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Sample records for heavily pretreated patients

  1. Gemcitabine and capecitabine for heavily pre-treated metastatic colorectal cancer patients

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    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and gemcitabin (GemCap) in heavily pre-treated, therapy-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients and the clinical importance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) measurement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients' inclusion criteria included...

  2. Dual Inhibition of EGFR and VEGF in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

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    Larsen, Finn Ole; Markussen, Alice; Nielsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    : The combination of irinotecan, bevacizumab, and cetuximab/panitumumab is safe and shows a toxicity profile corresponding to what is expected from the agents alone. The results indicate that the combination in the 4th line may result in a high rate of disease control in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic...

  3. Addition of sunitinib to cetuximab and irinotecan in patients with heavily pre-treated advanced colorectal cancer

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    Qvortrup, Camilla; Jensen, Benny Vittrup; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht

    2010-01-01

    Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented.......Results of continuous sunitinib, in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan every other week (SIC) for compassionate use in heavily pre-treated patients with mCRC are presented....

  4. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients with Heavily Pretreated Liver Metastases and Liver Tumors

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    Lanciano, Rachelle; Lamond, John; Yang, Jun; Feng, Jing; Arrigo, Steve; Good, Michael; Brady, Luther, E-mail: rlancmd@gmail.com [Philadelphia CyberKnife, Drexel University, Havertown, PA (United States)

    2012-03-09

    We present our initial experience with CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in a heavily pretreated group of patients with liver metastases and primary liver tumors. From October 2007 to June 2009, 48 patients were treated at the Philadelphia CyberKnife Center for liver metastases or primary liver tumors. We report on 30 patients with 41 discrete lesions (1–4 tumors per patient) who received an ablative radiation dose (BED ≥ 79.2 Gy10 = 66 Gy EQD2). The treatment goal was to achieve a high SBRT dose to the liver tumor while sparing at least 700 cc of liver from radiation doses above 15 Gy. Twenty-three patients were treated with SBRT for metastatic cancer to the liver; the remainder (n = 7) were primary liver tumors. Eighty-seven percent of patients had prior systemic chemotherapy with a median 24 months from diagnosis to SBRT; 37% had prior liver directed therapy. Local control was assessed for 28 patients (39 tumors) with 4 months or more follow-up. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 10–40 months), 14/39 (36%) tumors had documented local failure. A decrease in local failure was found with higher doses of SBRT (p = 0.0237); 55% of tumors receiving a BED ≤ 100 Gy10 (10/18) had local failure compared with 19% receiving a BED > 100 Gy10 (4/21). The 2-year actuarial rate of local control for tumors treated with BED > 100 Gy10 was 75% compared to 38% for those patients treated with BED ≤ 100 Gy10 (p = 0.04). At last follow-up, 22/30 patients (73%) had distant progression of disease. Overall, seven patients remain alive with a median survival of 20 months from treatment and 57 months from diagnosis. To date, no patient experienced persistent or severe adverse effects. Despite the heavy pretreatment of these patients, SBRT was well tolerated with excellent local control rates when adequate doses (BED > 100 Gy10) were used. Median survival was limited secondary to development of further metastatic disease in the majority of patients.

  5. Topotecan Monotherapy in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Progressive Advanced Stage Neuroendocrine Carcinomas

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    Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich; Federspiel, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinomas (WHO grade 3) are highly aggressive tumors with an immense tendency to metastasize and with a poor prognosis. In advanced disease, there is no standard treatment beyond first-line platin/etoposide-based chemotherapy. Topotecan is widely used as second...... neuroendocrine carcinomas (Ki67>20%, G3) successively treated with oral topotecan 2.3 mg/m(2) d1-5 every 3 weeks. All patients had previously received treatment with carboplatin/etoposide. Demographic, clinical and pathological features were recorded. CT-evaluations according to RECIST 1.1 were performed after...... every three courses. Hematological toxicity was assessed by CTC-criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-two eligible patients received a median of 2 courses [range1-6]. Median age: 65 years [35-77]. Male/female: 11/11. Median Ki-67 index: 95% [25-100%]. Median number previous chemotherapy regimens: 2 [1-3]. All...

  6. Bevacizumab Demonstrates Prolonged Disease Stabilization in Patients with Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

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    Nicole M. Agostino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are now a variety of therapies approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC. These include the immunotherapeutics, alfa-interferon, and interleukin-2, and agents that target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR via its tyrosine kinase, such as sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib, or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, such as temsirolimus and everolimus. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the ligand, VEGF, has shown activity against RCC as a single agent in patients who had failed prior cytokine therapy and as first line therapy in combination with interferon. The activity of bevacizumab in patients who had received and failed prior therapy has not been described. We report our experience in 4 patients with metastatic RCC who had failed prior cytokine, TKI, and mTOR inhibitors who were treated with bevacizumab as single agent therapy. These heavily pretreated patients sustained very prolonged periods of stable disease (median of 12 months with very little toxicity and excellent quality of life. The activity of this agent in patients who had failed prior therapies directed against the VEGFR and mTOR suggests that therapy targeting the ligand, VEGF, is still a viable approach in these patients and deserves further study.

  7. Preliminary phase II results of selinexor, an oral selective inhibitor of nuclear export in patients with heavily pretreated gynecological cancers

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    Vergote, Ignace; Lund, Bente; Havsteen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    objective of this study is to determine the clinical benefit in terms of overall survival of initial resection of the primary tumour. Secondary endpoints include progression free survival, surgical morbidity, quality of life and the number of patients requiring resection of the primary tumour in the control...

  8. Phase II trial of utidelone as monotherapy or in combination with capecitabine in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients

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    Pin Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC remains a great clinical challenge as drug resistance frequently develops. Alternative agents that can overcome drug resistance would offer new therapeutic options. The primary aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of utidelone as a monotherapy or in combination with capecitabine in metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with and resistant to anthracyclines and taxanes. Methods In two open-label, noncomparative clinical studies, patients with metastatic breast cancer who previously received anthracycline- and/or taxane-containing regimens were given (1 25 to 35 mg/m2/day intravenously infused utidelone, once daily for 5 days, in combination with 14 days of 2000 mg/m2 capecitabine, divided in two equal daily oral doses or (2 40 mg/m2/day intravenously infused utidelone, once daily for 5 days. These regimens were administered per each 21-day treatment cycle, and the maximum of treatment cycles allowed per protocol is 6. Objective response rate (ORR, progression-free survival (PFS, and tolerability were evaluated. Results In the combination study, 33 patients completed a median of 6 cycles of therapy, which was the highest cycles a trial patient could receive under the criteria of the study protocol. Efficacy was evaluated (n = 32 with an ORR of 42.4 % (FAS, 95 % CI, 26.6, 60.9 and a median PFS of 7.9 (FAS, 95 % CI, 6.1, 9.8 months. The monotherapy study (n = 63 resulted in an ORR of 28.57 % (FAS, 95 % CI, 18.4, 40.6 and a median PFS of 5.4 (FAS, 95 % CI, 2.9, 9.8 months. In both studies, common toxicities associated with utidelone administration included peripheral neuropathy, fatigue, myalgia, and arthralgia, but the toxicities were limited and manageable. Notably, very mild myelosuppression, low liver and renal toxicities, and very limited gastrointestinal toxic effect were observed, in contrast to other agents in

  9. Radiation therapy is an effective modality in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma, even in heavily pretreated patients.

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    Haque, Waqar; Voong, K Ranh; Shihadeh, Ferial; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Mazloom, Ali; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Romaguera, Jorge; Rodriguez, Alma; Wang, Michael; Allen, Pamela; Dabaja, Bouthaina

    2014-12-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma has an aggressive clinical course and continuous relapse pattern with a median survival of 3 to 7 years. Multiple courses of chemotherapy are the basis of treatment. Radiotherapy is underutilized in this disease. We undertook this study to assess the role of radiation therapy. A total of 41 consecutive patients with mantle cell lymphoma diagnosed from December, 1999 to January, 2010 who received radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The main endpoint was in-field lymphoma response at each irradiated disease site. There were 39 evaluable patients (68 symptomatic sites). Sites treated included: nodal stations (n = 31), soft tissue (n = 13), mucosal sites (n = 11), central nervous system (n = 10), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), and bone (n = 1). Median maximum tumor size at presentation was 3.5 cm (range, 1.3 cm-9.6 cm). The median dose of radiation was 30.6 Gy (range 18-40 Gy). Median follow-up post radiation per site was 12.3 months (range, 0.6-80.9 months). Response to treatment was complete in 47 sites (69.1%), partial in 16 sites (23.5%), and 5 sites (7.4%) had stable disease. In 9 (13.2%) sites local relapse occurred (median 7 months; range 2-21). The mean size of lymphoma at time of RT correlated with relapse, with tumors with local relapse larger than those without a local relapse (P = .005). Our data add to accumulating evidence that mantle cell lymphoma is a radio-sensitive disease with excellent responses to relatively low radiation doses, even in patients with chemo-refractory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy and tolerability of high dose "ethinylestradiol" in post-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients heavily pre-treated with endocrine agents.

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    Agrawal, Amit; Robertson, John F R; Cheung, K L

    2006-07-11

    High dose estrogens (HDEs) were frequently used as endocrine agents prior to the introduction of tamoxifen which carries fewer side effects. Due to the development of resistance to available endocrine agents in almost all women with metastatic breast cancer, interest has renewed in the use of HDEs as yet another endocrine option that may have activity. We report our experience with one of the HDEs ("ethinylestradiol" 1 mg daily) in advanced breast cancer (locally advanced and metastatic) in post-menopausal women who had progressed on multiple endocrine agents. According to a database of advanced breast cancer patients seen in our Unit since 1998, those who had complete set of information and fulfilled the following criteria were studied: (1) patients in whom further endocrine therapy was deemed appropriate i.e., patients who have had clinical benefit with previous endocrine agents or were not fit or unwilling to receive chemotherapy in the presence of potentially life-threatening visceral metastases; (2) disease was assessable by UICC criteria; (3) were treated with "ethinylestradiol" until they were withdrawn from treatment due to adverse events or disease progression. Twelve patients with a median age of 75.1 years (49.1-85 years) were identified. Majority (N = 8) had bony disease. They had ethinylestradiol as 3rd to 7th line endocrine therapy. One patient (8%) came off treatment early due to hepato-renal syndrome. Clinical benefit (objective response or durable stable disease for > or = 6 months) was seen in 4 patients (33.3%) with a median duration of response of 10+ (7-36) months. The time to treatment failure was 4 (0.5-36) months. Yet unreported, high dose "ethinylestradiol" is another viable therapeutic strategy in heavily pre-treated patients when further endocrine therapy is deemed appropriate. Although it tends to carry more side effects, they may not be comparable to those of other HDEs (such as diethylstilbestrol) or chemotherapy.

  11. Real versus virtual phenotype to guide treatment in heavily pretreated patients: 48-week follow-up of the Genotipo-Fenotipo di Resistenza (GenPheRex) trial.

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    Mazzotta, Francesco; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Torti, Carlo; Tinelli, Carmine; Pierotti, Piera; Castelli, Francesco; Lazzarin, Adriano; Angarano, Gioacchino; Maserati, Renato; Gianotti, Nicola; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Rinehart, Alex R; Carosi, Giampiero

    2003-03-01

    We compared viroimmunologic response after real phenotype (r-PHT) versus virtual phenotype (v-PHT) in patients failing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A total of 201 patients with >2 years of exposure, more than six experienced drugs, >1000 HIV RNA copies/mL, and on stable HAART for >6 months were randomized to the r-PHT or v-PHT arm. The primary end point was the proportion of HIV plasma viral load (pVL) 0.5 log(10) copies/mL, and absolute CD4 cell change. In the intention-to-treat-last observation carried forward analysis, study outcomes were not significantly different between arms over 48 weeks of follow-up: 20% and 24% pVL 0.5 log(10) copies/mL; -0.92 and -0.94(10) log copies/mL mean pVL decrease; and +41.6 and +94.4 cells/mm(3) mean absolute CD4 increase in the r-PHT and v-PHT arms, respectively. On-treatment analyses gave similar results. In the multivariate analysis of pVL <400 copies/mL, the following covariates were independent predictors at week 48: adherence (OR p= 0.25; p=.002), baseline CD4 (OR = 4.39; p=.007), intravenous drug use as risk factor for HIV acquisition (OR = 0.33; p=.024), and sensitivity score of the new regimens by biologic cut-offs (OR = 1.84; p=.029). Prescribed drugs for which patients were naive resulted in marginal prediction (OR = 1.93; p=.054). In conclusion, virologic and immunologic outcomes did not differ when r-PHT or v-PHT was used in this cohort of heavily pretreated patients. Several factors should be considered to take better advantage of resistance testing, including treatment history, clinical status, and patients' ability to adhere to treatment.

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of high dose "ethinylestradiol" in post-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients heavily pre-treated with endocrine agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson John FR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dose estrogens (HDEs were frequently used as endocrine agents prior to the introduction of tamoxifen which carries fewer side effects. Due to the development of resistance to available endocrine agents in almost all women with metastatic breast cancer, interest has renewed in the use of HDEs as yet another endocrine option that may have activity. We report our experience with one of the HDEs ("ethinylestradiol" 1 mg daily in advanced breast cancer (locally advanced and metastatic in post-menopausal women who had progressed on multiple endocrine agents. Patients and methods According to a database of advanced breast cancer patients seen in our Unit since 1998, those who had complete set of information and fulfilled the following criteria were studied: (1 patients in whom further endocrine therapy was deemed appropriate i.e., patients who have had clinical benefit with previous endocrine agents or were not fit or unwilling to receive chemotherapy in the presence of potentially life-threatening visceral metastases; (2 disease was assessable by UICC criteria; (3 were treated with "ethinylestradiol" until they were withdrawn from treatment due to adverse events or disease progression. Results Twelve patients with a median age of 75.1 years (49.1 – 85 years were identified. Majority (N = 8 had bony disease. They had ethinylestradiol as 3rd to 7th line endocrine therapy. One patient (8% came off treatment early due to hepato-renal syndrome. Clinical benefit (objective response or durable stable disease for ≥ 6 months was seen in 4 patients (33.3% with a median duration of response of 10+ (7–36 months. The time to treatment failure was 4 (0.5–36 months. Conclusion Yet unreported, high dose "ethinylestradiol" is another viable therapeutic strategy in heavily pre-treated patients when further endocrine therapy is deemed appropriate. Although it tends to carry more side effects, they may not be comparable to those of other

  13. Combination of paclitaxel and bevacizumab in heavily pre-treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients: a case series study on 15 patients.

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    Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Hadoux, Julien; Gontier, Eric; Chargari, Cyrus; Helissey, Carole; Lamand, Virginie; Tanz, Rachid; Farace, Françoise; Vedrine, Lionel; Bonardel, Gérald; Soria, Jean-Charles; Besse, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    The combination of paclitaxel and bevacizumab was EMA-approved as first-line therapy in metastatic breast cancer. Moreover, in vitro studies showed a potential antiangiogenic synergistic effect of paclitaxel and bevacizumab. Between November 2008 and March 2010, this case series study included 15 patients with metastatic non squamous-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Those were bevacizumab eligible and received the same regimen used in metastatic breast cancer with weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2), days 1, 8 and 15) and bevacizumab (10 mg/kg at days 1 and 15) after at least one prior line of chemotherapy. Efficacy was evaluated by CT-scan and PET-FDG every two months. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) levels were explored in a subset of patients. Median age 56 (36-75), female: 47%, never smokers: 27%, adenocarcinoma: 100%, PS 0-1: 87% and PS 3: 13%. All patients were treated with a first-line platinum-based doublet with or without bevacizumab and 70% of them with erlotinib in the second-line. No major toxicity was observed. Partial response (PR) rate was 44% (31-63%) using RECIST criteria on CT-scan, and 65% (29-88%) with PET FDG. PS improved in 33% of the cases. Median progression free survival was 4.6 months. An increase of CEC and CEP was observed in patients with NSCLC treated with paclitaxel and bevacizumab. In this retrospective series, our results suggest efficacy signal in pre-treated metastatic NSCLC and warrant further assessment in a randomized clinical trial.

  14. Oral etoposide in heavily pre-treated metastatic breast cancer: A retrospective series.

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    Giannone, G; Milani, A; Ghisoni, E; Genta, S; Mittica, G; Montemurro, F; Valabrega, G

    2018-04-01

    Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) can derive clinical benefit from several subsequent lines of chemotherapy. However, in heavily pre-treated patients, agents with clinical activity, a favourable side effects profile and a convenient administration modality are preferred. We retrospectively analyzed 110 patients with previously treated MBC, who received oral etoposide at the dose of 50 mg/day for 20 days in 28 days cycles, between 2003 and 2017. Because this was not a prospectively planned study, to describe the clinical performance of oral etoposide we adopted the approach suggested by Dzimitrowicz and colleagues (J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34:3511-17); Tumour Response (TR) was defined as the proportion of physician-reported clinical or imaging response; Prolonged Duration on Therapy (PDT) as the proportion of non-progressing patients whose treatment lasted more than 6 months. Furthermore, we evaluated median duration on therapy (TD) and median Overall Survival (OS) by the Kaplan Meier method. The median number of previous chemotherapy lines was 5 (range 2-8). TR, PDT, median TD and median OS were 6.4%, 18.2% 4 (range 3.5-4.5) and 10.6 (range 8.4-12.8) months respectively. Interestingly, etoposide activity was unrelated to the number of previous lines and type of metastatic involvement. Oral etoposide was well tolerated with only two patients discontinuing therapy due to toxicity. In this large, single Institution, real practice analysis oral etoposide is a valuable and safe option for pre-treated metastatic breast cancer patients and might be considered in patients failing other approaches, but still suitable for chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Replicative phenotyping adds value to genotypic resistance testing in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected individuals - the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

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    Martinetti Gladys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicative phenotypic HIV resistance testing (rPRT uses recombinant infectious virus to measure viral replication in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. Due to its high sensitivity of detection of viral minorities and its dissecting power for complex viral resistance patterns and mixed virus populations rPRT might help to improve HIV resistance diagnostics, particularly for patients with multiple drug failures. The aim was to investigate whether the addition of rPRT to genotypic resistance testing (GRT compared to GRT alone is beneficial for obtaining a virological response in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected patients. Methods Patients with resistance tests between 2002 and 2006 were followed within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS. We assessed patients' virological success after their antiretroviral therapy was switched following resistance testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with SHCS centre as a random effect were used to investigate the association between the type of resistance test and virological response (HIV-1 RNA Results Of 1158 individuals with resistance tests 221 with GRT+rPRT and 937 with GRT were eligible for analysis. Overall virological response rates were 85.1% for GRT+rPRT and 81.4% for GRT. In the subgroup of patients with >2 previous failures, the odds ratio (OR for virological response of GRT+rPRT compared to GRT was 1.45 (95% CI 1.00-2.09. Multivariate analyses indicate a significant improvement with GRT+rPRT compared to GRT alone (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31-2.15. Conclusions In heavily pre-treated patients rPRT-based resistance information adds benefit, contributing to a higher rate of treatment success.

  16. The Combination of Pixantrone, Etoposide, Bendamustine and, in CD20+ Tumors, Rituximab (PREBEN) Shows Promising Feasibility/Efficacy in Heavily Pre-Treated Aggressive Lymphomas of B- and T-Cell Phenotype - Results of the Pre-Trial Experience Leading to a Nordic Phase 1/2 Study (the PREBEN Trial)

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    Clausen, Michael Roost; Leppa, Sirpa; Brown, Peter de Nully

    2016-01-01

    -anthracenadione recently approved in Europe for patients with multiply relapsed aNHL. Etoposide and bendamustine were chosen as companion compounds due to available feasibility data in combination with anthracenadions, and a well-documented efficacy in salvage regimens for relapsed aNHL. Rituximab was added......IND developed acute myeloid leukemia with therapy-related cytogenetic features.Conclusions: The PREBEN/PEBEN salvage regimen was feasible in a heavily pre-treated cohort of elderly patients with high-risk aNHL. In individual patients it elicited substantial and durable responses early in the course of therapy...

  17. Misdiagnosis of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa in a choroideremia patient with heavily pigmented fundi.

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    Nanda, A; Salvetti, A P; Martinez-Fernandez de la Camara, C; MacLaren, R E

    2018-06-01

    Inherited retinal diseases are thought to be the leading cause of sight loss in the working age population. Mutations found in the RPGR and CHM genes cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and choroideremia, respectively. In the first instance, an X-linked family history of visual field loss commonly raises the suspicion of one of these two genes. In choroideremia, the classic description of a white fundal reflex secondary to the widespread chorioretinal degeneration was made over a hundred years ago in Caucasians. But, it is not so obvious in heavily pigmented fundi. Hence, the clinical diagnosis of CHM in non-Caucasian patients may be challenging in the first stages of the disease. Here we report a case of a Southeast Asian gentleman who has a family history of X-linked retinal degeneration and was found to have a confirmed in-frame deletion of 12 DNA nucleotides in exon 15 of the RPGR gene. Later in life, however, his fundal appearance showed unusual areas of circular pigment hypertrophy and clumping. He was therefore tested for carrying a disease-causing mutation in the CHM gene and a null mutation was found. Since gene therapy trials are ongoing for both of these conditions, it has now become critically important to establish the correct genetic diagnosis in order to recruit suitable candidates. Moreover, this case demonstrates the necessity to remain vigilant in the interpretation of genetic results which are inconsistent with clinical features.

  18. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as third- or later-line therapy in patients with heavily treated metastatic colorectal cancer

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    Yang Q

    2015-09-01

    , patients with a primary colon tumor might have had a longer overall survival than patients with a primary rectal tumor (18.8 months vs 11.1 months, respectively; P=0.037. Common chemotherapy-related toxicities were nausea/vomiting (48.6%, fatigue (34.3%, leucopenia (40%, neutropenia (42.9%, and anemia (42.9%, with one patient with grade 3 neutropenia, and two patients with grade 3 thrombocytopenia. The common bevacizumab-associated toxicity was hypertension (31.4%. None of the patients discontinued therapy or died because of bevacizumab-associated toxicities.Conclusion: Our data showed that adding bevacizumab to third- or later-line therapy might lead to tumor control and improved survival in heavily pretreated mCRC patients. In addition, preliminary data suggested that primary colon cancer was more likely to benefit from bevacizumab-containing regimens. Toxicities were acceptable, and no new toxicity was identified. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.Keywords: bevacizumab, chemotherapy, metastatic colorectal cancer

  19. The Combination of Pixantrone, Etoposide, Bendamustine and, in CD20+ Tumors, Rituximab (PREBEN) Shows Promising Feasibility/Efficacy in Heavily Pre-Treated Aggressive Lymphomas of B- and T-Cell Phenotype - Results of the Pre-Trial Experience Leading to a Nordic Phase 1/2 Study (the PREBEN Trial)

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    Clausen, Michael Roost; Leppa, Sirpa; Brown, Peter de Nully

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aNHL) relapsing after high-dose therapy or, in not transplant-eligible patients, after 1st-line chemotherapy represents an unmet clinical need. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating a salvage combination regimen based on pixantrone, an aza-anthracenadione ......Background: Aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aNHL) relapsing after high-dose therapy or, in not transplant-eligible patients, after 1st-line chemotherapy represents an unmet clinical need. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating a salvage combination regimen based on pixantrone, an aza......IND developed acute myeloid leukemia with therapy-related cytogenetic features.Conclusions: The PREBEN/PEBEN salvage regimen was feasible in a heavily pre-treated cohort of elderly patients with high-risk aNHL. In individual patients it elicited substantial and durable responses early in the course of therapy...

  20. Peptichemio in pretreated patients with plasmacell neoplasms.

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    Paccagnella, A; Salvagno, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Bolzonella, S; De Besi, P; Frizzarin, M; Pappagallo, G L; Fosser, V P; Fornasiero, A; Segati, R

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-one patients with alkylator-resistant plasmacell neoplasms were treated with Peptichemio (PTC) at a dose of 40 mg/m2 for 3 days every 3 weeks or, in the case of persistent leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia, at the single dose of 70 mg/m2 every 2-3 weeks according to haematological recovery. Seventeen patients, 10 with multiple myeloma and seven with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), were fully evaluable. Six of 17 patients (35%) responded: three of seven EMP patients had a complete remission and 3 of 10 multiple myeloma patients had an objective response greater than 50%. The median duration of response was 8.5 months. An EMP patient obtained a complete response lasting for 16 months. The most frequent toxic effect were phlebosclerosis, occurring in all the patients, and myelosuppression, which was severe in only one case. PTC appears to be an active drug in patients with plasmacell neoplasms even if resistant to alkylating agents.

  1. Simultaneous rota-stenting and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for patients with heavily calcified coronary stenosis and aortic stenosis

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    Yung-Tsai Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that coronary artery disease (CAD in octogenarians undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI often presents with more complex lesions and extensive calcification, rotational atherectomy (RA may be needed in some cases before stenting. However, data regarding the feasibility and safety of simultaneous RA during TAVI using the Medtronic CoreValve (MCV; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA system are lacking. Three out of 107 (2.8% patients (2 females, average age 85.6 years, mean aortic valve area 0.5 cm2, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 39%, mean Logistic EuroScore 70%, with complex, heavily calcified coronary stenosis, and severe valvular aortic stenosis (AS were treated with TAVI and RA due to high surgical risk. After balloon valvuloplasty, all coronary lesions were successfully treated with RA and stenting, immediately followed by transfemoral TAVI with a self-expandable MCV. Our data suggested that in the very elderly patients with severe and heavily calcified CAD and AS who were turned down for cardiac surgery, RA and stenting followed by TAVI may be performed successfully in a combined, single-stage procedure.

  2. Successful Chemotherapy with Nab-Paclitaxel in a Heavily Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient: A Case Report

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    Mikiko Ishihara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for the majority of all lung cancers. A 69-year-old female with postoperatively recurrent NSCLC was treated weekly with nanoparticle-albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel monotherapy every 4 weeks as a tenth line chemotherapy, and stable disease was achieved by seven cycles of this regimen. The patient developed grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 leukopenia, but none of the other toxicities, including febrile neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy, were severe, and thus she was able to tolerate this salvage chemotherapy. To our knowledge this is the first report of the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in a heavily treated NSCLC patient.

  3. 'The character rests heavily within me': drama students as standardized patients in mental health nursing education.

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    Jacobs, A C; van Jaarsveldt, D E

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Standardized patient (SP) simulation is an internationally recognized learning strategy that has proven effective in enhancing nursing students' competencies necessary for mental health practice. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: A deeper exploration of the process from the perspective of SPs and more particularly drama students, revealed the complexity they need to navigate and the personal vulnerability they are exposed to when creating an authentic learning opportunity for nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Their vulnerability justifies deeper consideration of support, as well as research on the ethical implications of SP simulation. Nursing students need to be well grounded in therapeutic communication before engaging with mental health users. This should include opportunities to question personal frames of reference that could hinder therapeutic engagement with diverse others. In future, the drama students can be involved in scenario development to enhance the authenticity of simulations. Introduction The effectiveness of Standardized patient (SP) simulation in enhancing students' mental health nursing competencies is well published. Nevertheless, the believable and accurate portrayal of a patient with a mental health issue during SP simulation is complex. Though vital to the creation of safe authentic learning experiences, the perspectives of SPs and particularly of drama students involved in SP simulation are unknown. Aim The aim of this paper is therefore to explore and describe the experiences of 11 drama students engaged in mental health simulations for nursing students. Method A qualitative approach was taken and data were gathered using various techniques. Findings The content analysis revealed that these SPs negotiated three roles during this interdisciplinary learning experience, namely of a facilitator of learning, a drama student and the person within. Discussion The study

  4. Nelfinavir and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Salvage Regimes in Heavily Hiv Pretreated Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Guy Baril

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of nelfinavir mesylate (NFV in combination with delavirdine mesylate(DLV or efavirenz (EFV and other antiretroviral agents following virological failure on other protease inhibitor (PI-based regimens.

  5. Earthquake Preparedness Among Japanese Hemodialysis Patients in Prefectures Heavily Damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors related to earthquake preparedness in Japanese hemodialysis patients. We focused on three aspects of the related factors: health condition factors, social factors, and the experience of disasters. A mail survey of all the members of the Japan Association of Kidney Disease Patients in three Japanese prefectures (N = 4085) was conducted in March, 2013. We obtained 1841 valid responses for analysis. The health factors covered were: activities of daily living (ADL), mental distress, primary renal diseases, and the duration of dialysis. The social factors were: socioeconomic status, family structure, informational social support, and the provision of information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities. The results show that the average percentage of participants that had met each criterion of earthquake preparedness in 2013 was 53%. Hemodialysis patients without disabled ADL, without mental distress, and requiring longer periods of dialysis, were likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. Hemodialysis patients who had received informational social support from family or friends, had lived with spouse and children in comparison to living alone, and had obtained information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities, were also likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  6. Pretreatment costs of care and time to initial treatment for patients with cancer of unknown primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark S; Weinstein, Laura; Luo, Roger; Marino, Ingrid

    2018-06-01

    Time to treatment and pretreatment costs may be affected by unknown primary tumor site. This retrospective study used electronic medical record data from patients in ten US community oncology practices. Eligible patients were ≥18 years, diagnosed with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) or known metastatic solid tumor, and presented between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2014. Patients with CUP (n = 294) had a longer interval than non-CUP patients (n = 92) from presentation to treatment initiation (1.18 vs 0.49 months, p < 0.0001), and had higher pretreatment costs (US$27,882 vs US$20,449, p = 0.0075). When analyzed as monthly cost, the difference between groups in log-cost per month was nonsignificant. Higher pretreatment costs in CUP patients appeared attributable to significantly longer time to initiation of therapy.

  7. Thiamazole Pretreatment Lowers the (131)I Activity Needed to Cure Hyperthyroidism in Patients With Nodular Goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrilli, Aglaia; Tang, Bich-Ngoc-Thanh; Huyge, Valérie; Blocklet, Didier; Goldman, Serge; Corvilain, Bernard; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    Relatively low radioiodine uptake (RAIU) represents a common obstacle for radioiodine ((131)I) therapy in patients with multinodular goiter complicated by hyperthyroidism. To evaluate whether thiamazole (MTZ) pretreatment can increase (131)I therapeutic efficacy. Twenty-two patients with multinodular goiter, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and RAIU effective option than LID.

  8. Does pretreatment hemoglobin level affect outcome in patients with T1 glottic cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaday, Daniel J.; Regine, William F.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Zollinger, William; Machtay, Mitchell; Lee, Jason; Schultz, Delray; Rosenthal, David I.; Rudoltz, Marc S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Recent reports have suggested that pretreatment hemoglobin (Hgb) is significantly associated with local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) in patients with T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx. This study evaluates the association of pretreatment Hgb level and other factors with outcome in patients limited to T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with external beam radiation. Methods: One hundred fifty-eight patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx were analyzed. Median follow-up was 5 years (range 2-22). Median pretreatment Hgb was 14.4 gm/dl (range 8.2-17.2). The following parameters were analyzed for their impact on LC, OS, and disease specific survival (DSS): age, gender, pretreatment Hgb, tumor grade, anterior commissure involvement, field size, total dose, dose per fraction, and overall treatment time. Results: Five year actuarial LC was 84%. Pretreatment Hgb was not a significant predictor for LC when assessed as a continuous variable (p=0.38). LC was 82% for patients with Hgb >13 vs 92% for Hgb ≤ 13 (p=0.13). No other factor was significant for LC. Five year actuarial OS was 74%. On univariate analysis, pretreatment Hgb ≤ 13 gm/dl was a significant factor for poorer OS (78% vs 68%, p=0.004), as were total dose 61 years (p=0.017). On multivariate analysis, only age >61 (p=0.014) and Hgb ≤ 13 (p=0.001) retained significance for OS. Five year actuarial DSS was 92%. Pretreatment Hgb was not a prognostic factor for DSS, nor were any other analyzed factors. Conclusion: Pretreatment Hgb is not a significant prognostic factor for LC in patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx, but it does predict for a poorer OS without affecting DSS. This suggests that patients with lower pretreatment Hgb may have confounding medical problems which detract from their overall survival

  9. Bevacizumab in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan after failure of cetuximab and irinotecan in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn Ole; Pfeiffer, Per; Nielsen, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of concurrent administration of irinotecan with the two monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and bevacizumab as fourth line therapy in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were evaluated.......The efficacy and safety of concurrent administration of irinotecan with the two monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and bevacizumab as fourth line therapy in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were evaluated....

  10. Respiratory gated radiotherapy-pretreatment patient specific quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Thiyagarajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ motions during inter-fraction and intra-fraction radiotherapy introduce errors in dose delivery, irradiating excess of normal tissue, and missing target volume. Lung and heart involuntary motions cause above inaccuracies and gated dose delivery try to overcome above effects. Present work attempts a novel method to verify dynamic dose delivery using a four-dimensional (4D phantom. Three patients with mobile target are coached to maintain regular and reproducible breathing pattern. Appropriate intensity projection image set generated from 4D-computed tomography (4D-CT is used for target delineation. Intensity modulated radiotherapy plans were generated on selected phase using CT simulator (Siemens AG, Germany in conjunction with "Real-time position management" (Varian, USA to acquire 4D-CT images. Verification plans were generated for both ion chamber and Gafchromic (EBT film image sets. Gated verification plans were delivered on the phantom moving with patient respiratory pattern. We developed a MATLAB-based software to generate maximum intensity projection, minimum intensity projections, and average intensity projections, also a program to convert patient breathing pattern to phantom compatible format. Dynamic thorax quality assurance (QA phantom (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems type is used to perform the patient specific QA, which holds an ion chamber and film to measure delivered radiation intensity. Exposed EBT films are analyzed and compared with treatment planning system calculated dose. The ion chamber measured dose shows good agreement with planned dose within ± 0.5% (0.203 ± 0.57%. Gamma value evaluated from EBT film shows passing rates 92–99% (96.63 ± 3.84% for 3% dose and 3 mm distance criteria. Respiratory gated treatment delivery accuracy is found to be within clinically acceptable level.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of high dose "ethinylestradiol" in post-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients heavily pre-treated with endocrine agents

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Amit; Robertson, John FR; Cheung, KL

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background High dose estrogens (HDEs) were frequently used as endocrine agents prior to the introduction of tamoxifen which carries fewer side effects. Due to the development of resistance to available endocrine agents in almost all women with metastatic breast cancer, interest has renewed in the use of HDEs as yet another endocrine option that may have activity. We report our experience with one of the HDEs ("ethinylestradiol" 1 mg daily) in advanced breast cancer (locally advanced ...

  12. Pretreatment organ function in patients with advanced head and neck cancer: clinical outcome measures and patients' views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasch Coen RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this study is to thoroughly assess pretreatment organ function in advanced head and neck cancer through various clinical outcome measures and patients' views. Methods A comprehensive, multidimensional assessment was used, that included quality of life, swallowing, mouth opening, and weight changes. Fifty-five patients with stage III-IV disease were entered in this study prior to organ preserving (chemoradiation treatment. Results All patients showed pretreatment abnormalities or problems, identified by one or more of the outcome measures. Most frequent problems concerned swallowing, pain, and weight loss. Interestingly, clinical outcome measures and patients' perception did no always concur. E.g. videofluoroscopy identified aspiration and laryngeal penetration in 18% of the patients, whereas only 7 patients (13% perceived this as problematic; only 2 out of 7 patients with objective trismus actually perceived trismus. Conclusion The assessment identified several problems already pre-treatment, in this patient population. A thorough assessment of both clinical measures and patients' views appears to be necessary to gain insight in all (perceived pre-existing functional and quality of life problems.

  13. Observations of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time in 107 patients referred for definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. Robert; Hanks, Gerald E.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling times (PSADT) in patients referred for definitive radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven patients with histologically proven nonmetastatic prostate cancer and an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) who were referred for radiation therapy had three serum PSA values obtained prior to the start of definitive therapy. Prostate-specific antigen doubling times were calculated by linear regression. Results: Prostate-specific antigen values increased during the period of observation in 78 patients (73%). Forty-three patients (40%) had calculated PSADT of less than 2 years and of those patients with pretreatment serum PSA values of greater than 10 ng/mL more than 50% has calculated PSADT of less than 2 years. Conclusions: A significant minority of patients referred for radiotherapy have calculated PSADT of less than 2 years. The significance of this relatively fast growth rate is as yet undetermined, but suggests that patients referred for radiotherapy may have aggressive disease prior to treatment

  14. Response to pazopanib in two pediatric patients with pretreated relapsing synovial sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Michela; Basso, Eleonora; Magni, Chiara; Bergamaschi, Luca; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Carta, Roberto; Tirtei, Elisa; Massimino, Maura; Fagioli, Franca; Ferrari, Andrea

    2017-01-21

    Pazopanib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has proved effective in adults treated for relapsing soft tissue sarcoma and synovial sarcoma in particular. Two cases are reported here of pediatric patients with pretreated relapsing synovial sarcoma whose tumors showed a prolonged response to pazopanib given on compassionate grounds. These results suggest that new agents found effective in adult patients might achieve similar results in adolescents with the same disease. Facilitating the availability of new drugs for children and adolescents is a major challenge for pediatric oncologists.

  15. Pretreatment Diffusion-Weighted MRI Can Predict the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore the potential of diffusion-weighted (DW magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC for predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Methods and Materials. Ninety-two consecutive patients with NPC who underwent three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. DW and anatomical MRI were performed before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy. Pretreatment ADCs and percentage increases in ADC after chemotherapy were calculated for the primary lesions and metastatic adenopathies. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to select optimal pretreatment ADCs. Results. Pretreatment mean ADCs were significantly lower for responders than for nonresponders (primary lesions, P=0.012; metastatic adenopathies, P=0.013. Mean percentage increases in ADC were higher for responders than for nonresponders (primary lesions, P=0.008; metastatic adenopathies, P<0.001. The optimal pretreatment primary lesion and metastatic adenopathy ADCs for differentiating responders from nonresponders were 0.897 × 10−3 mm2/sec and 1.031 × 10−3 mm2/sec, respectively. Conclusions. NPC patients with low pretreatment ADCs tend to respond better to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pretreatment ADCs could be used as a new pretreatment imaging biomarker of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  16. Essential pre-treatment imaging examinations in patients with endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Mari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no reports discussing which imaging procedures are truly necessary before treatment of endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer (eEGC. The aim of this pilot study was to show which imaging examinations are essential to select indicated treatment or appropriate strategy in patients with eEGC. Methods In 140 consecutive patients (95 men, 45 women; age, 66.4 +/- 11.3 years [mean +/- standard deviation], range, 33-90 with eEGC which were diagnosed during two years, the pre-treatment results of ultrasonography (US and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT of the abdomen, barium enema (BE and chest radiography (CR were retrospectively reviewed. Useful findings that might affect indication or strategy were evaluated. Results US demonstrated useful findings in 13 of 140 patients (9.3%: biliary tract stones (n = 11 and other malignant tumors (n = 2. Only one useful finding was demonstrated on CT (pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous tumor but not on US (0.7%; 95% confidential interval [CI], 2.1%. BE demonstrated colorectal carcinomas in six patients and polyps in 10 patients, altering treatment strategy (11.4%; 95%CI, 6.1-16.7%. Of these, only two colorectal carcinomas were detected on CT. CR showed three relevant findings (2.1%: pulmonary carcinoma (n = 1 and cardiomegaly (n = 2. Seventy-nine patients (56% were treated surgically and 56 patients were treated by endoscopic intervention. The remaining five patients received no treatment due to various reasons. Conclusions US, BE and CR may be essential as pre-treatment imaging examinations because they occasionally detect findings which affect treatment indication and strategy, although abdominal contrast-enhanced CT rarely provide additional information.

  17. Improving the quality of pretreatment staging in patients with esophageal carcinoma - a fast track study

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    Didden, Paul; Spaander, Manon C. W.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bruno, Marco J. (Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)), E-mail: v.spaander@erasmusmc.nl; Wijnhoven, Bas P. L. (Department of Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    2012-03-15

    Background: Current guidelines for esophageal cancer recommend series of diagnostic investigations to determine pretreatment TNM stage. When investigations are done sequentially, diagnostic work-up time may be prolonged considerably. Aim of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a fast track staging strategy within five days after the first consultation. Material and methods: Between 2007 and 2010 all patients presenting with esophageal cancer at the Department of Gastroenterology in a tertiary referral center were prospectively analyzed. At Day 1 all patients underwent computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and ultrasonography of the neck (United States). Results and treatment implications were discussed within a multidisciplinary meeting. This fast track strategy was considered completed successfully if pre-treatment TNM classification was achieved and therapy was proposed to the patient at the outpatient clinic at Day five. In those cases where staging period time was prolonged, the number and type of additional tests were documented including the ensuing time delay. Results: In 111 patients CT, EUS and US were performed in 100%, 88.3% and 97.3% respectively. A final TNM stage and treatment proposal was reached at Day 5 in 60% of the patients. Additional tests were diverse and mainly used to prove local irresectability or presence of distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis identified presence of lymphadenopathy (HR 0.25 p 0.03) and metastasis (HR 0.27 p = 0.03) as significant predictors of not completing the staging period within five days. In 18% of patients overuse of at least one test occurred, most commonly because CT already revealed distant metastasis. Conclusion: Employment of a fast track five day staging strategy in patients with esophageal carcinoma is feasible. Definite TNM stage and treatment proposal can be achieved in 60% of cases, but comes at the expense of test overuse in about one fifth of patients

  18. 131I therapy for 345 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism: Without antithyroid drug pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jialiu; Fang, Yi; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Long, Yahong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and long-term results of 131I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment. From January 2002 to December 2012, 408 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with 131I alone. Among them, 345 were followed up for 1 to 10 years for physical examination, thyroid function, and thyroid ultrasound. Complete Blood Count (CBC) liver function, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) thyroid imaging were performed as indicated. The 345 patients had concomitant conditions including thyrotoxic heart disease, severe liver dysfunction, enlarged thyroid weighing 80 to 400 g, severe cytopenia, and vasculitis. One to two weeks prior to 131I therapy, all patients were given low-iodine diet. The dose of 131I therapy was 2.59 to 6.66 MBq (70 to180 µCi) per gram of thyroid with an average of 3.83 ± 0.6 MBq (103.6 ± 16.4 µCi); and the total 131I activity administrated for the individuals was 111 to 3507.6 MBq (3.0 to 94.8 mCi, mean 444 ± 336.7 MBq (12.0 ± 9.1 mCi)). Out of the 408 patients, 283 were cured, 15 with complete remission, and 47 with incomplete remission. No treatment failure or significant clinical worsening was noted in these patients. Our data indicated that 131I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment is safe and effective. PMID:26341470

  19. 131I therapy for 345 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism: Without antithyroid drug pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Xing, Jialiu; Fang, Yi; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Long, Yahong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and long-term results of (131)I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment. From January 2002 to December 2012, 408 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with (131)I alone. Among them, 345 were followed up for 1 to 10 years for physical examination, thyroid function, and thyroid ultrasound. Complete Blood Count (CBC) liver function, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) thyroid imaging were performed as indicated. The 345 patients had concomitant conditions including thyrotoxic heart disease, severe liver dysfunction, enlarged thyroid weighing 80 to 400 g, severe cytopenia, and vasculitis. One to two weeks prior to (131)I therapy, all patients were given low-iodine diet. The dose of (131)I therapy was 2.59 to 6.66 MBq (70 to180 µCi) per gram of thyroid with an average of 3.83 ± 0.6 MBq (103.6 ± 16.4 µCi); and the total (131)I activity administrated for the individuals was 111 to 3507.6 MBq (3.0 to 94.8 mCi, mean 444 ± 336.7 MBq (12.0 ± 9.1 mCi)). Out of the 408 patients, 283 were cured, 15 with complete remission, and 47 with incomplete remission. No treatment failure or significant clinical worsening was noted in these patients. Our data indicated that (131)I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment is safe and effective. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  20. Pretreatment depression as a prognostic indicator of survival and nutritional status in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Ae; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Lee, Sang-Ah; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Sung-Bae; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The emotional status of cancer patients is associated with disease course and treatment outcomes. In this study, the authors evaluated associations between the presence of pretreatment depression and pretreatment quality of life (QOL), nutritional status, and survival outcomes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). For this prospective study, 241 patients with previously untreated HNSCC who underwent curative treatments were enrolled. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 30-item Core QOL Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), and the EORTC QLQ Head and Neck Cancer module (QLQ-H&N35). EORTC QLQ scores were compared between depressive and nondepressive patients, as determined according to pretreatment BDI-II scores ≥ 14 and nutritional status and laboratory data. Pretreatment depression was present in 60 patients (24.9%). In depressive and nondepressive patients, the 3-year overall survival rates were 70.8% and 82.7%, respectively (P = .045), and the 3-year DFS rates were 63.5% and 79.1%, respectively (P = .015). After controlling for clinical factors, the presence of depression was predictive of 3-year DFS (P = .032). EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HN35 scores on all items except feeding tube, nutritional supplement, and problem with mouth opening differed between depressive and nondepressive patients (P nutritional status, and survival outcomes in patients with HNSCC. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  1. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen values in patients with prostate cancer: 1989 patterns of care study process survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Hanlon, Alexandra M.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A Patterns of Care Study (PCS) national survey was conducted to show the national averages for processes of radiation therapy care for prostate cancer patients in 1989. In the current study we report an analysis of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by stage, grade, and ethnic origin. Methods and Materials: Process data were collected from 672 patients treated in 1989 at 71 separate institutions. Four hundred and twenty-seven (64%) of these patients had a pretreatment PSA value recorded. Three hundred and forty-three of the 427 patients were treated with external beam irradiation alone and were selected for the current analysis. The 1992 AJCC staging system was used. Results: There was a significant increase in pretreatment PSA with increasing stage. The median values of PSA were 8.3 ngm/ml in the T1 group (n = 65), 11.2 ngm/ml in the T2 group (n = 178), and 20.9 ngm/ml in the T3 group (n = 90) (p < 0.001). Ten patients were not staged. There was a significant increase in pretreatment PSA with decreasing differentiation. The median pretreatment PSA was 9.7 ngm/ml in well-differentiated tumors (n = 109), 13.0 ngm/ml in moderately differentiated tumors (n = 163), and 22.0 ngm/ml in poorly differentiated tumors. (n = 61) (p < 0.001). Ten patients had no differentiation recorded. African Americans (24) showed a significant increase in pretreatment PSA compared to Caucasians (304). The respective medians were 23.2 ng/ml and 11.9 ng/ml (p = 0.04). They also show more poorly differentiated tumors (33% vs. 17%) and more T3 tumors (46% vs. 25%). Other minorities, although small in number (n = 9) were similar to African Americans. Conclusion: Pretreatment PSA levels were established for patients treated with external beam irradiation in 1989 in the United States. They increase with stage and decreasing differentiation. African Americans and other minorities show a doubling of median values compared to Caucasians' pretreatment PSA with an increase in stage

  2. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in the treatment patients with progressive recurrent malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.S.; Grunnet, K.; Sorensen, M.

    2009-01-01

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively determined the efficacy and safety of a combination of bevacizumab and irinotecan in a consecutive series of 52 heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours. Patients received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) and irinotecan [340 mg/m(2...... acceptable safety and is a clinically relevant choice of therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  3. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  4. Pretreatment Serum Testosterone and Androgen Deprivation: Effect on Disease Recurrence and Overall Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Adamovich, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Low testosterone has been implicated as a possible adverse prognostic factor in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. We evaluated the impact of pretreatment serum testosterone on survival after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From October 2001 to November 2004, 619 patients underwent brachytherapy and 546 had a pretreatment serum testosterone level measured. Pretreatment serum testosterone levels were assigned by the following criteria: below-normal (n = 105), low normal (n = 246), mid normal (n = 132), high normal (n = 50), and above normal (n = 13). Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Cause of death was determined for each deceased patient. Results: Six-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were 97.7%, 99.8%, and 89.2%. When comparing patients with low or low normal testosterone with those with average or higher testosterone, there was no significant difference in bPFS (97.6% vs. 98.4%; p = 0.72), CSS (99.8% vs. 100%; p = 0.72), or OS (88.9% vs. 90.8%; p = 0.73). Among patients with average and higher pretreatment testosterone, there was no significant difference in outcomes when comparing patients who did and did not receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). For patients with low or low normal testosterone levels, there was no significant difference in bPFS or CSS when comparing patients who did and did not receive ADT. However, there was a trend toward lower OS in patients with baseline lower testosterone levels who also received ADT (83.9% vs. 91.3%, p = 0.075). Conclusions: Low pretreatment testosterone levels alone did not affect disease recurrence or OS. Patients with baseline low testosterone who also were treated with ADT had a trend toward decreased OS.

  5. Beam-centric algorithm for pretreatment patient position correction in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Supratik; Shukla, Himanshu; Maltz, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In current image guided pretreatment patient position adjustment methods, image registration is used to determine alignment parameters. Since most positioning hardware lacks the full six degrees of freedom (DOF), accuracy is compromised. The authors show that such compromises are often unnecessary when one models the planned treatment beams as part of the adjustment calculation process. The authors present a flexible algorithm for determining optimal realizable adjustments for both step-and-shoot and arc delivery methods. Methods: The beam shape model is based on the polygonal intersection of each beam segment with the plane in pretreatment image volume that passes through machine isocenter perpendicular to the central axis of the beam. Under a virtual six-DOF correction, ideal positions of these polygon vertices are computed. The proposed method determines the couch, gantry, and collimator adjustments that minimize the total mismatch of all vertices over all segments with respect to their ideal positions. Using this geometric error metric as a function of the number of available DOF, the user may select the most desirable correction regime. Results: For a simulated treatment plan consisting of three equally weighted coplanar fixed beams, the authors achieve a 7% residual geometric error (with respect to the ideal correction, considered 0% error) by applying gantry rotation as well as translation and isocentric rotation of the couch. For a clinical head-and-neck intensity modulated radiotherapy plan with seven beams and five segments per beam, the corresponding error is 6%. Correction involving only couch translation (typical clinical practice) leads to a much larger 18% mismatch. Clinically significant consequences of more accurate adjustment are apparent in the dose volume histograms of target and critical structures. Conclusions: The algorithm achieves improvements in delivery accuracy using standard delivery hardware without significantly increasing

  6. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (pcervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Catching errors with patient-specific pretreatment machine log file analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Zhu, Mingyao; Yang, Deshan; Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya; Yaddanapudi, Sridhar; Wooten, Omar H; Brame, Scott; Mutic, Sasa

    2013-01-01

    A robust, efficient, and reliable quality assurance (QA) process is highly desired for modern external beam radiation therapy treatments. Here, we report the results of a semiautomatic, pretreatment, patient-specific QA process based on dynamic machine log file analysis clinically implemented for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments delivered by high energy linear accelerators (Varian 2100/2300 EX, Trilogy, iX-D, Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA). The multileaf collimator machine (MLC) log files are called Dynalog by Varian. Using an in-house developed computer program called "Dynalog QA," we automatically compare the beam delivery parameters in the log files that are generated during pretreatment point dose verification measurements, with the treatment plan to determine any discrepancies in IMRT deliveries. Fluence maps are constructed and compared between the delivered and planned beams. Since clinical introduction in June 2009, 912 machine log file analyses QA were performed by the end of 2010. Among these, 14 errors causing dosimetric deviation were detected and required further investigation and intervention. These errors were the result of human operating mistakes, flawed treatment planning, and data modification during plan file transfer. Minor errors were also reported in 174 other log file analyses, some of which stemmed from false positives and unreliable results; the origins of these are discussed herein. It has been demonstrated that the machine log file analysis is a robust, efficient, and reliable QA process capable of detecting errors originating from human mistakes, flawed planning, and data transfer problems. The possibility of detecting these errors is low using point and planar dosimetric measurements. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pretreatment quality of life in patients with rectal cancer is associated with intrusive thoughts and sense of coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Dan; Bisgaard, Thue; Bock, David

    2017-01-01

    of coherence with pretreatment quality of life in patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients were prospectively included in 16 hospitals in Sweden and Denmark. They answered an extensive questionnaire after receiving their treatment plan. Clinical data were retrieved from national quality...... registries for rectal cancer. RESULTS: Of 1248 included patients, a total of 1085 were evaluable. Pretreatment global health-related and overall quality of life was lower in patients planned for palliative compared with curative treatment (median 53 vs. 80 on the EuroQoL visual analogue scale, p ...PURPOSE: Quality of life may predict survival. In addition to clinical variables, it may be influenced by psychological factors, some of which may be accessible for intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association of intrusive thoughts and the patients' sense...

  9. Pretreatment factors significantly influence quality of life in cancer patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsas, Benjamin; Scott, Charles; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to assess the impact of pretreatment factors on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. Methods and Materials Pretreatment QOL (via Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT], version 2) was obtained in 1,428 patients in several prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials including nonmetastatic head-and-neck (n = 1139), esophageal (n = 174), lung (n = 51), rectal (n = 47), and prostate (n = 17) cancer patients. Clinically meaningful differences between groups were defined as a difference of 1 standard error of measurement (SEM). Results The mean FACT score for all patients was 86 (20.7-112) with SEM of 5.3. Statistically significant differences in QOL were observed based on age, race, Karnofsky Performance Status, marital status, education level, income level, and employment status, but not by gender or primary site. Using the SEM, there were clinically meaningful differences between patients ≤50 years vs. ≥65 years. Hispanics had worse QOL than whites. FACT increased linearly with higher Karnofsky Performance Status and income levels. Married patients (or live-in relationships) had a better QOL than single, divorced, or widowed patients. College graduates had better QOL than those with less education. Conclusion Most pretreatment factors meaningfully influenced baseline QOL. The potentially devastating impact of a cancer diagnosis, particularly in young and minority patients, must be addressed

  10. Moving from gamma passing rates to patient DVH-based QA metrics in pretreatment dose QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Heming; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 and Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to explore the usefulness of the gamma passing rate metric for per-patient, pretreatment dose QA and to validate a novel patient-dose/DVH-based method and its accuracy and correlation. Specifically, correlations between: (1) gamma passing rates for three 3D dosimeter detector geometries vs clinically relevant patient DVH-based metrics; (2) Gamma passing rates of whole patient dose grids vs DVH-based metrics, (3) gamma passing rates filtered by region of interest (ROI) vs DVH-based metrics, and (4) the capability of a novel software algorithm that estimates corrected patient Dose-DVH based on conventional phan-tom QA data are analyzed. Methods: Ninety six unique ''imperfect'' step-and-shoot IMRT plans were generated by applying four different types of errors on 24 clinical Head/Neck patients. The 3D patient doses as well as the dose to a cylindrical QA phantom were then recalculated using an error-free beam model to serve as a simulated measurement for comparison. Resulting deviations to the planned vs simulated measured DVH-based metrics were generated, as were gamma passing rates for a variety of difference/distance criteria covering: dose-in-phantom comparisons and dose-in-patient comparisons, with the in-patient results calculated both over the whole grid and per-ROI volume. Finally, patient dose and DVH were predicted using the conventional per-beam planar data as input into a commercial ''planned dose perturbation'' (PDP) algorithm, and the results of these predicted DVH-based metrics were compared to the known values. Results: A range of weak to moderate correlations were found between clinically relevant patient DVH metrics (CTV-D95, parotid D{sub mean}, spinal cord D1cc, and larynx D{sub mean}) and both 3D detector and 3D patient gamma passing rate (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm) for dose-in-phantom along with dose-in-patient for both whole patient volume and filtered per-ROI. There was

  11. Prediction of Febrile Neutropenia after Chemotherapy Based on Pretreatment Risk Factors among Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roen, Ashley; Daugaard, Gedske; Brown, Peter; Sengeløv, Henrik; Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens; Helleberg, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common complication to chemotherapy associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. Reliable prediction of individual risk based on pretreatment risk factors allows for stratification of preventive interventions. We aimed to develop such a risk stratification model to predict FN in the 30 days after initiation of chemotherapy. Methods We included consecutive treatment-naïve patients with solid cancers and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas at Copenhagen University Hospital, 2010–2015. Data were obtained from the PERSIMUNE repository of electronic health records. FN was defined as neutrophils ≤0.5 × 10E9/L ​at the time of either a blood culture sample or death. Time from initiation of chemotherapy to FN was analyzed using Fine-Gray models with death as a competing event. Risk factors investigated were: age, sex, body surface area, haemoglobin, albumin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and chemotherapy drugs. Parameter estimates were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The scores were grouped into four: low, intermediate, high and very high risk. Results Among 8,585 patients, 467 experienced FN, incidence rate/30 person-days 0.05 (95% CI, 0.05–0.06). Age (1 point if > 65 years), albumin (1 point if 2) and chemotherapy (range -5 to 6 points/drug) predicted FN. Median score at inclusion was 2 points (range –5 to 9). The cumulative incidence and the incidence rates and hazard ratios of FN are shown in Figure 1 and Table 1, respectively. Conclusion We developed a risk score to predict FN the first month after initiation of chemotherapy. The score is easy to use and provides good differentiation of risk groups; the score needs independent validation before routine use. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

  12. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  13. Does imiquimod pretreatment optimize 308-nm excimer laser (UVB) therapy in psoriasis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacastacas, Joselin D; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Soler, David C; Young, Andrew; Groft, Sarah; Honda, Kord; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Psoriasis continues to be a debilitating skin disease affecting 1-3% of the United States population. Although the effectiveness of several current biologic therapies have described this pathology as a IL-23, TNF-a and Th17-mediated disease, less invasive approaches are still in use and in need of refinement. One of these is the usage of narrow band-UVB (NB-UVB) therapy to deplete specifically intra-epidermal CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells to clear psoriatic plaques. In order to improve NB-UVB therapy, we sought to determine whether skin pre-treatment with the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) would help increase the efficiency of the former at resolving psoriatic plaques. Eucerin ® Original Moisturizing Lotion (topical vehicle) or Aldara ® (imiquimod 5% topical cream) were applied for 5 days once daily to a maximum contiguous area of 25 cm 2 (5 cm × 5 cm area). Patients were provided with sachets containing 12.5 mg of imiquimod each and were instructed to apply imiquimod (I) to two psoriasis plaques (5 sachets of imiquimod allotted to each plaque). A PHAROS excimer Laser EX-308 (Ra Medical Systems, Inc. Carlsbad, CA, USA) with an output of monochromatic 308-nm light and pulse width of 20-50 ns was used for all patients. Punch biopsies of psoriatic lesions (6 mm) were taken at 4 and 48 h after final application of topical treatment with or without excimer laser treatment. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed according to manufacturer's instructions and Inmunohistochemistry was used as described before. Our results suggests that although IMQ seemed to activate the type I interferon pathway as previously described, its concomitant usage with NB-UVB for clearing psoriatic skin was ineffective. Although upregulation of genes MxA, GRAMD1A and DMXL2 suggested that IMQ treatment did induce skin changes in psoriasis patients, more optimal dosing of IMQ and NB-UVB might be necessary to achieve desired treatment responses. The observation that psoriasis involvement was not

  14. Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Robert; Damber, Jan Erik; Hagerman, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prognostic risk factors for cardiovascular events during treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients with high-dose parenteral polyoestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin®) or combined androgen deprivation (CAD) with special emphasis on pretreatment cardiovascular...

  15. Virological failure and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among naive and antiretroviral pre-treated patients entering the ESTHER program of Calmette Hospital in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In resource limited settings, patients entering an antiretroviral therapy (ART program comprise ART naive and ART pre-treated patients who may show differential virological outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study, conducted in 2010-2012 in the HIV clinic of Calmette Hospital located in Phnom Penh (Cambodia assessed virological failure (VF rates and patterns of drug resistance of naive and pre-treated patients. Naive and ART pre-treated patients were included when a Viral Load (VL was performed during the first year of ART for naive subjects or at the first consultation for pre-treated individuals. Patients showing Virological failure (VF (>1,000 copies/ml underwent HIV DR genotyping testing. Interpretation of drug resistance mutations was done according to 2013 version 23 ANRS algorithms. RESULTS: On a total of 209 patients, 164 (78.4% were naive and 45 (21.5% were ART pre-treated. Their median initial CD4 counts were 74 cells/mm3 (IQR: 30-194 and 279 cells/mm3 (IQR: 103-455 (p<0.001, respectively. Twenty seven patients (12.9% exhibited VF (95% CI: 8.6-18.2%, including 10 naive (10/164, 6.0% and 17 pre-treated (17/45, 37.8% patients (p<0.001. Among these viremic patients, twenty-two (81.4% were sequenced in reverse transcriptase and protease coding regions. Overall, 19 (86.3% harbored ≥1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs whereas 3 (all belonging to pre-treated patients harbored wild-types viruses. The most frequent DRMs were M184V (86.3%, K103N (45.5% and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs (40.9%. Two (13.3% pre-treated patients harbored viruses that showed a multi-nucleos(tide resistance including Q151M, K65R, E33A/D, E44A/D mutations. CONCLUSION: In Cambodia, VF rates were low for naive patients but the emergence of DRMs to NNRTI and 3TC occurred relatively quickly in this subgroup. In pre-treated patients, VF rates were much higher and TAMs were relatively common. HIV genotypic assays before ART initiation and for ART pre-treated

  16. Pretreatment Staging Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients With Inflammatory Breast Cancer Influences Radiation Treatment Field Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gary V.; Niikura, Naoki; Yang Wei; Rohren, Eric; Valero, Vicente; Woodward, Wendy A.; Alvarez, Ricardo H.; Lucci, Anthony; Ueno, Naoto T.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly being utilized for staging of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The purpose of this study was to define how pretreatment PET/CT studies affected postmastectomy radiation treatment (PMRT) planning decisions for IBC. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of 62 patients diagnosed with IBC between 2004 and 2009, who were treated with PMRT in our institution and who had a staging PET/CT within 3 months of diagnosis. Patients received a baseline physical examination, staging mammography, ultrasonographic examination of breast and draining lymphatics, and chest radiography; most patients also had a bone scan (55 patients), liver imaging (52 patients), breast MRI (46 patients), and chest CT (25 patients). We compared how PET/CT findings affected PMRT, assuming that standard PMRT would target the chest wall, level III axilla, supraclavicular fossa, and internal mammary chain (IMC). Any modification of target volumes, field borders, or dose prescriptions was considered a change. Results: PET/CT detected new areas of disease in 27 of the 62 patients (44%). The areas of additional disease included the breast (1 patient), ipsilateral axilla (1 patient), ipsilateral supraclavicular (4 patients), ipsilateral infraclavicular (1 patient), ipsilateral IMC (5 patients), ipsilateral subpectoral (3 patients), mediastinal (8 patients), other distant/contralateral lymph nodes (15 patients), or bone (6 patients). One patient was found to have a non-breast second primary tumor. The findings of the PET/CT led to changes in PMRT in 11 of 62 patients (17.7%). These changes included additional fields in 5 patients, adjustment of fields in 2 patients, and higher doses to the supraclavicular fossa (2 patients) and IMC (5 patients). Conclusions: For patients with newly diagnosed IBC, pretreatment PET/CT provides important information concerning involvement of locoregional lymph nodes

  17. The significance of pretreatment CD4 count on the outcome and treatment tolerance of HIV-positive patients with anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Rex; Welton, Mark L.; Klencke, Barbara; Weinberg, Vivian; Krieg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcome and tolerance of HIV-positive patients with anal cancer to standard therapy based on their pretreatment CD4 count. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 1997, 17 HIV-positive patients with anal cancer and documented pretreatment CD4 counts were treated at the University of California, San Francisco or its affiliated hospitals with either concurrent chemotherapy and radiation or radiation alone. The outcome and complications of treatment were correlated with the patients' pretreatment CD4 count. Results: Disease for all 9 patients with pretreatment CD4 counts ≥ 200 was controlled with chemoradiation. Although four required a treatment break of 2 weeks because of toxicity, none required hospitalization. Of the 8 patients with pretreatment CD4 counts < 200, 4 experienced decreased counts, intractable diarrhea, or moist desquamation requiring hospitalization. Additionally, 4 of these 8 ultimately required a colostomy either for a therapy-related complication or for salvage. Nevertheless, 6/7 in this group who received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation had their disease controlled, whereas the patient treated with radiation alone failed and required a colostomy for salvage. Conclusion: Patients with CD4 ≥ 200 had excellent disease control with acceptable morbidity. Patients with CD4 < 200 had markedly increased morbidity; however, disease was ultimately controlled in 7/8 patients

  18. SINGLE AGENT DOCETAXEL AS SECOND- LINE CHEMOTHERAPY FOR PRETREATED PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT NON- SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan N. Davidov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Single agent Docetaxel is a standard therapy for patients with non- small cell lung cancer after the failure of platinum- containing regimens. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of Docetaxel monotherapy as second- line chemotherapy in pretreated patient with inoperable non- small cell lung cancer. Methods: From January 2005 to May 2008 thirty- six consecutive patients with locally advanced or metastatic morphologically proven stage IIIB/ IV non- small cell lung cancer entered the study after failure of previous platinum- based regimens. Treatment schedule consist of Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 administered every three weeks with repetition after 21 days with Dexamethasone premedication. Results: Overall response rate, median time to progression and median survival was 16,6 %, 4,5 months and 5,6 months respectively. The main hematological toxicity was neutropenia. Conclusions: That data suggest that single agent Docetaxel remain reasonable choices for the chemotherapy in pretreated patients with non- small cell lung cancer.

  19. [Effect of intensive pretreatment with atorvastatin calcium on outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention in elderly patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Huang, Xuecheng; Wang, Qiwu

    2015-02-01

    To observe the effects of different loading doses of atorvastatin calcium on the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). A total of 120 CHD patients aged over 80 years were randomly assigned into 3 equal groups to receive intensive pretreatment with statin at the doses of 20, 40, or 60 mg prior to PCI performed within 48 to 72 h after admission. The changes of postoperative cardiac biochemical markers including creatine kinase isoenzyme (CKMB), troponin I (cTNI) and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were observed and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization) were recorded within 30 days after PCI. Thirty-four patients in 20 mg statin group, 40 in 40 mg statin group, and 38 in 60 mg statin group completed this study. In all the 3 groups, hs-CRP level significantly increased at 12 and 24 h after PCI compared with the preoperative levels (P0.05). Intensive pretreatment with 60 mg/day atorvastatin calcium can significantly reduce myocardial infarction related to PCI with good safety in elderly patients with CHD.

  20. Real-life experience of ceritinib in crizotinib-pretreated ALK+ advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Cadranel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we report our experience of ceritinib in crizotinib-pretreated patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK positive (ALK+ non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in a French temporary authorisation for use (TAU study. The French TAU study included crizotinib-pretreated patients with advanced ALK+ or ROS proto-oncogene 1 positive (ROS1+ tumours. Patients received oral ceritinib (750 mg·day−1 as a starting dose and best tumour response (as evaluated by the investigator and safety were reported every 3 months. A total of 242 TAUs were granted from March 12, 2013 to August 05, 2015. Of the 242 patients, 228 had ALK+ NSCLC and 13 had ROS1+ NSCLC. The median age of ALK+ patients (n=214 was 58.5 years, 51.9% were female, 70.8% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG performance status (PS of 0–1 and 50.0% had brain metastases. Of the 149 efficacy evaluable ALK+ NSCLC patients, 5.4% had a complete response (CR, 47.0% had a partial response (PR and 22.8% had stable disease (SD. At September 05, 2015, the median duration of ceritinib treatment (n=182 was 3.9 months but 5.5 months for patients (n=71 with a follow-up of ≥12 months. Higher objective response rate (ORR was observed for patients with ECOG PS 0 to 1 (55.0% versus 42.4% and those receiving prior crizotinib for >5 months (51.6% versus 36.1%. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs were reported in 118 of 208 patients (56.7%, the most common being diarrhoea (22.1% and hepatic toxicity (19.7%. Ceritinib (750 mg·day−1 demonstrated efficacy similar efficacy to ASCEND-1, ASCEND-2 and phase 3 ASCEND-5 trials with manageable safety in crizotinib-pretreated patients with ALK+ NSCLC.

  1. Infusion-related reactions to infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a clinical practice setting: relationship to dose, antihistamine pretreatment, and infusion number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael J; Weber, Deborah A; Guthrie, Judith A; Bykerk, Vivian P; Lee, Peter; Keystone, Edward C

    2004-10-01

    We describe infusion-related reactions to infliximab (during infusion or within 1 hour postinfusion) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated in a quaternary care center. We followed 113 patients for a mean of 60.6 +/- 28.9 weeks, obtaining 10.5 +/- 4.9 infusions per patient. We observed 1183 infusions resulting in 104 infusion reactions (8.8%). All reactions resolved within several hours following cessation of the infusion and none was serious enough to warrant hospitalization. Reactions included allergic reactions (pruritus, urticaria) in 4.2% of infusions, cardiopulmonary (hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia) in 3.0%, and miscellaneous reactions (headache, nausea, vomiting) in 2.0%. Reactions occurred in 8.0% of 3 mg/kg infusions and in 10.3% of 5 mg/kg infusions. Reactions occurred in 13.2% of infusions that involved antihistamine pretreatment compared to only 7.5% of infusions that involved no pretreatment. At both infliximab doses, there was a similar frequency of infusion reactions in patients pretreated due to a previous infusion (12.6%) compared to those pretreated strictly based on infusion number (14.7%). A number of the reactions involving antihistamine pretreatment may be explained by known side effects of diphenhydramine, including headache, dizziness, nausea, and palpitations. Infusion-related reactions to infliximab were infrequent, rarely severe, and easily manageable. The frequency of reactions was equivalent in patients treated with 3 mg/kg compared to 5 mg/kg. Reactions were significantly more frequent in infusions where patients were pretreated with the antihistamine diphenhydramine, compared to those not involving pretreatment.

  2. Activity and toxicity of oxaliplatin and bolus fluorouracil plus leucovorin in pretreated colorectal cancer patients: a phase 2. study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraresi, V.; Buccilli, A.; Giannarelli, D.; Ciccarese, M. [Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Medical Oncology; Giampaolo, M.A.; Gabriele, A.; Buccilli, A.; Gamucci, T. [Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Frosinone (Italy). Complex Operative Unit of Medical Oncology

    2005-06-15

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the activity and toxicity of a combination of oxaliplatin with bolus fluorouracil and leucovorin in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients pretreated for advanced disease with various schedules including continuous fluorouracil infusion. Thirty consecutive patients with pretreated advanced CRC received oxaliplatin 130 mg/m{sup 2} by 2-h infusion dl, leucovorin 100 mg/m{sup 2} by 1-h infusion followed by fluorouracil 425 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. bolus from day 1 to 3 every 3 weeks for a maximum of 6 cycles. The best overall response rate in an intent-to-treat analysis was 13% (2 complete responses and 2 partial responses) (95% CI, 1.2-25.5%) and 37% of patients obtained stable disease with a tumor growth control rate of 50% (95% CI, 32.1-67.9%). The median progression-free survival was 4.0 months (95% CI, 1.4-6.5 months) and median overall survival was 12.0 months (95% CI, 9.9-14.1 months). The independent prognostic factors for improved overall survival were a good performance status and a response/stabilization of disease to chemotherapy. Severe neutropenia was quite common (43.3% of patients and 14.4% of cycles), although complicated by fever only in one case (3.3% of patients). There was one toxic death. In conclusion, the study combination showed an interesting rate of tumor growth control in a cohort of patients previously treated for advanced disease with various schedules including continuous fluorouracil infusion.

  3. Impact of Pretreatment Hydronephrosis on the Success Rate of Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Patients with Ureteral Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ki Don; Lee, Joo Yong; Park, Sung Yoon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Hyung Ho; Cho, Kang Su

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate predictors of the success rate for one session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), focusing on the relationships between pretreatment hydronephrosis grade and one-session SWL success rates. The medical records of 1824 consecutive patients who underwent an initial session of SWL for treatment of urinary stones between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. After exclusion, 700 patients with a single, 4-20 mm diameter radiopaque calculus were included in the study. The mean maximal stone length (MSL) and skin-to-stone distance were 9.2±3.9 and 110.8±18.9 mm, respectively. The average values for mean stone density (MSD) and stone heterogeneity index (SHI) were 707.0±272.1 and 244.9±110.1, respectively. One-session success rates were 68.4, 75.0, 75.1, 54.0, and 10.5% in patients with hydronephrosis grade 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Patients were classified into success or failure groups based on SWL outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that MSL [odds ratio (OR) 0.888, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.841-0.934, phydronephrosis grade (OR 0.601, 95% CI: 0.368-0.988, p=0.043) were significantly associated with one-session success. Pretreatment grades 3 or 4 hydronephrosis were associated with failure of SWL in patients with a single ureteral stone. In the presence of severe hydronephrosis, especially hydronephrosis grade 4; physicians should proceed cautiously in choosing and offering SWL as the primary treatment for ureteral stone. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  4. Predictive value of pretreatment lymphocyte count in stage II colorectal cancer and in high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Huixun; Huang, Liyong; Li, Dawei; Li, Qingguo; Li, Xinxiang

    2016-01-05

    Pretreatment lymphocyte count (LC) has been associated with prognosis and chemotherapy response in several cancers. The predictive value of LC for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and for high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) has not been determined. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 1332 consecutive stage II CRC patients who underwent curative tumor resection was conducted. A pretreatment LC value risk, 459 (62.2%) of whom received AC. Patients with low LCs had significantly worse 5-year OS (74.6% vs. 90.2%, p risk patients with low LCs had the poorest DFS (p value or combined with high-risk status were both independent prognostic factors(p risk, AC-treated patients with high LCs had significantly longer DFS than untreated patients (HR, 0.594; 95% CI, 0.364-0.970; p = 0.035). There was no difference or trend for DFS or OS in patients with low LCs, regardless of the use of AC (DFS, p = 0.692; OS, p = 0.522). Low LC was also independently associated with poorer DFS in high-risk, AC-treated patients (HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.112-3.196; p = 0.019). Pretreatment LC is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II CRC. Furthermore, pretreatment LC reliably predicts chemotherapeutic efficacy in high-risk patients with stage II CRC.

  5. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Ping-Ching; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI ( 2 vs. ≥25 kg/m 2 ). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

  6. Pretreatment axillary ultrasonography and core biopsy in patients with suspected breast cancer: Diagnostic accuracy and impact on management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ortega, Maria Jose, E-mail: rserranogan@telefonica.net [Breast Imaging Center, Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Alvarez Benito, Marina, E-mail: marinaalvarezbenito@telefonica.net [Breast Imaging Center, Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Fuentes Vahamonde, Elena, E-mail: elena.fuentes.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es [Pathology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Rioja Torres, Pilar, E-mail: priojat@yahoo.es [Clinical Management Unit, Department of General and Digestive Surgery, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Benitez Velasco, Ana, E-mail: abvelazco@yahoo.es [Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Martinez Paredes, Maria, E-mail: mariaparedes@uco.es [Radiology and Physical Medicine Area, University of Cordoba Medical School, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Preoperative diagnosis of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients enables treatment planning. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of axillary ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy, both alone and in combination, in detecting axillary metastases in patients with breast cancer and to assess the impact of these techniques on the patients' management. Materials and methods: Retrospective study of consecutive patients with suspected breast cancer examined between October 2006 and December 2008. The diagnosis of a primary tumor was histologically confirmed in all patients. All patients underwent axillary ultrasonography and percutaneous core biopsy (14G) of suspicious lymph nodes. We evaluated the morphological characteristics of the lymph nodes by ultrasonography. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography and of core biopsy, and assessed the impact of these techniques on patients' treatment. Results: We evaluated 675 axillary regions and performed 291 core biopsies of axillary lymph nodes in 662 patients. In 650 patients, breast cancer was histologically confirmed and in 12 patients malignant tumors in other locations were confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of axillary ultrasonography were 63.2% and 88.7%, respectively. The absence of a fatty hilum within the lymph node was the ultrasonographic finding with the highest positive predictive value for malignancy (93.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of axillary core biopsy were 69.1% and 100%, respectively. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was avoided in 33% of initial candidates and immediate breast reconstruction was undertaken in 35.1% of the patients with mastectomy and negative axillary core biopsy. Conclusions: Ultrasonography and axillary core biopsy enable adequate pretreatment staging in patients with breast cancer and has a positive impact on their management.

  7. Changes from 1992 to 2002 in the pretreatment delay for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of larynx or pharynx: a Danish nationwide survey from DAHANCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; Nielsen, Anni Linnet; Larsen, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark, a general impression of prolonged pretreatment delay for patients with head and neck cancer led to a nationwide study of time spans from symptom debut over first health care contact to start of treatment. Charts of consecutive new patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx a...

  8. Pretreatment Serum Cystatin C Levels Predict Renal Function, but Not Tumor Characteristics, in Patients with Prostate Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of Cystatin C (Cys-C in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa, we retrospectively collected the clinical information from the records of 492 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 48 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and 173 PCa patients, whose disease was newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed. Pretreatment serum Cys-C levels were compared across the various groups and then analyzed to identify relationships, if any, with clinical and pathological characteristics of the PCa patient group. There were no significant differences in serum Cys-C levels among the three groups (P > 0.05. In PCa patients with normal SCr levels, patient age was correlated with serum Cys-C level (P ≤ 0.001 but did not correlate with alkaline phosphatase (AKP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, prostate specific antigen (PSA, Gleason score, or bone metastasis status (P > 0.05. Age and SCr contributed in part to the variations in serum Cys-C levels of PCa patients (r = 0.356, P ≤ 0.001; r = 0.520, P ≤ 0.001. In conclusion, serum Cys-C levels predict renal function in patients with prostate neoplasia, but were not a biomarker for the development of prostate neoplasia, and were not correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of PCa.

  9. Quality of life in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients after haematopoietic cell transplantation pretreated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piekarska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To was to determine the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and active smoking on the efficacy of chemotherapy and complete blood count (CBC in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Material and methods : The retrospective evaluation included 50 patients with stage IIIB–IV NSCLC, who started cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Peripheral blood CBC values were collected for testing before chemotherapy and after the first and third cycles. Results: COPD was diagnosed in 49% of patients, while 42% of those enrolled were current smokers. Current smoking (p = 0.92 and COPD (p = 0.91 status did not affect the response to treatment. The non-COPD population presented a significantly higher pretreatment absolute lymphocyte count (ALC than the COPD population (2.31 vs. 1.81 × 109/l; p = 0.0374. Also, only the non-COPD group demonstrated an elevated absolute monocyte count (AMC following the first and third cycles of chemotherapy (p = 0.004. In current smokers, pretreatment values for white blood cells (WBC, absolute neutrophil count (ANC, and platelets (PLT were higher than in the ex-smoker population (WBC 9.94 vs. 8.7 (× 109/l; p = 0.01; ANC 6.47 vs. 5.61 (× 109/l; p = 0.037; PLT 316 vs. 266 (× 109/l; p = 0.049. Ex-smokers demonstrated AMC level elevation after the first cycle of chemotherapy and PLT level elevation after the third cycle, while current smokers also demonstrated an early decrease in LMR. Conclusions : COPD and smoking induce chronic systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which influence the results of standard laboratory tests, but do not change the response rate of lung cancer on chemotherapy.

  10. Therapeutic effect of flurbiprofen pretreatment on the intravenous injection pain induced by propofol in patients of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song SHI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of flurbiprofen pretreatment on the pain induced by propofol in patients of different ages.Methods One hundred and twenty patients with different age and undergoing general anesthesia were assigned to three groups(40 each according to their ages: 6-18 years(adolescent group,18-60 years(adult group,and over 60 years(aged group.Each group was randomly divided into two subgroups(20 each: flurbiprofen group and placebo group,and they respectively received intravenous injection of 5ml of 1mg/kg flurbiprofen(group FB or normal saline(group NS.The induction was produced by 1.5-2mg/kg Ⅳ propofol,and 1.5-2.0mg/kg Ⅳ succinylcholine was administered 20 seconds after propofol injection.Patients’ withdrawal movements,pain scores and any other discomfort complaints were assessed.Results The incidences of intravenous pain in group NS and group FB were respectively 47.9% and 11.2% in adult group,82.0% and 8.8% in adolescent group,and 28.0% and 4.7% in aged group.The incidence of withdrawal movements and pain scores were significantly lower in flurbiprofen group than in saline group regardless of ages(P < 0.05.Conclusion The pretreatment with 1.0mg/kg flurbiprofen may reduce the withdrawal movements and pain caused by propofol injection in patients of different age.

  11. Prediction of lung density changes after radiotherapy by cone beam computed tomography response markers and pre-treatment factors for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigates the ability of pre-treatment factors and response markers extracted from standard cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to predict the lung density changes induced by radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS...... AND MATERIALS: Density changes in follow-up computed tomography scans were evaluated for 135 NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy. Early response markers were obtained by analysing changes in lung density in CBCT images acquired during the treatment course. The ability of pre-treatment factors and CBCT...

  12. Pretreatment Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictor in Bladder Cancer and Metastatic or Unresectable Urothelial Carcinoma Patients: a Pooled Analysis of Comparative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuiqing; Zhao, Xiaokun; Wang, Yinhuai; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Jian; Ai, Kai; Xu, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Emerging studies have shown that the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a potential predictor in various tumors. Our study was conducted to assess the prognostic value of the pretreatment NLR in bladder cancer and metastatic or unresectable urothelial carcinoma (mUC or uUC) patients up to July 2017. The correlation between the pretreatment NLR and pathological characteristics was also evaluated in bladder cancer patients. The hazard ratio (HR) and odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted or calculated from the included studies for further pooled analysis. A total of 21 studies were included in a pooled analysis. The pooled results indicated that a high pretreatment NLR was associated with reduced overall survival (OS) (HR=1.27, 95% CI=1.12-1.43), relapse-free survival (RFS) (HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.23-1.60), progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=1.75, 95% CI=1.36-2.15), disease-specific survival (DSS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR=1.27, 95% CI=1.19-1.35) in the bladder cancer patients. Additionally, an elevated pretreatment NLR suggested a worse OS rate in the mUC or uUC patients (HR=1.63, 95% CI=1.34-1.91). The pooled ORs and 95% CIs showed that a high pretreatment NLR could be a risk indicator for certain pathological features, such as lymphovascular invasion, a positive margin status and advanced tumor stage. our results showed that a high pretreatment NLR predicted poor prognosis in bladder cancer, mUC and uUC patients. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved with long-term survival of cirrhotic patients after embolization of gastric fundal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Okugawa, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yoshizumi, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved in the long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with gastric fundal varices (FV) after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Materials and methods: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with medium- or large-grade FV treated by B-RTO were enrolled in this retrospective study. Pre-treatment flow volume ratio between gastric vein and portal trunk (GP-R) was obtained by Doppler ultrasound. Results: The cumulative survival rate was 90% at 1 year, 74.8% at 3 years, 57.2% at 5 years, and 45.8% at 7 years without recurrence in a median period of 1148.5 days The survival was poorer in patients with HCC (47% at 3 years, 9.4% at 5 years, p < 0.0001) than without (89.2% at 3 years, 81.9% at 5 years, 67.5% at 7 years), in patients with Child B/C (57.7% at 3 years, 42.1% at 5 years, 28.1% at 7 years, p = 0.0016) than with Child A (91.8% at 3 years, 71.5% at 5 years, 62.1% at 7 years), and in patients with GP-R ≥ 1.0 (58.9% at 3 years, p = 0.0485) than with GP-R < 1.0 (76.3% at 3 years, 62% at 5 years, 49.6% at 7 years). Multivariate analysis identified the presence of HCC (hazard ratio, 12.486; 95% CI, 4.08-38.216; p < 0.0001), Child B/C (hazard ratio, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.594-7.15; p = 0.0051) and GP-R ≥ 1.0 (hazard ratio, 2.701; 95% CI, 1.07-6.15; p = 0.0221) as independent factors for poor prognosis. Conclusion: GP-R ≥ 1.0 on Doppler ultrasound before B-RTO may be a predictive indicator for poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients with FV after B-RTO, in addition to the presence of HCC and severe liver damage.

  14. Pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved with long-term survival of cirrhotic patients after embolization of gastric fundal varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi, E-mail: maru-cib@umin.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Okugawa, Hidehiro, E-mail: hideun@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Kobayashi, Satoshi, E-mail: kobakobakopa@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yoshizumi, Hiroaki, E-mail: yossih04@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu, E-mail: yokosukao@faculty.chiba-u.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To clarify the pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved in the long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with gastric fundal varices (FV) after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Materials and methods: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with medium- or large-grade FV treated by B-RTO were enrolled in this retrospective study. Pre-treatment flow volume ratio between gastric vein and portal trunk (GP-R) was obtained by Doppler ultrasound. Results: The cumulative survival rate was 90% at 1 year, 74.8% at 3 years, 57.2% at 5 years, and 45.8% at 7 years without recurrence in a median period of 1148.5 days The survival was poorer in patients with HCC (47% at 3 years, 9.4% at 5 years, p < 0.0001) than without (89.2% at 3 years, 81.9% at 5 years, 67.5% at 7 years), in patients with Child B/C (57.7% at 3 years, 42.1% at 5 years, 28.1% at 7 years, p = 0.0016) than with Child A (91.8% at 3 years, 71.5% at 5 years, 62.1% at 7 years), and in patients with GP-R {>=} 1.0 (58.9% at 3 years, p = 0.0485) than with GP-R < 1.0 (76.3% at 3 years, 62% at 5 years, 49.6% at 7 years). Multivariate analysis identified the presence of HCC (hazard ratio, 12.486; 95% CI, 4.08-38.216; p < 0.0001), Child B/C (hazard ratio, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.594-7.15; p = 0.0051) and GP-R {>=} 1.0 (hazard ratio, 2.701; 95% CI, 1.07-6.15; p = 0.0221) as independent factors for poor prognosis. Conclusion: GP-R {>=} 1.0 on Doppler ultrasound before B-RTO may be a predictive indicator for poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients with FV after B-RTO, in addition to the presence of HCC and severe liver damage.

  15. Prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of hypopharyngeal cancer patients: Routinely performed esophagogastroduodenoscopy and FDG-PET/CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaminato, Shuichiro; Toriihara, Akira; Makino, Tomoko; Shibuya, Hitoshi [Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)], Email: S.Nakaminato@gmail.com; Kawano, Tatsuyuki [Dept. of Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Seiji [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Background. The prevalence of esophageal cancer accompanied by hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) is high and increasing rapidly in Asia. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of HPC patients who were routinely examined using esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and to discuss the utility of these examinations. Material and methods. Between September 2005 and September 2010, 33 patients with newly diagnosed HPC (all with squamous cell carcinoma) underwent EGD (after a conventional endoscopy, iodine staining was performed) and FDG-PET/CT examinations. We evaluated the prevalence of esophageal cancer among HPC patients according to the EGD findings and determined the sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of esophageal primary tumors for each clinical T classification. Results. In 17 of the 33 patients (51.5%), 29 biopsy-proven esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were diagnosed using EGD. In eight of the 17 (47.1%) patients, two or more esophageal cancer lesions were diagnosed. Twenty-four of the 29 (82.8%) lesions were superficial esophageal cancers, and the remaining five (17.2%) lesions were advanced esophageal cancers. In six of the 29 (20.7%) esophageal cancer lesions that were detected using FDG-PET/CT, only one of the 29 (3.4%) lesions was evaluated as being equivocal; the remaining 22 (75.9%) lesions were not detected. The distribution of the clinical T classifications detected using FDG-PET/CT was as follows: T1a, 0/21 (0%); T1b, 1/3 (33%); and T3, 5/5 (100%). Conclusions. The prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of HPC patients was 51.5%; this prevalence was higher than that in previous reports. We believe that the increasing proportion of superficial lesions (82.8%) detected using iodine staining and EGD may have led to the relatively high prevalence. FDG-PET/CT detected only 20.7% of the esophageal cancers

  16. Second-line chemotherapy with dacarbazine and fotemustine in nitrosourea-pretreated patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeny-Dörner, Barbara; Veitl, Mario; Wenzel, Catharina; Piribauer, Maria; Rössler, Karl; Dieckmann, Karin; Ungersböck, Karl; Marosi, Christine

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of a combination of dacarbazine (D) and fotemustine (F) administered to a homogenous group of patients with recurrent or progressive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Thirty-one patients with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan evidence of recurrent or progressive GBM after first-line chemotherapy with nitrosoureas as well as radiation therapy were given a combination of D (200 mg/m2) and F (100 mg/m2). At 30 min after termination of D administration, F was given over 60 min. Treatment was performed in an outpatient setting every 21 days. A total of 140 cycles (range 1-12 cycles; median 4 cycles) was administered. One partial response (3%) lasting for 11 weeks was observed. Sixteen (52%) patients reached stable disease lasting between 7 and 94 weeks. Median survival from start of the D/F combination was 45 (range 10-150) weeks. Median time to progression was 17 (3-101) weeks for all patients. Major toxicity was myelosuppression resulting in exclusion from study in seven (23%) patients [due to thrombocytopenia common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 2 persisting longer than 3 weeks in three patients, due to thrombocytopenia CTC grade >/=3 in three and due to leukopenia CTC grade 3 in one patient]. No other toxicity than alopecia occurred. We conclude that the D/F combination is a well-tolerated second-line regimen and can be administered in a complete outpatient setting. D/F shows efficacy even in nitrosourea-pretreated patients and justifies further investigation.

  17. Pre-treatment risk stratification of prostate cancer patients: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, George; Warde, Padraig; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Brundage, Michael; Souhami, Luis; Lukka, Himu

    2012-04-01

    The use of accepted prostate cancer risk stratification groups based on prostate-specific antigen, T stage and Gleason score assists in therapeutic treatment decision-making, clinical trial design and outcome reporting. The utility of integrating novel prognostic factors into an updated risk stratification schema is an area of current debate. The purpose of this work is to critically review the available literature on novel pre-treatment prognostic factors and alternative prostate cancer risk stratification schema to assess the feasibility and need for changes to existing risk stratification systems. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify original research publications and review articles on prognostic factors and risk stratification in prostate cancer. Search terms included risk stratification, risk assessment, prostate cancer or neoplasms, and prognostic factors. Abstracted information was assessed to draw conclusions regarding the potential utility of changes to existing risk stratification schema. The critical review identified three specific clinically relevant potential changes to the most commonly used three-group risk stratification system: (1) the creation of a very-low risk category; (2) the splitting of intermediate-risk into a low- and high-intermediate risk groups; and (3) the clarification of the interface between intermediate- and high-risk disease. Novel pathological factors regarding high-grade cancer, subtypes of Gleason score 7 and percentage biopsy cores positive were also identified as potentially important risk-stratification factors. Multiple studies of prognostic factors have been performed to create currently utilized prostate cancer risk stratification systems. We propose potential changes to existing systems.

  18. Correlation between Pre-treatment Anemia and Prognosis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhua DENG

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC might contract anemia, however, whether anemia is one of the independent prognostic factors to the patients with NSCLC is still controversial. So the aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between anemia and overall survival (OS in patients with NSCLC. Methods 1 018 patients with operable NSCLC were retrospectively analyzed in our hospital from January 2000 to December 2008. Results The occurrence of anemia before operation was 252/1 018 (24.1%. The OS in NSCLC patients without anemia was (2 425.98±50.03 days, and the OS in patients with anemia was (2 107.15±93.86 days. There was significant difference in the OS between them (P=0.001. The patients with anemia in stage I had shorter survival time than those without anemia (P < 0.001. But there was no difference in other stage patients. TNM stage, gender, tumor size and lymph nodes metastasis were correlated with OS using Cox regression analysis. Conclusion Anemia is correlated with survival in operable NSCLC patients. Moreover, it is an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC patients with stage I.

  19. Association of Dental Anomalies with Different Types of Malocclusions in Pretreatment Orthodontic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dwijendra, K S; Parikh, Vishal; George, Soja Sara; Kukkunuru, Gururam Tej; Chowdary, Gali Nagarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study is planned to correlate the existence of dental anomalies with different types of malocclusion as the occurrence of anomalies is common in malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among 430 patients with different types of malocclusion as 161 patients having Class I, 203 with Class II, and 66 with Class III malocclusion. The age of the patients ranged from 12 to 15 years. Diagnosis was done on the basis of history, clinical, cephalometric, rad...

  20. Prognostic value of pretreatment factors in patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated by radiotherapy alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, D.; Soegaard, H.; Overgaard, J.; Bentzen, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The prognostic effect of pretreatment patient- and tumor characteristics, and the influence of radiotherapy schedule on local control, distant metastases, and crude survival were analyzed in 424 consecutive patients with FIGO stage IIB (n = 137), IIIA (n = 10), IIIB (n = 211) and IVA (n = 66) cancer of the uterine cervix. All patients were given radiotherapy alone. From 1974 and through 1977, the external and intracavitary combined radiotherapy was given continuously in 4 to 6 weeks. From 1978 and through 1983, the treatment policy was changed to split-course radiotherapy by introducing planned pauses, resulting in an overall treatment time of 10 to 12 weeks. The results were estimated by univariate actuarial- and Cox multivariate regression analyses. Multivariate analysis showed that significant adverse variables for local control were large lateral tumor diameter, young age, low hemoglobin at time of admission, many prognancies, split-course strategy, and high FIGO stage. Risk of metastases increased with decreasing hemoglobin, increasing malignancy grade and split-course treatment. Poor survival probability were related to large lateral tumor diameter, high malignancy grade and FIGO stage, low hemoglobin, split-course therapy, and adeno/adenosquamous tumor type. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of distant metastasis in head neck cancer patients: implications for induction chemotherapy and pre-treatment staging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studer, G.; Glanzmann, C.; Seifert, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined treatment approaches, surgical and radiodiagnostic advances, respectively, lead to improved local-regional control in head neck cancer (HNC). With increasing local-regional control, distant metastases (DM) become more meaningful. In some trials without concomitant chemotherapy, induction chemotherapy (IC) resulted in an absolute reduction of DM by ∝10-15%. In order to define a more efficient selection of patients at risk for DM with respect to IC and M-staging, we analysed our patients treated by contemporary standards. Patients and methods: between 1/2002 to 12/2007, 409 HNC patients were treated with IMRT; 303/409 (74%) underwent definitive, 106 (26%) postoperative IMRT. The mean/median follow-up was 23/20 months (3-72). 70% tolerated 4-7, 9% 1-3 cycles of simultaneous cisplatin. Treatment followed a prospectively designed protocol. In a previous study with 172 HNC IMRT patients, gross tumor volume (GTV) was found the strongest predictor for local-regional control. In the current study, this criterion has been prospectively tested for DM. Numbers needed to treat were calculated for IC. Results: DM developed in 28/399 (7%) patients; 10 presented initially with DM (total 38/409). In 13/28 (46%), DM remained the only manifestation of disease. GTV was the strongest predictor for DM (p 70 cc; only 6 of them (6/73, 8%) developed isolated DM. Conclusion: GTV was the most significant predictor for DM, that could guide selective pre-treatment M-staging. The subgroup with isolated DM in the high risk group, that could benefit from IC, is small. (orig.)

  2. Early changes of thyroid hormone concentrations after {sup 131}I therapy in Graves' patient pretreated or not with methimazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirnat, E.; Zaletel, K.; Gabercsek, S.; Fidler, V.; Hojker, S. [University Medical Centre, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2004-08-01

    Aim: Despite extensive use of {sup 131}I therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism the treatment regimen with {sup 131}I and antithyroid drugs remain under discussion. In our prospective clinical study we followed acute thyroid hormone changes after {sup 131}I in patients not pretreated with methimazole (MMI) and in patients with different MMI pretreatment regimes. Patients, methods: 187 patients were treated with fixed activity of 550 or 740 MBq of {sup 131}I. First group (71 patients) received {sup 131}I alone. In the second group (57 patients) MMI was stopped seven days before {sup 131}I. The third group (59 patients) received MMI until {sup 131}I application. Initial free triodothyronin and free thyroxin were measured in the second group 7 and 2 days before {sup 131}I therapy and in all three groups on the day of {sup 131}I application as well as 2, 5, 12, and 30 days afterwards. Absorbed dose was measured in each patient. Results: In the non-pretreated group {sup 131}I application was followed by a significant decrease of fT{sub 4} in 5 days and of fT{sub 3} in 2 days, higher reduction was detected in patients with higher baseline values. In MMI pretreated patients significant but clinically irrelevant increase of both thyroid hormones was detected with maximum value 7 days after discontinuation in the second group and 5 days after discontinuation in the third group. Additionally, in patients of the third group absorbed dose of {sup 131}I was significantly lower relative to other two groups. We found no correlation between absorbed dose of {sup 131}I and thyroid hormone changes. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that {sup 131}I application alone does not result in exacerbation of hyperthyroidism and therefore it may be considered as safe. Additionally, MMI withdrawal causes significant but clinically irrelevant elevation of thyroid hormones. (orig.)

  3. Pretreatment Dysphagia in Esophageal Cancer Patients May Eliminate the Need for Staging by Endoscopic Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, R Taylor; Sarkaria, Inderpal S; Grosser, Rachel; Sima, Camelia S; Bains, Manjit S; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Huang, James; Finley, David J; Rusch, Valerie W; Rizk, Nabil P

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly administered to patients with localized disease who have T3-4 esophageal disease as staged by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Previously, we noted that patients who present with dysphagia have a higher EUS T stage. We hypothesized that the presence of dysphagia is predictive of EUS T3-4 disease and that staging EUS could be forgone for esophageal cancer patients with dysphagia. We performed a prospective, intent-to-treat, single-cohort study in which patients with potentially resectable esophageal cancer completed a standardized four-tier dysphagia score survey. EUS was performed as part of our standard evaluation. To determine whether the presence of dysphagia predicted EUS T3-4 disease, the dysphagia score was compared with EUS T stage. The study enrolled 114 consecutive patients between August 2012 and February 2014: 77% (88 of 114) received neoadjuvant therapy, 18% (20 of 114) did not, and 5% (6 of 114) pursued treatment elsewhere. In total, 70% (80 of 114) underwent esophagectomy; of these, 54% (61 of 114) had dysphagia and 46% (53 of 114) did not. Dysphagia scores were 66% (40 of 61) grade 1, 25% (15 of 61) grade 2, and 10% (6 of 61) grade 3 to 4. Among patients with dysphagia, 89% (54 of 61) had T3-4 disease by EUS; among those without dysphagia, only 53% (28 of 53) had T3-4 disease by EUS (p < 0.001). The presence of dysphagia in patients with esophageal cancer was highly predictive of T3-4 disease by EUS. On the basis of this finding, approximately 50% of patients currently undergoing staging EUS at our institution could potentially forgo EUS before neoadjuvant therapy. Patients without dysphagia, however, should still undergo EUS. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pre-treatment preferences and characteristics among patients seeking in vitro fertilisation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony Ph

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study sought to describe patient features before beginning fertility treatment, and to ascertain their perceptions relative to risk of twin pregnancy outcomes associated with such therapy. METHODS: Data on readiness for twin pregnancy outcome from in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was gathered from men and women before initiating fertility treatment by anonymous questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 206 women and 204 men were sampled. Mean (+\\/- SD) age for women and men being 35.5 +\\/- 5 and 37.3 +\\/- 7 yrs, respectively. At least one IVF cycle had been attempted by 27.2% of patients and 33.9% of this subgroup had initiated >\\/=3 cycles, reflecting an increase in previous failed cycles over five years. Good agreement was noted between husbands and wives with respect to readiness for twins from IVF (77% agreement; Cohen\\'s K = 0.61; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.70). CONCLUSION: Most patients contemplating IVF already have ideas about particular outcomes even before treatment begins, and suggests that husbands & wives are in general agreement on their readiness for twin pregnancy from IVF. However, fertility patients now may represent a more refractory population and therefore carry a more guarded prognosis. Patient preferences identified before IVF remain important, but further studies comparing pre- and post-treatment perceptions are needed.

  5. Patients' pretreatment beliefs about recovery influence outcome of a pain rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrick, D; Sjölund, B H

    2009-01-01

    hospital setting. Demographic data and patient beliefs about recovery recorded on a five-category scale were collected before the program. Pain intensity (VAS), Disability Rating Index (DRI) and life satisfaction (LiSat-11) were collected before, immediately after and one year after the program. Partial....../sports'' improved significantly after rehabilitation (Wilcoxon's test; P=0.0009), and remained improved one year later (P=0.0144). Life satisfaction in the physical and psychological domains increased after the program. A clinically meaningful reduction in pain intensity (10 mm) was reported by 43% of patients...... at the one-year follow-up. This group had significant increases in life satisfaction. Only patients with positive beliefs about recovery before rehabilitation showed a decrease in pain intensity at the one-year follow-up (Plife satisfaction and...

  6. Prospective Evaluation of Pretreatment Executive Cognitive Impairment and Depression in Patients Referred for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Clifton D.; Schillerstrom, Jason E.; Jones, William E.; Boersma, Melissa; Royall, Donald R.; Fuss, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer patients are at risk of cognitive impairment and depression. We sought to ascertain the prevalence of executive, visuospatial, memory, and general cognitive performance deficits before radiotherapy in a radiation oncology clinic referral population and correlate the neurocognitive measures with the depression symptom burden. Methods and Materials: A total of 122 sequential patients referred for radiotherapy evaluation were administered a test battery composed of the Executive Interview (EXIT25), Executive Clock Drawing Task (CLOX1 and CLOX2), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Memory Impairment Screen (MIS), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean age ± standard deviation was 58 ± 17 years. Of 122 patients, 24 (20%) had been referred for breast cancer, 21 (17%) for gastrointestinal cancer, 17 (14%) for genitourinary disease, and 8 (7%) for brain lesions; the rest were a variety of tumor sites. The cognitive performance among the tumor cohorts was compared using Bonferroni-corrected analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer tests. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between each cognitive instrument and the GDS. Results: Of the 122 patients, 52 (43%) exhibited a detectable executive cognition decrement on one or more test measures. Five percent had poor memory performance (MIS), 18% had poor visuospatial performance (CLOX2), and 13% had poor global cognition (MMSE). Patients with brain tumors performed substantially worse on the EXIT25. No between-group differences were found for CLOX1, CLOX2, MIS, or GDS performance. The EXIT25 scores correlated significantly with the GDS scores (r = 0.26, p = 0.005). Conclusions: The results of this study have shown that patients referred for radiotherapy exhibit cognitive impairment profiles comparable to those observed in acutely ill medical inpatients. Executive control impairment appears more prevalent than global cognitive deficits, visuospatial impairment, or depression

  7. Outcomes from intracerebral hemorrhage among patients pre-treated with statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins, have been associated with improved clinical outcomes after ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but with an increased risk of incidental spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. We investigated whether the statin use before ICH, was associated with functional independence, 90 days after treatment. METHOD: We analyzed 124 consecutive ICH patients with 90-day outcome data who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study between 2006 and 2009. Eighty-three patients were included in this study. Among ICH survivors, univariate Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to determine subject characteristics that were associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Statin usage was determined through interviewing the patient at the time of ICH and confirmed by reviewing their medical records. Independent status was defined as Glasgow Outcome Scale grades 4 or 5. RESULTS: Statins were used by 20 out of 83 patients (24% before ICH onset. There was no effect from pre-ICH statin use on functional independence rates (28% versus 29%, P=0.84 or mortality (46% versus 45%, P=0.93. CONCLUSION: Pre-ICH statin use is not associated with changes to ICH functional outcome or mortality.

  8. Potential role of pemetrexed in metastatic breast cancer patients pre-treated with anthracycline or taxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Yan Zhou; Ye-Hui Shi; Yong-Sheng Jia; Zhong-Sheng Tong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews pharmacology, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, and safety in metastatic breast cancer patients, as well as the predictive biomarkers for outcome of treatment with pemetrexed-based regimens. Methods: PubMed, Embase, OVID, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched from the beginning of each database without any limitations to the date of publication. Search terms were‘‘pemetrexed’’ or‘‘LY231514’’ or“Alimta”,“metastatic breast cancer”, and“advanced breast cancer”. Results: There were 15 studies (n ¼ 1002) meeting our criteria for evaluation. Eight single-agent trials (n ¼ 551) and seven using combinations with other agents (n ¼ 451) were identified that evaluated pemetrexed for use in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Response rates to pemetrexed as a single agent varied from 8%to 31%, and with combination therapy have been reported to be between 15.8% and 55.7%. With routine supplementation of patients with folic acid, dexamethasone, and vitamin B12, the toxicity profile of these patients was mild, including dose-limiting neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, as well as lower grades of reversible hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal toxicity. Expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and other biomarkers are associated with the prognosis and sensitivity for pemetrexed in breast cancer. Conclusion: Pemetrexed has shown remarkable activity with acceptable toxicities for treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients. Translational research on pemetrexed in breast cancer identified biomarkers as well as additional genes important to its clinical activity and toxicity. Further research is needed to clarify the role of pemetrexed in breast cancer treatment in order to guide oncologists. Copyright © 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Com-munications Co., Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

  9. Pretreatment oral hygiene habits and survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemel, Juliane; Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Kathrin; Heibeck, Mathias; Günther, Frauke; Pflueger, Maren; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Behrens, Thomas; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Nimzyk, Rolf; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2016-03-11

    The survival time of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is related to health behavior, such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Poor oral health (OH), dental care (DC) and the frequent use of mouthwash have been shown to represent independent risk factors for head and neck cancerogenesis, but their impact on the survival of HNSCC patients has not been systematically investigated. Two hundred seventy-six incident HNSCC cases recruited for the ARCAGE study were followed through a period of 6-10 years. Interview-based information on wearing of dentures, gum bleeding, teeth brushing, use of floss and dentist visits were grouped into weighted composite scores, i.e. oral health (OH) and dental care (DH). Use of mouthwash was assessed as frequency per day. Also obtained were other types of health behavior, such as smoking, alcohol drinking and diet, appreciated as both confounding and study variables. Endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival and tumor-specific survival. Prognostic values were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models. A good dental care score, summarizing annual dental visits, daily teeth cleaning and use of floss was associated with longer overall survival time (p = .001). The results of the Cox regression models similarly suggested a higher risk of tumor progression and shortened overall survival in patients with poor dental care, but the results lost their statistical significance after other types of health behavior had been controlled for. Frequent use of mouthwash (≥ 2 times/day) significantly increased the risk of tumor-specific death (HR = 2.26; CI = 1.19-4.32). Alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were dose-dependently associated with tumor progression and shorter overall survival. Frequent mouthwash use of ≥ 2 times/day seems to elevate the risk of tumor-specific death in HNSCC patients. Good dental care scores are associated with longer overall

  10. Cumulative Lung Dose for Several Motion Management Strategies as a Function of Pretreatment Patient Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Campbell, Jonathon; Zhang Tiezhi; Yan Di

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patient parameters that may predict for relative differences in cumulative four-dimensional (4D) lung dose among several motion management strategies. Methods and Materials: Deformable image registration and dose accumulation were used to generate 4D treatment plans for 18 patients with 4D computed tomography scans. Three plans were generated to simulate breath hold at normal inspiration, target tracking with the beam aperture, and mid-ventilation aperture (control of the target at the mean daily position and application of an iteratively computed margin to compensate for respiration). The relative reduction in mean lung dose (MLD) between breath hold and mid-ventilation aperture (ΔMLD BH ) and between target tracking and mid-ventilation aperture (ΔMLD TT ) was calculated. Associations between these two variables and parameters of the lesion (excursion, size, location, and deformation) and dose distribution (local dose gradient near the target) were also calculated. Results: The largest absolute and percentage differences in MLD were 1.0 Gy and 21.5% between breath hold and mid-ventilation aperture. ΔMLD BH was significantly associated (p TT was significantly associated with excursion, deformation, and local dose gradient. A linear model was constructed to represent ΔMLD vs. excursion. For each 5 mm of excursion, target tracking reduced the MLD by 4% compared with the results of a mid-ventilation aperture plan. For breath hold, the reduction was 5% per 5 mm of excursion. Conclusions: The relative difference in MLD among different motion management strategies varied with patient and tumor characteristics for a given dosimetric target coverage. Tumor excursion is useful to aid in stratifying patients according to appropriate motion management strategies.

  11. Association of Dental Anomalies with Different Types of Malocclusions in Pretreatment Orthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwijendra, K S; Parikh, Vishal; George, Soja Sara; Kukkunuru, Gururam Tej; Chowdary, Gali Nagarjuna

    2015-06-01

    The study is planned to correlate the existence of dental anomalies with different types of malocclusion as the occurrence of anomalies is common in malocclusion. The present study was conducted among 430 patients with different types of malocclusion as 161 patients having Class I, 203 with Class II, and 66 with Class III malocclusion. The age of the patients ranged from 12 to 15 years. Diagnosis was done on the basis of history, clinical, cephalometric, radiographs, and dental cast examination. The level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Most common anomaly was rotation of teeth (18.80%), followed by hypodontia (10.90%), and least occurring was gemination, fusion, talon's cusp, and dilacerations. 31.4% showed one dental anomaly, whereas 11.9% exhibited two or more dental anomalies. The highest mean value of all the dental anomalies was seen with severe cases of malocclusion and also significant differences were observed according to gender. The present study investigated various dental anomalies in relation to malocclusion. It was found that 31.4% showed one dental anomaly, whereas 11.9% exhibited two or more dental anomalies. Hence, careful prior investigation of dental anomalies is necessary for better orthodontic treatment planning to reduce the complications.

  12. Potential role of pemetrexed in metastatic breast cancer patients pre-treated with anthracycline or taxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yan Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This article reviews pharmacology, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, and safety in metastatic breast cancer patients, as well as the predictive biomarkers for outcome of treatment with pemetrexed-based regimens. Methods: PubMed, Embase, OVID, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched from the beginning of each database without any limitations to the date of publication. Search terms were ‘‘pemetrexed’’ or ‘‘LY231514’’ or “Alimta”, “metastatic breast cancer”, and “advanced breast cancer”. Results: There were 15 studies (n = 1002 meeting our criteria for evaluation. Eight single-agent trials (n = 551 and seven using combinations with other agents (n = 451 were identified that evaluated pemetrexed for use in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Response rates to pemetrexed as a single agent varied from 8% to 31%, and with combination therapy have been reported to be between 15.8% and 55.7%. With routine supplementation of patients with folic acid, dexamethasone, and vitamin B12, the toxicity profile of these patients was mild, including dose-limiting neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, as well as lower grades of reversible hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal toxicity. Expression of thymidylate synthase (TS and other biomarkers are associated with the prognosis and sensitivity for pemetrexed in breast cancer. Conclusion: Pemetrexed has shown remarkable activity with acceptable toxicities for treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients. Translational research on pemetrexed in breast cancer identified biomarkers as well as additional genes important to its clinical activity and toxicity. Further research is needed to clarify the role of pemetrexed in breast cancer treatment in order to guide oncologists. Keywords: Metastatic breast cancer, Chemotherapy, Pemetrexed, Anthracycline, Taxane

  13. Tolerability of the capsaicin 8% patch following pretreatment with lidocaine or tramadol in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain: a multicentre, randomized, assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T S; Høye, K; Fricová, J; Vanelderen, P; Ernault, E; Siciliano, T; Marques, S

    2014-10-01

    Application of the capsaicin 8% patch is associated with treatment-related discomfort. Consequently, pretreatment for 60 min with anaesthetic cream is recommended; however, this may be uncomfortable and time consuming. We conducted a multicentre, randomized (1:1), assessor-blinded study in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain to assess tolerability of the capsaicin patch following topical lidocaine (4%) or oral tramadol (50 mg) pretreatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients tolerating capsaicin patch application (ability to receive ≥90% of a 60-min application). Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) scores were assessed before, during and after treatment. Overall, 122 patients were included (61 per arm). The capsaicin patch was tolerated by 121 patients. Tolerability of the capsaicin patch was similar following pretreatment with lidocaine and tramadol. Following patch application, pain levels increased up to 55 min (change from baseline of 1.3 for lidocaine and 1.4 for tramadol). After patch removal, tramadol-treated patients experienced greater pain relief up to the end of day 1; in the evening, mean changes in NPRS scores from baseline were 0 for lidocaine and -1 for tramadol. Proportions of patients reporting increases of ≥2 NPRS points or >33% from baseline at one or more time point(s) on the day of treatment were similar between arms. Adverse event incidence was comparable between arms. Capsaicin 8% patch tolerability was similar in the two arms, with comparable results for most secondary endpoints. Tramadol given 30 min before patch application should be considered as an alternative pretreatment option in patients receiving capsaicin patch treatment. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  14. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for pretreatment prediction and monitoring of treatment response of patients with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Line; Olsen, Dag Rune; Seierstad, Therese; Fangberget, Anne; Geier, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Background. For patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), the European Guidelines for Breast Imaging recommends magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to be performed before start of NACT, when half of the NACT has been administered and prior to surgery. This is the first study addressing the value of flow-insensitive apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained from diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI at the recommended time points for pretreatment prediction and monitoring of treatment response. Materials and methods. Twenty-five LABC patients were included in this prospective study. DW MRI was performed using single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging with b-values of 100, 250 and 800 s/mm 2 prior to NACT, after four cycles of NACT and at the conclusion of therapy using a 1.5 T MR scanner. ADC in the breast tumor was calculated from each assessment. The strength of correlation between pretreatment ADC, ADC changes and tumor volume changes were examined using Spearman's rho correlation test. Results. Mean pretreatment ADC was 1.11 ± 0.21 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. After 4 cycles of NACT, ADC was significantly increased (1.39 ± 0.36 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; p=0.018). There was no correlation between individual pretreatment breast tumor ADC and MR response measured after four cycles of NACT (p=0.816) or prior to surgery (p=0.620). Conclusion. Pretreatment tumor ADC does not predict treatment response for patients with LABC undergoing NACT. Furthermore, ADC increase observed mid-way in the course of NACT does not correlate with tumor volume changes.

  15. Pretreatment clinical findings predict outcome for patients receiving preoperative radiation for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myerson, Robert J.; Singh, Anurag; Birnbaum, Elisa H.; Fry, Robert D.; Fleshman, James W.; Kodner, Ira J.; Lockett, Mary Ann; Picus, Joel; Walz, Bruce J.; Read, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    Background: As a sole modality, preoperative radiation for rectal carcinoma achieves a local control comparable to that of postoperative radiation plus chemotherapy. Although the addition of chemotherapy to preoperative treatment improves the pathologic complete response rate, there is also a substantial increase in acute and perioperative morbidity. Identification of subsets of patients who are at low or high risk for recurrence can help to optimize treatment. Methods: During the period 1977-95, 384 patients received preoperative radiation therapy for localized adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Ages ranged from 19 to 97 years (mean 64.4), and there were 171 females. Preoperative treatment consisted of conventionally fractionated radiation to 3600-5040 cGy (median 4500 cGy) 6-8 weeks before surgery in 293 cases or low doses of <3000 cGy (median 2000 cGy) immediately before surgery in 91 cases. Concurrent preoperative chemotherapy was given to only 14 cases in this study period. Postoperative chemotherapy was delivered to 55 cases. Results: Overall 93 patients have experienced recurrence (including 36 local failures). Local failures were scored if they occurred at any time, not just as first site of failure. For the group as a whole, the actuarial (Kaplan-Meier) freedom from relapse (FFR) and local control (LC) were 74% and 90% respectively at 5 years. Univariate analysis of clinical characteristics demonstrated a significant (p<0.05) adverse effect on both LC and FFR for the following four clinical factors: (1) location <5 cm from the verge, (2) circumferential lesion, (3) near obstruction, (4) tethered or fixed tumor. Size, grade, age, gender, ultrasound stage, CEA, radiation dose, and the use of chemotherapy were not associated with outcome. Background of the surgeon was significantly associated with outcome, colorectal specialists achieving better results than nonspecialist surgeons. We assigned a clinical score of 0 to 2 on the basis of how many of the above four

  16. Prognostic impact of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio in patients treated with first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Yu, Jiwoong; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Park, Se Hoon; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Seo, Seong Il

    2018-05-13

    To examine the prognostic role of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase or De Ritis ratio in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. We retrospectively searched the medical records of 579 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from January 2001 through August 2016. After excluding 210 patients, we analyzed 360 patients who received first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival were defined as the primary and secondary end-points, respectively. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent prognosticators of survival outcomes. The overall population was divided into two groups according to the pretreatment De Ritis ratio as an optimal cut-off value of 1.2, which was determined by a time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Patients with a higher pretreatment De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) had worse cancer-specific survival and overall survival outcomes, compared with those with a lower De Ritis ratio (<1.2). Notably, a higher De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) was found to be an independent predictor of both cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.30) and overall survival outcomes (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.39), along with male sex, multiple metastasis (≥2), non-clear cell histology, advanced pT stage (≥3), previous metastasectomy and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk classification. Our findings show that the pretreatment De Ritis ratio can provide valuable information about the survival outcomes of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. Conformal technique dose escalation in prostate cancer: improved cancer control with higher doses in patients with pretreatment PSA {>=} 10 ngm/ml

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, G E; Lee, W R; Hanlon, A L; Kaplan, E; Epstein, B; Schultheiss, T

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: Single institutions and an NCI supported group of institutions have been investigating the value of dose escalation in patients with prostate cancer treated by conformal treatment techniques. Improvement in morbidity has been previously established, while this report identifies the pretreatment PSA level subgroups of patients who benefitted in cancer control from higher dose. Materials and Methods: We report actuarial bNED survival rates for 375 consecutive patients with known pretreatment PSA levels treated with conformal technique between 5/89 and 12/93. The whole pelvis was treated to 45 Gy in 25 fractions in all T2C,3, all Gleason 8, 9, 10 and all patients with pretreatment PSA {>=}20. The prostate {+-} seminal vesicles was boosted at 2.1 Gy/day to the center of the prostate to 65-79 Gy (65-69 N=50), 70-72.49 N=94, 72.5-74.9 N=82, 75-77.49 N=129 and {>=}77.5 N=20). The median followup is 21 mos with a range of 3 to 67 mos. The highest dose patients have the least followup, reducing the impact of the highest dose levels at this time. Patients are analyzed for the entire group divided at 71 Gy and at 73 Gy calculated at the center of the prostate. Each dose group is then subdivided by pretreatment PSA levels <10, 10-19.9, and {>=}20 ngm/ml and dose levels are compared within pretreatment PSA level group. bNED failure is defined as PSA {>=}1.5 ngm/ml and rising on two consecutive values. Results: Table 1 shows the bNED survival rates at 24 and 36 mos for all patients and the three pretreatment PSA level groups. For all patients pooled, there is an overall advantage to using doses {>=}71 Gy (64% vs 85% at 36 mo, p=.006) and {>=}73 Gy (71% vs 86% at 36 mo, p=.07). The subgroup of PSA <10 ngm/ml, however, shows no benefit in bNED survival when using doses over 71 Gy (90% vs 93% at 36 mo) or 73 Gy (91 vs 94% at 36 mo). The subgroup PSA 10 ngm/ml to 19.9 ngm/ml shows improved cancer control when using doses over 71 Gy (61% vs 88% at 36 mo, p=.03) and over 73

  18. Changes from 1992 to 2002 in the pretreatment delay for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of larynx or pharynx: a Danish nationwide survey from DAHANCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; Nielsen, Anni Linnet; Larsen, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark, a general impression of prolonged pretreatment delay for patients with head and neck cancer led to a nationwide study of time spans from symptom debut over first health care contact to start of treatment. Charts of consecutive new patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx...... and larynx, seen at the five Danish oncology centers in January-April 1992 and 2002, respectively, were reviewed. Of the 288 patients identified, definitive treatment was radiotherapy in 264 cases, surgery in one case. Twenty-three patients had neither surgery nor radiotherapy. Total time from first health...

  19. Positron trapping in heavily irradiated semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.; Pautrat, J.L.; Corbel, C.; Hautojarvi, P.

    1985-01-01

    Vacancy processes are studied in several heavily irradiated semiconductors. Specimens are ZnTe, CdTe, CdTe (In), InP, InP (Cr), InP (Zn) and Ge. Irradiations are made at 20 K using a 3 MeV Van de Graaff electron accelerator. Doses are 4 x 10 18 e - /cm 2 . Lifetime measurements are made at 77 K at each step of an isochronal annealing (30 min 20 K). In each specimen, the results show a significant increase of the lifetime (+ 30 at + 50 ps) which anneals out in different steps restoring the initial lifetime. The steps are sharp (ΔT/T=0.3) with the exception of InP, InP(Cr), InP(Zn), (ΔT/T=0.9). Tentative interpretations are given

  20. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  1. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, following pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Lynn R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is a common type of neuropathic pain that can severely affect quality of life. NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, is a localized treatment that can provide patients with significant pain relief for up to 3 months following a single 60-minute application. The NGX-4010 application can be associated with application-site pain and in previous clinical trials pretreatment with a topical 4% lidocaine anesthetic was used to enhance tolerability. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate tolerability of NGX-4010 after pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% anesthetic cream. Methods Twenty-four patients with PHN were pretreated with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream for 60 minutes before receiving a single 60-minute application of NGX-4010. Tolerability was assessed by measuring patch application duration, the proportion of patients completing over 90% of the intended treatment duration, application site-related pain using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, and analgesic medication use to relieve such pain. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs and dermal irritation using dermal assessment scores. Results The mean treatment duration of NGX-4010 was 60.2 minutes and all patients completed over 90% of the intended patch application duration. Pain during application was transient. A maximum mean change in NPRS score of +3.0 was observed at 55 minutes post-patch application; pain scores gradually declined to near pre-anesthetic levels (+0.71 within 85 minutes of patch removal. Half of the patients received analgesic medication on the day of treatment; by Day 7, no patients required medication. The most common AEs were application site-related pain, erythema, edema, and pruritus. All patients experienced mild dermal irritation 5 minutes after patch removal, which subsequently decreased; at Day 7, no irritation was evident. The maximum recorded dermal assessment

  2. Pemetrexed plus carboplatin versus pemetrexed in pretreated patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer : treating the right patients based on individualized treatment effect prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruijsdijk, R. C. M.; Visseren, F. L. J.; Boni, L.; Groen, H. J. M.; Dingemans, A. M. C.; Aerts, J. G. J. V.; van der Graaf, Y.; Ardizzoni, A.; Smit, E. F.

    In this study, it is shown that there is important heterogeneity in the effects of pemetrexed-carboplatin versus pemetrexed on progression-free survival in pretreated patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Treatment effect can be predicted for individual patients using a

  3. The PACOVAR-trial: A phase I/II study of pazopanib (GW786034) and cyclophosphamide in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent, pre-treated ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichbaum, Michael; Fersis, Nikos; Schmidt, Marcus; Wallwiener, Markus; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Mayer, Christine; Eickhoff, Regina; Bischofs, Esther; Gebauer, Gerhard; Fehm, Tanja; Lenz, Florian; Fricke, Hans-Christian; Solomayer, Erich

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is poor. There is no standard treatment available. Emerging evidence suggests a major role for antiangiogenic treatment modalities in EOC, in particular in combination with the metronomic application of low dose chemotherapy. The novel, investigational oral antiangiogenic agent pazopanib targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and c-kit is currently being studied in different tumour types and is already used as first line therapy in recurrent renal cell carcinoma. A combined therapy consisting of pazopanib and metronomic oral cyclophosphamide may offer a well-tolerable treatment option to patients with recurrent, pretreated EOC. This study is designed as a multicenter phase I/II trial evaluating the optimal dose for pazopanib (phase I) as well as activity and tolerability of a combination regimen consisting of pazopanib and metronomic cyclophosphamide in the palliative treatment of patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant, pre-treated ovarian cancer (phase II). The patient population includes patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of EOC, cancer of the fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer which is platinumresistant or -refractory. Patients must have measurable disease according to RECIST criteria and must have failed available standard chemotherapy. Primary objectives are determination of the optimal doses for pazopanib (phase I) and the overall response rate according to RECIST criteria (phase II). Secondary objectives are time to progression, overall survival, safety and tolerability. The treatment duration is until disease progression or intolerability of study drug regimen (with a maximum of 13 cycles up to 52 weeks per subject). The current phase I/II trial shall clarify the potential of the multitargeting antiangiogenic tyrosinkinaseinhibitor GW 786034 (pazopanib) in

  4. Phase II Study of Autologous Monocyte-Derived mRNA Electroporated Dendritic Cells (TriMixDC-MEL) Plus Ipilimumab in Patients With Pretreated Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenhof, Sofie; Corthals, Jurgen; Heirman, Carlo; van Baren, Nicolas; Lucas, Sophie; Kvistborg, Pia; Thielemans, Kris; Neyns, Bart

    2016-04-20

    Autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) electroporated with synthetic mRNA (TriMixDC-MEL) are immunogenic and have antitumor activity as a monotherapy in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma. Ipilimumab, an immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody directed against the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 receptor that counteracts physiologic suppression of T-cell function, improves the overall survival of patients with advanced melanoma. This phase II study investigated the combination of TriMixDC-MEL and ipilimumab in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma. Thirty-nine patients were treated with TriMixDC-MEL (4 × 10(6) cells administered intradermally and 20 × 10(6) cells administered intravenously) plus ipilimumab (10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for a total of four administrations, followed by maintenance therapy every 12 weeks in patients who remained progression free). Six-month disease control rate according to the immune-related response criteria served as the primary end point. The 6-month disease control rate was 51% (95% CI, 36% to 67%), and the overall tumor response rate was 38% (including eight complete and seven partial responses). Seven complete responses and one partial tumor response are ongoing after a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 22 to 43 months). The most common treatment-related adverse events (all grades) consisted of local DC injection site skin reactions (100%), transient post-DC infusion chills (38%) and flu-like symptoms (84%), dermatitis (64%), hepatitis (13%), hypophysitis (15%), and diarrhea/colitis (15%). Grade 3 or 4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 36% of patients. There was no grade 5 adverse event. The combination of TriMixDC-MEL and ipilimumab is tolerable and results in an encouraging rate of highly durable tumor responses in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Pretreatment advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) for predicting early progression in nivolumab-treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tamiya, Motohiro; Tamiya, Akihiro; Tanaka, Ayako; Okamoto, Norio; Nakahama, Kenji; Taniguchi, Yoshihiko; Isa, Shun-Ichi; Inoue, Takako; Imamura, Fumio; Atagi, Shinji; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2018-01-01

    Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression status is inadequate for indicating nivolumab in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because the baseline advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) is reportedly associated with patient outcomes, we investigated whether the pretreatment ALI is prognostic in NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients treated with nivolumab for advanced NSCLC between December 2015 and May 2016 at three Japanese institutes. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the impact of the pretreatment ALI (and other inflammation-related parameters) on progression-free survival (PFS) and early progression (i.e., within 8 weeks after starting nivolumab). A total of 201 patients were analyzed; their median age was 68 years (range, 27-87 years), 67% were men, and 24% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or higher. An ECOG performance status ≥2, serum albumin ALI ALI ALI was found to be a significant independent predictor of early progression in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving nivolumab, and may help identify patients likely to benefit from continued nivolumab treatment in routine clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Patterns of pretreatment diagnostic assessment and staging for patients with cervical cancer (1999-2001). Patterns of care study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toita, Takafumi; Kodaira, Takeshi; Uno, Takashi; Shinoda, Atsunori; Akino, Yuichi; Teshima, Teruki; Mitsumori, Michihide

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the patterns of pretreatment diagnostic assessment in uterine cervical cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy in Japan. The Japanese Patterns of Care Study working group conducted a second extramural audit survey of 68 institutions and collected specific information on 631 patients with cervical cancer. All patients were treated with radiotherapy in 1999-2001. Of these, 324 patients treated without surgery were the subjects of this study. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics-prescribed diagnostic procedures were performed at moderate rates in our study cohort. The performance rates of chest X-ray, intravenous urography, cystoscopy, and proctoscopy were 74, 54, 53, and 33%, respectively. Cross sectional imaging studies were frequently performed. Pelvic CT, abdominal CT, and pelvic MRI were performed in 88, 80, and 76%, respectively. Lymphangiography (1%) and surgical evaluation (1%) were rarely done. Only one patient underwent positron emission tomography (PET) scans in this survey period. This study demonstrated the patterns of pretreatment diagnostic assessment in cervical cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy in Japan. (author)

  7. Predictive value of pretreatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with newly diagnosed extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Cai, Qi-Chun; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Xu; Lin, Ze-Xiao; Gao, Yan; Xia, Yun-Fei; Guo, Ying; Cai, Qing-Qing; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Lin, Tong-Yu

    2013-03-01

    The role of (18)Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) is not well established. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic role of the pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) on PET/CT in patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. Among 364 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed ENKL, 81 patients were included and reviewed. The impact of SUV(max) on survival and the relationship between SUV(max) and other clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. The median SUV(max) was 14.6 (range 2.0-45.4). The optimal cutoff value of SUV(max) to predict overall survival (OS) was 15. Patients with high SUV(max) (SUVmax >15) were associated with bulky disease (P KPI, P = 0.046), resistance to primary treatment (P = 0.014), poor OS (P 60 years (P = 0.001), stage III-IV (P = 0.023), SUV(max) >15 (P = 0.020), and bulky disease (>5 cm) (P = 0.002). By using the SUV(max), patients in most subgroups stratified by the KPI or the International Prognostic Index (IPI) were further discriminated in OS with significant statistical difference. Our results suggest the pretreatment SUV(max) is predictive of prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. The SUV(max) may provide additional prognostic information for IPI and KPI.

  8. Oral contraceptive pretreatment does not improve outcome in microdose gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol among poor responder intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvan, Candan Iltemir; Berker, Bulent; Turhan, Nilgun Ozturk; Satiroglu, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    To compare oral contraceptive (OC) pretreatment plus microdose GnRH-a in flare-up protocol and non-OC microdose GnRH-a in flare-up protocol among poor responder ICSI patients. A retrospective analysis of poor responder ICSI patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to used microdose protocol. Precycle treatment with OC followed by follicular phase administration of 40 microg s.c. leuprolide acetate (LA) every 12 h beginning on after 2 day pill-free period and rFSH administration was begun on the third day of LA administration (OC-Group, n=26). Alternatively on day 2 after menses, patients were administered similar stimulation regime (non-OC Group, n=27). There were no significant differences between groups in the number of oocytes, peak estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, fertilization rates and embryo quality. Implantations and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer were similar. OC pretreatment plus microdose GnRHa in flare-up protocol does not offer advantages over non-OC microdose GnRHa in flare-up protocol among poor responder ICSI patients.

  9. Phase II DeCOG-Study of Ipilimumab in Pretreated and Treatment-Naïve Patients with Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Lisa; Vaubel, Julia; Mohr, Peter; Hauschild, Axel; Utikal, Jochen; Simon, Jan; Garbe, Claus; Herbst, Rudolf; Enk, Alexander; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Bluhm, Leonie; Rompel, Rainer; Griewank, Klaus G.; Fluck, Michael; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Up to 50% of patients with uveal melanoma (UM) develop metastatic disease with limited treatment options. The immunomodulating agent ipilimumab has shown an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with cutaneous metastatic melanoma in two phase III trials. As patients with UM were excluded in these studies, the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group (DeCOG) conducted a phase II to assess the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in patients with metastatic UM. Patients and Methods We undertook a multicenter phase II study in patients with different subtypes of metastatic melanoma. Here we present data on patients with metastatic UM (pretreated and treatment-naïve) who received up to four cycles of ipilimumab administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg in 3 week intervals. Tumor assessments were conducted at baseline, weeks 12, 24, 36 and 48 according to RECIST 1.1 criteria. Adverse events (AEs), including immune-related AEs were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v.4.0. Primary endpoint was the OS rate at 12 months. Results Forty five pretreated (85%) and eight treatment-naïve (15%) patients received at least one dose of ipilimumab. 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 22% and 7%, respectively. Median OS was 6.8 months (95% CI 3.7–8.1), median progression-free survival 2.8 months (95% CI 2.5–2.9). The disease control rate at weeks 12 and 24 was 47% and 21%, respectively. Sixteen patients had stable disease (47%), none experienced partial or complete response. Treatment-related AEs were observed in 35 patients (66%), including 19 grade 3–4 events (36%). One drug-related death due to pancytopenia was observed. Conclusions Ipilimumab has very limited clinical activity in patients with metastatic UM. Toxicity was manageable when treated as per protocol-specific guidelines. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01355120 PMID:25761109

  10. Pre-treatment predictors and in-treatment factors associated with change in avoidant and dependent personality disorder traits among patients with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Finn-Magnus; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold; Martinsen, Egil; Gude, Tore; Hedley, Liv Margaret; Abrahamsen, Gun

    2010-01-01

    We examined changes in avoidant and dependent personality disorder dimensions, and pre-treatment and in-treatment factors associated with such changes in 77 patients, randomized to medication-free residential cognitive (CT) or residential interpersonal therapy for social phobia. Personality disorders and personality dimensions according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were assessed at pre-treatment and at one-year post-treatment. Both treatments were associated with a decrease in avoidant and dependent personality dimensions; dependent dimension decreased more in CT. Changes in cognitive factors predicted changes in both personality dimensions, whereas changes in symptoms or interpersonal factors did not. Change in the cognitive factor estimated cost was the most powerful predictor in the avoidant dimension, as it was the only predictor that remained significant in the forward regression analyses. Change in the cognitive factor estimated cost, and treatment were the most powerful predictors of change in the dependent dimension. Pre-treatment use of anxiolytics predicted larger changes in both PD dimensions.

  11. Phase II DeCOG-study of ipilimumab in pretreated and treatment-naïve patients with metastatic uveal melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zimmer

    Full Text Available Up to 50% of patients with uveal melanoma (UM develop metastatic disease with limited treatment options. The immunomodulating agent ipilimumab has shown an overall survival (OS benefit in patients with cutaneous metastatic melanoma in two phase III trials. As patients with UM were excluded in these studies, the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group (DeCOG conducted a phase II to assess the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in patients with metastatic UM.We undertook a multicenter phase II study in patients with different subtypes of metastatic melanoma. Here we present data on patients with metastatic UM (pretreated and treatment-naïve who received up to four cycles of ipilimumab administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg in 3 week intervals. Tumor assessments were conducted at baseline, weeks 12, 24, 36 and 48 according to RECIST 1.1 criteria. Adverse events (AEs, including immune-related AEs were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC v.4.0. Primary endpoint was the OS rate at 12 months.Forty five pretreated (85% and eight treatment-naïve (15% patients received at least one dose of ipilimumab. 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 22% and 7%, respectively. Median OS was 6.8 months (95% CI 3.7-8.1, median progression-free survival 2.8 months (95% CI 2.5-2.9. The disease control rate at weeks 12 and 24 was 47% and 21%, respectively. Sixteen patients had stable disease (47%, none experienced partial or complete response. Treatment-related AEs were observed in 35 patients (66%, including 19 grade 3-4 events (36%. One drug-related death due to pancytopenia was observed.Ipilimumab has very limited clinical activity in patients with metastatic UM. Toxicity was manageable when treated as per protocol-specific guidelines.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01355120.

  12. Prediction of lung density changes after radiotherapy by cone beam computed tomography response markers and pre-treatment factors for non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine; Bertelsen, Anders; Hope, Andrew; Moseley, Douglas; Brink, Carsten

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the ability of pre-treatment factors and response markers extracted from standard cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to predict the lung density changes induced by radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Density changes in follow-up computed tomography scans were evaluated for 135 NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy. Early response markers were obtained by analysing changes in lung density in CBCT images acquired during the treatment course. The ability of pre-treatment factors and CBCT markers to predict lung density changes induced by radiotherapy was investigated. Age and CBCT markers extracted at 10th, 20th, and 30th treatment fraction significantly predicted lung density changes in a multivariable analysis, and a set of response models based on these parameters were established. The correlation coefficient for the models was 0.35, 0.35, and 0.39, when based on the markers obtained at the 10th, 20th, and 30th fraction, respectively. The study indicates that younger patients without lung tissue reactions early into their treatment course may have minimal radiation induced lung density increase at follow-up. Further investigations are needed to examine the ability of the models to identify patients with low risk of symptomatic toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combination chemotherapy with intermittent erlotinib and pemetrexed for pretreated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase I dose-finding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Seigo; Tachibana, Isao; Komuta, Kiyoshi; Kawase, Ichiro; Kijima, Takashi; Takahashi, Ryo; Kida, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takeshi; Hamaguchi, Masanari; Takeuchi, Yoshiko; Nagatomo, Izumi; Yamamoto, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    Erlotinib and pemetrexed have been approved for the second-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These two agents have different mechanisms of action. Combined treatment with erlotinib and pemetrexed could potentially augment the antitumor activity of either agent alone. In the present study, we investigated the safety profile of combined administration of the two agents in pretreated NSCLC patients. A phase I dose-finding study (Trial registration: UMIN000002900) was performed in patients with stage III/IV nonsquamous NSCLC whose disease had progressed on or after receiving first-line chemotherapy. Patients received 500 mg/m 2 of pemetrexed intravenously every 21 days and erlotinib (100 mg at Level 1 and 150 mg at Level 2) orally on days 2–16. Twelve patients, nine males and three females, were recruited. Patient characteristics included a median age of 66 years (range, 48–78 years), stage IV disease (nine cases), adenocarcinoma (seven cases) and activating mutation-positives in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (two cases). Treatment was well-tolerated, and the recommended dose of erlotinib was fixed at 150 mg. Dose-limiting toxicities were experienced in three patients and included: grade 3 elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, repetitive grade 4 neutropenia that required reduction of the second dose of pemetrexed and grade 3 diarrhea. No patient experienced drug-induced interstitial lung disease. Three patients achieved a partial response and stable disease was maintained in five patients. Combination chemotherapy of intermittent erlotinib with pemetrexed was well-tolerated, with promising efficacy against pretreated advanced nonsquamous NSCLC

  14. Pretreatment tumor SUV{sub max} predicts disease-specific and overall survival in patients with head and neck soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Seung Cheol; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungsu S.; Moon, Hyojeong; Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Head and neck soft tissue sarcoma (HNSTS) is a rare type of tumor with various histological presentations and clinical behaviors. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is being increasingly used for staging, grading, and predicting treatment outcomes in various types of human cancers, although this modality has been rarely studied in the survival prediction of HNSTS. Here we examined the prognostic value of tumor metabolic parameters measured using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with HNSTS. This study included 36 consecutive patients with HNSTS who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning prior to treatment at our institution. Tumor gross total volume (GTV) was measured from pretreatment contrast-enhanced CT scans, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured using pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to identify associations between imaging parameters and disease-specific survival (DSS) or overall survival (OS). Univariate analyses showed that SUV{sub max}, MTV, and TLG, but not GTV, were significantly associated with DSS and OS (all P < 0.05). After controlling for clinicopathological factors, SUV{sub max}, MTV, and TLG were significantly associated with DSS and OS (all P < 0.05). Patients with a tumor SUV{sub max} value of >7.0 experienced an approximately fivefold increase in mortality in terms of DSS and OS relative to those with a tumor SUV{sub max} <7.0. Quantitative metabolic measurements on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can yield values that are significantly predictive of survival after treatment for HNSTS. (orig.)

  15. Pretreatment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    It is frequently in the patient's best interest that radiation treatments are initiated soon after the decision to treat is made. However, it is essential to good radiation therapy that the patient's treatment course be planned and beam-modifying devices be fabricated with utmost care prior to treatment. The objectives of the treatment, along with the treatment parameters and techniques necessary to achieve these objectives, must be discussed prior to initiating planning procedures. Determination of the target volume is made by the radiation oncologist; this is based on knowledge of the history of the tumor, the patterns of spread of the disease, and on diagnostic findings during the work-up of each patient. It is then necessary to obtain several measurements of the patient and also to identify the position of the target volume and of adjacent normal organs with respect to known external skin marks before the actual treatment planning is begun. Such localization can be done through several methods. The two most commonly used methods are radiographic and computed tomography (CT), both of which are discussed in this chapter. The measurements often include contours of the patient's external surface, usually in the axial plane of the central axis of the beam, and often in multiple levels within the region to be treated. Three dimensional localization and treatment planning requires thorough understanding of geometry as well as of patient positioning and immobilization. This chapter attempts to clarify some of these complicated but essential preparations for treatment

  16. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; Pstatin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients with prior treatment. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE is significant for

  17. An analysis of pretreatment characteristics and the risk of PSA failure by race and ethnicity in prostate cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Cardella W.; Lewis, Pamalar P.; Kroll, Stewart M.; Roach, Mack

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This study was performed to: (1) determine the pretreatment characteristics of racially and ethnically diverse men who were treated with definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer and; (2) to assess whether race or ethnicity is an independent prognostic factor for biochemical failure using the serum PSA (prostate specific antigen) as a marker of disease free status. Materials and Methods: Between 1987 and 1995, 505 men, (including 487 with pretreatment PSA determined), were treated with radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the UCSF or its affiliated hospitals and form the basis of this analysis. These patients were referred from local VA, County, HMO and private facilities in the Northern California Bay Area and represent a diverse group by race, ethnicity and social economic status. PSA failure was defined as a PSA >1.0 ng/ml or rises of ≥ 0.5 ng/ml in 1 year. Results: The median PSA for all patients was 11.5 ng/ml and the mean was 20.8 ng/ml. The mean Gleason score was 5.95, and was similar among treatment groups. Twenty percent of the patients were T1, 56% were T2 and 24% were T3/4. The maximum dose at depth (Dmax) was 71.5 in 42% of the patients. Seventy two men (14%) received neoadjuvant +/- adjuvant hormonal therapy combined with radiotherapy. With a median follow-up exceeding 2 years, 47% of the patients are disease free at 4 years. Major pretreatment characteristics by race or ethnicity are summarized below: On univariate analysis, the relative risk of PSA failure in Blacks compared to Whites was 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.72- 1.52, p = 0.82) and in others compared to Whites was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 - 2.28, p = 0.77). On multivariate analysis, neither race nor ethnicity were independently significant predictors of outcome. For example, the relative risk of PSA failure in Blacks was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 - 1.32, p = 0.53). Factors that influenced

  18. Textural features of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT images: prognostic significance in patients with advanced T-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nai-Ming; Fang, Yu-Hua Dean; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Huang, Chung-Guei; Tsan, Din-Li; Ng, Shu-Hang; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Chien-Yu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that total lesion glycolysis (TLG) may serve as a prognostic indicator in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We sought to investigate whether the textural features of pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT images can provide any additional prognostic information over TLG and clinical staging in patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC. We retrospectively analyzed the pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT images of 70 patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC who had completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy, bioradiotherapy, or radiotherapy with curative intent. All of the patients had data on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and were followed up for at least 24 mo or until death. A standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5 was taken as a cutoff for tumor boundary. The textural features of pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT images were extracted from histogram analysis (SUV variance and SUV entropy), normalized gray-level cooccurrence matrix (uniformity, entropy, dissimilarity, contrast, homogeneity, inverse different moment, and correlation), and neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix (coarseness, contrast, busyness, complexity, and strength). Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were used to identify the optimal cutoff values for the textural features and TLG. Thirteen patients were HPV-positive. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age, tumor TLG, and uniformity were independently associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). TLG, uniformity, and HPV positivity were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). A prognostic scoring system based on TLG and uniformity was derived. Patients who presented with TLG > 121.9 g and uniformity ≤ 0.138 experienced significantly worse PFS, DSS, and OS rates than those without (P 121.9 g or uniformity ≤ 0.138 were further divided according to age, and different PFS and DSS were observed. Uniformity extracted from the normalized gray

  19. Prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma fibrinogen level in patients with digestive system tumors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Ren, Qian; Bai, Suyang; Wang, Yuping; Zhou, Yongning

    2018-06-01

    High pretreatment levels of plasma fibrinogen have been widely reported to be a potential predictor of prognosis in digestive system tumors; however, the conclusions are not consistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the prognostic roles of high pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels in digestive system tumors. We searched for eligible studies in the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science electronic databases for publications from the database inception to 1 September 2017. The endpoints of interest included overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence-free survival. We investigated the relationship between fibrinogenemia and overall survival in colorectal cancer (10 studies), gastric cancer (6), pancreatic cancer (6), hepatocellular carcinoma (7), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (10); the pooled results indicated that fibrinogenemia was significantly related to a worse overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52, 1.97; P digestive system tumors, indicating that it could be a useful prognostic marker in these types of tumors.

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging for pretreatment evaluation and prediction of treatment effect in patients undergoing CT-guided injection for lumbar disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Xiang Ke; Bhetuwal, Anup; Yang, Han Feng

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether a change in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could predict early response to CT-guided Oxygen-Ozone (O 2 -O 3 ) injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation. A total of 52 patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy received a single intradiscal (3 mL) and periganglionic (5 mL) injection of an O 2 -O 3 mixture. An ADC index of the involved side to the intact side was calculated using the following formula: pre-treatment ADC index = ([ADC involved side - ADC intact side] / ADC intact side) x 100. We analyzed the relationship between the pre-treatment Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the ADC index. In addition, the correlation between ODI recovery ratio and ADC index was investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of the ADC index for predicting response in O 2 -O 3 therapy was determined. Oswestry Disability Index and the ADC index was not significantly correlated (r = -0.125, p = 0.093). The ADC index and ODI recovery ratio was significantly correlated (r = 0.819, p < 0.001). When using 7.10 as the cut-off value, the ADC index obtained a sensitivity of 86.3% and a specificity of 82.9% for predicting successful response to therapy around the first month of follow-up. This preliminary study demonstrates that the patients with decreased ADC index tend to show poor improvement of clinical symptoms. The ADC index may be a useful indicator to predict early response to CT-guided O 2 -O 3 injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging for pretreatment evaluation and prediction of treatment effect in patients undergoing CT-guided injection for lumbar disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Xiang Ke [Dept. of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University, Chengdu (China); Bhetuwal, Anup; Yang, Han Feng [Schuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging and Dept. of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong (China)

    2015-08-15

    To determine whether a change in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could predict early response to CT-guided Oxygen-Ozone (O{sub 2}-O{sub 3}) injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation. A total of 52 patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy received a single intradiscal (3 mL) and periganglionic (5 mL) injection of an O{sub 2}-O{sub 3} mixture. An ADC index of the involved side to the intact side was calculated using the following formula: pre-treatment ADC index = ([ADC involved side - ADC intact side] / ADC intact side) x 100. We analyzed the relationship between the pre-treatment Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the ADC index. In addition, the correlation between ODI recovery ratio and ADC index was investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of the ADC index for predicting response in O{sub 2}-O{sub 3} therapy was determined. Oswestry Disability Index and the ADC index was not significantly correlated (r = -0.125, p = 0.093). The ADC index and ODI recovery ratio was significantly correlated (r = 0.819, p < 0.001). When using 7.10 as the cut-off value, the ADC index obtained a sensitivity of 86.3% and a specificity of 82.9% for predicting successful response to therapy around the first month of follow-up. This preliminary study demonstrates that the patients with decreased ADC index tend to show poor improvement of clinical symptoms. The ADC index may be a useful indicator to predict early response to CT-guided O{sub 2}-O{sub 3} injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation.

  2. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  3. Prognostic Value of the Pretreatment Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI) in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with R-CHOP Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Hoon; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Lim, Joo Han

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI, body mass index × albumin/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) has been demonstrated to be a prognostic factor of survival in some solid cancers. We retrospectively investigated the usefulness of the ALI to predict chemotherapy response and survival in 212 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) chemotherapy. Patients were allocated to a low ALI group (n = 82, 38.7%) or a high ALI group (n = 130, 61.3%) according to an optimal pretreatment ALI cut-off value of 15.5 as determined by receiver operating curve analysis. The low ALI group displayed more adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (54.9 vs. 75.4%, p = 0.008), and poorer 5-year progression-free (PFS, 58.1 vs. 77.3%, p = 0.006) and overall (OS, 64.2 vs. 80.2%, p = 0.008) survival. Multivariate analysis showed that low ALI was found to independently predict shorter PFS and OS. Interestingly, a low ALI reverted to a high ALI during treatment in 58 patients (27.4%), and the 5-year OS of these patients was better than that of patients whose ALI remained low (n = 24, 72.5 vs. 24%, p ALI might be an easily available marker for predicting clinical outcomes in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Prognostic value of pretreatment volume-based quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kitajima@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Doi, Hiroshi, E-mail: h-doi@hyo-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Kuribayashi, Kozo, E-mail: kuririn@hyo-med.ac.jp [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Hashimoto, Masaki, E-mail: kogekogemasaki@gmail.com [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Tsuchitani, Tatsuya, E-mail: tty-823@hyo-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, Hyogo College of Medicine College Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Tanooka, Masao, E-mail: masao1108@gmail.com [Department of Radiological Technology, Hyogo College of Medicine College Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Fukushima, Kazuhito, E-mail: fukuchan00106@gmail.com [Division of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi, E-mail: t-nakano@hyo-med.ac.jp [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Hasegawa, Seiki, E-mail: hasegawa@hyo-med.ac.jp [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Hirota, Shozo, E-mail: hirota-s@hyo-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationships between pretreatment volume-based quantitative {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) parameters and overall survival (OS) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 201 MPM patients, of whom 38 underwent surgical resection, and calculated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), including primary tumors and nodal or distant metastatic lesions, on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Relationships between clinicopathological factors (age, sex, performance status, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] score, histological subtype, TNM stage, and treatment strategy), volume-based quantitative PET/CT parameters, and OS were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank test. Results: The median follow-up was 15 months (range, 1–96 months; median, 17 months). In a univariate analysis of all patients, older age (p < 0.05), high EORTC score (p < 0.001), non-epithelioid histological subtype (p < 0.001), high T stage (p < 0.001), positive N/M status (p < 0.05, p < 0.001), advanced TNM stage (p < 0.001), non-surgical treatment (p < 0.001), and high SUVmax (p < 0.001), MTV (p < 0.001), or TLG (p < 0.001) were associated with significantly shorter OS. A multivariate analysis confirmed non-epithelioid subtype (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–2.48; p < 0.05), non-surgical treatment (HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34–0.95; p < 0.05), and high TLG (HR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.14–3.44; p < 0.05) as independent negative predictors. Conclusions: Pretreatment volume-based quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters, especially TLG, could serve as potential surrogate markers for MPM prognosis.

  5. Prognostic value of pretreatment volume-based quantitative 18F-FDG PET/CT parameters in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Doi, Hiroshi; Kuribayashi, Kozo; Hashimoto, Masaki; Tsuchitani, Tatsuya; Tanooka, Masao; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Nakano, Takashi; Hasegawa, Seiki; Hirota, Shozo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationships between pretreatment volume-based quantitative 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) parameters and overall survival (OS) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 201 MPM patients, of whom 38 underwent surgical resection, and calculated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), including primary tumors and nodal or distant metastatic lesions, on pretreatment 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Relationships between clinicopathological factors (age, sex, performance status, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] score, histological subtype, TNM stage, and treatment strategy), volume-based quantitative PET/CT parameters, and OS were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank test. Results: The median follow-up was 15 months (range, 1–96 months; median, 17 months). In a univariate analysis of all patients, older age (p < 0.05), high EORTC score (p < 0.001), non-epithelioid histological subtype (p < 0.001), high T stage (p < 0.001), positive N/M status (p < 0.05, p < 0.001), advanced TNM stage (p < 0.001), non-surgical treatment (p < 0.001), and high SUVmax (p < 0.001), MTV (p < 0.001), or TLG (p < 0.001) were associated with significantly shorter OS. A multivariate analysis confirmed non-epithelioid subtype (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–2.48; p < 0.05), non-surgical treatment (HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34–0.95; p < 0.05), and high TLG (HR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.14–3.44; p < 0.05) as independent negative predictors. Conclusions: Pretreatment volume-based quantitative 18 F-FDG PET/CT parameters, especially TLG, could serve as potential surrogate markers for MPM prognosis.

  6. Prognostic value of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by regional lymph nodes on pretreatment PET/CT in patients with resectable colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Lim, Ilhan; Kim, Byung Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Mi; Shin, Ui Sup [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We evaluated the ability of pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by regional lymph nodes to predict the survival of patients with resectable colorectal cancer. The records of 78 patients with AJCC stage III colorectal cancer (pathologically confirmed node-positive disease without evidence of distant metastasis) treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The maximum standardized uptake values of the primary tumor (SUVp) and regional lymph nodes (SUVn) were measured by pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The ROC curve analyses and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to analyze whether SUVp, SUVn, and clinicopathologic parameters could predict disease-free survival. Although there were no significant differences between the median SUVp in the event group and that in the non-event group, the median SUVn was significantly higher in the event group (1.7) than in the non-event group (0.8, p = 0.023). Based on the ROC curve analysis, SUVn predicted the event for disease-free survival (AUC = 0.668, p = 0.02) with the optimal criterion, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of > 1.2, 71 %, 63 %, and 65 %, respectively. However, SUVp did not predict disease-free survival (AUC = 0.570, p = 0.349). Univariate analysis revealed that SUVn (p = 0.011) and venous invasion (p = 0.016) were associated with disease-free survival, but pathologic N stage was not (p = 0.09). By multivariate analysis, only SUVn > 1.2 independently shortened the disease-free survival (relative risk, 2.97; 95 % CI, 1.14-7.74, p = 0.026). SUVn before surgery may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with AJCC stage III colorectal cancer. (orig.)

  7. Prediction of local failures with a combination of pretreatment tumor volume and apparent diffusion coefficient in patients treated with definitive radiotherapy for hypopharyngeal or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Kayoko; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical factors for predicting local failure after definitive radiotherapy in oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Between July 2006 and December 2008, 64 consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx or the oropharynx treated with definitive radiotherapy were included in this study. Clinical factors, such as pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) level, T-stage, gross tumor volume of primary tumors (pGTV), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), were evaluated for the correlation with local failure. A subset analysis of 32 patients with MR images including diffusion-weighted images (DWI) as a pretreatment evaluation was also performed. The Kaplan-Meier curves, the log-rank test, and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate these clinical factors. Eleven of 64 patients experienced local recurrence, with a median follow-up time of 15 months. In the univariate analysis, Hb level (p=0.0261), T-stage (p=0.012), pGTV (p=0.0025), and SUV max (p=0.024) were significantly associated with local failure. In the multivariate analysis, pGTV (p=0.0070) remained an adverse factor for local control. In the subset analysis of 32 patients with DWI, the median apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of primary tumors on DWI was 0.79 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (range, 0.40-1.60 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s). Patients with a high ADC value (>0.79 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) had a significantly lower local control rate than patients with a low ADC value (100% vs. 44%, p=0.0019). The rate of local failure among patients with a large pGTV and a high ADC value was 55% (6/11), whereas no local failures occurred (0%, 0/21) among patients with a small pGTV or a low ADC. These results suggest that a combination of a large tumor volume and a high ADC value could be predictive of local recurrence after definitive radiotherapy in hypopharyngeal or

  8. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, M.L.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S.; Ahmad, R.; Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix–uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix–uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% ± 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  9. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Xin; Lin, Jian-Hua; Kang, Ting; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Pei-Song

    2017-08-14

    The levels of liver function tests (LFTs) are often used to assess liver injury and non-liver disease-related mortality. In our study, the relationship between pretreatment serum LFTs and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Our purpose was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in ESCC patients. A retrospective study was performed in 447 patients with ESCC, and follow-up period was at least 60 months until death. The prognostic significance of serum LFTs were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox hazard models. LFTs including ALT, AST, LSR, GGT, TBA and LDH were analyzed. Serum LSR (HR: 0.592, 95% CI = 0.457-0.768, p < 0.001 and GGT (HR: 1.507, 95% CI = 1.163-1.953, p = 0.002) levels were indicated as significant predictors of OS. The 5-year OS among patients with higher LSR levels was longer compared with those patients with decreased LSR levels, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T1-T2 subgroup, T3-T4 subgroup, N0 subgroup and M0 subgroup). We also found that patients with a higher GGT might predict worse OS than patients with a normal GGT, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T3-T4 subgroup and N1-N2 subgroup). Both increased levels of LSR and decreased levels of GGT might predict shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Our findings suggest that serum LSR and GGT levels could be used as a key predictor of survival in patients with ESCC.

  10. Pretreatment drug use characteristics and experiences among patients in a voluntary substance abuse treatment center in Malaysia: A mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Archana; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Ghani, Mansur A; Khan, Farrah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Drug use in Malaysia remains a significant public health and social problem despite implementation of harsh punitive drug policies such as forcibly placing suspected drug users into compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs). Following criticism over human right violations in CDDCs, Malaysia has begun to transition towards voluntary drug treatment centers known as Cure & Care (C&C) centers. To best serve the needs of regional C&C centers, data on drug use are essential among patients accessing treatment. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors examined pretreatment drug use characteristics and experiences with addiction treatment among C&C patients in Kelantan-a religiously conservative state in northeast Malaysia with high prevalence of drug use but where limited data are available on drug use patterns. A mixed-methods study utilizing surveys (n = 96) and semistructured interviews (n = 20) was conducted among a convenience sample of inpatients and outpatients at the Pengkalan Chepa C&C Center in Kelantan. Survey results showed that 89.6% of participants met screening criteria for moderate to severe addiction severity. Nearly 90% reported lifetime illicit amphetamine (syabu, meth, ice, and pil kuda) use, followed by alcohol (60.4%) and opioids (52.1%). Qualitative results pointed to the powerful influence of peer networks in drug initiation and relapse, and the positive effect of the C&C center on drug rehabilitation. The drug use profile of the Kelantan C&C center enrollees shows extensive pretreatment amphetamine use, polysubstance use, and injection drug use, including high-risk behaviors such as sharing needles, syringes, and containers. Evidence points to the need for integration of social support-oriented practices and behavioral interventions into the rehabilitation of drug users in this region.

  11. Pretreatment combination of platelet counts and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio predicts survival of nasopharyngeal cancer patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin YH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Hsuan Lin,1 Kuo-Ping Chang,2 Yaoh-Shiang Lin,2,3 Ting-Shou Chang2–4 1Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 4Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Increased cancer-related inflammation has been associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. The combination of platelet count and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR has related outcomes in several cancers, except for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. This study evaluated the prognostic value of COP-NLR in predicting outcome in NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT.Materials and methods: We analyzed the data collected from 232 NPC patients. Pretreatment total platelet counts, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and COP-NLR score were evaluated as potential predictors. Optimal cutoff values for NLR and platelets were determined using receiver operating curve. Patients with both elevated NLR (>3 and platelet counts (>300×109/L were assigned a COP-NLR score of 2; those with one elevated or no elevated value were assigned a COP-NLR a score of 1 or 0. Cox proportional hazards model was used to test the association of these factors and relevant 3-year survivals.Results: Patients (COP-NLR scores 1 and 2=85; score 0=147 were followed up for 55.19 months. Univariate analysis showed no association between pretreatment NLR >2.23 and platelet counts >290.5×109/L and worse outcomes. Multivariate analysis revealed that those with COP-NLR scores of 0 had better 3-year disease-specific survival (P=0.02, overall survival (P=0.024, locoregional relapse-free survival (P=0.004, and distant

  12. Pretreatment PSA predicts for biochemical disease free survival in patients treated with post-prostatectomy external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, C.H.; Kelly, M.; Rich, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To assess the outcome and determine prognostic factors for patients treated with external beam radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients were treated after prostatectomy with radiotherapy between March 1988 and October 1993. All patients were free from clinically or radiographically suspicious local or distant disease. One patient underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, but no other patients received hormonal therapy prior to radiation. Pre-radiotherapy PSA and follow-up PSA data were available in all patients. Four patients had undetectable PSA ( 7, and 11% had nodal involvement. Survival was analyzed using the life table method. Actuarial freedom from biochemical (BCM) failure, defined as a rise of greater than 10% or an undetectable PSA becoming detectable, was the primary endpoint studied. Results: Fifty-nine percent of patients had a detectable PSA return to undetectable levels after XRT. The actuarial five year freedom from biochemical failure for all patients was 24%. A significant difference in BCM disease free survival was seen for patients irradiated with a pre-XRT PSA ≤2.7 versus a pre-XRT PSA >2.7 (p=0.0001). Sixty percent of the former group were BCM disease free versus 0% in the latter. Biochemical disease free survival was not affected by preoperative PSA level, presence of undetectable PSA after surgery, surgery to radiation interval, seminal vesicle invasion, clinical stage, pathologic stage, Gleasons grade, or total dose. There were no symptomatic or clinically suspicious local failures, and there were no grade 3, 4, or 5 acute or late complications. There were 69% grade 1 and 2 acute reactions and one grade 2 late complication. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy for patients with a PSA of ≤2.7 after prostatectomy was effective in biochemically controlling 60% of the patients with four years median follow up. To our knowledge these data represent the longest follow-up for this patient

  13. TO EVALUATE PREVALENCE OF DIABETES AND HIV IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED MULTIDRUGRESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS ADMITTED FOR PRETREATMENT EVALUATION IN DOTS PLUS CENTRE, THANJAVUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Kuppusamy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND More than 9 million people fall sick with tuberculosis every year in the world. People with weak immune system as a result of disease like diabetes and HIV are at high risk of developing MDR-TB infection. Proper monitoring and evaluation are needed to control MDR-TB in HIV and diabetes patients. The aim of the study is to find the prevalence of diabetes and HIV among MDR-TB patients admitted for pretreatment evaluation in Dots Plus Centre, Thanjavur Medical College, Tamilnadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS The medical records with datas of 96 patients with MDR-TB who are having diabetes and HIV infection were examined. These cases were diagnosed and registered during January 2015 to December 2015. These patients had drug resistant to first line antituberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin. Duration of diabetes and HIV infection were noted. Age were categorised in to four groups- 20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years and above 50 years. The potential risk of association of diabetes, HIV or both with MDR-TB was evaluated by univariate conditional logistic regression model. RESULTS Out of 96 newly-diagnosed MDR-TB patients, prevalence of diabetes is about 34.37%, out of which (84.84% were males and (15.15% were females. Out of 34.37%, 38.54% of patients had controlled diabetes, 61.45% patients had uncontrolled diabetes. Nearly, more than half of diabetes patient falls under uncontrolled diabetes. More number of male patients had diabetes with MDR-TB when compared to females. 10.4% of these persons got oral hypoglycaemic agent and 6.3% got insulin as treatment for diabetes. 1% had irregular treatment with poor compliance. Prevalence of HIV is about 4.16% out of which 75% were males and 25% were females. One patient had both diabetes and HIV with MDR tuberculosis. CONCLUSION In our retrospective study, prevalence of diabetes in MDR-TB patients were more common in males than in females, most of them were in the age groups of 40 years and above

  14. Further considerations for damping in heavily insulated pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Lindquist, M.R.; Severud, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years a body of test data has been accumulated which demonstrates that damping in small diameter heavily insulated pipe systems is much larger than presently recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.61. This data is generally based on pipe systems using a stand-off insulation design with a heater annulus. Additional tests have how been completed on similar pipe systems using a strap-on insulation design without the heater annulus. Results indicate some reduction in damping over the stand-off designs. Test data has also been obtained on a larger sixteen-inch diameter heavily insulated pipe system. Results of these two additional test series are presented. Revised damping values for seismic design of heavily insulated pipe systems are then recommended

  15. Further considerations for damping in heavily insulated pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Lindquist, M.R.; Severud, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years a body of test data has been accumulated which demonstrates that damping in small diameter heavily insulated pipe systems is much larger than presently recommended by Regulatory Code 1.61. This data is generally based on pipe systems using a stand-off insulation design with a heater annulus. Additional tests have now been completed on similar pipe systems using a strap-on insulation design without the heater annulus. Results indicate some reduction in damping over the stand-off designs. Test data has also been obtained on a larger sixteen-inch diameter heavily insulated pipe system. Results of these two additional test series are presented. Revised damping values for seismic design for heavily insulated pipe systems are then recommended

  16. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  17. Circulating LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR may identify pre-treatment IVF patients at risk of OHSS and poor implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Anne E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful pregnancy via in vitro fertilization (IVF depends on the recovery of an adequate number of healthy oocytes and on blastocyst implantation following uterine transfer. Two hormones, LH and hCG, utilize a common LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR, variations in which have profound implications in human reproduction. Soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR is released from experimental cell lines and placental explants and it can be detected in the follicular fluid and serum. Methods To evaluate the impact of circulating soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR in fertility treatment, we measured sLHCGR and LH-sLHCGR complex in serum from women seeking IVF using specifically developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Following an IVF cycle of treatment, patients were grouped according to oocyte yield into low (lower than or equal to 7 oocytes, intermediate (8-14 oocytes and high (greater than or equal to 15 oocytes responders and pregnancy outcome noted. Results Pre-treatment sLHCGR identified many women at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation. Low levels of sLHCGR were associated with pregnancy in both high and low responders but sLHCGR did not significantly affect the treatment outcome of intermediate responders. Low responders who failed to become pregnant had high levels of circulating sLHCGR bound to LH (LH-sLHCGR. Conclusions Pre-treatment measurement of sLHCGR could be used to tailor individual fertility treatment programs and improve outcomes by avoiding ovarian hyperstimulation and poor embryo implantation.

  18. Association between pretreatment retention rate of indocyanine green 15 min after administration and life prognosis in patients with HCC treated by proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Kuniaki; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Abei, Masato; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Numajiri, Haruko; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Child-Pugh score is often used to judge the outcome of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The retention rate of indocyanine green 15 min after administration (ICG R15) can also be used to predict prognosis after liver resection. We evaluated the utility of ICG R15 for prediction of outcomes after proton beam therapy (PBT) for HCC. Methods and materials: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 250 patients who received PBT between 2002 and 2007. The patients (178 males and 72 females) had a median age of 71 years (range: 43–88). Child-Pugh categories were A (score 5–6), B (7–9), and C (10–15) in 197, 51, and 2 patients, respectively. ICG scores were 0–<10, 10–<20, 20–<30, 30–<40 and ⩾40 in 27, 99, 59, 28 and 37 patients, respectively; including 26, 92, 45, 16 and 18 Child-Pugh A patients and 1, 8, 14, 11, and 17 Child-Pugh B patients, respectively. Survival times from the start of PBT were compared between Child-Pugh A and B patients, and among each ICG group. Results: The median survival times were 61 months (95% CI: 50–72 months) in all patients, and 64 and 20 months in Child-Pugh A and B patients, respectively (p = 0.001), The 3-year survival rates were 72%, 72%, 75%, 63%, and 26% in patients with ICG scores of 0–<10, 10–<20, 20–<30, 30–<40, and ⩾40 (p = 0.001); 70%, 75%, 77%, 65%, and 38% in these respective groups in Child-Pugh A patients (p = 0.02); and 100%, 57%, 67%, 36%, and 14% in Child-Pugh B patients (p = 0.173, not significant). Multivariate analysis showed that low ICG R15 and the absence of portal vein tumor thrombus were associated with good survival. Conclusions: Pretreatment ICG R15 is a useful prognostic factor for prediction of outcome of PBT in HCC patients, especially in those with Child-Pugh A liver function

  19. Pre-treatment inflammatory indexes as predictors of survival and cetuximab efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with wild-type RAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Guo, Xinli; Wang, Manni; Ma, Xuelei; Ye, Xiaoyang; Lin, Panpan

    2017-12-07

    This study aims at evaluating the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and systemic immune-inflammation indexes (SII) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with cetuximab. Ninety-five patients receiving cetuximab for mCRC were categorized into the high or low NLR, PLR, LMR, and SII groups based on their median index values. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis were performed to identify the indexes' correlation with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In the univariate analysis, ECOG performance status, neutrphil counts, lymphocyte counts, monocyte counts, NLR, PLR, and LDH were associated with survival. Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG performance status of 0 (hazard ratio [HR] 3.608, p < 0.001; HR 5.030, p < 0.001, respectively), high absolute neutrophil counts (HR 2.837, p < 0.001; HR 1.922, p = 0.026, respectively), low lymphocyte counts (HR 0.352, p < 0.001; HR 0.440, p = 0.001, respectively), elevated NLR (HR 3.837, p < 0.001; HR 2.467, p = 0.006) were independent predictors of shorter PFS and OS. In conclusion, pre-treatment inflammatory indexes, especially NLR were potential biomarkers to predict the survival of mCRC patients with cetuximab therapy.

  20. Pre-treatment MRI minimum apparent diffusion coefficient value is a potential prognostic imaging biomarker in cervical cancer patients treated with definitive chemoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi, Daniel Grossi; Fregnani, Jose Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Rossini, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Netto, Ana Karina Borges Junqueira; Lucchesi, Fabiano Rubião; Tsunoda, Audrey Tieko; Kamrava, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted (DW) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been studed in several cancers including cervical cancer. This study was designed to investigate the association of DW-MRI parameters with baseline clinical features and clinical outcomes (local regional control (LRC), disease free survival (DFS) and disease specific survival (DSS)) in cervical cancer patients treated with definitive chemoradiation. This was a retrospective study approved by an institutional review board that included 66 women with cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation who underwent pre-treatment MRI at our institution between 2012 and 2013. A region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn by one of three radiologists with experience in pelvic imaging on a single axial CT slice encompassing the widest diameter of the cervical tumor while excluding areas of necrosis. The following apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (×10 −3 mm 2 /s) were extracted for each ROI: Minimum - ADC min , Maximum - ADC max , Mean - ADC mean , and Standard Deviation of the ADC - ADC dev . Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built to choose the most accurate cut off value for each ADC value. Correlation between imaging metrics and baseline clinical features were evaluated using the Mann Whitney test. Confirmatory multi-variate Cox modeling was used to test associations with LRC (adjusted by gross tumor volume – GTV), DFS and DSS (both adjusted by FIGO stage). Kaplan Meyer curves were built for DFS and DSS. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Women median age was 52 years (range 23–90). 67 % had FIGO stage I-II disease while 33 % had FIGO stage III-IV disease. Eighty-two percent had squamous cell cancer. Eighty-eight percent received concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy with radiation. Median EQD2 of external beam and brachytherapy was 82.2 Gy (range 74–84). Women with disease staged III-IV (FIGO) had significantly higher mean ADC max values compared with those

  1. Pretreatment Quality of Life Predicts for Locoregional Control in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control (LRC) and/or overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: HRQOL questionnaires, using a validated instrument, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H and N), version 2, were completed by patients before the start of treatment. OS and LRC were the outcome measures analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Baseline FACT-H and N data were available for 1,093 patients and missing for 417 patients. No significant difference in outcome was found between the patients with and without baseline FACT-H and N data (p = 0.58). The median follow-up time was 27.2 months for all patients and 49 months for surviving patients. Multivariate analyses were performed for both OS and LRC. Beyond tumor and nodal stage, Karnofsky performance status, primary site, cigarette use, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and altered fractionation schedules, the FACT-H and N score was independently predictive of LRC (but not OS), with p = 0.0038. The functional well-being component of the FACT-H and N predicted most significantly for LRC (p = 0.0004). Conclusions: This study represents, to our knowledge, the largest analysis of HRQOL as a prognostic factor in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. The results of this study have demonstrated the importance of baseline HRQOL as a significant and independent predictor of LRC in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer

  2. Effect of Pretreatment Anemia on Treatment Outcome of Concurrent Radiochemotherapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Andre; Wang Changshu; Vigneault, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of anemia on outcome of treatment with radiochemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: The data of 196 patients with Stage II-IV head-and-neck cancer treated with concomitant cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria as hemoglobin 140 g/L. Conclusions: Anemia was strongly associated with local control and survival in this cohort of patients with head-and-neck cancer receiving radiochemotherapy

  3. Pretreatment with betamethasone of patients with Graves' disease given radioiodine therapy: thyroid autoantibody responses and outcome of therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamstedt, A.; Karlsson, A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of betamethasone on thyroid autoantibody responses and outcome of radioiodine therapy were determined over a period of 1 yr in a prospective randomized study of 40 patients with Graves' disease. Twenty patients were given placebo tablets, and 20 patients were treated with betamethasone from 3 weeks before until 4 weeks after 131 I therapy. At the time of inclusion in the study, the mean serum concentrations of TSH receptor antibodies, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) were increased in both groups. Three weeks of treatment with betamethasone reduced the thyroid peroxidase antibody and TgAb titers as well as the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. A decrease in the TSH receptor antibody level was not statistically significant. After radioiodine therapy, transient increases in thyroid autoantibody levels were observed. The titers of the different antibodies generally changed in parallel. In some patients a detectable level of a given antibody was found only after the radioiodine treatment, and in two cases, TgAb did not appear at all, although the two other antibodies increased temporarily. Betamethasone delayed, but did not abolish, the 131 I-induced antibody peaks. Betamethasone also caused a reduction in the total serum immunoglobulin G, a reduction which persisted throughout the study period. When the study ended, 17 patients given placebo and 9 patients given betamethasone were receiving replacement therapy due to the development of hypothyroidism. These patients at this point in time had lower antibody levels than those not requiring T4. The results of this study demonstrate that betamethasone reduces and modifies the thyroid autoantibody responses as well as the outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease

  4. Effect of pretreatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on hematological parameters and platelets aggregation in patients during elective coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Milić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Using omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG could provide protection against ischemicreperfusion damage, prevention of postoperative arrhythmia and attenuation of inflammatory response. However, omega-3 PUFAs inhibit cyclooxygenase (and thus decrease the synthesis of thromboxane A2 from arachidonic acid in platelets, which leads to decreased platelet aggregation. In cardiac surgery it is necessary to achieve a balance between inhibition and full platelets function. It is as well as important to closely follow hematological parameters, impaired by CABG itself. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish the effects of pretreatment with omega- PUFAs on hematological parameters and plateletes aggregation in patients with elective CABG. Methods. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-center trial was performed on parallel groups. The patients (n = 40 undergoing elective CABG were randomized receiving preoperative intravenous omega-3 PUFAs (Omegaven® 10% infusion (the PUFAs group or the same volume of 0.9% saline solution infusion (the control group. Infusion was given a day before surgery and repeated four hours before starting extracorporeal circulation (CPB via the peripheral vein at single doses of 100 mL (25 mL/h. Platelet function analysis was performed using multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA, multiplate-analyzer before starting CPB and 2 h postoperatively for the patients of both groups. Results. There were no clinically relevant differences in baseline characteristics between the groups. Hematological parameters were not significantly different between the groups pre-, intra- and postoperatively. During the first 24 h after surgery, the loss of blood was similar in the PUFAs and the control group (680 ± 274 mL and 608 ± 210 mL, respectively; p = 0.356. Postoperatively, platelet aggregation was not significantly different between the PUFAs and the

  5. The Impact of Pretreatment Prostate Volume on Severe Acute Genitourinary Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Anderson, Nicole S.; Oh, Steven C.; Yu, James B.; McKeon, Anne M.; Decker, Roy H.; Peschel, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of pretreatment prostate volume on the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 214 patients who underwent IMRT (75.6 Gy) for prostate cancer at two referral centers was analyzed. Prostate volumes were obtained from computed tomography scans taken during treatment simulation. Genitourinary toxicity was defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0 guidelines. Acute toxicity was defined as any toxicity originating within 90 days of the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were characterized as having a small or large prostate depending on whether their prostate volume was less than or greater than 50 cm 3 , respectively. Genitourinary toxicity was compared in these groups using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to further assess the impact of prostate volume on severe (Grade 3) acute genitourinary toxicity. Results: Patients with large prostates (>50 cm 3 ) had a higher rate of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (p = .02). Prostate volume was predictive of the likelihood of developing acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity on bivariate (p = .004) and multivariate (p = .006) logistic regression. Every 27.0 cm 3 increase in prostate volume doubled the likelihood of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer.

  6. Experience Using DosimetryCheck software for IMRT and RapidArc Patient Pre-treatment QA and a New Feature for QA during Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, Arthur; Hannon, Michael; Kwag, Jae; Renner, Wendel Dean

    2010-01-01

    We have used the DosimetryCheck program with the EPID's on our Varian 2100EX's to perform pre-treatment QA on more than 350 patients, between the last quarter of 2006 and the present. The software uses the EPID measured fluences of the treatment fields to reconstruct the dose distribution in the CT planning model of the patient. Since the dose calculation algorithm, is different from that used by our Eclipse planning system, this provides an independent check of planning accuracy as well as treatment delivery. 2D and 3D dose distributions, point doses, Gamma distributions, DVH statistics and MU calculations can be compared. Absolute differences of Reference Point doses between Dosimetry Check and Eclipse average 1.20%, which is similar to the ionization chamber dose differences of 1.29% for the same patient verification plans. Examples of cases for various treatment sites and delivery modes will be presented. A Special Report in Medical Physics Vol. 37 Number 6 Pg. 2638-2644 from Mans et al at The Netherlands Cancer Institute demonstrated the ability of in vivo EPID dosimetry to detect treatment errors, that escaped other QA checks. A new version of DosimetryCheck awaiting FDA approval, is capable of successfully reconstructing the dose distribution in the patient from the EPID measured exit fluences. This can also be applied to CBCT images providing actual patient dose verification for a treatment session. This should be particularly useful for monitoring hypo-fractionated treatment regimens. Examples of this method will also be presented.

  7. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  8. Pre-treatment double- or triple-positive tumor markers are predictive of a poor outcome for patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Kaida, Takayoshi; Arima, Kota; Higashi, Takaaki; Taki, Katsunobu; Okabe, Hirohisa; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the number of positive tumor markers. The subjects of this study were 160 patients who underwent percutaneous and surgical RFA for HCC. Patients were divided into negative (n = 51), single- (n = 69), double- (n = 31), and triple-positive (n = 9) tumor marker groups according to the pre-treatment expression of these markers. We looked for any relationships among clinical parameters, outcomes, and tumor markers. The 3-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates of the negative, single-, double-, and triple-positive groups were 30, 19, 16, and 11 % (P = 0.02), and 94, 88, 67, and 37 % (P tumor marker profile was independently associated with local recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) 5.48, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.44-12.33, P tumor markers.

  9. NRS-2002 for pre-treatment nutritional risk screening and nutritional status assessment in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orell-Kotikangas, Helena; Österlund, Pia; Saarilahti, Kauko; Ravasco, Paula; Schwab, Ursula; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of nutritional risk screening-2002 (NRS-2002) as a nutritional risk screening and status assessment method and to compare it with nutritional status assessed by subjective and objective methods in the screening of head and neck cancer patients. Sixty-five consecutive patients (50 male), with a median age of 61 years (range, 33-77), with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were enrolled prior to cancer therapy. Nutritional status was assessed by NRS-2002, patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength (HGS) and mid-arm muscle area (MAMA). Twenty-eight percent of patients were at nutritional risk based on NRS-2002, and 34 % were malnourished according to PG-SGA, while 43 % had low HGS. NRS-2002 cut-off score of ≥3 compared with the nutritional status according to PG-SGA showed 77 % specificity and 98 % sensitivity (K = 0.78). NRS-2002 was able to predict malnutrition (PG-SGA BC) both in men (p nutrition screening in head and neck cancer patients prior to oncological treatment.

  10. Pretreatment Evaluation of Microcirculation by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Survival in Primary Rectal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, Alexander Friedrich [Department of Radio-Oncology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch (Austria); Piringer, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.piringer@hotmail.com [Department of Oncology, Wels-Grieskirchen Medical Hospital, Wels (Austria); Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Saely, Christoph Hubert [Department of Medicine and Cardiology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch (Austria); Lukas, Peter [Department of Radio-Oncology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Öfner, Dietmar [Department of Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of the perfusion index (PI), a microcirculatory parameter estimated from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability, to predict overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with primary rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients with stage cT3 rectal cancer requiring neoadjuvant chemoradiation were investigated with DCE-MRI before start of therapy. Contrast-enhanced dynamic T{sub 1} mapping was obtained, and a simple data analysis strategy based on the calculation of the maximum slope of the tissue concentration–time curve divided by the maximum of the arterial input function was used as a measure of tumor microcirculation (PI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability. Results: In 39 patients (47.0%), T downstaging (ypT0-2) was observed. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 71 ± 29 months, 58 patients (69.9%) survived, and disease-free survival was achieved in 45 patients (54.2%). The mean PI (PImean) averaged over the group of nonresponders was significantly higher than for responders. Additionally, higher PImean in age- and gender-adjusted analyses was strongly predictive of therapy nonresponse. Most importantly, PImean strongly and significantly predicted disease-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.85 [ 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.54; P<.001)]; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.81 [1.30-2.51]; P<.001) as well as overall survival (unadjusted HR 1.42 [1.02-1.99], P=.040; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.43 [1.03-1.98]; P=.034). Conclusions: This analysis identifies PImean as a novel biomarker that is predictive for therapy response, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer.

  11. Efficacy of A Fluoropyrimidine plus Mitomycin C in Pretreated Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Eligible for Regorafenib: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martorana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the placebo-controlled CORRECT study, individuals with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC receiving Regorafenib (RGR achieved significant benefits in both median overall survival (OS: 6.4 months and progression-free survival (PFS 1.9 months. Patients included in the study had previously failed all standard therapies, which must have included Fluoropyrimidines (FPDs, Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, Bevacizumab, and Cetuximab or Panitumumab for K-RAS wild-type subjects. FPDs plus Mitomycin C (MMC represent one of the few treatment options for mCRC patients currently eligible for RGR. We wanted to investigate the therapeutic benefit of this pharmacological association in the same clinical setting defined for RGR. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the records of mCRC patients followed in our Institutions that would have fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria for the CORRECT trial and received instead the combination of FPDs and MMC. We therefore collected data from 87 patients: 61 fulfilled the criteria required for this analysis. Results: Median OS was 9.3 months (95% CI 9.0–15.4, with a median PFS of 3.3 months (95% CI 2.9–3.8. One third of the patients (29.5% achieved disease control. No significant differences in OS and PFS were found between K-RAS WT and K-RAS mutant individuals. Likewise, Performance Status (PS and the primary site of disease were not associated with differences in response rates. Conclusions: These results suggest the need for a prospective study assessing RGR cost-effectiveness compared to FPDs plus MMC for mCRC patients that progress after standard treatments.

  12. Pretreatment quality of life predicts for locoregional control in head and neck cancer patients : A radiation therapy oncology group analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional

  13. Preventive effect of pretreatment with intravenous nicorandil on contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography (PRINCIPLE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Guk; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Kang, Woong Chol; Moon, Jae-Youn; Cho, Yun Hyeong; Choi, Seong Hun; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Jong-Youn; Min, Pil-Ki; Kwon, Hyuck-Moon

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of pretreatment with intravenous nicorandil on the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography. This randomized controlled multicenter study enrolled a total of 166 patients (nicorandil n=81; control n=85) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate 0.5 mg/dL increase or >25% rise in serum creatinine (SCr) concentration within 48 hours of contrast exposure compared to baseline. The final analysis included 149 patients (nicorandil n=73; control n=76). The baseline characteristics and the total volume of the used contrast (Iodixanol, 125.6±69.1 mL vs. 126.9±74.6 mL, p=0.916) were similar between the two groups. The incidence of CIN also did not differ between the nicorandil and control groups (6.8% vs. 6.6%, p=0.794). There was no difference between the two groups in the relative change in SCr from baseline to peak level within 48 hours after coronary angiography (-1.58±24.07% vs. 0.96±17.49%, p=0.464), although the nicorandil group showed less absolute change in SCr than the control group (-0.01±0.43 mg/mL vs. 0.02±0.31 mg/mL, p=0.005). Prophylactic intravenous infusion of nicorandil did not decrease the incidence of CIN in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography.

  14. Prognostic value of serum Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and undetectable pretreatment Epstein-Barr virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ji-Jin; Lin, Li; Jin, Ya-Nan; Wang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Wang-Jian; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Cheng, Zhi-Bin; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Ying

    2017-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Serum IgA antibodies against early antigen (EA-IgA) and viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgA) are the most commonly used to screen for NPC in endemic areas. However, the prognostic value of serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA in patients with NPC is less clear. We hypothesize that serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA levels have prognostic impact for survival outcomes in NPC patients with undetectable pretreatment EBV (pEBV) DNA. In this series, 334 patients with non-metastatic NPC and undetectable pEBV DNA were included. Serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA were determined by ELISA. After analysis, serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA loads correlated positively with T, N, and overall stage (all P 1:120 had significantly inferior 5-year progression-free survival (80.4% vs 89.6%, P = 0.025), distant metastasis-free survival (88.4% vs 94.8%, P = 0.050), and locoregional relapse-free survival (88.4% vs 95.6%, P = 0.023; log-rank test). Multivariable analyses revealed that N stage was the only independent prognostic factor (all P < 0.05), but the VCA-IgA became insignificant. Further analyses revealed that serum VCA-IgA was not an independent prognostic factor in early N (N0-1) or advanced N (N2-3) stage NPC. In summary, although both EA-IgA and VCA-IgA correlate strongly with TNM stage, our analyses do not suggest that these antibodies are prognostic biomarkers in patients with NPC and undetectable pEBV DNA. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Does the pretreatment tumor sampling location correspond with metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Bas B., E-mail: b.koolen@nki.nl [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Elshof, Lotte E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, Claudette E. [Department of Radiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Department of Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T.F.D. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogel, Wouter V. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.Th. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdés Olmos, Renato A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To define the correlation between the core biopsy location and the area with highest metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in stage II–III breast cancer patients before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, we would like to select a subgroup of patients in which PET/CT information may optimize tumor sampling. Methods: A PET/CT in prone position was acquired in 199 patients with 203 tumors. The distance and relative difference in standardized uptake value (SUV) between core biopsy localization (indicated by a marker) and area with highest degree of FDG uptake were evaluated. A distance ≥2 cm and a relative difference in SUV ≥25% were considered clinically relevant and a combination of both was defined as non-correspondence. Non-correspondence for different tumor characteristics (TNM stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, histology, subtype, grade, and Ki-67) was assessed. Results: Non-correspondence was found in 28 (14%) of 203 tumors. Non-correspondence was significantly associated with T-stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, tumor diameter, and histologic type. It was more often seen in tumors with a higher T-stage (p = 0.028), diffuse (non-mass) and multifocal tumors on MRI (p = 0.001), diffuse and multifocal tumors on PET/CT (p < 0.001), tumors >3 cm (p < 0.001), and lobular carcinomas (p < 0.001). No association was found with other features. Conclusion: Non-correspondence between the core biopsy location and area with highest FDG uptake is regularly seen in stage II–III breast cancer patients. PET/CT information and possibly FDG-guided biopsies are most likely to improve pretreatment tumor sampling in tumors >3 cm, lobular carcinomas, and diffuse and multifocal tumors.

  16. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Martin D.; Manton, David J.; Lowry, Martin; Turnbull, Lindsay W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  17. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.pickles@hull.ac.uk; Manton, David J. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.j.manton@hull.ac.uk; Lowry, Martin [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.lowry@hull.ac.uk; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.w.turnbull@hull.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  18. Need of patient-specific quality assurance and pre-treatment verification program for special plans in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Bhasi, Saju; Binukumar, J.P.; Davis, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Accuracy in planned radiation dose delivery in cancer treatments becomes necessary in the advent of complex treatment delivery options with newer technology using medical linear accelerators, which makes patient management very crucial. Treatment outcome in an individual patient therefore depends on the professional involvement of staff and execution accuracy of planned procedure. Therefore, this article has addressed an important problem. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reported mis-administrations of radiation dose, the nature of their occurrence and complexity of situations. Lack of adequate quality assurance (QA) program or failure in their routine applications, complacency in attention, lack of knowledge, overconfidence, pressures of time, lack of resources and failures in communication are some of the general human causes of errors. A recent report enumerated misadministration of radiation doses under the heading 'harming instead of healing' delivery of wrong doses in small field treatment plans with stereotactic equipment' was mostly highlighted

  19. Effect of pretreatment psoas muscle mass on survival for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer undergoing systemic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Noriko; Iwata, Yoshinori; Nishikawa, Hiroki; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ishii, Akio; Miyamoto, Yuho; Yuri, Yukihisa; Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Nakano, Chikage; Nishimura, Takashi; Yoh, Kazunori; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naoto; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Takata, Ryo; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2017-11-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there are few previous studies that have investigated the effect of decreased skeletal muscle mass (DSMM) on survival in patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) who are undergoing systemic chemotherapy. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of DSMM, as determined by the psoas muscle index (PMI) following computed tomography and prior to systemic chemotherapy, on the outcomes of patients with unresectable APC (n=61). The primary endpoint used was the overall survival (OS) rate. The OS rates in the PMI-High group (exceeds the median PMI value in each gender) were retrospectively compared with those in the PMI-Low group (below the median PMI value in each gender), and factors associated with OS were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. The study cohort included 31 male and 30 female patients with a median age of 72 years, 13 of whom were stage IVA, and 48 were stage IVB. The median PMI in males was 4.3 cm 2 /m 2 (range, 1.6-8.2 cm 2 /m 2 ), while that in females was 2.3 cm 2 /m 2 (range, 0.7-6.1 cm 2 /m 2 ). The proportion of patients with performance status 0 in the PMI-High group was significantly high, compared with that in the PMI-Low group [83.3% (25/30) vs. 58.1% (18/31); P=0.0486]. Body mass index in the PMI-High group was significantly higher compared with that in the PMI-Low group (P=0.0154). The 1-year cumulative survival rate was 43.3% in the PMI-High group and 12.9% in the PMI-Low group (P=0.0027). Following multivariate analysis, PMI (P=0.0036), prothrombin time (P=0.0044) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (P=0.0451) were identified to be significant predictors of OS. In conclusion, DSMM, as determined by the PMI, could be a significant predictor of prognosis in patients with unresectable APC who are receiving systemic chemotherapy.

  20. a Study of Oxygen Precipitation in Heavily Doped Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Robert Kurt

    Gettering of impurities with oxygen precipitates is widely used during the fabrication of semiconductors to improve the performance and yield of the devices. Since the effectiveness of the gettering process is largely dependent on the initial interstitial oxygen concentration, accurate measurements of this parameter are of considerable importance. Measurements of interstitial oxygen following thermal cycles are required for development of semiconductor fabrication processes and for research into the mechanisms of oxygen precipitate nucleation and growth. Efforts by industrial associations have led to the development of standard procedures for the measurement of interstitial oxygen in wafers. However practical oxygen measurements often do not satisfy the requirements of such standard procedures. An additional difficulty arises when the silicon wafer has a low resitivity (high dopant concentration). In such cases the infrared light used for the measurement is severely attenuated by the electrons of holes introduced by the dopant. Since such wafers are the substrates used for the production of widely used epitaxial wafers, this measurement problem is economically important. Alternative methods such as Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy or Gas Fusion Analysis have been developed to measure oxygen in these cases. However, neither of these methods is capable of distinguishing interstitial oxygen from precipitated oxygen as required for precipitation studies. In addition to the commercial interest in heavily doped silicon substrates, they are also of interest for research into the role of point defects in nucleation and precipitation processes. Despite considerable research effort, there is still disagreement concerning the type of point defect and its role in semiconductor processes. Studies of changes in the interstitial oxygen concentration of heavily doped and lightly doped silicon wafers could help clarify the role of point defects in oxygen nucleation and precipitation

  1. Equivalent biochemical failure-free survival after external beam radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy in patients with a pretreatment prostate specific antigen of > 4-20 ng/ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Whittington, Richard; Kaplan, Irving; Beard, Clair; Jiroutek, Michael; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Wein, Alan; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Biochemical failure-free survival stratified by the pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and biopsy Gleason score (bGl) is determined for prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: A Cox regression multivariable analysis evaluating the variables of PSA, bGl, and clinical stage was used to evaluate the end point of time to PSA failure in 867 and 757 consecutive prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy, respectively. PSA failure-free survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Comparisons were made using the log rank test. Results: The pretreatment PSA, bGl, and clinical stage (T3,4 vs. T1,T2) were found to be independent predictors of time to post-treatment PSA failure for both surgically and radiation managed patients using Cox regression multivariable analysis. Patients with a pretreatment PSA of > 4 ng/ml and ≤ 20 ng/ml could be classified into risk groups for time to post-therapy PSA failure: low = PSA > 4-10 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 4; intermediate = PSA > 4-10 and bGl 5-7; or PSA > 10-20 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 7; high = PSA > 4-20 ng/ml and bGl ≥ 8. Two-year PSA failure-free survival for surgically managed and radiation-managed patients, respectively, were 98% vs. 92% (p = 0.45), 77% vs. 81% (p = 0.86), and 51% vs. 53% (p = 0.48) for patients at low, intermediate, and high risk for post-therapy PSA failure. Conclusions: There was no statistical difference in the 2-year PSA failure-free survival for potentially curable patients managed definitively with surgery or radiation therapy when a retrospective comparison stratifying for the pretreatment PSA and bGl was performed

  2. Feasibility, safety, and efficacy of aerobic training in pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M; Iyengar, Neil M; Nilsen, Tormod S; Michalski, Meghan; Thomas, Samantha M; Herndon, James; Sasso, John; Yu, Anthony; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Dang, Chau T; Comen, Elizabeth A; Dickler, Maura N; Peppercorn, Jeffrey M; Jones, Lee W

    2018-04-06

    The investigation of exercise training in metastatic breast cancer has received minimal attention. This study determined the feasibility and safety of aerobic training in metastatic breast cancer. Sixty-five women (age, 21-80 years) with metastatic (stage IV) breast cancer (57% were receiving chemotherapy, and >40% had ≥ 2 lines of prior therapy) were allocated to an aerobic training group (n = 33) or a stretching group (n = 32). Aerobic training consisted of 36 supervised treadmill walking sessions delivered thrice weekly between 55% and 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak ) for 12 consecutive weeks. Stretching was matched to aerobic training with respect to location, frequency, duration, and intervention length. The primary endpoint was aerobic training feasibility, which was a priori defined as the lost to follow-up (LTF) rate (aerobic training was LTF, whereas the mean attendance rate was 63% ± 30%. The rates of permanent discontinuation and dose modification were 27% and 49%, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated improvements in PROs, which favored the attention control group (P values > .05). Per protocol analyses indicated that 14 of 33 patients (42%) receiving aerobic training had acceptable tolerability (relative dose intensity ≥ 70%), and this led to improvements in VO 2peak and functional capacity (P values Aerobic training at the dose and schedule tested is safe but not feasible for a significant proportion of patients with metastatic breast cancer. The acceptable feasibility and promising benefit for select patients warrant further evaluation in a dose-finding phase 1/2 study. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  3. Improving swallowing outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer using a theory-based pretreatment swallowing intervention package: protocol for a randomised feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Roganie; Smith, Christina H; Gardner, Benjamin; Barratt, Helen; Taylor, Stuart A

    2017-03-27

    The incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in the UK is rising, with an average of 31 people diagnosed daily. Patients affected by HNC suffer significant short-term and long-term post-treatment morbidity as a result of dysphagia, which affects daily functioning and quality of life (QOL). Pretreatment swallowing exercises may provide additional benefit over standard rehabilitation in managing dysphagia after primary HNC treatments, but uncertainty about their effectiveness persists. This study was preceded by an intervention development phase to produce an optimised swallowing intervention package (SIP). The aim of the current study is to assess the feasibility of this new intervention and research processes within a National Health Service (NHS) setting. A two-arm non-blinded randomised controlled feasibility study will be carried out at one tertiary referral NHS centre providing specialist services in HNC. Patients newly diagnosed with stage III and IV disease undergoing planned surgery and/or chemoradiation treatments will be eligible. The SIP will be delivered pre treatment, and a range of swallowing-related and QOL measures will be collected at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Outcomes will test the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial (RCT), detailing rate of recruitment and patient acceptance to participation and randomisation. Salient information relating to protocol implementation will be collated and study material such as the case report form will be tested. A range of candidate outcome measures will be examined for suitability in a larger RCT. Ethical approval was obtained from an NHS Research Ethics Committee. Findings will be published open access in a peer-reviewed journal, and presented at relevant conferences and research meetings. ISRCTN40215425; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Pretreatment Endorectal Coil Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Predict Biochemical Tumor Control in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Combination Brachytherapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, Nadeem; Afaq, Asim; Akin, Oguz; Pei Xin; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Cox, Brett; Hricak, Hedvig; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of endorectal coil magenetic resonance imaging (eMRI) in predicting biochemical relapse in prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2008, 279 men with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer underwent eMRI of their prostate before receiving brachytherapy and supplemental intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Endorectal coil MRI was performed before treatment and retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists experienced in genitourinary MRI. Image-based variables, including tumor diameter, location, number of sextants involved, and the presence of extracapsular extension (ECE), were incorporated with other established clinical variables to predict biochemical control outcomes. The median follow-up was 49 months (range, 1–13 years). Results: The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival for the cohort was 92%. Clinical findings predicting recurrence on univariate analysis included Gleason score (hazard ratio [HR] 3.6, p = 0.001), PSA (HR 1.04, p = 0.005), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (HR 4.1, p = 0.002). Clinical T stage and the use of androgen deprivation therapy were not correlated with biochemical failure. Imaging findings on univariate analysis associated with relapse included ECE on MRI (HR 3.79, p = 0.003), tumor size (HR 2.58, p = 0.04), and T stage (HR 1.71, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis incorporating both clinical and imaging findings, only ECE on MRI and Gleason score were independent predictors of recurrence. Conclusions: Pretreatment eMRI findings predict for biochemical recurrence in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Gleason score and the presence of ECE on MRI were the only significant predictors of biochemical relapse in this group of patients.

  5. Heavily nitrogen doped, graphene supercapacitor from silk cocoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Vikrant; Grover, Sonia; Tulachan, Brindan; Sharma, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Gaurav; Roy, Manas; Saxena, Manav; Sethy, Niroj; Bhargava, Kalpana; Philip, Deepu; Kim, Hansung; Singh, Gurmeet; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak; Sharma, Raj Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Doping of graphene with nitrogen is of much interest, since it improves the overall conductivity and supercapacitive properties. Besides conductivity, nitrogen doping also enhances the pseudo-capacitance due to fast and reversible surface redox processes. In this work, we have developed a cheap and easy process for synthesizing heavily nitrogen doped graphene (15% nitrogen) from non-mulberry silk cocoon membrane (Tassar, Antheraea mylitta) by pyrolyzing the cocoon at 400 °C in argon atmosphere. Further we have investigated the performance of this heavily ‘nitrogen doped graphene’ (NDG) in a supercapacitor device. Our results suggest that NDG obtained from cocoon has improved supercapacitor performance. The improved performance is due to the high electronegativity of nitrogen that forms dipoles on the graphene surface. These dipoles consequently enhance the tendency of graphene to attract charged species to its surface. This is a green and clean synthesis approach for developing electronic materials for energy applications

  6. Growth and characterization of heavily doped silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, R.; Porrini, M. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, via Nazionale 59, 39012 Merano (Italy); Borionetti, G. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, viale Gherzi 31, Novara (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Silicon crystals grown with the Czochralski method are still the most common material used for the production of electronic devices. In recent years, a growing need of large diameter crystals with increasingly higher doping levels is observed, especially to support the expanding market of discrete devices and its trend towards lower and lower resistivity levels for the silicon substrate. The growth of such heavily doped, large-diameter crystals poses several new challenges to the crystal grower, and the presence of a high dopant concentration in the crystal affects significantly its main properties, requiring also the development of dedicated characterization techniques. This paper illustrates the recent advances in the growth and characterization of silicon crystals heavily doped with antimony, arsenic, phosphorus and boron. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Superconductivity in heavily boron-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kriener, Takahiro Muranaka, Junya Kato, Zhi-An Ren, Jun Akimitsu and Yoshiteru Maeno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond in 2004 and silicon in 2006 have renewed the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily boron-doped silicon carbide. The sample used for that study consisted of cubic and hexagonal SiC phase fractions and hence this led to the question which of them participated in the superconductivity. Here we studied a hexagonal SiC sample, free from cubic SiC phase by means of x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and ac susceptibility.

  8. Proteomic profiling of pretreatment serum from HIV-infected patients identifies candidate markers predictive of lymphoma development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Ludvigsen, Maja; Bendix, Knud

    2016-01-01

    . Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A tissue microarray, containing diagnostic HIV-lymphoma tissue samples (N = 40), was used to investigate immunohistochemical expression of markers in tumoural lesions. RESULTS: Fourteen differentially expressed...... protein spots were detected. Using principal components analysis, spots containing immunoglobulin J chain, apolipoprotein A-I, procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer-1 and complement C4-A were associated with lymphoma development (P ... with subsequent lymphoma compared with patients without subsequent lymphoma. In the tissue microarray, amyloid A was widely expressed, and high expression showed a tendency towards inferior outcome (log-rank 0.073). CONCLUSION: We identified several differentially expressed protein spots present already...

  9. Pretreatment long interspersed element (LINE-1 methylation levels, not early hypomethylation under treatment, predict hematological response to azacitidine in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cross M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Cross,1 Enrica Bach,1 Thao Tran,1 Rainer Krahl,1 Nadja Jaekel,1 Dietger Niederwieser,1 Christian Junghanss,2 Georg Maschmeyer,3 Haifa Kathrin Al-Ali11Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 2Clinic for Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany; 3Clinic for Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Ernst-von-Bergmann Clinic, Potsdam, GermanyBackground: Epigenetic modulations, including changes in DNA cytosine methylation, are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Azacitidine is a hypomethylating agent that is incorporated into RNA as well as DNA. Thus, there is a rationale to its use in patients with AML. We determined whether baseline and/or early changes in the methylation of long interspersed element (LINE-1 or CDH13 correlate with bone marrow blast clearance, hematological response, or survival in patients with AML treated with azacitidine.Methods: An open label, phase I/II trial was performed in 40 AML patients (median bone marrow blast count was 42% unfit for intensive chemotherapy treated with azacitidine 75 mg/m2/day subcutaneously for 5 days every 4 weeks. Bone marrow mononuclear cell samples were taken on day 0 (pretreatment and day 15 during the first treatment cycle; LINE-1 and CDH13 methylation levels were quantified by methylation-specific, semiquantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Treatment with azacitidine significantly reduced LINE-1 but not CDH13 methylation levels over the first cycle (P < 0.0001. Absolute LINE-1 methylation levels tended to be lower on day 0 (P = 0.06 and day 15 of cycle 1 (P = 0.03 in patients who went on to achieve subsequent complete remission, partial remission or hematological improvement versus patients with stable disease. However, the decrease in LINE-1 methylation over the first treatment cycle did not correlate with subsequent response (P = 0

  10. NCCN-IPI score-independent prognostic potential of pretreatment uric acid levels for clinical outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Katharina T; Melchardt, Thomas; Posch, Florian; Schlick, Konstantin; Deutsch, Alexander; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Weiss, Lukas; Gary, Thomas; Neureiter, Daniel; Klieser, Eckhard; Greil, Richard; Neumeister, Peter; Egle, Alexander; Pichler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood-based parameters are gaining increasing interest as potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma uric acid levels in patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL. Methods: The clinical course of 539 DLBCL patients, diagnosed and treated between 2004 and 2013 at two Austrian high-volume centres with rituximab-based immunochemotherapy was evaluated retrospectively. The prognostic influence of uric acid on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were studied including multi-state modelling, and analysis of conditional survival. Results: Five-year OS and PFS were 50.4% (95% CI: 39.2–60.6) and 44.0% (33.4–54.0) in patients with uric acid levels above the 75th percentile of the uric acid distribution (Q3, cut-off: 6.8 mg dl−1), and 66.2% (60.4–71.5) and 59.6% (53.7–65.0%) in patients with lower levels (log-rank P=0.002 and P=0.0045, respectively). In univariable time-to-event analysis, elevated uric acid levels were associated with a worse PFS (hazard ratio (HR) per 1 log increase in uric acid 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10–1.97, P=0.009) and a worse OS (HR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.16–2.19, P=0.004). These associations prevailed upon multivariable adjustment for the NCCN-IPI score. Uric acid levels significantly improved the predictive performance of the R-IPI and NCCN-IPI scores, and in multi-state analysis, it emerged as a highly significant predictor of an increased risk of death without developing recurrence (transition-HR=4.47, 95% CI: 2.17–9.23, Puric acid levels predict poor long-term outcomes in DLBCL patients beyond the NCCN-IPI risk index. PMID:27764838

  11. Evaluation of a metal artifact reduction algorithm applied to post-interventional flat detector CT in comparison to pre-treatment CT in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennecke, Angelika; Svergun, Stanislav; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Scholz, Bernhard [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany); Royalty, Kevin [Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Metal artefacts can impair accurate diagnosis of haemorrhage using flat detector CT (FD-CT), especially after aneurysm coiling. Within this work we evaluate a prototype metal artefact reduction algorithm by comparison of the artefact-reduced and the non-artefact-reduced FD-CT images to pre-treatment FD-CT and multi-slice CT images. Twenty-five patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were selected retrospectively. FD-CT and multi-slice CT before endovascular treatment as well as FD-CT data sets after treatment were available for all patients. The algorithm was applied to post-treatment FD-CT. The effect of the algorithm was evaluated utilizing the pre-post concordance of a modified Fisher score, a subjective image quality assessment, the range of the Hounsfield units within three ROIs, and the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation. The pre-post concordance of the modified Fisher score, the subjective image quality, and the pre-post correlation of the ranges of the Hounsfield units were significantly higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. Within the metal-affected slices, the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation coefficient was higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. The overall diagnostic quality of the artefact-reduced images was improved and reached the level of the pre-interventional FD-CT images. The metal-unaffected parts of the image were not modified. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of a metal artifact reduction algorithm applied to post-interventional flat detector CT in comparison to pre-treatment CT in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennecke, Angelika; Svergun, Stanislav; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias; Scholz, Bernhard; Royalty, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Metal artefacts can impair accurate diagnosis of haemorrhage using flat detector CT (FD-CT), especially after aneurysm coiling. Within this work we evaluate a prototype metal artefact reduction algorithm by comparison of the artefact-reduced and the non-artefact-reduced FD-CT images to pre-treatment FD-CT and multi-slice CT images. Twenty-five patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were selected retrospectively. FD-CT and multi-slice CT before endovascular treatment as well as FD-CT data sets after treatment were available for all patients. The algorithm was applied to post-treatment FD-CT. The effect of the algorithm was evaluated utilizing the pre-post concordance of a modified Fisher score, a subjective image quality assessment, the range of the Hounsfield units within three ROIs, and the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation. The pre-post concordance of the modified Fisher score, the subjective image quality, and the pre-post correlation of the ranges of the Hounsfield units were significantly higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. Within the metal-affected slices, the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation coefficient was higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. The overall diagnostic quality of the artefact-reduced images was improved and reached the level of the pre-interventional FD-CT images. The metal-unaffected parts of the image were not modified. (orig.)

  13. Using pre-treatment PSA and Gleason score to predict for extra capsular extension among patients with clinically staged organ confined prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Anita; Roach, Mack; Diaz, Aidnag; Marquez, Carol; Chinn, Dan; Coleman, Lori; Presti, Joseph; Carroll, Peter

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The patients most suitable for a radical prostatectomy (RP) are those with organ confined disease. At least(1(3)) of patients with clinically staged organ confined disease will be found to have extra capsular extension (ECE) following RP. The purpose of this study is to assess the predictive value of an equation for predicting the risk of ECE based on the pre-treatment prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason score (GS) in patients with clinical stage T1/T2 prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-two patients who underwent RP at either the San Francisco VAMC or UCSF between 1988 and 1994 were eligible for this analysis. Patients were considered eligible if the pathological stage, pre-operative PSA and GS were available. Among these patients the median pre-operative PSA was 9 ng/ml (range 0 - 195 ng/ml), and the median pre-operative GS was 6 (range 2-10). The empirically derived equations tested were [1.5 x PSA + (GS - 3) x 10] (Roach, J. Urol., 150: 1923-1924, 1993) as well as a recent modification of this equation of [PSA + (GS - 3.5) x 10]. For these equations, the range of calculated risk was limited to 0 - 100%. Results: The results of using these two equations are shown graphically. Using the modified equation, with a calculated risk (CR) of {<=}25% and an average calculated risk (ACR) of 15.4%, the observed incidence (OI) of ECE was 17.2%. Among the patients with a CR of 26 to 50% and an ACR of 36.1%, the OI of ECE was 38.4%. Among the patients with a CR of 51 to 75% and an ACR of 60.4%, the OI of ECE was 62.7%. Finally, among the patients with a CR of 76 to 100% and an ACR of 77.3%, the OI of ECE was 85.7%. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports were available in 72 patients. Correlation with TRUS demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 52.4% and 56.1% respectively. Correlation with MRI showed a sensitivity of 57.9% and a specificity of 45.5%. The use of either MRI or

  14. Post treatment PSA nadirs support continuing dose escalation study in patients with pretreatment PSA levels >10 ng/ml, but not in those with PSA <10 NG/ML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, D.H.; Hanlon, A.L.; Movsas, B.; Hanks, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: We have recently shown that ICRU reporting point radiation doses above 71 Gy are not associated with improved bNED survival in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA level 20 ng/ml we found a strong correlation between dose and nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml (p=.003) as well as for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml (p=.04). This dose/nadir effect held at several dose levels, but 74 Gy for nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml and 72 Gy for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml remained the most significant. 32% of these patients achieved a nadir < 1.0ng/ml and 15% < 0.5ng/ml. Conclusions: This analysis provides strong additional support that patients with pretreatment PSA values of < 10 ng/ml do not benefit from dose escalation beyond an ICRU reporting point dose of 71 Gy. For patients with pretreatment PSA's of 10-19.9 ng/ml there is no dose/nadir response evaluated at a nadir of 1.0 ng/ml; however, there is a borderline effect observed at a nadir of 0.5 ng/ml. Patients with pretreatment PSA's of 20 ng/ml or greater clearly benefit from higher doses as evaluated by PSA nadirs of 1.0 ng/ml, and 0.5 ng/ml. These studies support the continued investigation of dose escalation in treating patients with PSA levels over 10 ng/ml, they do not support continued investigation of dose escalation beyond 71 Gy in patients with pretreatment PSA levels < 10 ng/ml. The failure to demonstrate any dose response for the low PSA group and the finding of only a borderline effect for the intermediate PSA group may be influenced by the relatively small number of patients in our series treated to doses < 70 Gy and the fact that none of our patients were treated to doses below 65.98 Gy. The lower limit of acceptible dose has yet to be defined

  15. Radiation dose response in patients with favorable localized prostate cancer (Stage T1-T2, biopsy Gleason ≤6, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen ≤10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Klein, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the radiation dose response as determined by biochemical relapse-free survival in patients with favorable localized prostate cancers, i.e., Stage T1-T2, biopsy Gleason score (bGS) ≤6, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (iPSA) ≤10 ng/mL. Methods and Materials: A total of 292 patients with favorable localized prostate cancer were treated with radiotherapy alone between 1986 and 1999. The median age was 69 years. Sixteen percent of cases (n=46) were African-American. The distribution by clinical T stage was as follows: T1/T2A, 243 (83%); and T2B/T2C, 49 (17%). The distribution by iPSA was as follows: ≤4 ng/mL, 49 (17%); and >4 ng/mL, 243 (83%). The mean iPSA level was 6.2 (median, 6.4). The distribution by bGS was as follows: ≤5 in 89 cases (30%) and 6 in 203 cases (70%). The median radiation dose was 70.0 Gy (range, 63.0-78.0 Gy). Doses of ≤70.0 Gy were delivered in 175 cases, 70.2-72.0 Gy in 24 cases, 74 Gy in 30 cases, and 78 Gy in 63 cases. For patients receiving 2 =5.7), and radiation dose (p=0.021, χ 2 =5.3) were independent predictors of outcome. Age (p=0.94), race (p=0.89), stage (p=0.45), biopsy GS (p=0.40), and radiation technique (p=0.45) were not. Conclusion: There is a clear radiation dose response in patients with favorable localized prostate cancers (i.e., Stage T1-T2, biopsy Gleason score ≤6, and iPSA ≤10 ng/mL). At least 74 Gy should be delivered to the prostate and periprostatic tissues. With our cohort of patients, longer follow-up will be needed to assess the importance of doses exceeding 74 Gy

  16. Prognostic value of pretreatment albumin–globulin ratio in predicting long-term mortality in gastric cancer patients who underwent D2 resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jianjun Liu,1,2,* Shangxiang Chen,1,2,* Qirong Geng,1,3 Xuechao Liu,1,2 Pengfei Kong,1,2 Youqing Zhan,1,2 Dazhi Xu1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Gastric and Pancreatic Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 3Department of Hematology Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Several studies have highlighted the prognostic value of the albumin–globulin ratio (AGR in various kinds of cancers. Our study was designed to assess whether AGR is associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Patients and methods: A total of 507 gastric cancer patients between 2005 and 2012 were included. The AGR was defined as the ratio of serum albumin to nonalbumin and calculated by the equation: albumin/(total protein - albumin. Furthermore, AGR was divided into two groups (low and high using the X-tile software. Survival analysis stratified by AGR groups was performed. Results: The mean survival time for each group was 36.62 months (95% CI: 33.92–39.32 for the low AGR group and 48.95 months (95% CI: 41.93–55.96, P=0.003 for the high AGR group. Patients in the high group (AGR ≥1.93 had a significantly lower 5-year mortality in comparison with the low group (AGR <1.93 (52.4% vs 78.5%, P=0.003. The high AGR group showed obviously better overall survival than the low AGR group according to Kaplan–Meier curves (P=0.003. Multivariate analysis showed that AGR was an independent predictive factor of prognosis in gastric patients. Conclusion: Pretreatment AGR is a significant and independent predictive factor of prognosis. Keywords: gastric cancer, survival, inflammation, albumin–globulin ratio

  17. Combination of Pre-Treatment DWI-Signal Intensity and S-1 Treatment: A Predictor of Survival in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Sequential S-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify whether the combination of pre-treatment radiological and clinical factors can predict the overall survival (OS in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC treated with stereotactic body radiation and sequential S-1 (a prodrug of 5-FU combined with two modulators therapy with improved accuracy compared with that of established clinical and radiologic risk models. METHODS: Patients admitted with LAPC underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI scan at 3.0-T (b = 600 s/mm2. The mean signal intensity (SIb = 600 of region-of-interest (ROI was measured. The Log-rank test was done for tumor location, biliary stent, S-1, and other treatments and the Cox regression analysis was done to identify independent prognostic factors for OS. Prediction error curves (PEC were used to assess potential errors in prediction of survival. The accuracy of prediction was evaluated by Integrated Brier Score (IBS and C index. RESULTS: 41 patients were included in this study. The median OS was 11.7 months (2.8-23.23 months. The 1-year OS was 46%. Multivariate analysis showed that pre-treatment SIb = 600 value and administration of S-1 were independent predictors for OS. The performance of pre-treatment SIb = 600 and S-1 treatment in combination was better than that of SIb = 600 or S-1 treatment alone. CONCLUSION: The combination of pre-treatment SIb = 600 and S-1 treatment could predict the OS in patients with LAPC undergoing SBRT and sequential S-1 therapy with improved accuracy compared with that of established clinical and radiologic risk models.

  18. Perineural invasion and Gleason 7-10 tumors predict increased failure in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml treated with conformal external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Penny R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Patchefsky, Arthur; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: It has been well established that prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA<10 ng/ml enjoy excellent bNED control when treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy. This report identifies predictors of failure for patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml. These predictors are then used to define favorable and unfavorable prognostic subgroups of patients for which bNED control is compared. Methods and Materials: Between 3/87 and 11/94, 266 patients with T1-T3NXM0 prostate cancer and pretreatment PSA values <10 ng/ml were treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy. Median central axis dose and median follow-up for the entire group was 72 Gy (63-79 Gy) and 48 months (2-120 months). Predictors of bNED control were evaluated univariately using Kaplan-Meier methodology and the log-rank test and multivariately using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Covariates considered were pretreatment PSA, palpation stage, Gleason score, presence of perineual invasion (PNI) and central axis dose. Independent predictors based on multivariate results were then used to stratify the patients into two prognostic groups for which bNED control was compared. bNED failure is defined as PSA ≥ 1.5 ng/ml and rising on two consecutive determinations. Results: Univariate analysis according to pretreatment and treatment factors for bNED control demonstrates a statistically significant improvement in 5-year bNED control for patients with Gleason score 2-6 vs. 7-10, patients without evidence of perineural invasion (PNI) vs. those with PNI, and patients with palpation stage T1/T2AB vs. T2C/T3. Multivariate analysis demonstrates that Gleason score (p = 0.0496), PNI (p = 0.0008) and palpation stage (p = 0.0153) are significant independent predictors of bNED control. Based on these factors, patients are stratified into a more favorable prognosis group (Gleason 2-6, no PNI, and stage T1/T2AB, n = 172) and a less favorable prognosis group (Gleason 7-10 or PNI or T2C

  19. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Barnett, B.M.; Bartalina, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the authors show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of ∼4 x 10 14 p/cm 2 , no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at T < 120 K. Besides confirming the previously observed Lazarus effect in single diodes, these results establish, for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments

  20. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  1. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-01-01

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste

  2. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-01-01

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10 18 and 3 × 10 20  cm −3 . Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis

  3. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  4. Tolerability of the capsaicin 8% patch following pretreatment with lidocaine or tramadol in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain: A multicentre, randomized, assessor-blinded study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, T.S.; Hoye, K.; Fricova, J.; Vanelderen, P.J.L.; Ernault, E.; Siciliano, T.; Marques, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Application of the capsaicin 8% patch is associated with treatment-related discomfort. Consequently, pretreatment for 60 min with anaesthetic cream is recommended; however, this may be uncomfortable and time consuming. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, randomized (1:1),

  5. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen and squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels for patients with stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer treated with radiation therapy alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    1998-01-01

    Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) levels have been reported to be useful as prognostic factors, indicators of clinical response, and predictors for recurrence in patients with lung cancer treated by surgery or chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were useful as independent prognostic factors in patients with stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with radiation therapy alone. The serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were measured in 158 and 47 patients, respectively, before radiation therapy. Serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were measured by sandwich radioimmunoassay using the CEA-RIA (radioimmunoassay) kit and the SCC-RIA kit. Serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were above reference values in 19% and 30% of the patients, respectively. The 5-year survival rates were significantly better for patients with a negative SCC Ag result than for those with positive SCC Ag levels (p=0.0001), though no significant difference in survival rates was seen by CEA positivity (p=0.25). SCC Ag positivity (p=0.0006) and stage (p=0.04) were the important prognostic factors, as determined by multivariate analyses. Pretreatment serum SCC Ag level may be useful as an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer who are treated with radiation therapy alone. (author)

  6. TU-FG-BRB-04: A New Optimization Method for Pre-Treatment Patient-Specific Stopping-Power by Combining Proton Radiography and X-Ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins-Fekete, C; Schulte, R; Beaulieu, L; Seco, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The relative stopping power (RSP) uncertainty is the largest contributor to the range uncertainty in proton therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a robust and systematic method that yields accurate patient specific RSPs by combining pre-treatment X-ray CT and daily proton radiography. Methods: The method is formulated as a penalized least squares optimization (PLSO) problem min(|Ax-B|). The matrix A represents the cumulative path-length crossed in each material computed by calculating proton trajectories through the X-ray CT. The material RSPs are denoted by x and B is the pRad, expressed as water equivalent thickness. The equation is solved using a convex-conic optimizer. Geant4 simulations were made to assess the feasibility of the method. RSP extracted from the Geant4 materials were used as a reference and the clinical HU-RSP curve as a comparison. The PLSO was first tested on a Gammex RMI-467 phantom. Then, anthropomorphic phantoms of the head, pelvis and lung were studied and resulting RSPs were evaluated. A pencil beam was generated in each phantom to evaluate the proton range accuracy achievable by using the optimized RSPs. Finally, experimental data of a pediatric head phantom (CIRS) were acquired using a recently completed experimental pCT scanner. Results: Numerical simulations showed precise RSP (<0.75%) for Gammex materials except low-density lung (LN-300) (1.2%). Accurate RSP have been obtained for the head (µ=−0.10%, 1.5σ=1.12%), lung (µ=−0.33, 1.5σ=1.02%) and pelvis anthropomorphic phantoms (µ=0.12, 1.5σ=0,99%). The range precision has been improved with an average R80 difference to the reference (µ±1.5σ) of −0.20±0.35%, −0.47±0.92% and −0.06±0.17% in the head, lung and pelvis phantoms respectively, compared to the 3.5% clinical margin. Experimental HU-RSP curve have been produced on the CIRS pediatric head. Conclusion: The proposed PLSO with prior knowledge X-ray CT shows promising potential (R80 σ<1.0% over

  7. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  8. Stored energy and annealing behavior of heavily deformed aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamikawa, Naoya; Huang, Xiaoxu; Kondo, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that a two-step annealing treatment, including a low-temperature, long-time annealing and a subsequent high-temperature annealing, is a promising route to control the microstructure of a heavily deformed metal. In the present study, structural parameters...... are quantified such as boundary spacing, misorientation angle and dislocation density for 99.99% aluminium deformed by accumulative roll-bonding to a strain of 4.8. Two different annealing processes have been applied; (i) one-step annealing for 0.5 h at 100-400°C and (ii) two-step annealing for 6 h at 175°C...... followed by 0.5 h annealing at 200-600°C, where the former treatment leads to discontinuous recrystallization and the latter to uniform structural coarsening. This behavior has been analyzed in terms of the relative change during annealing of energy stored as elastic energy in the dislocation structure...

  9. Measurement of surface recombination velocity on heavily doped indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, P.; Ghalla-Goradia, M.; Faur, M.; Bailey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the published low values of surface recombination velocity (SRV) in n-InP, solidified in recent years when modeling of existing n/p InP solar cells revealed that the front surface SRV had to be higher than 1 x 10 6 cm/sec in order to justify the poor blue response that is characteristic of all n/p InP solar cells. In this paper, SRV on heavily doped (>10 18 cm -3 )n-type and p-type InP is measured as a function of surface treatment. For the limited range of substrates and surface treatments studied, SRV and surface stability depend strongly on the surface treatment. SRVs of ∼10 5 cm/sec in both p-type and n-type InP are obtainable, but in n-type the low SRV surfaces were unstable, and the only stable surfaces on n-type had SRVs of >10 6 cm/sec

  10. Einstein's photoemission emission from heavily-doped quantized structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields  that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials  and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring   physical properties in the presence of intense light waves w...

  11. Pre-treatment factor structures of the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating scale as predictors of response to escitalopram in Indian patients with non-psychotic major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Aniruddha; Chadda, Rakesh; Sood, Mamta; Rizwan, S A

    2017-08-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a broad heterogeneous construct resolving into several symptom-clusters by factor analysis. The aim was to find the factor structures of MDD as per Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and whether they predict escitalopram response. In a longitudinal study at a tertiary institute in north India, 116 adult out-patients with non-psychotic unipolar MDD were assessed with MADRS before and after treatment with escitalopram (10-20mg) over 6-8 weeks for drug response. For total 116 patients pre-treatment four factor structures of MADRS extracted by principal component analysis with varimax rotation altogether explained a variance of 57%: first factor 'detachment' (concentration difficulty, lassitude, inability to feel); second factor 'psychic anxiety' (suicidal thoughts and inner tension); third 'mood-pessimism' (apparent sadness, reported sadness, pessimistic thoughts) and fourth 'vegetative' (decreased sleep, appetite). Eighty patients (68.9%) who completed the study had mean age 35.37±10.9 yrs, majority were male (57.5%), with mean pre-treatment MADRS score 28.77±5.18 and majority (65%) having moderate severity (MADRS escitalopram. At the end of the treatment there were significant changes in all the 4 factor structures (pescitalopram treatment. Understanding the factor structure is important as they can be important predictor of escitalopram response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erden, Ayse, E-mail: ayse.erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Sahin, Burcu Savran, E-mail: bsavrans@hotmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Orgodol, Horolsuren, E-mail: hoogii99@yahoo.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Erden, Ilhan, E-mail: erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Biyikli, Zeynep, E-mail: zeynep.biyikli@gmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  13. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erden, Ayse; Sahin, Burcu Savran; Orgodol, Horolsuren; Erden, Ilhan; Biyikli, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  14. SU-F-R-45: The Prognostic Value of Radiotherapy Based On the Changes of Texture Features Between Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment FDG PET Image for NSCLC Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, China, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is investigating which texture features extracted from FDG-PET images by gray-level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) have a higher prognostic value than the other texture features. Methods: 21 non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) patients were approved in the study. Patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans with both pre-treatment and post-treatment. Firstly, the tumors were extracted by our house developed software. Secondly, the clinical features including the maximum SUV and tumor volume were extracted by MIM vista software, and texture features including angular second moment, contrast, inverse different moment, entropy and correlation were extracted using MATLAB.The differences can be calculated by using post-treatment features to subtract pre-treatment features. Finally, the SPSS software was used to get the Pearson correlation coefficients and Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the change ratios of texture features and change ratios of clinical features. Results: The Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficient between contrast and SUV maximum is 0.785 and 0.709. The P and S value between inverse difference moment and tumor volume is 0.953 and 0.942. Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that the relationships between different texture features and the same clinical feature are different. Finding the prognostic value of contrast and inverse difference moment were higher than the other three textures extracted by GLCM.

  15. SU-F-R-45: The Prognostic Value of Radiotherapy Based On the Changes of Texture Features Between Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment FDG PET Image for NSCLC Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is investigating which texture features extracted from FDG-PET images by gray-level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) have a higher prognostic value than the other texture features. Methods: 21 non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) patients were approved in the study. Patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans with both pre-treatment and post-treatment. Firstly, the tumors were extracted by our house developed software. Secondly, the clinical features including the maximum SUV and tumor volume were extracted by MIM vista software, and texture features including angular second moment, contrast, inverse different moment, entropy and correlation were extracted using MATLAB.The differences can be calculated by using post-treatment features to subtract pre-treatment features. Finally, the SPSS software was used to get the Pearson correlation coefficients and Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the change ratios of texture features and change ratios of clinical features. Results: The Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficient between contrast and SUV maximum is 0.785 and 0.709. The P and S value between inverse difference moment and tumor volume is 0.953 and 0.942. Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that the relationships between different texture features and the same clinical feature are different. Finding the prognostic value of contrast and inverse difference moment were higher than the other three textures extracted by GLCM.

  16. Pre-treatment Predictors of Dropout from Prolonged Exposure Therapy in Patients with Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleau, Emily L.; Chin, Eu Gene; Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Schumacher, Julie A.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are commonly co-occurring disorders associated with more adverse consequences than PTSD alone. Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is one of the most efficacious treatments for PTSD. However, among individuals with PTSD-SUD, 35–62% of individuals drop out of trauma-focused exposure treatments. Thus, it is important to identify predictors of PTSD treatment dropout among substance abusers with PTSD in order to gain information about adapting treatment strategies to enhance retention and outcomes. The current study explored pre-treatment predictors of early termination from PE treatment in a sample of 85 individuals receiving concurrent treatment for PTSD and a SUD in a residential treatment facility as part of a randomized controlled trial. The results indicated that less education and more anxiety sensitivity uniquely predicted PE treatment dropout. Demographic variables, PTSD severity, SUD severity, mental health comorbidities, and emotion regulation difficulties did not predict treatment dropout. These results suggest that adding pre-treatment interventions that address anxiety sensitivity, and promote social adjustment and cognitive flexibility, could possibly improve PE retention rates in clients with high anxiety or low education. PMID:28147254

  17. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  18. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  19. Pretreatment levels of peripheral neutrophils and leukocytes as independent predictors of overall survival in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IV Melanoma: results of the EORTC 18951 Biochemotherapy Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Suciu, Stefan; Punt, Cornelis J A

    2007-01-01

    : A total of 363 patients were randomly assigned and baseline blood neutrophil and leukocyte counts were available from 316 and 350 patients, respectively. A high neutrophil count (> 7.5 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor for short overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P...... = 0.02), and a high leukocyte count (> 10 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor of both short overall survival (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P = 0.0005) and short progression-free survival (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: A high pretreatment count of neutrophils in blood...

  20. Partial response to carboplatin in an RRx-001 pretreated patient with EGFR-inhibitor-resistance and T790M-negative NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Corey A; Oronsky, Bryan; Caroen, Scott; Scicinski, Jan; Cabrales, Pedro; Degesys, Aiste; Brzezniak, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Few therapeutic options are available for T790M-negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after failure of primary epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and chemotherapy. This report presents the case of a 71-year-old Asian female never smoker with EGFR mutated T790M negative non squamous cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pre-treated with the experimental epi-immunotherapeutic agent, RRx-001, that re-responded to single agent carboplatin after failure of platinum doublets, TKIs, pemetrexed and nivolumab. The management of advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC is briefly reviewed herein and the emerging paradigm of episensitization, which contradicts the long-standing and widely accepted tenet about the immutability of resistance and the futility of therapeutic rechallenge, is introduced as a strategy to avert treatment failure and thereby stave off deterioration and death.

  1. Heavily T2-weighted MR myelography vs CT myelography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-F; Lirng, J-F; Fuh, J-L; Hseu, S-S; Wang, S-J

    2009-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Patients with SIH were recruited prospectively, and first underwent MRM and then computed tomographic myelography (CTM). The results of MRM were validated with the gold standard, CTM, focusing on 1) CSF leaks along the nerve roots, 2) epidural CSF collections, and 3) high-cervical (C1-3) retrospinal CSF collections. Comparisons of these 3 findings between the 2 studies were made by kappa statistics and agreement rates. Targeted epidural blood patches (EBPs) were placed at the levels of CSF leaks if supportive treatment failed. Nineteen patients (6 men and 13 women, mean age 37.9 +/- 8.6 years) with SIH completed the study. MRM did not differ from CTM in the detection rates of CSF leaks along the nerve roots (84% vs 74%, p = 0.23), high-cervical retrospinal CSF collections (32% vs 16%, p = 0.13), and epidural CSF collections (89% vs 79%, p = 0.20). MRM demonstrated more spinal levels of CSF leaks (2.2 +/- 1.7 vs 1.5 +/- 1.5, p = 0.011) and epidural collections (12.2 +/- 5.9 vs 7.1 +/- 5.8, p localizing CSF leaks for patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. This noninvasive technique may be an alternative to computed tomographic myelography before targeted epidural blood patches.

  2. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) as second-line chemotherapy in HER2-negative, taxane-pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients: prospective evaluation of activity, safety, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Raffaella; Sottotetti, Federico; Trifirò, Giuseppe; Piazza, Elena; Ferzi, Antonella; Gambaro, Anna; Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Pozzi, Emma; Tagliaferri, Barbara; Teragni, Cristina; Bernardo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter trial was undertaken to assess the activity, safety, and quality of life of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) as second-line chemotherapy in HER2-negative, taxane-pretreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Fifty-two women with HER2-negative MBC who were candidates for second-line chemotherapy for the metastatic disease were enrolled and treated at three centers in Northern Italy. All patients had previously received taxane-based chemotherapy in the adjuvant or first-line metastatic setting. Single-agent nab-paclitaxel was given at the dose of 260 mg/m(2) as a 30-minute intravenous infusion on day 1 each treatment cycle, which lasted 3 weeks, in the outpatient setting. No steroid or antihistamine premedication was provided. Treatment was stopped for documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or patient refusal. All of the enrolled patients were evaluable for the study endpoints. The objective response rate was 48% (95% CI, 31.5%-61.3%) and included complete responses from 13.5%. Disease stabilization was obtained in 19 patients and lasted >6 months in 15 of them; the overall clinical benefit rate was 77%. The median time to response was 70 days (range 52-86 days). The median progression-free survival time was 8.9 months (95% CI, 8.0-11.6 months, range 5-21+ months). The median overall survival point has not yet been reached. Toxicities were expected and manageable with good patient compliance and preserved quality of life in patients given long-term treatment. Our results showed that single-agent nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks is an effective and well tolerated regimen as second-line chemotherapy in HER2-negative, taxane-pretreated MBC patients, and that it produced interesting values of objective response rate and progression-free survival without the concern of significant toxicity. Specifically, the present study shows that such a regimen is a valid therapeutic option for that 'difficult to

  3. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  4. Comparison on mechanical properties of heavily phosphorus- and arsenic-doped Czochralski silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kang; Sun, Yuxin; Lu, Yunhao; Liang, Xingbo; Tian, Daxi; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2018-04-01

    Heavily phosphorus (P)- and arsenic (As)-doped Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) wafers generally act as the substrates for the epitaxial silicon wafers used to fabricate power and communication devices. The mechanical properties of such two kinds of n-type heavily doped CZ silicon wafers are vital to ensure the quality of epitaxial silicon wafers and the manufacturing yields of devices. In this work, the mechanical properties including the hardness, Young's modulus, indentation fracture toughness and the resistance to dislocation motion have been comparatively investigated for heavily P- and As-doped CZ-Si wafers. It is found that heavily P-doped CZ-Si possesses somewhat higher hardness, lower Young's modulus, larger indentation fracture toughness and stronger resistance to dislocation motion than heavily As-doped CZ-Si. The mechanisms underlying this finding have been tentatively elucidated by considering the differences in the doping effects of P and As in silicon.

  5. Predictive value of pretreatment metabolic activity measured by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with metastatic advanced gastric cancer: the maximal SUV of the stomach is a prognostic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Chul; Cheoi, Kungseok; Chung, Hyunsoo; Lee, Hyuk; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Few studies have evaluated metabolic activity by {sup 18}F-FDG PET as a prognostic factor in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). We investigated its prognostic role in metastatic AGC. We enrolled 82 patients with metastatic AGC, who were treatment-naive and underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning. In each patient, the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured in each target lesion. Stomach{sub SUVmax} was defined as SUVmax in the stomach, while Total{sub SUVmax} was defined as the highest SUVmax among all the target lesions. The stomach was the organ most frequently displaying the highest SUVmax among all the target lesions (in 67.1 % of patients). A Total{sub SUVmax} value of 11.5 was the value with the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity from receiver-operating characteristic curves for progression-free survival (PFS). PFS was significantly longer in patients with a Total{sub SUVmax} value <11.5 than in those with a Total{sub SUVmax} value {>=}11.5 (P = 0.023); however, overall survival (OS) was not (P = 0.055). A Stomach{sub SUVmax} value of 6.0 was derived by similar methods. PFS and OS were significantly longer in those with a Stomach{sub SUVmax} value <6.0 than in those with a Stomach{sub SUVmax} value {>=}6.0 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, those with a low Total{sub SUVmax} and those with a low Stomach{sub SUVmax} showed better chemotherapeutic responses (P = 0.016 and P = 0.034, respectively). Among patients with histologically undifferentiated carcinomas, those with lower Total{sub SUVmax} and those with lower Stomach{sub SUVmax} showed longer median PFS (P = 0.027 and P = 0.005, respectively) and OS (P = 0.009 and P <0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated Stomach{sub SUVmax} as an independent predictor of PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.038). Pretreatment metabolic activity may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with metastatic AGC undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Notably

  6. Long-term carbimazole pretreatment reduces the efficacy of radioiodine therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Shivaprasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data from several studies suggest that pretreatment with antithyroid drugs (ATD before 131 I increases the risk of treatment failure. This effect has been demonstrated more consistently with propylthiouracil than with carbimazole (CMZ or methimazole (MMI. Men with Graves′ disease (GD have a lower rate of remission with 131 I compared to women and the impact of long-term ATD pretreatment on the success of 131 I is unknown. The objective of our study was to compare the efficacy of fixed doses of radioiodine between patients with and without long-term CMZ pretreatment. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective study on 335 male patients with GD treated with 131 I from 1998 to 2008. 148 patients had been pretreated with CMZ, and the remaining 187 patients received 131 I without pretreatment. We compared the success rate of a single dose of 131 I, between patients with and without long-term CMZ pretreatment. Results: The success rate of a single dose of 131 I was significantly higher in patients without pretreatment than in patients who were pretreated with CMZ (91.4% vs. 82.3%, P = 0.01. The rate of hypothyroidism in the first 6 months after 131 I therapy was significantly higher in patients without pretreatment (55.1% vs. 44.6%, P = 0.05. There was also a trend for higher cumulative rate of hypothyroidism at last follow-up in nonpretreated patients (78.1% vs. 69.7%. Conclusion: Male patients with Graves′ hyperthyroidism pretreated with CMZ have lower efficacy with 131I therapy compared to nonpretreated patients. CMZ pretreatment given for a prolonged period reduces the efficacy of 131 I therapy.

  7. Comparison of Nutrition-Related Adverse Events and Clinical Outcomes Between ICE (Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide) and MCEC (Ranimustine, Carboplatin, Etoposide, and Cyclophosphamide) Therapies as Pretreatment for Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Malignant Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imataki, Osamu; Arai, Hidekazu; Kume, Tetsuo; Shiozaki, Hitomi; Katsumata, Naomi; Mori, Mariko; Ishide, Keiko; Ikeda, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare nutrition-related adverse events and clinical outcomes of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide regimen (ICE therapy) and ranimustine, carboplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide regimen (MCEC therapy) instituted as pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Material/Methods We enrolled patients who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation between 2007 and 2012. Outcomes were compared between ICE therapy (n=14) and MCEC therapy (n=14) in relation to nutrient balance, engraftment day, and length of hospital stay. In both groups, we compared the timing of nutrition-related adverse events with oral caloric intake, analyzed the correlation between length of hospital stay and duration of parenteral nutrition, and investigated the association between oral caloric intake and the proportion of parenteral nutrition energy in total calorie supply. Five-year survival was compared between the groups. Results Compared with the MCEC group, the ICE group showed significant improvement in oral caloric intake, length of hospital stay, and timing of nutrition-related adverse events and oral calorie intake, but a delay in engraftment. Both groups showed a correlation between duration of parenteral nutrition and length of hospital stay (P=0.0001) and between oral caloric intake (P=0.0017) and parenteral nutrition energy sufficiency rate (r=−0.73, P=0.003; r=−0.76, P=0.002). Five-year survival was not significantly different between the groups (P=0.1355). Conclusions Our findings suggest that compared with MCEC therapy, ICE therapy improves nutrition-related adverse events and reduces hospital stay, conserving medical resources, with no significant improvement in long-term survival. The nutritional pathway may serve as a tool for objective evaluation of pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. PMID:29398693

  8. The effect of pretreatment with clonidine on propofol consumption in opium abuser and non-abuser patients undergoing elective leg surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Jabbari Moghadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, increases the quality of perioperative sedation and analgesia with a few side effects. This study was designed to assess the effect of clonidine premedication on the anesthesics used for elective below knee surgeries in opium abusers and non-abusers. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 160 patients were selected and assigned into four groups. Eighty patients among the opium abusers were divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each, and 80 among the non-abusers were again divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each group. All were anesthetized for elective orthopedic operation using the same predetermined method. The total administered dose of propofol and other variables were compared. Results: The total propofol dose in a decreasing order was as follows: Abuser patients receiving placebo (862 ± 351 mg, non-abuser patients receiving placebo (806 ± 348 mg, abuser patients receiving clonidine (472 ± 175 mg, and non-abuser patients receiving clonidine (448 ± 160 mg. Hence, a statistically significant difference was observed among the four study groups (P value for ANOVA = 0.0001. Conclusion: Adding clonidine as a preoperative medication decreases the patient′s anesthetic needs; this decrease was even more considerable on the anesthetic needs than the effect of opium abuse history on anesthetic dose.

  9. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  10. Icotinib in Patients with Pretreated Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with EGFR Overexpression or EGFR Gene Amplification: A Single-Arm, Multicenter Phase 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Fan, Qingxia; Lu, Ping; Ying, Jianming; Ma, Changwu; Liu, Wei; Liu, Ying; Tan, Fenlai; Sun, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be overexpressed and amplified in a high percentage of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The activity of icotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was assessed in previously treated ESCC with EGFR overexpression or amplification. For this phase 2, single-arm, multicenter trial undertaken at six hospitals in China, we included Chinese patients with previously treated, histologically confirmed advanced ESCC and EGFR overexpression (immunohistochemical staining sore of 3+) or amplification (positive fluorescence in situ hybridization result). These patients received oral icotinib (250 mg, three times daily).The primary end point was the proportion of patients with objective responses as assessed by an independent radiology review committee. Between December 5, 2013, and May 28, 2015, a total of 281 patients were screened. Fifty-four eligible patients were enrolled. Nine responses were observed, including one complete response and eight partial responses, and 16 patients had stable disease, resulting in a 16.7% objective response rate (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.7-26.6) and 46.3% disease control rate (95% CI: 33.0-59.6). The median progression-free survival and overall survival times were 52 (95% CI: 40-95) days and 153 (95% CI: 139-218) days, respectively. A total of 43 patients experienced at least one adverse event, but most were only grade 1 to 2 in severity. The most frequent was rash (48.1%), followed by diarrhea (22.2%). Icotinib showed favorable activity in patients with advanced, previously treated ESCC with EGFR overexpression or amplification. These findings suggest further research into EGFR overexpression or amplification for selecting responsive patients. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The efficacy and safety of Oxaliplatin-Vinorelbine as a second-line chemotherapy combination in patients with platinum-resistant pretreated epithelial ovarian cancer: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidia Mumtahana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects and tolerability of Oxaliplatin-Vinorelbine combination on Platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC patients.Methods: A single centered retrospective study comprising of 34 patients was conducted, and all 34 patients were treated with Vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 on day 1 and 8 along with Oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 1 of 3 weeks treatment cycle following progressive platinum-resistant EOC. Results: The combination showed an overall response rate (ORR of 18% (95% CI, 4.4 - 31.6 where 2 (6% patients had complete response and 4 (12% patients had partial response. Stable disease was observed in 9 (26% patients and progressive disease in 19 (56% patients. Median diseases free survival, median relapse free survival and median time to progression was 17.05 months, 4.4 months, and 1.25 months, respectively. Hematological toxicities were mild; only 1 (2.9% patient had G3 anemia and major non-hematological toxicities include nausea-vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, hepatotoxicity, fatigueness and alopecia, which are mainly limited to G1-G2 and reversible. Conclusion: The effect of this combination is moderate as a second line treatment of platinum resistant EOC; however, in comparison with other regimens of Vinorelbine and Oxaliplatin, the activity is substandard but the toxicity profile is well tolerable. Further multicenter evaluation is needed for the better understanding of the therapeutic efficacy of the combination.

  12. Pretreatment evaluation of distant-site status in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: accuracy of whole-body MRI at 3-Tesla and FDG-PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Shu-Hang; Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Liao, Chun-Ta; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Hung-Ming; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Chen, Min-Chi

    2009-01-01

    We sought to prospectively evaluate the accuracy of 3.0-Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and integrated fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (FDG-PET-CT), and their combined interpretation for the assessment of distant-site status in 150 patients with untreated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Eighteen (12%) patients were diagnosed as having distant malignancies (15 patients had distant metastases, and three distant synchronous tumours). On a patient-based analysis, WB-MRI and FDG-PET-CT showed similar sensitivity (77.8% vs 72.2%, P > 0.999), specificity (98.5% vs 97.7%, P > 0.999) and diagnostic capability (0.905 vs 0.878, P = 0.669). Combined interpretation of WB-MRI and FDG-PET-CT showed no significant benefit over either technique alone. In conclusion, 3.0-Tesla WB-MRI is a feasible, non-ionising technique that showed similar diagnostic capacity to FDG-PET-CT in assessing distant-site status in patients with untreated NPC and can be recommended as the first-line imaging technique for comprehensive evaluation of such patients. (orig.)

  13. Imatinib in combination with hydroxyurea versus hydroxyurea alone as oral therapy in patients with progressive pretreated glioblastoma resistant to standard dose temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresemann, G.; Weller, M.; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann Maria

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study of patients with progressive, recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for whom front-line therapy had failed was conducted. This study was designed to determine whether combination therapy with imatinib and hydroxyurea (HU) has superior antitumor...... activity compared with HU monotherapy in the treatment of recurrent GBM. The target population consisted of patients with confirmed recurrent GBM and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 who had completed previous treatment comprising surgical resection, irradiation therapy...

  14. Prevalence of pre-treatment hepatitis C virus NS5A resistance associated amino-acid substitutions in genotype 1A infected patients in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Stewart, Amanda; Goldstein, Emily; MacLean, Alasdair; Gunson, Rory

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) NS5A resistance associated amino-acid substitutions (RAS) can exist at baseline in treatment naïve individuals and have been shown to be associated with lower rates of sustained virological response (SVR) for patients infected with HCV genotype 1A (G1A) following treatment with NS5A inhibitors. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of baseline NS5A resistance in Scotland. The study population consisted of 531 treatment naïve, G1A infected patients. The patient samples were collected between March and September 2017. The NS5A region was amplified and sequenced. Baseline NS5A resistance in Scotland is high (16.8%) and is comparable to rates reported by a number of previously published studies. The high rate of baseline RAS, together with the high cost of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), supports resistance testing to guide current patient treatment. However, given the rate at which new DAAs are currently being licensed with ever broader genotype efficacy and higher SVR rates, baseline resistance testing may not be required in the near future. Baseline NS5A inhibitor resistance is high. The results of the present study support performing resistance testing at baseline for current regimens. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pretreatment Pokemon Level as a Predictor of Response to Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients with Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan-Le; Xing, Xi-Zhi; Li, Feng-Yan; Xing, Ya-Juan; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We firstly investigated the expression of Pokemon in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), then characterized the role of Pokemon in evaluating the response to combined cisplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy and prognosis. In this study, 61 patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were treated with a combination chemotherapy comprising cisplatin and paclitaxel. The correlation between serum expression of Pokemon and effectiveness of chemotherapy was assessed. The expression level of Pokemon in NSCLC patients was higher than that in healthy controls (p = 0.000), and was correlated with tumor size and TNM stage (p Pokemon levels in excess of 135.09 ng/ml compared to those with Pokemon levels below 135.09 ng/ml (p = 0.013). Pokemon ≥ 135.09 ng/ml was an independent risk factor for survival time in NSCLC patients undergoing combination chemotherapy (p = 0.018). The serum level of Pokemon correlated with efficacy of cisplatin and paclitaxel combination chemotherapy and survival time, which indicated that Pokemon may be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting treatment effectiveness of first-line chemotherapy and prognosis in NSCLC. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. Icotinib in Patients with Pretreated Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with EGFR Overexpression or EGFR Gene Amplification: A Single-Arm, Multicenter Phase 2 Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Fan, Q.; Lu, P.; Ying, J.; Ma, C.; Liu, W.; Liu, Y.; Tan, F.; Sun, Y

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be overexpressed and amplified in a high percentage of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The activity of icotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was assessed in previously treated ESCC with EGFR

  17. Imatinib in combination with hydroxyurea versus hydroxyurea alone as oral therapy in patients with progressive pretreated glioblastoma resistant to standard dose temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresemann, G.; Weller, M.; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann Maria

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study of patients with progressive, recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for whom front-line therapy had failed was conducted. This study was designed to determine whether combination therapy with imatinib and hydroxyurea (HU) has superior antitumor...

  18. Changes of Brain Glucose Metabolism in the Pretreatment Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective PET/CT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishan; Ning, Ning; Li, Xianjun; Niu, Gang; Bai, Lijun; Guo, Youmin; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The tumor-to-brain communication has been emphasized by recent converging evidences. This study aimed to compare the difference of brain glucose metabolism between patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and control subjects. NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy and control subjects without malignancy confirmed by 6 months follow-up were collected and underwent the resting state 18F-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT. Normalized FDG metabolism was calculated by a signal intensity ratio of each brain region to whole brain. Brain glucose metabolism was compared between NSCLC patients and control group using two samples t-test and multivariate test by statistical parametric maps (SPM) software. Compared with the control subjects (n = 76), both brain glucose hyper- and hypometabolism regions with significant statistical differences (Pbrain signal transduction pathways, and the hypometabolism regions (the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule and left fusiform gyrus) lied in dorsal attention network and visuospatial function areas. The changes of brain glucose metabolism exist in NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy, which might be attributed to lung-cancer related visceral sympathetic activation and decrease of dorsal attention network function.

  19. Clinical significance of VEGFR-2 and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax pretreatment score in predicting the long-term outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Emilio; Peligros, Isabel [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Pathology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Alfonso, Pilar [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Medical Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Carlos; Ochoa, Enrique [Hospital Provincial de Castellon, Institute of Oncology, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Herranz, Rafael [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Carreras, Jose L. [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) stimulate key processes involved in tumor progression and are important targets for cancer drugs. {sup 18}F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) is a marker of tumor metabolic activity. The purpose of this study was to measure SUVmax combined with VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 proteins in pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving intensive neoadjuvant treatment and to correlate the findings with clinical outcome. VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 were measured using the immunoreactive score (IRS). SUVmax (median 8.4) was quantified in tumors with molecular overexpression (IRS {>=}3 + SUVmax {>=} 8.4 indicating active tumors; SUVmax <8.4 indicating inactive tumors). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore associations between tumor markers, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The study group comprised 38 patients with a median follow-up of 69.3 months (range 4.5 - 92 months). Multivariate analysis showed that active tumors (overexpressing VEGFR-2, high SUVmax) were associated with worse DFS (HR 4.73, 95 % CI 1.18 - 22.17; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 4.28, 95 % CI 1.04 - 20.12; p = 0.05). Active tumors overexpressing VEGFR-2 are associated with a worse overall outcome in patients with rectal cancer treated with induction chemotherapy followed by pelvic chemoradiation and surgery. The optimal diagnostic cut-off level for this novel biomarker association should be investigated. Evaluation in a clinical trial is required to determine whether selected patients could benefit from a VEGFR-targeting drug. (orig.)

  20. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  1. Exatecan in pretreated adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: results of a phase II--study of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichardt, P; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Bauer, S

    2007-01-01

    No standard treatment is established for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma after previous chemotherapy with anthracyclines and ifosfamide, given either in combination or sequentially. Exatecan (DX-8951f) is a totally synthetic analogue of the topoisomerase I-inhibitor camptothecin, which...... was synthesised to impart increased aqueous solubility, greater tumour efficacy, and less toxicity than camptothecin itself, topotecan or irinotecan. Since some activity against soft tissue sarcomas, especially leiomyosarcomas, has been reported for topoisomerase I-inhibitors, a study with a new and more potent...... agent seemed justified. We report on a prospective multicentre phase II study of Exatecan in adult soft tissue sarcomas failing 1 or 2 lines of chemotherapy in advanced phase, performed within the STBSG of EORTC. Thirty-nine patients (16 leiomyosarcomas and 23 other histologies) were included in two...

  2. Treatment options in HR⁺/HER2⁻ advanced breast cancer patients pretreated with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors: what does current evidence tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Placido, Sabino; Pronzato, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Many postmenopausal women with advanced or metastatic breast cancer (BC) receive nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs). Virtually all of them experience progression, but may still gain benefit from a different endocrine or targeted agent. We indirectly compare the results of trials on endocrine or targeted treatment in HR(+)/HER2(-) mBC patients who progressed after a prior NSAI therapy. Although with the limitations of any indirect comparison, evidence suggests that only the combination of everolimus and exemestane is associated with a prolonged progression-free survival and a more evident clinical benefit than its comparators. We speculate that prior NSAI therapy can 'per se' individuate patients eligible to everolimus. More robust data from head-to-head trials will provide more grounded evidence on this issue.

  3. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D.; Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael; Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25 hi Foxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients

  4. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D., E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia); Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael [Department of Oncology, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena, E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia)

    2012-06-18

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25{sup hi}Foxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients.

  5. Textural features in pre-treatment [F18]-FDG-PET/CT are correlated with risk of local recurrence and disease-specific survival in early stage NSCLC patients receiving primary stereotactic radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Thomas; Bundschuh, Ralph A; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Mayer, Benedikt; Specht, Hanno M; Papp, Laszló; Zsótér, Norbert; Essler, Markus

    2015-04-22

    Textural features in FDG-PET have been shown to provide prognostic information in a variety of tumor entities. Here we evaluate their predictive value for recurrence and prognosis in NSCLC patients receiving primary stereotactic radiation therapy (SBRT). 45 patients with early stage NSCLC (T1 or T2 tumor, no lymph node or distant metastases) were included in this retrospective study and followed over a median of 21.4 months (range 3.1-71.1). All patients were considered non-operable due to concomitant disease and referred to SBRT as the primary treatment modality. Pre-treatment FDG-PET/CT scans were obtained from all patients. SUV and volume-based analysis as well as extraction of textural features based on neighborhood gray-tone difference matrices (NGTDM) and gray-level co-occurence matrices (GLCM) were performed using InterView Fusion™ (Mediso Inc., Budapest). The ability to predict local recurrence (LR), lymph node (LN) and distant metastases (DM) was measured using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Univariate and multivariate analysis of overall and disease-specific survival were executed. 7 out of 45 patients (16%) experienced LR, 11 (24%) LN and 11 (24%) DM. ROC revealed a significant correlation of several textural parameters with LR with an AUC value for entropy of 0.872. While there was also a significant correlation of LR with tumor size in the overall cohort, only texture was predictive when examining T1 (tumor diameter 3 cm) subgroups. No correlation of the examined PET parameters with LN or DM was shown. In univariate survival analysis, both heterogeneity and tumor size were predictive for disease-specific survival, but only texture determined by entropy was determined as an independent factor in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 7.48, p = .016). Overall survival was not significantly correlated to any examined parameter, most likely due to the high comorbidity in our cohort. Our study adds to the growing evidence that tumor

  6. Textural features in pre-treatment [F18]-FDG-PET/CT are correlated with risk of local recurrence and disease-specific survival in early stage NSCLC patients receiving primary stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyka, Thomas; Bundschuh, Ralph A; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Mayer, Benedikt; Specht, Hanno M; Papp, Laszló; Zsótér, Norbert; Essler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Textural features in FDG-PET have been shown to provide prognostic information in a variety of tumor entities. Here we evaluate their predictive value for recurrence and prognosis in NSCLC patients receiving primary stereotactic radiation therapy (SBRT). 45 patients with early stage NSCLC (T1 or T2 tumor, no lymph node or distant metastases) were included in this retrospective study and followed over a median of 21.4 months (range 3.1–71.1). All patients were considered non-operable due to concomitant disease and referred to SBRT as the primary treatment modality. Pre-treatment FDG-PET/CT scans were obtained from all patients. SUV and volume-based analysis as well as extraction of textural features based on neighborhood gray-tone difference matrices (NGTDM) and gray-level co-occurence matrices (GLCM) were performed using InterView Fusion™ (Mediso Inc., Budapest). The ability to predict local recurrence (LR), lymph node (LN) and distant metastases (DM) was measured using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Univariate and multivariate analysis of overall and disease-specific survival were executed. 7 out of 45 patients (16%) experienced LR, 11 (24%) LN and 11 (24%) DM. ROC revealed a significant correlation of several textural parameters with LR with an AUC value for entropy of 0.872. While there was also a significant correlation of LR with tumor size in the overall cohort, only texture was predictive when examining T1 (tumor diameter < = 3 cm) and T2 (>3 cm) subgroups. No correlation of the examined PET parameters with LN or DM was shown. In univariate survival analysis, both heterogeneity and tumor size were predictive for disease-specific survival, but only texture determined by entropy was determined as an independent factor in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 7.48, p = .016). Overall survival was not significantly correlated to any examined parameter, most likely due to the high comorbidity in our cohort. Our study adds to the growing evidence

  7. SU-F-T-227: A Comprehensive Patient Specific, Structure Specific, Pre-Treatment 3D QA Protocol for IMRT, SBRT and VMAT - Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueorguiev, G; Cotter, C; Young, M; Toomeh, D [Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA (United States); University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, MA (United States); Khan, F; Crawford, B; Turcotte, J; Sharp, G [Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA (United States); Mah’D, M [University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To present a 3D QA method and clinical results for 550 patients. Methods: Five hundred and fifty patient treatment deliveries (400 IMRT, 75 SBRT and 75 VMAT) from various treatment sites, planned on Raystation treatment planning system (TPS), were measured on three beam-matched Elekta linear accelerators using IBA’s COMPASS system. The difference between TPS computed and delivered dose was evaluated in 3D by applying three statistical parameters to each structure of interest: absolute average dose difference (AADD, 6% allowed difference), absolute dose difference greater than 6% (ADD6, 4% structure volume allowed to fail) and 3D gamma test (3%/3mm DTA, 4% structure volume allowed to fail). If the allowed value was not met for a given structure, manual review was performed. The review consisted of overlaying dose difference or gamma results with the patient CT, scrolling through the slices. For QA to pass, areas of high dose difference or gamma must be small and not on consecutive slices. For AADD to manually pass QA, the average dose difference in cGy must be less than 50cGy. The QA protocol also includes DVH analysis based on QUANTEC and TG-101 recommended dose constraints. Results: Figures 1–3 show the results for the three parameters per treatment modality. Manual review was performed on 67 deliveries (27 IMRT, 22 SBRT and 18 VMAT), for which all passed QA. Results show that statistical parameter AADD may be overly sensitive for structures receiving low dose, especially for the SBRT deliveries (Fig.1). The TPS computed and measured DVH values were in excellent agreement and with minimum difference. Conclusion: Applying DVH analysis and different statistical parameters to any structure of interest, as part of the 3D QA protocol, provides a comprehensive treatment plan evaluation. Author G. Gueorguiev discloses receiving travel and research funding from IBA for unrelated to this project work. Author B. Crawford discloses receiving travel funding from

  8. Successful Treatment of Richter Transformation with Ibrutinib in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samip Master

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL who progress to Richter transformation (RT have a poor prognosis. Multi-agent chemotherapy regimens do not have good response rates. There are few case reports on the use of ibrutinib in RT. Here, we present a patient who was heavily pretreated for CLL, including allogeneic stem cell transplant, and progressed to RT. She had a mixed response to multi-agent chemotherapy and was started on ibrutinib. She had a complete response for 16 months on single-agent ibrutinib with minimal toxicity.

  9. Cetuximab and irinotecan as third line therapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer after failure of irinotecan, oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Per; Nielsen, Dorte; Yilmaz, Mette

    2007-01-01

    Cetuximab (Erbitux) in combination with irinotecan is the most promising combination in heavily pretreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Efficacy of this combination was confirmed in the pivotal BOND I study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of a comb......Cetuximab (Erbitux) in combination with irinotecan is the most promising combination in heavily pretreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Efficacy of this combination was confirmed in the pivotal BOND I study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate efficacy and toxicity......) and irinotecan (each 2 or 3 weeks) at three university hospitals. Median age was 57 years (23-78), and median performance status was 1 (0-3). Response rate was 20%, median TTP was 5.5 months and median OS was 10.4 months. Response and survival was significantly correlated with severity of skin toxicity. Toxicity...... grade 3 was rare (skin toxicity 8%, diarrhoea 10%, nausea 3%, vomiting 3%, fatigue 8%). Salvage therapy with cetuximab and irinotecan is effective in patients pretreated with irinotecan, and oxaliplatin and in a general population the results from the BOND I study was confirmed...

  10. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ~ 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength...

  11. Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances exploiting heavily-doped Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Sakat, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Calandrini, E.; Samarelli, A.; Gallacher, K.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Paul, D. J.; Ortolani, M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the behavior of mid-infrared localized plasmon resonances in elongated germanium antennas integrated on silicon substrates. Calculations based on Mie theory and on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constant allow us to study the tunability and the figures of merit of plasmon resonances in heavily-doped germanium and to preliminarily compare them with those of the most established plasmonic material, gold.

  12. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  13. Becoming a Heavily Tattooed Young Body: From a Bodily Experience to a Body Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vitor Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Why some young people start to tattoo their bodies? And why some of them keep going on with this practice, until having all body tattooed? What doing so means to them? These are some of the questions that underlie a qualitative research project carried out in Portugal on heavily tattooed young people. In this article, the author discusses their…

  14. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  15. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  16. A case of preventable pulmonary tuberculosis in a Greenlandic, heavily immune suppressed patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sophie H; Johansen, Isik S

    2012-01-01

    Immune modulating therapy, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors, is becoming increasingly more widespread in the treatment of many autoimmune diseases. One of the well-documented side effects of TNF-alpha inhibitors is an increased risk of reactivating latent tuberculosis infecti...... initiating anti-TNF-α treatment and secondly, as part of routine tuberculosis contact tracing. He subsequently developed severe pulmonary tuberculosis and was hospitalised for 6 weeks.......Immune modulating therapy, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors, is becoming increasingly more widespread in the treatment of many autoimmune diseases. One of the well-documented side effects of TNF-alpha inhibitors is an increased risk of reactivating latent tuberculosis infection...

  17. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  18. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanharawi, Imane El; Tzarouchi, Loukia [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Cardoen, Liesbeth [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Alison, Marianne [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France)

    2017-05-15

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting. (orig.)

  19. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sanharawi, Imane; Tzarouchi, Loukia; Cardoen, Liesbeth; Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Alison, Marianne

    2017-05-01

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting.

  20. Sensitizing Effects of Pretreatment Measures on Cancer Chemotherapy Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Diane; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored sensitizing effects of pretreatment assessment on posttreatment chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and interactive effects of personal dispositions for information seeking. Oncology patients rated side effects experienced previously (experimental condition), or parking conditions (control). Posttreatment, nausea of experimentals was…

  1. Operation of heavily irradiated silicon detectors in non-depletion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Li, Z.; Haerkoenen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.

    2006-01-01

    The non-depletion detector operation mode has generally been disregarded as an option in high-energy physics experiments. In this paper, the non-depletion operation is examined by detailed analysis of the electric field distribution and the current pulse response of heavily irradiated silicon (Si) detectors. The previously reported model of double junction in heavily irradiated Si detector is further developed and a simulation of the current pulse response has been performed. It is shown that detectors can operate in a non-depletion mode due to the fact that the value of the electric field in a non-depleted region is high enough for efficient carrier drift. This electric field originates from the current flow through the detector and a consequent drop of the potential across high-resistivity bulk of a non-depleted region. It is anticipated that the electric field in a non-depleted region, which is still electrically neutral, increases with fluence that improves the non-depleted detector operation. Consideration of the electric field in a non-depleted region allows the explanation of the recorded double-peak current pulse shape of heavily irradiated Si detectors and definition of the requirements for the detector operational conditions. Detailed reconstruction of the electric field distribution gives new information on radiation effects in Si detectors

  2. Replacing Heavily Damaged Teeth by Third Molar Autotransplantation With the Use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Rapid Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Jop P; Anssari Moin, David; Wismeijer, Daniel; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the autotransplantation of third molars to replace heavily damaged premolars and molars. Specifically, this article reports on the use of preoperative cone-beam computed tomographic planning and 3-dimensional (3D) printed replicas of donor teeth to prepare artificial tooth sockets. In the present case, an 18-year-old patient underwent autotransplantation of 3 third molars to replace 1 premolar and 2 molars that were heavily damaged after trauma. Approximately 1 year after the traumatic incident, autotransplantation with the help of 3D planning and rapid prototyping was performed. The right maxillary third molar replaced the right maxillary first premolar. The 2 mandibular wisdom teeth replaced the left mandibular first and second molars. During the surgical procedure, artificial tooth sockets were prepared with the help of 3D printed donor tooth copies to prevent iatrogenic damage to the actual donor teeth. These replicas of the donor teeth were designed based on the preoperative cone-beam computed tomogram and manufactured with the help of 3D printing techniques. The use of a replica of the donor tooth resulted in a predictable and straightforward procedure, with extra-alveolar times shorter than 2 minutes for all transplantations. The transplanted teeth were placed in infraocclusion and fixed with a suture splint. Postoperative follow-up showed physiologic integration of the transplanted teeth and a successful outcome for all transplants. In conclusion, this technique facilitates a straightforward and predictable procedure for autotransplantation of third molars. The use of printed analogues of the donor teeth decreases the risk of iatrogenic damage and the extra-alveolar time of the transplanted tooth is minimized. This facilitates a successful outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pretreatment tables predicting pathologic stage of locally advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniau, Steven; Spahn, Martin; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Tombal, Bertrand; Tosco, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Giansilvio; Hsu, Chao-Yu; Walz, Jochen; Kneitz, Burkhard; Bader, Pia; Frohneberg, Detlef; Tizzani, Alessandro; Graefen, Markus; van Cangh, Paul; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Montorsi, Francesco; van Poppel, Hein; Gontero, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Pretreatment tables for the prediction of pathologic stage have been published and validated for localized prostate cancer (PCa). No such tables are available for locally advanced (cT3a) PCa. To construct tables predicting pathologic outcome after radical prostatectomy (RP) for patients with cT3a PCa with the aim to help guide treatment decisions in clinical practice. This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study including 759 consecutive patients with cT3a PCa treated with RP between 1987 and 2010. Retropubic RP and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients were divided into pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and biopsy Gleason score (GS) subgroups. These parameters were used to construct tables predicting pathologic outcome and the presence of positive lymph nodes (LNs) after RP for cT3a PCa using ordinal logistic regression. In the model predicting pathologic outcome, the main effects of biopsy GS and pretreatment PSA were significant. A higher GS and/or higher PSA level was associated with a more unfavorable pathologic outcome. The validation procedure, using a repeated split-sample method, showed good predictive ability. Regression analysis also showed an increasing probability of positive LNs with increasing PSA levels and/or higher GS. Limitations of the study are the retrospective design and the long study period. These novel tables predict pathologic stage after RP for patients with cT3a PCa based on pretreatment PSA level and biopsy GS. They can be used to guide decision making in men with locally advanced PCa. Our study might provide physicians with a useful tool to predict pathologic stage in locally advanced prostate cancer that might help select patients who may need multimodal treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  5. MO-FG-CAMPUS-TeP1-01: An Efficient Method of 3D Patient Dose Reconstruction Based On EPID Measurements for Pre-Treatment Patient Specific QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, R; Lee, C [Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford, NSW (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Zwan, B; Hindmarsh, J; Seymour, E; Kandasamy, K; Arthur, G [Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford, NSW (Australia); Greer, P [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate an efficient and clinically relevant patient specific QA method by reconstructing 3D patient dose from 2D EPID images for IMRT plans. Also to determine the usefulness of 2D QA metrics when assessing 3D patient dose deviations. Methods: Using the method developed by King et al (Med Phys 39(5),2839–2847), EPID images of IMRT fields were acquired in air and converted to dose at 10 cm depth (SAD setup) in a flat virtual water phantom. Each EPID measured dose map was then divided by the corresponding treatment planning system (TPS) dose map calculated with an identical setup, to derive a 2D “error matrix”. For each field, the error matrix was used to adjust the doses along the respective ray lines in the original patient 3D dose. All field doses were combined to derive a reconstructed 3D patient dose for quantitative analysis. A software tool was developed to efficiently implement the entire process and was tested with a variety of IMRT plans for 2D (virtual flat phantom) and 3D (in-patient) QA analysis. Results: The method was tested on 60 IMRT plans. The mean (± standard deviation) 2D gamma (2%,2mm) pass rate (2D-GPR) was 97.4±3.0% and the mean 2D gamma index (2D-GI) was 0.35±0.06. The 3D PTV mean dose deviation was 1.8±0.8%. The analysis showed very weak correlations between both the 2D-GPR and 2D-GI when compared with PTV mean dose deviations (R2=0.3561 and 0.3632 respectively). Conclusion: Our method efficiently calculates 3D patient dose from 2D EPID images, utilising all of the advantages of an EPID-based dosimetry system. In this study, the 2D QA metrics did not predict the 3D patient dose deviation. This tool allows reporting of the 3D volumetric dose parameters thus providing more clinically relevant patient specific QA.

  6. Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconstruction and Pretreatment Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment Our mission is to transform -cyclohexane hydrocarbons were produced by noble metal and acid zeoloite catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived by mechanical refining process. The left side shows biomass feedstock (represented by brown spheres

  7. Recurrent Pseudomembranous Colitis in an Ovarian Cancer Patient Undergoing Carboplatin Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Allen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diarrhea is a common problem in ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and Clostridium difficile infection has been identified as a cause. The proper diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea are critical to patient care, especially to prevent the serious complications from a severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI. Case. We present a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient who developed recurrent pseudomembranous colitis while receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. Despite treatment with oral metronidazole for fourteen days, the patient’s diarrhea relapsed and colonoscopy revealed extensive pseudomembranous colitis. The infection eventually resolved with the combination of oral vancomycin and metronidazole. Conclusions. Diarrhea is a common problem in patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. Management requires obtaining the proper diagnosis. Clostridium difficile associated pseudomembranous colitis must be part of the differential diagnosis. Treatment must be sufficient to prevent relapses of the Clostridium difficile infection to prevent serious consequences in an already vulnerable patient population.

  8. Innovative pretreatment strategies for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently by thermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes via syngas (CO and H 2 ) fermentation. However, many of the feedstocks have recalcitrant structure and are difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or they have toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestible at all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhanced and economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. The strategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression, autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose) pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well as combined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and pretreatment, innovative biogas digester design, co-digestion, and bio-augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nice Guys Finish Last: Are People with Higher Tax Morale Taxed more Heavily?

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Denvil Duncan; Clemens Fuest; Andreas Peichl

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to provide evidence of efficient taxation of groups with heterogeneous levels of 'tax morale'. We set up an optimal income tax model where high tax morale implies a high subjective cost of evading taxes. The model predicts that 'nice guys finish last': groups with higher tax morale will be taxed more heavily, simply because taxing them is less costly. Based on unique cross-country micro data and an IV approach to rule out reverse causality, we find empirical support fo...

  10. Thermal conductivity of high-porosity heavily doped biomorphic silicon carbide prepared from sapele wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; Cabezas-Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2012-08-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of high-porosity (˜52 vol %, channel-type pores) bio-SiC samples prepared from sapele wood biocarbon templates have been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. An analysis has been made of the obtained results in comparison with the data for bio-SiC samples based on beech and eucalyptus, as well as for polycrystalline β-SiC. The conclusion has been drawn that the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of bio-SiC samples based on natural wood are typical of heavily doped polycrystalline β-SiC.

  11. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Hai, Pham Nam; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga_1_−_x,Fe_x)Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  12. In situ observation of triple junction motion during recovery of heavily deformed aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hughes, Darcy A.; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    -junctions are pinned by deformation-induced interconnecting and lamellar boundaries, which slow down the recovery process and lead to a stop-go migration pattern. This pinning mechanism stabilizes the deformation microstructure, i.e. the structure is stabilized by balancing the driving and pinning forces controlling......Microstructural evolution during in situ annealing of heavily cold-rolled aluminum has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, confirming that an important recovery mechanism is migration of triple junctions formed by three lamellar boundaries (Y-junctions). The migrating Y...

  13. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the experiments in UHV At the surface of freshly cleaved samples, we have observed sodium nano-precipitates with shapes, which depend on the irradiation dose and the volume fraction of the radiolytic Na...

  14. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 748242 (Viet Nam); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Anh, Le Duc [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-05-09

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  15. An X-ray wave theory for heavily distorted crystals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.; Hashimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction theory is developed of monochromatic waves having spherical wave front, which is applicable to an interpretation of divergent X-ray diffraction images of crystals containing arbitral types of strain field. The theory is divided into two parts. In part I, Takagi's theory is expanded by introducing amplitude and phase correction functions and a new improved representation for the X-ray diffraction theory is given. In part II dispersion surfaces in heavily distorted crystals are discussed, and in the discussion the resonance shift functions are introduced. These formulations can lead to a complete understanding of the extinction phenomena. (author)

  16. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  17. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  18. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Taylor

    Full Text Available Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  19. Cytogenetic abnormalities of the descendants of permanent residents of heavily contaminated East Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Madiyeva, Madina; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takeichi, Nobuo; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Urazalina, Nailya; Dovgal, Galina; Rymbaeva, Tamara; Tokanova, Sholpan; Beisengazina, Meruert; Kembayeva, Kulypash; Inoue, Ken

    2017-11-01

    More than 400 nuclear explosion tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and significant radioactive substances were released. The long-term consequences of the activities at the SNTS and the appearance of any hereditary effects remain insufficiently studied about 25 years after the test site was closed. The population living in villages near the SNTS are considered to have been heavily exposed to external and internal radiation. This study aims to perform an assessment and comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the inhabitants living near the SNTS, and their first-(F1) and second-(F2) generation children. Residents of the East Kazakhstan region living in the area covered by the former SNTS were included in the study. To evaluate the hereditary effects of nuclear testing, comprehensive chromosome analyses were performed in lymphocytes using conventional Giemsa and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods in 115 F1 and F2 descendants in the villages of Dolon and Sarzhal, which were heavily contaminated. The parents of the subjects had permanently lived in the villages. A higher number of stable-type chromosome aberrations such as translocations was found in these residents than in 80 residents of the control area, Kokpecty, which indicates the possibility that radiation had biological effects on the exposed subjects.

  20. Long-Term Stability of Oxide Nanowire Sensors via Heavily Doped Oxide Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhang, Guozhu; He, Yong; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2017-12-22

    Long-term stability of a chemical sensor is an essential quality for long-term collection of data related to exhaled breath, environmental air, and other sources in the Internet of things (IoT) era. Although an oxide nanowire sensor has shown great potential as a chemical sensor, the long-term stability of sensitivity has not been realized yet due to electrical degradation under harsh sensing conditions. Here, we report a rational concept to accomplish long-term electrical stability of metal oxide nanowire sensors via introduction of a heavily doped metal oxide contact layer. Antimony-doped SnO 2 (ATO) contacts on SnO 2 nanowires show much more stable and lower electrical contact resistance than conventional Ti contacts for high temperature (200 °C) conditions, which are required to operate chemical sensors. The stable and low contact resistance of ATO was confirmed for at least 1960 h under 200 °C in open air. This heavily doped oxide contact enables us to realize the long-term stability of SnO 2 nanowire sensors while maintaining the sensitivity for both NO 2 gas and light (photo) detections. The applicability of our method is confirmed for sensors on a flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. Since the proposed fundamental concept can be applied to various oxide nanostructures, it will give a foundation for designing long-term stable oxide nanomaterial-based IoT sensors.

  1. Yield strength of a heavily drawn Cu-20% Nb filamentary microcomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    It has been well documented that heavily-drawn, copper-niobium microcomposites possess high strength and high conductivity. Since niobium has little solubility in copper, the conductivity of the copper is not strongly affected by the addition of niobium. Following extensive mechanical deformation of Cu-Nb, niobium dendrites transform into fine niobium ribbons as a result of the niobium texture upon drawing. This nanostructure contributes to the ultrahigh strength of Cu-Nb microcomposites. The strength of heavily deformed Cu-Nb exceeds that predicted by the rule-of-mixtures (ROM), and a fundamental understanding of the strengthening mechanisms involved has been the subject of much discussion. Spitzig and his coworkers suggests a barrier strengthening model while Funkenbusch and Courtney believe that stored dislocations have a role in substructural hardening. Hangen and Raabe recently proposed an analytical model for the calculation of the yield strength of Cu-Nb microcomposite. The model of Hangen and Raabe and that of Spitzig and his coworkers have a great deal of resemblance since both models attribute the strength to the difficulty of propagating plastic flow through the interface. The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the strengthening mechanisms associated with Cu-Nb microcomposites by examining the previous studies on mechanical and microstructural stability of Cu-based microcomposites

  2. SU-E-T-148: Benchmarks and Pre-Treatment Reviews: A Study of Quality Assurance Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenstein, J; Nguyen, H; Roll, J; Walsh, A; Tailor, A; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews have on improving the quality of submitted clinical trial data. Methods: Benchmarks are used to evaluate a site’s ability to develop a treatment that meets a specific protocol’s treatment guidelines prior to placing their first patient on the protocol. A pre-treatment review is an actual patient placed on the protocol in which the dosimetry and contour volumes are evaluated to be per protocol guidelines prior to allowing the beginning of the treatment. A key component of these QA mechanisms is that sites are provided timely feedback to educate them on how to plan per the protocol and prevent protocol deviations on patients accrued to a protocol. For both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews a dose volume analysis (DVA) was performed using MIM softwareTM. For pre-treatment reviews a volume contour evaluation was also performed. Results: IROC Houston performed a QA effectiveness analysis of a protocol which required both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews. In 70 percent of the patient cases submitted, the benchmark played an effective role in assuring that the pre-treatment review of the cases met protocol requirements. The 35 percent of sites failing the benchmark subsequently modified there planning technique to pass the benchmark before being allowed to submit a patient for pre-treatment review. However, in 30 percent of the submitted cases the pre-treatment review failed where the majority (71 percent) failed the DVA. 20 percent of sites submitting patients failed to correct their dose volume discrepancies indicated by the benchmark case. Conclusion: Benchmark cases and pre-treatment reviews can be an effective QA tool to educate sites on protocol guidelines and to minimize deviations. Without the benchmark cases it is possible that 65 percent of the cases undergoing a pre-treatment review would have failed to meet the protocols requirements.Support: U24-CA-180803

  3. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  4. Characterization of buffy coat-derived granulocytes for clinical use: a comparison with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/dexamethasone-pretreated donor-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Geer, A; Gazendam, R P; Tool, A T J; van Hamme, J L; de Korte, D; van den Berg, T K; Zeerleder, S S; Kuijpers, T W

    2017-02-01

    Buffy coat-derived granulocytes have been described as an alternative to the apheresis product from donors pretreated with dexamethasone and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The latter is - dependent on the local and national settings - obtained following a demanding and time-consuming procedure, which is undesirable in critically ill septic patients. In contrast, buffy coat-derived products have a large volume and are often heavily contaminated with red cells and platelets. We developed a new pooled buffy coat-derived product with high purity and small volume, and performed a comprehensive functional characterization of these granulocytes. We pooled ten buffy coats following the production of platelet concentrates. Saline 0·9% was added to decrease the viscosity and the product was split into plasma, red cells and a 'super' buffy coat. Functional data of the granulocytes were compared to those obtained with granulocytes from healthy controls and G-CSF/dexamethasone-pretreated donors. Buffy coat-derived granulocytes showed adhesion, chemotaxis, reactive oxygen species production, degranulation, NETosis and in vitro killing of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus species comparable to control and G-CSF/dexamethasone-derived granulocytes. Candida killing was superior compared to G-CSF/dexamethasone-derived granulocytes. Immunophenotyping was normal; especially no signs of activation in the buffy coat-derived granulocytes were seen. Viability was reduced. Buffy coats are readily available in the regular blood production process and would take away the concerns around the apheresis product. The product described appears a promising alternative for transfusion purposes. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  6. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won

    2012-01-01

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  7. Interim data quality objectives for waste pretreatment and vitrification. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.; Conner, J.M.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Mobley, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for storing, processing, and immobilizing the Hanford Site tank wastes. Characterization information on the tank wastes is needed so that safety concerns can be addressed, and retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes can be designed, permitted, and implemented. This document describes the near-term tank waste sampling and characterization needs of the Pretreatment, High-Level Waste (HLW) Disposal, and Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Programs to support the TWRS disposal mission. The final DQO (Data Quality Objective) will define specific waste tanks to be sampled, sample timing requirements, an appropriate analytical scheme, and a list of required analytes. This interim DQO, however, focuses primarily on the required analytes since the tanks to be sampled in FY 1994 and early FY 1995 are being driven most heavily by other considerations, particularly safety. The major objective of this Interim DQO is to provide guidance for tank waste characterization requirements for samples taken before completion of the final DQO. The characterization data needs defined herein will support the final DQO to help perform the following: Support the TWRS technical strategy by identification of the chemical and physical composition of the waste in the tanks and Guide development efforts to define waste pretreatment processes, which will in turn define HLW and LLW feed to vitrification processes

  8. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  10. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  11. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  12. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  13. Structural coarsening during annealing of an aluminum plate heavily deformed using ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and softening behaviour have been investigated in an aluminum plate heavily deformed by equal channel angular extrusion and subsequently annealed at 170 °C. It is found that at this temperature the microstructure evolves by coarsening with no apparent signs of recrystallization...... even after 2 h of annealing. Both coarsening and softening are rapid within first 10 minutes of annealing followed by a slower evolution with increasing annealing duration. Evidence of triple junction (TJ) motion during coarsening is obtained by inspecting the microstructure in one region using...... the electron backscatter diffraction technique both before and after annealing for 10 minutes. The fraction of fast-migrating TJs is found to strongly depend of the type of boundaries composing a junction. The greatest fraction of fast-migrating TJs is in the group, where all boundaries forming a junction...

  14. Anomalous transmission through heavily doped conducting polymer films with periodic subwavelength hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-08-01

    We observed resonantly enhanced (or anomalous transmission) terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF 6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The anomalous transmission spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the resonantly enhanced transmission peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy(PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, indicating that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy(PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  15. Heavily doped GaAs:Te layers grown by MOVPE using diisopropyl telluride as a source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniltsev, V. M.; Demidov, E. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N., E-mail: drozdyu@ipmras.ru; Kraev, S. A.; Surovegina, E. A.; Shashkin, V. I.; Yunin, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The capabilities of GaAs epitaxial layers extremely heavily doped with tellurium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy using diisopropyl telluride as a source are studied. It is shown that tellurium incorporation into GaAs occurs to an atomic concentration of 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} without appreciable diffusion and segregation effects. Good carrier concentrations (2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) and specific contact resistances of non-alloyed ohmic contacts (1.7 × 10{sup –6} Ω cm{sup 2}) give grounds to use such layers to create non-alloyed ohmic contacts in electronic devices. A sharp decrease in the electrical activity of Te atoms, a decrease in the electron mobility, and an increase in the contact resistance at atomic concentrations above 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} are detected.

  16. Spin relaxation through lateral spin transport in heavily doped n -type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Oka, T.; Fujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Saito, Y.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally study temperature-dependent spin relaxation including lateral spin diffusion in heavily doped n -type silicon (n+-Si ) layers by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance in small-sized CoFe/MgO/Si lateral spin-valve (LSV) devices. Even at room temperature, we observe large spin signals, 50-fold the magnitude of those in previous works on n+-Si . By measuring spin signals in LSVs with various center-to-center distances between contacts, we reliably evaluate the temperature-dependent spin diffusion length (λSi) and spin lifetime (τSi). We find that the temperature dependence of τSi is affected by that of the diffusion constant in the n+-Si layers, meaning that it is important to understand the temperature dependence of the channel mobility. A possible origin of the temperature dependence of τSi is discussed in terms of the recent theories by Dery and co-workers.

  17. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa.

    1994-01-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author)

  18. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1994-11-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author).

  19. Launch prices for new pharmaceuticals in the heavily regulated and subsidized Spanish market, 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; López-Valcárcel, Beatriz González

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the explanatory factors affecting introductory prices of new pharmaceuticals in a heavily regulated and highly subsidized market. We collect a data set consisting of all new chemical entities launched in Spain between 1997 and 2005, and model launch prices following an extended version of previous economic models. We found that, unlike in the US and Sweden, therapeutically "innovative" products are not overpriced relative to "imitative" ones after having controlled for other factors. Price setting is mainly used as a mechanism to adjust for inflation independently of the degree of innovation. The drugs that enter through the centralized EMA approval procedure are overpriced, which may be a consequence of market globalization and international price setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Facilitating political decisions using species distribution models to assess restoration measures in heavily modified estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells in heavily exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1986-01-01

    Seven hundred and ten bone marrow cells from 13 A-bomb survivors, who were heavily exposed to atomic radiation, were examined using chromosome banding method. An average frequency of chromosome aberrations was 17 %. The most common structural abnormality was translocation (47 %), followed by complex aberrations involving three or more chromosomes (32 %). These abnormalities were frequently seen in A-bomb survivors exposed to estimated doses of 3.5 - 4.0 Gy. Eighty two percent of the structural aberrations were stable. Diploid cells were seen in 0.4 % and tetraploid cells were seen in 0.7 %. The frequency of breakpoint sites was high in chromosomes 1 and 17; while it was low in chromosomes 3, 6, 9, and 11. Abnormal clones were seen in one of the 13 survivors. Chromosome aberrations common to the bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes were not seen in the same individual. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Induction hardening of tool steel for heavily loaded aircraft engine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokicki P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction hardening is an innovative process allowing modification of the materials surface with more effective, cheaper and more reproducible way to compare with conventional hardening methods used in the aerospace industry. Unfortunately, high requirements and strict regulation concerning this branch of the industry force deep research allowing to obtain results that would be used for numerical modelling of the process. Only by this way one is able to start the industrial application of the process. The main scope of presented paper are results concerning investigation of microstructure evolution of tool steel after single-frequency induction hardening process. The specimens that aim in representing final industrial products (as heavily loaded gears, were heat- -treated with induction method and subjected to metallographic preparation, after which complex microstructure investigation was performed. The results obtained within the research will be a basis for numerical modelling of the process of induction hardening with potential to be introduced for the aviation industrial components.

  3. Effect of impurity correlation on the density of states in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Nhat Quang; Nguyen Nhu Dat; Dinh Van An

    1993-07-01

    A theory is developed of the electron density of states (DOS) in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors which undergo a thermal treatment. The calculation is carried out within the semiclassical approach to the random impurity field, taking adequately into account high-temperature correlation among the impurities and low temperature screening due to the free carriers as well. Then, a simple analytic expression for the DOS is obtained which exhibits the same energy dependence as in the case of a random impurity distribution, but now with some correlation-induced changes in the coefficients. A numerical estimation on non-compensated n-type sample of GaAs at a doping level of 5 x 10 18 cm -3 shows that in the tail region the correlated DOS turns out to be somewhat larger and cut less sharply than the random one. (author). 45 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  4. Simulation of Heavily Irradiated Silicon Pixel Sensors and Comparison with Test Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chiochia, Vincenzo; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Swartz, Morris; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Charge collection measurements performed on heavily irradiated p-spray DOFZ pixel sensors with a grazing angle hadron beam provide a sensitive determination of the electric field within the detectors. The data are compared with a complete charge transport simulation of the sensor which includes signal trapping and charge induction effects. A linearly varying electric field based upon the standard picture of a constant type-inverted effective doping density is inconsistent with the data. A two-trap double junction model implemented in the ISE TCAD software can be tuned to produce a doubly-peaked electric field which describes the data reasonably well. The modeled field differs somewhat from previous determinations based upon the transient current technique. The model can also account for the level of charge trapping observed in the data.

  5. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  6. Optical Gaps in Pristine and Heavily Doped Silicon Nanocrystals: DFT versus Quantum Monte Carlo Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, R; Tokár, K; Somogyi, B; Gali, Á; Štich, I

    2017-12-12

    We present a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) study of the optical gaps of light-emitting nanomaterials, namely, pristine and heavily B- and P-codoped silicon crystalline nanoparticles. Twenty DFT exchange-correlation functionals sampled from the best currently available inventory such as hybrids and range-separated hybrids are benchmarked against ultra-accurate quantum Monte Carlo results on small model Si nanocrystals. Overall, the range-separated hybrids are found to perform best. The quality of the DFT gaps is correlated with the deviation from Koopmans' theorem as a possible quality guide. In addition to providing a generic test of the ability of TDDFT to describe optical properties of silicon crystalline nanoparticles, the results also open up a route to benchmark-quality DFT studies of nanoparticle sizes approaching those studied experimentally.

  7. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid enhancement of nodal quasiparticle mass with heavily underdoping in Bi2212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Ino, Akihiro

    2018-05-01

    We report substantial advance of our low-energy angle-resolved photoemission study of nodal quasiparticles in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The new data cover the samples from underdoped down to heavily underdoped levels. We also present the nodal Fermi velocities that determined by using an excitation-photon energy of hν = 7.0 eV over a wide doping range. The consistency between the results with hν = 8.1 and 7.0 eV allows us to rule out the effect of photoemission matrix elements. In comparison with the data previously reported, the nodal effective mass increases by a factor of ∼ 1.5 in going from optimally doped to heavily underdoped levels. We find a rapid enhancement of the nodal quasiparticle mass at low doping levels near the superconductor-to-insulator transition. The effective coupling spectrum, λ (ω) , is extracted directly from the energy derivatives of the quasiparticle dispersion and scattering rate, as a causal function of the mass enhancement factor. A steplike increase in Reλ (ω) around ∼ 65 meV is demonstrated clearly by the Kramers-Kronig transform of Imλ (ω) . To extract the low-energy renormalization effect, we calculated a simple model for the electron-boson interaction. This model reveals that the contribution of the renormalization at | ω | ≤ 15 meV to the quasiparticle mass is larger than that around 65 meV in underdoped samples.

  9. Ecophysiological characterization of early successional biological soil crusts in heavily human-impacted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyja, Michelle; Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    Ecophysiological characterizations of photoautotrophic communities are not only necessary to identify the response of carbon fixation related to different climatic factors, but also to evaluate risks connected to changing environments. In biological soil crusts (BSCs), the description of ecophysiological features is difficult, due to the high variability in taxonomic composition and variable methodologies applied. Especially for BSCs in early successional stages, the available datasets are rare or focused on individual constituents, although these crusts may represent the only photoautotrophic component in many heavily disturbed ruderal areas, such as parking lots or building areas with increasing surface area worldwide. We analyzed the response of photosynthesis and respiration to changing BSC water contents (WCs), temperature and light in two early successional BSCs. We investigated whether the response of these parameters was different between intact BSC and the isolated dominating components. BSCs dominated by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and dominated by the green alga Zygogonium ericetorum were examined. A major divergence between the two BSCs was their absolute carbon fixation rate on a chlorophyll basis, which was significantly higher for the cyanobacterial crust. Nevertheless, independent of species composition, both crust types and their isolated organisms had convergent features such as high light acclimatization and a minor and very late-occurring depression in carbon uptake at water suprasaturation. This particular setup of ecophysiological features may enable these communities to cope with a high variety of climatic stresses and may therefore be a reason for their success in heavily disturbed areas with ongoing human impact. However, the shape of the response was different for intact BSC compared to separated organisms, especially in absolute net photosynthesis (NP) rates. This emphasizes the importance of measuring intact BSCs under natural

  10. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  11. Intrafraction Bladder Motion in Radiation Therapy Estimated From Pretreatment and Posttreatment Volumetric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroudi, Farshad, E-mail: farshad.foroudi@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gill, Suki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The use of image guidance protocols using soft tissue anatomy identification before treatment can reduce interfractional variation. This makes intrafraction clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) changes more important, including those resulting from intrafraction bladder filling and motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the required intrafraction margins for soft tissue image guidance from pretreatment and posttreatment volumetric imaging. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-T4) underwent an adaptive radiation therapy protocol using daily pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with weekly posttreatment CBCT. A total of 235 pairs of pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT images were retrospectively contoured by a single radiation oncologist (CBCT-CTV). The maximum bladder displacement was measured according to the patient's bony pelvis movement during treatment, intrafraction bladder filling, and bladder centroid motion. Results: The mean time between pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT was 13 minutes, 52 seconds (range, 7 min 52 sec to 30 min 56 sec). Taking into account patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling, the required margins to cover intrafraction changes from pretreatment to posttreatment in the superior, inferior, right, left, anterior, and posterior were 1.25 cm (range, 1.19-1.50 cm), 0.67 cm (range, 0.58-1.12 cm), 0.74 cm (range, 0.59-0.94 cm), 0.73 cm (range, 0.51-1.00 cm), 1.20 cm (range, 0.85-1.32 cm), and 0.86 cm (range, 0.73-0.99), respectively. Small bladders on pretreatment imaging had relatively the largest increase in pretreatment to posttreatment volume. Conclusion: Intrafraction motion of the bladder based on pretreatment and posttreatment bladder imaging can be significant particularly in the anterior and superior directions. Patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling all contribute to changes between

  12. Single-institution long-term outcomes for patients receiving nonmyeloablative conditioning hematopoeitic cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and follicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo K; Petersen, Søren; Kornblit, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Non-myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (NMC-HCT) has improved the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). In a cohort of 85 patients (45 with CLL and 40 with FL), we observed 5-yr overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival...... (PFS) of 53% and 38% in the CLL group and 81% and 76% in the FL group. In the both the CLL group and the FL group, a strong trend toward better OS and PFS was observed among patients in complete remission (CR) at HCT. Within the FL group, sixteen patients had at one or more time points in their disease...... treatment that can provide long-term survival in elderly, heavily pretreated patients with FL and CLL. Especially patients with FL, and also transformed FL, seemed to have a great benefit of NMC-HCT, and CR at the time of HCT was an important prognostic factor....

  13. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  15. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India.Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine.Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  16. Precise Th/U-dating of small and heavily coated samples of deep sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomitschka, Michael; Mangini, Augusto

    1999-07-01

    Marine carbonate skeletons like deep-sea corals are frequently coated with iron and manganese oxides/hydroxides which adsorb additional thorium and uranium out of the sea water. A new cleaning procedure has been developed to reduce this contamination. In this further cleaning step a solution of Na 2EDTA (Na 2H 2T B) and ascorbic acid is used which composition is optimised especially for samples of 20 mg of weight. It was first tested on aliquots of a reef-building coral which had been artificially contaminated with powdered ferromanganese nodule. Applied on heavily contaminated deep-sea corals (scleractinia), it reduced excess 230Th by another order of magnitude in addition to usual cleaning procedures. The measurement of at least three fractions of different contamination, together with an additional standard correction for contaminated carbonates results in Th/U-ages corrected for the authigenic component. A good agreement between Th/U- and 14C-ages can be achieved even for extremely coated corals.

  17. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Xu, A; Galstyan, E; Delgado, L; Cantoni, C

    2015-01-19

    REBa2Cu3Ox ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50K and fields of 2-30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J(c)) above 20 MA/cm(2) at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol.% Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J(c) typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m(3) have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J(c) (ratio of J(c) at 30 K, 3 T to the J(c) at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 x 10(11) cm(-2) as well as 2-3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J(c) films. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  18. Pollination with heavily irradiated pollen in Nicotiana: induced parthenogenesis and embryological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musial, K.; Przywara, L.

    1999-01-01

    Nicotiana crosses were pollinated in situ and in vitro with heavily irradiated pollen (500, 700, 1000 Gy) to induce parthenogenesis and to study the development of embryo and endosperm. Haploids were obtained after in situ pollination only; however, parthenogenetic proembryos occurred also after in vitro pollination. It was demonstrated that ovule culture following pollination offers a better chance to produce haploids than undisturbed pollination does. Pollination with irradiated pollen (PwIP) stron gly decreased the number of endosperm cells and the size of embryo sacs, and it affected the development of embryos; no significant differences between applied irradiation doses were found. Ovules with endosperm only, embryo only, and with both embryo and endosperm were observed. The most frequent were the ovules with endosperm only, the rarest with embryo only. A small amount of storage products occurred in the endosperm cells. The diploid chromosome number counted in the endosperm produced after PwIP points to their origin without fertilization. An interesting phenomenon observed after PwIP was vigorous growth of endothelium. (author)

  19. Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: composition of the microbial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA S. MILIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation, a process that utilizes the capability of microorganism to degrade toxic waste, is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. The technology is very effective in dealing with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The aim of this study was to examine the composition of the microbial consortium during the ex situ experiment of bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products from the Oil Refinery Pančevo, Serbia. After a 5.5-month experiment with biostimulation and bioventilation, the concentration of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH had been reduced from 29.80 to 3.29 g/kg (89 %. In soil, the dominant microorganism population comprised Gram-positive bacteria from actinomycete-Nocardia group. The microorganisms which decompose hydrocarbons were the dominant microbial population at the end of the process, with a share of more than 80 % (range 107 CFU/g. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that a stable microbial community had been formed after initial fluctuations.

  20. Do the VOCs that evaporate from a heavily polluted river threaten the health of riparian residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, Der-Fong; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Chin; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the potential threat of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the health of residents living close to a heavily polluted river, this study investigated the species and the concentration of VOCs evaporating from a river and surveyed the health condition of the nearby residents. Air samples were taken seasonally at the upstream, midstream, and downstream water surfaces of the river, and at different locations at certain distances from the river. These samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through gas chromatography and electron capture detector (GC/ECD) for chlorinated organic compounds, and through gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC/FID) for ordinary hydrocarbons. The health data obtained from valid health questionnaires of 908 residents were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Twenty-six species of VOCs were identified in the environment adjacent the river, many of which are carcinogenic or believed to be carcinogenic to humans. However, results of this study shows that the VOCs evaporating from the polluted river have not been definitively identified as a major factor of cancer in the residents. However, the risk of suffering from certain chronic diseases may increase in residents living less than 225 m away from the river due to the high levels of evaporated VOCs. Residents living less than 225 m away from the river and with nearby specific industries are 3.130 times more at risk of suffering from chronic diseases than those with no nearby specific industries.

  1. The origin of double peak electric field distribution in heavily irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V; Li, Z

    2002-01-01

    The first observation of double peak (DP) electric field distribution in heavily neutron irradiated (>10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2) semiconductor detectors has been published about 6 yr ago. However, this effect was not quantitatively analyzed up to now. The explanation of the DP electric field distribution presented in this paper is based on the properties of radiation induced deep levels in silicon, which act as deep traps, and on the distribution of the thermally generated free carrier concentration in the detector bulk. In the frame of this model, the earlier published considerations on the so-called 'double junction (DJ) effect' are discussed as well. The comparison of the calculated electric field profiles at different temperatures with the experimental ones allows one to determine a set of deep levels. This set of deep levels, and their charge filling status are essential to the value and the distribution of space charge in the space charge region in the range of 305-240 K, which is actual temperature ran...

  2. Quantifying the importance of diffuse minewater pollution in a historically heavily coal mined catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, W.M.; Gozzard, E.; Potter, H.A.B.; Jarvis, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in developing treatment systems for point sources of minewater pollution in recent years; however, there remains a knowledge gap in the characterisation and remediation of diffuse minewater sources. Data are presented from the River Gaunless catchment, a historically heavily coal mined catchment in the northeast of England. Instream iron (Fe) loadings were monitored alongside loadings arising from point minewater discharges over a 12-month period to assess the dynamic importance of diffuse sources of minewater pollution. In low flow, diffuse sources account for around 50% of instream loading, a proportion which increases to 98% in high flow conditions. The low flow sources appear to be dominated by direct discharge of contaminated groundwater to surface waters in lower reaches of the catchment. In high flow, resuspended Fe-rich sediments, which are both naturally occurring and derived from historic mining, become the dominant diffuse source of Fe in the water column. - Diffuse sources of minewater pollution significantly contribute to instream contaminant loadings under varying flow conditions

  3. Road Environments: Impact of Metals on Human Health in Heavily Congested Cities of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiec, Ewa

    2017-06-29

    Road dust as a by-product of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions can be a major cause of systemic oxidative stress and multiple disorders. Substantial amounts of road dust are repeatedly resuspended, in particular at traffic lights and junctions where more braking is involved, causing potential threat to pedestrians, especially children. In order to determine the degree of contamination in the heavily traffic-congested cities of Poland, a total of 148 samples of road dust (RD), sludge from storm drains (SL) and roadside soil (RS) were collected. Sixteen metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in all samples. Chemical evaluation followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that road environments have been severely contaminated with traffic-related elements. Concentration of copper in all road-environment samples is even higher, exceeding even up to 15 times its average concentrations established for the surrounding soils. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment revealed that the hazard index (HI) for children in all road-environment samples exceeds the safe level of 1. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to potential health risks caused by the ingestion of traffic-related particles during outdoor activities.

  4. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Kléber, X. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2015-09-17

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing.

  5. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Kléber, X.; Sauvage, X.; Mari, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing

  6. Atmospheric depositions around a heavily industrialized area in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2005-01-01

    Clear and throughfall bulk depositions were collected in the downwind of a highly industrialized region in Sonbhadra district of India to estimate the influence of anthropogenic activities on chemical composition of depositions. Significant spatial and temporal variations in depositions of cations and anions were observed. Depositions were higher near the thermal power stations and coalmines as compared to distantly situated site. Seasonally summer samples showed maximum cation and anion depositions followed by winter and minimum in rainy season. The mean pH of the depositions indicates that rainfall in the area is alkaline. Among the anions, maximum deposition was recorded for SO 4 2- followed by NO 3 - and minimum for Cl - . Among the cations, Ca 2+ deposition was maximum followed by NH 4 + . Na + , K + and Mg 2+ deposition rates showed more or less similar values. The depositions of cations and anions as well as pH were higher in throughfall than clearfall samples. Results of the present study suggest that atmospheric depositions are strongly modified due to thermal power stations and coal mines in the area. - Atmospheric abundance of cations have neutralized the acidity of depositions around a heavily industrialized area in India

  7. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren; Lu, Yunhao

    2014-01-01

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B 2 I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition

  8. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn; Yang, Deren [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lu, Yunhao, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-20

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B{sub 2}I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition.

  9. Epibenthic diversity and productivity on a heavily trawled Barents Sea bank (Tromsøflaket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kędra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shallow Arctic banks have been observed to harbour rich communities of epifaunal organisms, but have not been well-studied with respect to composition or function due to sampling challenges. In order to determine how these banks function in the Barents Sea ecosystem, we used a combination of video and trawl/dredge sampling at several locations on a heavily trawled bank, Tromsøflaket – located at the southwestern entrance to the Barents Sea. We describe components of the benthic community, and calculate secondary production of dominant epifaunal organisms. Forty-six epibenthic taxa were identified, and sponges were a significant part of the surveyed benthic communities. There were differences in diversity and production among areas, mainly related to the intensity of trawling activities. Gamma was the most diverse and productive area, with highest species abundance and biomass. Trawled areas had considerably lower species numbers, and significant differences in epifaunal abundance and biomass were found between all trawled and untrawled areas. Trawling seems to have an impact on the sponge communities: mean individual poriferan biomass was higher in untrawled areas, and, although poriferans were observed in areas subjected to more intensive trawling, they were at least five times less frequent than in untrawled areas.

  10. Comparison of the Thermal Degradation of Heavily Nb-Doped and Normal PZT Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Suong; Kang, YunSung; Kang, Inyoung; Lim, SeungMo; Shin, Seung-Joo; Lee, JungWon; Hur, Kang Heon

    2017-03-01

    The degradation of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and two types of PZT thin films were investigated. Undoped PZT, two-step PZT, and heavily Nb-doped PZT (PNZT) around the morphotropic phase boundary were in situ deposited under optimum condition by RF-magnetron sputtering. All 2- [Formula: see text]-thick films had dense perovskite columnar grain structure and self-polarized (100) dominant orientation. PZT thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO x bottom electrode on Si wafer, and PNZT thin film was on Ir/TiW electrode with the help of orientation control. Sputtered PZT films formed on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope and the degradation rates were compared at different temperatures. PNZT showed the best resistance to the thermal degradation, followed by two-step PZT. To clarify the effect of oxygen vacancies on the degradation of the film at high temperature, photoluminescence measurement was conducted, which confirmed that oxygen vacancy rate was the lowest in heavy PNZT. Nb-doping PZT thin films suppressed the oxygen deficit and made high imprint with self-polarization. This defect distribution and high internal field allowed PNZT thin film to make the piezoelectric sensors more stable and reliable at high temperature, such as reflow process of MEMS packaging.

  11. Experiment and simulation on the thermal instability of a heavily deformed Cu-Fe composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Lei; Wang Engang; Zuo Xiaowei; Zhang Lin; He Jicheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Fe fibers undergo thermal instability at temperature above 600 deg. C. → Longitudinal boundary splitting is the dominant instability process. → Instability of cylindrical fibers is controlled by breakup, growth and coarsening. → Breakup times can be predicted by Rayleigh perturbation model accurately. → The increase of fiber diameters is due to the coarsening and growth. - Abstract: The thermal instability of the Fe fibers in the heavily deformed Cu-12.8 wt.%Fe composites is investigated experimentally and numerically. The fiber evolution is characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the dominant instability of the Fe fibers is the longitudinal boundary splitting which is determined by the greater cross sectional aspect ratio (width/thickness, w/t) and the larger ratio of boundary to interfacial energy (γ B /γ S ). The longitudinal boundary splitting makes the ribbon-like Fe fibers evolve into a series of cylindrical fibers. Then the cylindrical Fe fibers undergo the instability process in terms of the breakup, growth and coarsening concurrently. The breakup times are accurately predicted by the Rayleigh perturbation model. The growth process primarily contributes to the higher increasing rate of the fiber radius during isothermal annealing at 700 deg. C than that calculated by the coarsening theory developed for cylindrical fibers, since the Cu-matrix of composites is highly supersaturated after casting/cold-working process.

  12. Thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of heavily doped phosphorus polycrystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birouk, B.; Madi, D. [Universite de Jijel, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Modelisation en Electrotechnique (LAMEL), Cite Ouled Aissa, BP 98, Jijel (Algeria)

    2011-08-15

    The study reported in this paper contributes to better understanding the thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of polycrystalline silicon heavily in situ P-LPCVD films. The deposits, doped at levels 3 x 10{sup 19} and 1.6 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, have been elaborated from silane decomposition (400 mTorrs, 605 C) on monosilicon substrate oriented left angle 111 right angle. The thermal oxidation was performed at temperatures: 850 C during 1 hour, 1000, 1050, and 1100 C during 15 minutes. The XRD spectra analysis pointed out significant left angle 111 right angle texture evolution, while in the case of left angle 220 right angle and left angle 311 right angle textures, the intensities are practically invariant (variations fall in the uncertainty intervals). The optical characterizations showed that refractive index and absorption coefficient are very sensitive to the oxidation treatment, mainly when the doping level is not very high. We think that atomic oxygen acts as defects passivating agent leading to carriers' concentration increasing. Besides, the optical behavior is modeled in visible and near infrared, by a seven-term polynomial function n {sup 2}=f({lambda} {sup 2}), with alternate signs, instead of theoretically unlimited terms number from Drude's model. It has been shown that fitting parameters fall on Gaussian curves like they do in the theoretical model. (orig.)

  13. Heavily-doped 2D-quantized structures and the Einstein relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya P

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing ma...

  14. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  15. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  16. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  17. ON THE NECESSITY OF MINOR ORAL SURGERY PRETREATMENT ORTHODONTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Zegan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of some minor oral surgery performed on both teeth and on the soft tissues, before any orthodontic treatment. The sample group included 587 patients (240 boys and 347 girls, divided into 3 categories. The data base was created wtih patient records, the statistical analyses being performed with the SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. The frequency of malocclusions with minor oral surgery pretreatment orthodontics was of 24%, out of which the surgical interventions on teeth represented 85.41% (serial extractions – 21.87%, orthodontic extractions – 41.66%, enucleation of third molars – 18.75%, discovery of impacted teeth – 2.08% and teeth enucleation – 1.04% and the surgical interventions on the soft tissues represented 14.59% (labial frenectomy: 12.60%, lingual frenectomy: 1.04% and discovery of pericoronal tissues: 1.04% The minor oral surgery pretreatment orthodontics upon both teeth and soft tissues are not quite frequent, yet they are necessary for a partial preparation of the patient for orthodontic therapy.

  18. LH Pretreatment as a Novel Strategy for Poor Responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pia Ferraretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor response to ovarian stimulation is still a major problem in IVF. The study presents a new stimulation protocol evaluated in a suppopulation of very difficult young poor ovarian responders. Material and Methods. The study consists in two sections. The first includes data from a randomized controlled study involving forty-three young patients with a poor ovarian response in at least two previous cycles (intended as cycle cancellation or with ≤3 collected oocytes. Patients were randomized in two groups: group A (control received FSH (400 IU/day, while group B received the new stimulation protocol consisting in a sequential association of 150 IU r-LH for 4 days followed by 400 IU r-FSH/after downregulation with daily GnRh agonist. The second includes data from the overall results in 65 patients treated with the new protocol compared to their previous performance with conventional cycles (historical control. Results. Both in the RCT and in the historical control study, LH pretreatment was able to decrease the cancellation rate, to improve the in vitro performance, and to significantly increase the live birth rates. Conclusions. LH pretreatment improved oocyte quantity and quality in young repeated poor responders selected in accordance with the Bologna criteria.

  19. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jensen, Jakob M.

    2012-01-01

    In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... that captures the environmental temperature differences inside the reactor using distributed parameters. A Kalman filter is then added to account for any missing dynamics and the overall model is embedded into a temperature soft sensor. The operator of the plant will be able to observe the temperature in any...

  20. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Gharahcheshmeh, M. Heydari; Xu, A.; Galstyan, E.; Delgado, L.; Cantoni, C.

    2015-01-01

    REBa 2 Cu 3 O x ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50 K and fields of 2–30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J c ) above 20 MA/cm 2 at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol. % Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba 2 Cu 3 O x superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J c typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m 3 have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J c (ratio of J c at 30 K, 3 T to the J c at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO 3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 × 10 11  cm −2 as well as 2–3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J c films

  1. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ∼ 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Aird, J. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W 120th Street, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Koss, M., E-mail: g.b.lansbury@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2014-04-10

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N {sub H}) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at >10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N {sub H}. (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at >8 keV with a no-source probability of <0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N {sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}). We find that for quasars at z ∼ 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (<10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  2. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis from ophthalmic products: can pre-treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate increase patch test sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa

    2005-05-01

    In patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis because of topical ophthalmic medicaments, patch tests performed with patients' own products are often negative. The irritant anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) may alter the stratum corneum and increase antigen penetration. Pre-treatment of the skin with SLS 0.5% for 24 h was performed in the sites of patch tests with patients' own products in 15 selected patients. In patients previously negative to their own products tested with conventional patch tests, SLS pre-treatment showed 6 new relevant positive reactions and induced a stronger positive reaction in 1 patient. SLS pre-treatment could be proposed as an alternative promising method, which may increase sensitivity of patch tests with patients' own products.

  4. Near-lethal respiratory failure after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone use in a patient with metastatic thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas; Ioffe, Vladimir; Tuttle, Michael; Bowers, John T; Mason, M Elizabeth

    2003-08-01

    A patient with widely metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer who had been heavily pretreated with (131)I was given recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) prior to (131)I treatment. Clinical and physical data from both this case and the literature suggest that the recombinant hormone, not the (131)I, may have caused a significant portion of the tumor swelling, which in turn was the most likely cause of the patient's symptoms. The potential effect of (131)I-induced tumor swelling and direct radiation effect on the lung is also analyzed. We review the potential hazards associated with rhTSH in patients with metastasis and propose means of minimizing this risk.

  5. Vaccination with p53-peptide-pulsed dendritic cells, of patients with advanced breast cancer: report from a phase I study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Inge Marie; Pedersen, Anders E; Johnsen, Hans E

    2004-01-01

    the treatment. In conclusion, the strategy for p53-DC vaccination seems safe and without toxicity. Furthermore, indications of both immunologic and clinical effect were found in heavily pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer. An independent clinical effect of repeated administration of DCs and IL-2 can......Peptides derived from over-expressed p53 protein are presented by class I MHC molecules and may act as tumour-associated epitopes. Due to the diversity of p53 mutations, immunogenic peptides representing wild-type sequences are preferable as a basis for a broad-spectrum p53-targeting cancer vaccine......) loaded with a cocktail of three wild-type and three modified p53 peptides are being analysed in six HLA-A2+ patients with progressive advanced breast cancer. Vaccinations were well tolerated and no toxicity was observed. Disease stabilisation was seen in two of six patients, one patient had a transient...

  6. Evaluation of the use of polymer modified bitumen in the production of high modulus asphalt for heavily-trafficked roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), has been introduced to South Africa to provide an optimum solution for the design and construction of heavily trafficked roads. Implementation of EME technology in South Africa...

  7. The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM–Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probe...

  8. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former

  9. Antibacterial effect of surface pretreatment techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial surface pretreatment methods against Streptococcus mutans within the infected dentin surface using a tooth cavity model. Material and Methods: Seventy-two cavities were prepared on caries-free third molars (n = 8). After sterilization, teeth were inoculated ...

  10. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine ...

  11. Effective pretreatment of coal for briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunami, Y; Nishioka, K; Sugimoto, Y

    1980-01-01

    The pretreatment of coal for briquetting is considered in an attempt to improve the quality of the briquets produced. Crushing of coal to obtain a size distribution suitable for close packing was found to be effective in improving coking properties while drying of coal was found to be effective in increasing briquet density. (In Japanese)

  12. Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment Publications | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering Eight black-and-white micrograph images of corn Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation, Green Chemistry Image of a diagram with a curved line Chemistry & Engineering Image of a diagram corn stover pretreatment showing arrows pointing from "

  13. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  14. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling times: clinical utility of this predictor of prostate cancer behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Lee, W. Robert; Slivjak, Anne; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The distribution of pretreatment and posttreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling times (PSADT) varies widely. This report examines the pretreatment PSADT as an independent predictor of biochemical freedom from disease (bNED) and describes the clinical utility of PSADT. Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine patients with T1-3 NX, M-0 prostate cancer treated between February 1989 and November 1993 have pretreatment PSADTs calculated from three or more PSA levels. Biochemical disease-free (bNED) survival (failure is PSA ≥ 1.5 ngm/ml and rising) is evaluated by multivariate analysis of common prognostic indicators and PSADT. Results: Prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) is a significant predictor of survival along with radiation dose. Patients with a pretreatment PSADT of < 12 months show 50% failure by 18 months, while those with a PSADT that is not increasing show only 3% failure at 3 years. Conclusions: Prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) is a predictor of bNED outcome in prostate cancer. Patients with PSADT < 12 months have aggressive disease and should be considered for multimodal therapy. Slow PSADT (≥ 5 years) is observed in 57% of patients, and this end point may be considered in the decision to observe rather than to treat. After treatment failure, the PSADT may be used to determine which patients do not need immediate androgen deprivation

  15. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  16. Pretreatment of Reed by Wet Oxidation and Subsequent Utilization of the Pretreated Fibers for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szijarto, Nora; Kádár, Zsófia; Varga, Eniko

    2009-01-01

    lignocelluloses usually do. In the present study, wet oxidation was investigated as the pretreatment method to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of reed cellulose to soluble sugars and thus improve the convertibility of reed to ethanol. The most effective treatment increased the digestibility of reed cellulose...... of cellulose to glucose was 82.4%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated solids resulted in a final ethanol concentration as high as 8.7 g/L, yielding 73% of the theoretical....

  17. Age standardized cancer mortality ratios in areas heavily exposed to methyl mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-08-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) was discharged from a chemical factory in Minamata, and consequently spread throughout the Shiranui Sea in Kumamoto, Japan. Although many studies have focused on MeHg-induced neurological disorders, the association between MeHg and malignant neoplasms has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, we explored this association using the age standardized mortality ratio (ASMR) in an ecologic study over a wide area allowing for a long empirical induction period. The subjects were residents in areas around the Shiranui Sea. We divided these areas into exposure groups 1 (Minamata and Ashikita regions) and 2 (Amakusa region). Exposure group 1 was contaminated from the late 1930s, and exposure group 2 was contaminated from the late 1950s. In addition, exposure group 1 was contaminated more heavily than exposure group 2. There were 92,525 and 152,541 residents in each group in 1960, respectively. We analyzed the cancer ASMR in both exposure groups using data from two reference populations (Japan and Kumamoto prefecture) from 1961 to 1997. There were 94,301,494 and 1,856,192 people in each reference group in 1960, respectively. We abstracted population and mortality data from the censuses and the vital statistics of the prefecture and Japan. An increased leukemia ASMR and a decreased gastric cancer ASMR were observed in both exposure groups, while other ASMRs were around unity and less precise. Furthermore, the leukemia ASMRs were elevated differently between the two exposure groups: the leukemia ASMR was already elevated early in the study period in exposure group 1 and increased gradually in exposure group 2. While the negative association between MeHg and gastric cancer might be explained by salt intake, the positive association between MeHg and leukemia could not be explained by potential confounders. Despite some limitations mainly due to its ecologic design, this study indicates the necessity of an individual-level study evaluating the

  18. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fan, E-mail: f.li.1@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Pérez-Tomás, Amador [ICN2 – Institut Catala de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Myronov, Maksym [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fisher, Craig [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Leadley, David [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mawby, Phil [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen is fully activated by 1175 °C annealing for 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} doped 3C-SiC. • Free donor concentration is found to readily saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. • 3C-SiC is found to have complete donor thermal ionization above 150 K. • Donor in 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} nitrogen implanted 3C-SiC has an energy level ∼15 meV. • The SiO{sub 2} cap is found to have a bigger influence on low and medium doped samples. - Abstract: A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO{sub 2} layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO{sub 2} cap.

  19. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  20. Historical data reveal 30-year persistence of benthic fauna associations in heavily modified waterbody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Callaway

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline surveys form the cornerstone of coastal impact studies where altered conditions, for example through new infrastructure development, are assessed against a temporal reference state. They are snapshots taken before construction. Due to scarcity of relevant data prior to baseline surveys long-term trends can often not be taken into account. Particularly in heavily modified waterbodies this would however be desirable to control for changes in anthropogenic use over time as well as natural ecological variation. Here, the benthic environment of an industrialized embayment was investigated (Swansea Bay, Wales, UK where it is proposed to build a tidal lagoon that would generate marine renewable energy from the tidal range. Since robust long-term baseline data was not available, the value of unpublished historical benthos information from 1984 by a regional water company was assessed with the aim to improve certainty about the persistence of current benthic community patterns. A survey of 101 positions in 2014 identified spatially discrete benthic communities with areas of high and low diversity. Habitat characteristics including sediment properties and the proximity to a sewage outfall explained 17-35% of the variation in the community structure. Comparing the historical information from 1984 with 2014 revealed striking similarity in the benthic communities between those years, not just in their spatial distribution but also to a large extent in the species composition. The 30-year-old information confirmed spatial boundaries of discrete species associations and pinpointed a similar diversity hotspot. A group of five common species was found to be particularly persistent over time (Nucula nitidosa, Spisula elliptica, Spiophanes bombyx, Nephtys hombergii, Diastylis rathkei. According to the Infauna Quality Index (IQI linked to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD the average ecological status for 2014 was ‘moderate’, but eleven samples

  1. Efficacy, Safety and Cost of Regorafenib in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in French Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Fabien; Lenoble, Sabrina; Lakkis, Zaher; Nguyen, Thierry; Limat, Samuel; Borg, Christophe; Jary, Marine; Kim, Stefano; Nerich, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Regorafenib is an orally administered multikinase inhibitor that has been approved for patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Even though regorafenib significantly improved survival in two international phase 3 trials (CORRECT and CONCUR), a high rate of treatment-related toxic effects and dose modifications were observed with a modest benefit. The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the efficacy, safety, and cost of regorafenib in patients with mCRC in clinical practice. We retrospectively reviewed patients treated with regorafenib monotherapy for unresectable mCRC in five Franche-Comté cancer hospitals (France). The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were safety and descriptive cost analyses of patients treated with regorafenib in clinical practice. Another aim of this study was to assess the impact of regorafenib prescription on the risk of hospitalization in real-life practice. From January 2014 to August 2014, 29 consecutive patients were enrolled. Patients were heavily pretreated and were refractory to standard chemotherapies. The primary tumor sites were the colon and the rectum for 55% and 45% of patients, respectively. Fifteen patients (51%) harbored an RAS mutation. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group - Performance Status (PS) was 0-1 for 86% of patients and 2 for 14% of patients. Nineteen patients (66%) initially received reduced doses of 120 or 80 mg/day. The median duration of treatment was 2.5 months (range, 0.13-11.4 months). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 86% of patients. The most frequent adverse events of any grade were fatigue (35%), diarrhea (20%), and hand-foot skin reaction (20%). Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 10 patients (35%). Three patients (10%) were admitted to hospital due to drug-related severe adverse events. The mean cost of patient management with regorafenib for the duration of treatment was 9908 ± 8191

  2. The impacts of pretreatment on the fermentability of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: a comparative evaluation between ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Bruce E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment chemistry is of central importance due to its impacts on cellulosic biomass processing and biofuels conversion. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX and dilute acid are two promising pretreatments using alkaline and acidic pH that have distinctive differences in pretreatment chemistries. Results Comparative evaluation on these two pretreatments reveal that (i AFEX-pretreated corn stover is significantly more fermentable with respect to cell growth and sugar consumption, (ii both pretreatments can achieve more than 80% of total sugar yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated solids, and (iii while AFEX completely preserves plant carbohydrates, dilute acid pretreatment at 5% solids loading degrades 13% of xylose to byproducts. Conclusion The selection of pretreatment will determine the biomass-processing configuration, requirements for hydrolysate conditioning (if any and fermentation strategy. Through dilute acid pretreatment, the need for hemicellulase in biomass processing is negligible. AFEX-centered cellulosic technology can alleviate fermentation costs through reducing inoculum size and practically eliminating nutrient costs during bioconversion. However, AFEX requires supplemental xylanases as well as cellulase activity. As for long-term sustainability, AFEX has greater potential to diversify products from a cellulosic biorefinery due to lower levels of inhibitor generation and lignin loss.

  3. The source of pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen in clinically localized prostate cancer--T, N, or M?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Kavadi, Vivek S.; Pollack, Alan; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von; Sands, M. Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important marker for prostate cancer and has been shown to be secreted from the primary tumor and from metastases. However, the relative contribution of the primary and micrometastatic disease to the serum level of PSA in patients with clinically localized disease has not been delineated. This study addresses the source of pretreatment serum PSA in patients with clinically localized disease. Methods and Materials: The fall in serum PSA level following radical prostatectomy (280 patients; 105 T1, 165 T2, 10 T3) or definitive radiotherapy (427 patients; 122 T1, 147 T2, 158 T3/T4) was analyzed with the assumption that any fall in PSA following local treatment reflects the fraction of PSA produced in the prostate and its primary tumor. Results: Serum PSA level became undetectable in 277 of the 280 (99%) patients within 6 months of radical prostatectomy. The three patients who did not achieve undetectable levels had postsurgical values ≤ 0.9 ng/ml. Following definitive radiotherapy, nadir serum PSA values were between ≤ 0.3 and 20.3 ng/ml, with mean and median values of 1.9 and 1.2 ng/ml, respectively. Nadir PSA was undetectable in 52 patients (12%). Four patients' PSA did not fall, but rose from the start, and each developed metastatic disease within 9 months, and in each metastases appeared to contribute to pretreatment serum PSA. In the remaining patients, the maximal factor by which PSA fell to its nadir was higher the higher the pretreatment PSA level. We present arguments that this is most consistent with the hypothesis that virtually all detectable pretreatment serum PSA derives from the primary tumor. Confirmatory evidence that little of the pretreatment serum PSA came from metastases was obtained by extrapolating the rising PSA profile in 97 patients back to pretreatment time. Back-extrapolated PSA contributed a mean of 7% and a median of 5% to the pretreatment serum value. Because such back-extrapolated values

  4. Normalization of reverse redistribution of thallium-201 with procainamide pretreatment in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nii, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Nomoto, J.; Hiroki, T.; Ohshima, F.; Arakawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    Stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Reverse redistribution phenomenon was observed in the absence of coronary artery disease. This seems to be the first report of normalization of this phenomenon in association with reversion of accessory pathway to normal atrioventricular conduction after pretreatment with procainamide

  5. Normalization of reverse redistribution of thallium-201 with procainamide pretreatment in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nii, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Nomoto, J.; Hiroki, T.; Ohshima, F.; Arakawa, K. (Fukuoka Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    Stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Reverse redistribution phenomenon was observed in the absence of coronary artery disease. This seems to be the first report of normalization of this phenomenon in association with reversion of accessory pathway to normal atrioventricular conduction after pretreatment with procainamide.

  6. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect...... in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family...... cancer recurrence. Besides tumor characteristics, CA125 levels are also influenced by several epidemiologic factors, such as age, parity, and oral contraceptive use. Identifying factors that influence CA125 levels in ovarian cancer patients could aid in the interpretation of CA125 values for individuals...

  7. Safety and efficacy of neratinib (HKI-272) plus vinorelbine in the treatment of patients with ErbB2-positive metastatic breast cancer pretreated with anti-HER2 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, A; Dirix, L; Manso Sanchez, L; Xu, B; Luu, T; Diéras, V; Hershman, D L; Agrapart, V; Ananthakrishnan, R; Staroslawska, E

    2013-01-01

    Neratinib (HKI-272) is a potent irreversible pan-ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor with clinical activity in patients with ErbB2/HER2-positive breast cancer. Phase I of this open-label, phase I/II study investigated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral neratinib (160 or 240 mg/day) plus vinorelbine (25 mg/m2; days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle) in patients with solid tumors. Phase II assessed the safety, clinical activity, and pharmacokinetics of the combination in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer; the primary efficacy end point was objective response (OR). In phase I (n=12), neratinib (240 mg) plus vinorelbine (25 mg/m2) was established as the MTD. In phase II, 79 patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer were treated at the MTD. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea (96%), neutropenia (54%), and nausea (50%). Three patients discontinued treatment due to diarrhea. No clinically important skin side-effects were observed. The OR rate in assessable phase II patients was 41% (no prior lapatinib) and 8% (prior lapatinib). There was no evidence of pharmacokinetic interaction between neratinib and vinorelbine. Neratinib plus vinorelbine showed promising antitumor activity and no unexpected toxic effects in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00706030.

  8. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  9. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Dela Mines, A.S.; Banzon, R.B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  10. PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Thai Hoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cost of raw materials continues to be a limiting factor in the production of bio-ethanol from traditional raw materials, such as sugar and starch. At the same time, there are large amount of agricultural residues as well as industrial wastes that are of low or negative value (due to costs of current effluent disposal methods. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of elephant grass and wood residues for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose has been investigated in this study.    Elephant grass (agricultural residue and sawdust (Pulp and Paper Industry waste with a small particulate size were treated using different dilute sulfuric acid concentrations at a temperature  of 140-170°C within 0.5-3 hours. The appropriate pretreatment conditions give the highest yield of soluble saccharides and total reducing sugars.

  11. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun

    2001-01-01

    "6"0 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  12. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities

  13. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Stripping Column H13 ’Re Purpose: The purpose of this report, is to provide design criteria for pretreatment needs for ’ I. INTRODUCTION ’". discharge of...which a portion of the vessel is filled with packing. Packing materials vary from corrugated steel to bundles of fibers (Langdon et al., 1972) to beds...concentration(s) using Table 20. Wastewater treatability studies should be considered as a process-screening tool for all wastewater streams for

  14. Theoretical investigation of the heavily-doped semiconductor aspect of ultra-dilute GaAsN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukpitak, Jessada; Sa-yakanit, Virulh

    2015-12-01

    The model of GaAs1- y N y ( y = 0.001) as a heavily-doped semiconductor in the ultra-dilute region is attentively examined. The model enables GaAsN to be viewed as a disordered assembly of three-dimensional quantum dots (potential wells) caused by random potential fluctuations from nitrogen pairs in the system. Consequently, Feynman's path-integration technique is applied in order to quantify the density of states (DOS) in the vicinity of the conduction band edge. The obtained DOS tail, even though overestimated, still clearly shows a much shorter tail than that the experimental result does. This shows that the heavily-doped semiconductor viewpoint is not proper for GaAsN, not even in the ultra-dilute region. Furthermore, this also suggests that the impurity wave function overlap is not a basic mechanism of band gap reduction.

  15. Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at 195 degrees for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid...... pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical...

  16. Radioprotection of mice following garlic pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Abraham, S.K.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Freshly prepared aqueous extract of garlic was tested in mice for its possible in vivo protective effect against gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. In the same animals, the changes in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity were evaluated. Three doses of garlic extract [125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight (bw)] were administered orally for five consecutive days and the animals were exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation 2 h after the final feeding. The results of the bone marrow micronucleus test revealed that pretreatment with garlic extract was effective in reducing gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Against 0.25 Gy gamma-radiation, a high dose of 500 mg kg-1 bw garlic extract was required to significantly reduce the chromosomal damage. All the three doses of garlic extract were effective in exerting a protective effect against 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation. However a dose-related effect was observed only against 2.0 Gy. The sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity registered a significant increase after either pretreatment with garlic with extract or irradiation. In the garlic extract pretreated irradiated animals, a significant reduction was observed in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity

  17. Cost comparison for REDC pretreatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Homan, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    This analysis has been prepared to support the planned expenditure to provide the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) with the capability to pretreat their liquid low-level waste (LLLW) before discharging it to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) LLLW system. Pretreatment will remove most of the radioactivity, particularly the transuranic isotopes and Cs-137 from the waste to be discharged. This will render the supernates that accumulate in the storage tanks low-activity Class B low-level wastes rather than high-activity Class B or Class C wastes. The sludges will be Class C rather than remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. When REDC wastes are commingled with other ORNL LLLW, the present-worth treatment and transport costs are higher by a factor of 1.3 for the no-pretreatment cases. This result is consistent with data from similar studies conducted at other sites. Based on the information presented in this analysis, the recommendation is to proceed with REDC treatment projects

  18. Predominance of heavily calcified coccolithophores at low CaCO3 saturation during winter in the Bay of Biscay

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen E. K.; Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Dumousseaud, Cynthia; Legge, Oliver J.; Birchenough, Sarah; Pettit, Laura R.; Garley, Rebecca; Hartman, Sue E.; Hartman, Mark C.; Sagoo, Navjit; Daniels, Chris J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Hydes, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Coccolithophores are an important component of the Earth system, and, as calcifiers, their possible susceptibility to ocean acidification is of major concern. Laboratory studies at enhanced pCO2 levels have produced divergent results without overall consensus. However, it has been predicted from these studies that, although calcification may not be depressed in all species, acidification will produce “a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores” [Ridgwell A,...

  19. Stereoselective, nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascades for the direct synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Jakubec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A versatile nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade for the direct stereoselective synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles has been developed. A highly enantioenriched substituted 5-nitropiperidin-2-one was synthesised in a four component one-pot reaction combining an enantioselective organocatalytic Michael addition with the diastereoselective nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade. Protodenitration and chemoselective reductive manipulation of the heterocycles was used to install contiguous and fully substituted stereocentres in the synthesis of substituted piperidines.

  20. Clinical approach to circumvention of multidrug resistance in refractory leukemic patients: association of cyclosporin A with etoposide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, R C; Carriço, M K; Klumb, C E; Noronha, H; Coelho, A M; Vasconcelos, F C; Ruimanek, V M

    1997-12-01

    Alternative therapy for refractory leukemic patients is being increasingly adopted. Circumvention of multidrug resistance represents a strategy that has been taken into account when conventional chemotherapy failed. In this work a group of 15 refractory, heavily pretreated, patients was enrolled in a circumvention protocol including etoposide (ETO) and cyclosporin A (CSA). All patients received etoposide prior to this schedule. Toxicity to circumvention protocol was acceptable and only one serious side-effect was observed. Two hematological clinical responses were seen, both of which were positive to P-glycoprotein immunostaining and exhibited in vitro modulation by CSA in cultures using the thymidine incorporation assay. Three out of four patients negative for P-glycoprotein achieved a minor response. Three out of six clinical failures were also negative for Pgp immunostaining one of which exhibited sinergistic effect between ETO and CSA. Our study suggests that hematological response to ETO and CSA association can be obtained in intensely pretreated leukemic patients. Several factors may affect the response such as clinical status before this therapy. Additionally, it also suggests that not all CSA effects on the combination ETO-CSA can be attributed to Pgp modulation.

  1. The effect of wastewater pretreatment on nanofiltration membrane performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashlamon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is considered a serious obstacle for operation and cost efficiency in wastewater treatment using nanofiltration (NF. However, pretreatment is the most practical way to reduce this prior to NF. In this research, two types of wastewaters were pretreated with different methods prior to NF to examine the effect of pretreatment on membrane fouling in terms of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and permeate flux. Turbidity and COD were measured to assess solid foulants and organic species in the wastewater, respectively. The first sample was secondary treated sewage, which was pretreated using coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS only. Steady flux was increased from 24 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 32.1 L/m2h with pretreatment. COD was also eliminated after CFS/NF, and turbidity was reduced to 0.6 NTU. The second sample was diluted biodiesel wastewater, which was pretreated using a combination of powdered-activated carbon (PAC adsorption and CFS (PAC/CFS. Steady flux was increased from 22.3 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 28.7 L/m2h with pretreatment; biodiesel wastewater quality also improved. Turbidity was reduced from 12 to 0.6 NTU, and COD was reduced from 526 to 4 mg/L after NF with PAC/CFS pretreatment, while COD was reduced from 526 to 95 mg/L using NF without pretreatment.

  2. Reducing biomass recalcitrance via mild sodium carbonate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Chen, Zhu; Wan, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of mild sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of different feedstocks (i.e., corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass). The results showed that sodium carbonate pretreatment markedly enhanced the sugar yields of the tested biomass feedstocks. The pretreated corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass gave the glucose yields of 95.1%, 62.3%, and 81.3%, respectively, after enzymatic hydrolysis. The above glucose yields of pretreated feedstocks were 2-4 times that of untreated ones. The pretreatment also enhanced the xylose yields, 4 times for corn stover and 20 times for both Miscanthus and switchgrass. Sodium carbonate pretreatment removed 40-59% lignin from the tested feedstocks while preserving most of cellulose (sodium carbonate pretreatment was effective for reducing biomass recalcitrance and subsequently improving the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An EORTC-IDBBC phase I study of gemcitabine and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil in patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to anthracyclines or pre-treated with both anthracyclines and taxanes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awada, A.; Biganzoli, L.; Cufer, T.; Beex, L.V.A.M.; Lohrisch, C.; Batter, V.; Hamilton, A.; Nooij, M.A.; Piccart, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and potential activity of combined gemcitabine and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients that are resistant to anthracyclines or have been

  4. Pretreatment CD4 cell slope and progression to AIDS or death in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy--the CASCADE collaboration: a collaboration of 23 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, Marcel; Babiker, Abdel; Sabin, Caroline; Young, Jim; Dorrucci, Maria; Chêne, Geneviève; Mussini, Cristina; Porter, Kholoud; Bucher, Heiner C.; del Amo, Julia; Meyer, Laurence; Pillay, Deenan; Prins, Maria; Rosinska, Magda; Touloumi, Giota; Lodi, Sara; Coughlin, Kate; Walker, Sarah; Darbyshire, Janet; de Luca, Andrea; Fisher, Martin; Muga, Roberto; Kaldor, John; Kelleher, Tony; Ramacciotti, Tim; Gelgor, Linda; Cooper, David; Smith, Don; Gill, John; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Nielsen, Claus; Lutsar, Irja; Dabis, Francois; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Masquelier, Bernard; Costagliola, Dominique; Guiguet, Marguerite; Vanhems, Philippe; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ghosn, Jade; Boufassa, Faroudy; Hamouda, Osamah; Kucherer, Claudia; Pantazis, Nikos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Karafoulidoua, Anastasia; van der Helm, Jannie; Geskus, Ronald; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD4 cell count is a strong predictor of the subsequent risk of AIDS or death in HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is not known whether the rate of CD4 cell decline prior to therapy is related to prognosis and should, therefore, influence the

  5. Thermodynamic and structural analysis of HIV protease resistance to darunavir - analysis of heavily mutated patient- derived HIV-1 proteases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kožíšek, Milan; Lepšík, Martin; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Brynda, Jiří; Konvalinka, Jan; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 7 (2014), s. 1834-1847 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/1798 Grant - others:OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : enthropic contribution * HIV protease inhibitors * isothermal titration calorimetry * resistance mutation * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2014

  6. Two-Year Clinical Outcomes of Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation Following Rotational Atherectomy for Heavily Calcified Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnouchi, Hiroyuki; Kuramitsu, Shoichi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Yohei; Hiromasa, Takashi; Morinaga, Takashi; Mazaki, Toru; Sakakura, Kenichi; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Hyodo, Makoto; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of implantation of the newer-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) following rotational atherectomy for heavily calcified lesions remain unclear in the real-world setting. We enrolled 252 consecutive patients (273 lesions) treated with newer-generation DES following rotational atherectomy. The primary endpoint was the cumulative 2-year incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, clinically-driven target lesion revascularization, and definite stent thrombosis. Complete clinical follow-up information at 2-year was obtained for all patients. The mean age was 73.2±9.0 years and 155 patients (61.5%) were male. Cumulative 2-year incidence of MACE (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, clinically-driven target lesion revascularization and definite stent thrombosis) was 20.3% (7.0%, 2.1%, 18.1% and 2.1%, respectively). Predictors of MACE were presenting with acute coronary syndrome (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-11.2, P=0.02), hemodialysis (HR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.04-3.56, P=0.04) and previous coronary artery bypass graft (HR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.02-5.00, P=0.045). PCI for calcified lesions requiring rotational atherectomy is still challenging even in the era of newer-generation DES.

  7. Pretreatment serum albumin: a prognostic indicator of survival in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bobdey; Aanchal Jain; Jignasa Sathwara; Ganesh B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition has been recognized as a poor prognostic indicator for cancer. In recent years, the role of serum albumin as a predictor of survival in cancer has received considerable attention. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate whether the pretreatment serum albumin can predict the prognosis of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Medical records of 433 pathologically proven oral cancer patients diagnosed and treated from 01st January 2006 to 31st Decemb...

  8. Pretreatment data is highly predictive of liver chemistry signals in clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, John; Bresell,; Steinberg,; Silberg,; Furlong,Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Zhaohui Cai,1,* Anders Bresell,2,* Mark H Steinberg,1 Debra G Silberg,1 Stephen T Furlong11AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USA; 2AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Södertälje, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The goal of this retrospective analysis was to assess how well predictive models could determine which patients would develop liver chemistry signals during clinical trials based on their pretreatment (baseline) information.Patients a...

  9. Water imaging (hydrography) in the fetus: the value of a heavily T2-weighted sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; O' Hara, Sara M.; Racadio, Judy M. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Since the development of fast imaging sequences, MR has proved to be a helpful tool in the evaluation of fetal pathology. Because of the high water content of fetal tissues and pathology, hydrography imaging (MR fetography) can provide additional diagnostic information. To demonstrate the benefit of MR fetography in fetal imaging. From 2004 to 2005, 126 fetal MR examinations were performed for evaluation of an abnormality depicted on an antenatal sonogram. Single-shot fast spin-echo MR imaging and MR fetography were performed through the area of fetal pathology. The two studies were retrospectively compared. The primary diagnosis was not changed with the addition of MR fetography. New findings, particularly in the kidneys and spine, were identified in 9% of the patients. When fetal pathology was of high water content (80% patients), the MR fetography imaging increased diagnostic confidence. In 11% of the patients, those with cardiovascular or low water pathology, the MR fetography was not beneficial. The mainstay of fetal imaging is currently the HASTE and SSFSE sequences. However, MR fetography is an excellent adjunct that highlights fetal pathology by reinforcing the diagnosis, identifying additional findings, and providing high-contrast high-resolution images that are helpful when counseling clinicians and patients. (orig.)

  10. Prognostic importance of pleural attachment status measured by pretreatment CT images in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma: measurement of the ratio of the interface between nodule and neighboring pleura to nodule surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Kusumoto, M.; Ohmatsu, H.; Aokage, K.; Ishii, G.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2018-02-01

    Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) has led to increased recognition of small lung cancers and is expected to increase the rate of detection of early-stage lung cancer. Major concerns in the implementation of the CT screening of large populations include determining the appropriate management of pulmonary nodules found on a scan. The identification of patients with early-stage lung cancer who have a higher risk for relapse and who require more aggressive surveillance has been a target of intense investigation. This study was performed to investigate whether image features of internal intensity in combination with surrounding structure characteristics are associated with an increased risk of relapse in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. We focused on pleural attachment status which is one of morphological characteristics associated with prognosis in three-dimensional thoracic CT images.

  11. Rheological evaluation of pretreated cladding removal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.; Chan, M.K.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding removal waste (CRW) contains concentrations of transuranic (TRU) elements in the 80 to 350 nCi/g range. This waste will require pretreatment before it can be disposed of as glass or grout at Hanford. The CRW will be pretreated with a rare earth strike and solids removal by centrifugation to segregate the TRU fraction from the non-TRU fraction of the waste. The centrifuge centrate will be neutralized with sodium hydroxide. This neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) is expected to be suitable for grouting. The TRU solids removed by centrifugation will be vitrified. The goal of the Rheological Evaluation of Pretreated Cladding Removal Waste Program was to evaluate those rheological and transport properties critical to assuring successful handling of the NCRW and TRU solids streams and to demonstrate transfers in a semi-prototypic pumping environment. This goal was achieved by a combination of laboratory and pilot-scale evaluations. The results obtained during these evaluations were correlated with classical rheological models and scaled-up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The Program used simulated NCRW and TRU solid slurries. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) provided 150 gallons of simulated CRW and 5 gallons of simulated TRU solid slurry. The simulated CRW was neutralized by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The physical and rheological properties of the NCRW and TRU solid slurries were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCRW allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic or yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The TRU solids slurry contained very few solids. This slurry exhibited the properties associated with a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid

  12. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Michael

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m. This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body.

  13. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  14. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  15. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (≈50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

  16. Cervical cancer staging, pretreatment planning and surgical treatment in the Nordic countries - survey from the Surgical Subcommittee of the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Haldorsen, Ingfrid S; Lundqvist, Elisabeth Avall

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer patients in the Nordic countries are increasingly undergoing pretreatment imaging by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), position emission tomography - computed tomography (PET-CT) or computed tomography, or sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure. The present ...

  17. Successful correction of tibial bone deformity through multiple surgical procedures, liquid nitrogen-pretreated bone tumor autograft, three-dimensional external fixation, and internal fixation in a patient with primary osteosarcoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Watanabe, Koji; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-07

    In a previous report, we described a method of reconstruction using tumor-bearing autograft treated by liquid nitrogen for malignant bone tumor. Here we present the first case of bone deformity correction following a tumor-bearing frozen autograft via three-dimensional computerized reconstruction after multiple surgeries. A 16-year-old female student presented with pain in the left lower leg and was diagnosed with a low-grade central tibial osteosarcoma. Surgical bone reconstruction was performed using a tumor-bearing frozen autograft. Bone union was achieved at 7 months after the first surgical procedure. However, local tumor recurrence and lung metastases occurred 2 years later, at which time a second surgical procedure was performed. Five years later, the patient developed a 19° varus deformity and underwent a third surgical procedure, during which an osteotomy was performed using the Taylor Spatial Frame three-dimensional external fixation technique. A fourth corrective surgical procedure was performed in which internal fixation was achieved with a locking plate. Two years later, and 10 years after the initial diagnosis of tibial osteosarcoma, the bone deformity was completely corrected, and the patient's limb function was good. We present the first report in which a bone deformity due to a primary osteosarcoma was corrected using a tumor-bearing frozen autograft, followed by multiple corrective surgical procedures that included osteotomy, three-dimensional external fixation, and internal fixation.

  18. Ibrutinib-associated skin toxicity: a case of maculopapular rash in a 79-year old Caucasian male patient with relapsed Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Bisgaard Jensen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waldenstrom's macroglobulinamia (WM is a rare malignant lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by monoclonal IgM paraproteinemia and neoplastic proliferation of malignant lymphoplasmacytoid cells in the bone marrow. Traditionally, WM has been treated with modalities similar to those used in the management of other indolent lymphomas. Just recently, based on impressive clinical trial results in heavily pretreated WM patients, a new Bruton Tyrosine Kinase-inhibitor, Ibrutinib, has been approved for the treatment of this disorder. As the use of Ibrutinib in WM outside clinical trials is still limited, only few clinical reports illustrating treatment side effects are currently available. Here we review the current literature specific on Ibrutinib-associated rash in hematologic patients, and report on an elderly patient with WM, who developed a red maculopapular non-pruritic rash 12 weeks after starting Ibrutinib therapy. Without modifications of the ongoing Ibrutinib schedule, the rash regressed within two weeks of treatment with topical steroidcontaining dermatological compounds.

  19. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  20. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  1. The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.

  2. Microbial Lipid Production from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Pecan Nutshell Pretreated by Combined Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lizhen; Qian, Hanyu; He, Yucai

    2017-12-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel composed of monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from renewable biomass sources. In this study, biomass waste pecan nutshell (PS) was attempted to be converted into microbial oil. For effective utilization of PS, sequential pretreatment with ethylene glycol-H 2 SO 4 -water (78:2:20, wt:wt:wt) at 130 °C for 30 min and aqueous ammonia (25 wt%) at 50 °C for 24 h was used to enhance its enzymatic saccharification. Significant linear correlation was obtained about delignification-saccharification (R 2  = 0.9507). SEM and FTIR results indicated that combination pretreatment could effectively remove lignin and xylan in PS for promoting its enzymatic saccharification. After 72 h, the reducing sugars from the hydrolysis of 50 g/L pretreated PS by combination pretreatment could be obtained at 73.6% yield. Using the recovered PS hydrolysates containing 20 g/L glucose as carbon source, microbial lipids produced from the PS hydrolysates by Rhodococcus opacus ACCC41043. Four fatty acids including palmitic acid (C16:0; 23.1%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1; 22.4%), stearic acid (C18:0; 15.3%), and oleic acid (C18:1; 23.9%) were distributed in total fatty acids. In conclusion, this strategy has potential application in the future.

  3. The effectiveness of pretreatment physics plan review for detecting errors in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopan, Olga; Zeng, Jing; Novak, Avrey; Nyflot, Matthew; Ford, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The pretreatment physics plan review is a standard tool for ensuring treatment quality. Studies have shown that the majority of errors in radiation oncology originate in treatment planning, which underscores the importance of the pretreatment physics plan review. This quality assurance measure is fundamentally important and central to the safety of patients and the quality of care that they receive. However, little is known about its effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to analyze reported incidents to quantify the effectiveness of the pretreatment physics plan review with the goal of improving it. Methods: This study analyzed 522 potentially severe or critical near-miss events within an institutional incident learning system collected over a three-year period. Of these 522 events, 356 originated at a workflow point that was prior to the pretreatment physics plan review. The remaining 166 events originated after the pretreatment physics plan review and were not considered in the study. The applicable 356 events were classified into one of the three categories: (1) events detected by the pretreatment physics plan review, (2) events not detected but “potentially detectable” by the physics review, and (3) events “not detectable” by the physics review. Potentially detectable events were further classified by which specific checks performed during the pretreatment physics plan review detected or could have detected the event. For these events, the associated specific check was also evaluated as to the possibility of automating that check given current data structures. For comparison, a similar analysis was carried out on 81 events from the international SAFRON radiation oncology incident learning system. Results: Of the 356 applicable events from the institutional database, 180/356 (51%) were detected or could have been detected by the pretreatment physics plan review. Of these events, 125 actually passed through the physics review; however

  4. The effectiveness of pretreatment physics plan review for detecting errors in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopan, Olga; Zeng, Jing; Novak, Avrey; Nyflot, Matthew; Ford, Eric, E-mail: eford@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 356043, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: The pretreatment physics plan review is a standard tool for ensuring treatment quality. Studies have shown that the majority of errors in radiation oncology originate in treatment planning, which underscores the importance of the pretreatment physics plan review. This quality assurance measure is fundamentally important and central to the safety of patients and the quality of care that they receive. However, little is known about its effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to analyze reported incidents to quantify the effectiveness of the pretreatment physics plan review with the goal of improving it. Methods: This study analyzed 522 potentially severe or critical near-miss events within an institutional incident learning system collected over a three-year period. Of these 522 events, 356 originated at a workflow point that was prior to the pretreatment physics plan review. The remaining 166 events originated after the pretreatment physics plan review and were not considered in the study. The applicable 356 events were classified into one of the three categories: (1) events detected by the pretreatment physics plan review, (2) events not detected but “potentially detectable” by the physics review, and (3) events “not detectable” by the physics review. Potentially detectable events were further classified by which specific checks performed during the pretreatment physics plan review detected or could have detected the event. For these events, the associated specific check was also evaluated as to the possibility of automating that check given current data structures. For comparison, a similar analysis was carried out on 81 events from the international SAFRON radiation oncology incident learning system. Results: Of the 356 applicable events from the institutional database, 180/356 (51%) were detected or could have been detected by the pretreatment physics plan review. Of these events, 125 actually passed through the physics review; however

  5. Path-integral calculation of the density of states in heavily doped strongly compensated semiconductors in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koinov, Z.G.; Yanchev, I.Y.

    1981-09-01

    The density of states in heavily doped strongly compansated semiconductors in a strong magnetic field is calculated by using the path-integral method. The case is considered when correlation exists in the impurity positions owing to the Coulomb interactions between the charged donors and acceptors during the high-temperature preparation of the samples. The semiclassical formula is rederived and corrections to it due to the long-range character of the potential and its short-range fluctuations are obtained. The density of states in the tail is studied and analytical results are given in the classical and quantum cases. (author)

  6. Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-02-01

    We observed resonantly-enhanced terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The "anomalous transmission" spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the `anomalous transmission' peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy (PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, showing that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy (PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  7. The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study

    OpenAIRE

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.; Arevalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Koss, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM–Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probed by our campaign, down to a few days. The observed continuum variability is due to an intrinsically variable primary continuum seen in transmission through a large, but still Compton-thin column dens...

  8. Very heavily electron-doped CrSi2 as a high-performance high-temperature thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, David; Singh, David J

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the thermoelectric behavior, using first principles and Boltzmann transport calculations, of very heavily electron-doped CrSi 2 and find that at temperatures of 900-1250 K and electron dopings of 1-4 × 10 21 cm -3 , thermopowers as large in magnitude as 200 μV K -1 may be found. Such high thermopowers at such high carrier concentrations are extremely rare, and suggest that excellent thermoelectric performance may be found in these ranges of temperature and doping. (paper)

  9. The effect of irradiation temperature on the optical attenuation recovery in heavily Ge-doped single mode silica core fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Mabrouk, M.A.; Ferrari, A.; Serra, A.; Viezzoli, G.

    1992-01-01

    The behaviour under irradiation of a single mode fiber heavily doped with germanium has been investigated at 0.85 μm and 1.3 μm under different irradiation temperatures in the range from -65degC to 60degC. The time behaviour of the recovery of the induced attenuation has been described using empirical equations, for different temperatures. An nth order kinetics seems appropriate to describe the results and the order of kinetics has been determined at different temperatures. (orig.)

  10. Pretreatment Hematologic Findings as Novel Predictive Markers for Facial Palsy Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasano, Koichiro; Kawasaki, Taiji; Yamamoto, Sayuri; Tomisato, Shuta; Shinden, Seiichi; Ishikawa, Toru; Minami, Shujiro; Wakabayashi, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-10-01

    To examine the relationship between prognosis of 2 different facial palsies and pretreatment hematologic laboratory values. Multicenter case series with chart review. Three tertiary care hospitals. We examined the clinical records of 468 facial palsy patients who were treated with an antiviral drug in combination with either oral or intravenous corticosteroids in participating hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Patients were divided into a Bell's palsy group or a Hunt's palsy group. We used the Yanagihara facial nerve grading system to grade the severity of facial palsy. "Recovery" from facial palsy was defined as achieving a Yanagihara score ≥36 points within 6 months of onset and having no accompanying facial contracture or synkinesis. We collected information about pretreatment hematologic findings, demographic data, and electrophysiologic test results of the Bell and Hunt group patients who recovered and those who did not. We then compared these data across the 2 palsy groups. In the Bell's palsy group, recovered and unrecovered patients differed significantly in age, sex, electroneuronography score, stapedial muscle reflex, neutrophil rate, lymphocyte rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and initial Yanagihara score. In the Hunt's palsy group, recovered and unrecovered patients differed in age, electroneuronography score, stapedial muscle reflex, monocyte rate, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, and initial Yanagihara score. Pretreatment hematologic findings, which reflect the severity of inflammation and bone marrow dysfunction caused by a virus infection, are useful for predicting the prognosis of facial palsy. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  11. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  12. Influence of surgical or propylthiouracil pretreatment on the efficacy of iodine-131 therapy in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Genming; Xu Qin; Yang Yili; Ye Anfang; Zhu Chengyi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of surgical or propylthiouracil(PTU) pretreatment on the efficacy of radioactive iodine therapy in hyperthyroidism. Methods: A group (group 1) of 41 hyperthyroidism patients relapsed after surgery were treated with 131 I in our department from 2003 through 2004. During that period, another group (group 2) of 41 cases were selected randomly from patients untreated either surgically or chemically before oral administration of 131 I, and a third group (group 3) of 41 cases were selected randomly from those pretreated only with PTU. We analysed the results of these three groups of patients after followed-up for 3 and 6 months separately after 131 I therapy. Results: Approximately 90.24% (37/41 cases) and 92.68% (38/ 41 cases) of patients in group 2 without any pretreatment were cured 3 months and 6 months after 131 I treatment, respectively, and 9.76% (4/41 cases) and 7.32% (3/41 cases) of them did not respond to 131 I treatment. About 43.90% (18/41 cases) and 53.66 % (22/41 cases) of patients pretreated with PTU (group 3) were cured at 3 and 6 months, respectively, and approximately 56.10% (23/41 cases) and 46.34% (19/41 cases) of this group patients did not respond to 131 I treatment at 3 and 6 months, respectively (P 131 I treatment, respectively, and 31.71% (13/41) and 29.27% (12/ 41) of them did not respond to 131 I treatment (P 131 I treatment can affect the efficacy of 131 I therapy, resulting in reduction of the cure rate. (authors)

  13. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  15. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  16. 40 CFR 407.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources...

  17. The Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on Poplar Wood Dimensional Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Qiu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional stability is a key property of wood that significantly affects its applications. The effect of an ultrasound pretreatment on poplar wood (Populous tomentosa dimensional stability was examined. During the pretreatments, wood samples were immersed in distilled water and treated ultrasonically under three different powers and frequencies. The samples were then analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The chemical transformation of the cell-wall material was studied and then associated with the change of water absorption and the swelling coefficient. The results showed that the water absorption decreased after the ultrasonic pretreatment. The axial and radial swelling coefficients of the pretreated samples decreased, while the tangential swelling coefficients increased. The volumetric swelling coefficient of pretreated specimens fluctuated near 4.48% (the volumetric swelling coefficient of untreated wood. Ultrasonic pretreatment increased the number of hydrophilic groups, such as the hydroxyl, acetyl, and uronic ester groups. Meanwhile, the pretreatment also increased the degree of crystallinity and reduced the available polar groups. These two factors together caused the change of the moisture absorption and the swelling coefficient of the pretreated wood. These conclusions suggest that the ultrasonic pretreatment is a promising method for further chemical modification of wood.

  18. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  1. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  2. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  3. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  4. Pretreatment HIF-1α and GLUT-1 expressions do not correlate with outcome after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expressions as predictors of response and survival after chemoradiotherapy in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with rectal cancer.......The aim of the present study was to investigate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expressions as predictors of response and survival after chemoradiotherapy in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with rectal cancer....

  5. Features of the band structure and conduction mechanisms of n-HfNiSn heavily doped with Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V. A., E-mail: vromaka@polynet.lviv.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Universitet Wien, Institut für Physikalische Chemie (Austria); Romaka, V. V. [National University “Lvivska Politechnika” (Ukraine); Kaczorowski, D. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (Poland); Krayovskyy, V. Ya. [National University “Lvivska Politechnika” (Ukraine); Stadnyk, Yu. V.; Horyn, A. M. [Ivan Franko Lviv National University (Ukraine)

    2017-02-15

    The crystalline and electronic structures, energy, kinetic, and magnetic characteristics of n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with Y acceptor impurity are studied in the ranges: T = 80–400 K, N{sub A}{sup Y} ≈ 1.9 × 10{sup 20}–5.7 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} (x = 0.01–0.30), and H ≤ 10 kG. The nature of the mechanism of structural defect generation is determined, which leads to a change in the band gap and the degree of semiconductor compensation, the essence of which is the simultaneous reduction and elimination of structural donor-type defects as a result of the displacement of ~1% of Ni atoms from the Hf (4a) site, and the generation of structural acceptor-type defects by substituting Hf atoms with Y atoms at the 4a site. The results of calculations of the electronic structure of Hf{sub 1–x}Y{sub x}NiSn are in agreement with the experimental data. The discussion is performed within the Shklovskii–Efros model of a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  6. A model for describing the eutrophication in a heavily regulated coastal lagoon. Application to the Albufera of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio Fernández, Pilar; Gómez, Andrés García; Alba, Javier García; Díaz, César Álvarez; Revilla Cortezón, José Antonio

    2012-12-15

    A simplified two-dimensional eutrophication model was developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of chlorophyll-a in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. This model considers the hydrodynamics of the whole study area, the regulated connexion of the lagoon with the sea, the variability of the input and output nutrient loads, the flux from the sediments to the water column, the phytoplankton growth and mortality kinetics, and the zooplankton grazing. The model was calibrated and validated by applying it to the Albufera of Valencia, a hypertrophic system whose connection to the sea is strongly regulated by a system of sluice-gates. The calibration and validation results presented a significant agreement between the model and the data obtained in several surveys. The accuracy was evaluated using a quantitative analysis, in which the average uncertainty of the model prediction was less than 6%. The results confirmed an expected phytoplankton bloom in April and October, achieving mean maximum values around 250 μg l(-1) of chlorophyll-a. A mass balance revealed that the eutrophication process is magnified by the input loads of nutrients, mainly from the sediments, as well as by the limited connection of the lagoon with the sea. This study has shown that the developed model is an efficient tool to manage the eutrophication problem in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "Unusual brain stone": heavily calcified primary neoplasm with some features suggestive of angiocentric glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Bermingham, Niamh; Marks, Charles; Keohane, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    This 40-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of progressive right-sided headache associated with visual blurring. He also had a history of epilepsy but had been seizure free with medication for the past 10 years. An initial CT scan of his brain performed 16 years previously had revealed a small area of calcification in the right parietal region. In the current presentation, he had a left-sided homonymous hemianopia but no other neurological deficits. A CT scan of his brain showed a much larger calcified, partly cystic lesion in the right parietal region. Because he was symptomatic, the lesion was excised and the cyst was drained. Histological examination of the excised tissue showed an unusual primary tumor that was difficult to classify but had some features of angiocentric glioma. The heavy calcification, mixed-density cell population, and regions with features of angiocentric glioma were most unusual. The patient remained asymptomatic 5 years after surgery, and follow-up scans did not show recurrence.

  8. Antisense pre-treatment increases gene therapy efficacy in dystrophic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccate, Cécile; Mollard, Amédée; Le Hir, Maëva; Julien, Laura; McClorey, Graham; Jarmin, Susan; Le Heron, Anita; Dickson, George; Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Sofia; Piétri-Rouxel, France; Wood, Matthew J; Voit, Thomas; Lorain, Stéphanie

    2016-08-15

    In preclinical models for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dystrophin restoration during adeno-associated virus (AAV)-U7-mediated exon-skipping therapy was shown to decrease drastically after six months in treated muscles. This decline in efficacy is strongly correlated with the loss of the therapeutic AAV genomes, probably due to alterations of the dystrophic myofiber membranes. To improve the membrane integrity of the dystrophic myofibers at the time of AAV-U7 injection, mdx muscles were pre-treated with a single dose of the peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PPMO) antisense oligonucleotides that induced temporary dystrophin expression at the sarcolemma. The PPMO pre-treatment allowed efficient maintenance of AAV genomes in mdx muscles and enhanced the AAV-U7 therapy effect with a ten-fold increase of the protein level after 6 months. PPMO pre-treatment was also beneficial to AAV-mediated gene therapy with transfer of micro-dystrophin cDNA into muscles. Therefore, avoiding vector genome loss after AAV injection by PPMO pre-treatment would allow efficient long-term restoration of dystrophin and the use of lower and thus safer vector doses for Duchenne patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  10. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  11. Structural changes of corn stover lignin during acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Geoffrey; Gaspar, Armindo Ribeiro; Higgins, Don; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, raw corn stover was subjected to dilute acid pretreatments over a range of severities under conditions similar to those identified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their techno-economic analysis of biochemical conversion of corn stover to ethanol. The pretreated corn stover then underwent enzymatic hydrolysis with yields above 70 % at moderate enzyme loading conditions. The enzyme exhausted lignin residues were characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and functional moieties quantified and correlated to enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Results from this study indicated that both xylan solubilization and lignin degradation are important for improving the enzyme accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. At lower pretreatment temperatures, there is a good correlation between xylan solubilization and cellulose accessibility. At higher pretreatment temperatures, lignin degradation correlated better with cellulose accessibility, represented by the increase in phenolic groups. During acid pretreatment, the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl functional groups also gradually changed from less than 1 to greater than 1 with the increase in pretreatment temperature. This implies that more syringyl units are released from lignin depolymerization of aryl ether linkages than guaiacyl units. The condensed phenolic units are also correlated with the increase in pretreatment temperature up to 180 °C, beyond which point condensation reactions may overtake the hydrolysis of aryl ether linkages as the dominant reactions of lignin, thus leading to decreased cellulose accessibility.

  12. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26 Pretreatment...

  13. 40 CFR 406.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.34 Section 406.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  14. 40 CFR 406.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.44 Section 406.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  15. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.16 Section 406.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment...

  16. Pretreatment of Oil Palm Frond (OPF) with Ionic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, I. S.; Azizan, A.; Salleh, R. Mohd

    2018-05-01

    Pretreatment is the key to unlock the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for cellulosic biofuel production. Increasing attention has been drawn to ionic liquids (ILs) for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass because this approach was considered as a green engineering method over other conventional methods. In this work, Oil palm frond (OPF) was pretreated by using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM] Ac at the temperature of 99˚C for 3 hours. The characterization of the untreated and pretreated OPF was conducted by using different techniques which are Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pretreatment of OPF with [EMIM] Ac was demonstrated to be effective evidenced by the significant reduction of Lateral Order Index (LOI) from FTIR, reduction of Crystallinity Index (CI) based on XRD and the significant morphology changes indicated by SEM. The CI value for the pretreated OPF decreased from 0.47 (untreated sample) to 0.28 while the LOI value decreased from 1.10 to 0.24 after pretreatment with [EMIM]Ac and the SEM morphology showed that the pretreated OPF becomes distorted and disordered.

  17. Environmentally Friendly Pretreatment for Department of Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    Develop an environmentally friendly pretreatment system for multi-material Department of Defense applications ― Free of hexavalent chromium (Cr6...Zn phosphate and chrome wash primer •Two Zirconium pretreatment variations passed the 336 hr and 1000 hr B-117 outlined per MIL-DTL-53022 or MIL

  18. Remission induction using alemtuzumab can permit chemotherapy-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients to undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Wolfgang; Rieger, Kathrin; Blau, Wolfgang; Hegenbart, Ute; Von Gruenhagen, Ulrich; Niederwieser, Dietger; Thiel, Eckhard

    2004-12-01

    The outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation depends upon the disease status before transplantation. Patients with refractory disease are at high risk for relapse. To improve the curative potential of the transplant procedure, we treated 3 chemotherapy-refractory CLL patients with alemtuzumab before allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Prior to therapy, all patients suffered from B-symptoms, and had massive adenopathy, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, and anemia; two patients had hepatomegaly. Alemtuzumab greatly reduced tumor mass in blood and bone marrow, B-symptoms resolved, and organomegaly improved. Two patients became blood product independent. All patients proceeded to transplantation after conditioning with TBI 2 Gy (n=1) or Treosulfan (n=2) in combination with Fludarabine either from an HLA-matched sibling (n=2) or from an HLA-matched unrelated donor (n=1). All patients engrafted, and are alive and well. Two patients reached complete remission (CR); one patient attained stable partial remission (PR). These heavily pre-treated refractory patients gained substantial clinical benefit from alemtuzumab, and received successful allografts.

  19. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  20. Pretreatment of Cellulose By Electron Beam Irradiation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusri, N. A. A.; Azizan, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Salleh, R. Mohd; Rahman, M. F. Abd

    2018-05-01

    Pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to produce biofuel has been conducted by using various methods including physical, chemical, physicochemical as well as biological. The conversion of bioethanol process typically involves several steps which consist of pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation and separation. In this project, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used in replacement of LCB since cellulose has the highest content of LCB for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of new pretreatment method using radiation technology. Irradiation with different doses (100 kGy to 1000 kGy) was conducted by using electron beam accelerator equipment at Agensi Nuklear Malaysia. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were studied to further understand the effect of the suggested pretreatment step to the content of MCC. Through this method namely IRR-LCB, an ideal and optimal condition for pretreatment prior to the production of biofuel by using LCB may be introduced.

  1. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma pretreatment on hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangmin; Long, Zhouyang; Liu, Sa; Qin, Zhenglong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used as a pretreatment method for downstream hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The degree of polymerization (DP) of MCC decreased after it was pretreated by DBD plasma under a carrier gas of air/argon. The effectiveness of depolymerization was found to be influenced by the crystallinity of MCC when under the pretreatment of DBD plasma. With the addition of tert-butyl alcohol in the treated MCC water suspension solution, depolymerization effectiveness of MCC was inhibited. When MCC was pretreated by DBD plasma for 30 min, the total reducing sugar concentration (TRSC) and liquefaction yield (LY) of pretreated-MCC (PMCC) increased by 82.98% and 34.18% respectively compared with those for raw MCC.

  2. Prognostic value of the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayuan; Chen, Manyu; Liang, Caixia; Su, Wenmei

    2017-02-21

    The prognostic value of pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in cervical cancer remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis based on the data from 13 studies with 3729 patients to evaluate the association between the pretreatment NLR and the clinical outcomes of overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with cervical cancer. The relationship between NLR and clinicopathological parameters was also assessed. Hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the effect size estimate. Our analysis indicated that elevated pretreatment NLR was a poor prognostic marker for patients with cervical cancer because it predicted unfavorable overall survival (HR = 1.375, 95% CI: 1.200-1.576) and progression-free survival (HR = 1.646, 95% CI: 1.313-2.065). Increased NLR is also significantly associated with the larger tumor size (OR = 1.780, 95% CI: 1.090-2.908), advanced clinical stage (OR = 2.443, 95% CI: 1.730-3.451), and positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.380, 95% CI: 1.775-3.190). By these results, high pretreatment NLR predicted a shorter survival period for patients with cervical cancer, and it could be served as a novel index of prognostic evaluation in patients with cervical cancer.

  3. Backward diodes using heavily Mg-doped GaN growth by ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hironori; Martin, Denis; Malinverni, Marco; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    We grew heavily Mg-doped GaN using ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy. The use of low growth temperature (740 °C) allows decreasing the incorporation of donor-like defects (p-type doping compensation. As a result, a net acceptor concentration of 7 × 1019 cm-3 was achieved, and the hole concentration measured by Hall effect was as high as 2 × 1019 cm-3 at room temperature. Using such a high Mg doping level, we fabricated GaN backward diodes without polarization-assisted tunneling. The backward diodes exhibited a tunneling-current density of 225 A/cm2 at a reverse bias of -1 V at room temperature.

  4. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoya, T. Nakamura, T. Matushita, T. Muro, H. Okazaki, M. Arita, K. Shimada, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, T. Takenouchi, H. Kawarada and T. Oguchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SXARPES of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond films with different B concentrations in order to study the origin of the metallic behavior of superconducting diamond. SXARPES results clearly show valence band dispersions with a bandwidth of ~23 eV and with a top of the valence band at gamma point in the Brillouin zone, which are consistent with the calculated valence band dispersions of pure diamond. Boron concentration-dependent band dispersions near the Fermi level (EF exhibit a systematic shift of EF, indicating depopulation of electrons due to hole doping. These SXARPES results indicate that diamond bands retain for heavy boron doping and holes in the diamond band are responsible for the metallic states leading to superconductivity at low temperature. A high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy spectrum near EF of a heavily boron-doped diamond superconductor is also presented.

  5. Impaired serum inhibin-B and number of germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism following heavily gestational maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildorf, Simone; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Dong, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    heavily (>10 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy with age matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers (1:6). We studied: birthweight, germ-cell number/tubular cross section, frequency of germ cells positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), gonadotropins and inhibin-B. RESULTS: 501 boys...... were sons of nonsmokers, 72 boys of intermittent smokers and 28 boys of heavy smokers. 39%, 44% and 61% respectively had bilateral cryptorchidism. Compared to age-matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers, sons of heavy smokers had lower birthweight (p = 0.006), germ-cell number/tubular cross...... could add detailed knowledge to the impact of maternal gestational smoking on pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. METHODS: 601 cryptorchid boys aged 4 months to 14 years old were included. Because normal hormones have a pronounced age dependency, we compared results from boys whose mothers had smoked...

  6. Size effects on acid bisulfite pretreatment efficiency: multiple product yields in spent liquor and enzymatic digestibility of pretreated solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2017-01-01

    Currently, feedstock size effects on chemical pretreatment performance were not clear due to the complexity of the pretreatment process and multiple evaluation standards such as the sugar recovery in spent liquor or enzymatic digestibility. In this study, we evaluated the size effects by various ways: the sugar recovery and coproduct yields in spent liquor, the...

  7. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  8. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  9. Influence of wheat type and pretreatment on fungal growth in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.; Zhu, Y.; As, H. van; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2001-01-01

    The respiration kinetics of Aspergillus oryzae on different varieties of whole wheat kernels were studied. Six wheat varieties were pretreated in two different ways. Five of the six substrates fermented similarly and independently of the pretreatment method. However, pretreatment affected

  10. Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bin Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte and paste (cathode were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference compared to the Ni/YSZ anode.

  11. Dilute alkali pretreatment of softwood pine: A biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Ali; Karimi, Keikhosro; Shafiei, Marzieh

    2017-06-01

    Dilute alkali pretreatment was performed on softwood pine to maximize ethanol and biogas production via a biorefinery approach. Alkali pretreatments were performed with 0-2% w/v NaOH at 100-180°C for 1-5h. The liquid fraction of the pretreated substrates was subjected to anaerobic digestion. The solid fraction of the pretreatment was used for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. High ethanol yields of 76.9‒78.0% were achieved by pretreatment with 2% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest biogas yield of 244mL/g volatile solid (at 25°C, 1bar) was achieved by the pretreatment with 1% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest gasoline equivalent (sum of ethanol and methane) of 197L per ton of pinewood and the lowest ethanol manufacturing cost of 0.75€/L was obtained after pretreatment with 1% NaOH at 180°C for 5h. The manufacturing cost of ethanol from untreated wood was 4.12€/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical utility and patient consideration in the use of lenalidomide for multiple myeloma in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang, Hongfeng Guo, Xin Zhou Department of Hematology, Wuxi People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM is an incurable hematologic malignancy caused by the autonomous growth of malignant plasma cells. In the last decade, the introduction of novel targeted agents such as thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide has dramatically improved the clinical outcome of MM patients in both the frontline and recurrent settings. Lenalidomide is a synthetic derivative of thalidomide, which has been shown to significantly improve overall survival, time to progression, and overall response rates in patients with MM. The China Food and Drug Administration approved the use of lenalidomide in patients with MM in 2013. In a Phase II trial, lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone was associated with a high response rate and acceptable safety profile in heavily pretreated Chinese patients with relapsed/refractory MM, including those with renal impairment and IgD subtype. However, lenalidomide will remain as a second-line antimyeloma drug in the near future because of its high price and the policy of health insurance reimbursement in People’s Republic of China. In this review, we summarize the clinical utility and patient considerations in the use of lenalidomide for MM in Chinese patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to investigate the better quality, longer duration, and more clinically meaningful outcomes of lenalidomide in the treatment of MM in Chinese patients. Keywords: lenalidomide, multiple myeloma, clinical efficacy, Chinese patients

  13. Effects of different pretreatment methods on fermentation types and dominant bacteria for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Wan-Qian; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Xing-Zu; Ding, Jie; Chen, Zhao-Bo [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, Heilongjiang (China); Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng [Research Center of Life Science and Biotechnology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2008-08-15

    In order to enrich hydrogen producing bacteria and to establish high-efficient communities of the mixed microbial cultures, inoculum needs to be pretreated before the cultivation. Four pretreatment methods including heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment were performed on the seed sludge which was collected from a secondary settling tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. In contrast to the control test without any pretreatment, the heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment completely suppressed the methanogenic activity of the seed sludge, but the alkaline pretreatment did not. Employing different pretreatment methods resulted in the change in fermentation types as butyric-acid type fermentation was achieved by the heat-shock and alkaline pretreatments, mixed-acid type fermentation was achieved by acid pretreatment and the control, and ethanol-type fermentation was observed by repeated-aeration pretreatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that pretreatment method substantially affected the species composition of microbial communities. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.96 mol/mol-glucose was observed with the repeated-aeration pretreatment method, while the lowest was obtained as the seed sludge was acidified. It is concluded that the pretreatment methods led to the difference in the initial microbial communities which might be directly responsible for different fermentation types and hydrogen yields. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 439.37 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis... achieve the pretreatment standard for ammonia (as N). (b) The pretreatment standards for cyanide are as...

  15. Influence of ultrasound pretreatment on wood physiochemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengbin; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zijian; Yi, Songlin; Mu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    As an initial step to increase the use of renewable biomass resources, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound pretreatment on structural changes of wood. Samples were pretreated by ultrasound with the power of 300W and frequency of 28kHz in aqueous soda solution, aqueous acetic acid, or distilled water, then pretreated and control samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results shown that ultrasound pretreatment is indeed effective in modifying the physiochemical structure of eucalyptus wood; the pretreatment decreased the quantity of alkali metals (e.g., potassium, calcium and magnesium) in the resulting material. Compared to the control group, the residual char content of samples pretreated in aqueous soda solution increased by 10.08%-20.12% and the reaction temperature decreased from 361°C to 341°C, however, in samples pretreated by ultrasound in acetic solution or distilled water, the residual char content decreased by 12.40%-21.45% and there were no significant differences in reactivity apart from a slightly higher maximum reaction rate. Ultrasound pretreatment increased the samples' crystallinity up to 35.5% and successfully removed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin from the samples; the pretreatment also increased the exposure of the sample to the treatment solutions, broke down sample pits, and generated collapses and microchannels on sample pits, and removed attachments in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of Pleurotus ostreatus pretreatment on switchgrass for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Shelyn Gehle

    Fungal pretreatment using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on switchgrass for ethanol production was studied. In a small-scale storage study, small switchgrass bales were inoculated with fungal spawn and automatically watered to maintain moisture. Sampled at 25, 53, and 81 d, the switchgrass composition was determined and liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was conducted. Fungal pretreatment significantly decreased the xylan and lignin content; glucan was not significantly affected by fungal loading. The glucan, xylan, and lignin contents significantly decreased with increased fungal pretreatment time. The effects of the fungal pretreatment were not highly evident after the LHW pretreatment, showing only changes based on sampling time. Although other biological activity within the bales increased cellulose degradation, the fungal pretreatment successfully reduced the switchgrass lignin and hemicellulose contents. In a laboratory-scale nutrient supplementation study, copper, manganese, glucose, or water was added to switchgrass to induce production of ligninolytic enzymes by P. ostreatus. After 40 d, ligninolytic enzyme activities and biomass composition were determined and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to determine ethanol yield. Laccase activity was similar for all supplements and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was significantly less in copper-treated samples than in the other fungal-inoculated samples. The fungal pretreatment reduced glucan, xylan, and lignin content, while increasing extractable sugars content. The lowest lignin contents occurred in the water-fungal treated samples and produced the greatest ethanol yields. The greatest lignin contents occurred in the copper-fungal treated samples and produced the lowest ethanol yields. Manganese-fungal and glucose-fungal treated samples had similar, intermediate lignin contents and produced similar, intermediate ethanol yields. Ethanol yields from switchgrass

  17. Pretreatment of phosphoric acid of Annaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, R.

    1990-03-01

    The most important step in the process of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid is the pretreatment operation. In this study, the adsorption of organic matters on activated carbon was carried out in a batch process and in a fixed bed column. First, the chemical and physical characterization of phosphoric acid, activated carbon and gypsum were performed. In addition, the organic matters were qualitatively analysed and a new and original quantitative method was experimented. Next, the various operating parameters such as agitation speed, granulometry, temperature, solid/liquid ratio, initial concentration, acid flowrate, and bed height were optimized. The experimental equilibrium isotherm was compared to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson theoretical isotherms. It was noticed that the three models did not fit the experimental isotherm in the total concentration range. Thus, an original bilinear model was proposed. The influence of the operating conditions on the adsorption kinetics was also investigated. As a result of that, a new mathematical model was proposed to determine both the liquid and solid phases mass transfer and the solid phase diffusion coefficient. Finally, adsorption of organic matters on a fixed bed process allowed computation of the number of transfer units (NTU), the height of adsorption zone and the degree of saturation of activated carbon

  18. Dose-Dependent Effect of Statin Pretreatment on Preventing the Periprocedural Complications of Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Sohn, Sung-Il; Kwak, Jaehyuk; Yoo, Joonsang; Chang, Hyuk Won; Kwon, O-Ki; Jung, Cheolkyu; Chung, Inyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Ji Sung; Han, Moon-Ku

    2017-07-01

    We investigated whether statin pretreatment can dose dependently reduce periprocedural complications in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting because of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. We enrolled a consecutive series of 397 symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (≥50% stenosis on conventional angiography) treated with carotid artery stenting at 2 tertiary university hospitals over a decade. Definition of periprocedural complications included any stroke, myocardial infarction, and death within 1 month after or during the procedure. Statin pretreatment was divided into 3 categories according to the atorvastatin equivalent dose: none (n=158; 39.8%), standard dose (statin use were 12.0%, 4.5%, and 1.2%. After adjustment, a change in the atorvastatin dose category was associated with reduction in the odds of periprocedural complications for each change in dose category (standard-dose statin: odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.81; high-dose statin: odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.96; P for trend=0.01). Administration of antiplatelet drugs was also an independent factor in periprocedural complications (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.05-0.69). This study shows that statin pretreatment may reduce the incidence of periprocedural complications dose dependently in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenting. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Combined (alkaline+ultrasonic) pretreatment effect on sewage sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, Emma; Oh, Sae-Eun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2010-05-01

    The individual effects of alkaline (pH 8-13) and ultrasonic (3750-45,000kJ/kg TS) pretreatments on the disintegration of sewage sludge were separately tested, and then the effect of combining these two methods at different intensity levels was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). In the combined pretreatment, ultrasonic treatment was applied to the alkali-pretreated sludge. While the solubilization (SCOD/TCOD) increase was limited to 50% in individual pretreatments, it reached 70% in combined pretreatment, and the results clearly showed that preconditioning of sludge at high pH levels played a crucial role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of the subsequent ultrasonic pretreatment. By applying regression analysis, the disintegration degree (DD) was fitted based on the actual value to a second order polynomial equation: Y=-172.44+29.82X(1)+5.30x10(-3)X(2)-7.53x10(-5)X(1)X(2)-1.10X(1)(2)-1.043x10(-7)X(2)(2), where X(1), X(2), and Y are pH, specific energy input (kJ/kg TS), and DD, respectively. In a 2D contour plot describing the tendency of DD with respect to pH and specific energy input, it was clear that DD increased as pH increased, but it seemed that DD decreased when the specific energy input exceeded about 20,000kJ/kg TS. This phenomenon tells us that there exists a certain point where additional energy input is ineffective in achieving further disintegration. A synergetic disintegration effect was also found in the combined pretreatment, with lower specific energy input in ultrasonic pretreatment yielding higher synergetic effect. Finally, in order to see the combined pretreatment effect in continuous operation, the sludge pretreated with low intensity alkaline (pH 9)/ultrasonic (7500kJ/kg TS) treatment was fed to a 3 L of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor after 70 days of control operation. CH(4) production yield significantly increased from 81.9+/-4.5mL CH(4)/g COD(added) to 127.3+/-5.0mL CH(4)/g COD(added) by pretreatment, and

  20. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    (0–7 h), e.g., oxalic acid and acetovanillon. Interestingly, washing had no effect on the ethanol production with pretreatment times up to 1 h. Washing improved the glucose availability with pretreatment times of more than 2 h. One hour of ozonisation was found to be optimal for the use of washed...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  1. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  2. Evaluation of wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palonen, H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Tenkanen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The wet oxidation pretreatment (water, oxygen, elevated temperature, and pressure) of softwood (Picea abies) was investigated for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was preliminarily optimized. Six different combinations of reaction time, temperature, and pH were applied......, and the compositions of solid and liquid fractions were analyzed. The solid fraction after wet oxidation contained 58-64% cellulose, 2-16% hemicellulose, and 24-30% lignin. The pretreatment series gave information about the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The temperature...

  3. Transdermal testosterone pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdou, J K; Venetis, C A; Dafopoulos, K; Zepiridis, L; Chatzimeletiou, K; Anifandis, G; Mitsoli, A; Makedos, A; Messinis, I E; Tarlatzis, B C; Kolibianakis, E M

    2016-05-01

    Does pretreatment with transdermal testosterone increase the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved by more than 1.5 in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa)? Testosterone pretreatment failed to increase the number of COCs by more than 1.5 as compared with no pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI (difference between medians: 0.0, 95% CI: -1.0 to +1.0). Androgens are thought to play an important role in early follicular development by enhancing ovarian sensitivity to FSH. In a recent meta-analysis, testosterone pretreatment resulted in an increase of 1.5 COCs as compared with no pretreatment. However, this effect was based on the analysis of only two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 163 patients. Evidently, there is a need for additional RCTs that will allow firmer conclusions to be drawn. The present RCT was designed to detect a difference of 1.5 COCs (sample size required = 48 patients). From 02/2014 until 04/2015, 50 poor responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria have been randomized (using a randomization list) to either testosterone pretreatment for 21 days ( ITALIC! n = 26) or no pretreatment ( ITALIC! n = 24). All patients underwent a long follicular GnRHa protocol. Recombinant FSH stimulation was started on Day 22 following GnRHa initiation. In the testosterone pretreatment group, a daily dose of 10 mg of testosterone gel was applied transdermally for 21 days starting from GnRHa initiation. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range). No differences in baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups compared. Testosterone levels [median (interquartile range)] were significantly higher in the testosterone pretreatment on the day of initiation of FSH stimulation [114 (99.5) ng/dl versus 20 (20) ng/dl, respectively, ITALIC! P interquartile range)] was similar between

  4. Chemoradiation of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: impact of pretreatment hemoglobin level on patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganti, A.G.; Macchia, G. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Forni, F. [Dept. of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Valentini, V.; Smaniotto, D.; Trodella, L.; Balducci, M.; Cellini, N. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2003-02-01

    Aim: To evaluate, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma undergoing concomitant chemoradiation, the impact of pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) concentration on the outcome in terms of clinical response, local control, metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Patients and Methods: 30 patients undergoing concomitant chemoradiation (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/day, continuous i.v. infusion days 1-4 of radiotherapy) and external beam radiotherapy (50.4-59.4 Gy) were divided into two groups based on pretreatment median Hb value (11.5 g/dl). The potential prognostic factors examined besides Hb concentration were: tumor site (head vs body-tail), sex (female vs male), cN (cN0 vs cN1), dose of external beam radiotherapy (50.4 Gy vs 59.4 Gy), presence of jaundice at diagnosis (yes vs no), weight loss at diagnosis ({>=} 5 kg vs < 5 kg), epigastric-lumbar pain at diagnosis (yes vs no), maximum tumor diameter (< 40 mm vs {>=} 40 mm). Results: Pretreatment Hb ranged between 9.6 and 15.0 g/dl. No statistically significant differences were observed as for clinical response and local control between patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 g/dl and those with an Hb > 11.5 g/dl. Metastasis-free survival was 5.1 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 g/dl and 10.7 months in patients with an Hb > 11.5 g/dl (p = 0.010). Median actuarial disease-free survival was 5.1 and 10.2 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 and > 11.5 g/dl, respectively (p = 0.026). Median actuarial overall survival was 7.5 and 10.3 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 and > 11.5 g/dl, respectively (p = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, Hb concentration at diagnosis was the only factor prognostically correlated with metastasis-free survival (p = 0.026), disease-free survival (p = 0.032), and overall survival (p = 0.048). Conclusion: In a group of patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma treated with chemoradiation, a significant correlation was observed

  5. The association of pre-treatment HPV subtypes with recurrence of VIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Taverna, Francesca; Lombardo, Claudia; Chiappa, Valentina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Recalcati, Dario; Scaffa, Cono; Perotto, Stefania; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Indini, Alice; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    To assess whether pre-treatment HPV types are associated with recurrence of high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN2+). Data of consecutive patients with pretreatment HPV DNA test undergoing treatment for VIN2+ were retrospectively collected. Risk factors promoting the risk of VIN2+ persistence and recurrence were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard proportional models. 64 patients had pretreatment vulvar-vaginal HPV DNA test. Two were excluded due to the presence of synchronous vulvar cancer, thus leaving 62 patients for the final analysis. HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 were the most common HPV genotype detected, occurring in 15 (24.2%), 4 (6.5%), 8 (12.9%) and 5 (8.0%) patients, respectively. HPV was not detected in 19 (30.6%) patients. During a mean (SD) follow up of 56.7 (±26.7) months, 10 (16.1%) patients had VIN2+ persistence/recurrence. Mean (SD) lesion-free interval was 51.7 (±31.4) months. Via multivariate analysis, pretreatment infection from HPV31 (HR:46.7(95%CI:4.21,518.4); p=0.02) and HPV33 (HR:77.0(95%CI:6.73,881.9); p<0.001) correlated with an increased risk of VIN2+ persistence/recurrence. Additionally, we observed that patients undergoing surgical excision followed by LASER ablation experienced a trend towards lower recurrence rate than patients undergoing other surgical or medical treatments (HR:0.20(95%CI:0.03,1.09); p=0.05). Two (3.2%) patients developed progression to vulvar cancer. Owing to the inherent biases of the retrospective study design and the small sample size, our data have to be corroborated by larger and prospective studies. HPV31 and HPV33 have a potential role in predicting VIN2+ persistence/recurrence. These findings will be paramount, owing to the implementation of new immunization programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Bridge, C. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Benford, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, A. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Brightman, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Christensen, F. E. [Danish Technical University, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A., E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL {sub ν}(6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10{sup 46} erg s{sup –1} and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}. The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1} for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N {sub H} ≤ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f {sub 3-24} {sub keV} ≲ 10{sup –13} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 5 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 7 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton

  7. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bridge, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL ν (6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10 46 erg s –1 and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L bol ∼ 10 14 L ☉ . The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10 45 erg s –1 for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N H ≤ 10 24 cm –2 . In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f 3-24 keV ≲ 10 –13 erg cm –2 s –1 ), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f 0.5-10 keV ∼ 5 × 10 –15 erg cm –2 s –1 ). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f 0.5-10 keV ∼ 7 × 10 –15 erg cm –2 s –1 ). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N H ≳ 10 24 cm –2 . The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population of heavily obscured, extremely luminous AGNs would not conform to the standard

  8. Lignocellulosic biomass-Thermal pretreatment with steam: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    With the ever rising demand for more energy and the limited availability of depleted world resources, many are beginning to look for alternatives to fossil fuels. Liquid biofuel, in particular, is of key interest to decrease our dependency on fuels produced from imported petroleum. Biomass pre......-treatment remains one of the most pressing challenges in terms of cost-effective production of biofuels. The digestibility of lingo-cellulosic biomass is limited by different factors such as the lignin content, the crystallinity of cellulose, and the available cellulose accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. A number...

  9. HIV-2 integrase polymorphisms and longitudinal genotypic analysis of HIV-2 infected patients failing a raltegravir-containing regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco-Silva, Joana; Abecasis, Ana; Miranda, Ana Cláudia; Poças, José; Narciso, Jorge; Águas, Maria João; Maltez, Fernando; Almeida, Isabel; Germano, Isabel; Diniz, António; Gonçalves, Maria de Fátima; Gomes, Perpétua; Cunha, Celso; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the HIV-2 integrase gene polymorphisms and the pathways to resistance of HIV-2 patients failing a raltegravir-containing regimen, we studied 63 integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI)-naïve patients, and 10 heavily pretreated patients exhibiting virological failure while receiving a salvage raltegravir-containing regimen. All patients were infected by HIV-2 group A. 61.4% of the integrase residues were conserved, including the catalytic motif residues. No INSTI-major resistance mutations were detected in the virus population from naïve patients, but two amino acids that are secondary resistance mutations to INSTIs in HIV-1 were observed. The 10 raltegravir-experienced patients exhibited resistance mutations via three main genetic pathways: N155H, Q148R, and eventually E92Q - T97A. The 155 pathway was preferentially used (7/10 patients). Other mutations associated to raltegravir resistance in HIV-1 were also observed in our HIV-2 population (V151I and D232N), along with several novel mutations previously unreported. Data retrieved from this study should help build a more robust HIV-2-specific algorithm for the genotypic interpretation of raltegravir resistance, and contribute to improve the clinical monitoring of HIV-2-infected patients.

  10. Delayed response after repeated {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, Kambiz; Schaefers, Michael [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Boegeman, Martin [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Urology, Muenster (Germany); Yordanova, Anna; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Eveslage, Maria [University Hospital Muenster, Institute for Biostatistics, Muenster (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Radioligand therapy (RLT) using Lutetium-177 labeled PSMA-617 (Lu-PSMA) ligand is a new therapeutic option for salvage therapy in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze response in patients receiving 3 cycles of Lu-PSMA. Seventy-one patients (median age: 72 years; range 44-87) received 3 cycles of RLT with Lu-PSMA (mean administered activity: 6.016 ± 0.543 GBq) every 8 weeks. Response was evaluated using serum PSA levels and a PSA decline ≥50% was considered as biochemical response. Additionally, any PSA decline after the first cycle was evaluated for further therapy effects after the second and third cycle. A total of 213 cycles were performed in 71 patients. Data for response and adverse events were available for all patients. A PSA decline ≥50% and some PSA decline occurred in 56% and 66% of the patients. Of 30 patients with a PSA response after the first cycle, 28 remained responders and 12/41 of non-responders responded to further therapy cycles. RLT with Lu-177-PSMA-617 shows respectable response rates. In this retrospective analysis, a relevant number of patients showed a delayed response, even if they did not respond to the first cycle of the therapy. (orig.)

  11. Reconstructing historical trends in metal input in heavily-disturbed, contaminated estuaries: studies from Bilbao, Southampton Water and Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundy, A.B.; Croudace, I.W.; Cearreta, A.; Irabien, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Estuaries may be important reservoirs for contaminants as they tend to act as sinks for fine, contaminant-reactive sediments, and, historically, they have acted as centres for industrial and urban development. Analysis of dated sediment cores from these areas may allow historical trends in heavy metal input to be reconstructed, and recent and historical inputs of metal contaminants to be compared. Undisturbed saltmarsh settings have been used widely in the reconstruction of historical trends in metal input as saltmarshes provide a stable, vegetated substrate of dominantly fine sediments, and are less prone to erosion and reworking than adjacent mudflat areas. In comparison, much less research on historical pollution trends has been undertaken at estuarine sites which are prone to severe local disturbance, such as intertidal areas which are routinely dredged or where sedimentary processes have been modified by human activities such as shipping, salt working, port activities, land claim etc. This paper assesses the usefulness of 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating, combined with geochemical studies, in reconstructing historical trends in heavy metal input and sediment accretion in 3 heavily-modified, industrialised estuarine areas in Europe: the Bilbao estuary (Spain), Southampton Water (UK), and the Mulinello estuary (Sicily). Of these sites, only a salt marsh core from the Mulinello estuary provides a high-resolution record of recent heavy metal inputs. In Southampton Water only a partial record of changing metal inputs over time is retained due to land-claim and possible early-diagenetic remobilisation, while at Bilbao the vertical distribution of heavy metals in intertidal flats is mainly controlled by input on reworked sediment particles and variations in sediment composition. Where 137 Cs and 210 Pb distributions with depth allow a chronology of sediment deposition to be established, and early-diagenetic remobilisation has been minimal, mudflat and saltmarsh cores from

  12. Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How I Treat Elderly or Comorbid Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Smolej

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL has recently undergone several major changes. Most importantly, large randomized trials (CLL-8 in first line and REACH in relapse clearly demonstrated superiority of chemoimmunotherapy consisting of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR over fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC alone, thus establishing FCR regimen as the new gold standard in younger and physically fit patients. However, management of elderly and/or comorbid patients is still a challenging task because they cannot be treated with agressive approaches due to high risk of unacceptable toxicity. To date, no randomized trials in this patient population have improved therapeutic results over chlorambucil; therefore, this agent remains the backbone of treatment against which the new protocols should be tested. When deciding about the intensity of treatment, performance status, biological age and number as well as severity of comorbidities should be taken into account. Emerging treatment concepts for elderly/comorbid patients include combination of chlorambucil with monoclonal antibodies (rituximab, ofatumumab, GA-101, fludarabine-based regimens in reduced doses or protocols based on bendamustine and lenalidomide. Combination of highdose steroids with rituximab represent a promising option in relapsed/refractory CLL; however, infectious toxicity remains a serious issue. Finally, ofatumumab monotherapy appears to be a safe and effective therapy for heavily pretreated patients with CLL. This article reviews the current and future possibilities in the treatment of elderly and comorbid patients with CLL.

  14. How I treat elderly or comorbid patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolej, Lukás

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has recently undergone several major changes. Most importantly, large randomized trials (CLL-8 in first line and REACH in relapse) clearly demonstrated superiority of chemoimmunotherapy consisting of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR) over fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) alone, thus establishing FCR regimen as the new gold standard in younger and physically fit patients. However, management of elderly and/or comorbid patients is still a challenging task because they cannot be treated with agressive approaches due to high risk of unacceptable toxicity. To date, no randomized trials in this patient population have improved therapeutic results over chlorambucil; therefore, this agent remains the backbone of treatment against which the new protocols should be tested. When deciding about the intensity of treatment, performance status, biological age and number as well as severity of comorbidities should be taken into account. Emerging treatment concepts for elderly/comorbid patients include combination of chlorambucil with monoclonal antibodies (rituximab, ofatumumab, GA-101), fludarabine-based regimens in reduced doses or protocols based on bendamustine and lenalidomide. Combination of high-dose steroids with rituximab represent a promising option in relapsed/refractory CLL; however, infectious toxicity remains a serious issue. Finally, ofatumumab monotherapy appears to be a safe and effective therapy for heavily pretreated patients with CLL. This article reviews the current and future possibilities in the treatment of elderly and comorbid patients with CLL.

  15. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have as a

  16. 40 CFR 407.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.76 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source...

  17. 40 CFR 407.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  18. 40 CFR 407.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.66 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source...

  19. Effects of Pretreatments in Convective Dehydration of Rosehip (Rosa eglanteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mabellini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to experimentally determine drying curves for thin layer and bed drying of rosehip fruits, with and without pretreatments, to reduce processing times as a function of drying air operating variables, to propose dehydration kinetics of fruits and to determine its kinetic parameters for further use within drying simulation software. Fruits were pre-treated both chemically and mechanically, which included dipping the fruits in NaOH and ethyl oleate solutions; and cutting or perforating the fruit cuticle, respectively. Simulation models were then adopted to fit the kinetics drying data considering fruit volume shrinkage. These simple models minimized the calculation time during the simulation of deep-bed driers. Results show that pre-treatments reduced processing times up to 57%, and evaluated models satisfactorily predicted the drying of rosehip fruit. Effective mass diffusion coefficients were up to 4-fold greater when fruit was submitted to mechanical pretreatments.

  20. Pretreatment Characteristics of Waste Oak Wood by Ammonia Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Joon-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul

    A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood. The density of the waste wood was 30% lower than that of virgin oak wood. However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. While for waste oak the optimum temperature was determined to be 130°C, for virgin oak wood the optimum pretreatment was only achieved at 170°C. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency.

  1. Tank waste pretreatment issues, alternatives and strategies for resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Appel, J.; Barton, W.B.; Orme, R.M.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The overall strategy for disposing of tank waste is evolving and initial recommendations on a course of action are expected in March, 1993. Pretreatment of these wastes may be required for one or both of the following reasons: (1) resolution of tank safety issues, and (2) preparation of low level and high level waste fractions for disposal. Pretreatment is faced with several issues that must be addressed by the deployment strategies that are being formulated. These issues are identified. There is also a discussion of several pretreatment deployment strategies and how these strategies address the issues. Finally, the technology alternatives that are being considered for the pretreatment function are briefly discussed

  2. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project...... conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can...... act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however...

  3. Bioethanol from lignocellulose - pretreatment, enzyme immobilization and hydrolysis kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Chien Tai

    , the cost of enzyme is still the bottle neck, re-using the enzyme is apossible way to reduce the input of enzyme in the process. In the point view of engineering, the prediction of enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics under different substrate loading, enzyme combination is usful for process design. Therefore...... lignocellulose is the required high cellulase enzyme dosages that increase the processing costs. One method to decrease the enzyme dosage is to re-use BG, which hydrolyze the soluble substrate cellobiose. Based on the hypothesis that immobilized BG can be re-used, how many times the enzyme could be recycled...... liquid and pretreatment time can be reduced, the influence of substrate concentration, pretreatment time and temperature were investigated and optimized. Pretreatment of barley straw by [EMIM]Ac, correlative models were constructed using 3 different pretreatment parameters (temperature, time...

  4. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintenance of lyophilized human red blood cell (RBC) quality. Methods: RBCs were pre-treated with trehalose and saccharose, and then lyophilized and .... different concentrations of trehalose and saccharose as described above.

  5. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  6. New pentose dimers with bicyclic moieties from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Tanner, David Ackland

    2017-01-01

    In lignocellulosic biorefinery processes involving enzyme catalysed reactions it is a challenge that enzyme inhibiting compounds are generated and liberated during pretreatment of the biomass. In this study the contribution to cellulase inhibition from xylooligosaccharides and newly discovered...... oligophenolic compounds from pilot scale pretreated wheat straw was assessed at two different pretreatment severities. An increase in severity of the pretreatment led to more oligophenol compounds and in turn the total overall cellulase inhibition increased. When the xylooligosaccharides were enzymatically...... degraded prior to cellulose hydrolysis, a relief in cellulase inhibition was observed, but some inhibition remained, suggesting that other components also played a role in inhibition. We propose that these components include dipentoses with bicyclic moieties and feruloylated tripentoses, because LC...

  7. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    and petri dishes on moist filter paper, gave 80% germination in variety gabonensis, 20 weeks after fruiting. .... Effect of pretreatments on seed germination of fruits of Irvingia gabonensis plucked from forest ...... A review of the tariff structure and.

  8. 40 CFR 405.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  9. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    isotherm and maximum sorption capacity of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan sorbent was 1·755 g/kg with 85–. 90% lead .... C by applying Lagergren first ... Lead (II) ions concentrations were determined by using an .... following equation.

  10. Effects of embryo induction media and pretreatments in isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... chemical + heat and also the effects of 5 embryo induction media (NPB-99, C17, ... Key words: Hexaploid wheat, haploid, isolated microspore culture, pretreatment, ..... this method is influenced by several mentioned factors.

  11. Improving biogas production from microalgae by enzymatic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Hom-Diaz, Andrea; Blanquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Ferrer, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, enzymatic pretreatment of microalgal biomass was investigated under different conditions and evaluated using biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Cellulase, glucohydrolase and an enzyme mix composed of cellulase, glucohydrolase and xylanase were selected based on the microalgae cell wall composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and glycoprotein). All of them increased organic matter solubilisation, obtaining high values already after 6h of pretreatment with an enzyme dose of 1% for cellulase and the enzyme mix. BMP tests with pretreated microalgae showed a methane yield increase of 8 and 15% for cellulase and the enzyme mix, respectively. Prospective research should evaluate enzymatic pretreatments in continuous anaerobic reactors so as to estimate the energy balance and economic cost of the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pretreatment of Miscanthus for hydrogen production by Thermotoga elfii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de T.; Haas, de G.G.; Tan, G.B.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Pretreatment methods for the production of fermentable substrates from Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, were investigated. Results demonstrated an inverse relationship between lignin content and the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides. High delignification values were

  13. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLAUDIA

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... 120°C. The pretreated blending was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis for 130 h at 80 rpm and 50°C with an enzymatic load of ... pretreatment of 2.5% NaOH for 90 min, 120°C, and a hydrolysis residence time of 130 h. The removal of ...... Programa Estratégico Forestal para el estado de Durango,. México.

  15. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO