean-Louis; Metivier, Sophie; Barange, Karl; Desmorat, Herve; Palacin, Anaïs; Nicot, Florence; Abravanel, Florence; Alric, Laurent

    2014-09-27

    To assess, in a routine practice setting, the sustained virologic response (SVR) to telaprevir (TPV) or boceprevir (BOC) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) null-responders or relapsers with severe liver fibrosis. One hundred twenty-five patients were treated prospectively for 48 wk with TPV or BOC + pegylated-interferon (peg-INF) α2a + ribavirin (PR) according to standard treatment schedules without randomization. These patients were treated in routine practice settings in 10 public or private health care centers, and the data were prospectively collected. Only patients with severe liver fibrosis (Metavir scores of F3 or F4 upon liver biopsy or liver stiffness assessed by elastography), genotype 1 HCV and who were null-responders or relapsers to prior PR combination therapy were included in this study. The Metavir fibrosis scores were F3 in 35 (28%) and F4 in 90 (72%) of the patients. In total, 62.9% of the patients were null-responders and 37.1% relapsers to the previous PR therapy. The overall SVR rate at 24 wk post-treatment withdrawal was 59.8%. The SVR was 65.9% in the TPV group and 44.1% in the BOC group. Independent predictive factors of an SVR included a response to previous treatment, relapsers vs null-responders [OR = 3.9; (1.4, 10.6), P = 0.0084], a rapid virological response (RVR) [OR 6.9 (2.6, 18.2), P = 0.001] and liver stiffness lower than 21.3 kPa [OR = 8.2 (2.3, 29.5), P = 0.001]. During treatment, 63 patients (50.8%) had at least one severe adverse event (SAE) of grade 3 or 4. A multivariate analysis identified two factors associated with SAEs: female gender [OR = 2.4 (1.1, 5.6), P = 0.037] and a platelet count below 150 × 10(3)/ mm(3) [OR = 5.3 (2.3, 12.4), P ≤ 0.001]. More than half of these difficult-to-treat patients achieved an SVR and had SAEs in an actual practice setting. The SVR rate was influenced by the response to previous PR treatment, the RVR and liver stiffness.

  3. Telaprevir- and boceprevir-based tritherapies in real practice for F3-F4 pretreated hepatitis C virus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Delphine; Guivarch, Matthieu; Bérard, Emilie; Combis, Jean-Marc; Remy, Andre Jean; Glibert, Andre; Payen, Jean-Louis; Metivier, Sophie; Barange, Karl; Desmorat, Herve; Palacin, Anaïs; Nicot, Florence; Abravanel, Florence; Alric, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess, in a routine practice setting, the sustained virologic response (SVR) to telaprevir (TPV) or boceprevir (BOC) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) null-responders or relapsers with severe liver fibrosis. METHODS: One hundred twenty-five patients were treated prospectively for 48 wk with TPV or BOC + pegylated-interferon (peg-INF) α2a + ribavirin (PR) according to standard treatment schedules without randomization. These patients were treated in routine practice settings in 10 public or private health care centers, and the data were prospectively collected. Only patients with severe liver fibrosis (Metavir scores of F3 or F4 upon liver biopsy or liver stiffness assessed by elastography), genotype 1 HCV and who were null-responders or relapsers to prior PR combination therapy were included in this study. RESULTS: The Metavir fibrosis scores were F3 in 35 (28%) and F4 in 90 (72%) of the patients. In total, 62.9% of the patients were null-responders and 37.1% relapsers to the previous PR therapy. The overall SVR rate at 24 wk post-treatment withdrawal was 59.8%. The SVR was 65.9% in the TPV group and 44.1% in the BOC group. Independent predictive factors of an SVR included a response to previous treatment, relapsers vs null-responders [OR = 3.9; (1.4, 10.6), P = 0.0084], a rapid virological response (RVR) [OR 6.9 (2.6, 18.2), P = 0.001] and liver stiffness lower than 21.3 kPa [OR = 8.2 (2.3, 29.5), P = 0.001]. During treatment, 63 patients (50.8%) had at least one severe adverse event (SAE) of grade 3 or 4. A multivariate analysis identified two factors associated with SAEs: female gender [OR = 2.4 (1.1, 5.6), P = 0.037] and a platelet count below 150 × 103/ mm3 [OR = 5.3 (2.3, 12.4), P ≤ 0.001]. CONCLUSION: More than half of these difficult-to-treat patients achieved an SVR and had SAEs in an actual practice setting. The SVR rate was influenced by the response to previous PR treatment, the RVR and liver stiffness. PMID:25276282

  4. Does the pretreatment tumor sampling location correspond with metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Bas B., E-mail: b.koolen@nki.nl [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Elshof, Lotte E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, Claudette E. [Department of Radiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Department of Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T.F.D. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogel, Wouter V. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.Th. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdés Olmos, Renato A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To define the correlation between the core biopsy location and the area with highest metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in stage II–III breast cancer patients before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, we would like to select a subgroup of patients in which PET/CT information may optimize tumor sampling. Methods: A PET/CT in prone position was acquired in 199 patients with 203 tumors. The distance and relative difference in standardized uptake value (SUV) between core biopsy localization (indicated by a marker) and area with highest degree of FDG uptake were evaluated. A distance ≥2 cm and a relative difference in SUV ≥25% were considered clinically relevant and a combination of both was defined as non-correspondence. Non-correspondence for different tumor characteristics (TNM stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, histology, subtype, grade, and Ki-67) was assessed. Results: Non-correspondence was found in 28 (14%) of 203 tumors. Non-correspondence was significantly associated with T-stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, tumor diameter, and histologic type. It was more often seen in tumors with a higher T-stage (p = 0.028), diffuse (non-mass) and multifocal tumors on MRI (p = 0.001), diffuse and multifocal tumors on PET/CT (p < 0.001), tumors >3 cm (p < 0.001), and lobular carcinomas (p < 0.001). No association was found with other features. Conclusion: Non-correspondence between the core biopsy location and area with highest FDG uptake is regularly seen in stage II–III breast cancer patients. PET/CT information and possibly FDG-guided biopsies are most likely to improve pretreatment tumor sampling in tumors >3 cm, lobular carcinomas, and diffuse and multifocal tumors.

  5. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.pickles@hull.ac.uk; Manton, David J. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.j.manton@hull.ac.uk; Lowry, Martin [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.lowry@hull.ac.uk; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.w.turnbull@hull.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  6. Prognostic value of serum Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and undetectable pretreatment Epstein-Barr virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ji-Jin; Lin, Li; Jin, Ya-Nan; Wang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Wang-Jian; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Cheng, Zhi-Bin; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Ying

    2017-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Serum IgA antibodies against early antigen (EA-IgA) and viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgA) are the most commonly used to screen for NPC in endemic areas. However, the prognostic value of serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA in patients with NPC is less clear. We hypothesize that serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA levels have prognostic impact for survival outcomes in NPC patients with undetectable pretreatment EBV (pEBV) DNA. In this series, 334 patients with non-metastatic NPC and undetectable pEBV DNA were included. Serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA were determined by ELISA. After analysis, serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA loads correlated positively with T, N, and overall stage (all P 1:120 had significantly inferior 5-year progression-free survival (80.4% vs 89.6%, P = 0.025), distant metastasis-free survival (88.4% vs 94.8%, P = 0.050), and locoregional relapse-free survival (88.4% vs 95.6%, P = 0.023; log-rank test). Multivariable analyses revealed that N stage was the only independent prognostic factor (all P < 0.05), but the VCA-IgA became insignificant. Further analyses revealed that serum VCA-IgA was not an independent prognostic factor in early N (N0-1) or advanced N (N2-3) stage NPC. In summary, although both EA-IgA and VCA-IgA correlate strongly with TNM stage, our analyses do not suggest that these antibodies are prognostic biomarkers in patients with NPC and undetectable pEBV DNA. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. Pretreatment CD133 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression as the predictive markers of the pathological effect of chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Eiji; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Ueno, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hirotoshi; Ishiguro, Megumi; Mochizuki, Hidetaka; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    CD133 confers chemoradioresistance properties to cells and has recently been used to identify cancer-initiating cells. We investigated whether the overexpression of CD133 and cyclooxygenase-2 can be used as predictive markers of tumor response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. The study was conducted at the National Defense Medical College Hospital in Japan. We recruited 96 patients who underwent a single regimen of preoperative short-term chemoradiotherapy (20 Gy in 5 fractions with 400 mg/day Tegafur/Uracil for 1 week) and radical resection. This was a retrospective study. We obtained pretreatment biopsy specimens of these patients and immunostained these specimens with antibodies for CD133, cyclooxygenase-2, p53, p27, p21, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The resected primary tumor was evaluated according to 2 different tumor regression grading systems that were based on the degrees of fibrosis and cytological alterations. Positivity for CD133 or cyclooxygenase-2 expression was associated with chemoradioresistance, which was determined by the degree of fibrosis, in both univariate (P = .02 and P = .0003) and multivariate (P = .03 and P = .001) analyses. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the degree of cytological alterations also revealed a significant association between chemoradioresistance and the expression of CD133 (P = .005 and P = .003) and cyclooxygenase-2 (P = .005 and P = .03), whereas other markers failed to associate. The information on patients' outcome was not available. Our study revealed the independent predictive values of CD133 and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions in histological tumor regression after preoperative chemoradiotherapy.

  8. Chronic lower extremity lymphedema: A comparative study of high-resolution interstitial MR lymphangiography and heavily T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Qing [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1630 Dong Fang Rd, Shanghai 200127 (China)], E-mail: luqingshan@sjtu.edu.cn; Xu Jianrong [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1630 Dong Fang Rd, Shanghai 200127 (China)], E-mail: jiangrongx@hotmail.com; Liu Ningfei [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Second Medical University, 639 Zhi Zao Ju Rd, Shanghai 200011 (China)], E-mail: luqing_1973@163.com

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To assess the role of heavily T2-weighted image and interstitial MR lymphangiography (MRL) for the visualization of lymphatic vessels in patients with disorders of the lymphatic circulation. Methods: Forty lower extremities in 31 patients (9 bilateral and 22 unilateral) with primary lymphedema were examined by heavily T2-weighted image and indirect MRL. Maximum-intensity projection (MIP) was used to reconstruct the images of the lymphatic system. Two experienced radiologists analyzed the images with regard to the differences in image quality, number of lymphatic vessels, its maximum diameter and two other findings: accumulated lymph fluid in the tissue and honeycombing pattern. Results: The beaded appearance of the affected vessels in 73 leg segments of 40 lower extremities were present on both modalities 3D MIP. Larger amount of the dilated lymphatic vessels were visualized on heavily T2-weighted image than that on MRL (p = 0.003) and the maximum diameter of it was 4.28 {+-} 1.53 mm on heavily T2-weighted image, whereas 3.41 {+-} 1.05 mm on MRL (p < 0.01). The dilated lymphatic vessels on MRL showed better image quality and greater SNR and CNR than that on heavily T2-weighted image (p < 0.01). The regions of accumulated lymph fluid and the honeycombing pattern extent were identified on heavily T2-weighted image scored statistically higher than that on MRL (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The heavily T2-weighted imaging has greater sensitivity and the MRL image has higher legibility for detecting the pathologically modified lymphatic vessels and accompanying complications non-invasively. Combining these two MR techniques can accurately access the pathological changes in the lower extremity with lymphedema.

  9. Pretreatment Endorectal Coil Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Predict Biochemical Tumor Control in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Combination Brachytherapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, Nadeem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Afaq, Asim; Akin, Oguz [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Pei Xin; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Cox, Brett [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Hricak, Hedvig [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of endorectal coil magenetic resonance imaging (eMRI) in predicting biochemical relapse in prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2008, 279 men with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer underwent eMRI of their prostate before receiving brachytherapy and supplemental intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Endorectal coil MRI was performed before treatment and retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists experienced in genitourinary MRI. Image-based variables, including tumor diameter, location, number of sextants involved, and the presence of extracapsular extension (ECE), were incorporated with other established clinical variables to predict biochemical control outcomes. The median follow-up was 49 months (range, 1-13 years). Results: The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival for the cohort was 92%. Clinical findings predicting recurrence on univariate analysis included Gleason score (hazard ratio [HR] 3.6, p = 0.001), PSA (HR 1.04, p = 0.005), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (HR 4.1, p = 0.002). Clinical T stage and the use of androgen deprivation therapy were not correlated with biochemical failure. Imaging findings on univariate analysis associated with relapse included ECE on MRI (HR 3.79, p = 0.003), tumor size (HR 2.58, p = 0.04), and T stage (HR 1.71, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis incorporating both clinical and imaging findings, only ECE on MRI and Gleason score were independent predictors of recurrence. Conclusions: Pretreatment eMRI findings predict for biochemical recurrence in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Gleason score and the presence of ECE on MRI were the only significant predictors of biochemical relapse in this group of patients.

  10. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in the treatment patients with progressive recurrent malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.S.; Grunnet, K.; Sorensen, M.

    2009-01-01

    glioma and 32 weeks for grade III glioma. Four patients discontinued treatment because of unmanageable toxicity: cerebral haemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmia, intestinal perforation and diarrhoea, the latter resulting in death. DISCUSSION: We conclude that the combination of bevacizumab and irinotecan shows...... acceptable safety and is a clinically relevant choice of therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  11. Effect of metformin pretreatment on myocardial injury during coronary artery bypass surgery in patients without diabetes (MetCAB): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Messaoudi, S.; Nederlof, R.; Zuurbier, C.J.; Swieten, H.A. van; Pickkers, P.; Noyez, L.; Dieker, H.J.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Donders, A.R.T.; Vos, A.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Riksen, N.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, ischaemia and reperfusion damage myocardial tissue, and increased postoperative plasma troponin concentration is associated with a worse outcome. We investigated whether metformin pretreatment limits cardiac injury, assessed by troponin

  12. NCCN-IPI score-independent prognostic potential of pretreatment uric acid levels for clinical outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Katharina T; Melchardt, Thomas; Posch, Florian; Schlick, Konstantin; Deutsch, Alexander; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Weiss, Lukas; Gary, Thomas; Neureiter, Daniel; Klieser, Eckhard; Greil, Richard; Neumeister, Peter; Egle, Alexander; Pichler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood-based parameters are gaining increasing interest as potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma uric acid levels in patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL. Methods: The clinical course of 539 DLBCL patients, diagnosed and treated between 2004 and 2013 at two Austrian high-volume centres with rituximab-based immunochemotherapy was evaluated retrospectively. The prognostic influence of uric acid on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were studied including multi-state modelling, and analysis of conditional survival. Results: Five-year OS and PFS were 50.4% (95% CI: 39.2–60.6) and 44.0% (33.4–54.0) in patients with uric acid levels above the 75th percentile of the uric acid distribution (Q3, cut-off: 6.8 mg dl−1), and 66.2% (60.4–71.5) and 59.6% (53.7–65.0%) in patients with lower levels (log-rank P=0.002 and P=0.0045, respectively). In univariable time-to-event analysis, elevated uric acid levels were associated with a worse PFS (hazard ratio (HR) per 1 log increase in uric acid 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10–1.97, P=0.009) and a worse OS (HR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.16–2.19, P=0.004). These associations prevailed upon multivariable adjustment for the NCCN-IPI score. Uric acid levels significantly improved the predictive performance of the R-IPI and NCCN-IPI scores, and in multi-state analysis, it emerged as a highly significant predictor of an increased risk of death without developing recurrence (transition-HR=4.47, 95% CI: 2.17–9.23, Puric acid levels predict poor long-term outcomes in DLBCL patients beyond the NCCN-IPI risk index. PMID:27764838

  13. Coagulation pretreatment of highly concentrated acrylonitrile wastewater from petrochemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongju; Qin, Lin; Wang, Tao; Ren, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Jiding

    2014-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) wastewater is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is generated during the production of AN. Several chemical methods for the pretreatment of AN wastewater are available in laboratory scale. However, the harsh reaction conditions and high operational cost make these methods undesirable. Until now, four-effect evaporation is the only pretreatment method used for AN wastewater in industry despite its huge energy consumption and high cost. It is difficult to find an energy-saving pretreatment technique from the perspective of industrial application. In this study, a safe and low-cost coagulation technique was developed for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. Three types of inorganic coagulant and three types of polymer coagulant were investigated for the coagulation treatment of highly concentrated AN wastewater from petrochemical plants. The effects of coagulant type, dosage, and coagulation conditions on the pretreatment efficiency of AN wastewater were investigated. The results show that a combination of inorganic and polymer coagulants is effective for the pretreatment of AN wastewater.

  14. Pretreatment microRNA Expression Impacting on Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Predicts Intrinsic Radiosensitivity in Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Monique C; Ten Hoeve, Jelle J; Grénman, Reidar; Wessels, Lodewyk F; Kerkhoven, Ron; Te Riele, Hein; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Verheij, Marcel; Begg, Adrian C

    2015-12-15

    Predominant causes of head and neck cancer recurrence after radiotherapy are rapid repopulation, hypoxia, fraction of cancer stem cells, and intrinsic radioresistance. Currently, intrinsic radioresistance can only be assessed by ex vivo colony assays. Besides being time-consuming, colony assays do not identify causes of intrinsic resistance. We aimed to identify a biomarker for intrinsic radioresistance to be used before start of treatment and to reveal biologic processes that could be targeted to overcome intrinsic resistance. We analyzed both microRNA and mRNA expression in a large panel of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Expression was measured on both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Results were validated using modified cell lines and a series of patients with laryngeal cancer. miRs, mRNAs, and gene sets that correlated with resistance could be identified from expression data of unirradiated cells. The presence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and low expression of miRs involved in the inhibition of EMT were important radioresistance determinants. This finding was validated in two independent cell line pairs, in which the induction of EMT reduced radiosensitivity. Moreover, low expression of the most important miR (miR-203) was shown to correlate with local disease recurrence after radiotherapy in a series of patients with laryngeal cancer. These findings indicate that EMT and low expression of EMT-inhibiting miRs, especially miR-203, measured in pretreatment material, causes intrinsic radioresistance of HNSCC, which could enable identification and treatment modification of radioresistant tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 21(24); 5630-8. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Different methods of pretreatment Ki-67 labeling index evaluation in core biopsies of breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and their relation to response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, András; Csörgő, Erika; Kővári, Bence; Lázár, Péter; Kelemen, Gyöngyi; Rusz, Orsolya; Nyári, Tibor; Cserni, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Increased proliferation activity of breast cancer cells evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry, i.e. a high Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI), may predict better tumor regression in case of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recommendations for the evaluation of Ki-67 LI, there are variations in methodology. We assessed the effect of different evaluation methods on the Ki-67 LI in patients with different response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Thirty pretreatment core-biopsy samples of patients receiving neoadjuvant docetaxel-epirubicin chemotherapy with or without capecitabine were evaluated for their Ki-67 LI. Pathologic regression was categorized as no regression, partial regression and complete regression, with 10 cases in each category. Three antibodies (MIB1, B56, SP6), 4 observers and 4 methods (counting or estimating on glass slides and counting or estimating on representative digital images) were compared. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analyses of variance were performed to investigate the differences in Ki-67 LIs between different clinical outcomes (tumor regression categories). Breast carcinomas with pathological complete regression had a higher mean Ki-67 LI than tumors not achieving complete regression with any methods, observers and antibodies investigated, although there was a variation between different evaluations in what may represent high proliferation. Estimating the Ki-67 LI on digital images representing the highest proliferation in the core biopsy seemed the best in separating complete responders from non-responders. High Ki-67 LI values were more likely associated with pathological complete regression independently of the method of evaluation used, although the definition of high proliferation is problematic. Estimating the Ki-67 LI may be an adequate method of evaluation.

  16. Evaluation of a metal artifact reduction algorithm applied to post-interventional flat detector CT in comparison to pre-treatment CT in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennecke, Angelika; Svergun, Stanislav; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Scholz, Bernhard [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany); Royalty, Kevin [Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Metal artefacts can impair accurate diagnosis of haemorrhage using flat detector CT (FD-CT), especially after aneurysm coiling. Within this work we evaluate a prototype metal artefact reduction algorithm by comparison of the artefact-reduced and the non-artefact-reduced FD-CT images to pre-treatment FD-CT and multi-slice CT images. Twenty-five patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were selected retrospectively. FD-CT and multi-slice CT before endovascular treatment as well as FD-CT data sets after treatment were available for all patients. The algorithm was applied to post-treatment FD-CT. The effect of the algorithm was evaluated utilizing the pre-post concordance of a modified Fisher score, a subjective image quality assessment, the range of the Hounsfield units within three ROIs, and the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation. The pre-post concordance of the modified Fisher score, the subjective image quality, and the pre-post correlation of the ranges of the Hounsfield units were significantly higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. Within the metal-affected slices, the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation coefficient was higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. The overall diagnostic quality of the artefact-reduced images was improved and reached the level of the pre-interventional FD-CT images. The metal-unaffected parts of the image were not modified. (orig.)

  17. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Casagrande, L; Bartalini, P; Bell, W H; Borer, K; Bowcock, T J V; Buytaert, J; Chochula, P; Collins, P; Da Vià, C; Dijkstra, H; Dormond, O; Esposito, A P; Frei, R; Granata, V; Janos, S; Konorov, I; Lourenço, C; Niinikoski, T O; Pagano, S; Palmieri, V G; Parkes, C; Paul, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Ruf, T; Ruggiero, G; Saladino, S; Schmitt, L; Smith, K; Sonderegger, P; Stavitski, I; Steele, D; Vitobello, F

    1999-01-01

    In this work we show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of $\\sim\\,4\\times 10^{14}$ p/cm$^2$, no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at $T<120$~K. Besides confirming the previously observed `Lazarus effect' in single diodes, these results establish for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments.

  18. Characterization of ultra-heavily damaged NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartog, H.W. den; Sugonyako, A.V.; Vainshtein, D.I. [University of Groningen (Netherlands); Turkin, A.A. [National Science Centre, Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); Sulyanov, S.N. [Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kheiker, D.M.; Dorovatovskii, P.V. [Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kurchatov Centre of Synchrotron Radiation, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper we present the progress made to (i) characterize the defect state of ultra-heavily damaged rock salt samples with up to more than 20 at% Na colloids, which had been irradiated with 0.5 MeV electrons at 100 C up to 10{sup 4} MGy (1000 GRad), and (ii) understand their physical properties. The explanation of the observations, made by means of a variety of experimental techniques, is not trivial and often the results obtained with different experimental techniques lead to conflicting interpretations. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Prognostic value of pretreatment albumin–globulin ratio in predicting long-term mortality in gastric cancer patients who underwent D2 resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jianjun Liu,1,2,* Shangxiang Chen,1,2,* Qirong Geng,1,3 Xuechao Liu,1,2 Pengfei Kong,1,2 Youqing Zhan,1,2 Dazhi Xu1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Gastric and Pancreatic Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 3Department of Hematology Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Several studies have highlighted the prognostic value of the albumin–globulin ratio (AGR in various kinds of cancers. Our study was designed to assess whether AGR is associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Patients and methods: A total of 507 gastric cancer patients between 2005 and 2012 were included. The AGR was defined as the ratio of serum albumin to nonalbumin and calculated by the equation: albumin/(total protein - albumin. Furthermore, AGR was divided into two groups (low and high using the X-tile software. Survival analysis stratified by AGR groups was performed. Results: The mean survival time for each group was 36.62 months (95% CI: 33.92–39.32 for the low AGR group and 48.95 months (95% CI: 41.93–55.96, P=0.003 for the high AGR group. Patients in the high group (AGR ≥1.93 had a significantly lower 5-year mortality in comparison with the low group (AGR <1.93 (52.4% vs 78.5%, P=0.003. The high AGR group showed obviously better overall survival than the low AGR group according to Kaplan–Meier curves (P=0.003. Multivariate analysis showed that AGR was an independent predictive factor of prognosis in gastric patients. Conclusion: Pretreatment AGR is a significant and independent predictive factor of prognosis. Keywords: gastric cancer, survival, inflammation, albumin–globulin ratio

  20. Exatecan in pretreated adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: results of a phase II--study of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, P; Nielsen, O S; Bauer, S; Hartmann, J T; Schöffski, P; Christensen, T B; Pink, D; Daugaard, S; Marreaud, S; Van Glabbeke, M; Blay, J Y

    2007-04-01

    No standard treatment is established for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma after previous chemotherapy with anthracyclines and ifosfamide, given either in combination or sequentially. Exatecan (DX-8951f) is a totally synthetic analogue of the topoisomerase I-inhibitor camptothecin, which was synthesised to impart increased aqueous solubility, greater tumour efficacy, and less toxicity than camptothecin itself, topotecan or irinotecan. Since some activity against soft tissue sarcomas, especially leiomyosarcomas, has been reported for topoisomerase I-inhibitors, a study with a new and more potent agent seemed justified. We report on a prospective multicentre phase II study of Exatecan in adult soft tissue sarcomas failing 1 or 2 lines of chemotherapy in advanced phase, performed within the STBSG of EORTC. Thirty-nine patients (16 leiomyosarcomas and 23 other histologies) were included in two independent strata and received a total of 141 cycles (median 2). Median age was 61 years, range 25-76. Exatecan was given as i.v. infusion over 30 min at a dose of 0.5mg/m2 every day for five consecutive days, repeated every 21 days. Seventy-four percentage of cycles could be given without dose or schedule modification. The main toxicity was haematotoxicity with grade 3/4 neutropenia in 49%, grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia in 23%, and grade 3/4 anaemia in 15% of patients, respectively. Non-haematological toxicity consisted mainly of grade 2/3 dyspnoea in 36% of patients and grade 2/3 fatigue in 28%. One treatment-related toxic death due to septic shock was reported. Best overall response was no change with 60% in the leiomyosarcoma group and 53% in the non-leiomysarcoma group, respectively. The 3 months progression-free survival estimates are 56% for leiomysarcomas and 26% for other histologies, respectively. Using a two-step statistical design, the trial was stopped after the first step in both strata, due to lack of activity. In pretreated soft tissue sarcoma patients

  1. Uncovering Heavily Obscured AGN with WISE and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Carroll, Christopher M.; Yan, Wei; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Hainline, Kevin N.; NuSTAR Obscured AGN Team

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes gain their mass through accretion as active galactic nuclei (AGN), but it is now clear that a large fraction of this growth is "hidden" behind large columns of gas and dust. Of particular interest are Compton-thick (CT) AGN, with columns NH > 1024 cm-2, that have been difficult to identify using optical or soft X-ray surveys. We will present two studies of heavily obscured AGN that aim to uncover more of the full population of "hidden" growing black holes: (1) Analysis of the spectral energy distributions of millions of galaxies with photometry from WISE (mid-IR), UKIDSS (near-IR), and SDSS (optical), that uncovers large populations of weak or heavily buried AGN, and (2) NuSTAR observations of a sample of candidate highly obscured AGN, selected from WISE and SDSS photometry,and confirmed using SALT and Keck spectroscopy. The NuSTAR data reveal the existence of powerful CT quasars with extremely large columns NH > 1025 cm-2, which may represent a significant fraction of previously hidden black hole growth. This work is supported by NASA grant numbers NNX16AN48G and NNX15AP24G, and the NSF through grant numbers 1515364 and 1554584.

  2. Characteristics of Heavily Edited Objects in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mooney

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of an analysis of the OpenStreetMap (OSM database for the United Kingdom (UK and Ireland (correct to April 2011. 15; 640 OSM ways (polygons and polylines, resulting in 316; 949 unique versions of these objects, were extracted and analysed from the OSM database for the UK and Ireland. In our analysis we only considered “heavily edited” objects in OSM: objects which have been edited 15 or more times. Our results show that there is no strong relationship between increasing numbers of contributors to a given object and the number of tags (metadata assigned to it. 87% of contributions/edits to these objects are performed by 11% of the total 4128 contributors. In 79% of edits additional spatial data (nodes are added to objects. The results in this paper do not attempt to evaluate the OSM data as good/poor quality but rather informs potential consumers of OSM data that the data itself is changing over time. In developing a better understanding of the characteristics of “heavily edited” objects there may be opportunities to use historical analysis in working towards quality indicators for OSM in the future.

  3. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  4. SU-E-J-97: Pretreatment Test and Post-Treatment Evaluation for Iso-NTCP Dose Guided Adapive Radiotherapy (DGART), Experience with Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Rectal Balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J [The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Thomas Jefferson UniversityHospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hardcastle, N [The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Bender, E [The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Jeong, K [The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Xiao, Y; Ritter, M [Thomas Jefferson UniversityHospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tome' , M [The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of pretreatment test for iso-NTCP DGART and to compare the pretreatment test results with post-treatment evaluations. Methods: NTCP here refers to late rectal wall toxicity only and is calculated with the ring rectal wall DVH. Simulation for one time iso- NTCP DGART starts after half of the total dose was done for 10 patients to investigate if TCP gains could be achieved. Six patients were treated using a 12-fraction 4.3Gy technique and four using 16-fraction 3.63Gy technique. For each of the 12-fraction cases a VMAT plan was generated in Pinnacle3™ using the daily CT obtained prior to the 6th fraction. A pretreatment simulation was performed using only the first 6 daily CTs. The idea is to add the 6 original plan delivered doses with 6 DGART plan delivered doses by deformable dose accumulation (DDA) on each of the first 6 CTs, resulting in 6 rectal wall doses (RWDs) and NTCPs. The 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the 6 NTCPs were computed.The posttreatment evaluation was done by: a) copy the DGART plan to 6 CTs for fraction 7–12 and calculate the 6 actual DGART delivered fractional doses; b) sum the 6 actual DGART doses with the 6 original plan delivered doses by DDA on each of the 12 CTs resulting in 12 post-treatment RWDs and NTCPs; c) boxplot the 12 post-treatment NTCPs. Results: Target dose gain is 0.76–1.93 Gy. The 95%CI widths of the pretreatment tests NTCPs were 1.1–2.7%. For 5 patients, the planned NTCP fell within the 95%CI. For 4 patients, the planned NTCP was lower than the 95%CI lines. Post-treatment results show that for 7 patients, the upper quartile was within the 95%CI; for 2 patients, the upper quartile were higher than the 95%CI. Conclusion: The pretreatment test yields conservative prediction of the actual delivered NTCP.

  5. Heavily doped silicon electrode for dielectrophoresis in high conductivity media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Tung, Kuan-Wen; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2017-10-01

    A hemispherically shaped, heavily doped (N++) silicon electrode is proposed to overcome the challenges of dielectrophoretic (DEP) manipulation using a conventional metal electrode operating in high conductivity media. An N++ electrode decouples the strong electric field region from the electrode interface and provides a large interface capacitance to prevent surface charging in high conductivity media, thereby effectively suppressing electrochemical reactions. Compared to a conventional metal electrode, an N++ electrode can provide 3 times higher threshold voltage and a corresponding 9-fold enhancement of maximum DEP force in 1× phosphate-buffered saline buffer with an electrical conductivity of 1 S/m. Furthermore, an N++ silicon electrode has excellent thermal conductivity and low electrical impedance, ideal for powering massively parallel DEP manipulation in high conductivity media across a large area.

  6. Fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment is a crucial step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars and biofuels. Compared to thermal/chemical pretreatment, fungal pretreatment reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass by lignin-degrading microorganisms and thus potentially provides an environmentally-friendly and energy-efficient pretreatment technology for biofuel production. This paper provides an overview of the current state of fungal pretreatment by white rot fungi for biofuel production. The specific topics discussed are: 1) enzymes involved in biodegradation during the fungal pretreatment; 2) operating parameters governing performance of the fungal pretreatment; 3) the effect of fungal pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production; 4) efforts for improving enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production through combinations of fungal pretreatment and physical/chemical pretreatment; 5) the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass with lignin-degrading enzymes isolated from fungal pretreatment, with a comparison to fungal pretreatment; 6) modeling, reactor design, and scale-up of solid state fungal pretreatment; and 7) the limitations and future perspective of this technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pretreatment quality of life, performance status and their relation to treatment discontinuation and treatment changes in high-risk breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: results from the prospective randomized ADEBAR trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Martin; Singer, Susanne; Janni, Wolfgang; Harbeck, Nadia; Rack, Brigitte; Augustin, Doris; Wischnik, Arthur; Kiechle, Marion; Ettl, Johannes; Scholz, Christoph; Fink, Visnja; Schwentner, Lukas

    2017-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (QoL) is a self-assessed construct indicating how people feel in regard to aspects of their health. Performance status (PS) is evaluated by the treating physician. We examined whether pretreatment QoL and PS are related to subsequent treatment discontinuation and treatment changes in high-risk breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. We conducted a prospective cohort study with data from a randomized phase III trial comparing FEC- and EC-DOC-chemotherapy in patients with primary breast cancer (ADEBAR). We examined the patient's request to discontinue the study, discontinuation due to toxicity, the prolongation of therapy, and dose reduction. Baseline QoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30. PS was evaluated using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Scale (ECOG). Four QoL scales were selected prior to analysis as outcomes: global health, physical functioning, emotional functioning, and fatigue. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to test for differences within the independent variables. 1322 patients were included. 1094 (82.8 %) patients completed therapy according to protocol. 6.3 % stopped therapy due to toxicity and 4.4 % refused treatment. Global health was not related to any of the four QoL outcomes. Physical functioning had the strongest impact on QoL, when comparing the fittest group to the lowest quintile [OR 2.14 (95 % CI 1.00-4.60)]. ECOG 0 compared to worse than 1 was strongly correlated to therapy discontinuation due to toxicity [OR 20.15 (95 % CI 9.48-42.83)] and treatment refusal [OR 8.32 (95 % CI 3.81-18.14)]. Pretreatment QoL, especially physical functioning, is associated with subsequent therapy discontinuation due to toxicity and with changes of the treatment protocol. Pretreatment performance status is strongly associated with therapy discontinuation due to toxicity and with treatment refusal.

  8. Static and dynamic properties of heavily doped quantum vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnyuk, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum vortices in superfluids may capture matter and deposit it inside their core. By doping vortices with foreign particles one can effectively visualize them and study them experimentally. To acquire a better understanding of the interaction between quantum vortices and matter, and clarify the details of recent experiments, the properties of doped vortices are investigated here theoretically in the regimes where the doping mass becomes close to the total mass of superfluid particles forming a vortex. Such formations are dynamically stable and, possessing both vorticity and enhanced inertia, demonstrate properties that are different from the pure vortex case. The goal of this paper is to define and investigate the universal aspects of heavily doped vortex behavior, which can be realized in different types of quantum mixtures. The proposed 3D model is based on a system of coupled semiclassical matter wave equations that are solved numerically in a wide range of physical parameters. The size, geometry and binding energy of dopants in different regimes are discussed. The coupled motion of a vortex–dopant complex and decoupling conditions are studied. The reconnection of vortices, taken as an example of a fundamental process responsible for the evolution of a quantum turbulent state, is modeled to illustrate the difference between the light and heavy doping cases.

  9. Einstein's photoemission emission from heavily-doped quantized structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields  that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials  and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring   physical properties in the presence of intense light waves w...

  10. Effect of a combination of antiplatelet and antithrombotic pretreatment on myocardial perfusion in patients with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing a primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prech, Marek; Bartela, Ewa; Janus, Magdalena; Jeremicz, Igor; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Urbanska, Lidia; Pyda, Malgorzata; Grajek, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred method of reperfusion in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Adjunctive pharmacotherapy is, however, still under investigation. To assess the effect of combined pharmacologic therapy on myocardial perfusion and infarct size in relation to time delays. We studied 309 consecutive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients admitted within 12 h from symptom onset with (a) chest pain persisting for more than 30 min, (b) ST-segment elevation more than 1 mm in at least two contiguous leads, and (c) pretreatment with 600 mg of clopidogrel, 300 mg of aspirin, and 5000 U of intravenous heparin. Group I (n=90) included patients transferred directly to cathlab (immediate transfer) and group II (n=219) included patients transferred by referring hospitals (staged transfer). The results of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow before and after PCI, ST-segment resolution (STSR), troponin T level, and myocardial blush grade were analyzed in relation to delay to intervention. The delay between pharmacologic pretreatment and angiography was two times longer in cases of staged transfer (80 vs. 47.5 min; Pmyocardial blush grade (60.7 vs. 63.3%; P=0.66) were no longer observed after PCI. Similarly, the peak troponin T level was also comparable (3.6 vs. 3.9 ng/ml; P=0.74). Pretreatment with a combination of antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents may improve myocardial perfusion and compromise longer delay to a mechanical intervention.

  11. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  12. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erden, Ayse, E-mail: ayse.erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Sahin, Burcu Savran, E-mail: bsavrans@hotmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Orgodol, Horolsuren, E-mail: hoogii99@yahoo.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Erden, Ilhan, E-mail: erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Biyikli, Zeynep, E-mail: zeynep.biyikli@gmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  13. Changes in symptom severity, schemas and modes in heterogeneous psychiatric patient groups following short-term schema cognitive-behavioural group therapy: a naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design in an outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vreeswijk, M F; Spinhoven, P; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E H M; Broersen, J

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy has proven to be an effective treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. However, little is known of its merits in other psychiatric (personality) disorders. This study investigated whether schema therapy in a group setting (group schema cognitive-behavioural therapy [SCBT-g]) was associated with changes in symptom and schema and mode severity. Furthermore, the aim was to search for baseline predictors and possible mediators of treatment outcome. Sixty-three heterogeneous psychiatric outpatients who attended the SCBT-g were included as participants. In this naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design, data were available on the Symptom Checklist 90, the Schema Questionnaire and the Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory. All outcome measurements showed changes with moderate to high effect sizes, with 53.2% of the patients showing a significant reduction in severity of psychiatric symptoms and schemas and modes. Higher pre-treatment levels of the schema domain Other Directedness predicted greater symptom reduction. Pre-treatment to mid-treatment changes in schema severity predicted subsequent symptom improvement, but change in symptoms and schemas proved to be strongly correlated. In this naturalistic study, SCBT-g was associated with reduced symptom and schema and mode severity in more than half of the psychiatric outpatients. Furthermore, the results suggest that changes in schemas and symptomatology mutually reinforce each other. Over 50% of ambulatory patients show clinical improvement after treatment in a short-term schema therapy group. Other Directedness seems to be a predictor of schema group therapy success. More randomized controlled trial studies and prediction and mediation studies on (short-term) schema group therapy are sorely needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Random responses inflate statistical estimates in heavily skewed addictions data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; Kim, Dale S; McCabe, Connor J

    2017-12-09

    Some respondents may respond at random to self-report surveys, rather than responding conscientiously (Meade and Craig, 2012), and this has only recently come to the attention of researchers in the addictions field (Godinho et al., 2016). Almost no research in the published addictions literature has reported screening for random responses. We illustrate how random responses can bias statistical estimates using simulated and real data, and how this is especially problematic in skewed data, as is common with substance use outcomes. We first tested the effects of varying amounts and types of random responses on covariance-based statistical estimates in distributions with varying amounts of skew. We replicated these findings in correlations from a real dataset (Add Health) by replacing varying amounts of real data with simulated random responses. Skew and the proportion of random responses influenced the amount and direction of bias. When the data were not skewed, uniformly random responses deflated estimates, while long-string random responses inflated estimates. As the distributions became more skewed, all types of random responses began to inflate estimates, even at very small proportions. We observed similar effects in the Add Health data. Failing to screen for random responses in survey data produces biased statistical estimates, and data with only 2.5% random responses can inflate covariance-based estimates (i.e., correlations, Cronbach's alpha, regression coefficients, factor loadings, etc.) when data are heavily skewed. Screening for random responses can substantially improve data quality, reliability and validity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Prolonged survival in patients with breast cancer and a history of brain metastases: results of a preplanned subgroup analysis from the randomized phase III BEACON trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cort?s, Javier; Rugo, Hope S.; Awada, Ahmad; Twelves, Chris; Perez, Edith A.; Im, Seock?Ah; G?mez-Pardo, Patricia; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Di?ras, Veronique; Yardley, Denise A.; Potter, David A.; Mailliez, Audrey; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Zhao, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Conventional chemotherapy has limited activity in patients with breast cancer and brain metastases (BCBM). Etirinotecan pegol (EP), a novel long-acting topoisomerase-1 inhibitor, was designed using advanced polymer technology to preferentially accumulate in tumor tissue including brain metastases, providing sustained cytotoxic SN38 levels. Methods The phase 3 BEACON trial enrolled 852 women with heavily pretreated locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer between 2011 and 2013. BE...

  16. SU-F-R-45: The Prognostic Value of Radiotherapy Based On the Changes of Texture Features Between Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment FDG PET Image for NSCLC Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, China, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is investigating which texture features extracted from FDG-PET images by gray-level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) have a higher prognostic value than the other texture features. Methods: 21 non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) patients were approved in the study. Patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans with both pre-treatment and post-treatment. Firstly, the tumors were extracted by our house developed software. Secondly, the clinical features including the maximum SUV and tumor volume were extracted by MIM vista software, and texture features including angular second moment, contrast, inverse different moment, entropy and correlation were extracted using MATLAB.The differences can be calculated by using post-treatment features to subtract pre-treatment features. Finally, the SPSS software was used to get the Pearson correlation coefficients and Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the change ratios of texture features and change ratios of clinical features. Results: The Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficient between contrast and SUV maximum is 0.785 and 0.709. The P and S value between inverse difference moment and tumor volume is 0.953 and 0.942. Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that the relationships between different texture features and the same clinical feature are different. Finding the prognostic value of contrast and inverse difference moment were higher than the other three textures extracted by GLCM.

  17. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  18. A phase II study of Irofulven (MGI 114) in patients with stage IV melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, A Scott; Gibbs, Peter; Richards, Jon; Russ, Paul; Eckhardt, S Gail; Gonzalez, Rene

    2002-08-01

    Sixteen patients with stage IV melanoma, who were heavily pretreated, received 11 mg/m2/day of intravenous Irofulven for five consecutive days every 28 days. There were no objective tumor responses, although one patient exhibited stable disease after 4 cycles. The most common toxicities were grade 1/2 nausea, vomiting, fatigue, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. One patient required a dose reduction for an elevated creatinine while another patient required cessation of treatment because of acute ataxia that may have been related to Irofulven. Based upon these data, Irofulven does not demonstrate significant antitumor activity to warrant further investigation in advanced melanoma.

  19. p53 status as effect modifier of the association between pre-treatment fasting glucose and breast cancer outcomes in non diabetic, HER2 positive patients treated with trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vici, Patrizia; Sperati, Francesca; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Melucci, Elisa; Di Benedetto, Anna; Di Lauro, Luigi; Pizzuti, Laura; Sergi, Domenico; Terrenato, Irene; Esposito, Luca; Iannuzzi, Carmelina Antonella; Pasquale, Raffaella; Botti, Claudio; Fuhrman, Barbara; Giordano, Antonio; Mottolese, Marcella; Barba, Maddalena

    2014-11-15

    Mounting evidence supports the role of p53 in metabolic processes involved in breast carcinogenesis. We investigated whether p53 status affects the association of pre-treatment fasting glucose with treatment outcomes in 106 non diabetic, HER2 positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab. p53 status was validated against gene sequencing of selected codons in 49 patients. The Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test were used to compare survival by categories of fasting glucose in the overall population and separate settings. Cox models included age and body mass index. Direct sequencing confirmed the lack of mutations in 73.7% of p53 negative patients and their presence in 53.3% of p53 positive cases. At 66 months, 88.3% of patients with glucose ≤ 89.0 mg/dl (median value) did not experiment disease progression compared with 70.0% in the highest category (p=0.034), with glucose being an independent predictor (p=0.046). Stratified analysis confirmed this association in p53 negative patients only (p=0.01). In the early setting, data suggested longer disease free survival in p53 negative patients in the lowest glucose category (p=0.053). In our study, p53 status acted as effect modifier of the investigated association. This may help differentiate target sub-groups and affect outcomes interpretation in similarly characterized patients.

  20. Salvage chemotherapy with docetaxel and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in pretreated patients with platinum- and taxane-sensitive ovarian cancer: a multicenter phase II trial of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinis, Filippos; Polyzos, Aristidis; Christopoulou, Athina; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Emmanouilidis, Christos; Papadimitraki, Elisavet; Kalykaki, Antonia; Kalbakis, Kostas; Samonis, George; Georgoulias, Vassilis

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and antitumor activity of docetaxel (DOC) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) combination in patients with platinum- and taxane-sensitive ovarian cancer. Twenty-three patients were enrolled. DOC was administered at the dose of 40 mg/m(2) intravenously (i.v.) and PLD at 20 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1 and 15 in cycles of 28 days. The study was closed prematurely due to slow accrual. Seven (30.4 %) patients achieved objective response (three complete, four partial), while five (21.7 %) others experienced stable disease (overall disease control rate 52.1 %). The median progression-free survival was 4.8 months and the median overall survival 18.8 months. Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in two (8.7 %) and one (4.3 %) patients, respectively. Febrile neutropenia occurred in two patients. The most common non-hematological grade 3 toxicity was hand-foot syndrome (13 % of patients). There was no treatment-related death. The combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and docetaxel is a well tolerated and a relatively active regimen in pretreated patients with platinum- and taxane-sensitive advanced ovarian cancer.

  1. An assessment of PTV margin definitions for patients undergoing conformal 3D external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer based on an analysis of 10,327 pretreatment daily ultrasound localizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, M Esmeralda Ramos; Parker, William; Patrocinio, Horacio; Souhami, Luis; Shenouda, George; Campos, Leticia Lucente; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2007-04-01

    We have assessed the planning target volume (PTV) margins required for adequate treatment of the prostate in the absence of daily localization imaging based on the statistical analysis of a large data set obtained from 5 years of use of a two-dimensional ultrasound pretreatment localization device. Data from 387 prostate patients were analyzed retrospectively. Every patient in the study received daily pretreatment localization resulting in a total of 10,327 localizations, each comprising an isocenter displacement in three directions: anteroposterior, right-left lateral, and superior-inferior. The mean displacement for each direction for each patient was computed from daily treatment records, and a mean of the means was used in the analysis. The mean displacements required to shift the target to the required position were 6.1 mm posterior (4.4 mm SD), 2.1 mm superior (4.5 mm SD), and 0.5 mm right (3.6 mm SD). The 6.1-mm shift posterior is indicative of a systematic uncertainty. Differences in planning conditions between the computed tomography simulation and the treatment room may account for this discrepancy. Our study has revealed systematic intertreatment uncertainties that would have required a nonuniform PTV margin ranging in dimensions between 2.7 mm anterior, 14.9 mm posterior, 7.7 mm right, 6.7 mm left, 11 mm superior, and 7 mm inferior to encompass the prostate for 95% of our sample if the ultrasound localization system were not used. In the absence of systematic uncertainties, a uniform PTV margin of 9 mm would suffice.

  2. Treatment of Neuropathic Pain with the Capsaicin 8% Patch: Is Pretreatment with Lidocaine Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Kai-Uwe; Nowack, Walburga; Poole, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The capsaicin 8% patch can effectively treat neuropathic pain, but application can cause discomfort or a burning sensation. Until March 2013, it was recommended that patients be pretreated with a topical anesthetic, for example lidocaine, before capsaicin patch application. However, speculation existed over the need for pretreatment and its effectiveness in alleviating treatment-associated discomfort. This article compares tolerability to and efficacy of the capsaicin patch in pretreated and non-pretreated patients. All patients received a single capsaicin patch application. Pretreated patients received a lidocaine plaster before and intravenous lidocaine and metamizole infusions during capsaicin patch application. Pain levels, assessed using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), were used to determine tolerability and efficacy. All patients (pretreated n = 32; non-pretreated n = 26) completed 100% of the intended capsaicin patch application duration. At the time of capsaicin patch removal, 69% of pretreated and 88% of non-pretreated patients reported an NRS score increase, which returned to baseline by 6 hours post-treatment. There was no significant difference in mean NRS score between patient groups at any time during or after capsaicin patch treatment. Response was similar between patient groups; capsaicin patch treatment provided rapid and significant pain reductions that were sustained over 12 weeks. The same proportion of pretreated and non-pretreated patients reported willingness to receive retreatment with the capsaicin patch. This analysis shows that the capsaicin 8% patch is generally tolerable, and the small discomfort associated with patch application is short-lived. Lidocaine pretreatment does not have a significant effect on tolerability, efficacy, or patient willingness to receive retreatment. PMID:24289500

  3. War and peace? The oncologic and the palliative care perspective on personalized cancer treatment in a patient with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Eva K; Schur, Sophie; Posch, Doris; Weixler, Dietmar; Meran, Johannes G; Schmidinger, Manuela; Watzke, Herbert H

    2015-08-01

    Personalized cancer treatment utilizing targeted therapies in a tailored approach is based on tumor and/or patient-specific molecular profiles. Recent clinical trials continue to look for new potential targets in heavily pretreated patients or rare disease entities. Careful selection of patients who may derive benefit from such therapies constitutes a challenge. This case report presents an experimental personalized cancer treatment in an advanced cancer patient and provides a list of issues for discussion: How can we combine treatment goals and simultaneously meet the individual needs in advanced cancer reconciling both perspectives: oncology and palliative care?

  4. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  5. Comparison of Nutrition-Related Adverse Events and Clinical Outcomes Between ICE (Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide) and MCEC (Ranimustine, Carboplatin, Etoposide, and Cyclophosphamide) Therapies as Pretreatment for Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Malignant Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imataki, Osamu; Arai, Hidekazu; Kume, Tetsuo; Shiozaki, Hitomi; Katsumata, Naomi; Mori, Mariko; Ishide, Keiko; Ikeda, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare nutrition-related adverse events and clinical outcomes of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide regimen (ICE therapy) and ranimustine, carboplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide regimen (MCEC therapy) instituted as pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Material/Methods We enrolled patients who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation between 2007 and 2012. Outcomes were compared between ICE therapy (n=14) and MCEC therapy (n=14) in relation to nutrient balance, engraftment day, and length of hospital stay. In both groups, we compared the timing of nutrition-related adverse events with oral caloric intake, analyzed the correlation between length of hospital stay and duration of parenteral nutrition, and investigated the association between oral caloric intake and the proportion of parenteral nutrition energy in total calorie supply. Five-year survival was compared between the groups. Results Compared with the MCEC group, the ICE group showed significant improvement in oral caloric intake, length of hospital stay, and timing of nutrition-related adverse events and oral calorie intake, but a delay in engraftment. Both groups showed a correlation between duration of parenteral nutrition and length of hospital stay (P=0.0001) and between oral caloric intake (P=0.0017) and parenteral nutrition energy sufficiency rate (r=−0.73, P=0.003; r=−0.76, P=0.002). Five-year survival was not significantly different between the groups (P=0.1355). Conclusions Our findings suggest that compared with MCEC therapy, ICE therapy improves nutrition-related adverse events and reduces hospital stay, conserving medical resources, with no significant improvement in long-term survival. The nutritional pathway may serve as a tool for objective evaluation of pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. PMID:29398693

  6. Pretreatment Prediction of Individual Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Response to Anti-Cytokine Therapy Using Serum Cytokine/Chemokine/Soluble Receptor Biomarkers: e0132055

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazuko Uno; Kazuyuki Yoshizaki; Mitsuhiro Iwahashi; Jiro Yamana; Seizo Yamana; Miki Tanigawa; Katsumi Yagi

    2015-01-01

      The inability to match rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with the anti-cytokine agent most efficacious for them is a major hindrance to patients' speedy recovery and to the clinical use of anti-cytokine therapy...

  7. Elevated Pretreatment Serum Concentration of YKL-40-An Independent Prognostic Biomarker for Poor Survival in Patients With Metastatic Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thom, I.; Andritzky, B.; Schuch, G.

    2010-01-01

    disease. Ninety-eight patients received combined gemcitabine and vinorelbine, and 91 received combined gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy. The median overall survival was 37 weeks. RESULTS: Patients had a median serum YKL-40 level of 209 ng/mL (range, 19-2153 ng...

  8. Pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment of the C(6) test in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R V; Marques, A R; Klempner, M S; Schmid, C H; Dally, L G; Martin, D S; Philipp, M T

    2004-08-01

    It was recently reported that antibody to C(6), a peptide that reproduces an invariable region of the VlsE lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi, declined in titer by a factor of four or more in a significant proportion of patients after successful antibiotic treatment of acute localized or disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The present study evaluated the C(6) test as a predictor of therapy outcome in a population of patients with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. The serum specimens tested were from patients with well-documented, previously treated Lyme borreliosis who had persistent musculoskeletal or neurocognitive symptoms. All of the patients had participated in a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled antibiotic trial in which serum samples were collected at baseline and 6 months thereafter, i.show $132#e. 3 months following treatment termination. In this patient population no correlation was found between a decline of C(6) antibody titer of any magnitude and treatment or clinical outcome. Antibodies to C(6) persisted in these patients with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome following treatment, albeit at a markedly lower prevalence and titer than in untreated patients with acute disseminated Lyme disease. The results indicate that C(6) antibody cannot be used to assess treatment outcome or the presence of active infection in this population.

  9. Pretreatment Prediction of Individual Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Response to Anti-Cytokine Therapy Using Serum Cytokine/Chemokine/Soluble Receptor Biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uno, Kazuko; Yoshizaki, Kazuyuki; Iwahashi, Mitsuhiro; Yamana, Jiro; Yamana, Seizo; Tanigawa, Miki; Yagi, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    ...’ speedy recovery and to the clinical use of anti-cytokine therapy. Identifying predictive biomarkers that can assist in matching RA patients with more suitable anti-cytokine treatment was our aim in this report...

  10. The efficacy and safety of Oxaliplatin-Vinorelbine as a second-line chemotherapy combination in patients with platinum-resistant pretreated epithelial ovarian cancer: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidia Mumtahana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects and tolerability of Oxaliplatin-Vinorelbine combination on Platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC patients.Methods: A single centered retrospective study comprising of 34 patients was conducted, and all 34 patients were treated with Vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 on day 1 and 8 along with Oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 1 of 3 weeks treatment cycle following progressive platinum-resistant EOC. Results: The combination showed an overall response rate (ORR of 18% (95% CI, 4.4 - 31.6 where 2 (6% patients had complete response and 4 (12% patients had partial response. Stable disease was observed in 9 (26% patients and progressive disease in 19 (56% patients. Median diseases free survival, median relapse free survival and median time to progression was 17.05 months, 4.4 months, and 1.25 months, respectively. Hematological toxicities were mild; only 1 (2.9% patient had G3 anemia and major non-hematological toxicities include nausea-vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, hepatotoxicity, fatigueness and alopecia, which are mainly limited to G1-G2 and reversible. Conclusion: The effect of this combination is moderate as a second line treatment of platinum resistant EOC; however, in comparison with other regimens of Vinorelbine and Oxaliplatin, the activity is substandard but the toxicity profile is well tolerable. Further multicenter evaluation is needed for the better understanding of the therapeutic efficacy of the combination.

  11. Clinical significance of pretreatment serum levels of VEGF and its receptors, IL- 8, and their prognostic value in type I and II endometrial cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kotowicz

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the usefulness of the determination of cytokines: IL-8, VEGF and its soluble receptors: VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2 in patients with endometrial cancer (EC.The study group consisted of 118 patients with EC subjected to surgical treatment. Before the treatment we determined the serum levels of cytokines IL-8, and VEGF as well as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 receptors. For comparison, the concentration of CA 125 was also measured. VEGFR1 and CA 125 were determined in the COBAS e601 system using Roche Diagnostics kits, while IL-8, VEGF and VEGFR2 were measured by ELISA assay using R&D Systems kits.The concentrations of IL-8, VEGF, VEGFR1 and CA 125 allowed to distinguish patients for the control group. The highest diagnostic sensitivity has been shown for the concentrations of VEGF (AUC = 0.904 and IL-8 (AUC = 0.818. Among all studied parameters only CA125 concentrations increased with the clinical stage; being significantly higher in patients in FIGO III-IV, than FIGO I-IB. In patients at the FIGO stage I-IB, complementary determinations of CA 125 and VEGF resulted in the largest increase of diagnostic sensitivity. Patients with metastases to the para-aortic lymph nodes had significantly higher levels of VEGF compared to subjects without such lesions. The concentrations of IL-8 were an independent prognostic factor in the assessment of overall survival in patients with type I endometrial cancer, while the concentrations of VEGFR2 in those with type II.In patients with endometrial cancer, the clinical usefulness of IL-8 and VEGFR2 measurements as the potential prognostic factors has been demonstrated. In type I, the concentrations of IL-8 determined before treatment can be helpful in predicting overall survival. In patients qualified to type II EC, the concentrations of VEGFR2 have the value of an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, this requires research on larger groups of patients. The increased levels of VEGF may be useful

  12. Preliminary report of MR cisternography using heavily T{sub 2}-weighted fast spin echo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Hiroyuki; Muro, Isao; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Mamata, Yoshiaki; Komiya, Taizo; Mamata, Hatsuho; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Tsugane, Ryuichi [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Sato, Osamu

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the details of cranial nerves and vascular components in the cistern using MR cisternography (MRC). All scans were performed on a PHILIPS Gyroscan ACS-NT (1.5T) using a standard head coil. MRC was performes by heavily T{sub 2}-weighted fast spin echo sequences with reversal image (TR: 6000 ms, TE: 220 ms, NEX: 4 times, matrix: 512 x 307, ETL: 23, 3 mm slice thickness, 0.3 mm slice gap). We studied 4 patients of volunteers with the following diagnosis: arachnoid cyst, facial spasm, pituitary adenoma, and CP angle tumor. The images of the VII and VIIIth nerves were clearly identified by axial and oblique coronal views along the VII and VIIIth nerves. In an oblique coronal view, the roots of the entire VII and VIIIth nerves from the internal auditory meatus to the brainstem were visualized. In the patient with facial spasm, the vascular compression at the root entry zone was proven to be in accordance with the finding obtained during the surgery. In the CP angle tumor case, it was possible to accurately discern the relationship of the tumor to the VII and VIIIth nerves as well as to the surrounding vascular and brainstem structures. In the pituitary adenoma case, MRC was useful indifining the relationship of the tumor to the chiasm, internal carotid artery and first segment of the anterior cerebral artery; however, the area surrounding the trigeminal nerve, the superior cerebello-pontine cistern, has the same intensity as the brainstem due to CSF flow artifacts. This CSF flow related artifact was attributed to high velocity signal loss. The VIth nerve and Xth and IXth nerves were observed in some volunteers. Since an average of 3 min 48 sec only is required for imaging in one direction, the clinical application of this method is considered feasible. (author)

  13. Pretreatment levels of peripheral neutrophils and leukocytes as independent predictors of overall survival in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IV Melanoma: results of the EORTC 18951 Biochemotherapy Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Suciu, Stefan; Punt, Cornelis J A

    2007-01-01

    of neutrophils and leukocytes were analyzed together with other known prognostic factors: serum lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, metastatic site, and sex. Two multivariate prognostic factor analyses were carried out in the model: one with leukocyte counts and one with neutrophil counts. RESULTS......: A total of 363 patients were randomly assigned and baseline blood neutrophil and leukocyte counts were available from 316 and 350 patients, respectively. A high neutrophil count (> 7.5 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor for short overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P...... = 0.02), and a high leukocyte count (> 10 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor of both short overall survival (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P = 0.0005) and short progression-free survival (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: A high pretreatment count of neutrophils in blood...

  14. Vertigo Perception and Quality of Life in Patients after Surgical Treatment of Vestibular Schwannoma with Pretreatment Prehabituation by Chemical Vestibular Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Čada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical removal of vestibular schwannoma causes acute vestibular symptoms, including postoperative vertigo and oscillopsia due to nystagmus. In general, the dominant symptom postoperatively is vertigo. Preoperative chemical vestibular ablation can reduce vestibular symptoms postoperatively. We used 1.0 mL of 40 mg/mL nonbuffered gentamicin in three intratympanic installations over 2 days, 2 months preoperatively in 10 patients. Reduction of vestibular function was measured by the head impulse test and the caloric test. Reduction of vestibular function was found in all gentamicin patient groups. After gentamicin vestibular ablation, patients underwent home vestibular exercising for two months. The control group consisted of 10 patients who underwent only home vestibular training two months preoperatively. Postoperative rates of recovery and vertigo in both groups were evaluated with the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI, the Glasgow Health Status Inventory (GHSI, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaires, as well as survey of visual symptoms by specific questionnaire developed by us. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups with regard to the results of questionnaires. Patients who received preoperative gentamicin were more resilient to optokinetic and optic flow stimulation (p<0.05. This trial is registered with clinical study registration number NCT02963896.

  15. Inflammatory eye disease: Pre-treatment assessment of patients prior to commencing immunosuppressive and biologic therapy: Recommendations from an expert committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Denis; McCluskey, Peter; Wildner, Gerhild; Thurau, Stephan; Carr, Gregory; Chee, Soon-Phaik; Forrester, John; Dick, Andrew; Hudson, Bernard; Lightman, Susan; Smith, Justine; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2017-03-01

    To outline recommendations from an expert committee on the assessment and investigation of patients with severe inflammatory eye disease commencing immunosuppressive and/or biologic therapy. The approach to assessment is based on the clinical experience of an expert committee and a review of the literature with regard to corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drug and biologic therapy and other adjunct therapy in the management of patients with severe sight-threatening inflammatory eye disease. We recommend a careful assessment and consultative approach by ophthalmologists or physicians experienced in the use of immunosuppressive agents for all patients commencing immunosuppressive and/or biologic therapy for sight threatening inflammatory eye disease with the aim of preventing infection, cardiovascular, metabolic and bone disease and reducing iatrogenic side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Imatinib in combination with hydroxyurea versus hydroxyurea alone as oral therapy in patients with progressive pretreated glioblastoma resistant to standard dose temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresemann, G.; Weller, M.; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann Maria

    2010-01-01

    activity compared with HU monotherapy in the treatment of recurrent GBM. The target population consisted of patients with confirmed recurrent GBM and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 who had completed previous treatment comprising surgical resection, irradiation therapy......A randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study of patients with progressive, recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for whom front-line therapy had failed was conducted. This study was designed to determine whether combination therapy with imatinib and hydroxyurea (HU) has superior antitumor...

  17. Pretreatment Pokemon Level as a Predictor of Response to Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients with Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan-Le; Xing, Xi-Zhi; Li, Feng-Yan; Xing, Ya-Juan; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We firstly investigated the expression of Pokemon in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), then characterized the role of Pokemon in evaluating the response to combined cisplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy and prognosis. In this study, 61 patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were treated with a combination chemotherapy comprising cisplatin and paclitaxel. The correlation between serum expression of Pokemon and effectiveness of chemotherapy was assessed. The expression level of Pokemon in NSCLC patients was higher than that in healthy controls (p = 0.000), and was correlated with tumor size and TNM stage (p Pokemon levels in excess of 135.09 ng/ml compared to those with Pokemon levels below 135.09 ng/ml (p = 0.013). Pokemon ≥ 135.09 ng/ml was an independent risk factor for survival time in NSCLC patients undergoing combination chemotherapy (p = 0.018). The serum level of Pokemon correlated with efficacy of cisplatin and paclitaxel combination chemotherapy and survival time, which indicated that Pokemon may be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting treatment effectiveness of first-line chemotherapy and prognosis in NSCLC. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Imatinib in combination with hydroxyurea versus hydroxyurea alone as oral therapy in patients with progressive pretreated glioblastoma resistant to standard dose temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresemann, G.; Weller, M.; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann Maria

    2010-01-01

    treatment groups was very similar (5% in the combination arm vs. 7% in the monotherapy arm). No clinically meaningful differences were found between the two treatment arms, and the primary study end point was not met. Among the patients receiving imatinib, no adverse events were reported that were either...

  19. Imatinib in combination with hydroxyurea versus hydroxyurea alone as oral therapy in patients with progressive pretreated glioblastoma resistant to standard dose temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresemann, G.; Weller, M.; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann Maria

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study of patients with progressive, recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for whom front-line therapy had failed was conducted. This study was designed to determine whether combination therapy with imatinib and hydroxyurea (HU) has superior antitumor...

  20. Changes of Brain Glucose Metabolism in the Pretreatment Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective PET/CT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishan; Ning, Ning; Li, Xianjun; Niu, Gang; Bai, Lijun; Guo, Youmin; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The tumor-to-brain communication has been emphasized by recent converging evidences. This study aimed to compare the difference of brain glucose metabolism between patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and control subjects. NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy and control subjects without malignancy confirmed by 6 months follow-up were collected and underwent the resting state 18F-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT. Normalized FDG metabolism was calculated by a signal intensity ratio of each brain region to whole brain. Brain glucose metabolism was compared between NSCLC patients and control group using two samples t-test and multivariate test by statistical parametric maps (SPM) software. Compared with the control subjects (n = 76), both brain glucose hyper- and hypometabolism regions with significant statistical differences (Pbrain signal transduction pathways, and the hypometabolism regions (the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule and left fusiform gyrus) lied in dorsal attention network and visuospatial function areas. The changes of brain glucose metabolism exist in NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy, which might be attributed to lung-cancer related visceral sympathetic activation and decrease of dorsal attention network function.

  1. Clinical significance of VEGFR-2 and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax pretreatment score in predicting the long-term outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Emilio; Peligros, Isabel [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Pathology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Alfonso, Pilar [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Medical Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Carlos; Ochoa, Enrique [Hospital Provincial de Castellon, Institute of Oncology, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Herranz, Rafael [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Carreras, Jose L. [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) stimulate key processes involved in tumor progression and are important targets for cancer drugs. {sup 18}F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) is a marker of tumor metabolic activity. The purpose of this study was to measure SUVmax combined with VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 proteins in pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving intensive neoadjuvant treatment and to correlate the findings with clinical outcome. VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 were measured using the immunoreactive score (IRS). SUVmax (median 8.4) was quantified in tumors with molecular overexpression (IRS {>=}3 + SUVmax {>=} 8.4 indicating active tumors; SUVmax <8.4 indicating inactive tumors). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore associations between tumor markers, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The study group comprised 38 patients with a median follow-up of 69.3 months (range 4.5 - 92 months). Multivariate analysis showed that active tumors (overexpressing VEGFR-2, high SUVmax) were associated with worse DFS (HR 4.73, 95 % CI 1.18 - 22.17; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 4.28, 95 % CI 1.04 - 20.12; p = 0.05). Active tumors overexpressing VEGFR-2 are associated with a worse overall outcome in patients with rectal cancer treated with induction chemotherapy followed by pelvic chemoradiation and surgery. The optimal diagnostic cut-off level for this novel biomarker association should be investigated. Evaluation in a clinical trial is required to determine whether selected patients could benefit from a VEGFR-targeting drug. (orig.)

  2. A phase I monotherapy study of RG7212, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody targeting TWEAK signaling in patients with advanced cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Ulrik N; Meulendijks, Didier; Siu, Lilian L

    2015-01-01

    TWEAK ligand and reductions in tumor Ki-67 and TRAF1. A patient with BRAF wild-type melanoma who received 36 weeks of RG7212 therapy had tumor regression and pharmacodynamic changes consistent with antitumor effects. Fifteen patients (28%) received 16 or more weeks of RG7212 treatment. CONCLUSION: RG......7212 demonstrated excellent tolerability and favorable pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamic endpoints were consistent with reduced TWEAK: Fn14 signaling. Tumor regression was observed and prolonged stable disease was demonstrated in multiple heavily pretreated patients with solid tumors. These encouraging...

  3. Exatecan in pretreated adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: results of a phase II--study of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichardt, P; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Bauer, S

    2007-01-01

    was synthesised to impart increased aqueous solubility, greater tumour efficacy, and less toxicity than camptothecin itself, topotecan or irinotecan. Since some activity against soft tissue sarcomas, especially leiomyosarcomas, has been reported for topoisomerase I-inhibitors, a study with a new and more potent...... modification. The main toxicity was haematotoxicity with grade 3/4 neutropenia in 49%, grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia in 23%, and grade 3/4 anaemia in 15% of patients, respectively. Non-haematological toxicity consisted mainly of grade 2/3 dyspnoea in 36% of patients and grade 2/3 fatigue in 28%. One treatment......-related toxic death due to septic shock was reported. Best overall response was no change with 60% in the leiomyosarcoma group and 53% in the non-leiomysarcoma group, respectively. The 3 months progression-free survival estimates are 56% for leiomysarcomas and 26% for other histologies, respectively. Using...

  4. Efficacy of Tenofovir-Based Combination Therapy versus Tenofovir Monotherapy in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Presenting with Suboptimal Responses to Pretreatment: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. It remains unclear whether tenofovir disoproxil fumarate- (TDF- based combination therapy produces better outcomes than TDF monotherapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the two regimens by performing a meta-analysis. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was performed on the comparison of TDF-based combination therapy and monotherapy for CHB patients in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Libraries. Both dichotomous and continuous variables were extracted and pooled outcomes were expressed as risk ratio (RR or standard mean difference (SMD. Results. Nine eligible studies (1089 subjects in total were included in our analysis. The proportion of patients with undetectable HBV DNA at 24, 48, and 96 weeks were similar between the two comparable groups (62.5% versus 70.9%, P=0.086; 78.1% versus 83.7%, P=0.118; 86.4% versus 87.9%, P=0.626, resp.. HBV DNA reduction, rates of ALT normalization, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg loss, and HBeAg seroconversion were also similar between the two groups. Conclusions. On the current data, TDF-based combination therapy seemed to be no better than those achieved by monotherapy. Further studies are needed to verify this comparison.

  5. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D.; Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael; Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients. PMID:24213326

  6. Pre-treatment interleukin-6 levels strongly affect bone erosion progression and repair detected by magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yasushi; Kaneko, Yuko; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Shunsuke; Nishina, Naoshi; Kuwana, Masataka; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2017-07-01

    To examine the relationship between MRI structural damage and repair and plasma inflammatory cytokines in patients with RA. A total of 88 newly diagnosed, untreated RA patients were enrolled. Contrast MRI of the dominant hand and X-rays of the hands and feet were performed at baseline and 1 year later. MR images were evaluated using RA MRI scoring, and X-ray. Progression of bone erosion and repair were observed more frequently in MRI than in X-rays (erosion, 52% vs 26%, P erosion progression, with IL-6 having stronger effect than seropositivity. A receiver operating characteristic curve identified the baseline IL-6 level of 7.6 pg/ml for predicting erosion progression during 1 year, with an area under the curve of 0.82; higher IL-6 levels resulted in more erosion progression. Baseline low IL-6 was also an independent predictor for MRI erosion repair. In newly diagnosed, untreated RA patients, baseline plasma IL-6 levels are responsible for 1-year MRI bone erosion progression and repair.

  7. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa, E-mail: ktorigoe@sumcosi.com; Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki [Technology Division, Advanced Evaluation and Technology Development Department, SUMCO Corporation, 1-52 Kubara, Yamashiro-cho, Imari, Saga 849-4256 (Japan); Nakamura, Kozo [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan)

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at temperatures from 750 °C to 950 °C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  8. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system having a heavily doped n-type region

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePoy, David M.; Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.

    2000-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion semiconductor device is provided which incorporates a heavily doped n-type region and which, as a consequence, has improved TPV conversion efficiency. The thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes an emitter layer having first and second opposed sides and a base layer in contact with the first side of the emitter layer. A highly doped n-type cap layer is formed on the second side of the emitter layer or, in another embodiment, a heavily doped n-type emitter layer takes the place of the cap layer.

  9. Pretreatment metabolic tumour volume is predictive of disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemarignier, Charles; Gouel, Pierrick [Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Di Fiore, Frederic [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel, Department of Medical oncology, Rouen (France); Marre, Charline; Michel, Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France); Hapdey, Sebastien; Modzelewski, Romain; Vera, Pierre [Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF (Litis EA 4108 - FR CNRS 3638), Rouen (France); Dubray, Bernard [University of Rouen, QuantIF (Litis EA 4108 - FR CNRS 3638), Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France)

    2014-11-15

    It has been suggested that FDG PET has predictive value for the prognosis of treated oesophageal carcinoma. However, the studies reported in the literature have shown discordant results. The aim of this study was to determine whether pretherapy quantitative metabolic parameters correlate with patient outcomes. Included in the study were 67 patients with a histological diagnosis of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Each patient underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET (4.5 MBq/kg) before chemoradiotherapy. Quantitative analysis was performed using the following parameters: age, weight loss, location, N stage, OMS performance status, MTV{sub p} and MTV{sub p'} (metabolic tumour volume determined by two different physicians), MTV{sub 40%} (volume for a threshold of 40 % of SUVmax), MTV{sub a} (volume automatically determined with a contrast-based adaptive threshold method), SUVmax, SUVmean and TLG (total lesion glycolysis). MTV{sub p} and MTV{sub 40%} were highly correlated (Pearson's index 0.92). SUVmean{sub p} and SUVmean{sub 40%} were also correlated (Pearson's index 0.86), as were TLG{sub p} and TLG{sub 40%} (Pearson's index 0.98). Similarly, the parameters obtained with the adaptive threshold method (MTV{sub a}, SUVmean{sub a} and TLG{sub a}) were correlated with those obtained manually (MTV{sub p}, SUVmean{sub p} and TLG{sub p}). The manual metabolic tumour volume determination (MTV{sub p} and MTV{sub p'}) was reproducible. Multivariate analysis for disease-free survival (DFS) showed that a larger MTV{sub p} was associated with a shorter DFS (p = 0.004) and that a higher SUVmax was associated with a longer DFS (p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis for overall survival (OS) showed that a larger MTV{sub p} was associated with a shorter OS (p = 0.01) and that a tumour in the distal oesophagus was associated with a longer OS (p = 0.005). The associations among the other parameters were not statistically significant. Metabolic tumour volume is a major

  10. MR fetography using heavily T2-weighted sequences: Comparison of thin- and thick-slab acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Division Pediatric Radiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore (United States)], E-mail: thuisma1@jhmi.edu; Solopova, Alina [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of MR-fetography sequences in identifying the major fetal structures and to compare thick- and thin-slab acquisitions for their diagnostic value. Materials and methods: Twenty-one consecutive, pregnant women with suspected fetal pathology underwent fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 T MRI unit. Heavily T2-weighted, single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequences with a long echo train (MR-fetography) were acquired in a thick- and thin-slab modus. Thick- and thin-slab acquisitions were reviewed by two experienced radiologists with regard to the overall image quality and landmark anatomical structures (spinal canal, spinal cord, posterior fossa, cerebellum, brainstem, basal cisterns, stomach, urinary bladder and umbilical cord according to a three-scale grading system (good, moderate and poor). Visibility scores were calculated and compared between both sequences. Results: Overall image quality was graded good in 76.2%, moderate in 19.0% and poor in 4.8% for thick-slab images and good in 81%, moderate in 14.3% and poor in 4.8% for thin-slab images. The visibility scores of the thick/thin-slab images for evaluation of the main fetal structures were as follows: for the spinal canal 2.8 {+-} 0.4/2.9 {+-} 0.54 (p > 0.05), spinal cord 2.4 {+-} 0.75/2.7 {+-} 0.66 (p > 0.05), posterior fossa components (cerebellum, brainstem and basal cisterns) 2.4 {+-} 0.68/2.8 {+-} 0.54; 2.4 {+-} 0.67/2.7 {+-} 0.66; 2.5 {+-} 0.51/2.7 {+-} 0.56 (p < 0.05), stomach 2.8 {+-} 0.44/2.9 {+-} 0.48 (p > 0.05), urinary bladder 2.8 {+-} 0.51/2.8 {+-} 0.54 (p > 0.05) and umbilical cord 2.9 {+-} 0.30/2.6 {+-} 0.60 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Heavily T2-weighted MR-fetography renders a quick overview of fetal contours, fetal position, amount of amniotic fluid and integrity and presence of several major fluid containing structures. Thick- and thin-slab acquisitions render complementary information. Thick-slab images display the entire fetus in one projection while

  11. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  12. Becoming a Heavily Tattooed Young Body: From a Bodily Experience to a Body Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vitor Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Why some young people start to tattoo their bodies? And why some of them keep going on with this practice, until having all body tattooed? What doing so means to them? These are some of the questions that underlie a qualitative research project carried out in Portugal on heavily tattooed young people. In this article, the author discusses their…

  13. In situ observation of triple junction motion during recovery of heavily deformed aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hughes, Darcy A.; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural evolution during in situ annealing of heavily cold-rolled aluminum has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, confirming that an important recovery mechanism is migration of triple junctions formed by three lamellar boundaries (Y-junctions). The migrating Y...

  14. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ~ 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength...

  15. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved ...

  16. RADIATION-DAMAGE IN NACL .1. OPTICAL-ABSORPTION EXPERIMENTS ON HEAVILY IRRADIATED SAMPLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEERKAMP, JRW; GROOTE, JC; SEINEN, J; DENHARTOG, HW

    1994-01-01

    Results of optical-absorption experiments on heavily irradiated NaCl single crystals are presented. The dose rates were between 4 and 250 Mrad/h; the doses between 1 and 7 Grad. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of 20-150-degrees-C. Because of the intense optical bands, the thickness of

  17. Heavily Germanium-Doped Silica Fiber With a Flat Normal Dispersion Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chun-can; Wang, M. H.; Wu, J.

    2015-01-01

    A heavily germanium-doped (Ge-doped) silica fiber with a four-layer refractive index profile is proposed to obtain all normal flat dispersion property. The waveguide dispersion in the fiber can be modified by adjusting the fiber parameters, including the refractive indices and the core radiuses...

  18. The ground state of metallic nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl-KBF4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherkasov, FG; L'vov, SG; Tikhonov, DA; Den Hartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI

    2002-01-01

    ESR, NMR and static magnetic susceptibility measurements of heavily irradiated NaCl-K and NaCl-KBF4 are reported. Up to 10% of the NaCl-molecules are transformed into metallic Na nanoparticles and Cl-2 precipitates. In addition, there are paramagnetic F- and F-aggregates, which are coupled by

  19. The ground state of metallic nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl–KBF4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherkasov, F.G.; L’vov, S.G.; Tikhonov, D.A.; Hartog, H.W. den; Vainshtein, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    ESR, NMR and static magnetic susceptibility measurements of heavily irradiated NaCl–K and NaCl–KBF4 are reported. Up to 10% of the NaCl-molecules are transformed into metallic Na nanoparticles and Cl2 precipitates. In addition, there are paramagnetic F- and F-aggregates, which are coupled by

  20. A comparative randomized trial to assess the impact of oral contraceptive pretreatment on follicular growth and hormone profiles in GnRH antagonist-treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombauts, Luk; Healy, David; Norman, Rob J

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the impact of oral contraceptive (OC) scheduling with a GnRH antagonist (ganirelix) regimen on the ovarian response of women undergoing recombinant FSH (rFSH) stimulation for IVF, compared with a non-scheduled ganirelix regimen and a long GnRH agonist (nafarelin) protocol. A total of 110 women was treated with an OC and ganirelix, 111 with ganirelix alone and 111 with nafarelin. The OC (containing 30 microg ethinylestradiol/150 microg desogestrel) was taken for 14-28 days and stopped 2 days prior to the start of rFSH treatment. Primary efficiency parameters were the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (per attempt) and the number of grade 1 or 2 embryos (per attempt). In terms of follicular growth and hormone profiles, the OC-scheduled antagonist regimen mimicked the agonist regimen rather than the (non-scheduled) GnRH antagonist regimen. In the OC-scheduled GnRH antagonist group and the nafarelin group (versus the non-scheduled antagonist group), pituitary suppression was more profound at the start of stimulation (P growth (P < or = 0.001), longer stimulation was required (11.7 and 10.3 days respectively versus 9.4; P < or = 0.001), and more rFSH was used (2667 and 2222 IU versus 1966 IU; P < or = 0.001). In the three groups, the number of oocytes was similar (13.1, 12.9 and 11.5 respectively; not significant) as well as the number of good quality embryos (5.1, 5.7 and 5.0 respectively; not significant). OC treatment prior to the rFSH/ganirelix regimen can be successfully applied to schedule patients, although more days of stimulation and more rFSH are required than with a non-scheduled GnRH antagonist regimen.

  1. Phase Ib Trial of Cabazitaxel and Tasquinimod in Men With Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC): The CATCH Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Andrew J; Humeniuk, Michael S; Healy, Patrick; Szmulewitz, Russell; Winters, Carolyn; Kephart, Julie; Harrison, Michael R; Martinez, Elia; Mundy, Kelly; Halabi, Susan; George, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Tasquinimod is an immunomodulating and anti-antiangiogenic oral agent with anti-prostate cancer activity in preclinical studies and in clinical trials of men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), including single agent activity and in combination with taxanes. We sought to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of tasquinimod in combination with cabazitaxel and prednisone in men with chemorefractory mCRPC. Men with mCRPC who had failed prior docetaxel chemotherapy received cabazitaxel 25 mg/m2 every 3 weeks with oral tasquinimod at 1 of 3 escalating dose levels (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg once daily) with prednisone and PEG-filgastrim support, using a 3 + 3 dose escalation design. Treatment continued until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. We enrolled 25 men with chemorefractory mCRPC. The RP2D was 0.5 mg tasquinimod based on excess DLTs (two of three men) observed at dose level 3 (1.0 mg) including grade 3 sensory neuropathy and grade 3 atrial fibrillation. Dose level 2 was expanded to 14 men, where 3 DLTs were observed: grade 3 fatigue, grade 4 febrile neutropenia, and grade 3 liver function abnormalities. The proportion of men with a ≥30% PSA decline was 63% and the median composite progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.5 months (95% CI 4.2-16.4 months) based on 12 PFS events. The median number of cycles of cabazitaxel was 6 (range 1-13), with six men receiving >10 cycles. Best overall RECIST responses (CR + PR) were observed in three men (12%), with stable disease in 12 (48%). No pharmacokinetic interactions were observed. We determined the RP2D of tasquinimod combined with cabazitaxel to be 0.5 mg daily following a 3 week lead-in of tasquinimod 0.25 mg with growth factor support. No unexpected toxicities occurred. Prostate 77: 385-395, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. MR fetography using heavily T2-weighted sequences: comparison of thin- and thick-slab acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Thierry A G M; Solopova, Alina

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the use of MR-fetography sequences in identifying the major fetal structures and to compare thick- and thin-slab acquisitions for their diagnostic value. Twenty-one consecutive, pregnant women with suspected fetal pathology underwent fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 T MRI unit. Heavily T2-weighted, single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequences with a long echo train (MR-fetography) were acquired in a thick- and thin-slab modus. Thick- and thin-slab acquisitions were reviewed by two experienced radiologists with regard to the overall image quality and landmark anatomical structures (spinal canal, spinal cord, posterior fossa, cerebellum, brainstem, basal cisterns, stomach, urinary bladder and umbilical cord according to a three-scale grading system (good, moderate and poor). Visibility scores were calculated and compared between both sequences. Overall image quality was graded good in 76.2%, moderate in 19.0% and poor in 4.8% for thick-slab images and good in 81%, moderate in 14.3% and poor in 4.8% for thin-slab images. The visibility scores of the thick/thin-slab images for evaluation of the main fetal structures were as follows: for the spinal canal 2.8+/-0.4/2.9+/-0.54 (p>0.05), spinal cord 2.4+/-0.75/2.7+/-0.66 (p>0.05), posterior fossa components (cerebellum, brainstem and basal cisterns) 2.4+/-0.68/2.8+/-0.54; 2.4+/-0.67/2.7+/-0.66; 2.5+/-0.51/2.7+/-0.56 (p0.05), urinary bladder 2.8+/-0.51/2.8+/-0.54 (p>0.05) and umbilical cord 2.9+/-0.30/2.6+/-0.60 (pslab acquisitions render complementary information. Thick-slab images display the entire fetus in one projection while thin-slab images provide more detailed anatomical information. The short imaging time usually allows measuring both thick- and thin-slab images. MR-fetography is as a helpful addition to conventional fetal MRI. MR-fetography should not be viewed as a single, stand alone sequence but as a supporting fast MR sequence in a well-designed multisequence fetal MRI protocol

  3. A case of preventable pulmonary tuberculosis in a Greenlandic, heavily immune suppressed patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sophie H; Johansen, Isik S

    2012-01-01

    Immune modulating therapy, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors, is becoming increasingly more widespread in the treatment of many autoimmune diseases. One of the well-documented side effects of TNF-alpha inhibitors is an increased risk of reactivating latent tuberculosis infection...

  4. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanharawi, Imane El; Tzarouchi, Loukia [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Cardoen, Liesbeth [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Alison, Marianne [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France)

    2017-05-15

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting. (orig.)

  5. The use of bonded partial ceramic restorations to recover heavily compromised teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politano, Gianfranco; Fabianelli, Andrea; Papacchini, Federica; Cerutti, Antonio

    Restorative procedures are accompanied by a reduction of tooth stability, a decrease of fracture resistance, and an increase in deflection of weakened cusps. The choice between a direct or an indirect restorative technique, mainly in posterior areas, is a challenge, and involves biomechanical, anatomical, functional, esthetic, and financial considerations. In this article, the pros and cons of direct restorations are examined, as well as an analysis of indirect restorations and an overview of dental ceramics. In particular, several clinical uses of lithium disilicate overlays with a circumferential adhesive ferrule effect are proposed: heavily compromised vital teeth with thin walls, cracked teeth, and endodontically treated molars. Clinical procedures are described step by step on the basis of data from scientific literature. In conclusion, the use of lithium disilicate in combination with adhesive technologies can lead to a more conservative, economic, and esthetic approach in the restoration of heavily compromised teeth.

  6. Decadal evolution of a very small heavily debris-covered glacier in an Alpine permafrost environment

    OpenAIRE

    Capt, M.; Bosson, Jean-Baptiste; Fischer, M; Micheletti, N.; Lambiel, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Glacier response to climate forcing can be heterogeneous and complex, depending on glacier system characteristics. This article presents the decadal evolution of the Tsarmine Glacier (Swiss Alps), a very small and heavily debris-covered cirque glacier located in the Alpine periglacial belt. Archival aerial photogrammetry and autocorrelation of orthophotos were used to compute surface elevation, volume and geodetic mass changes, as well as horizontal displacement rates for several periods...

  7. Debt relief and public health spending in heavily indebted poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Clements, Benedict; Guin-Siu, Maria Teresa; Leruth, Luc

    2002-01-01

    The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, which was launched in 1996, is the first comprehensive effort by the international community to reduce the external debt of the world's poorest countries. The Initiative will generate substantial savings relative to current and past public spending on health and education in these countries. Although there is ample scope for raising public health spending in heavily indebted poor countries, it may not be advisable to spend all the savings resulting from HIPC resources for this purpose. Any comprehensive strategy for tackling poverty should also focus on improving the efficiency of public health outlays and on reallocating funds to programmes that are most beneficial to the poor. In order to ensure that debt relief increases poverty-reducing spending and benefits the poor, all such spending, not just that financed by HIPC resources, should be tracked. This requires that countries improve all aspects of their public expenditure management. In the short run, heavily indebted poor countries can take some pragmatic tracking measures based on existing public expenditure management systems, but in the longer run they should adopt a more comprehensive approach so as to strengthen their budget formulation, execution, and reporting systems.

  8. Replacing Heavily Damaged Teeth by Third Molar Autotransplantation With the Use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Rapid Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Jop P; Anssari Moin, David; Wismeijer, Daniel; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the autotransplantation of third molars to replace heavily damaged premolars and molars. Specifically, this article reports on the use of preoperative cone-beam computed tomographic planning and 3-dimensional (3D) printed replicas of donor teeth to prepare artificial tooth sockets. In the present case, an 18-year-old patient underwent autotransplantation of 3 third molars to replace 1 premolar and 2 molars that were heavily damaged after trauma. Approximately 1 year after the traumatic incident, autotransplantation with the help of 3D planning and rapid prototyping was performed. The right maxillary third molar replaced the right maxillary first premolar. The 2 mandibular wisdom teeth replaced the left mandibular first and second molars. During the surgical procedure, artificial tooth sockets were prepared with the help of 3D printed donor tooth copies to prevent iatrogenic damage to the actual donor teeth. These replicas of the donor teeth were designed based on the preoperative cone-beam computed tomogram and manufactured with the help of 3D printing techniques. The use of a replica of the donor tooth resulted in a predictable and straightforward procedure, with extra-alveolar times shorter than 2 minutes for all transplantations. The transplanted teeth were placed in infraocclusion and fixed with a suture splint. Postoperative follow-up showed physiologic integration of the transplanted teeth and a successful outcome for all transplants. In conclusion, this technique facilitates a straightforward and predictable procedure for autotransplantation of third molars. The use of printed analogues of the donor teeth decreases the risk of iatrogenic damage and the extra-alveolar time of the transplanted tooth is minimized. This facilitates a successful outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  10. Pre-treatment with clopidogrel and postprocedure troponin elevation after elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, MB; Ottervanger, JP; Miedema, Kor; Suryapranata, H; de Boer, MJ; Hoorntje, JCA; van 't Hof, AWJ; Gosselink, M; Zijlstra, F; Dambrink, Jan Hendrik Everwijn

    Elevated troponin after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCl) has been associated with a worse prognosis. Pretreatment with clopidogrel may be beneficial in patients undergoing PCl. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted to address the potential role of clopidogrel in

  11. Recurrent Pseudomembranous Colitis in an Ovarian Cancer Patient Undergoing Carboplatin Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Valerie A; Manahan, Kelly J; Geisler, John P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diarrhea is a common problem in ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and Clostridium difficile infection has been identified as a cause. The proper diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea are critical to patient care, especially to prevent the serious complications from a severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Case. We present a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient who developed recurrent pseudomembranous colitis while receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. Despite treatment with oral metronidazole for fourteen days, the patient's diarrhea relapsed and colonoscopy revealed extensive pseudomembranous colitis. The infection eventually resolved with the combination of oral vancomycin and metronidazole. Conclusions. Diarrhea is a common problem in patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. Management requires obtaining the proper diagnosis. Clostridium difficile associated pseudomembranous colitis must be part of the differential diagnosis. Treatment must be sufficient to prevent relapses of the Clostridium difficile infection to prevent serious consequences in an already vulnerable patient population.

  12. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma-assisted pretre...

  13. Investigation of Heavily Doped Congruent Lithium Tantalite for Single-pass Second Harmonic Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Farsi, Mohammad Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Treball final de màster oficial fet en col·laboració amb Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB) i Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (ICFO) [ANGLÈS] We report a compact , practical, green sources based on single-pass second harmonic generation(SHG) of a picosecond Yb-fiber laser in 10-mm-long, heavily MgO doped congruent lithium tantalite (MgO:cPPLT). The fundamental pump source is 20 ps Yb-fiber laser operating at a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The green source ...

  14. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 748242 (Viet Nam); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Anh, Le Duc [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-05-09

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  15. Electron spin dynamics in heavily Mn-doped (Ga,Mn)As

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonggang; Han, Lifen; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Xinhui; Zhao, Jianhua

    2010-12-01

    Electron spin relaxation and related mechanisms in heavily Mn-doped (Ga,Mn)As are studied by performing time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. At low temperature, s-d exchange scattering dominates electron spin relaxation, whereas the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism and Mn impurity scattering play important roles at high temperature. The temperature-dependent spin relaxation time exhibits an anomaly around the Curie temperature (Tc) that implies that thermal fluctuation is suppressed by short-range correlated spin fluctuation above Tc.

  16. Does diazepam pretreatment prevent succinylcholine-induced fasciculations?--a double-blind comparison of diazepam and tubocurarine pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkola, O; Salmenperä, M; Tammisto, T

    1980-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of diazepam pretreatment in preventing succinylcholine-induced fasciculations, 61 surgical patients were randomly allocated into three groups receiving either diazepam (0.05 mg/kg), d-tubocurarine (0.05 mg/kg) or saline in a double-blind fashion. Following the induction of anesthesia with fentanyl and thiopental, a bolus dose of succinylcholine (1 mg/kg was injected 5 minutes after the pretreatment drugs. Resulting fasciculations were then graded visually. Responses to electrical simulation of the ulnar nerve, somatic motor responses to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation, and changes in serum levels of potassium were also evaluated. Diazepam had no effect on frequency or intensity of succinylcholine fasciculations. Fasciculations were observed in 90% of the patients given placebo injections and in 95% of those given diazepam, but in only 16% of those given tubocurarine. Tubocurarine prolonged the onset and shortened the duration of the succinylcholine block and thus made intubation more difficult. Diazepam accelerated onset, but had no effect on duration of succinylcholine block. The twitch response following ulnar nerve stimulation disappeared after 84 seconds (p < 0.01 vs placebo) in patients given diazepam after 115 seconds in patients given tubocurarine, and after 106 seconds in those given placebo injections. The increase in serum potassium after succinylcholine was prevented by pretreatment with d-tubocurarine but not by diazepam.

  17. Innovative pretreatment strategies for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently by thermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes via syngas (CO and H2) fermentation. However, many of the feedstocks have recalcitrant structure and are difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or they have toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestible at all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhanced and economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. The strategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression, autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose) pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well as combined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and pretreatment, innovative biogas digester design, co-digestion, and bio-augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation-induced gain degradation in lateral PNP BJTs with lightly and heavily doped emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Schrimpf, R.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause failures in ICs due to gain degradation of individual devices. The base current of irradiated bipolar devices increases with total dose, while the collector current remains relatively constant. This results in a decrease in the current gain. Lateral PNP (LPNP) transistors typically exhibit more degradation than vertical PNP devices at the same total dose, and have been blamed as the cause of early IC failures at low dose rates. It is important to understand the differences in total-dose response between devices with heavily- and lightly-doped emitters in order to compare different technologies and evaluate the applicability of proposed low-dose-rate hardness-assurance methods. This paper addresses these differences by comparing two different LPNP devices from the same process: one with a heavily-doped emitter and one with a lightly-doped emitter. Experimental results demonstrate that the lightly-doped devices are more sensitive to ionizing radiation and simulations illustrate that increased recombination on the emitter side of the junction is responsible for the higher sensitivity.

  19. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Taylor

    Full Text Available Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  20. Recurrent Pseudomembranous Colitis in an Ovarian Cancer Patient Undergoing Carboplatin Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Allen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diarrhea is a common problem in ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and Clostridium difficile infection has been identified as a cause. The proper diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea are critical to patient care, especially to prevent the serious complications from a severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI. Case. We present a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient who developed recurrent pseudomembranous colitis while receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. Despite treatment with oral metronidazole for fourteen days, the patient’s diarrhea relapsed and colonoscopy revealed extensive pseudomembranous colitis. The infection eventually resolved with the combination of oral vancomycin and metronidazole. Conclusions. Diarrhea is a common problem in patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. Management requires obtaining the proper diagnosis. Clostridium difficile associated pseudomembranous colitis must be part of the differential diagnosis. Treatment must be sufficient to prevent relapses of the Clostridium difficile infection to prevent serious consequences in an already vulnerable patient population.

  1. Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paripok Phitsuwan; Chutidet Permsriburasuk; Sirilak Baramee; Thitiporn Teeravivattanakit; Khanok Ratanakhanokchai

    2017-01-01

    ...) at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation...

  2. SU-E-T-148: Benchmarks and Pre-Treatment Reviews: A Study of Quality Assurance Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowenstein, J; Nguyen, H; Roll, J; Walsh, A; Tailor, A; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the impact benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews have on improving the quality of submitted clinical trial data. Methods: Benchmarks are used to evaluate a site’s ability to develop a treatment that meets a specific protocol’s treatment guidelines prior to placing their first patient on the protocol. A pre-treatment review is an actual patient placed on the protocol in which the dosimetry and contour volumes are evaluated to be per protocol guidelines prior to allowing the beginning of the treatment. A key component of these QA mechanisms is that sites are provided timely feedback to educate them on how to plan per the protocol and prevent protocol deviations on patients accrued to a protocol. For both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews a dose volume analysis (DVA) was performed using MIM softwareTM. For pre-treatment reviews a volume contour evaluation was also performed. Results: IROC Houston performed a QA effectiveness analysis of a protocol which required both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews. In 70 percent of the patient cases submitted, the benchmark played an effective role in assuring that the pre-treatment review of the cases met protocol requirements. The 35 percent of sites failing the benchmark subsequently modified there planning technique to pass the benchmark before being allowed to submit a patient for pre-treatment review. However, in 30 percent of the submitted cases the pre-treatment review failed where the majority (71 percent) failed the DVA. 20 percent of sites submitting patients failed to correct their dose volume discrepancies indicated by the benchmark case. Conclusion: Benchmark cases and pre-treatment reviews can be an effective QA tool to educate sites on protocol guidelines and to minimize deviations. Without the benchmark cases it is possible that 65 percent of the cases undergoing a pre-treatment review would have failed to meet the protocols requirements.Support: U24-CA-180803.

  3. Characterization of buffy coat-derived granulocytes for clinical use: a comparison with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/dexamethasone-pretreated donor-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Geer, A; Gazendam, R P; Tool, A T J; van Hamme, J L; de Korte, D; van den Berg, T K; Zeerleder, S S; Kuijpers, T W

    2017-02-01

    Buffy coat-derived granulocytes have been described as an alternative to the apheresis product from donors pretreated with dexamethasone and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The latter is - dependent on the local and national settings - obtained following a demanding and time-consuming procedure, which is undesirable in critically ill septic patients. In contrast, buffy coat-derived products have a large volume and are often heavily contaminated with red cells and platelets. We developed a new pooled buffy coat-derived product with high purity and small volume, and performed a comprehensive functional characterization of these granulocytes. We pooled ten buffy coats following the production of platelet concentrates. Saline 0·9% was added to decrease the viscosity and the product was split into plasma, red cells and a 'super' buffy coat. Functional data of the granulocytes were compared to those obtained with granulocytes from healthy controls and G-CSF/dexamethasone-pretreated donors. Buffy coat-derived granulocytes showed adhesion, chemotaxis, reactive oxygen species production, degranulation, NETosis and in vitro killing of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus species comparable to control and G-CSF/dexamethasone-derived granulocytes. Candida killing was superior compared to G-CSF/dexamethasone-derived granulocytes. Immunophenotyping was normal; especially no signs of activation in the buffy coat-derived granulocytes were seen. Viability was reduced. Buffy coats are readily available in the regular blood production process and would take away the concerns around the apheresis product. The product described appears a promising alternative for transfusion purposes. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Integrated analysis of hydrothermal flow through pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archambault-Leger Veronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of hydrothermal flowthrough (FT pretreatment severity on pretreatment and solubilization performance metrics was evaluated for three milled feedstocks (corn stover, bagasse, and poplar and two conversion systems (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using yeast and fungal cellulase, and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum. Results Compared to batch pretreatment, FT pretreatment consistently resulted in higher XMG recovery, higher removal of non-carbohydrate carbon and higher glucan solubilization by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. XMG recovery was above 90% for FT pretreatment below 4.1 severity but decreased at higher severities, particularly for bagasse. Removal of non-carbohydrate carbon during FT pretreatment increased from 65% at low severity to 80% at high severity for corn stover, and from 40% to 70% for bagasse and poplar. Solids obtained by FT pretreatment were amenable to high conversion for all of the feedstocks and conversion systems examined. The optimal time and temperature for FT pretreatment on poplar were found to be 16 min and 210°C. At these conditions, SSF glucan conversion was about 85%, 94% of the XMG was removed, and 62% of the non carbohydrate mass was solubilized. Solubilization of FT-pretreated poplar was compared for C. thermocellum fermentation (10% inoculum, and for yeast-fungal cellulase SSF (5% inoculum, cellulase loading of 5 and 10 FPU/g glucan supplemented with β-glucosidase at 15 and 30 U/g glucan. Under the conditions tested, which featured low solids concentration, C. thermocellum fermentation achieved faster rates and more complete conversion of FT-pretreated poplar than did SSF. Compared to SSF, solubilization by C. thermocellum was 30% higher after 4 days, and was over twice as fast on ball-milled FT-pretreated poplar. Conclusions XMG removal trends were similar between feedstocks whereas glucan conversion trends were significantly

  5. Heavily loaded ferrite-polymer composites to produce high refractive index materials at centimetre wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Parke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A cold-pressing technique has been developed for fabricating composites composed of a polytetrafluoroethylene-polymer matrix and a wide range of volume-fractions of MnZn-ferrite filler (0%–80%. The electromagnetic properties at centimetre wavelengths of all prepared composites exhibited good reproducibility, with the most heavily loaded composites possessing simultaneously high permittivity (180 ± 10 and permeability (23 ± 2. The natural logarithm of both the relative complex permittivity and permeability shows an approximately linear dependence with the volume fraction of ferrite. Thus, this simple method allows for the manufacture of bespoke materials required in the design and construction of devices based on the principles of transformation optics.

  6. Selectively excited blue luminescence in heavily Mg doped p-type GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, John S.; Yu, Peter Y.

    2000-12-31

    The emission at {approx}2.8 eV from heavily doped p-GaN, known as the blue luminescence (BL), has been studied by selective excitation using a dye laser tunable between 2.7-3.0 eV. The peak position and intensity of the BL are found to exhibit an unusual dependence on the excitation photon energy. We have explained our results with a shallow-donor and deep-acceptors pair recombination model which includes potential fluctuations induced by heavy doping. We found a ''critical energy'' of {approx}2.8 eV for the BL. Electron-hole pairs with energies above this energy are able to achieve quasi-thermal equilibrium while those with energies below 2.8 eV are strongly ''localized''.

  7. Low-temperature TCT characterization of heavily proton irradiated p-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Härkönen, J; Luukka, P; Kassamakov, I; Autioniemi, M; Tuominen, E; Sane, P; Pusa, P; Räisänen, J; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E; Li, Z

    2007-01-01

    n+/p−/p+ pad detectors processed at the Microelectronics Center of Helsinki University of Technology on boron-doped p-type high-resistivity magnetic Czochralski (MCz-Si) silicon substrates have been investigated by the transient current technique (TCT) measurements between 100 and 240 K. The detectors were irradiated by 9 MeV protons at the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Helsinki up to 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 2×1015 n/cm2. In some of the detectors the thermal donors (TD) were introduced by intentional heat treatment at 430 °C. Hole trapping time constants and full depletion voltage values were extracted from the TCT data. We observed that hole trapping times in the order of 10 ns were found in heavily (above 1×1015 neq/cm2) irradiated samples. These detectors could be fully depleted below 500 V in the temperature range of 140–180 K.

  8. The Time Response of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers to Heavily Ionizing Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Artamonov, A; Bogomilov, M; Booth, C; Borghi, S; Catanesi, M G; Chimenti, P; Gastaldi, Ugo; Giani, S; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Grossheim, A; Guglielmi, A; Ivantchenko, V; Kolev, D; Meurer, C; Mezzetto, M; Panman, J; Popov, B; Radicioni, E; Schroeter, R; Temnikov, P; Chernyaev, E; Tsenov, R; Tsukerman, I; Wiebusch, C

    2007-01-01

    The HARP system of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) was designed to perform particle identification by the measurement of the difference in the time-of-flight of different particles. In previous papers an apparent discrepancy was shown between the response of the RPCs to minimum ionizing pions and heavily ionizing protons. Using the kinematics of elastic scattering off a hydrogen target a controlled beam of low momentum recoil protons was directed onto the chambers. With this method the trajectory and momentum, and hence the time-of-flight of the protons can be precisely predicted without need for a measurement of momentum of the protons. It is demonstrated that the measurement of the time-of-arrival of particles by the thin gas-gap glass RPC system of the HARP experiment depends on the primary ionization deposited by the particle in the detector.

  9. Simulation of Heavily Irradiated Silicon Pixel Sensors and Comparison with Test Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chiochia, Vincenzo; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Swartz, Morris; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Charge collection measurements performed on heavily irradiated p-spray DOFZ pixel sensors with a grazing angle hadron beam provide a sensitive determination of the electric field within the detectors. The data are compared with a complete charge transport simulation of the sensor which includes signal trapping and charge induction effects. A linearly varying electric field based upon the standard picture of a constant type-inverted effective doping density is inconsistent with the data. A two-trap double junction model implemented in the ISE TCAD software can be tuned to produce a doubly-peaked electric field which describes the data reasonably well. The modeled field differs somewhat from previous determinations based upon the transient current technique. The model can also account for the level of charge trapping observed in the data.

  10. Enhanced diffusion of boron by oxygen precipitation in heavily boron-doped silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa; Ono, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    The enhanced diffusion of boron has been investigated by analyzing out-diffusion profiles in the vicinity of the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate with a resistivity of 8.2 mΩ cm and an oxide precipitate (O.P.) density of 108-1010 cm-3. It is found that the boron diffusion during annealing at 850-1000 °C is enhanced with the increase of the oxide precipitate density. On the basis of a model for boron diffusion mediated by silicon self-interstitials, we reveal that the enhanced diffusion is attributed to self-interstitials supersaturated as a result of the emission from oxide precipitates and the absorption by punched-out dislocations. In addition, the temperature dependence of the fraction of the self-interstitial emission obtained analyzing the diffusion enhancement well explains the morphology changes of oxide precipitates reported in literature.

  11. Porous-like structures prepared by temperature-pressure treatment of heavily hydrogenated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misiuk, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Shalimov, A.; Bak-Misiuk, J. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Surma, B. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Wnuk, A. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Antonova, I.V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Lavrentieva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zavodinsky, V.G.; Gnidenko, A.A. [Institute of Materials Science, RAS, Tikhookeanskaya 153, 680042 Khabarovsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-01

    Microstructure and related properties of Czochralski silicon heavily doped with hydrogen by implantation (hydrogen dose 2.7 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, at 24 keV) or by hydrogen plasma etching (reference samples) and treated at up to 1270 K (HT) under argon pressure up to 1.1 GPa (HP) are investigated. The structure of HT-HP treated Cz-Si:H is similar to that of porous (spongy) Si. Visible photoluminescence at 2.0-2.8 eV originates from accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen atoms near the sample surface. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Induction hardening of tool steel for heavily loaded aircraft engine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokicki P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction hardening is an innovative process allowing modification of the materials surface with more effective, cheaper and more reproducible way to compare with conventional hardening methods used in the aerospace industry. Unfortunately, high requirements and strict regulation concerning this branch of the industry force deep research allowing to obtain results that would be used for numerical modelling of the process. Only by this way one is able to start the industrial application of the process. The main scope of presented paper are results concerning investigation of microstructure evolution of tool steel after single-frequency induction hardening process. The specimens that aim in representing final industrial products (as heavily loaded gears, were heat- -treated with induction method and subjected to metallographic preparation, after which complex microstructure investigation was performed. The results obtained within the research will be a basis for numerical modelling of the process of induction hardening with potential to be introduced for the aviation industrial components.

  13. Double peak electric field distortion in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Verbitskaya, E

    2004-01-01

    Non-uniform distribution of the electric field outlined as double peak distortion (DPD) is considered for heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors, which were developed for the CERN-ATLAS semiconductor tracker. DPD originates from the non-uniform accumulation of electrons and holes from the bulk generated current that are captured by radiation induced defects: deep acceptors and donors with mid-gap energy levels. This corresponds to the formation of the low electric field region in the detector central part that consequently will delay charge collection. The electric field distributions at different reverse biases, fluences and detector operational temperatures are calculated using a one-dimensional Poisson equation as it was done earlier for pad detectors. It has been shown that due to the electric field focusing at the strips the DPD effect is more pronounced for strip detectors as compared to that in pad detectors. The double peak electric field distribution is evinced experimentally in current pulse res...

  14. Facilitating political decisions using species distribution models to assess restoration measures in heavily modified estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-channel drain current model for asymmetric heavily / lightly doped DG MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Pradipta; Syamal, Binit; Koley, Kalyan; Dutta, Arka; Sarkar, C. K.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a drain current model for double gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (DG MOSFETs) based on a new velocity saturation model that accounts for short-channel velocity saturation effect independently in the front and the back gate controlled channels under asymmetric front and back gate bias and oxide thickness. To determine the front and the back-channel velocity saturation, drain-induced barrier lowering is evaluated by effective gate voltages at the front and back gates obtained from surface potential at the threshold condition after considering symmetric and asymmetric front and back oxide thickness. The model also incorporates surface roughness scattering and ionized impurity scattering to estimate drain current for heavily / lightly doped channel for short-channel asymmetric DG MOSFET and a good agreement has been achieved with TCAD simulations, with a relative error of around 3-7%.

  16. Controlled, prospective, observational study on the efficiency and tolerability of a combination of potential Nrf2-inducing antioxidants and micronutrients as pre-treatment for ICSI in dyspermic patients with previous failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, R; Gallo, M; Dal Lago, A; Licata, E; Paciotti, G; Amodei, M; Meneghini, C; Fabiani, C; Dani, G; Liberanome, C; Antonaci, D; Corno, R; Miriello, D; Giuffrida, G; Giammusso, B

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of pre-treatment in dyspermic males in IVF couples with a combination of micronutrients, for the purpose of improving the fertilization rate, the implantation rate and the outcome of the pregnancy. This controlled prospective clinical study was performed in two medically assisted reproduction centers. 59 males with mild oligo-astheno-teratospermia (OAT) were admitted to the study. All of them had a history of previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) attempts with female partners aged micronutrients in dyspermic subjects can improve the reproductive outcome of the IVF procedure.

  17. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  18. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  19. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  20. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  1. Industrial Pretreatment Program for New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Pretreatment Program prevents the discharge of pollutants to Publicly-Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) which will interfere with the operations of the POTW or its use and disposal of municipal biosolids.

  2. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  3. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Lignocellulosic biomass-Thermal pretreatment with steam: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    With the ever rising demand for more energy and the limited availability of depleted world resources, many are beginning to look for alternatives to fossil fuels. Liquid biofuel, in particular, is of key interest to decrease our dependency on fuels produced from imported petroleum. Biomass pre...... of different pretreatment methods are known to enhance the digestibility of lingo-cellulosic biomass by affecting these limiting factors. Some of them are: milling, thermal pretreatment with steam or hot water, acid pre-treatment and alkaline pre-treatment. This chapter will focus on one of the more promising...

  5. [Efficacy of pretreatment with Serenoa repens on bleeding associated with transurethral resection of prostate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, S; Annecchiarico, A; Gambardella, M C; Sepe, G

    2004-03-01

    Aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a pretreatment with lipidic-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) to reduce bleeding during transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. This is a monocentric, randomised versus control group study. We enrolled 108 patients, randomised either in the experimental group or in the control one. Patients in the experimental group received a pretreatment with Serenoa repens (320 mg/die of Permixon) for at least 8 weeks before the TURP procedure. In the control group patients did not receive any medical treatment before the intervention. Out of 108 enrolled patients, 88 were evaluated per protocol. In the pretreated group the perioperative bleeding was significantly lower than in the control one (respectively 124 vs 287 ml) and the need of transfusion decreased remarkably. Moreover, in the pretreated group, the duration of postoperative catheterization (respectively 3 vs 5 days) and the evaluated hematological parameters (red cells 4.5 vs 4 million, hemoglobin 13.4 vs 11.9 g, hematocrit 40% vs 35%) were significantly lower than in the control group. The pretreatment with Serenoa repens, before TURP procedure, improves the efficacy of the procedure itself and reduces the risk of complications, in particular perioperative bleeding and duration of postoperative catheterization.

  6. Strengths, challenges, and opportunities for hydrothermal pretreatment in lignocellulosic biorefineries: Hydrothermal Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [Bioproducts, Sciences, and Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA USA; Tao, Ling [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Wyman, Charles E. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California at Riverside, CA, USA, BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA

    2017-10-11

    Pretreatment prior to or during biological conversion is required to achieve high sugar yields essential to economic production of fuels and chemicals from low cost, abundant lignocellulosic biomass. Aqueous thermochemical pretreatments achieve this performance objective from pretreatment coupled with subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, but chemical pretreatment can also suffer from additional costs for exotic materials of construction, the need to recover or neutralize the chemicals, introduction of compounds that inhibit downstream operations, and waste disposal, as well as for the chemicals themselves. The simplicity of hydrothermal pretreatment with just hot water offers the potential to greatly improve the cost of the entire conversion process if sugar degradation during pretreatment, production of un-fermentable oligomers, and the amount of expensive enzymes needed to obtain satisfactory yields from hydrothermally pretreated solids can be reduced. Biorefinery economics would also benefit if value could be generated from lignin and other components that are currently fated to be burned for power. However, achieving these goals will no doubt require development of advanced hydrothermal pretreatment configurations. For example, passing water through a stationary bed of lignocellulosic biomass in a flowthrough configuration achieves very high yields of hemicellulose sugars, removes more than 75% of the lignin for potential valorization, and improves sugar release from the pretreated solids with lower enzyme loadings. Unfortunately, the large quantities of water needed to achieve this performance result in very dilute sugars, high energy costs for pretreatment and product recover, and large amounts of oligomers. Thus, improving our understanding of hydrothermal pretreatment fundamentals is needed to gain insights into R&D opportunities to improve performance, and help identify novel configurations that lower capital and operating costs and achieve higher yields.

  7. Heavily-doped 2D-quantized structures and the Einstein relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya P

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing ma...

  8. Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: composition of the microbial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA S. MILIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation, a process that utilizes the capability of microorganism to degrade toxic waste, is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. The technology is very effective in dealing with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The aim of this study was to examine the composition of the microbial consortium during the ex situ experiment of bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products from the Oil Refinery Pančevo, Serbia. After a 5.5-month experiment with biostimulation and bioventilation, the concentration of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH had been reduced from 29.80 to 3.29 g/kg (89 %. In soil, the dominant microorganism population comprised Gram-positive bacteria from actinomycete-Nocardia group. The microorganisms which decompose hydrocarbons were the dominant microbial population at the end of the process, with a share of more than 80 % (range 107 CFU/g. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that a stable microbial community had been formed after initial fluctuations.

  9. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Kléber, X. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2015-09-17

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing.

  10. Geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis of heavily and manifoldly contaminated soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristin; Einax, Jürgen W; Simeonov, Vasil; Tsakovski, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    The surroundings of the former Kremikovtzi steel mill near Sofia (Bulgaria) are influenced by various emissions from the factory. In addition to steel and alloys, they produce different products based on inorganic compounds in different smelters. Soil in this region is multiply contaminated. We collected 65 soil samples and analyzed 15 elements by different methods of atomic spectroscopy for a survey of this field site. Here we present a novel hybrid approach for environmental risk assessment of polluted soil combining geostatistical methods and source apportionment modeling. We could distinguish areas with heavily and slightly polluted soils in the vicinity of the iron smelter by applying unsupervised pattern recognition methods. This result was supported by geostatistical methods such as semivariogram analysis and kriging. The modes of action of the metals examined differ significantly in such a way that iron and lead account for the main pollutants of the iron smelter, whereas, e.g., arsenic shows a haphazard distribution. The application of factor analysis and source-apportionment modeling on absolute principal component scores revealed novel information about the composition of the emissions from the different stacks. It is possible to estimate the impact of every element examined on the pollution due to their emission source. This investigation allows an objective assessment of the different spatial distributions of the elements examined in the soil of the Kremikovtzi region. The geostatistical analysis illustrates this distribution and is supported by multivariate statistical analysis revealing relations between the elements.

  11. Yb(3+) heavily doped photonic crystal fiber lasers prepared by the glass phase-separation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingbo; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xiongwei; Chen, Zhangru; Ma, Yunxiu; Liu, Yongguang; Wang, Yibo; Liao, Lei; Xing, Yinbin; Li, Haiqing; Peng, Jinggagn; Dai, Nengli; Li, Jinyan; Yang, Luyun

    2017-10-02

    We report a Yb(3+) heavily doped photonic crystal fiber with 30 μm core diameter manufactured for the first time by an alternative technique. Silica core rods with a diameter of 3 mm and a length of 280 mm were prepared by the sodium-borosilicate glass phase-separation technology. The measurements show that the fiber has an Yb(3+) concentration of 22810 ppm by weight, and a resultant absorption of approximately 8.5 dB/m at 976 nm. The Yb(3+) ions are distributed throughout the fiber core with an excellent homogeneity. The laser performance demonstrates a high slope efficiency of 64.5% for laser emission at 1033.4 nm and a low power threshold of 3 W within a short fiber length of 1 m. This novel approach provides an alternative means of preparing large active silica rods with high doping levels and excellent material homogeneity for large mode area fibers with complex designs.

  12. Thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of heavily doped phosphorus polycrystalline silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birouk, B.; Madi, D.

    2011-08-01

    The study reported in this paper contributes to better understanding the thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of polycrystalline silicon heavily in situ P-LPCVD films. The deposits, doped at levels 3×1019 and 1.6×1020 cm-3, have been elaborated from silane decomposition (400 mTorrs, 605°C) on monosilicon substrate oriented . The thermal oxidation was performed at temperatures: 850°C during 1 hour, 1000, 1050, and 1100°C during 15 minutes. The XRD spectra analysis pointed out significant texture evolution, while in the case of and textures, the intensities are practically invariant (variations fall in the uncertainty intervals). The optical characterizations showed that refractive index and absorption coefficient are very sensitive to the oxidation treatment, mainly when the doping level is not very high. We think that atomic oxygen acts as defects passivating agent leading to carriers' concentration increasing. Besides, the optical behavior is modeled in visible and near infrared, by a seven-term polynomial function n 2= f( λ 2), with alternate signs, instead of theoretically unlimited terms number from Drude's model. It has been shown that fitting parameters fall on Gaussian curves like they do in the theoretical model.

  13. Annealing effect on the electron spin dynamics in heavily Mn-doped (Ga,Mn)As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Han; Chen, Lin; Gao, Haixia; Zhao, Jianhua; Zhang, Xinhui [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-15

    A temperature- and photo-excitation-density-dependent electron spin dephasing process has been studied by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) measurements for heavily-doped (Ga,Mn)As after appropriate annealing treatment. Unlike the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As in which s-d scattering is dominant for spin dephasing at low temperature, the exchange scattering induced by Mn ions is efficiently suppressed after annealing. For annealed (Ga,Mn)As, the p-d exchange coupling proves to be important for the electron spin dephasing process. Moreover, the Coulomb scattering arising from the weakly-localized holes and Mn impurities is revealed to play an important role in the electron spin dephasing after annealing. Our results demonstrate that the impurity induced disorder plays a significant role in the electron spin-dephasing process in (Ga,Mn)As when Mn is over doped by as much as 15%, which is a critical issue that needs to be considered to achieve high-quality (Ga,Mn)As thin films with a higher Curie temperature T{sub C} and better functionality.

  14. Microbial leaching of toxic metals and arsenic from a heap consisting of heavily polluted soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groudev, Stoyan; Georgiev, Plamen; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Soil heavily polluted with toxic heavy metals (mainly Cu, Zn, Cd) and arsenic was subjected to microbial cleanup in a heap specially constructed for this purpose. The heap was located on an impermeable geomembrane, had the shape of a truncated pyramid and contained about 240 tons of soil collected mainly from the horizon A. The soil was highly acidic (with an initial pH of about 3.2) and was preliminarily crushed to minus 2.5 cm particle size. The pollutants were present mainly as the relevant sulphide minerals and the soil was inhabited by different microorganisms, including some acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria able to oxidize sulphides and to solubilize the relevant toxic elements. The heap possessed systems for irrigation and aeration and was surrounded by ditches to collect the drainage heap effluents containing the dissolved pollutants. The treatment of the soil was carried out by means of interrupted irrigation with leach solutions containing diluted sulphuric acid (to maintain pH in the heap within the range of about 2.5 - 2.8) and ammonium and phosphate ions to maintain the microbial growth. The treatment was carried out for a period of about two years during different climatic seasons. After the end of leaching the soil was subjected to some conventional melioration procedures such as liming, grassing, moulching, addition of fertilizers and animal manure and periodic ploughing and irrigation to increase its quality to levels suitable for agricultural utilization.

  15. Road Environments: Impact of Metals on Human Health in Heavily Congested Cities of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiec, Ewa

    2017-06-29

    Road dust as a by-product of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions can be a major cause of systemic oxidative stress and multiple disorders. Substantial amounts of road dust are repeatedly resuspended, in particular at traffic lights and junctions where more braking is involved, causing potential threat to pedestrians, especially children. In order to determine the degree of contamination in the heavily traffic-congested cities of Poland, a total of 148 samples of road dust (RD), sludge from storm drains (SL) and roadside soil (RS) were collected. Sixteen metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in all samples. Chemical evaluation followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that road environments have been severely contaminated with traffic-related elements. Concentration of copper in all road-environment samples is even higher, exceeding even up to 15 times its average concentrations established for the surrounding soils. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment revealed that the hazard index (HI) for children in all road-environment samples exceeds the safe level of 1. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to potential health risks caused by the ingestion of traffic-related particles during outdoor activities.

  16. Interaction of surface plasmon polaritons in heavily doped GaN microstructures with terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melentev, G. A., E-mail: gamelen@spbstu.ru; Shalygin, V. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Panevin, V. Yu.; Firsov, D. A. [Department of Physics of Semiconductors and Nanoelectronics, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Riuttanen, L.; Suihkonen, S. [School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo 02150 (Finland); Korotyeyev, V. V.; Lyaschuk, Yu. M.; Kochelap, V. A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics NASU, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Poroshin, V. N. [Department of Solid State Electronics, Institute of Physics NASU, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine)

    2016-03-07

    We present the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the surface plasmon polariton excitations in heavily doped GaN epitaxial layers. Reflection and emission of radiation in the frequency range of 2–20 THz including the Reststrahlen band were investigated for samples with grating etched on the sample surface, as well as for samples with flat surface. The reflectivity spectrum for p-polarized radiation measured for the sample with the surface-relief grating demonstrates a set of resonances associated with excitations of different surface plasmon polariton modes. Spectral peculiarities due to the diffraction effect have been also revealed. The characteristic features of the reflectivity spectrum, namely, frequencies, amplitudes, and widths of the resonance dips, are well described theoretically by a modified technique of rigorous coupled-wave analysis of Maxwell equations. The emissivity spectra of the samples were measured under epilayer temperature modulation by pulsed electric field. The emissivity spectrum of the sample with surface-relief grating shows emission peaks in the frequency ranges corresponding to the decay of the surface plasmon polariton modes. Theoretical analysis based on the blackbody-like radiation theory well describes the main peculiarities of the observed THz emission.

  17. Superconducting and normal state properties of heavily hole-doped diamond synthesized at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Sidorov, E.A. Ekimov, A.V. Rakhmanina, S.M. Stishov, E.D. Bauer and J.D. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamonds, synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures in the presence of boron, are heavily hole-doped by incorporation of boron into the diamond lattice. These diamonds become superconducting below Tc=2–9 K. Synthesis in the systems B-C and B4C-C at P=9 GPa and T=2500–2800 K result in formation of polycrystalline carbonado-like material, whereas synthesis from B-C-H gives small single crystals and intergrowth plates. Dense superconducting bodies can be prepared by compacting these single crystal particles at P=8 GPa and T=1800 K. Specific heat and resistivity measurements in magnetic fields prove the bulk nature of superconductivity in all pressure-synthesized samples and provide a consistent set of materials parameters that favor a conventional weak-coupling electron–phonon interpretation of the superconducting mechanism at high hole doping. Schottky barrier tunneling conductance spectra, obtained with contacts fabricated at the surface of these hole-doped diamonds, indicate the appearance of superconducting gap below Tc.

  18. Modeling approaches to management of nitrate contamination of groundwater in a heavily cultivated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E.; Park, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    A three-dimensional variably-saturated groundwater flow and reactive transport modeling framework was implemented to simulate nitrate contamination in a heavily cultivated area in Jeju volcanic Island. In the study area, two localized aquifer systems (perched and regional groundwater) exist due to distributions of impermeable clay layers beneath the perched groundwater. The approximate application rate of chemical fertilizers was surveyed to be 627.9 kg-N/ha per year, which is much higher than the average annual chemical fertilizer usage in Jeju Island, 172 kg-N/ha per year. Severe nitrate contamination has been observed in the perched groundwater system and such perched groundwater has influenced regional groundwater quality, through poorly cemented wall of the distributed throughout the region wells. For a part of managing plan of nitrate contamination in the island, a numerical modeling framework was developed for various scenarios associated with the factors affecting nitrate contamination in the study area (i.e., usage amount of chemical fertilizers, cultivated methods, grouting condition of wells). This work provides useful information to suggest effective ways to manage nitrate contamination of groundwater in the agricultural field. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0001120) and by BK21 project of Korean Government.

  19. Epibenthic diversity and productivity on a heavily trawled Barents Sea bank (Tromsøflaket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kędra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shallow Arctic banks have been observed to harbour rich communities of epifaunal organisms, but have not been well-studied with respect to composition or function due to sampling challenges. In order to determine how these banks function in the Barents Sea ecosystem, we used a combination of video and trawl/dredge sampling at several locations on a heavily trawled bank, Tromsøflaket – located at the southwestern entrance to the Barents Sea. We describe components of the benthic community, and calculate secondary production of dominant epifaunal organisms. Forty-six epibenthic taxa were identified, and sponges were a significant part of the surveyed benthic communities. There were differences in diversity and production among areas, mainly related to the intensity of trawling activities. Gamma was the most diverse and productive area, with highest species abundance and biomass. Trawled areas had considerably lower species numbers, and significant differences in epifaunal abundance and biomass were found between all trawled and untrawled areas. Trawling seems to have an impact on the sponge communities: mean individual poriferan biomass was higher in untrawled areas, and, although poriferans were observed in areas subjected to more intensive trawling, they were at least five times less frequent than in untrawled areas.

  20. New pentose dimers with bicyclic moieties from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Tanner, David Ackland

    2017-01-01

    oligophenolic compounds from pilot scale pretreated wheat straw was assessed at two different pretreatment severities. An increase in severity of the pretreatment led to more oligophenol compounds and in turn the total overall cellulase inhibition increased. When the xylooligosaccharides were enzymatically...... from either xylose or glucose reacting with glyceraldehyde during pretreatment. The data show that the main cellulase inhibition from hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw liquors is due to xylooligosaccharides followed by oligophenolic compounds and the newly discovered dipentose with bicyclic...

  1. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  2. Association of pretreatment body mass index and survival in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergotti, William G; Davis, Kara S; Abberbock, Shira; Bauman, Julie E; Ohr, James; Clump, David A; Heron, Dwight E; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Kim, Seungwon; Johnson, Jonas T; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    Pretreatment body mass index (BMI) >25kg/m(2) is a positive prognostic factor in patients with head and neck cancer. Previous studies have not been adequately stratified by human papilloma virus (HPV) status or subsite. Our objective is to determine prognostic significance of pretreatment BMI on overall survival in HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). This is a retrospective review of patients with HPV+ OPSCC treated between 8/1/2006 and 8/31/2014. Patients were stratified by BMI status (>/25kg/m(2) had a longer overall survival (HR=0.49, P=0.01) as well as a longer disease-specific survival (HR=0.43, P=0.02). Overall survival remained significantly associated with high BMI on multivariate analysis (HR=0.54, P=0.04). Pre-treatment normal or underweight BMI status is associated with worse overall survival in HPV+ OPSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  4. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jensen, Jakob M.

    2012-01-01

    that captures the environmental temperature differences inside the reactor using distributed parameters. A Kalman filter is then added to account for any missing dynamics and the overall model is embedded into a temperature soft sensor. The operator of the plant will be able to observe the temperature in any......In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... distribution. Therefore, an accurate temperature model is critical for observing the biomass pretreatment. More than that, the biomass is also pushed with a constant horizontal speed along the reactor in order to ensure a continuous throughput. The goal of this paper is to derive a temperature model...

  5. Heat loss through the glabrous skin surfaces of heavily insulated, heat-stressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, D A; Dillon, J L; Heller, H C

    2009-07-01

    Insulation reduces heat exchange between a body and the environment. Glabrous (nonhairy) skin surfaces (palms of the hands, soles of the feet, face, and ears) constitute a small percentage of total body surface area but contain specialized vascular structures that facilitate heat loss. We have previously reported that cooling the glabrous skin surfaces is effective in alleviating heat stress and that the application of local subatmospheric pressure enhances the effect. In this paper, we compare the effects of cooling multiple glabrous skin surfaces with and without vacuum on thermal recovery in heavily insulated heat-stressed individuals. Esophageal temperatures (T(es)) and heart rates were monitored throughout the trials. Water loss was determined from pre- and post-trial nude weights. Treadmill exercise (5.6 km/h, 9-16% slope, and 25-45 min duration) in a hot environment (41.5 degrees C, 20-30% relative humidity) while wearing insulating pants and jackets was used to induce heat stress (T(es)>or=39 degrees C). For postexercise recovery, the subjects donned additional insulation (a balaclava, winter gloves, and impermeable boot covers) and rested in the hot environment for 60 min. Postexercise cooling treatments included control (no cooling) or the application of a 10 degrees C closed water circulating system to (a) the hand(s) with or without application of a local subatmospheric pressure, (b) the face, (c) the feet, or (d) multiple glabrous skin regions. Following exercise induction of heat stress in heavily insulated subjects, the rate of recovery of T(es) was 0.4+/-0.2 degrees C/h(n=12), but with application of cooling to one hand, the rate was 0.8+/-0.3 degrees C/h(n=12), and with one hand cooling with subatmospheric pressure, the rate was 1.0+/-0.2 degrees C/h(n=12). Cooling alone yielded two responses, one resembling that of cooling with subatmospheric pressure (n=8) and one resembling that of no cooling (n=4). The effect of treating multiple surfaces was

  6. A Multidisciplinary Assessment of River Surface Water Quality in Areas Heavily Influenced by Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampous, Nikolina; Kindou, Aggeliki; Vlastos, Dimitris; Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-08-01

    The present study could serve as a multidisciplinary approach for the assessment of river surface water quality with the use of chemical and biological methods. Specifically, physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and pesticides were measured in water samples from three different stations (sampling station S1, S2, and S3) along Asopos River (Greece). In parallel, algal species (primary producers)-such as Scenedesmus rubescens and Chlorococcum sp.; consumer invertebrate species, such as the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus; as well as human lymphocytes-were exposed to those samples for assessing their toxic and genotoxic/mutagenic effects. According to the results, although the values of almost all of the physicochemical parameters tested, heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, lead, and mercury) and pesticides were lower than or within the respective environmental quality standards, thus offering no clear evidence for their natural or anthropogenic origin. Values recorded for nickel, chromium, hexavalent chromium, and malathion represent a typical case of mixed influence from natural and anthropogenic enrichments. In contrast, the algal growth arrest, the acute toxic effects on the freshwater invertebrates, and the increased micronuclei frequencies observed in human lymphocytes showed the presence of human-derived hazardous substances, which were hardly determinable with the use of conventional chemical methods. Given that the presence of priority pollutants in river surface waters, heavily burdened by anthropogenic activities, could give no clear evidence for their biological risk, the results of the present study showed that chemical and biological assays should be applied in parallel, thus serving as a reliable tool for the assessment of river water quality.

  7. Fine particulate matter constituents and cardiopulmonary mortality in a heavily polluted Chinese city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junji; Xu, Hongmei; Xu, Qun; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2012-03-01

    Although ambient fine particulate matter (PM(2.5); particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) has been linked to adverse human health effects, the chemical constituents that cause harm are unknown. To our knowledge, the health effects of PM(2.5) constituents have not been reported for a developing country. We examined the short-term association between PM(2.5) constituents and daily mortality in Xi'an, a heavily polluted Chinese city. We obtained daily mortality data and daily concentrations of PM(2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 10 water-soluble ions for 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2008. We also measured concentrations of fifteen elements 1 January 2006 through 31 December 2008. We analyzed the data using overdispersed generalized linear Poisson models. During the study period, the mean daily average concentration of PM(2.5) in Xi'an was 182.2 µg/m³. Major contributors to PM(2.5) mass included OC, EC, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. After adjustment for PM(2.5) mass, we found significant positive associations of total, cardiovascular, or respiratory mortality with OC, EC, ammonium, nitrate, chlorine ion, chlorine, and nickel for at least one lag period. Nitrate demonstrated stronger associations with total and cardiovascular mortality than PM(2.5) mass. For a 1-day lag, interquartile range increases in PM(2.5) mass and nitrate (114.9 and 15.4 µg/m³, respectively) were associated with 1.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8%, 2.8%] and 3.8% (95% CI: 1.7%, 5.9%) increases in total mortality. Our findings suggest that PM(2.5) constituents from the combustion of fossil fuel may have an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM(2.5) in Xi'an.

  8. Optical Properties of Heavily Fluorinated Lanthanide Tris β-Diketonate Phosphine Oxide Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam N. Swinburne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of lanthanide(III chelates that exhibit superior photophysical properties holds great importance in biological and materials science. One strategy to increase the luminescence properties of lanthanide(III chelates is to hinder competitive non-radiative decay processes through perfluorination of the chelating ligands. Here, the synthesis of two families of heavily fluorinated lanthanide(III β-diketonate complexes bearing monodentate perfluorinated tris phenyl phosphine oxide ligands have been prepared through a facile one pot reaction [Ln(hfac3{(ArF3PO}(H2O] and [Ln(F7-acac3{(ArF3PO}2] (where Ln = Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Er3+ and Yb3+. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in combination with photophysical studies have been performed to investigate the factors responsible for the differences in the luminescence lifetimes and intrinsic quantum yields of the complexes. Replacement of both bound H2O and C–H oscillators in the ligand backbone has a dramatic effect on the photophysical properties of the complexes, particularly for the near infra-red emitting ion Yb3+, where a five fold increase in luminescence lifetime and quantum yield is observed. The complexes [Sm(hfac3{(ArF3PO}(H2O] (1, [Yb(hfac3{(ArF3PO}(H2O] (5, [Sm(F7-acac3{(ArF3PO}2] (6 and [Yb(F7-acac3{(ArF3PO}2] (10 exhibit unusually long luminescence lifetimes and attractive intrinsic quantum yields of emission in fluid solution (ΦLn = 3.4% (1; 1.4% (10 and in the solid state (ΦLn = 8.5% (1; 2.0% (5; 26% (6; 11% (10, which are amongst the largest values for this class of compounds to date.

  9. Extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanithy, C; Muthukumarappan, K; Gibbons, W R

    2012-05-01

    Pretreatment is the first step to open up lignocellulose structure in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Extrusion can be a viable pretreatment method due to its ability to simultaneously expose biomass to a range of disruptive conditions in a continuous flow process. Extruder screw speed, barrel temperature, and feedstock moisture content are important factors that can influence sugar recovery from biomass. Hence, the current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of these parameters on extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips. Pine wood chip at 25, 35, and 45 % wb moisture content were pretreated at various barrel temperatures (100, 140, and 180 °C) and screw speeds (100, 150, and 200 rpm) using a screw with compression ratios of 3:1. The pretreated pine wood chips were subjected to standard enzymatic hydrolysis followed by sugar and byproducts quantification. Statistical analyses revealed the existence of significant differences in sugar recovery due to independent variables based on comparing the mean of main effects and interaction effects. Pine wood chips pretreated at a screw speed of 150 rpm and a barrel temperature of 180 °C with a moisture content of 25 % resulted in a maximum cellulose, hemicellulose, and total sugar recoveries of 65.8, 65.6, and 66.1 %, respectively, which was about 6.7, 7.9, and 6.8 fold higher than the control (unpretreated pine chips). Furthermore, potential fermentation inhibitors such as furfural, hydroxyl methyl furfural, and acetic acid were not found in any of the treatment combinations.

  10. Effect of Rock Phosphate on Zn and Fe Bioavailability and Accumulation by Salix smithiana in Heavily Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vondrackova S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available High biomass production Salix smithiana was proved as the plant able to accumulate substantial amount of Cd and Zn in aboveground biomass. Nevertheless, in heavily contaminated soils (mainly by Zn willows can suffer from chlorosis because of Fe deficiency induced by excess of Zn amount. Method such as chemophytostabilization seems like very good measure for planting willows in such heavily contaminated soil. In our experiments we evaluated effect of rock phosphate on changes in Zn and Fe bioavailability and accumulation of these elements by willows together with the willows growth on heavily contaminated soil. Addition of rock phosphate reduced plant-available Zn concentrations in soils resulting in significant decrease of Zn content in leaves. In the case of Fe, however, its contents in the leaves significantly decreased as well, although the mobile portion of Fe in soil remained unchanged. Yield of aboveground biomass in rock phosphate treatment was not significantly different in comparison to the control. After the first vegetation period, we can conclude that reduction of Zn contents in willows after rock phosphate application did not lead to suppress of Fe deficiency and improvement of willow growth in heavily contaminated soil.

  11. Evaluation of the use of polymer modified bitumen in the production of high modulus asphalt for heavily-trafficked roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), has been introduced to South Africa to provide an optimum solution for the design and construction of heavily trafficked roads. Implementation of EME technology in South Africa...

  12. Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at 195 degrees for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid...... pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical...... was observed from corn stover pretreated at 195 degrees for 15min with formic acid....

  13. Historical data reveal 30-year persistence of benthic fauna associations in heavily modified waterbody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Callaway

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline surveys form the cornerstone of coastal impact studies where altered conditions, for example through new infrastructure development, are assessed against a temporal reference state. They are snapshots taken before construction. Due to scarcity of relevant data prior to baseline surveys long-term trends can often not be taken into account. Particularly in heavily modified waterbodies this would however be desirable to control for changes in anthropogenic use over time as well as natural ecological variation. Here, the benthic environment of an industrialized embayment was investigated (Swansea Bay, Wales, UK where it is proposed to build a tidal lagoon that would generate marine renewable energy from the tidal range. Since robust long-term baseline data was not available, the value of unpublished historical benthos information from 1984 by a regional water company was assessed with the aim to improve certainty about the persistence of current benthic community patterns. A survey of 101 positions in 2014 identified spatially discrete benthic communities with areas of high and low diversity. Habitat characteristics including sediment properties and the proximity to a sewage outfall explained 17-35% of the variation in the community structure. Comparing the historical information from 1984 with 2014 revealed striking similarity in the benthic communities between those years, not just in their spatial distribution but also to a large extent in the species composition. The 30-year-old information confirmed spatial boundaries of discrete species associations and pinpointed a similar diversity hotspot. A group of five common species was found to be particularly persistent over time (Nucula nitidosa, Spisula elliptica, Spiophanes bombyx, Nephtys hombergii, Diastylis rathkei. According to the Infauna Quality Index (IQI linked to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD the average ecological status for 2014 was ‘moderate’, but eleven samples

  14. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fan, E-mail: f.li.1@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Pérez-Tomás, Amador [ICN2 – Institut Catala de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Myronov, Maksym [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fisher, Craig [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Leadley, David [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mawby, Phil [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen is fully activated by 1175 °C annealing for 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} doped 3C-SiC. • Free donor concentration is found to readily saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. • 3C-SiC is found to have complete donor thermal ionization above 150 K. • Donor in 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} nitrogen implanted 3C-SiC has an energy level ∼15 meV. • The SiO{sub 2} cap is found to have a bigger influence on low and medium doped samples. - Abstract: A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO{sub 2} layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO{sub 2} cap.

  15. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  16. Pb2+ Biosorption by Pretreated Fungal Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Çabuk,Ahmet; İLHAN, Semra; FİLİK, Cansu; ÇALIŞKAN, Figen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment on the Pb2+ biosorption capacity of fungal biomasses, Aspergillus versicolor, Metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and Penicillium verrucosum, was investigated. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving, and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, commercial laundry detergent, orthophosphoric acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyl sulfoxid...

  17. Fermentation of pretreated corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effect of unknown fermentation inhibitors in corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate processed by pretreatment and detoxification on fermentation, corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and artificially prepared hydrolysate were fermented in parallel by Candida shehatae YHFK-2. The results show that ...

  18. Dissolved organic nitrogen measurement using dialysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul

    2005-02-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is important for ecological and engineering researches. Quantification of low DON concentrations in waters with elevated dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) using existing methods is inaccurate. In this study, a dialysis-based pretreatment technique was optimized and adopted to reduce the interference from DIN to the quantification of DON in natural water. A cellulose ester dialysis tube (nominal molecular weight cutoff = 100 Da) was used in batch and continuous-flow dialysis steps with model compounds, natural organic matter isolates, and bulk waters to develop a dialysis pretreatment approach that selectively reduces DIN from solutions containing DON. By reducing DIN concentrations, propagation of analytical variance in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and DIN species concentrations allows more accurate determination of DON (DON = TDN - NO3 - NO2- - NH3/NH4+). Dialysis for 24 h against continuously flowing distilled water reduced DIN species by 70%. With dialysis pretreatment, DON recoveries of more than 95% were obtained for surface water and finished drinking water, but wastewater experienced a slight loss (approximately 10%) of DON possibly due to the adsorption of organics onto the dialysis membrane, permeation of low molecular weight fractions, or biodegradation. Dialysis experiments using surface water spiked with different DIN/TDN ratios concluded that dialysis pretreatment leads to more accurate DON determination than no dialysis when DIN/TDN ratios exceed 0.6 mg of N/mg of N.

  19. Pretreatment Quality of Life and Functional Status Assessment Significantly Predict Survival of Elderly Patients With Advanced Non—Small-Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy: A Prognostic Analysis of the Multicenter Italian Lung Cancer in the Elderly Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paolo Maione; Francesco Perrone; Ciro Gallo; Luigi Manzione; FrancoVito Piantedosi; Santi Barbera; Silvio Cigolari; Francesco Rosetti; Elena Piazza; Sergio Federico Robbiati; Oscar Bertetto; Silvia Novello; Maria Rita Migliorino; Adolfo Favaretto; Mario Spatafora; Francesco Ferraù; Luciano Frontini; Alessandra Bearz; Lazzaro Repetto; Cesare Gridelli

    2005-01-01

    ...) in elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy. Data from 566 patients enrolled onto the phase III randomized Multicenter Italian Lung Cancer in the Elderly Study (MILES...

  20. NSAID Pretreatment Inhibits Prostaglandin Release in Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Tim; Joachim, Stephanie C; Szuler, Marek; Stellbogen, Mathias; Dick, H Burkhard

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether short-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) pretreatment on the day of surgery inhibits prostaglandin release. Previous studies detected elevated prostaglandin levels after femtosecond laser treatment and identified them as a potential mediator for laser-induced miosis. Patients underwent either image-guided femtosecond laser cataract surgery or conventional cataract surgery (n = 75). Half of the eyes per group received topical NSAID treatment on the day of surgery. Aqueous humor was collected from all patients. ELISA measurements were performed to detect aqueous humor prostaglandin levels. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery led to higher prostaglandin levels than conventional cataract surgery (P = .007). In both groups, NSAID pretreatment led to reduced prostaglandin release. In the femtosecond laser group, patients pretreated with NSAIDs had significantly lower prostaglandin values (65.3 ± 13.2 pg/mL) than patients not pretreated with NSAIDs (294.4 ± 66.5 pg/mL) (P = .0009). The short-term NSAID treatment prevented prostaglandin release in patients treated with image-guided femtosecond laser. Therefore, it has potential to limit intraoperative laser-induced miosis. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Pretreatment of Reed by Wet Oxidation and Subsequent Utilization of the Pretreated Fibers for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szijarto, Nora; Kádár, Zsófia; Varga, Eniko

    2009-01-01

    lignocelluloses usually do. In the present study, wet oxidation was investigated as the pretreatment method to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of reed cellulose to soluble sugars and thus improve the convertibility of reed to ethanol. The most effective treatment increased the digestibility of reed cellulose...... of cellulose to glucose was 82.4%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated solids resulted in a final ethanol concentration as high as 8.7 g/L, yielding 73% of the theoretical....

  2. Clinical Outcomes Related to the Use of Bendamustine Therapy for Multiple Myeloma Patients Relapsed/Refractory to Immunomodulatory Drugs and Proteasome Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fevzi Fırat Yalnız

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multiple myeloma patients who are relapsed or refractory to both proteasome inhibitors (PIs and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs have been reported to have poor outcomes. Bendamustine has been reported to have an antitumor effect in newly diagnosed as well as relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of bendamustine therapy in heavily pretreated MM patients who were refractory to PIs and IMiDs. Materials and Methods: Nineteen RRMM patients treated either with bendamustine and steroids (n=13 or a combination of bendamustine with novel drugs (n=6 were included. The median number of previous treatment lines was 5 (minimum-maximum: 3-8 and median time from diagnosis was 6 years (minimum-maximum: 1-16. All of the patients were resistant to at least one of the IMiDs and one of the PIs. Bendamustine was given at doses ranging from 90 mg/m2 to 120 mg/ m2 on days 1 and 2 of 28-day cycles. Results: A median of 2 (minimum-maximum: 1-8 treatment cycles was administered per patient. The toxicity of bendamustine was mild and mostly of hematological origin. No complete remission was achieved. There was partial remission and stable disease in 21% and 11% of the patients, respectively. Sixty-eight percent of patients had progressive disease. The median progression-free survival and overall survival was 2 and 4 months, respectively. Conclusion: Bendamustine therapy was well tolerated but showed limited anti-myeloma activity in heavily pretreated patients who were refractory to IMiDs and PIs.

  3. Nature of intensive defect-related broadband luminescence of heavily doped Al x Ga1-x N:Si layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinnykh, I. V.; Malin, T. V.; Plyusnin, V. F.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Ber, B. Ya; Kazantsev, D. Yu

    2017-03-01

    We report photoluminescence investigations of heavily doped Al x Ga1-x N:Si films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. The wide intensive defect-related band dominates in the photoluminescence spectra of Al x Ga1-x N:Si films with the Al content higher than 0.46 covering the whole visible spectral range. This band is attributed to donor-acceptor transitions. The acceptor ionization energy of about 1.87 eV for heavily doped AlN:Si was obtained, decrease of Al content leads to decrease of the acceptor ionization energy. The donor was assigned to the Si atom on the Ga/Al site; the acceptor might be the (2-/3-) transition level of the V Al.

  4. Pretreatment Mitochondrial Priming Correlates with Clinical Response to Cytotoxic Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonghaile, Triona Ni; Sarosiek, Kristopher A.; Vo, Thanh-Trang; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Tammareddi, Anupama; Moore, Victoria Del Gaizo; Deng, Jing; Anderson, Ken; Richardson, Paul; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Matulonis, Ursula A.; Drapkin, Ronny; Stone, Richard; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; McConkey, David J.; Sallan, Stephen E.; Silverman, Lewis; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Carrasco, Daniel Ruben; Letai, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy targets elements common to all nucleated human cells, such as DNA and microtubules, yet it selectively kills tumor cells. Here we show that clinical response to these drugs correlates with, and may be partially governed by, the pre-treatment proximity of tumor cell mitochondria to the apoptotic threshold, a property called mitochondrial priming. We used BH3 profiling to measure priming in tumor cells from patients with multiple myeloma, acute myelogenous and lymphoblastic leukemia, and ovarian cancer. This assay measures mitochondrial response to peptides derived from pro-apoptotic BH3 domains of proteins critical for death signaling to mitochondria. Patients with highly primed cancers exhibited superior clinical response to chemotherapy. In contrast, chemoresistant cancers and normal tissues were poorly primed. Manipulation of mitochondrial priming might enhance the efficacy of cytotoxic agents. PMID:22033517

  5. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family......PURPOSE: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect...... cancer recurrence. Besides tumor characteristics, CA125 levels are also influenced by several epidemiologic factors, such as age, parity, and oral contraceptive use. Identifying factors that influence CA125 levels in ovarian cancer patients could aid in the interpretation of CA125 values for individuals...

  6. Lichens as biomonitors of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo heavily shelled with depleted uranium rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lella, Luigi A.; Frati, Luisa; Loppi, Stefano; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco

    This paper reports the results of a study using lichens as biomonitors to investigate the small-scale environmental distribution of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo (Djakovica) heavily shelled with depleted uranium (DU) anti-tank ammunition. The results of total uranium concentrations showed great variability and species-specific differences, mainly due to differences in the exposed surface area of the lichens. The uranium concentrations in lichen samples were rather similar at a site heavily shelled with DU ammunition and at a control site. Unexpectedly, the highest uranium concentrations were found at the control site. The observed U distribution can be explained by contamination of lichen thalli by soil particles. The soil geochemistry was similar at the two sampling sites. The 235U/ 238U ratios in the soil samples suggested a modest DU contribution only at the heavily shelled site. Measurements of U isotopes in lichens did not reveal DU pollution at the control site. The U isotopic ratios in lichens at the shelled site showed variable figures; only two samples were clearly contaminated by DU. There were no signs of contamination by other trace elements.

  7. Predominance of heavily calcified coccolithophores at low CaCO3 saturation during winter in the Bay of Biscay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen E K; Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Dumousseaud, Cynthia; Legge, Oliver J; Birchenough, Sarah; Pettit, Laura R; Garley, Rebecca; Hartman, Sue E; Hartman, Mark C; Sagoo, Navjit; Daniels, Chris J; Achterberg, Eric P; Hydes, David J

    2012-06-05

    Coccolithophores are an important component of the Earth system, and, as calcifiers, their possible susceptibility to ocean acidification is of major concern. Laboratory studies at enhanced pCO(2) levels have produced divergent results without overall consensus. However, it has been predicted from these studies that, although calcification may not be depressed in all species, acidification will produce "a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores" [Ridgwell A, et al., (2009) Biogeosciences 6:2611-2623]. A recent observational study [Beaufort L, et al., (2011) Nature 476:80-83] also suggested that coccolithophores are less calcified in more acidic conditions. We present the results of a large observational study of coccolithophore morphology in the Bay of Biscay. Samples were collected once a month for over a year, along a 1,000-km-long transect. Our data clearly show that there is a pronounced seasonality in the morphotypes of Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant coccolithophore species. Whereas pH and CaCO(3) saturation are lowest in winter, the E. huxleyi population shifts from 90% (winter) of the heavily calcified form. However, it is unlikely that the shifts in carbonate chemistry alone caused the morphotype shift. Our finding that the most heavily calcified morphotype dominates when conditions are most acidic is contrary to the earlier predictions and raises further questions about the fate of coccolithophores in a high-CO(2) world.

  8. Blood pressure control and weight loss in overweight or obese patients with previously treated or untreated mild to moderate hypertension given valsartan: An open-label study comparing pretreatment and posttreatment values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villecco, Aldo S.; Cocci, Cinzia; Di Emidio, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is associated with obesity. Recent studies have indicated that therapy with an angiotensin II antagonist, in addition to having an antihypertensive effect, may cause a reduction in body weight. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of valsartan in the treatment of overweight or obese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Methods: Overweight or obese outpatients aged 18 to Clinica Medica II, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi (Bologna, Italy). After a 1-week pharmacologic washout period, patients were treated with valsartan capsules at a fixed dosage of 80 mg once daily for 8 weeks. The dosage was increased to 160 mg once daily if, at 8 weeks, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was not normalized; otherwise, the 80-mg/d dosage was maintained. Treatment was continued for an additional 16 weeks. Patients' heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured/calculated at baseline (week 0) and 8, 16, and 24 weeks. Patients were asked to maintain a 1600-kcal/d diet throughout the study. Results: Forty-eight patients (28 men, 20 women; mean [SD] age, 57 [9] years) were included in the study. In the 45 patients (93.8%) who completed the study, mean SBP, DBP, and BMI were significantly decreased compared with baseline (all P < 0.001), but WHR was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After 24 weeks of treatment, 71.1 % of patients had SBP/DBP ≤ 140/≤90 mm Hg. Three patients (6.3%) withdrew from the study due to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion: In this population of overweight or obese patients with mild to moderate hypertension, valsartan was well tolerated, and could be effective in controlling blood pressure and achieving weight loss in such patients. PMID:24936115

  9. Analgesic Efficacy and Transdermal Penetration of Topical Gabapentin Creams: Finding an Optimal Dose and Pre-treatment Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heustess, Allie; Spigener, Shuler; Sweitzer, Sarah; Romero-Sandoval, Alfonso; Asbill, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Many patients with chronic neuropathic pain continue to suffer despite traditional pharmacotherapy. As a result, pharmacists commonly compound gabapentin into creams, gels, and ointments as an alternative treatment option. In this study, various concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%) of topical gabapentin compounded in Lipoderm were applied at various pre-treatment times (30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours) to investigate what gabapentin concentration and pre-treatment time best attenuates formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in a rodent model. A 30-minute pre-treatment with 5% gabapentin demonstrated maximum attenuation of nociceptive behaviors in this in vivo preclinical pain model. Nociceptive behaviors unexpectedly increased when gabapentin concentration or pre-treatment time was increased, suggesting both antinociceptive and pronociceptive effects of transdermal gabapentin administration. Gabapentin permeation into the skin and deeper tissues of the hindpaw was measured following the in vivo study. Skin and deep tissue permeation of gabapentin was both dose and time-dependent. Maximum deep-tissue permeation occurred within 30 minutes of topical application. Skin concentrations increased with a longer 1-hour pre-treatment. Minimal skin and deeper tissue levels were found following a 4-hour pre-treatment. These results suggest that topical gabapentin may be antinociceptive in a rodent formalin model at specific doses and pre-treatment intervals.

  10. Possibilities and evaluation of straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo

    1998-01-01

    Biomass utilisation by cofiring of straw in a pulverised coal fire boiler is economically attractive compared to dedicated straw fired plants. However, the high content of potassium and chloride impedes utilisation of the fly ash, deactivates the de NOx catalysts in the flue gas cleaning system...... and may also lead to increased deposit formation. A pretreatment process is required to solve the problems. In this paper two pretreatment processes are considred, one based on straw wash and another based on pyrolysis and char wash. To evaluate and compare the processes, laboratory and technical...... invetsigations were performed. The economy of both processes are favourable compared with seperate straw fired boilers, however, the removal efficiency of potassium of the pyrolysi based process is relatively low. At the present level of invetsigations the straw wash process looks promising and commercially...

  11. Pretreatment of Latent Prints for Laser Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, E R

    1989-06-01

    The pretreatment procedures for laser detection of latent fingerprints is reviewed. The general features of laser detection and the operational aspects of the examination of physical evidence for laser fingerprint detection are enumerated in the initial sections. The literature review is divided into various pretreatment approaches. Cited studies prior to 1981 are primarily concerned with the demonstration of the viability of laser fingerprint detection, whereas work post-1981 addresses issues of compatibility with the traditional methods of fingerprint development, examination of difficult surfaces, and the routine implementation of laser detection by law enforcement agencies. Related topics of research, review articles, conference reports, case examinations, the research support climate, and future trends are also briefly addressed. Copyright © 1989 Central Police University.

  12. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Harrington, R.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Quadrel, M.J. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities.

  13. Correlation of Radiation Pneumonitis History Before Nivolumab with Onset of Interstitial Lung Disease and Progression-free Survival of Patients with Pre-treated Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Akihiro; Tamiya, Motohiro; Nakahama, Kenji; Taniguchi, Yoshihiko; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Isa, Shun-Ichi; Inoue, Takako; Okishio, Kyoichi; Nishino, Kazumi; Kumagai, Toru; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Hirashima, Tomonori; Imamura, Fumio; Atagi, Shinji

    2017-09-01

    Nivolumab has a promising efficacy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as second-line or later treatment, and after radiotherapy as abscopal effect. However, the effects of radiation pneumonitis history before nivolumab have not been clarified. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the correlation of a history of radiation pneumonitis before nivolumab with onset of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and progression-free survival (PFS) after nivolumab treatment in patients with previously treated NSCLC. A total of 201 patients treated with nivolumab were retrospectively reviewed. We collected clinical data of patients at the time of starting nivolumab and we evaluated ILD incidence and PFS in relation to patient characteristics, including radiation pneumonitis history. The median age was 68 years; 135 patients were men, 157 had a smoking history, and 153 had performance status of 0 or 1. Thirty-four patients experienced radiation pneumonitis before nivolumab, and 50 patients received radiotherapy to the chest (31 patients received curative radiotherapy). The overall median PFS was 2.8 months and the overall ILD rate was 12.4%. Higher ILD incidence was observed in the group with a history of radiation pneumonitis (26.5%) compared to the group without radiation pneumonitis (9.6%). The median PFS was 3.6 and 2.3 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, a history of radiation pneumonitis was also significantly correlated with good PFS (p=0.023). Although increasing the risk of ILD, a history of radiation pneumonitis before nivolumab also contributes to the prolongation of PFS after nivolumab. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. SEM analysis of weathered grains: Pretreatment effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeens, D. L.; Darmody, R. G.; Jansen, I. J.

    1987-05-01

    Fresh microcline, albite, and almandine, along with soil grains, were treated with various traditional pretreatments prior to observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The grains were observed with SEM and given ratings for each of several surface properties to determine which pretreatments produced clean surfaces on soil grains without laboratory-induced damage on the fresh mineral grains. Gentle overnight shaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate at pH 9.5 produced the most effective cleaning of soil grains with the least amount of induced damage to fresh mineral samples. This pretreatment was equivalent to that given the control samples (shaken overnight in distilled water) for observations of etch pits on fresh mineral samples within a 25% equivalence (or negligible difference) interval. Ultrasonification, hydrogen peroxide, and boiling hydrochloric acid caused the most damage to mineral samples, mainly in the form of 0.5-μm etch pits. Boiling hydrochloric acid, boiling nitric acid, and stannous chloride resulted in increased coated surfaces on soil grains.

  15. Ibrutinib-Associated Skin Toxicity: A Case of Maculopapular Rash in a 79-Year Old Caucasian Male Patient with Relapsed Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders Bisgaard; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; d'Amore, Francesco

    2017-03-13

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinamia (WM) is a rare malignant lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by monoclonal IgM paraproteinemia and neoplastic proliferation of malignant lymphoplasmacytoid cells in the bone marrow. Traditionally, WM has been treated with modalities similar to those used in the management of other indolent lymphomas. Just recently, based on impressive clinical trial results in heavily pretreated WM patients, a new Bruton Tyrosine Kinase-inhibitor, Ibrutinib, has been approved for the treatment of this disorder. As the use of Ibrutinib in WM outside clinical trials is still limited, only few clinical reports illustrating treatment side effects are currently available. Here we review the current literature specific on Ibrutinib-associated rash in hematologic patients, and report on an elderly patient with WM, who developed a red maculopapular non-pruritic rash 12 weeks after starting Ibrutinib therapy. Without modifications of the ongoing Ibrutinib schedule, the rash regressed within two weeks of treatment with topical steroid-containing dermatological compounds.

  16. Identification of novel molecular markers for prognosis estimation of acute myeloid leukemia: over-expression of PDCD7, FIS1 and Ang2 may indicate poor prognosis in pretreatment patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Tian

    Full Text Available Numerous factors impact on the prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML, among which molecular genetic abnormalities are developed increasingly, however, accurate prediction for newly diagnosed AML patients remains unsatisfied. For further improving the prognosis evaluation system, we investigated the transcripts levels of PDCD7, FIS1, FAM3A, CA6, APP, KLRF1, ATCAY, GGT5 and Ang2 in 97 AML patients and 30 non-malignant controls, and validated using the published microarray data from 225 cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML patients treated according to the German AMLCG-1999 protocol. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot were carried out, and clinical data were collected and analyzed. High Ang2 and FIS1 expression discriminated the CR rate of AML patients (62.5% versus 82.9% for Ang2, P = 0.011; 61.4% versus 82.2% for FIS1, P = 0.029. In CN-AML, patients with high FIS1 expression were more likely to be resistant to two courses of induction (P = 0.035. Overall survival (OS and relapse-free survival (RFS were shorter in CN-AML patients with high PDCD7 expression (P<0.001; P = 0.006, and PDCD7 was revealed to be an independent risk factor for OS in CN-AML (P = 0.004. In the analysis of published data from 225 CN-AML patients, PDCD7 remained independently predicting OS in CN-AML (P = 0.039. As a conclusion, Ang2 and FIS1 seem related to decreased CR rate of AML patients, and PDCD7 is associated with shorter OS and RFS in CN-AML. Hence, PDCD7, Ang2 and FIS1 may indicate a more aggressive form and poor prognosis of AML.

  17. Hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Nurhakim, Boby; Agustin, Astrid; Rinaldi, Nino; Muryanto, Fitriady, Muhammad Ariffudin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment methods in 2nd generation bioethanol production more profitable to be developed, since the conventional pretreatment, by using acids or alkalis, is associated with the serious economic and environmental constraints. The current studies investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 160 to 240 C and 15 to 30 min, respectively. The EFB were grinded and separated into 3 different particles sizes i.e. 10 mesh, 18 mesh and 40 mesh, prior to hydrothermal pretreatment. Solid yield and pH of the treated EFB slurries changed over treatment severities. The chemical composition of EFB was greatly affected by the hydrothermal pretreatment especially hemicellulose which decreased at higher severity factor as determined by HPLC. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused negatively affect for enzymatic hydrolysis. This studies provided important factors for maximizing hydrothermal pretreatment of EFB.

  18. Pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Deborah; Thoma, Myriam V; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Attin, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2016-03-24

    Increased levels of anxiety may affect a patient's receptiveness to treatment, health care information and behaviour modification. This study was undertaken to assess pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population maintaining a schedule of regular preventive care appointments. The sample population consisted of 46 consecutive adult recall patients waiting for their regularly scheduled dental hygiene appointment. Pre-treatment state (current) anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), State form; dental anxiety with the Hierarchical Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ); subjective stress using a visual analogue scale (VAS); and mood/alertness/calmness using the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire (MDMQ). Two distinct groups, based on state anxiety scores, were formed; one displaying increased levels of pre-treatment anxiety (n = 14), the other low anxiety (n = 32). The HA group was characterized by significantly higher dental anxiety and subjective stress levels prior to treatment; as well as worse mood, lower alertness, and less calmness in the dental office setting. There was no correlation between anxiety level and years in dental hygiene recall. A high level of pre-treatment anxiety was present in about one third of the sample population. The prevalence of this anxiety demonstrates the need for both early recognition and patient management strategies (psychological and pain management) to positively influence their treatment experience.

  19. Unmasking Heavily O-Glycosylated Serum Proteins Using Perchloric Acid: Identification of Serum Proteoglycan 4 and Protease C1 Inhibitor as Molecular Indicators for Screening of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Fadzli, Farhana; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Hoong, See Mee; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2016-01-01

    Heavily glycosylated mucin glycopeptides such as CA 27.29 and CA 15-3 are currently being used as biomarkers for detection and monitoring of breast cancer. However, they are not well detected at the early stages of the cancer. In the present study, perchloric acid (PCA) was used to enhance detection of mucin-type O-glycosylated proteins in the serum in an attempt to identify new biomarkers for early stage breast cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of an earlier developed sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay were significantly improved with the use of serum PCA isolates. When a pilot case-control study was performed using the serum PCA isolates of normal participants (n = 105) and patients with stage 0 (n = 31) and stage I (n = 48) breast cancer, higher levels of total O-glycosylated proteins in sera of both groups of early stage breast cancer patients compared to the normal control women were demonstrated. Further analysis by gel-based proteomics detected significant inverse altered abundance of proteoglycan 4 and plasma protease C1 inhibitor in both the early stages of breast cancer patients compared to the controls. Our data suggests that the ratio of serum proteoglycan 4 to protease C1 inhibitor may be used for screening of early breast cancer although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations.

  20. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol–Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  1. Thermodynamic and structural analysis of HIV protease resistance to darunavir - analysis of heavily mutated patient- derived HIV-1 proteases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kožíšek, Milan; Lepšík, Martin; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Brynda, Jiří; Konvalinka, Jan; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 7 (2014), s. 1834-1847 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/1798 Grant - others:OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : enthropic contribution * HIV protease inhibitors * isothermal titration calorimetry * resistance mutation * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2014

  2. Early relapse post autologous transplant is a stronger predictor of survival compared with pretreatment patient factors in the novel agent era: analysis of the Singapore Multiple Myeloma Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, S Y; de Mel, S; Chen, Y X; Ooi, M G; Surendran, S; Lin, A; Koh, L P; Linn, Y C; Ho, A Y L; Hwang, W Y K; Phipps, C; Loh, S M Y; Goh, Y T; Tan, D; Chng, W J; Gopalakrishnan, S K

    2016-07-01

    The clinical outcome of multiple myeloma is heterogeneous. Both the depth of response to induction and transplant as well as early relapse within a year are correlated with survival, but it is unclear which factor is most relevant in Southeast Asian patients with multiple myeloma. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 215 patients who were treated with upfront autologous transplant in Singapore between 2000 and 2014. In patients who received novel agent (NA)-based induction, achieving only partial response (PR) post-induction was associated with poorer OS (HR 1.95, P=0.047) and PFS (HR 2.9, P<0.001), while achieving only PR post-transplant was strongly correlated with both OS (HR 3.3, P=0.001) and PFS (HR 7.6, P<0.001), compared with patients who achieved very good partial response (VGPR) or better. Early relapse was detected in 18% of all patients, although nearly half had initially achieved VGPR or better post-transplant. Early relapse after NA-based induction led to significantly shorter OS (median 22 months vs not reached, P<0.001), and was strongly associated with OS (HR 13.7, P<0.001). The impact of suboptimal post-transplant response and early relapse on survival may be more important than pretransplant factors, such as International Staging System or cytogenetics, and should be considered in risk stratification systems to rationalize therapy.

  3. Labetalol pretreatment reduces blood pressure instability during surgical resection of pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Peter Chi-Ho; Ng, Yuet-Tong; Hsieh, Jing-Ru; Yang, Min-Wen; Li, Allen Hon-Lun

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of pretreatment with the mixed alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocker, labetalol, on blood pressure instability during surgical resection of pheochromocytoma. Blood pressure stability and surgical results were compared between patients in the saline (n = 11) and labetalol (n = 15) groups. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl, sodium thiopental and atracurium, and maintained with isoflurane in a 50% oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture. Intravenous labetalol was administered in the labetalol group before surgical incision, with the maximal dose being 1.2 mg/kg, while normal saline was administered to patients in the control, saline, group. Supplemental intravenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) infusion was administered whenever systolic blood pressure exceeded 180 mmHg. The number of patients with intraoperative hypertension or hypotension, dosage of SNP administered, number of intraoperative hypertension episodes, use of fluid and blood transfusion, and heart rate (defined as the mean of heart rate every 5 minutes throughout the operation) were compared between these two groups. The number of patients with intraoperative hypertension, number of patients receiving SNP, dose of SNP administered, and number of hypertension episodes were significantly lower in patients who received labetalol pretreatment than in control patients. This study has demonstrated that labetalol pretreatment (1.2 mg/kg) with supplemental SNP provides more favorable blood pressure control during surgical resection of pheochromocytoma than with SNP alone.

  4. Pretreatment CD4 cell slope and progression to AIDS or death in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy--the CASCADE collaboration: a collaboration of 23 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, Marcel; Babiker, Abdel; Sabin, Caroline; Young, Jim; Dorrucci, Maria; Chêne, Geneviève; Mussini, Cristina; Porter, Kholoud; Bucher, Heiner C.; del Amo, Julia; Meyer, Laurence; Pillay, Deenan; Prins, Maria; Rosinska, Magda; Touloumi, Giota; Lodi, Sara; Coughlin, Kate; Walker, Sarah; Darbyshire, Janet; de Luca, Andrea; Fisher, Martin; Muga, Roberto; Kaldor, John; Kelleher, Tony; Ramacciotti, Tim; Gelgor, Linda; Cooper, David; Smith, Don; Gill, John; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Nielsen, Claus; Lutsar, Irja; Dabis, Francois; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Masquelier, Bernard; Costagliola, Dominique; Guiguet, Marguerite; Vanhems, Philippe; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ghosn, Jade; Boufassa, Faroudy; Hamouda, Osamah; Kucherer, Claudia; Pantazis, Nikos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Karafoulidoua, Anastasia; Rezza, Giovanni; Balotta, Claudia; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; van der Helm, Jannie; Geskus, Ronald; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sannes, Mette; Brubakk, Oddbjorn; Eskild, Anne; Bruun, Johan N.; Rosinska, Magdalena; Gniewosz, Joanna; Camacho, Ricardo; Smolskaya, Tatyana; Tor, Jordi; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Cayla, Joan; del Romero, Jorge; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Rickenbach, Martin; Francioli, Patrick; Malyuta, Ruslan; Brettle, Ray; Delpech, Valerie; Lattimore, Sam; Murphy, Gary; Parry, John; Gill, Noel; Lee, Christine; Johnson, Anne; Phillips, Andrew; Jaffe, Harold

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD4 cell count is a strong predictor of the subsequent risk of AIDS or death in HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is not known whether the rate of CD4 cell decline prior to therapy is related to prognosis and should, therefore, influence the

  5. Physiochemical Characterization of Lignocellulosic Biomass Dissolution by Flowthrough Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-04

    Comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220-270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8-90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H2SO4 flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4 led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.

  6. Pretreatment cardiometabolic status in youth with early-onset psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten G.; Correll, Christoph U.; Rudå, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe pretreatment cardiometabolic constitution in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: Baseline cardiometabolic assessment was performed in youths aged 12-17 years with FEP entering the Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial......: Comparing 113 youths with FEP (age ± SD = 15.74 ± 1.36 years, males = 30.1%, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders = 92.9%, antipsychoticnaive: n = 57) to 60 controls, patients had higher waist circumference (WC) zscores (1.13 ± 1.65 vs 0.42 ± 1.27, P =.018), cholesterol (4.10 ± 0.71 vs 3.79 ± 0.49 mmol/L, P...... cardiometabolic risk. Early age at onset predicted increased BMI and WC z scores, while diagnosis of schizophrenia and higher Clinical Global Impression-Severity score were associated with increased blood lipids. Conclusions: Youths with FEP had significantly greater WC and lipid abnormalities than matched...

  7. Very heavily electron-doped CrSi2 as a high-performance high-temperature thermoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Singh, David J.

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the thermoelectric behavior, using first principles and Boltzmann transport calculations, of very heavily electron-doped CrSi2 and find that at temperatures of 900-1250 K and electron dopings of 1-4 × 1021 cm-3, thermopowers as large in magnitude as 200 μV K-1 may be found. Such high thermopowers at such high carrier concentrations are extremely rare, and suggest that excellent thermoelectric performance may be found in these ranges of temperature and doping.

  8. Data on metals biomonitoring in the body of schoolchildren in the vicinity of a heavily industrialized site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Kafaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This data is obtained from analyzing the concentration of metals include Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Pb, and Zn in the urine of schoolchildren in Asalouyeh city in vicinity to a heavily industrialized site and comparison with a reference city. The significance of sex groups on urine metal level was evaluated through this data. The urinary content of metals was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Statistical analyze of data were done by Mann–Whitney test. The herein presented date could beneficial for health assessment of gas and petrochemical companies.

  9. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł; Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  10. Rheological evaluation of pretreated cladding removal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, D.; Chan, M.K.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding removal waste (CRW) contains concentrations of transuranic (TRU) elements in the 80 to 350 nCi/g range. This waste will require pretreatment before it can be disposed of as glass or grout at Hanford. The CRW will be pretreated with a rare earth strike and solids removal by centrifugation to segregate the TRU fraction from the non-TRU fraction of the waste. The centrifuge centrate will be neutralized with sodium hydroxide. This neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) is expected to be suitable for grouting. The TRU solids removed by centrifugation will be vitrified. The goal of the Rheological Evaluation of Pretreated Cladding Removal Waste Program was to evaluate those rheological and transport properties critical to assuring successful handling of the NCRW and TRU solids streams and to demonstrate transfers in a semi-prototypic pumping environment. This goal was achieved by a combination of laboratory and pilot-scale evaluations. The results obtained during these evaluations were correlated with classical rheological models and scaled-up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The Program used simulated NCRW and TRU solid slurries. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) provided 150 gallons of simulated CRW and 5 gallons of simulated TRU solid slurry. The simulated CRW was neutralized by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The physical and rheological properties of the NCRW and TRU solid slurries were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCRW allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic or yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The TRU solids slurry contained very few solids. This slurry exhibited the properties associated with a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid.

  11. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  12. Copper sulfate pretreatment prevents mitochondrial electron transport chain damage and apoptosis against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Osornio, Moisés; Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Brambila, Eduardo; Boll, Marie-Catherine; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Guevara, Jorge; Montes, Sergio; Ríos, Camilo

    2017-06-01

    Intrastriatal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is considered a model to reproduce some biochemical alterations observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Among those alterations, inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity, increased free radical production and reduced antioxidant responses have been reported. Copper (Cu) plays an important role in the metabolism and antioxidative responses through its participation as a cofactor in the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme (COX), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and metallothioneins. We tested the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO4) pretreatment on the mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) in the striatum after MPP(+) toxicity in rats. The results showed that the MPP(+) intrastriatal injection reduced mitochondrial complex I, II, IV and V activities; while 10 μmol of CuSO4 pretreatment counteracted this damage. Activities of complexes I, II and IV, were coincident with ATP recovery. Moreover, Cu/Zn-SOD activity was reduced as a consequence of MPP(+) damage; however, copper pre-treatment kept the striatal Cu/Zn-SOD activity unchanged in MPP(+)-damaged animals. We observed that MPP(+) also reduced the metallothionein (MT) content and that CuSO4 pretreatment maintained baseline values. CuSO4 pretreatment also reduced the striatal caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities that were increased three days after MPP(+)-induced damage. The present study provided evidence that copper pretreatment reduced MPP(+)-induced apoptotic damage, probably through direct action on copper-dependent proteins or indirectly on proteins in the apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    and milled particle size (the extent to which the wheat straw was milled) were investigated and optimized. The developed methodology offered the advantage of a simple and relatively fast (0.5–2 h) pretreatment allowing a dry matter concentration of 45–60%. FTIR measurements did not suggest any structural...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  14. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (≈50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

  15. Corn-milling pretreatment with anhydrous ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Craig, James C; Kurantz, M J; Singh, Vijay

    2003-02-01

    Exposure to anhydrous ammonia has been suggested as a pretreatment for corn milling. Batches of corn were exposed to ammonia under controlled conditions. The amounts of ammonia absorbed and reacted with the corn were measured. The amounts were not more than are needed as nutritional supplement for yeast fermentation to ethanol. Loosening of the hull was observed qualitatively, and subsequent shearing in a disk mill followed by steeping for 2, 4, 6, or 8 h showed that germ could be recovered at higher yield and after a shorter steeping time compared to untreated control batches. Quality of oil was not affected by treatment with ammonia.

  16. Ibrutinib-Associated Skin Toxicity: A Case of Maculopapular Rash in a 79-Year Old Caucasian Male Patient with Relapsed Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders Bisgaard; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; d’Amore, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinamia (WM) is a rare malignant lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by monoclonal IgM paraproteinemia and neoplastic proliferation of malignant lymphoplasmacytoid cells in the bone marrow. Traditionally, WM has been treated with modalities similar to those used in the management of other indolent lymphomas. Just recently, based on impressive clinical trial results in heavily pretreated WM patients, a new Bruton Tyrosine Kinase-inhibitor, Ibrutinib, has been approved for the treatment of this disorder. As the use of Ibrutinib in WM outside clinical trials is still limited, only few clinical reports illustrating treatment side effects are currently available. Here we review the current literature specific on Ibrutinib-associated rash in hematologic patients, and report on an elderly patient with WM, who developed a red maculopapular non-pruritic rash 12 weeks after starting Ibrutinib therapy. Without modifications of the ongoing Ibrutinib schedule, the rash regressed within two weeks of treatment with topical steroid-containing dermatological compounds. PMID:28469834

  17. The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.

  18. Microbial Lipid Production from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Pecan Nutshell Pretreated by Combined Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lizhen; Qian, Hanyu; He, Yucai

    2017-12-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel composed of monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from renewable biomass sources. In this study, biomass waste pecan nutshell (PS) was attempted to be converted into microbial oil. For effective utilization of PS, sequential pretreatment with ethylene glycol-H2SO4-water (78:2:20, wt:wt:wt) at 130 °C for 30 min and aqueous ammonia (25 wt%) at 50 °C for 24 h was used to enhance its enzymatic saccharification. Significant linear correlation was obtained about delignification-saccharification (R 2 = 0.9507). SEM and FTIR results indicated that combination pretreatment could effectively remove lignin and xylan in PS for promoting its enzymatic saccharification. After 72 h, the reducing sugars from the hydrolysis of 50 g/L pretreated PS by combination pretreatment could be obtained at 73.6% yield. Using the recovered PS hydrolysates containing 20 g/L glucose as carbon source, microbial lipids produced from the PS hydrolysates by Rhodococcus opacus ACCC41043. Four fatty acids including palmitic acid (C16:0; 23.1%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1; 22.4%), stearic acid (C18:0; 15.3%), and oleic acid (C18:1; 23.9%) were distributed in total fatty acids. In conclusion, this strategy has potential application in the future.

  19. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  1. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  2. Pretreatment serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen : A newly identified prognostic factor in early-stage cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duk, JM; Groenier, KH; deBruijn, HWA; Hollema, H; tenHoor, KA; vanderZee, AGJ; Aalders, JG

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma in relation to well-established conventional risk factors. Patients and Methods: Sere from 653 women treated for squamous cervical

  3. Features of the band structure and conduction mechanisms in the n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V. A., E-mail: vromaka@polynet.lviv.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pidstrygach Institute for Applied Problems in Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Universität Wien, Institut für Physikalische Chemie (Austria); Romaka, V. V. [National University Lvivska Politekhnika (Ukraine); Stadnyk, Yu. V. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Korzh, R. O.; Krayovskyy, V. Ya. [National University Lvivska Politekhnika (Ukraine); Horyn, A. M. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine)

    2014-12-15

    The crystal and electronic structure and energy and kinetic properties of the n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with a Ru acceptor impurity are investigated in the temperature and Ru concentration ranges T = 80–400 K and N{sub A}{sup Ru} ≈ 9.5 × 10{sup 19}−5.7 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} (x = 0–0.03), respectively. The mechanism of structural-defect generation is established, which changes the band gap and degree of compensation of the semiconductor and consists in the simultaneous concentration reduction and elimination of donor structural defects by means of the displacement of ∼1% of Ni atoms from the Hf (4a) positions, the generation of acceptor structural defects upon the substitution of Ru atoms for Ni atoms in the 4c positions, and the generation of donor defects in the form of vacancies in the Sn (4b) positions. The calculated electronic structure of HfNi{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}Sn is consistent with the experiment. The results obtained are discussed within the Shklovsky-Efros model for a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  4. Features of the band structure and conduction mechanisms of n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily Lu-doped

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V. A., E-mail: vromaka@polynet.lviv.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Universitet Wien, Institut für Physikalische Chemie (Austria); Romaka, V. V. [National University “Lvivs’ka Politekhnika” (Ukraine); Kaczorowski, D.; Stadnyk, Yu. V. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (Poland); Korzh, R. O.; Krayovskyy, V. Ya.; Kovbasyuk, T. M. [National University “Lvivs’ka Politekhnika” (Ukraine)

    2015-03-15

    The crystal and electronic structures, energy, kinetic, and magnetic characteristics of n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with a Lu acceptor impurity in the ranges T = 80–400 K and N{sub A}{sup Lu} ≈ 1.9 × 10{sup 20}−1.9 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} (x = 0.01–0.10) at H ≤ 10 kG is studied. The nature of the structural-defect generation mechanism leading to changes in the band gap and the degree of semiconductor compensation is determined. Its essence is the simultaneous reduction and elimination of donor-type structural defects due to the displacement of ∼1% of Ni atoms from the Hf (4a) site, the generation of acceptor-type structural defects by substituting Ni atoms with Lu atoms at the 4c site, and the generation of donor-type defects such as vacancies at the Sn (4b) site. The results of calculations of the electronic structure of Hf{sub 1−x}Lu{sub x}NiSn are in agreement with experimental data. The results are discussed within the model of a heavily doped and compensated Shklovskii-Efros semiconductor.

  5. The effectiveness of pretreatment physics plan review for detecting errors in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopan, Olga; Zeng, Jing; Novak, Avrey; Nyflot, Matthew; Ford, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The pretreatment physics plan review is a standard tool for ensuring treatment quality. Studies have shown that the majority of errors in radiation oncology originate in treatment planning, which underscores the importance of the pretreatment physics plan review. This quality assurance measure is fundamentally important and central to the safety of patients and the quality of care that they receive. However, little is known about its effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to analyze reported incidents to quantify the effectiveness of the pretreatment physics plan review with the goal of improving it. This study analyzed 522 potentially severe or critical near-miss events within an institutional incident learning system collected over a three-year period. Of these 522 events, 356 originated at a workflow point that was prior to the pretreatment physics plan review. The remaining 166 events originated after the pretreatment physics plan review and were not considered in the study. The applicable 356 events were classified into one of the three categories: (1) events detected by the pretreatment physics plan review, (2) events not detected but "potentially detectable" by the physics review, and (3) events "not detectable" by the physics review. Potentially detectable events were further classified by which specific checks performed during the pretreatment physics plan review detected or could have detected the event. For these events, the associated specific check was also evaluated as to the possibility of automating that check given current data structures. For comparison, a similar analysis was carried out on 81 events from the international SAFRON radiation oncology incident learning system. Of the 356 applicable events from the institutional database, 180/356 (51%) were detected or could have been detected by the pretreatment physics plan review. Of these events, 125 actually passed through the physics review; however, only 38% (47/125) were actually

  6. Dilute acid pretreatment of corncob for efficient sugar production

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.S. Wang; Jae-Won Lee; Junyong Zhu; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous dilute acid pretreatments of corncob were conducted using cylindrical pressure vessels in an oil bath. Pretreatments were conducted in a temperature range of 160–190 °C with acid-solution-to-solid-corncob ratio of 2. The acid concentration (v/v) in the pretreatment solution was varied from 0% to 0.7%, depending on temperature. This gives acid charge on ovendry-...

  7. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-06-12

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08.

  8. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  9. Optimal pretreatment determination of kiwifruit drying via online monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadian, Mohammad Hossein; Abbaspour-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Sadrnia, Hassan; Golzarian, Mahmood Reza; Tabasizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Pre-treating is a crucial stage of drying process. The best pretreatment for hot air drying of kiwifruit was investigated using a computer vision system (CVS), for online monitoring of drying attributes including drying time, colour changes and shrinkage, as decision criteria and using clustering method. Slices were dried at 70 °C with hot water blanching (HWB), steam blanching (SB), infrared blanching (IR) and acid ascorbic 1% w/w (AA) as pretreatments each with three durations of 5, 10 and 15 min. The results showed that the cells in HWB-pretreated samples stretched without any cell wall rupture, while the highest damage was observed in AA-pretreated kiwifruit microstructure. Increasing duration of AA and HWB significantly lengthened the drying time while SB showed opposite results. The drying rate had a profound effect on the progression of the shrinkage. The total colour change of pretreated samples was higher than those with no pretreatment except for AA and HWB. The AA could well prevent colour change during the initial stage of drying. Among all pretreatments, SB and IR had the highest colour changes. HWB with a duration of 5 min is the optimum pretreatment method for kiwifruit drying. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  11. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  12. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  14. Influence of dentin pretreatment on bond strength of universal adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco; Scribante, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare bond strength of different universal adhesives under three different testing conditions: when no pretreatment was applied, after 37% phosphoric acid etching and after glycine application. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used as a substitute for human teeth. Five different universal adhesives were tested: Futurabond M+, Scotchbond Universal, Clearfil Universal Bond, G-Premio BOND, Peak Universal Bond. The adhesive systems were applied following each manufacturer's instructions. The teeth were randomly assigned to three different dentin surface pretreatments: no pretreatment agent (control), 37% phosphoric acid etching, glycine pretreatment. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine in order to measure and compare bond strength values. Results: The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test were applied to assess significant differences among the groups. Dentin pretreatments provided different bond strength values for the adhesives tested, while similar values were registered in groups without dentin pretreatment. Conclusions: In the present report, dentin surface pretreatment did not provide significant differences in shear bond strength values of almost all groups. Acid pretreatment lowered bond strength values of Futurabond and Peak Universal Adhesives, whereas glycine pretreatment increased bond strength values of G Praemio Bond adhesive system.

  15. CO.sub.2 Pretreatment prevents calcium carbonate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neavel, Richard C.; Brunson, Roy J.; Chaback, Joseph J.

    1980-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 14 to about 68 atmospheres and a carbon dioxide partial pressure within the range from about 14 to about 34 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 100.degree. to about 200.degree. C.

  16. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  17. Prognostic Role of Pre-Treatment Serum AFP-L3% in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjun; Liu, Xi; Li, Muxing; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) has been widely used for HCC diagnosis and follow-up surveillance as tumor serologic marker. However, the prognostic value of high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We therefore conduct a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and clinical outcome of HCC. Methods Eligible studies were identified through systematic literature searches. A meta-analysis of fifteen studies (4,465 patients) was carried out to evaluate the association between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in this meta-analysis. Results Our analysis results showed that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% implied poor OS (HR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.45–1.89 p<0.00001) and DFS (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.49–2.17 p<0.00001) of HCC. Subgroup analysis revealed that there was association between pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and endpoint (OS and DFS) in low AFP concentration HCC patients (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.24–3.10, p = 0.004; HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.09–5.89, p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusion The current evidence suggests that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% levels indicated a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and AFP-L3% may have significant prognostic value in HCC patients with low AFP concentration. PMID:24498011

  18. Prognostic role of pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in hepatocellular carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwen Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3% has been widely used for HCC diagnosis and follow-up surveillance as tumor serologic marker. However, the prognostic value of high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains controversial. We therefore conduct a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and clinical outcome of HCC. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified through systematic literature searches. A meta-analysis of fifteen studies (4,465 patients was carried out to evaluate the association between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS in HCC patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis results showed that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% implied poor OS (HR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.45-1.89 p<0.00001 and DFS (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.49-2.17 p<0.00001 of HCC. Subgroup analysis revealed that there was association between pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and endpoint (OS and DFS in low AFP concentration HCC patients (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.24-3.10, p = 0.004; HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.09-5.89, p = 0.03, respectively. CONCLUSION: The current evidence suggests that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% levels indicated a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and AFP-L3% may have significant prognostic value in HCC patients with low AFP concentration.

  19. Self-Assembled Formation of Well-Aligned Cu-Te Nano-Rods on Heavily Cu-Doped ZnTe Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Jing; Cheng, Man Kit; Lai, Ying Hoi; Wei, Guanglu; Yang, Sean Derman; Wang, Gan; Ho, Sut Kam; Tam, Kam Weng; Sou, Iam Keong

    2016-01-01

    ... reported. We found an interesting self-assembled formation of crystalline well-aligned Cu-Te nano-rods near the surface of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films grown via the molecular beam epitaxy technique...

  20. Early pregnancy loss in women stimulated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver, José; Albert, Carmen; Labarta, Elena; Pellicer, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate and compare the risk of early pregnancy loss in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment. Retrospective case-control study. Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. University of Valencia. Spain. One thousand five hundred thirty-nine patients, aged <36, stimulated with GnRH antagonists for IVF between January 1, 2000 and November 1, 2005. Reproductive outcome was compared based on the application (or not) of OCP pretreatment: 944 women were included in the OCP group and 595 in the non-OCP group. The Student's t test was used for statistics. Pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, early clinical pregnancy loss, early pregnancy loss, and ongoing pregnancy rates. No significant differences were observed in any of the outcome parameters. Early pregnancy loss rates were similar: 23% in the OCP pretreatment group versus 19.2% in the non-OCP pretreatment group. However, longer periods of ovarian stimulation and higher doses of gonadotropins needed to be employed in the OCP group. There is not sufficient evidence to confirm OCP pretreatment as a risk factor for miscarriage in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols.

  1. Pretreatment HIF-1α and GLUT-1 expressions do not correlate with outcome after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expressions as predictors of response and survival after chemoradiotherapy in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with rectal cancer.......The aim of the present study was to investigate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expressions as predictors of response and survival after chemoradiotherapy in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with rectal cancer....

  2. Analysis of safety, risk factors and pretreatment methods during rush hymenoptera venom immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorska, Lucyna; Chelminska, Marta; Kuziemski, Krzysztof; Skrzypski, Marcin; Niedoszytko, Marek; Damps-Konstanska, Iwona; Szymanowska, Amelia; Siemińska, Alicja; Wajda, Beata; Drozdowska, Adrianna; Jutel, Marek; Jassem, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The safety profile of venom immunotherapy is a relevant issue. We evaluated the frequency of severe adverse events (SAE), associated risk factors, retrospective comparison of pretreatment protocols including solely H1 receptor blockers and a combination of H1 and H2 receptor blockers during rush Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. The study group comprised 118 patients. The treatment was initiated according to a 5-day rush protocol with the use of standardized venom allergens of either wasp or honeybee. During the rush induction, side effects occurred in 18 patients (15.2%), whereas SAE were present in 7 patients (5.9%). Twelve out of 18 (66.6%) developed anaphylactic reactions on the fourth day of the rush protocol, with the majority of cases at a dose of 40 or 60 microg of the venom extract (p = 0.001). The frequency of SAE was also significantly higher on the fourth day than thereafter (p = 0.0001) as well as in patients allergic to bee venom (p = 0.049). All systemic side effects were more frequent in women (p = 0.0065). However, this relation was not true when SAE were consider (p = 0.11). A higher percentage of SAE was observed in the subjects pretreated with both H1 and H2 receptor antagonists than in those pretreated with H1 blocker only (8.8 vs. 4.1%); however, the difference was not significant. Considerable severity of allergic adverse events requires particular attention to patients allergic to bee venom and during rush phase, especially when rapidly increasing doses are administered. Pretreatment with H2 blockers is debatable and warrants further investigation. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Effect of pretreatment on the incidence of hyperpigmentation following cutaneous CO2 laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T B; Alster, T S

    1999-01-01

    Transient hyperpigmentation is the most common complication seen following cutaneous carbon dioxide (CO2) laser resurfacing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of a topical skin lightening regimen prior to cutaneous laser resurfacing reduces the incidence of post-laser resurfacing hyperpigmentation. One hundred consecutive CO2 laser resurfacing patients (skin types I-III) were randomized to receive preoperative treatment with 10% glycolic acid cream twice daily (n=25), hydroquinone 4% cream qHS and tretinoin 0.025% cream twice daily (n=25) or no pretreatment (n=50, control) for at least 2 weeks. Clinical and photographic assessments were performed prior to laser resurfacing and at 4 and 12 weeks following treatment. There was no significant difference in the incidence of post-CO2 laser resurfacing hyperpigmentation between subjects who received pretreatment with either topical glycolic acid cream or combination tretinoin/hydroquinone creams and those who received no pretreatment regimen. It is postulated that reepithelialization after cutaneous laser resurfacing includes follicular melanocytes that have not been affected by topical pretreatment. When instituted as a component of the skin care regimen postoperatively, topical hydroquinone, tretinoin and/or glycolic acid preparations may be helpful in reducing post-laser resurfacing hyperpigmentation.

  4. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  5. Techno-economic analysis of organosolv pretreatment process from lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva, Andrè; Errico, Massimiliano; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2018-01-01

    data, we propose a feasible process flowsheet for organosolv pretreatment. Simulation of the pretreatment process provided mass and energy balances for a techno-economic analysis, and the values were compared with the most prevalent and mature pretreatment method: diluted acid. Organosolv pretreatment...... in the sensitivity analysis turned into possible savings of 42.8% in the minimum ethanol selling price for organosolv pretreatment....

  6. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoya, T. Nakamura, T. Matushita, T. Muro, H. Okazaki, M. Arita, K. Shimada, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, T. Takenouchi, H. Kawarada and T. Oguchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SXARPES of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond films with different B concentrations in order to study the origin of the metallic behavior of superconducting diamond. SXARPES results clearly show valence band dispersions with a bandwidth of ~23 eV and with a top of the valence band at gamma point in the Brillouin zone, which are consistent with the calculated valence band dispersions of pure diamond. Boron concentration-dependent band dispersions near the Fermi level (EF exhibit a systematic shift of EF, indicating depopulation of electrons due to hole doping. These SXARPES results indicate that diamond bands retain for heavy boron doping and holes in the diamond band are responsible for the metallic states leading to superconductivity at low temperature. A high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy spectrum near EF of a heavily boron-doped diamond superconductor is also presented.

  7. Efficacy of bendamustine in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of a phase I/II study of the German CLL Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Manuela A; Goebeler, Maria E; Herold, Michael; Emmerich, Bertold; Wilhelm, Martin; Ruelfs, Corinna; Boening, Lothar; Hallek, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Although bendamustine has been used for more than 30 years in the treatment of lymphoma, little is known about the optimal dosing schedule in relapsed or refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Various dose and treatment schedules have been used empirically, and several phase II studies have shown impressive efficacy. To determine the maximal tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity and the optimal therapeutic dose of bendamustine for further phase III clinical trials the GCLLSG designed a phase I/II study for pre-treated CLL patients. Sixteen patients (median age 67 years) with relapsed or refractory CLL were enrolled. All patients had been pre-treated with a median of three different regimens. Bendamustine was given at a starting dose of 100 mg/m2 on day 1 and 2, repeated every 3-4 weeks. Major toxicities were leukocytopenia (CTC grade 3+4) in 8/16 and infections (CTC grade 3+4) in 7/16 patients. Six patients had dose-limiting toxicity which led to dose de-escalation from 100 to 70 mg/m2 in three patients. The maximum tolerated dose was 70 mg/m2. According to NCI-WG criteria, 9/16 patients (56%) responded to therapy, seven to doses patients achieved complete remission. Five patients had a partial response and two patients stable disease. The median duration of response was 42.7 months. After a follow-up period of 53.2 months, five patients (31%) were still in remission. The median overall survival time for all patients was 45.6 months. The study confirms the excellent efficacy of bendamustine in heavily pre-treated and treatment-refractory patients, even at reduced doses of 140 mg/m2 per course. In pre-treated CLL patients, impaired bone marrow function is likely to enhance the myelotoxic side effects of bendamustine. Based on these results, the recommended optimal therapeutic dose of bendamustine in refractory CLL is 70 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2 every 4 weeks.

  8. Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1)

  9. Coagulation pretreatment for ultrafiltration of deinking effluents containing flexographic inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Chabot; Gopal A. Krishnagopalan; Said Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the potential of coagulation pretreatment with organic or inorganic coagulants to improve ultrafiltration performance during processing of wash deinking effluents containing flexographic inks. Wash filtrate effluents generated from mixtures of old flexographic and offset newspapers and old magazines were pretreated with a...

  10. 40 CFR 408.336 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.336 Section 408.336 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... Subcategory § 408.336 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject to this subpart that...

  11. 40 CFR 421.336 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 421.336 Section 421.336 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... Subcategory § 421.336 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new...

  12. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the synergistic effect of trehalose and saccharose pretreatment on maintenance of lyophilized human red blood cell (RBC) quality. Methods: RBCs were pre-treated with trehalose and saccharose, and then lyophilized and re-hydrated. Prior to lyophilization and after re hydration, RBC parameters, ...

  13. Quality evaluation of beverage produced from pre-treated tigernut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beverage samples from pretreated and untreated tigernut were evaluated for physical and chemical properties. Sensory evaluation of the beverage samples were carried out and the best preferred tigernutbeverage was compared with a popularly consumed beverage, soymilk. All the pre-treatments, except germination, ...

  14. Influence of pre-treatment on torrefaction of Phyllostachys edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiwei; Jiang, Enchen; Lan, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of different pre-treatments on structural changes in Phyllostachys edulis. Samples were pretreated with water, 15% ammonia water, 2% sulfuric acid, hydrothermal carbonization, and ball milling. Moreover, ultrasound was introduced. The influence of pre-treatment on the physiochemical property and composition of P. edulis were studied. Moreover, torrefaction characterization was performed and the distribution of torrefaction products of pretreated samples was determined. Results showed that pre-treatment effectively modified physiochemical structure and the torrefaction property of P. edulis. The pretreatment reduced the ash content and increased the bio-oil content of the torrefaction products. Compared with that of the raw material, the residual bio-char content of the pretreated samples decreased by 2-8%, and degradation temperature of bio-char fluctuated between 365°C and 321°C. The distribution of bio-oil contents, bio-char, and bio-gas in the torrefaction products significantly varied with pretreatments methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripok Phitsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is an abundant, readily available agricultural waste, which shows promise as a potential feedstock for Asian ethanol production. To enhance release of glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis, RS was pretreated with aqueous ammonia (27% w/w at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation. Chemical composition, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of glucan and xylan in the pretreated solid, but significant reduction of lignin (60.7% removal and silica. SEM analysis showed the disorganized surfaces and porosity of the pretreated RS fibers, thus improving cellulose accessibility for cellulase. The crystallinity index increased from 40.5 to 52.3%, indicating the higher exposure of cellulose. With 10% (w/v solid loadings of pretreated RS, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation yielded a final ethanol concentration of 24.6 g/L, corresponding to 98% of maximum theoretical yield. Taken together, aqueous ammonia pretreatment is an effective method to generate highly digestible pretreated RS for bioethanol production and demonstrates potential application in biorefinery industry.

  16. Effect of chemical pretreatment of some lignocellulosic wastes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highest cellulase activity (0.06777 IU/ml/min) was display d by the organism grown on bagasse substrate pretreated with 2M NaOH for one hour. The proximate analysis of the cellulosic residues differed from one substrate to another, with the bagasse being the best. Pulverized substrates syndicated with alkali pretreatment ...

  17. Development of pretreatment of empty fruit bunches for enhanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heating, boiling and steaming are among the physical agents and different concentrations of nitric acid, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were the chemical agents used for the pretreatment of EFB to enhance the enzymatic saccharification of EFB. NaOH was proved to be the best among all the pretreatment ...

  18. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 408.184 Section 408.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  19. 40 CFR 463.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.15 Section 463.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Heating Water Subcategory § 463.15 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. (a) PSES for bis(2...

  20. Influence of Chemical Pretreatment on the Quality of Dried Whole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical pretreatment of vegetables prior to drying is widely used to improve colour, texture and overall acceptability. Thus, this study investigated the effect of chemical pretreatment on some physico-chemical properties, colour and rehydration properties of dried red bell pepper. Fresh samples of whole red bell peppers ...

  1. Effect of combination pre-treatment on physicochemical, sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of combination pre-treatment on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of fresh aerobically stored minced goat (Black Bengal) meat organs. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... However, acetic acid and glucose pretreatment controlled the fungal growth in meat samples most effectively. The

  2. Predicting breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using pretreatment diffuse optical spectroscopic texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, William T; Gangeh, Mehrdad J; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Chin, Lee; Watkins, Elyse; Bruni, Silvio G; Rastegar, Rashin Fallah; Curpen, Belinda; Trudeau, Maureen; Gandhi, Sonal; Yaffe, Martin; Slodkowska, Elzbieta; Childs, Charmaine; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2017-05-09

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) has been demonstrated capable of monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. In this study, we evaluate texture features of pretreatment DOS functional maps for predicting LABC response to NAC. Locally advanced breast cancer patients (n=37) underwent DOS breast imaging before starting NAC. Breast tissue parametric maps were constructed and texture analyses were performed based on grey-level co-occurrence matrices for feature extraction. Ground truth labels as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) were assigned to patients based on Miller-Payne pathological response criteria. The capability of DOS textural features computed on volumetric tumour data before the start of treatment (i.e., 'pretreatment') to predict patient responses to NAC was evaluated using a leave-one-out validation scheme at subject level. Data were analysed using a logistic regression, naive Bayes, and k-nearest neighbour classifiers. Data indicated that textural characteristics of pretreatment DOS parametric maps can differentiate between treatment response outcomes. The HbO2 homogeneity resulted in the highest accuracy among univariate parameters in predicting response to chemotherapy: sensitivity (%Sn) and specificity (%Sp) were 86.5% and 89.0%, respectively, and accuracy was 87.8%. The highest predictors using multivariate (binary) combination features were the Hb-contrast+HbO2-homogeneity, which resulted in a %Sn/%Sp=78.0/81.0% and an accuracy of 79.5%. This study demonstrated that the pretreatment DOS texture features can predict breast cancer response to NAC and potentially guide treatments.

  3. Electrohydrolysis pretreatment of water hyacinth for enhanced hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Visva Bharati; Raju, V Wilson; Lippold, Sophia; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the use of electrohydrolysis pretreatment on water hyacinth to cut short the hydrolysis step and increase biogas production at the same time. Electrohydrolysis pretreatment of water hyacinth at 20V for 60min exhibited improved solubilisation (42.9%). Therefore, bio-chemical methane potential (BMP) test was carried out between water hyacinth pretreated at 20V for 60min and untreated water hyacinth. By the end of 30days, cumulative methane production of 2455±17mL CH4/g VS for electrohydrolysis pretreated substrate and 1936±27mL CH4/g VS for the untreated substrate was achieved. Compositional analysis and characterization study revealed the efficiency of electrohydrolysis pretreatment in melting the lignin and lowering the cellulose crystallinity of water hyacinth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioethanol from lignocellulose - pretreatment, enzyme immobilization and hydrolysis kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Chien Tai

    , the cost of enzyme is still the bottle neck, re-using the enzyme is apossible way to reduce the input of enzyme in the process. In the point view of engineering, the prediction of enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics under different substrate loading, enzyme combination is usful for process design. Therefore....... Ionic liquid had been reported to be able to dissolve lignocellulose. However, as our knowledge, in all published researches, the concentration of lignocellulose in ionic liquid were low (5~10%). Besides, pretreatment time were long (from 1 hr to 1 day). Based on the hypothesis that the amount of ionic...... liquid and pretreatment time can be reduced, the influence of substrate concentration, pretreatment time and temperature were investigated and optimized. Pretreatment of barley straw by [EMIM]Ac, correlative models were constructed using 3 different pretreatment parameters (temperature, time...

  5. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma pretreatment on hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangmin; Long, Zhouyang; Liu, Sa; Qin, Zhenglong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used as a pretreatment method for downstream hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The degree of polymerization (DP) of MCC decreased after it was pretreated by DBD plasma under a carrier gas of air/argon. The effectiveness of depolymerization was found to be influenced by the crystallinity of MCC when under the pretreatment of DBD plasma. With the addition of tert-butyl alcohol in the treated MCC water suspension solution, depolymerization effectiveness of MCC was inhibited. When MCC was pretreated by DBD plasma for 30 min, the total reducing sugar concentration (TRSC) and liquefaction yield (LY) of pretreated-MCC (PMCC) increased by 82.98% and 34.18% respectively compared with those for raw MCC.

  6. Lenalidomide induces complete and partial remissions in patients with relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lee, Bang-Ning; Schlette, Ellen J; O'Brien, Susan M; Gao, Hui; Wen, Sijin; Wierda, William G; Estrov, Zeev; Faderl, Stefan; Cohen, Evan N; Li, Changping; Reuben, James M; Keating, Michael J

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the activity of lenalidomide in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Lenalidomide was given at 10 mg daily with dose escalation up to 25 mg daily. Three patients (7%) achieved a complete response (CR), one a nodular partial remission, and 10 patients a partial remission (PR), for an overall response (OR) rate of 32%. Treatment with lenalidomide was associated with an OR rate of 31% in patients with 11q or 17p deletion, of 24% in patients with unmutated V(H), and of 25% in patients with fludarabine-refractory disease. The most common toxicity was myelosuppression, and the median daily dose of lenalidomide tolerated was 10 mg. Plasma levels of angiogenic factors, inflammatory cytokines, and cytokine receptors were measured at baseline, day 7, and day 28. There was a dramatic increase in median interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 levels on day 7, whereas no changes were observed in median vascular endothelial growth factor levels (20 patients studied). According to our experience, lenalidomide given as a continuous treatment has antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with CLL.

  7. Dilute alkali pretreatment of softwood pine: A biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Ali; Karimi, Keikhosro; Shafiei, Marzieh

    2017-06-01

    Dilute alkali pretreatment was performed on softwood pine to maximize ethanol and biogas production via a biorefinery approach. Alkali pretreatments were performed with 0-2% w/v NaOH at 100-180°C for 1-5h. The liquid fraction of the pretreated substrates was subjected to anaerobic digestion. The solid fraction of the pretreatment was used for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. High ethanol yields of 76.9‒78.0% were achieved by pretreatment with 2% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest biogas yield of 244mL/g volatile solid (at 25°C, 1bar) was achieved by the pretreatment with 1% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest gasoline equivalent (sum of ethanol and methane) of 197L per ton of pinewood and the lowest ethanol manufacturing cost of 0.75€/L was obtained after pretreatment with 1% NaOH at 180°C for 5h. The manufacturing cost of ethanol from untreated wood was 4.12€/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  9. Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bin Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte and paste (cathode were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference compared to the Ni/YSZ anode.

  10. Enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Thitikorn-amorn, Jitladda; Ou, Bay-Ming; Chen, Shan-He; Huang, Po-Jung [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Hsieh, Jung-Feng [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xin Zhuang, Taipei 242 (China); Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Chen, Shui-Tein [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Institute of Biochemical Sciences, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Production of bioethanol by the conversion of lignocellulosic waste has attracted much interest in recent years, because of its low cost and great potential availability. The pretreatment process is important for increasing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. Enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was evaluated in this study. The freeze pretreatment was found to significantly increase the enzyme digestibility of rice straw from 48% to 84%. According to the results, enzymatic hydrolysis of unpretreated rice straw with 150 U cellulase and 100 U xylanase for 48 h yielded 226.77 g kg{sup -1} and 93.84 g kg{sup -1} substrate-reducing sugars respectively. However, the reducing sugar yields from freeze pretreatment under the same conditions were 417.27 g kg{sup -1} and 138.77 g kg{sup -1} substrate, respectively. In addition, hydrolyzates analysis showed that the highest glucose yield obtained during the enzymatic hydrolysis step in the present study was 371.91 g kg{sup -1} of dry rice straw, following pretreatment. Therefore, the enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was observed in this study. This indicated that freeze pretreatment was highly effective for enzymatic hydrolysis and low environmental impact. (author)

  11. Breakdown of hierarchical architecture in cellulose during dilute acid pretreatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Inouye, Hideyo [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Yang, Lin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Himmel, Michael E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Makowski, Lee [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Cellulose can work as a feedstock for sustainable bioenergy because of its global abundance. Pretreatment of biomass has significant influence on the chemical availability of cellulose locked in recalcitrant microfibrils. Optimizing pretreatment depends on an understanding of its impact on the microscale and nanoscale molecular architecture. X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on native and pre-treated maize stover and models of cellulose architecture have been derived from these data. Ultra small-angle, very small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS, VSAXS and SAXS) probe three different levels of architectural scale. USAXS and SAXS have been used to study cellulose at two distinct length scales, modeling the fibrils as ~30 Å diameter rods packed into ~0.14 μm diameter bundles. VSAXS is sensitive to structural features at length scales between these two extremes. Detailed analysis of diffraction patterns from untreated and pretreated maize using cylindrical Guinier plots and the derivatives of these plots reveals the presence of substructures within the ~0.14 μm diameter bundles that correspond to grouping of cellulose approximately 30 nm in diameter. These sub-structures are resilient to dilute acid pretreatments but are sensitive to pretreatment when iron sulfate is added. Our results provide evidence of the hierarchical arrangement of cellulose at three length scales and the evolution of these arrangements during pre-treatments.

  12. Third-Line Chemotherapy with Irinotecan plus 5-Fluorouracil in Caucasian Metastatic Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Giulia; Vasile, Enrico; Caparello, Chiara; Vivaldi, Caterina; Musettini, Gianna; Lencioni, Monica; Petrini, Iacopo; Fornaro, Lorenzo; Falcone, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the combination of 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as third-line chemotherapy (CT) in metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) patients pretreated with platinum derivatives, fluoropyrimidines, and taxanes. We prospectively collected data of mGC patients treated with third-line FOLFIRI at our institution from 2009 to 2014. Eligible patients should be treated with a fluoropyrimidine-platinum first-line CT and a subsequent taxane-based second-line CT. FOLFIRI consisted of irinotecan 180 mg/m2 and leucovorin 200 mg/m2, followed by 5-fluorouracil 2,800 mg/m2 (administered as 48-hour i.v. continuous infusion from day 1 to 3), with cycles repeated every 2 weeks. Response rate (RR) was evaluated according to RECIST version 1.0, while progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 33 patients were included. The majority (97%) had good performance status (0-1 according to ECOG), while median PFS after first-line and second-line CT was 5.2 and 4.4 months, respectively. Two patients experienced an objective response (RR: 6%), while 14 patients achieved disease stabilization (disease control rate: 42%). Median PFS and OS from the start of third-line CT were 3.3 and 7.5 months, respectively. Hematological and nonhematological grade 3-4 toxicities were uncommon and included neutropenia (6.1%), diarrhea (9.1%), vomiting (3%), and asthenia (3%). Febrile neutropenia was not reported. Third-line CT with FOLFIRI may be an option in heavily pretreated mGC patients with preserved performance status and organ function. This regimen has a favorable safety profile, and signs of activity have been observed after standard first- and second-line CT. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Investigation of Pleurotus ostreatus pretreatment on switchgrass for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Shelyn Gehle

    Fungal pretreatment using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on switchgrass for ethanol production was studied. In a small-scale storage study, small switchgrass bales were inoculated with fungal spawn and automatically watered to maintain moisture. Sampled at 25, 53, and 81 d, the switchgrass composition was determined and liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was conducted. Fungal pretreatment significantly decreased the xylan and lignin content; glucan was not significantly affected by fungal loading. The glucan, xylan, and lignin contents significantly decreased with increased fungal pretreatment time. The effects of the fungal pretreatment were not highly evident after the LHW pretreatment, showing only changes based on sampling time. Although other biological activity within the bales increased cellulose degradation, the fungal pretreatment successfully reduced the switchgrass lignin and hemicellulose contents. In a laboratory-scale nutrient supplementation study, copper, manganese, glucose, or water was added to switchgrass to induce production of ligninolytic enzymes by P. ostreatus. After 40 d, ligninolytic enzyme activities and biomass composition were determined and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to determine ethanol yield. Laccase activity was similar for all supplements and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was significantly less in copper-treated samples than in the other fungal-inoculated samples. The fungal pretreatment reduced glucan, xylan, and lignin content, while increasing extractable sugars content. The lowest lignin contents occurred in the water-fungal treated samples and produced the greatest ethanol yields. The greatest lignin contents occurred in the copper-fungal treated samples and produced the lowest ethanol yields. Manganese-fungal and glucose-fungal treated samples had similar, intermediate lignin contents and produced similar, intermediate ethanol yields. Ethanol yields from switchgrass

  14. Influence of ultrasound pretreatment on wood physiochemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengbin; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zijian; Yi, Songlin; Mu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    As an initial step to increase the use of renewable biomass resources, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound pretreatment on structural changes of wood. Samples were pretreated by ultrasound with the power of 300W and frequency of 28kHz in aqueous soda solution, aqueous acetic acid, or distilled water, then pretreated and control samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results shown that ultrasound pretreatment is indeed effective in modifying the physiochemical structure of eucalyptus wood; the pretreatment decreased the quantity of alkali metals (e.g., potassium, calcium and magnesium) in the resulting material. Compared to the control group, the residual char content of samples pretreated in aqueous soda solution increased by 10.08%-20.12% and the reaction temperature decreased from 361°C to 341°C, however, in samples pretreated by ultrasound in acetic solution or distilled water, the residual char content decreased by 12.40%-21.45% and there were no significant differences in reactivity apart from a slightly higher maximum reaction rate. Ultrasound pretreatment increased the samples' crystallinity up to 35.5% and successfully removed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin from the samples; the pretreatment also increased the exposure of the sample to the treatment solutions, broke down sample pits, and generated collapses and microchannels on sample pits, and removed attachments in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Does pretreatment severity moderate the efficacy of psychological treatment of adult outpatient depression? A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, E.; Cuijpers, P.; Hollon, S.D.; Dekker, J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: It is widely believed that psychological treatment has little effect on more severely depressed patients. This study assessed whether pretreatment severity moderates psychological treatment outcome relative to controls by means of meta-analyses. Method: We included 132 studies (10,134

  16. The importance of pre-treatment haemoglobin level in inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, H.; Jong, de J.; Wanders, R; Lambin, P; Slotman, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the pre-treatment haemoglobin level among patients with inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy with regard to loco-regional tumour control (LC) and overall

  17. The importance of pre-treatment haemoglobin level in inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, H.; de Jong, J.; Wanders, R; Lambin, P; Slotman, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the pre-treatment haemoglobin level among patients with inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy with regard to loco-regional tumour control (LC) and overall

  18. Prognostic role of pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in hepatocellular carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiwen; Wang, Wanli; Zhang, Yingjun; Liu, Xi; Li, Muxing; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Serum lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) has been widely used for HCC diagnosis and follow-up surveillance as tumor serologic marker. However, the prognostic value of high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We therefore conduct a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and clinical outcome of HCC. Eligible studies were identified through systematic literature searches. A meta-analysis of fifteen studies (4,465 patients) was carried out to evaluate the association between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in this meta-analysis. Our analysis results showed that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% implied poor OS (HR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.45-1.89 pAFP-L3% and endpoint (OS and DFS) in low AFP concentration HCC patients (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.24-3.10, p = 0.004; HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.09-5.89, p = 0.03, respectively). The current evidence suggests that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% levels indicated a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and AFP-L3% may have significant prognostic value in HCC patients with low AFP concentration.

  19. Evaluation of wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palonen, H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Tenkanen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The wet oxidation pretreatment (water, oxygen, elevated temperature, and pressure) of softwood (Picea abies) was investigated for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was preliminarily optimized. Six different combinations of reaction time, temperature, and pH were applied......, and the compositions of solid and liquid fractions were analyzed. The solid fraction after wet oxidation contained 58-64% cellulose, 2-16% hemicellulose, and 24-30% lignin. The pretreatment series gave information about the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The temperature...

  20. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  1. Dose-Dependent Effect of Statin Pretreatment on Preventing the Periprocedural Complications of Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Sohn, Sung-Il; Kwak, Jaehyuk; Yoo, Joonsang; Chang, Hyuk Won; Kwon, O-Ki; Jung, Cheolkyu; Chung, Inyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Ji Sung; Han, Moon-Ku

    2017-07-01

    We investigated whether statin pretreatment can dose dependently reduce periprocedural complications in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting because of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. We enrolled a consecutive series of 397 symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (≥50% stenosis on conventional angiography) treated with carotid artery stenting at 2 tertiary university hospitals over a decade. Definition of periprocedural complications included any stroke, myocardial infarction, and death within 1 month after or during the procedure. Statin pretreatment was divided into 3 categories according to the atorvastatin equivalent dose: none (n=158; 39.8%), standard dose (statin use were 12.0%, 4.5%, and 1.2%. After adjustment, a change in the atorvastatin dose category was associated with reduction in the odds of periprocedural complications for each change in dose category (standard-dose statin: odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.81; high-dose statin: odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.96; P for trend=0.01). Administration of antiplatelet drugs was also an independent factor in periprocedural complications (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.05-0.69). This study shows that statin pretreatment may reduce the incidence of periprocedural complications dose dependently in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenting. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Combination of biological pretreatment with mild acid pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuying; Yang, Na; Xu, Chunyan; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2010-12-01

    The mild acid pretreatment and the combination of biological pretreatment by a white rot fungus Echinodontium taxodii or a brown rot fungus Antrodia sp. 5898 with mild acid pretreatment were evaluated under different pretreatment conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from water hyacinth. The combined pretreatment with E. taxodii (10 days) and 0.25% H(2)SO(4) was proved to be more effective than the sole acid pretreatment. The reducing sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of co-treated water hyacinth increased 1.13-2.11 fold than that of acid-treated water hyacinth at the same conditions. The following study on separate hydrolysis and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the ethanol yield from co-treated water hyacinth achieved 0.192 g/g of dry matter, which increased 1.34-fold than that from acid-treated water hyacinth (0.146 g/g of dry matter). This suggested that the combination of biological and mild acid pretreatment is a promising method to improve enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from water hyacinth with low lignin content. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Theoretical investigation of the formation of basal plane stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Chisato; Ichimura, Aiko [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Ohtani, Noboru, E-mail: ohtani.noboru@kwansei.ac.jp [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Research and Development Center for SiC Materials and Processes, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Katsuno, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Tatsuo; Sato, Shinya; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Yano, Takayuki [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1 Shintomi, Futtsu, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan)

    2016-04-14

    The formation of basal plane stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals was theoretically investigated. A novel theoretical model based on the so-called quantum well action mechanism was proposed; the model considers several factors, which were overlooked in a previously proposed model, and provides a detailed explanation of the annealing-induced formation of double layer Shockley-type stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals. We further revised the model to consider the carrier distribution in the depletion regions adjacent to the stacking fault and successfully explained the shrinkage of stacking faults during annealing at even higher temperatures. The model also succeeded in accounting for the aluminum co-doping effect in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals, in that the stacking fault formation is suppressed when aluminum acceptors are co-doped in the crystals.

  4. [Review and perspective of a long-term follow-up of two cohorts of workers heavily exposed to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, Alain

    2015-01-01

    National screening programs for detection of breast, colon and cervical cancers have been set up in France. Occupational cancers are excluded from these programs. Surveillance is left to the initiative of former employees who can initiate post-professional medical monitoring. This study describes an experience of such monitoring organised by the health insurance in collaboration with "victims". The long term follow-up, every two years, of 324 workers directly and heavily exposed to asbestos confirms the high risk of developing lung cancer, mesothelioma or asbestosis, the latter at times rapidly evolving. The early discovery of 3 bronchopulmonary cancers points to the interest of an annual or biannual routine screening. While new imaging techniques reduce by a factor of 8 irradiation, without significantly affecting the diagnostic capacity, the health benefit provided by annual monitoring scanner in heavy smokers favors an early detection program for lung cancers. The population targeted for such a screening (active or former smoker with pleural plaques) should be defined in more detail. The increasingly frequent observation of lung or pleural changes besides the populations at risk should also be considered. Therefore the detecting procedures applied to those workers indirectly or discontinuously exposed should be reassessed (only 1 TDM at 60 y, or on retirement, for the relevant occupations). These data suggest that the recommendation HAS 2010 for post-professional screening of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos should be reconsidered, particularly in case of pleural plaques. An organized screening program needs to be overhauled.

  5. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Irie

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump. Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3 during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ∼200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2 concentration.

  6. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of Luminous, Heavily Obscured, WISE-Selected Quasars at z ~ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, D.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, Roberto J.

    2014-01-01

    faintly detected by XMM-Newton. A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection. The X-ray data require gas column densities N(H)>1e24 /cm2, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population......We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected AGN at z~2 in a broad X-ray band (0.1 - 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4um (W1) and 4.6um (W2) bands but bright at 12um...... L(sun). The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10)~4e45 erg/s for typical quasar templates. These are amongst the most luminous AGN known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even...

  7. Phytoextraction of Nitrogen and Phosphorus by Crops Grown in a Heavily Manured Dark Brown Chernozem under Contrasting Soil Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agomoh, Ikechukwu; Hao, Xiying; Zvomuya, Francis

    2017-04-25

    Repeated uptake of excess nutrients by crops in soils with a long history of manure application may be a viable option for reducing the nutrient levels. In this greenhouse study, we examined the effectiveness of six 40-day cycles of barley, canola, corn, oat, pea, soybean, and triticale, all grown under two moisture regimes (100% and 50% soil field capacity, SFC), at extracting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from a Dark Brown Chernozem that had received 180 Mg ha(-1) (wet wt.) of beef cattle feedlot manure annually for 38 years. Repeated cropping resulted in an overall decrease in dry matter yield (DMY). The decrease in N and P uptake relative to Cycle 1 was fastest for the cereal grains and less pronounced for the two legumes. However, cumulative N and P uptake values were significantly greater for corn than the other crops under both moisture regimes. The reduction in soil N and P was greater under the 100% than the 50% SFC. These results indicate that repeated cropping can be a useful management practice for reducing N and P in a heavily manured soil. The extent of reduction will be greater for crops with high biomass production under adequate moisture supply.

  8. Evolution of carbon distribution and mechanical properties during the static strain ageing of heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS – UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr [Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS – UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Kléber, X. [Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS – UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2016-06-14

    The static strain ageing of heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires was investigated using both global techniques and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography (APT)), in order to highlight how the cold-drawn destabilized microstructure returns to a more stable state during post-drawing treatments between 20 °C and 150 °C. The global techniques (thermoelectric power, differential scanning calorimetry) clearly showed that ageing occurs in three successive ageing stages and is due to a redistribution of the carbon atoms coming from the strain-induced cementite dissolution. The first ageing stage was unambiguously attributed to the carbon segregation to the defects, while the second and third stages were interpreted as being due to the precipitation of intermediate carbides (2nd stage) and cementite (3rd stage). The true strain was not found to significantly affect the ageing kinetics and mechanisms but appeared to play a role in the amount of carbon atoms involved in the different ageing stages. APT analyses confirmed that ageing is governed by the carbon depletion of strain-induced supersaturated ferrite. The strengthening mechanisms associated with the different ageing stages were also discussed.

  9. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Takahiro; Bessho, Kazuhiro; Findlay, Helen S; Calosi, Piero

    2010-10-15

    Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump). Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith) serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3) during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ∼200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration.

  10. Miscellaneous additives can enhance plant uptake and affect geochemical fractions of copper in a heavily polluted riparian grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M

    2015-09-01

    The problem of copper (Cu) pollution in riverine ecosystems is world-wide and has significant environmental, eco-toxicological, and agricultural relevance. We assessed the suitability and effectiveness of application rate of 1% of activated charcoal, bentonite, biochar, cement kiln dust, chitosan, coal fly ash, limestone, nano-hydroxyapatite, organo-clay, sugar beet factory lime, and zeolite as soil amendments together with rapeseed as bioenergy crop as a possible remediation option for a heavily Cu polluted floodplain soil (total Cu=3041.9mgkg(-1)) that has a very high proportion of sorbed/carbonate fraction (484.6mgkg(-1)) and potential mobile fraction of Cu (1611.9mgkg(-1)). Application changed distribution of Cu among geochemical fractions: alkaline materials lead to increased carbonate bounded fraction and the acid rhizosphere zone might cause release of this Cu. Thus, mobilization of Cu and uptake of Cu by rapeseed were increased compared to the control (except for organo-clay) under the prevailing conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breakdown of single spin-fluid model in the heavily hole-doped superconductor CsFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Li, S. J.; Wang, N. Z.; Li, J.; Song, D. W.; Zheng, L. X.; Nie, L. P.; Luo, X. G.; Wu, T.; Chen, X. H.

    2018-01-01

    Although Fe-based superconductors are correlated electronic systems with multiorbital, previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement suggests that a single spin-fluid model is sufficient to describe its spin behavior. Here, we first observed the breakdown of single spin-fluid model in a heavily hole-doped Fe-based superconductor CsFe2As2 by site-selective NMR measurement. At high-temperature regime, both Knight shift and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation at 133Cs and 75As nuclei exhibit distinct temperature-dependent behavior, suggesting the breakdown of the single spin-fluid model in CsFe2As2 . This is ascribed to the coexistence of both localized and itinerant spin degree of freedom at 3 d orbitals, which is consistent with the orbital-selective Mott phase. With decreasing temperature, the single spin-fluid behavior is recovered below T*˜75 K due to a coherent state among 3 d orbitals. The Kondo liquid scenario is proposed to understand the low-temperature coherent state.

  12. The association of pre-treatment HPV subtypes with recurrence of VIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Taverna, Francesca; Lombardo, Claudia; Chiappa, Valentina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Recalcati, Dario; Scaffa, Cono; Perotto, Stefania; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Indini, Alice; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    To assess whether pre-treatment HPV types are associated with recurrence of high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN2+). Data of consecutive patients with pretreatment HPV DNA test undergoing treatment for VIN2+ were retrospectively collected. Risk factors promoting the risk of VIN2+ persistence and recurrence were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard proportional models. 64 patients had pretreatment vulvar-vaginal HPV DNA test. Two were excluded due to the presence of synchronous vulvar cancer, thus leaving 62 patients for the final analysis. HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 were the most common HPV genotype detected, occurring in 15 (24.2%), 4 (6.5%), 8 (12.9%) and 5 (8.0%) patients, respectively. HPV was not detected in 19 (30.6%) patients. During a mean (SD) follow up of 56.7 (±26.7) months, 10 (16.1%) patients had VIN2+ persistence/recurrence. Mean (SD) lesion-free interval was 51.7 (±31.4) months. Via multivariate analysis, pretreatment infection from HPV31 (HR:46.7(95%CI:4.21,518.4); p=0.02) and HPV33 (HR:77.0(95%CI:6.73,881.9); pVIN2+ persistence/recurrence. Additionally, we observed that patients undergoing surgical excision followed by LASER ablation experienced a trend towards lower recurrence rate than patients undergoing other surgical or medical treatments (HR:0.20(95%CI:0.03,1.09); p=0.05). Two (3.2%) patients developed progression to vulvar cancer. Owing to the inherent biases of the retrospective study design and the small sample size, our data have to be corroborated by larger and prospective studies. HPV31 and HPV33 have a potential role in predicting VIN2+ persistence/recurrence. These findings will be paramount, owing to the implementation of new immunization programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemoradiation of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: impact of pretreatment hemoglobin level on patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganti, A.G.; Macchia, G. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Forni, F. [Dept. of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Valentini, V.; Smaniotto, D.; Trodella, L.; Balducci, M.; Cellini, N. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2003-02-01

    Aim: To evaluate, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma undergoing concomitant chemoradiation, the impact of pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) concentration on the outcome in terms of clinical response, local control, metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Patients and Methods: 30 patients undergoing concomitant chemoradiation (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/day, continuous i.v. infusion days 1-4 of radiotherapy) and external beam radiotherapy (50.4-59.4 Gy) were divided into two groups based on pretreatment median Hb value (11.5 g/dl). The potential prognostic factors examined besides Hb concentration were: tumor site (head vs body-tail), sex (female vs male), cN (cN0 vs cN1), dose of external beam radiotherapy (50.4 Gy vs 59.4 Gy), presence of jaundice at diagnosis (yes vs no), weight loss at diagnosis ({>=} 5 kg vs < 5 kg), epigastric-lumbar pain at diagnosis (yes vs no), maximum tumor diameter (< 40 mm vs {>=} 40 mm). Results: Pretreatment Hb ranged between 9.6 and 15.0 g/dl. No statistically significant differences were observed as for clinical response and local control between patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 g/dl and those with an Hb > 11.5 g/dl. Metastasis-free survival was 5.1 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 g/dl and 10.7 months in patients with an Hb > 11.5 g/dl (p = 0.010). Median actuarial disease-free survival was 5.1 and 10.2 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 and > 11.5 g/dl, respectively (p = 0.026). Median actuarial overall survival was 7.5 and 10.3 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 and > 11.5 g/dl, respectively (p = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, Hb concentration at diagnosis was the only factor prognostically correlated with metastasis-free survival (p = 0.026), disease-free survival (p = 0.032), and overall survival (p = 0.048). Conclusion: In a group of patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma treated with chemoradiation, a significant correlation was observed

  14. Clinical utility and patient consideration in the use of lenalidomide for multiple myeloma in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang, Hongfeng Guo, Xin Zhou Department of Hematology, Wuxi People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM is an incurable hematologic malignancy caused by the autonomous growth of malignant plasma cells. In the last decade, the introduction of novel targeted agents such as thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide has dramatically improved the clinical outcome of MM patients in both the frontline and recurrent settings. Lenalidomide is a synthetic derivative of thalidomide, which has been shown to significantly improve overall survival, time to progression, and overall response rates in patients with MM. The China Food and Drug Administration approved the use of lenalidomide in patients with MM in 2013. In a Phase II trial, lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone was associated with a high response rate and acceptable safety profile in heavily pretreated Chinese patients with relapsed/refractory MM, including those with renal impairment and IgD subtype. However, lenalidomide will remain as a second-line antimyeloma drug in the near future because of its high price and the policy of health insurance reimbursement in People’s Republic of China. In this review, we summarize the clinical utility and patient considerations in the use of lenalidomide for MM in Chinese patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to investigate the better quality, longer duration, and more clinically meaningful outcomes of lenalidomide in the treatment of MM in Chinese patients. Keywords: lenalidomide, multiple myeloma, clinical efficacy, Chinese patients

  15. Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pretreatment of microalgae to improve biogas production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Uggetti, Enrica; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Pretreatments in Convective Dehydration of Rosehip (Rosa eglanteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mabellini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to experimentally determine drying curves for thin layer and bed drying of rosehip fruits, with and without pretreatments, to reduce processing times as a function of drying air operating variables, to propose dehydration kinetics of fruits and to determine its kinetic parameters for further use within drying simulation software. Fruits were pre-treated both chemically and mechanically, which included dipping the fruits in NaOH and ethyl oleate solutions; and cutting or perforating the fruit cuticle, respectively. Simulation models were then adopted to fit the kinetics drying data considering fruit volume shrinkage. These simple models minimized the calculation time during the simulation of deep-bed driers. Results show that pre-treatments reduced processing times up to 57%, and evaluated models satisfactorily predicted the drying of rosehip fruit. Effective mass diffusion coefficients were up to 4-fold greater when fruit was submitted to mechanical pretreatments.

  18. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on emulsion polymerization of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Daichi; Horie, Takafumi; Hongo, Chizuru; Ohmura, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of pretreatment of ultrasonic irradiation on emulsion polymerization of styrene to propose a process intensification method which gives high conversion, high reaction rate, and high energy efficiency. The solution containing styrene monomer was irradiated by a horn mounted on the ultrasonic transducer with the diameter of 5mm diameter and the frequency of 28 kHz before starting polymerization. The pretreatment of ultrasound irradiation as short as 1 min drastically improved monomer dispersion and increased reaction rate even under the agitation condition with low rotational speed of impeller. Furthermore, the ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in higher monomer concentration in polymer particles and produced larger polymer particles than conventional polymerization without ultrasonic pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  20. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods......, based on severe physio-chemical processes, are effective, however, they are also costly and energy demanding. An alternative biological pretreatment method, based on the well-known biomass preservation of ensiling, has been proposed. Ensiling holds potential as an integrated storage and pretreatment...... was devoted to method development. This resulted in the development of a simple and flexible standard method forlaboratory ensilingwith a high reproducibility,which is well suited for high-throughput experiments.   A comprehensive study on important parameters in ensiling was conducted to find optimal...

  1. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have as a

  2. 40 CFR 417.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  3. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  4. 40 CFR 417.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  5. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1943-03-29

    Bituminous coal became plastic at certain temperature ranges and swelled, causing plugging of preheater tubes. With few exceptions, this problem was encountered only when hydrogenating bituminous coal. This swelling often appeared in the coking of coals, and for the majority of the cases it was found that efforts to reduce the baking ability of bituminous coal also reduced the swelling of coal paste in the preheater tubes. Three methods of pretreatment to reduce swelling were preheating, oxidation (anoxidation), and sulfur treatment. The preheating by hot nitrogen at 250 atm for 3 hours showed no improvement in swelling characteristics, but produced a greater asphalt content and a lower amount of gasification. Absorption of oxygen was shown to increase the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in a vacuum showed no effects. Oxidation (anoxidation) increased the splitting and gasification and gave higher asphalt content. The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by addition of 2.5% sulfur and heating for 1/sup 1///sub 2/ hours at 110/sup 0/C, in a stream of H/sub 2/S. The volatile content dropped significantly when the same coal was heated to 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. When neutralized Saar coal was dried under a stream of H/sub 2/S, only slight deterioration of the yield was noted with equal degree of gasification. It was concluded that a more or less distinct improvement would be observed from the absorption of sulfur, but that residue processing would have to be altered to account for the sulfur content.

  6. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Interaction of Solvents and Mechanical Pretreatment with Enzymatic Lignocellulose Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yumei

    2017-01-01

    Renewable plant biomass is considered as an alternative raw material for the production of fuels and chemicals instead of decreasing fossil resources. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic material to produce high sugar concentrations is one important step in a bio-refinery process, and can be operated under moderate conditions without by-products. However, the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis is hindered by lignocellulose recalcitrance. Therefore, pretreatments of the biom...

  8. Experimental intracerebral haemorrhage: the effect of nimodipine pretreatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinar, E J; Mendelow, A D; Graham, D I; Teasdale, G M

    1988-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with the calcium antagonist nimodipine on the pathophysiological events which follow an intracerebral haemorrhage in rats was compared with a similar control group. Cerebral blood flow was higher and the amount of pathologically determined ischaemic damage measured by light microscopy was less in the nimodipine pretreated group. Bloodbrain barrier permeability was increased in the nimodipine group, but there was no evidence of cerebral oedema. Nimodipine appeared to...

  9. EFFECTS OF PRETREATMENTS ON CALCIUM ACCUMULATION ONTO GAC

    OpenAIRE

    Miño, Esteban R.; Okuda, Tetsuji; NISHIJIMA, Wataru; OKADA, Mitsumasa

    2007-01-01

    The effect of coagulation and ozonation as pretreatments for granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration on calcium accumulation onto GAC was studied. Three kinds of FA solutions extracted from commercial leaf mold for horticulture were used: FA itself, FA after coagulation (FA-c) and FA after ozonation (FA-oz). Coagulation used as pretreatment before GAC filtration significantly decreased calcium accumulation onto GAC while ozonation caused a small increase on calcium accumulation onto GA...

  10. Sulfite (SPORL) pretreatment of switchgrass for enzymatic saccharification

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Zhang; Q. Yang; J.Y. Zhu; X.J. Pan

    2013-01-01

    SPORL (Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocellulose) pretreatment was applied to switchgrass and optimized through an experimental design using Response Surface Methodology within the range of temperature (163–197 °C), time (3–37 min), sulfuric acid dosage (0.8–4.2% on switchgrass), and sodium sulfite dosage (0.6–7.4% on switchgrass)....

  11. The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Giora Rytwo

    2012-01-01

    Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges (“coagulation”) and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregate...

  12. Novalis intensity-modulated radiosurgery: methods for pretreatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Randy L; Wendland, Merideth M; Chern, Shyh-Shi; Shrieve, Dennis C

    2008-05-01

    doses of 7.7 to 20.64 Gy were possible with the dynamic conformal arc plans without exceeding 8 Gy to the optic apparatus. IMRS allowed maximum doses of 20 to 31 Gy using the same optic apparatus dose restriction. No complications have occurred, and all tumors have remained stable since treatment (mean follow-up period, 30 mo). We believe this pretreatment technique streamlines the process for IMRS, allowing for better patient comfort and efficient physician time use.

  13. Influence of pretreatment of cotton yarns prior to biopolishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulson de Souza, A A; Ferreira, F C S; Guelli U Souza, S M A

    2013-04-02

    Cellulase is one of the enzymes most commonly used in the textile industry for the biopolishing process. The appropriate choice of pretreatment is a possible route to promoting enzymatic attack in situations in which this is not favored due to the effects of packing. In order to evaluate the influence of pretreatment the yarn was maintained in water for 24h before biopolishing to promote greater spacing between the chains. In the tensile testing the pretreated Combed 13/1 yarn showed a greater percentage reduction in the maximum breaking force following biopolishing, evidencing a stronger enzymatic attack. Also, the Combed 13/1 and OE 14/1 yarns without pretreatment had an approximately 22% reduction in the shrinkage and after pretreatment the Carded 13/1 yarn had the best shrinkage reduction values (18%). These data demonstrate that the introduction of the pretreatment promotes a change in the access of the enzyme to the fiber. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New prospects in pretreatment of cotton fabrics using microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, M; Taleb, M Abou; El-Shall, F N; Haggag, K

    2014-03-15

    As microwaves are known to give fast and rapid volume heating, the present study is undertaken to investigate the use of microwave heating for pretreatment cotton fabrics to reduce the pretreatment time, chemicals and water. The onset of the microwave heating technique on the physicochemical and performance properties of desized, scoured and bleached cotton fabric is elucidated and compared with those obtained on using conventional thermal heating. Combined one-step process for desizing, scouring and bleaching of cotton fabric under microwave heating was also investigated. The dual effect of adding urea, (as microwave absorber and hydrogen peroxide activator) has been exploiting to accelerate the pretreatment reaction of cotton fabric. DSC, FT-IR and SEM have been used to investigate the onset of microwave on the morphological and chemical change of cotton cellulose after pretreatment and bleaching under microwave heating. Results obtained show that, a complete fabric preparation was obtained in just 5 min on using microwave in pretreatments process and the fabric properties were comparable to those obtained in traditional pretreatment process which requires 2.5-3h for completion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of detonation wave incidence angle on the acceleration of flyers by explosives heavily laden with inert additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Jason; Georges, William; Frost, David L.; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence angle of a detonation wave in a conventional high explosive influences the acceleration and terminal velocity of a metal flyer by increasing the magnitude of the material velocity imparted by the transmitted shock wave as the detonation is tilted towards normal loading. For non-ideal explosives heavily loaded with inert additives, the detonation velocity is typically subsonic relative to the flyer sound speed, leading to shockless accelerations when the detonation is grazing. Further, in a grazing detonation the particles are initially accelerated in the direction of the detonation and only gain velocity normal to the initial orientation of the flyer at later times due to aerodynamic drag as the detonation products expand. If the detonation wave in a non-ideal explosive instead strikes the flyer at normal incidence, a shock is transmitted into the flyer and the first interaction between the particle additives and the flyer occurs due to the imparted material velocity from the passage of the detonation wave. Consequently, the effect of incidence angle and additive properties may play a more prominent role in the flyer acceleration. In the present study we experimentally compared normal detonation loadings to grazing loadings using a 3-mm-thick aluminum slapper to impact-initiate a planar detonation wave in non-ideal explosive-particle admixtures, which subsequently accelerated a second 6.4-mm-thick flyer. Flyer acceleration was measured with heterodyne laser velocimetry (PDV). The explosive mixtures considered were packed beds of glass or steel particles of varying sizes saturated with sensitized nitromethane, and gelled nitromethane mixed with glass microballoons. Results showed that the primary parameter controlling changes in flyer velocity was the presence of a transmitted shock, with additive density and particle size playing only secondary roles. These results are similar to the grazing detonation experiments, however under normal loading the

  16. Correlating microbial community profiles with geochemical conditions in a watershed heavily contaminated by an antimony tailing pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Tang, Song; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Lan, Xiaolong; Sun, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    Mining activities have introduced various pollutants to surrounding aquatic and terrestrial environments, causing adverse impacts to the environment. Indigenous microbial communities are responsible for the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants in diverse environments, indicating the potential for bioremediation of such pollutants. Antimony (Sb) has been extensively mined in China and Sb contamination in mining areas has been frequently encountered. To date, however, the microbial composition and structure in response to Sb contamination has remained overlooked. Sb and As frequently co-occur in sulfide-rich ores, and co-contamination of Sb and As is observed in some mining areas. We characterized, for the first time, the microbial community profiles and their responses to Sb and As pollution from a watershed heavily contaminated by Sb tailing pond in Southwest China. The indigenous microbial communities were profiled by high-throughput sequencing from 16 sediment samples (535,390 valid reads). The comprehensive geochemical data (specifically, physical-chemical properties and different Sb and As extraction fractions) were obtained from river water and sediments at different depths as well. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that a suite of in situ geochemical and physical factors significantly structured the overall microbial community compositions. Further, we found significant correlations between individual phylotypes (bacterial genera) and the geochemical fractions of Sb and As by Spearman rank correlation. A number of taxonomic groups were positively correlated with the Sb and As extractable fractions and various Sb and As species in sediment, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in Sb biogeochemical cycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We caution

  18. Effects of distance from a heavily transited avenue on asthma and atopy in a periurban shantytown in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Lauren M; Robinson, Colin L; Combe, Juan M; Gomez, Alfonso; Romero, Karina; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Hansel, Nadia N; Wise, Robert A; Breysse, Patrick N; Barnes, Kathleen; Hernandez, Juan E; Checkley, William

    2011-04-01

    Proximity to roadways increases the risk of asthma in developed countries; however, relatively little is known about this relationship in developing countries, where rapid and uncontrolled growth of cities has resulted in urban sprawl and heavy traffic volumes. We sought to determine the effect of distance from a heavily transited avenue on asthma symptoms and quantitative respiratory outcome measures in a periurban shantytown in Lima, Peru. We enrolled 725 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years who were administered a survey on asthma symptoms and measured spirometry, response to allergy skin testing, and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). We calculated distances from the main avenue for all households and measured indoor particulate matter in 100 households. We used multivariable regression to model the risk of asthma symptoms, risk of atopy, eNO levels, and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity ratio as a function of distance. Compared against 384 meters, the odds of current asthma symptoms in households living within 100 meters increased by a factor of 2 (P atopy increased by a factor of 1.07 for every 100-meter difference in the distance from the avenue (P = .03). We found an inverse relationship in prebronchodilator FEV(1)/forced vital capacity and distance to the avenue in female subjects (P = .01) but not in male subjects. We did not find an association between eNO or household particulate matter levels and distance. Living in close proximity to a high-traffic-density avenue in a periurban community in Peru was associated with a greater risk of asthma symptoms and atopy. Regulation of mobile-source pollutants in periurban areas of developing countries might help reduce the burden of asthma symptoms and atopy. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Community level offset of rain use- and transpiration efficiency for a heavily grazed ecosystem in inner Mongolia grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Z Gao

    Full Text Available Water use efficiency (WUE is a key indicator to assess ecosystem adaptation to water stress. Rain use efficiency (RUE is usually used as a proxy for WUE due to lack of transpiration data. Furthermore, RUE based on aboveground primary productivity (RUEANPP is used to evaluate whole plant water use because root production data is often missing as well. However, it is controversial as to whether RUE is a reliable parameter to elucidate transpiration efficiency (TE, and whether RUEANPP is a suitable proxy for RUE of the whole plant basis. The experiment was conducted at three differently managed sites in the Inner Mongolia steppe: a site fenced since 1979 (UG79, a winter grazing site (WG and a heavily grazed site (HG. Site HG had consistent lowest RUEANPP and RUE based on total net primary productivity (RUENPP. RUEANPP is a relatively good proxy at sites UG79 and WG, but less reliable for site HG. Similarly, RUEANPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on aboveground net primary productivity (TEANPP at sites UG79 and WG but not for site HG. However, if total net primary productivity is considered, RUENPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on total net primary productivity (TENPP for all sites. Although our measurements indicate decreased plant transpiration and consequentially decreasing RUE under heavy grazing, productivity was relatively compensated for with a higher TE. This offset between RUE and TE was even enhanced under water limited conditions and more evident when belowground net primary productivity (BNNP was included. These findings suggest that BNPP should be considered when studies fucus on WUE of more intensively used grasslands. The consideration of the whole plant perspective and "real" WUE would partially revise our picture of system performance and therefore might affect the discussion on the C-sequestration and resilience potential of ecosystems.

  20. [Speciation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from the Heavily Polluted Area of Xiaoqing River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Yong-xia; Gao, Fu-wei; Xu, Min-min; Sun, Bo; Wang, Ning; Yang, Jian

    2015-06-01

    Th concentrations of Cu, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni in interstitial water were analyzed by ICP-MS from the heavily polluted area of Xiaoqing River. A modified BCR's sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the fraction of the heavy metals in the surface sediments. The aquatic toxicity of heavy metals in interstitial water was assessed by US Water Quality Criteria (CCC, CMC). Based on the speciation of the metals in the surface sediments, the ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed with methods of risk assessment code (RAC) and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that: The tested heavy metals would not pose chronic toxicity for aquatic ecosystem. The contents of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) in the surface sediments were higher than the background values of the local soils, indicating enrichment of heavy metals. Cu, As and Ni were mainly composed with residual fractions, Pb and Cr were mainly constituted of residual and oxidizable fractions, and mass fractions of Zn and Cd existed mainly in acid soluble and reducible factions. The contents of bio-available fractions of Cd, Zn, Cr and Pb in the sediments were higher those of residual fractions, indicating high potential for secondary release. Based on calculation of RAC method, Cu, Pb, Cr and As posed extremely low to low risk to the environment. Accordingly, Ni was of low to medium risk, Cd was of medium to high risk, and Zn was of medium to extremely high risk to the environment. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the sediments was in the descending order of Cd > Zn > Ni > As > Cu > Cr > Pb. Cd had high to very high potential ecological risk comparing with the other heavy metals. The potential ecological risk indexes (RI) of the heavy metals in the sediments were in the range of 136.83-264.83, and posed medium to high potential ecological risks for Xiaoqing River.

  1. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  2. The Nature of the Torus in the Heavily Obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-Ray Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.; Arevalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S.E; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMMNewton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probed by our campaign, down to a few days. The observed continuum variability is due to an intrinsically variable primary continuum seen in transmission through a large, but still Compton-thin column density (N(sub H) approx. 0.8-1.1 x 10(exp 24)/sq cm). If arranged in a spherical-toroidal geometry, the Compton scattering matter has an opening angle approx. 66deg, and is seen at a grazing angle through its upper rim (inclination angle approx. 70deg). We report a possible occultation event during the 2014 campaign. If the torus is constituted by a system of clouds sharing the same column density, this event allows us to constrain their number (17 +/- 5) and individual column density, [approx. (4.9 +/- 1.5) x 10(exp 22)/ sq cm]. The comparison of IR and X-ray spectroscopic results with state-of-the art torus models suggests that at least two-thirds of the X-ray obscuring gas volume might be located within the dust sublimation radius. We report also the discovery of an ionized absorber, characterized by variable resonant absorption lines due to He- and H-like iron. This discovery lends support to the idea that moderate column density absorbers could be due to clouds evaporated at the outer surface of the torus, possibly accelerated by the radiation pressure due to the central AGN emission leaking through the patchy absorber.

  3. Single-polarization optical low-noise pre-amplified receiver for heavily coded optical communications links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jeffrey M.; Masurkar, Amrita; Scalesse, Vincent; Minch, Jeffrey R.; Walther, Frederick G.; Savage, Shelby J.; Ulmer, Todd G.

    2015-03-01

    We report a single-polarization, optical low-noise pre-amplfier (SP-OLNA) that enhances the receiver sensitivity of heavily-coded 1.55-μm optical communication links. At channel bit-error ratios of approximately 10%, the erbium-doped SP-OLNA provides an approximately 1.0-dB receiver sensitivity enhancement over a conventional two-polarization pre-amplfier. The SP-OLNA includes three gain stages, each followed by narrow-band athermal fiber Bragg gratings. This cascaded fiter is matched to a return-to-zero, 2.88-Gb/s, variable burst-mode, differential phase shift keying (DPSK) waveform. The SP-OLNA enhancement of approximately 1.0 dB is demonstrated over a range of data rates, from the full 2.88-Gb/s (non-burst) data rate, down to a 1/40th burst rate (72 Mb/s). The SP-OLNA'sfirst stage of ampli_cation is a single-polarization gain block constructed from polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber components, PM erbium gain fiber, and a PM integrated pump coupler and polarizer. This first stage sets the SP-OLNA's noise figure, measured at 3.4 dB. Two subsequent non-PM gain stages allow the SP-OLNA to provide an overall gain of 78 dB to drive a DPSK demodulator receiver. This receiver is comprised of a delay-line interferometer and balanced photo-receiver. The SP-OLNA is packaged into a compact, 5"x7"x1.6" volume, which includes an electronic digital interface to control and monitor pump lasers, optical switches, and power monitors.

  4. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Zengel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control, as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by

  5. Subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects (SUSHI) for selective visualization of peripheral nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Niwa, Tetsu; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare, Asia Pacific, Tokyo (Japan); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called ''subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects'' (SUSHI). Six volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) of the brachial plexus, and seven volunteers underwent DW-MRN of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee, at 1.5 T. DW-MRN images with SUSHI (DW-MRN{sub SUSHI}) and conventional DW-MRN images (DW-MRN{sub AP}) were displayed using a coronal maximum intensity projection and evaluated by two independent observers regarding signal suppression of lymph nodes, bone marrow, veins, and articular fluids and regarding signal intensity of nerves and ganglia, using five-point grading scales. Scores of DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} were compared to those of DW-MRN{sub AP} using Wilcoxon tests. Suppression of lymph nodes around the brachial plexus and suppression of articular fluids at the level of the knee at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was significantly better than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). However, overall signal intensity of brachial plexus nerves and ganglia at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was significantly lower than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). On the other hand, signal intensity of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was judged as significantly better than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). The SUSHI technique allows more selective visualization of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee but is less useful for brachial plexus imaging because signal intensity of the brachial plexus nerves and ganglia can considerably be decreased. (orig.)

  6. Hydraulic, Vegetation and Water Quality Characteristics of Heavily Vegetated Groundwater-Fed Ditches in a Riparian Peatland in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, M.; Olson, M. S.; Trepel, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Environmental Ministry of Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany) has implemented a novel peatland management strategy in order to use the high nutrient retention potential of degenerated wetlands and peatlands, and to improve the habitat conditions at the same time. The effect of raised water levels and passive land use management on hydraulic properties and water quality of heavily vegetated and groundwater-fed ditches at one nationally important wetland case study at the Eider River valley was investigated. Most ditches in the Eider River valley were small and overgrown. The flow properties of selected ditches were regularly assessed at different discharge levels during different vegetation cover periods. The hydraulic residence is predominantly a function of the ditch geometry and overall obstruction cover including the presence of macrophytes. Vegetation cover and other hydraulic obstructions such as accumulated silt and organic debris slow down the hydraulic residence time and lead to a change in the water quality along the ditch. Experimental results were evaluated to get more realistic values for total bed-roughness and pollution loading under different hydraulic flow regimes. The total-roughness Km values of both vegetated and excavated ditch stretches were about 1 and 10, respectively. However, Km is actually a crude "fudge factor" depending predominantly on the hydraulic radius rather than on the total-roughness. This is in contrast to the theory presented in the literature. The biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations of 24 ditches were analyzed. Mean biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and ortho-phosphate concentrations were 6.0 (+/-2.74), 0.2 (+/-0.44), 0.0 (+/-0.02), 1.6 (+/-2.04) and 0.0 (+/-0.02) mg/L, respectively. Elevated biochemical oxygen demand and nitrate concentrations for upstream ditch cross-sections were apparent.

  7. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production : technology and energy consumption evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed...

  8. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Xuejun Pan; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny

    2010-01-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the...

  9. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Tobias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. Results U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on

  10. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Tobias; Milker, Sofia; Jäger, Gernot; Grande, Philipp M; Domínguez de María, Pablo; Büchs, Jochen

    2012-04-05

    In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like) in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on the hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood

  11. NuSTAR J033202-2746.8: direct constraints on the Compton reflection in a heavily obscured quasar at z ≈ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Moro, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Alexander, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, a heavily obscured, radio-loud quasar detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, the deepest layer of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey (∼400 ks, at its deepest). NuSTAR J033202-2746.8 is reliabl...

  12. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  13. Effects of music listening on pre-treatment anxiety and stress levels in a dental hygiene recall population

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Myriam V.; Zemp, Martina; Kreienbühl, Lea; Hofer, Deborah; Schmidlin, Patrick R.; Attin, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Waiting for a medical procedure can exert significant feelings of state anxiety in patients. Music listening has been shown to be effective in decreasing anxiety levels. No study so far examined the potential anxiety and stress-reducing effect of a music intervention on pre-treatment anxiety and stress in patients waiting for dental hygiene treatment. Knowing whether the anxiety-reducing effect of music would also be detectible in the context of preventive routine medical procedur...

  14. White-rot fungi pretreatment combined with alkaline/oxidative pretreatment to improve enzymatic saccharification of industrial hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunliang; Gong, Wenbing; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Zuohua; Yan, Li; Hu, Zhenxiu; Peng, Yuande

    2017-11-01

    White-rot fungi combined with alkaline/oxidative (A/O) pretreatments of industrial hemp woody core were proposed to improve enzymatic saccharification. In this study, hemp woody core were treated with only white rot fungi, only A/O and combined with the two methods. The results showed that Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) was the most effective fungus for pretreatment. Reducing sugars yield was 329mg/g with 30 Filter Paper Unit (FPU)/g cellulase loading when treated 21day. In the A/O groups, the results showed that when treated with 3% NaOH and 3% H2O2, the yield of reducing sugars was 288mg/g with 30FPU/g cellulase loading. After combination pretreatment with P. eryngii and A/O pretreatment, the reducing sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of combined sample increased 1.10-1.29-fold than that of bio-treated or A/O pretreatment sample at the same conditions, suggesting that P. eryngii combined with A/O pretreatment was an effective method to improve enzyme hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Successful treatment of pulmonary candidiasis and aspergillosis in patient with refractory Hodgkin lymphoma using micafungin – case study and brief literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barańska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of patients with hematological malignancies who develop invasive fungal disease (IFD has increased dramatically in recent decades. This increase is attributed to impairment of the host immune system due to intensive cytotoxic chemotherapies, use of corticosteroids and profound immunosuppression after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Additionally, the increasing prevalence of fungal infections caused by emerging and rare pathogens, IFD of mixed etiology or of atypical localization is observed. There are also much more patients with IFD who do not belong to a well-described risk group, like patient with lymphoproliferative disorders. Within this heterogeneous group of patients, IFD epidemiology is not well defined and antifungal prophylaxis practices vary. The aim of this paper is to present the case of a 58-year-old patient with refractory Hodgkin disease, focusing on infectious complication after subsequent lines of chemotherapy. During deep and prolonged neutropaenia the patient developed symptoms of pneumonia. Despite antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole, IFD of mixed etiology with the presence of Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus was diagnosed. The infection showed a poor response to monotherapy with liposomal amphotericin B, but was successfully treated with therapy involving micafungin. Analysis of the presented case demonstrated the necessity of new approaches to the prevention of IFD in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders heavily pretreated with numerous chemotherapy protocols. Prolonged neutropenia and high corticosteroid exposure put these patients in high risk of IFD like patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome or after allogeneic HSCT.

  16. Phase I trial of the androgen receptor modulator CR1447 in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zweifel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available CR1447 (4-hydroxytestosterone, 4-OHT binds to the androgen receptor and has antiproliferative activity in both ER-positive and ER-negative/AR-positive breast cancer cells in preclinical studies. The objective of this first-in man trial was to evaluate the safety and to determine the dose of CR1447, administered as an ointment, for Phase II. Escalating doses (100, 200, 400 mg of CR1447 were administered topically on a daily basis to patients with ER-positive/AR-positive/HER2-negative advanced breast cancer pretreated with several lines of therapy. 14 patients have been treated for a total of 42 cycles. Two patients, one at dose level 100 mg and one at dose level 200 mg, showed early tumour progression and were replaced. Related adverse events were all ≤ grade 2 and included fatigue, bone and joint pain, stiffness, dry skin and mouth, nausea, sweating, urinary tract infection, rash, headache and distress. No drug-related dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs were seen. Two patients (17% achieved stable disease at 3 months. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed dose-dependent transdermal uptake of CR1447. 4-OH-androstenedione (4-OHA, a key metabolite of 4-OHT, was undetectable in most of the plasma samples. Urine metabolites of 4-OHT and 4-OHA indicate high exposure of 4-OHT after topical administration. Oestradiol serum concentrations did not increase, confirming preclinical data that CR1447 is not converted to estrogens in vivo. In conclusion, CR1447 administered transdermally as an ointment is well tolerated and appears to have single-agent activity in heavily pretreated ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer patients. The recommended phase II dose is 400 mg/day.

  17. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... C for 10 min. The maximal enzymatic glucose and xylose yields from the solid, pretreated wheat straw fraction were obtained after pretreatments at the most extreme pH values (pH 1 or pH 13) at the maximum pretreatment temperature of 140 degrees C. Surface response models revealed significantly...... correlating interactions of the pretreatment pH and temperature on the enzymatic liberation of both glucose and xylose from pretreated, solid wheat straw. The influence of temperature was most pronounced with the acidic pretreatments, but the highest enzymatic monosaccharide yields were obtained after...

  18. Mobility and Device Applications of Heavily Doped Silicon and Strained SILICON(1-X) Germanium(x) Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carns, Timothy Keith

    With the advent of Si molecular beam epitaxy (Si -MBE), a significant amount of research has occurred to seek alternative high conductivity Si-based materials such as rm Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x} and delta-doped Si. These materials have brought improvements in device speeds and current drives with the added advantage of monolithic integration into Si VLSI circuits. The bulk of research in Si-based materials has been devoted to the implementation of strained rm Si_{1-x}Ge_{x} as the base layer of a rm Si_ {1-x}Ge_{x}/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Because of the valence band offset, the rm Si_{1-x}Ge _{x} layer can be heavily doped, leading to lower base sheet resistances and hence, improved speed performances. The Ge content in the base can also be graded to increase the drift field in the base. However, very few hole mobility measurements have been done in these strained layers, leading to limitations in device modeling and in understanding the transport behavior in this important material. In addition to rm Si_{1 -x}Ge_{x}, much potential also exists in using delta-doping in Si for improved conductivities over those of bulk Si. However, as of yet, delta-doped Si has received little attention. Therefore, this dissertation is dedicated to the investigation of both of these Si-based materials (strained rm Si_{1-x}Ge_{x } and delta-doped Si and rm Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x}) for the purpose of obtaining higher conductivities than comparably doped bulk Si. This work is divided into three parts to accomplish this objective. The first part is contained in Chapter 3 and is comprised of a comprehensive characterization of the hole mobility in compressively strained rm Si_{1 -x}Ge_{x}. Few results have been obtained prior to this research which has led to many inaccuracies in device modeling. The second part of this dissertation in Chapters 4 and 5 is devoted to the study of the mobility behavior in both boron and antimony delta-doped Si and rm Si_ {1-x}Ge_{x}. The important

  19. Investigation of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) of Heavily Boron Doped Superconductive Diamond for Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Delroy Earl

    ABSTRACT Diamond has a wide bandgap of 5.47 eV at room temperature and is the hardest known naturally occurring material with a Knoop hardness of 10,400 kg/mm2 or 10 on the Mohs scale [1]. Due to the structure of the covalent bonding of its carbon atoms, diamond is extremely strong having each carbon atom bonded to four neighboring carbon atoms. Although diamond is hard, its toughness, when compared to most engineering materials, is poor. However, because of its hardness, it can be used as an efficient cutting and drilling tool. With the exception of naturally occurring blue diamonds, which are semiconductors, diamond is a good electrical insulator. However, unlike most insulators, diamond has the highest thermal conductivity of 22 W/cm-K [1, 2] among naturally occurring materials. Although diamond is a good electrical insulator, it also shows semiconducting properties when doped with impurities. When diamond is heavily doped with boron the resulting material possess excess holes and as such it is classified as a p-type material. If excess boron doping is achieved, then the resulting material is found to behave like a superconductor at very low temperatures. In this superconducting state, the doped diamond conducts electricity. A series of boron-doped diamond films were grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) and tested to determine the optimum technique for doping diamond with boron for superconductivity. The first sets of experiments were conducted by utilizing boron powder, paste or solid (B2O3) to dope the seeded diamond during growth on various substrates. The second technique, which was conducted at Blue Wave Semiconductors Inc. commercial laboratory, involves doping with diborane gas (B6H2). Various processing parameters were optimized for diamond quality, structure, morphology, and doping. A combined analysis of scanning electron microscope, Raman mapping and Hall measurements at various temperatures were conducted to ascertain the

  20. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21 cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. We measure a slope for the linewidth-based BTFR of α = 3.75 ± 0.11, a value that is somewhat steeper than (but in broad agreement with) previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of ± 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample enables us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small (I.e., non-zero) intrinsic scatter. We furthermore find a systematic difference in the BTFR of galaxies with "double-horned" 21 cm line profiles - suggestive of flat outer galactic rotation curves - and those with "peaked" profiles - suggestive of rising rotation curves. When we restrict our sample of galaxies to objects in the former category, we measure a slightly steeper slope of α = 4.13 ± 0.15. Overall, the high-accuracy measurement of the BTFR presented in this article is intended as a reliable observational benchmark against which to test theoretical expectations. Here we consider a representative set of semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations in the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) context, as well as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). In the near future, interferometric follow-up observations of several sample members will enable us to further refine the BTFR measurement, and

  1. Pretreatment data is highly predictive of liver chemistry signals in clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaohui; Bresell, Anders; Steinberg, Mark H; Silberg, Debra G; Furlong, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this retrospective analysis was to assess how well predictive models could determine which patients would develop liver chemistry signals during clinical trials based on their pretreatment (baseline) information. Patients and methods Based on data from 24 late-stage clinical trials, classification models were developed to predict liver chemistry outcomes using baseline information, which included demographics, medical history, concomitant medications, and baseline laboratory results. Results Predictive models using baseline data predicted which patients would develop liver signals during the trials with average validation accuracy around 80%. Baseline levels of individual liver chemistry tests were most important for predicting their own elevations during the trials. High bilirubin levels at baseline were not uncommon and were associated with a high risk of developing biochemical Hy’s law cases. Baseline γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level appeared to have some predictive value, but did not increase predictability beyond using established liver chemistry tests. Conclusion It is possible to predict which patients are at a higher risk of developing liver chemistry signals using pretreatment (baseline) data. Derived knowledge from such predictions may allow proactive and targeted risk management, and the type of analysis described here could help determine whether new biomarkers offer improved performance over established ones. PMID:23226004

  2. Glioblastoma: does the pre-treatment geometry matter? A postcontrast T1 MRI-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Beteta, Julian; Martinez-Gonzalez, Alicia; Molina, David; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Luque, Belen; Perez-Garcia, Victor M. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Laboratory of Mathematical Oncology, Edificio Politecnico, Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingenieria, Ciudad Real (Spain); Arregui, Elena; Calvo, Manuel; Borras, Jose M.; Lopez, Carlos; Claramonte, Marta [Hospital General de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); Barcia, Juan A.; Iglesias, Lidia; Avecillas, Josue [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Albillo, David; Navarro, Miguel; Villanueva, Jose M.; Paniagua, Juan C.; Perez-Romasanta, Luis [Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Martino, Juan; Velasquez, Carlos [Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, Santander (Spain); Asenjo, Beatriz; Benavides, Manuel; Herruzo, Ismael [Hospital Carlos Haya, Malaga (Spain); Delgado, Maria del Carmen; Valle, Ana del [Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Matematicas, Sevilla (Spain); Falkov, Anthony [Auckland Radiation Oncology, Auckland (New Zealand); Schucht, Philippe [Bern Inselspital, Neurosurgery Department, Bern (Switzerland); Arana, Estanislao [Instituto Valenciano de Oncologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    The potential of a tumour's volumetric measures obtained from pretreatment MRI sequences of glioblastoma (GBM) patients as predictors of clinical outcome has been controversial. Mathematical models of GBM growth have suggested a relation between a tumour's geometry and its aggressiveness. A multicenter retrospective clinical study was designed to study volumetric and geometrical measures on pretreatment postcontrast T1 MRIs of 117 GBM patients. Clinical variables were collected, tumours segmented, and measures computed including: contrast enhancing (CE), necrotic, and total volumes; maximal tumour diameter; equivalent spherical CE width and several geometric measures of the CE ''rim''. The significance of the measures was studied using proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves. Kaplan-Meier and univariate Cox survival analysis showed that total volume [p = 0.034, Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.574], CE volume (p = 0.017, HR = 1.659), spherical rim width (p = 0.007, HR = 1.749), and geometric heterogeneity (p = 0.015, HR = 1.646) were significant parameters in terms of overall survival (OS). Multivariable Cox analysis for OS provided the later two parameters as age-adjusted predictors of OS (p = 0.043, HR = 1.536 and p = 0.032, HR = 1.570, respectively). Patients with tumours having small geometric heterogeneity and/or spherical rim widths had significantly better prognosis. These novel imaging biomarkers have a strong individual and combined prognostic value for GBM patients. (orig.)

  3. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    pretreatments could be divided into two groups: 1) Phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and calcium correlated with xylose and arabinose (that is, hemicellulose), and levels of these constituents present in the fiber fraction after pretreatment varied depending on the pretreatment-severity; and 2...

  4. Pretreatment Methods of Ligno - Cellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritra Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work primarily deals with the exhaustive investigations of rapid de-lignification processes from source-sorted organic fractions that are recalcitrant in nature. Organic solid wastes (OSW belongs to the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW and they act as enormous potential substrate for alternative source of energy in the form of bio-fuels. Nevertheless, these substrates are not easily biodegradable and the degree of biodegradability is solely dependent on the composition & characteristic of organic solid wastes in municipal solid wastes. The component responsible for recalcitrance of organic solid wastes is lignin that occurs in variable amounts in different plant residues. In order to remove the recalcitrance from organic fraction municipal solid wastes and to make it more easily degradable by microbial consortia, certain pretreatment techniques have been adopted and they are applied either individually or in combined way for enhancement of bio-methanation i.e anaerobic digestion (AD process. The goal of pretreatment method is to make the cellulose in micro-fibrils available for hydrolysis and improve the rate of hydrolysis. This paper reviews pretreatment techniques including physical, physico-chemical, chemical, biological methods respectively. The various effects of pretreatment on organic solid wastes are discussed separately and pretreatment methods have been compared on the basis of cost, efficiency and suitability to substrate.

  5. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    A petroleum vacuum resid (1,000 F+) was pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions and the pretreated resids (host oils) were then coprocessed with coal. The fraction of coal converted to soluble products and the yield of pentane-soluble oils were determined after coprocessing. The phenolic oxygen concentration of the oil product provided a means for estimating the fraction of coal liquids in the products; oils originating from coal had much higher concentrations of phenolic oxygen than those originating from petroleum. Resids that were pretreated by mild temperature hydrogenation reactions, where cracking was suppressed, became better host oils; when these pretreated resids were coprocessed with coal, more of the mixture was converted to tetrahydrofuran-soluble products. Depending on the pretreatment, the pentane-soluble oil yields following thermal coprocessing were either significantly lower or slightly higher than the oil yields obtained with untreated resid. The yield of oils was strongly affected by the concentration of coal in the feed. The presence of small amounts, less than 33% of coal, enhanced the conversion of petroleum resid to oils during coprocessing, although the increases were small. 91 refs.

  6. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  7. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if coprocessing performance (i.e., coal conversion and oil yield) could be significantly improved by pretreating the heavy resid prior to reacting it with coal. For this purpose, two petroleum vacuum resids (1000{degrees}F+), one from the Amoco Co. and another from the Citgo Co., were used as such and after they had been pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions. The pretreatments were aimed at improving the host oil by; (1) converting any aromatic structures in the petroleum to hydroaromatic compounds capable of donating hydrogen, (2) cracking the heavy oil to lower molecular weight material that might serve as a better solvent, (3) reducing the coking propensity of the heavy oil through the hydrogenation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, and (4) removing metals and heteroatoms that might poison a coprocessing catalyst. Highly dispersed catalysts, including fine particle Fe- and Mo-based, and dicobalt octacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, were used in this study. The untreated and pretreated resids were extensively characterized in order to determine chemical changes brought about by the pretreatments. The modified heavy oils were then coprocessed with an Illinois No. 6 coal as well as with a Wyodak coal, and compared to coprocessing with untreated resids under the same hydroliquefaction conditions. The amount of oil derived from coal was estimated by measuring the level of phenolic oxygen (derived mainly from coal) present in the oil products. Results are presented and discussed.

  8. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  9. Steam explosion pretreatment improved the biomethanization of coffee husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Cordeiro, Paulo Henrique de Miranda; Passos, Fabiana; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; de Aquino, Sérgio Francisco; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando

    2017-08-31

    This study evaluated the potential of energy generation using a combined heat and power co-generation system (CHP) from biogas produced during the anaerobic digestion of coffee husks (CH) pretreated with steam explosion. Pretreatment conditions assessed were time (1, 5, 15 and 60min) and temperature (120, 180 and 210°C). Polysaccharides solubilisation and biogas production were not correlated. While pretreatment with severities higher than 4 resulted in a highest solubilisation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin; however, furans concentration in those cases hindered biomass biodegradation. Considering a CHP, all pretreatment conditions were worthwhile when compared to non-pretreated CH. The best condition was 120°C for 60min, in which a 2.37 severity showed the highest methane yield (144.96NmLCH4gCOD(-1)) and electricity production (0.59kWhkgCH(-1)). However, even better results could be achieved using 120°C for only 5min, which would lead to a larger amount of CH daily processed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intensification of biogas production using pretreatment based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj N; Gogate, Parag R; Csoka, Levente; Dregelyi-Kiss, Agota; Horvath, Miklos

    2016-05-01

    The present work investigates the application of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) for the pretreatment of wheat straw with an objective of enhancing the biogas production. The hydrodynamic cavitation reactor is based on a stator and rotor assembly. The effect of three different speeds of rotor (2300, 2500, 2700 rpm), wheat straw to water ratios (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) and also treatment times as 2, 4 and 6 min have been investigated in the work using the design of experiments (DOE) approach. It was observed that the methane yield of 31.8 ml was obtained with untreated wheat straw whereas 77.9 ml was obtained with HC pre-treated wheat straw confirming the favourable changes during the pre-treatment. The combined pre-treatment using KOH and HC gave maximum yield of biogas as 172.3 ml. Overall, it has been established that significant enhancement in the biogas production can be obtained due to the pretreatment using HC which can also be further intensified by combination with chemical treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Response to psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: the role of pretreatment verbal memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2015-08-01

    Neuropsychological studies have consistently demonstrated impaired verbal memory in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma-focused treatment for PTSD is thought to rely on memory, but it is largely unknown whether treatment outcome is influenced by memory performance. The aim of the study, therefore, was to examine the relationship between verbal memory performance and treatment response to trauma-focused psychotherapy. Participants were referred to our outpatient clinic and recruited between December 2003 and January 2009 upon diagnosis of PTSD according to DSM-IV. Secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial comparing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (n = 70) and brief eclectic psychotherapy (n = 70), a cognitive-behavioral intervention, are reported. Response to treatment was measured by self-reported PTSD symptom severity (Impact of Event Scale-Revised) over 17 weeks. Pretreatment verbal memory measures (California Verbal Learning Test, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test) were included in the mixed linear model analyses in order to investigate the influence of memory on treatment outcome. Pretreatment encoding, short-term retrieval, long-term retrieval, and recognition performance were significantly associated with treatment response in terms of self-reported PTSD symptom severity for both treatments (P ≤ .013). Receiver operating characteristic curves predicting treatment response with pretreatment memory indices showed that 75.6% of the patients could be correctly classified as responder. Poor verbal memory performance represents a risk factor for worse treatment response to trauma-focused psychotherapy. Memory measures can be helpful in determining which patients are unable to benefit from trauma-focused psychotherapy. Future research should explore how treatment perspectives of patients with poor verbal memory can be improved. ISRCTN.com identifier: ISRCTN64872147. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. P2Y12 Inhibitor Pre-Treatment in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Decision-Analytic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gunton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current guidelines recommend initiation of a P2Y12 inhibitor for all patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS at the time of diagnosis (pre-treatment; however, there are no randomized trials directly comparing pre-treatment with initiation at the time of angiography to support this practice. We explore clinical and institutional parameters potentially associated with benefit with this strategy in a decision-analytic model based on available evidence from randomised trials. A decision analysis model was constructed comparing three P2Y12 inhibitors in addition to aspirin in patients with NSTE-ACS. Based on clinical trial data, the cumulative probability of 30 day mortality, myocardial infarction (MI and major bleeding were determined, and used to calculate the net clinical benefit (NCB with and without pre-treatment. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the relationship between NCB and baseline ischemic risk, bleeding risk, time to angiography and local surgical revascularization rates. Pre-treatment with ticagrelor and clopidogrel was associated with a greater than 50% likelihood of providing a >1% increase in 30 day NCB when baseline estimated ischemic risk exceeds 11% and 14%, respectively. Prasugrel pre-treatment did not achieve a greater than 50% probability of an increase in NCB regardless of baseline ischemic risk. Institutional surgical revascularization rates and time to coronary angiography did not correlate with the likelihood of benefit from P2Y12 pre-treatment. In conclusion, pre-treatment with P2Y12 inhibition is unlikely to be beneficial to the majority of patients presenting with NSTE-ACS. A tailored assessment of each patient’s individual ischemic and bleeding risk may identify those likely to benefit.

  13. Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda-Aguilar, María; García-Vidal, Lidia; González-Castañeda, Fayiny Del Pilar; López-Gómez, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma-Assisted