Sample records for heatwave vulnerability london

  1. Socio-demographic vulnerability to heatwave impacts in Brisbane, Australia: a time series analysis. (United States)

    Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Guo, Yuming; Turner, Lyle; Qi, Xin; Aitken, Peter; Tong, Shilu


    Examining the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and heat-related emergency department (ED) visits during heatwave periods in Brisbane, 2000-2008. Data from 10 public EDs were analysed using a generalised additive model for disease categories, age groups and gender. Cumulative relative risks (RR) for non-external causes other than cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were 1.11 and 1.05 in most and least disadvantaged areas, respectively. The pattern persisted on lags 0-2. Elevated risks were observed for all age groups above 15 years in all areas. However, with RRs of 1.19-1.28, the 65-74 years age group in more disadvantaged areas stood out, compared with RR=1.08 in less disadvantaged areas. This pattern was observed on lag 0 but did not persist. The RRs for male presentations were 1.10 and 1.04 in most and less disadvantaged areas; for females, RR was 1.04 in less disadvantaged areas. This pattern persisted across lags 0-2. Heat-related ED visits increased during heatwaves. However, due to overlapping confidence intervals, variations across socioeconomic areas should be interpreted cautiously. ED data may be utilised for monitoring heat-related health impacts, particularly on the first day of heatwaves, to facilitate prompt interventions and targeted resource allocation. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves (United States)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio


    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  3. The impact of heatwaves on workers' health and safety in Adelaide, South Australia

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    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng, E-mail:; Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana


    This study aims to investigate the impact of heatwaves on worker's health and safety; to identify workers at higher risk of prevalent illnesses and injuries due to heatwaves; and to provide evidence for policy-makers and service providers. South Australian workers' compensation claims data for 2001–2010 were transformed into time series format, merged with meteorological data and analysed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. For total injury claims there was no significant difference detected between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. However, for outdoor industries, daily claims increased significantly by 6.2% during heatwaves. Over-represented in hot weather were male labourers and tradespersons aged ≥55 years, and those employed in ‘agriculture, forestry and fishing’ and ‘electricity, gas and water’. Occupational burns, wounds, lacerations, and amputations as well as heat illnesses were significantly associated with heatwaves. Similarly, moving objects, contact with chemicals, and injuries related to environmental factors increased significantly during heatwaves, especially among middle-aged and older male workers. With the predicted increase of extremely hot weather, there is a need for relevant adaptation and prevention measures at both practice and policy levels for vulnerable work groups. - Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of heatwaves on workers' health and safety. • We identify workers at higher risk of illnesses and injuries during heatwaves. • The differences between two heatwave definitions on effect estimates are compared. • Daily injury claims for outdoor industries increased by 6.2% during heatwaves. • Relevant heat prevention measures are required for vulnerable workers.

  4. Effective Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Public Health Impacts of Heatwaves for Brookline, MA (United States)

    Jalalzadeh Fard, B.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.


    Studies on urban areas show a significant increase in frequency and intensity of heatwaves over the past decades, and predict the same trend for future. Since heatwaves have been responsible for a large number of life losses, urgent adaptation and mitigation strategies are required in the policy and decision making level for a sustainable urban planning. The Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory at Northeastern University, under the aegis of Thriving Earth Exchange of AGU, is working with the town of Brookline to understand the potential public health impacts of anticipated heatwaves. We consider the most important social and physical factors to obtain vulnerability and exposure parameters for each census block group of the town. Utilizing remote sensing data, we locate Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) during a recent heatwave event, as the hazard parameter. We then create priority risk map using the risk framework. Our analyses show spatial correlations between the UHIs and social factors such as poverty, and physical factors such as land cover variations. Furthermore, we investigate the future heatwave frequency and intensity increases by analyzing the climate models predictions. For future changes of UHIs, land cover changes are investigated using available predictive data. Also, socioeconomic predictions are carried out to complete the futuristic models of heatwave risks. Considering plausible scenarios for Brookline, we develop different risk maps based on the vulnerability, exposure and hazard parameters. Eventually, we suggest guidelines for Heatwave Action Plans for prioritizing effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in urban planning for the town of Brookline.

  5. Development of health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave: a time series study in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Tong, Shilu; Wang, Xiao Yu; FitzGerald, Gerry; McRae, David; Neville, Gerard; Tippett, Vivienne; Aitken, Peter; Verrall, Ken


    This study attempted to develop health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave in Brisbane, Australia. Poisson generalised additive model was performed to assess the impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) in Brisbane. In general, the higher the intensity and the longer the duration of a heatwave, the greater the health impacts. There was no apparent difference in EHAs risk during different periods of a warm season. However, there was a greater risk for mortality in the 2nd half of a warm season than that in the 1st half. While elderly (≥75 years) were particularly vulnerable to both the EHA and mortality effects of a heatwave, the risk for EHAs also significantly increased for two other age groups (0-64 years and 65-74 years) during severe heatwaves. Different patterns between cardiorespiratory mortality and EHAs were observed. Based on these findings, we propose the use of a tiered heat warning system based on the health risk of heatwave. Health risk-based metrics are a useful tool for the development of local heatwave definitions. This tool may have significant implications for the assessment of heatwave-related health consequences and development of heatwave response plans and implementation strategies.

  6. The impact of heatwaves on emergency department visits in Brisbane, Australia: a time series study. (United States)

    Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Yu, Weiwei; Aitken, Peter; FitzGerald, Gerry; Tong, Shilu


    The acute health effects of heatwaves in a subtropical climate and their impact on emergency departments (ED) are not well known. The purpose of this study is to examine overt heat-related presentations to EDs associated with heatwaves in Brisbane. Data were obtained for the summer seasons (December to February) from 2000-2012. Heatwave events were defined as two or more successive days with daily maximum temperature ≥34°C (HWD1) or ≥37°C (HWD2). Poisson generalised additive model was used to assess the effect of heatwaves on heat-related visits (International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 codes T67 and X30; ICD 9 codes 992 and E900.0). Overall, 628 cases presented for heat-related illnesses. The presentations significantly increased on heatwave days based on HWD1 (relative risk (RR) = 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8, 6.3) and HWD2 (RR = 18.5, 95% CI: 12.0, 28.4). The RRs in different age groups ranged between 3-9.2 (HWD1) and 7.5-37.5 (HWD2). High acuity visits significantly increased based on HWD1 (RR = 4.7, 95% CI: 2.3, 9.6) and HWD2 (RR = 81.7, 95% CI: 21.5, 310.0). Average length of stay in ED significantly increased by >1 hour (HWD1) and >2 hours (HWD2). Heatwaves significantly increase ED visits and workload even in a subtropical climate. The degree of impact is directly related to the extent of temperature increases and varies by socio-demographic characteristics of the patients. Heatwave action plans should be tailored according to the population needs and level of vulnerability. EDs should have plans to increase their surge capacity during heatwaves.

  7. A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Heatwave Climatology in Three Major US Cities (United States)

    Hulley, G. C.; Malakar, N.


    Heatwaves are one form of severe weather expected to become worse under a warming planet. The impacts of severe heatwaves, particularly in urban areas, can have detrimental and often deadly consequences across key socio-economic urban sectors.These effects are exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and an overall increase in the number of city dwellers during the 21st century. For example it is projected that nearly 80% of the world's population will live in cities by 2025. In this study we use a combination of in situ and remote sensing measured surface temperatures to investigate the spatio-temporal variations of heatwaves in three major U.S. cities; Los Angeles, Chicago, and Washington D.C. Air temperature data from the NCDC US COOP network stations are used to first detect severe heatwave events using two new excess heat indices, and secondly to assess climatological changes in heatwave frequency, duration, and intensity since the 1950's. For example, in Los Angeles there has been a steady increase in the duration and frequency of heatwaves, while nighttime heatwave temperatures have shown a rapid warming since the start of the 21st century. The second part of the study uses a new land surface temperature product (MOD21) derived from the MODIS Aqua sensor to analyze the spatial variations of heatwave temperatures within urban environments, as a goal to help better understand and predict what areas may be more vulnerable to the effects of extreme temperatures in an effort to advise local councils on effective adaption and mitigation techniques.

  8. The Excess Heat Factor: A Metric for Heatwave Intensity and Its Use in Classifying Heatwave Severity

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    John R. Nairn


    Full Text Available Heatwaves represent a significant natural hazard in Australia, arguably more hazardous to human life than bushfires, tropical cyclones and floods. In the 2008/2009 summer, for example, many more lives were lost to heatwaves than to that summer’s bushfires which were among the worst in the history of the Australian nation. For many years, these other forms of natural disaster have received much greater public attention than heatwaves, although there are some signs of change. We propose a new index, called the excess heat factor (EHF for use in Australian heatwave monitoring and forecasting. The index is based on a three-day-averaged daily mean temperature (DMT, and is intended to capture heatwave intensity as it applies to human health outcomes, although its usefulness is likely to be much broader and with potential for international applicability. The index is described and placed in a climatological context in order to derive heatwave severity. Heatwave severity, as characterised by the climatological distribution of heatwave intensity, has been used to normalise the climatological variation in heatwave intensity range across Australia. This methodology was used to introduce a pilot national heatwave forecasting service for Australia during the 2013/2014 summer. Some results on the performance of the service are presented.

  9. Heatwaves in Vienna: effects on mortality. (United States)

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Moshammer, Hanns; Wallner, Peter; Leitner, Barbara; Kundi, Michael


    The hot summer of 2003 brought about increased mortality in southern and western Europe, highlighting the health impact of heatwaves. No Austrian mortality data have yet been reported for this summer period. Daily mortality data for Vienna between 1998 and 2004 were obtained from Statistics Austria and meteorological data from the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Heatwaves were defined using the Kysely criterion. Daily mortality for May to September was predicted by a generalized additive model considering over-dispersion with Poisson deviates and a log link. Seasonal trend was accounted for by a natural spline, weekdays were modeled by dummy variables and heatwave days were included as dichotomous predictor. The average seasonal temperature for May to September in Vienna has increased by more than 1.7 degrees C during the last 35 years. In 2003 there was an excess of heatwave days, 44 overall, that resulted in an increased number of deaths, approximately 180, most of which were not due to 'harvesting'. Heatwave days between 1998 and 2004 were associated with a significantly increased relative mortality risk of 1.13 [95% confidence interval 1.09-1.17]. This increase was stronger in females than in males. Although excess mortality was seen in all age groups, it reached significance only in the elderly population over 65 years. An impact of heatwaves on mortality was apparent in Vienna, although not as pronounced as in France and south-western Europe. In 2003 at least 130 heatwave-related deaths in Vienna could have been avoided by prompt medical assistance and proper advice about how to cope with excessive thermal conditions. Preventive programs are warranted during heatwaves, especially to target elderly people, because the likelihood of heatwaves as a consequence of global warming is increasing.

  10. The Crisis at Christmas Dental Service: a review of an annual volunteer-led dental service for homeless and vulnerably housed people in London. (United States)

    Doughty, J; Stagnell, S; Shah, N; Vasey, A; Gillard, C


    Background The UK charity Crisis originated in 1967 as a response to the increasing numbers of homeless people in London, and the first Crisis at Christmas event for rough sleepers was established in 1971. Since then, Crisis has provided numerous services over the Christmas period to the most vulnerable members of society. One of these is the Crisis at Christmas Dental Service (CCDS) which provides emergency and routine dental care from 23-29 of December each year. The charity is entirely dependent on voluntary staffing and industry donations including materials and facilities. This paper aims to assess the impact of the service over the last six years of clinical activity from 2011-2016.Method Anonymised data were collected from the annual CCDS delivered over the last six consecutive years. Services included: dental consultations; oral hygiene instruction; scale and polishes; permanent fillings; extractions; and fluoride varnish applications. In addition, anonymised patient feedback was collected after each dental attendance.Results On average, 80-85% of the patients were male and the majority were between 21 and 60 years of age. The most common nationality was British (46%). Over the six-year data collection period intervention treatments (restorations and extractions) remained fairly consistent, while the number of fluoride varnish applications and oral hygiene instruction have increased. The majority of patients reported positive satisfaction with their treatment and would have recommended the service to others. Approximately 75% of patients did not regularly attend a dentist outside of Crisis and a similar proportion were given information on where to access year round dental services for homeless people in London. The majority of dental volunteers felt that they enjoyed the experience and would consider volunteering again for Crisis in the future.Conclusion The Crisis at Christmas Dental Service has emerged as a valuable asset to the portfolio of resources

  11. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy. (United States)

    Rafighi, Elham; Poduval, Shoba; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Howard, Natasha


    Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged 'health tourism,' could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 in-depth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. The experiences of those 'vulnerable migrants' (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access) able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over 'health tourism,' and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP) responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers). Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health.

  12. The impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions from non-external causes in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Yu; Barnett, Adrian Gerard; Yu, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerry; Tippett, Vivienne; Aitken, Peter; Neville, Gerard; McRae, David; Verrall, Ken; Tong, Shilu


    Heatwaves can have significant health consequences resulting in increased mortality and morbidity. However, their impact on people living in tropical/subtropical regions remains largely unknown. This study assessed the impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) from non-external causes (NEC) in Brisbane, a subtropical city in Australia. We acquired daily data on weather, air pollution and EHAs for patients aged 15 years and over in Brisbane between January 1996 and December 2005, and on mortality between January 1996 and November 2004. A locally derived definition of heatwave (daily maximum ≥37°C for 2 or more consecutive days) was adopted. Case-crossover analyses were used to assess the impact of heatwaves on cause-specific mortality and EHAs. During heatwaves, there was a statistically significant increase in NEC mortality (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.77), cardiovascular mortality (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.44 to 2.48), diabetes mortality in those aged 75+ (OR 9.96; 95% CI 1.02 to 96.85), NEC EHAs (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23) and EHAs from renal diseases (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.83). The elderly were found to be particularly vulnerable to heatwaves (eg, for NEC EHAs, OR 1.24 for 65-74-year-olds and 1.39 for those aged 75+). Significant increases in NEC mortality and EHAs were observed during heatwaves in Brisbane where people are well accustomed to hot summer weather. The most vulnerable were the elderly and people with cardiovascular, renal or diabetic disease.

  13. Vulnerability (United States)

    Taback, I.


    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  14. Social implications from heatwave events at different levels of global warming (United States)

    Sillmann, Jana; Russo, Simone


    In recent decades, many poor and highly populated regions have experienced extreme heat waves with strong impact on human mortality and agriculture. By applying the Heat Wave Magnitude Index daily (HWMId) to temperature reanalysis data, we quantify the magnitude and the spatial extent of the most extreme heatwave events experienced in the world between 1979 and 2016. Results show that in the recent years many continents experienced hotter, longer and more extended heatwaves than in the last two decades of the 20th century. According to the latest multi-model climate simulations, the globally averaged near surface temperature will increase by 1.5 or 2 degree Celsius by 2030 and 2040, respectively, compared to preindustrial (1861-1880) conditions. We present a method where aspects of hazard, exposure and vulnerability can be combined to illustrate regions under risk of severe impacts due to heatwave events. We show that even at modest warming levels of 2 degrees versus 1.5 degrees Celsius the impacts of heatwaves can differ, particularly across region with high population density and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

  15. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in “Austerity Britain”: A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy

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    Elham Rafighi


    Full Text Available Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 indepth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. Results: The experiences of those ‘vulnerable migrants’ (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over ‘health tourism,’ and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Conclusion: Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers. Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health.

  16. Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora


    This chapter reviews the literature on vulnerability. Together with Chapter 3, that offers a literature review specifically focused on resilience, it lays the conceptual foundations for the empirical chapters in this edited volume. Vulnerability symbolizes the susceptibility of a certain system to

  17. Greater London. (United States)


    Greater London, composed of 14 inner boroughs and 19 outer ones, covers 1,579 square kilometers and has a population density of 77.9 persons per hectare. From 1971-1981, Greater London decreased in population by 10%, declining from 7.45 million to 6.71 million. All outer boroughs and 13 inner boroughs lost population in the 1970s; only the historic financial and business center--the City of London--showed a population increase. 48% of the population is male and somewhat over 60% of the total population is between 16 and pensionable age. Inner London includes more 25-44 year olds than Outer London. In Greater London 18% of the population was born in foreign countries, with almost a quarter of Inner London's residents being foreign born. Men (15%) and women (16%) in Inner London and men (16%) and women (13%) in Outer London are likely to have more education than other Britons. Somewhat more working women are found in Greater London than in the rest of Great Britain, with the highest percentage in the City of London. 34% of British households include children under age 16, but only 29% of Greater London's households include children. Only 10% of the City of London's households have children, and 1/4 of mothers work, as compared to 13% for all of Britain. A majority of Greater London households have either no car or only 1 car since public transportation and walking to work are convenient. Greater London households declined by 5% to 2.5 million in 1981, with average household size declining from 2.8 to 2.6 persons; 26% are single-person households (55% of these are pensioners). As in the rest of Britain, more people are buying homes and renting them from local authorities. 1/3 of Greater London residents live in publicly owned housing. Some lifestyle variations exist between Greater London residents and other Britons in terms of household consumption, but these differences are not as great as geographic differences in the US, and Greater London demographic data may be

  18. vulnerabilities

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    Gao Jian-Bo


    quantitatively evaluate individual vulnerability. However it cannot be applied to evaluate software risk directly and some metrics of CVSS are hard to assess. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a novel method, which combines the CVSS base score with market share and software patches, to quantitatively evaluate the software risk. It is based on CVSS and includes three indicators: Absolute Severity Value (ASV, Relative Severity Value (RSV and Severity Value Variation Rate (SVVR. Experimental results indicate that by using these indicators, the method can quantitatively describe the risk level of software systems, and thus strengthen software security.

  19. Marine heatwaves off eastern Tasmania: Trends, interannual variability, and predictability (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Lago, Véronique; Hobday, Alistair J.; Holbrook, Neil J.; Ling, Scott D.; Mundy, Craig N.


    Surface waters off eastern Tasmania are a global warming hotspot. Here, mean temperatures have been rising over several decades at nearly four times the global average rate, with concomitant changes in extreme temperatures - marine heatwaves. These changes have recently caused the marine biodiversity, fisheries and aquaculture industries off Tasmania's east coast to come under stress. In this study we quantify the long-term trends, variability and predictability of marine heatwaves off eastern Tasmania. We use a high-resolution ocean model for Tasmania's eastern continental shelf. The ocean state over the 1993-2015 period is hindcast, providing daily estimates of the three-dimensional temperature and circulation fields. Marine heatwaves are identified at the surface and subsurface from ocean temperature time series using a consistent definition. Trends in marine heatwave frequency are positive nearly everywhere and annual marine heatwave days and penetration depths indicate significant positive changes, particularly off southeastern Tasmania. A decomposition into modes of variability indicates that the East Australian Current is the dominant driver of marine heatwaves across the domain. Self-organising maps are used to identify 12 marine heatwave types, each with its own regionality, seasonality, and associated large-scale oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns. The implications of this work for marine ecosystems and their management were revealed through review of past impacts and stakeholder discussions regarding use of these data.

  20. Maternal exposure to heatwave and preterm birth in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Wang, J; Williams, G; Guo, Y; Pan, X; Tong, S


    To quantify the short-term effects of maternal exposure to heatwave on preterm birth. An ecological study. A population-based study in Brisbane, Australia. All pregnant women who had a spontaneous singleton live birth in Brisbane between November and March in 2000-2010 were studied. Daily data on pregnancy outcomes, meteorological factors, and ambient air pollutants were obtained. The Cox proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent variables was used to examine the short-term impact of heatwave on preterm birth. A series of cut-off temperatures and durations were used to define heatwave. Multivariable analyses were also performed to adjust for socio-economic factors, demographic factors, meteorological factors, and ambient air pollutants. Spontaneous preterm births. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) ranged from 1.13 (95% CI 1.03-1.24) to 2.00 (95% CI 1.37-2.91) by using different heatwave definitions, after controlling for demographic, socio-economic, and meteorological factors, and air pollutants. Heatwave was significantly associated with preterm birth: the associations were robust to the definitions of heatwave. The threshold temperatures, instead of duration, could be more likely to influence the evaluation of birth-related heatwaves. The findings of this study may have significant public health implications as climate change progresses. © 2013 RCOG.

  1. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action. (United States)

    Buscail, Camille; Upegui, Erika; Viel, Jean-François


    Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R² = 0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north-south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high correlation between 2000 and

  2. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action

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    Buscail Camille


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001 was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence. Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2 = 0.87 and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000 yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave

  3. Fritz London (United States)

    Gavroglu, Kostas


    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  4. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy


    Rafighi, E; Poduval, S; Legido-Quigley, H; Howard, N.


    Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 indepth in...

  5. The influence of internal climate variability on heatwave frequency trends (United States)

    E Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S.; Fischer, E. M.; Angélil, O.; Gibson, P. B.


    Understanding what drives changes in heatwaves is imperative for all systems impacted by extreme heat. We examine short- (13 yr) and long-term (56 yr) heatwave frequency trends in a 21-member ensemble of a global climate model (Community Earth System Model; CESM), where each member is driven by identical anthropogenic forcings. To estimate changes dominantly due to internal climate variability, trends were calculated in the corresponding pre-industrial control run. We find that short-term trends in heatwave frequency are not robust indicators of long-term change. Additionally, we find that a lack of a long-term trend is possible, although improbable, under historical anthropogenic forcing over many regions. All long-term trends become unprecedented against internal variability when commencing in 2015 or later, and corresponding short-term trends by 2030, while the length of trend required to represent regional long-term changes is dependent on a given realization. Lastly, within ten years of a short-term decline, 95% of regional heatwave frequency trends have reverted to increases. This suggests that observed short-term changes of decreasing heatwave frequency could recover to increasing trends within the next decade. The results of this study are specific to CESM and the ‘business as usual’ scenario, and may differ under other representations of internal variability, or be less striking when a scenario with lower anthropogenic forcing is employed.

  6. Local-scale analysis of temperature patterns over Poland during heatwave events (United States)

    Krzyżewska, Agnieszka; Dyer, Jamie


    Heatwaves are predicted to increase in frequency, duration, and severity in the future, including over Central Europe where populations are sensitive to extreme temperature. This paper studies six recent major heatwave events over Poland from 2006 through 2015 using regional-scale simulations (10-km grid spacing, hourly frequency) from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to define local-scale 2-m temperature patterns. For this purpose, a heatwave is defined as at least three consecutive days with maximum 2-m air temperature exceeding 30 °C. The WRF simulations were validated using maximum daily 2-m temperature observations from 12 meteorological stations in select Polish cities, which were selected to have even spatial coverage across the study area. Synoptic analysis of the six study events shows that the inflow of tropical air masses from the south is the primary driver of heatwave onset and maintenance, the highest temperatures (and most vulnerable areas) occur over arable land and artificial surfaces in central and western Poland, while coastal areas in the north, mountain areas in the south, and forested and mosaic areas of smaller fields and pastures of the northwest, northeast, and southeast are less affected by prolonged periods of elevated temperatures. In general, regional differences in 2-m temperature between the hottest and coolest areas is about 2-4 °C. Large urban areas like Warsaw, or the large complex of artificial areas in the conurbation of Silesian cities, are also generally warmer than surrounding areas by roughly 2-4 °C, and even up to 6 °C, especially during the night. Additionally, hot air from the south of Poland flows through a low-lying area between two mountain ranges (Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains)—the so-called Moravian Gate—hitting densely populated urban areas (Silesian cities) and Cracow. These patterns occur only during high-pressure synoptic conditions with low cloudiness and wind and without any active fronts

  7. London, England (United States)


    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  8. Assessment of heat-related health impacts in Brisbane, Australia: comparison of different heatwave definitions. (United States)

    Tong, Shilu; Wang, Xiao Yu; Barnett, Adrian Gerard


    There is no global definition of a heatwave because local acclimatisation and adaptation influence the impact of extreme heat. Even at a local level there can be multiple heatwave definitions, based on varying temperature levels or time periods. We investigated the relationship between heatwaves and health outcomes using ten different heatwave definitions in Brisbane, Australia. We used daily data on climate, air pollution, and emergency hospital admissions in Brisbane between January 1996 and December 2005; and mortality between January 1996 and November 2004. Case-crossover analyses were used to assess the relationship between each of the ten heatwave definitions and health outcomes. During heatwaves there was a statistically significant increase in emergency hospital admissions for all ten definitions, with odds ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.18. A statistically significant increase in the odds ratios of mortality was also found for eight definitions. The size of the heat-related impact varied between definitions. Even a small change in the heatwave definition had an appreciable effect on the estimated health impact. It is important to identify an appropriate definition of heatwave locally and to understand its health effects in order to develop appropriate public health intervention strategies to prevent and mitigate the impact of heatwaves.

  9. Assessment of heat-related health impacts in Brisbane, Australia: comparison of different heatwave definitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilu Tong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is no global definition of a heatwave because local acclimatisation and adaptation influence the impact of extreme heat. Even at a local level there can be multiple heatwave definitions, based on varying temperature levels or time periods. We investigated the relationship between heatwaves and health outcomes using ten different heatwave definitions in Brisbane, Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used daily data on climate, air pollution, and emergency hospital admissions in Brisbane between January 1996 and December 2005; and mortality between January 1996 and November 2004. Case-crossover analyses were used to assess the relationship between each of the ten heatwave definitions and health outcomes. During heatwaves there was a statistically significant increase in emergency hospital admissions for all ten definitions, with odds ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.18. A statistically significant increase in the odds ratios of mortality was also found for eight definitions. The size of the heat-related impact varied between definitions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Even a small change in the heatwave definition had an appreciable effect on the estimated health impact. It is important to identify an appropriate definition of heatwave locally and to understand its health effects in order to develop appropriate public health intervention strategies to prevent and mitigate the impact of heatwaves.

  10. Response of Two Mytilids to a Heatwave: The Complex Interplay of Physiology, Behaviour and Ecological Interactions. (United States)

    Olabarria, Celia; Gestoso, Ignacio; Lima, Fernando P; Vázquez, Elsa; Comeau, Luc A; Gomes, Filipa; Seabra, Rui; Babarro, José M F


    Different combinations of behavioural and physiological responses may play a crucial role in the ecological success of species, notably in the context of biological invasions. The invasive mussel Xenostrobus securis has successfully colonised the inner part of the Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain), where it co-occurs with the commercially-important mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study investigated the effect of a heatwave on the physiological and behavioural responses in monospecific or mixed aggregations of these species. In a mesocosm experiment, mussels were exposed to simulated tidal cycles and similar temperature conditions to those experienced in the field during a heat-wave that occurred in the summer of 2013, when field robo-mussels registered temperatures up to 44.5°C at low tide. The overall responses to stress differed markedly between the two species. In monospecific aggregations M. galloprovincialis was more vulnerable than X. securis to heat exposure during emersion. However, in mixed aggregations, the presence of the invader was associated with lower mortality in M. galloprovincialis. The greater sensitivity of M. galloprovincialis to heat exposure was reflected in a higher mortality level, greater induction of Hsp70 protein and higher rates of respiration and gaping activity, which were accompanied by a lower heart rate (bradycardia). The findings show that the invader enhanced the physiological performance of M. galloprovincialis, highlighting the importance of species interactions in regulating responses to environmental stress. Understanding the complex interactions between ecological factors and physiological and behavioural responses of closely-related species is essential for predicting the impacts of invasions in the context of future climate change.

  11. Excess deaths during the 2004 heatwave in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Tong, Shilu; Ren, Cizao; Becker, Niels


    The paper examines whether there was an excess of deaths and the relative role of temperature and ozone in a heatwave during 7-26 February 2004 in Brisbane, Australia, a subtropical city accustomed to warm weather. The data on daily counts of deaths from cardiovascular disease and non-external causes, meteorological conditions, and air pollution in Brisbane from 1 January 2001 to 31 October 2004 were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, respectively. The relationship between temperature and mortality was analysed using a Poisson time series regression model with smoothing splines to control for nonlinear effects of confounding factors. The highest temperature recorded in the 2004 heatwave was 42 degrees C compared with the highest recorded temperature of 34 degrees C during the same periods of 2001-2003. There was a significant relationship between exposure to heat and excess deaths in the 2004 heatwave [estimated increase in non-external deaths: 75 ([95% confidence interval, CI: 11-138; cardiovascular deaths: 41 (95% CI: -2 to 84)]. There was no apparent evidence of substantial short-term mortality displacement. The excess deaths were mainly attributed to temperature but exposure to ozone also contributed to these deaths.

  12. Climate Data Homogenization and its Impact on Heatwave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean (United States)

    Kuglitsch, F. G.; Toreti, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Della-Marta, P. M.; Zerefos, C. S.; Turkes, M.; Luterbacher, J.


    Heatwaves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heatwaves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heatwave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified before and after data homogenization. Daily temperature homogeneity analyses suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heatwave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heatwave intensity, heatwave length and heatwave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor of 7.6 ± 1.3, 7.5 ± 1.3 and 6.2 ± 1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heatwave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  13. Stakeholders' Perception on National Heatwave Plans and Their Local Implementation in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loenhout, J.A. van; Rodriguez-Llanes, J.M.; Guha-Sapir, D.


    National heatwave plans are aimed at reducing the avoidable human health consequences due to heatwaves, by providing warnings as well as improving communication between relevant stakeholders. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of key stakeholders within plans in Belgium and

  14. Increased risk of emergency hospital admissions for children with renal diseases during heatwaves in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Barnett, Adrian; Guo, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Wei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Shi-Lu


    Heatwaves have a significant impact on population health including both morbidity and mortality. In this study we examined the association between heatwaves and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) for renal diseases in children (aged 0-14 years) in Brisbane, Australia. Daily data on EHAs for renal diseases in children and exposure to temperature and air pollution were obtained for Brisbane city from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2005. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to compare the risks for renal diseases between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. There were 1565 EHAs for renal diseases in children during the study period. Heatwaves exhibited a significant impact on EHAs for renal diseases in children after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio: 3.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-9.5). The risk estimates differed with lags and the use of different heatwave definitions. There was a significant increase in EHAs for renal diseases in children during heatwaves in Brisbane, a subtropical city where people are well accustomed to warm weather. This finding may have significant implications for pediatric renal care, particularly in subtropical and tropical regions.

  15. Increasing frequency and spatial extent of concurrent meteorological droughts and heatwaves in India. (United States)

    Sharma, Shailza; Mujumdar, Pradeep


    The impacts of concurrent droughts and heatwaves could be more serious compared to their individual occurrence. Meteorological drought condition is generally characterized by low rainfall, but impact of such an event is amplified with simultaneous occurrence of heatwaves. Positive feedback between these two extremes can worsen the rainfall deficit situation to serious soil moisture depletion due to enhanced evapotranspiration. In this study, the concurrence of meteorological droughts and heatwaves is investigated in India using Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) high resolution gridded data over a period of 60 years. Significant changes are observed in concurrent meteorological droughts and heatwaves defined at different percentile based thresholds and durations during the period 1981-2010 relative to the base period 1951-1980. There is substantial increase in the frequency of concurrent meteorological droughts and heatwaves across whole India. Statistically significant trends in the spatial extent of droughts are observed in Central Northeast India and West Central India; however, the spatial extent affected by concurrent droughts and heatwaves is increasing across whole India. Significant shifts are identified in the distribution of spatial extent of concurrent drought and heatwaves in India compared to the base period.

  16. The unprecedented 2015/16 Tasman Sea marine heatwave (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Holbrook, Neil J.; Mundy, Craig N.; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.


    The Tasman Sea off southeast Australia exhibited its longest and most intense marine heatwave ever recorded in 2015/16. Here we report on several inter-related aspects of this event: observed characteristics, physical drivers, ecological impacts and the role of climate change. This marine heatwave lasted for 251 days reaching a maximum intensity of 2.9 °C above climatology. The anomalous warming is dominated by anomalous convergence of heat linked to the southward flowing East Australian Current. Ecosystem impacts range from new disease outbreaks in farmed shellfish, mortality of wild molluscs and out-of-range species observations. Global climate models indicate it is very likely to be that the occurrence of an extreme warming event of this duration or intensity in this region is respectively >=330 times and >=6.8 times as likely to be due to the influence of anthropogenic climate change. Climate projections indicate that event likelihoods will increase in the future, due to increasing anthropogenic influences.

  17. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hutton C.W.

    Stakeholder Dialogue, London, June 19th, 2014. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate. Change: Migration and Adaptation. (DECCMA). Stakeholder Dialogue. Radisson Blu Edwardian Grafton Hotel, London, UK. June 19th, 2014 ...

  18. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient (United States)

    Zinke, J.; Hoell, A.; Lough, J. M.; Feng, M.; Kuret, A. J.; Clarke, H.; Ricca, V.; Rankenburg, K.; McCulloch, M. T.


    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795-2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pacific Warm Pool on decadal to centennial timescales, and are most pronounced when an anomalously strong zonal SST gradient between the western and central Pacific co-occurs with strong La Niña's. This SST gradient forces large-scale changes in heat flux that exacerbate SEIO heatwaves. Better understanding of the zonal SST gradient in the Western Pacific is expected to improve projections of the frequency of extreme SEIO heatwaves and their ecological impacts on the important coral reef ecosystems off Western Australia.

  19. Air conditioning and intrahospital mortality during the 2003 heatwave in Portugal: evidence of a protective effect. (United States)

    Nunes, Baltazar; Paixão, Eleonora; Dias, Carlos Matias; Nogueira, Paulo; Marinho Falcão, José


    The objective of the study was to analyse the association between the presence of air conditioning in hospital wards and the intrahospital mortality during the 2003 heatwave, in mainland Portugal. Historical cohort study design including all patients aged 45 or more who were hospitalised in the 7 days before the heatwave. The outcome was survival during the 18 days the heatwave lasted and during the 2 days after the end of the heatwave. A comparison group was also selected in four analogous periods without any heatwave event during January to May 2003. Data were obtained from the 2003 hospital discharges database. Air conditioning presence in hospital wards was determined using a survey sent to hospital administrations. A Cox-regression model was used to estimate the confounder-adjusted HR of death, during the heatwave and the comparison period, in patients in wards with air conditioning (AC+) versus patients in wards without air conditioning (AC-). 41 hospitals of mainland Portugal (49% of all hospitals in mainland Portugal) participated, and 2093 patients were enrolled. The overall confounder-adjusted HR of death in AC+ patients versus AC- patients was 0.60 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.97) for the heatwave period and 1.05 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.32) for the comparison group. The study found strong evidence that, during the August 2003 heatwave, the presence of air conditioning in hospital wards was associated with an increased survival of patients admitted before the beginning of the climate event. The reduction of the risk of dying is estimated to be 40% (95% CI 3% to 63%).

  20. Future summer mega-heatwave and record-breaking temperatures in a warmer France climate (United States)

    Bador, Margot; Terray, Laurent; Boé, Julien; Somot, Samuel; Alias, Antoinette; Gibelin, Anne-Laure; Dubuisson, Brigitte


    This study focuses on future very hot summers associated with severe heatwaves and record-breaking temperatures in France. Daily temperature observations and a pair of historical and scenario (greenhouse gas radiative concentration pathway 8.5) simulations with the high-resolution (∼12.5 km) ALADIN regional climate model provide a robust framework to examine the spatial distribution of these extreme events and their 21st century evolution. Five regions are identified with an extreme event spatial clustering algorithm applied to observed temperatures. They are used to diagnose the 21st century heatwave spatial patterns. In the 2070s, we find a simulated mega-heatwave as severe as the 2003 observed heatwave relative to its contemporaneous climate. A 20-member initial condition ensemble is used to assess the sensitivity of this future heatwave to the internal variability in the regional climate model and to pre-existing land surface conditions. Even in a much warmer and drier climate in France, late spring dry land conditions may lead to a significant amplification of summer extreme temperatures and heatwave intensity through limitations in evapotranspiration. By 2100, the increase in summer temperature maxima exhibits a range from 6 °C to almost 13 °C in the five regions in France, relative to historical maxima. These projections are comparable with the estimates given by a large number of global climate models.

  1. Taaskasutuses London / Marlen Promann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Promann, Marlen


    "100% Disain London" messist, kus peateemaks oli säästlikkus disainis, materjalides, tehnoloogias ja tootmises. Markko Karu jõudis sellel noore disainiettevõtja auhinna finaali (International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year)

  2. Drought and heatwaves in Europe: historical reconstruction and future projections (United States)

    Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohini; Rakovec, Olda; Wood, Eric; Sheffield, Justin; Pan, Ming; Wanders, Niko; Prudhomme, Christel


    Heat waves and droughts are creeping hydro-meteorological events that may bring societies and natural systems to their limits by inducing large famines, increasing health risks to the population, creating drinking and irrigation water shortfalls, inducing natural fires and degradation of soil and water quality, and in many cases causing large socio-economic losses. Europe, in particular, has endured large scale drought-heat-wave events during the recent past (e.g., 2003 European drought), which have induced enormous socio-economic losses as well as casualties. Recent studies showed that the prediction of droughts and heatwaves is subject to large-scale forcing and parametric uncertainties that lead to considerable uncertainties in the projections of extreme characteristics such as drought magnitude/duration and area under drought, among others. Future projections are also heavily influenced by the RCP scenario uncertainty as well as the coarser spatial resolution of the models. The EDgE project funded by the Copernicus programme (C3S) provides an unique opportunity to investigate the evolution of droughts and heatwaves from 1950 until 2099 over the Pan-EU domain at a scale of 5x5 km2. In this project, high-resolution multi-model hydrologic simulations with the mHM (, Noah-MP, VIC and PCR-GLOBWB have been completed for the historical period 1955-2015. Climate projections have been carried out with five CMIP-5 GCMs: GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M from 2006 to 2099 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. Using these multi-model unprecedented simulations, daily soil moisture index and temperature anomalies since 1955 until 2099 will be estimated. Using the procedure proposed by Samaniego et al. (2013), the probabilities of exceeding the benchmark events in the reference period 1980-2010 will be estimated for each RCP scenario. References

  3. Heatwave and risk of hospitalization: A multi-province study in Vietnam. (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Chu, Cordia; Rutherford, Shannon; Nguyen, Huong Lien Thi; Do, Cuong Manh; Huang, Cunrui


    The effects of heatwaves on morbidity in developing and tropical countries have not been well explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between heatwaves and hospitalization and the potential influence of socio-economic factors on this relationship in Vietnam. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with Poisson family and Distributed Lag Models (DLM) were applied to evaluate the effect of heatwaves for each province (province-level effect). A random-effects meta-analysis was applied to calculate the pooled estimates (country-level effects) for 'all causes', infectious, cardiovascular, and respiratory admissions queried by lag days, regions, sex, and ages. We used random-effects meta-regression to explore the potential influence of socio-economic factors on the relationship between heatwaves and hospitalization. The size of province-level effects varied across provinces. The pooled estimates show that heatwaves were significantly associated with a 2.5% (95%CI: 0.8-4.3) and 3.8% (95%CI, 1.5-6.2) increase in all causes and infectious admissions at lag 0. Cardiovascular and respiratory admissions (0.8%, 95%CI: -1.6-3.3; 2.2%, 95%CI: -0.7-5.2) were not significantly increased after a heatwave event. The risk of hospitalization due to heatwaves was higher in the North than in the South for all causes (5.4%, 95%CI: -0.1-11.5 versus 1.3%, 95%CI: 0.1-2.6), infectious (11.2%, 95%CI: 3.1-19.9 versus 3.2%, 95%CI: 0.7-5.7), cardiovascular (7.5%, 95%CI: 1.1-14.4 versus -1.2%, 95%CI: -2.6-2.3), and respiratory diseases (2.7%, 95%CI: -5.4-11.5 versus 2.1%, 95%CI: -0.8-1.2). A non-significant influence of socio-economic factors on the relationship between heatwave and hospitalization was observed. This study provides important evidence and suggests implications for the projected impacts of climate change related extreme weather. Climate change adaptation programs of the health sector should be developed to protect residents from the effects of extreme

  4. Retrofitting Precincts for Heatwave Resilience: Challenges and Barriers in Australian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Hatvani-Kovacs


    Full Text Available As the frequency and intensity of heatwaves are growing in Australia, strategies to combat heat are becoming more vital. Cities are exposed to urban heat islands (UHIs due to excess urbanisation. In this study, a definition of urban heatwave (UHW is conceptualised to investigate the combined impacts of heatwaves and UHIs. To quantify the negative impacts of UHW, indicators—such as excess morbidity, electricity and water consumption—are considered. The intensity of UHWs is calculated using the unit of excess heat factor (EHF, developed by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. EHF enables the comparability of UHWs in different geographical locations. Using the indicators and the intensity of UHWs, a calculation method to quantify heatwave resilience at a precincts scale is proposed. The study summarises the assumed influential factors of precinct heatwave resilience based on the existing literature and propose a “cool retrofitting toolkit” (CRT. CRT creates the framework to assess the adaptation to and mitigation of UHWs available to retrofit existing precincts, and to evaluate potential retrofitting strategies in terms of energy and carbon efficiency, financial affordability and perceived acceptability by population. This study illuminates the importance of climate, function, built environment and population characteristics-conscious retrofitting.

  5. Stakeholders' Perception on National Heatwave Plans and Their Local Implementation in Belgium and The Netherlands. (United States)

    van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Guha-Sapir, Debarati


    National heatwave plans are aimed at reducing the avoidable human health consequences due to heatwaves, by providing warnings as well as improving communication between relevant stakeholders. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of key stakeholders within plans in Belgium and The Netherlands on their responsibilities, the partnerships, and the effectiveness of the local implementation in Brussels and Amsterdam. Key informant interviews were held with stakeholders that had an important role in development of the heatwave plan in these countries, or its implementation in Brussels or Amsterdam. Care organisations, including hospitals and elderly care organisations, had a lack of familiarity with the national heatwave plan in both cities, and prioritised heat the lowest. Some groups of individuals, specifically socially isolated individuals, are not sufficiently addressed by the current national heatwave plans and most local plans. Stakeholders reported that responsibilities were not clearly described and that the national plan does not describe tasks on a local level. We recommend to urgently increase awareness on the impact of heat on health among care organisations. More emphasis needs to be given to the variety of heat-risk groups. Stakeholders should be involved in the development of updates of the plans.

  6. Loves, louts and London


    Slonims, Nancy


    A collaborative Exhibition at the Poetry Cafe , Covent Garden\\ud working with London Books an independent publisher which aims to bring old and new fiction together in a tradition that is original in its subject matter, style and social concerns.

  7. Kommunisme i London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Nielsen, Kasper Porsgaard


    Begrebet ”kommunisme” var på dagsordenen, da over 800 mennesker mødtes i Birkbeck University College i London, den 13.-15. marts, 2009. En perlerække af talere var inviteret: Alain Badiou, Michael Hardt, Bruno Bosteels, Peter Hallward, Allesandro Russo, Alberto Toscano, Toni Negri, Terry Eagleton...

  8. All set for London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigges, J.


    Five rowers from Delft student club Proteus-Eretes and one from rival Laga are heading to London with the Dutch Olympic team at the end of July. And they could well be joined by a beach volleyballer with TU blood in his veins. To prepare for the Games, all seven have taken a year out from their

  9. Heat stroke internet searches can be a new heatwave health warning surveillance indicator (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ding, Fan; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Yi; Kinney, Patrick L.


    The impact of major heatwave shocks on population morbidity and mortality has become an urgent public health concern. However, Current heatwave warning systems suffer from a lack of validation and an inability to provide accurate health risk warnings in a timely way. Here we conducted a correlation and linear regression analysis to test the relationship between heat stroke internet searches and heat stroke health outcomes in Shanghai, China, during the summer of 2013. We show that the resulting heatstroke index captures much of the variation in heat stroke cases and deaths. The correlation between heat stroke deaths, the search index and the incidence of heat stroke is higher than the correlation with maximum temperature. This study highlights a fast and effective heatwave health warning indicator with potential to be used throughout the world.

  10. Substantial increase in concurrent droughts and heatwaves in the United States. (United States)

    Mazdiyasni, Omid; AghaKouchak, Amir


    A combination of climate events (e.g., low precipitation and high temperatures) may cause a significant impact on the ecosystem and society, although individual events involved may not be severe extremes themselves. Analyzing historical changes in concurrent climate extremes is critical to preparing for and mitigating the negative effects of climatic change and variability. This study focuses on the changes in concurrences of heatwaves and meteorological droughts from 1960 to 2010. Despite an apparent hiatus in rising temperature and no significant trend in droughts, we show a substantial increase in concurrent droughts and heatwaves across most parts of the United States, and a statistically significant shift in the distribution of concurrent extremes. Although commonly used trend analysis methods do not show any trend in concurrent droughts and heatwaves, a unique statistical approach discussed in this study exhibits a statistically significant change in the distribution of the data.

  11. Impacts of extremely high temperature and heatwave on heatstroke in Chongqing, China. (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Li, Chengcheng; Luo, Shuquan; He, Jinyu; Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong


    Few studies have reported the quantitative association between heat and heatstroke (HS) occurrence, particularly in China. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the association between high temperature/heatwave and HS occurrence in Chongqing. The daily HS data from 2009 to 2013 of Chongqing were extracted from Chongqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A Zero-inflated Poisson regression model (ZIP) with a logistic distribution was used to quantitatively analyze the impacts of the daily maximum temperature (Tmax) over the threshold on HS occurrence by gender, age, and severity of HS, after controlling for covariates including day of the week (DOW), relative humidity, and daily temperature range. Lag effects up to 10 days were analyzed. Heatwave intensity, which was classified into four levels according to the quartile of its values, was calculated by Tmax multiplied the duration of a heatwave. The excess risk of HS during heatwave with different intensity was analyzed. The Tmax threshold for HS was 34 °C in Chongqing. After adjusting for potential confounders, strong associations and age-specific lag effects between Tmax and daily HS occurrence were observed. The impacts of Tmax on total HS lasted for 7 days (lag0-6), with the highest excess risk (ER) value of 30.5% (95% CI 23.6 and 37.8%) on lag0 with each 1 °C increment in Tmax over the threshold. A slightly stronger temperature-HS association was detected in male compared to female. The population over 65 years had the highest ER and the younger adults aged 19-35 and 35-55 years also showed significant heat-HS associations. The number of daily cases increased with the increasing of duration of heatwave and the peak value occurred on the eleventh day of the heatwave. The excess risk of HS during the heatwave with 1 to 4 level of intensity increased by 2.54, 2.97, 5.61, and 11.3 times, respectively, as compared with that of non-heatwave. Extreme heat is becoming a huge threat to

  12. The Impacts of Heatwaves on Mortality Differ with Different Study Periods: A Multi-City Time Series Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Different locations and study periods were used in the assessment of the relationships between heatwaves and mortality. However, little is known about the comparability and consistency of the previous effect estimates in the literature. This study assessed the heatwave-mortality relationship using different study periods in the three largest Australian cities (Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney.Daily data on climatic variables and mortality for the three cities were obtained from relevant government agencies between 1988 and 2011. A consistent definition of heatwaves was used for these cities. Poisson generalised additive model was fitted to assess the impact of heatwaves on mortality.Non-accidental and circulatory mortality significantly increased during heatwaves across the three cities even with different heatwave definitions and study periods. Using the summer data resulted in the largest increase in effect estimates compared to those using the warm season or the whole year data.The findings may have implications for developing standard approaches to evaluating the heatwave-mortality relationship and advancing heat health warning systems. It also provides an impetus to methodological advance for assessing climate change-related health consequences.

  13. Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, Adriaan J.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Stöckli, Reto; Reichstein, Markus; Moors, Eddy; Ciais, Philippe; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Van Den Hurk, Bart; Ammann, Christof; Bernhofer, Christian; Dellwik, Ebba; Gianelle, Damiano; Gielen, Bert; Grünwald, Thomas; Klumpp, Katja; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moureaux, Christine; Sottocornola, Matteo; Wohlfahrt, Georg


    Recent European heatwaves have raised interest in the impact of land cover conditions on temperature extremes. At present, it is believed that such extremes are enhanced by stronger surface heating of the atmosphere, when soil moisture content is below average. However, the impact of land cover on

  14. Future changes in heat-waves, droughts and floods in 571 European cities (United States)

    Guerreiro, Selma; Dawson, Richard; Kilsby, Chris; Lewis, Elizabeth; Ford, Alistair


    Future changes in heat-waves, droughts and floods were assessed for 571 European cities. We used all available climate model runs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 - CMIP5 - for their higher emission scenario (RCP8.5) and grouped the projections into Low, Mid and High impact scenarios. This resulted in impact projections outside the range of published literature, but enabled us to better understand uncertainties in future climate projections (both due to climate model errors but also the effects of natural variability) therefore providing the basis for broad scale risk analysis and thereafter identification of robust adaptation strategies. While heat-waves will worsen for every European city, changes in droughts and floods are spatially variable and climate model dependent. The largest increases in the number of heat-wave days are shown to be in southern Europe, but higher heat-wave maximum temperature increases are expected in the mid-latitudes. In the low impact scenario, drought conditions are expected to intensify only in southern Europe while river flooding in expected to worsen in the north. However, in the high impact scenario most European cities show increases in both drought conditions and river flooding. There is a very wide range of projections for future changes in Europe with disagreement between different studies, partly due to their methodological differences but potentially also due to the small number of climate model runs that limits the uncertainties due to natural variability and model errors that each study captures.

  15. Impact of heatwave on a megacity: an observational analysis of New York City during July 2016 (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Prathap; González, Jorge; Ortiz, Luis; Arend, Mark; Moshary, Fred


    More than half of the world’s current population resides in urban areas, and cities account for roughly three-quarters of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Current and future trends in urbanization will have significant impacts on global climate. However, our collective understanding of the climate of urban areas remains deficient, which is mainly related to significant knowledge gaps in observations. The New York City Summer Heat Campaign was initiated to address some of these critical knowledge gaps. As part of the campaign the urban boundary layer over New York City was continuously monitored during July 2016, a period that witnessed three heatwave events. Surface weather stations and indoor sensors were also used to characterize the urban heat island intensity. Our results reveal that during the month, the urban heat island intensity was nearly twice compared to the decadal average. During the heatwave episodes, urban heat island intensities as high as 10 °C were observed. The thermal profiles indicate elevated temperatures in much of the boundary layer between 800-2500 m during the heatwave episodes. The profiles indicate a complex thermal structure and high intra-city variability. Thermal internal boundary layer was observed in neighborhoods populated by tall buildings. Overall the high-pressure system during the heatwave episodes acted as a thermal block and much of the heat generated in the urban surface layer remained within the boundary layer, thereby amplifying the near surface air temperature.

  16. High-resolution simulation of heatwave events in New York City (United States)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Li, D.; Bou-Zeid, E.


    Heatwave intensity and frequency are predicted to increase in the coming years, and this will bear adverse consequences to the environmental well-being and the socio-economic fabric in urbanized areas. The hazardous combination of increased heat storage and reduced water retention capacities of the land surface make the urban areas warmer than the surrounding rural areas in what is commonly known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The primary motives of this study are to quantify the interaction of this city-scale UHI with synoptic-scale heatwave episodes and to analyze the factors that mediate this interaction. A modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is utilized to simulate two heatwave episodes in New York City. The land surface scheme in the default WRF model is modified to better represent the surface to atmosphere exchanges over urban areas. Our results indicate that during the heatwave episodes, the daily-averaged UHI in NYC increased by 1.5 K. Furthermore, most of this amplification occurs in the mid-afternoon period when the temperatures peak. Wind direction and urban-rural contrasts in available energy and moisture availability are found to have significant and systematic effects on the UHI, but wind speed plays a secondary role.

  17. A 10-day heatwave at flowering superimposed on climate change conditions strongly affects production of 22 barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Lyngkjær, Michael F.; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

    Extreme climate events are projected to be among the future most challenging constraints to plant development. Heatwaves as well as floods and droughts cause acute changes in the growth environment determining our primary production (Collins et al., 2013). Europe experienced extreme heatwaves...... in 2003 and 2006. In 2003, a 21 % decrease in the French wheat production was found from temperatures up to 6 °C above long-term means and precipitation being less than 50 % of the average (Ciais et al., 2005). One strategy to mitigate the this decrease from heatwaves is to identify resilient cultivars...

  18. SPRUCE Mashup London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Corrado


    Full Text Available SPRUCE digital preservation mashups are a series of unique events that are being organized in the United Kingdom to bring together digital preservation practitioners and developers to work on real-world digital preservation challenges. During the 3-day event the digital preservation developers work to create practical solutions to real-world challenges the practitioners are having related to digital preservation. Meanwhile, the practitioners work to create compelling business cases for digital preservation at their institution. This article describes the SPRUCE Mashup London event held in September 2012.

  19. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne


    This chapter analyses religious reflections on vulnerable genders and vulnerable loves from the Hebrew Bible to early Rabbinic literature. It is based on theories by inter alia Donna Haraway on complex identities, Turner and Maryanski on love as a prerequisite for survival, Michel Foucault...... on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... of cultures which leads to the overall understanding that culture can accommodate complex identities associated with individual and cultural vulnerability as long as the overall survival of the culture is not threatened. This understanding questions the feasibility of the ethical position of thinkers...

  20. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration (United States)

    Guhin, Paula


    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  1. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.


    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  2. The Making of London Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth


    Den følgende tekst består af to dele. Begge dele omhandler workshoppen The Making of London Narratives, der var et undervisningsforløb for 52 studerende fra Arkitektskolen Aarhus og School of Architecture and the Visual Arts University of East London. I den første del perspektiveres workshoppens...

  3. Heat Wave Vulnerability Mapping for India. (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez; Saha, Shubhayu; Ganguly, Partha; Mavalankar, Dileep; Madrigano, Jaime


    Assessing geographic variability in heat wave vulnerability forms the basis for planning appropriate targeted adaptation strategies. Given several recent deadly heatwaves in India, heat is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem. However, to date there has not been a country-wide assessment of heat vulnerability in India. We evaluated demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental vulnerability factors and combined district level data from several sources including the most recent census, health reports, and satellite remote sensing data. We then applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 17 normalized variables for each of the 640 districts to create a composite Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) for India. Of the total 640 districts, our analysis identified 10 and 97 districts in the very high and high risk categories (> 2SD and 2-1SD HVI) respectively. Mapping showed that the districts with higher heat vulnerability are located in the central parts of the country. On examination, these are less urbanized and have low rates of literacy, access to water and sanitation, and presence of household amenities. Therefore, we concluded that creating and mapping a heat vulnerability index is a useful first step in protecting the public from the health burden of heat. Future work should incorporate heat exposure and health outcome data to validate the index, as well as examine sub-district levels of vulnerability.

  4. Olympic Games Impact Study – London 2012



    These four reports compile impact studies from 2008 to 2015 regarding the London 2012 Summer Olympic Games conducted by the University of East London for the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (LOCOG).

  5. Marine heatwave causes unprecedented regional mass bleaching of thermally resistant corals in northwestern Australia. (United States)

    Le Nohaïc, Morane; Ross, Claire L; Cornwall, Christopher E; Comeau, Steeve; Lowe, Ryan; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Schoepf, Verena


    In 2015/16, a marine heatwave associated with a record El Niño led to the third global mass bleaching event documented to date. This event impacted coral reefs around the world, including in Western Australia (WA), although WA reefs had largely escaped bleaching during previous strong El Niño years. Coral health surveys were conducted during the austral summer of 2016 in four bioregions along the WA coast (~17 degrees of latitude), ranging from tropical to temperate locations. Here we report the first El Niño-related regional-scale mass bleaching event in WA. The heatwave primarily affected the macrotidal Kimberley region in northwest WA (~16°S), where 4.5-9.3 degree heating weeks (DHW) resulted in 56.6-80.6% bleaching, demonstrating that even heat-tolerant corals from naturally extreme, thermally variable reef environments are threatened by heatwaves. Some heat stress (2.4 DHW) and bleaching (coral communities at Ningaloo Reef (23°9'S) and Bremer Bay (34°25'S) were not impacted. The only other major mass bleaching in WA occurred during a strong La Niña event in 2010/11 and primarily affected reefs along the central-to-southern coast. This suggests that WA reefs are now at risk of severe bleaching during both El Niño and La Niña years.

  6. Expansion of corals on temperate reefs: direct and indirect effects of marine heatwaves (United States)

    Tuckett, C. A.; de Bettignies, T.; Fromont, J.; Wernberg, T.


    Globally, many temperate marine communities have experienced significant temperature increases over recent decades in the form of gradual warming and heatwaves. As a result, these communities are shifting towards increasingly subtropical and tropical species compositions. Expanding coral populations have been reported from several temperate reef ecosystems along warming coastlines; these changes have been attributed to direct effects of gradual warming over decades. In contrast, increases in coral populations following shorter-term extreme warming events have rarely been documented. In this study, we compared coral populations on 17 temperate reefs in Western Australia before (2005/06) and after (2013) multiple marine heatwaves (2010-2012) affected the entire coastline. We hypothesised that coral communities would expand and change as a consequence of increasing local populations and recruitment of warm-affinity species. We found differences in coral community structure over time, driven primarily by a fourfold increase of one local species, Plesiastrea versipora, rather than recruitment of warm-affinity species. Coral populations became strongly dominated by small size classes, indicative of recent increased recruitment or recruit survival. These changes were likely facilitated by competitive release of corals from dominant temperate seaweeds, which perished during the heatwaves, rather than driven by direct temperature effects. Overall, as corals are inherently warm-water taxa not commonly associated with seaweed-dominated temperate reefs, these findings are consistent with a net tropicalisation. Our study draws attention to processes other than gradual warming that also influence the trajectory of temperate reefs in a changing ocean.

  7. The effects of ambient temperature and heatwaves on daily Campylobacter cases in Adelaide, Australia, 1990-2012. (United States)

    Milazzo, A; Giles, L C; Zhang, Y; Koehler, A P; Hiller, J E; Bi, P


    Campylobacter spp. is a commonly reported food-borne disease with major consequences for morbidity. In conjunction with predicted increases in temperature, proliferation in the survival of microorganisms in hotter environments is expected. This is likely to lead, in turn, to an increase in contamination of food and water and a rise in numbers of cases of infectious gastroenteritis. This study assessed the relationship of Campylobacter spp. with temperature and heatwaves, in Adelaide, South Australia. We estimated the effect of (i) maximum temperature and (ii) heatwaves on daily Campylobacter cases during the warm seasons (1 October to 31 March) from 1990 to 2012 using Poisson regression models. There was no evidence of a substantive effect of maximum temperature per 1 °C rise (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0·995, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0·993-0·997) nor heatwaves (IRR 0·906, 95% CI 0·800-1·026) on Campylobacter cases. In relation to heatwave intensity, which is the daily maximum temperature during a heatwave, notifications decreased by 19% within a temperature range of 39-40·9 °C (IRR 0·811, 95% CI 0·692-0·952). We found little evidence of an increase in risk and lack of association between Campylobacter cases and temperature or heatwaves in the warm seasons. Heatwave intensity may play a role in that notifications decreased with higher temperatures. Further examination of the role of behavioural and environmental factors in an effort to reduce the risk of increased Campylobacter cases is warranted.

  8. Vulnerable Plaque (United States)

    ... Center > Vulnerable Plaque Menu Topics Topics FAQs Vulnerable Plaque Article Info En español Swelling (inflammation) is your ... aging, including coronary artery disease . What is vulnerable plaque? For many years, doctors have thought that the ...

  9. TREASURE mobile app: A satellite-enabled application for personalized heatwave risk based on location and user profile (United States)

    Keramitsoglou, I.; Katsouyanni, K.; Analitis, A.; Sismanidis, P.; Kiranoudis, C. T.


    High temperatures and heatwaves are associated with large increases in mortality, especially among susceptible individuals living in urban areas. The within-city variability in the effects associated with specific area characteristics, including the Urban Heat Island effect, have to be taken into account to estimate the level of heatwave risk associated with a specific city location. Real-time appraisal and quantification of spatially distributed heatwave risk is therefore required to develop innovative applications to safeguard citizens' health. TREASURE app ( integrates the expertise of epidemiologists, Earth Observation scientists and IT developers into intelligent operational and real-time heatwave risk assessment for citizens. The app provides the user with an assessment of personalized location-specific heatwave risk. For the development of the app an epidemiological analysis of a long series of mortality data against measured data series has been carried out to identify the temperature level associated with the minimum mortality (threshold) and the change in risk of death for increases in temperature above this level, in the warm period. Published results have been also taken into account. For the estimation of heatwave hazard thermal infrared Earth Observation data were exploited so as to provide spatially and temporally detailed air and land surface temperatures. An advanced workflow has been developed that uses 4 km/5' geostationary TIR data from EUMETSAT MSG2-SEVIRI satellite, output from the Global Forecast System weather model and SAFNWC software. This workflow consists of the preprocessing of the EO data and the retrieval of LST and TA at an enhanced spatial resolution of 1km. The mobile app was developed for, evaluated in and endorsed by two Mediterranean cities with different characteristics, namely Athens (GR) and Palma (ES) and has set the ground for application to any other European city.

  10. Thermal buffering of concrete by seaweeds during a prolonged summer heatwave (United States)

    Naylor, Larissa; Coombes, Martin


    Hard coastal infrastructure is subject to aggressive environmental conditions, including a suite of weathering processes in the intertidal zone. These processes, along with waves, lead to costly deterioration of coastal structures. Existing methods (e.g. coatings, less porous concrete) to reduce the risk of concrete deterioration rapidly lose their effectiveness in the intertidal zone. Additionally, a changing climate will lead to increased frequency of storms, higher sea level and higher extreme temperatures - and therefore, pose an increased risk of deterioration. Might there be a biogenic solution? New research (Coombes et al. 2013) has shown that fucoid seaweeds reduce microclimatic extremes and variability under normal summer conditions. The results presented here supplement these findings in two ways. First, they demonstrate that fucoid seaweeds act as a thermal buffer during a prolonged summer heatwave in Britain (July 2013). Over 36 days of continuous monitoring at two sites in Cornwall, UK, 19 of which were during the official heatwave, there were statistically significant differences (p = 0.000) in the maximum temperatures between thick seaweed (7.5 - 9.5 cm thickness) and thin seaweed (2 - 2.5 cm thickness) plots. Maximum temperatures reached 22°C and 33°C, for thick seaweed and thin seaweed plots, respectively. Variations in maximum temperatures between the two sites appear to be related to aspect. Second, the significantly different maximum temperature results between plots also demonstrate that seaweed thickness is an important factor influencing thermal buffering capacity. These data clearly demonstrate that fucoid seaweeds buffer concrete seawalls against extreme temperature fluxes during a heatwave, probably limiting the efficiency of deteriorative processes such as thermal expansion and contraction and salt crystallisation.

  11. Time-varying Concurrent Risk of Extreme Droughts and Heatwaves in California (United States)

    Sarhadi, A.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Ausin, M. C.


    Anthropogenic global warming has changed the nature and the risk of extreme climate phenomena such as droughts and heatwaves. The concurrent of these nature-changing climatic extremes may result in intensifying undesirable consequences in terms of human health and destructive effects in water resources. The present study assesses the risk of concurrent extreme droughts and heatwaves under dynamic nonstationary conditions arising from climate change in California. For doing so, a generalized fully Bayesian time-varying multivariate risk framework is proposed evolving through time under dynamic human-induced environment. In this methodology, an extreme, Bayesian, dynamic copula (Gumbel) is developed to model the time-varying dependence structure between the two different climate extremes. The time-varying extreme marginals are previously modeled using a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inference is integrated to estimate parameters of the nonstationary marginals and copula using a Gibbs sampling method. Modelled marginals and copula are then used to develop a fully Bayesian, time-varying joint return period concept for the estimation of concurrent risk. Here we argue that climate change has increased the chance of concurrent droughts and heatwaves over decades in California. It is also demonstrated that a time-varying multivariate perspective should be incorporated to assess realistic concurrent risk of the extremes for water resources planning and management in a changing climate in this area. The proposed generalized methodology can be applied for other stochastic nature-changing compound climate extremes that are under the influence of climate change.

  12. A 10-days heatwave around flowering superimposed on climate change conditions significantly affects production of 22 barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Lyngkjær, Michael F.; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo


    Extreme climate events as heatwaves, floods and storms cause acute changes in season variability influencing primary production and are very likely to increase in magnitude and/or frequency (IPCC, AR5, WGI). In the present study 22 primarily Nordic barley accessions were grown in four basic climate...... in response was identified among accessions. In the two-factor treatment the decrease in grain yield varied from 2-80%. The heatwave caused the strongest overall effect in the treatment of elevated [CO2] decreasing grain yield by 48% and the least effect (35%) was observed under elevated temperature...

  13. Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teuling, A.J.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Stöckli, R.


    and induces a critical shift in the regional climate system that leads to increased heating. We propose that this mechanism may explain the extreme temperatures in August 2003. We conclude that the conservative water use of forest contributes to increased temperatures in the short term, but mitigates...... on the exchange of water and energy and the interaction of this exchange with the soil water balance during heatwaves is largely unknown. Here we analyse observations from an extensive network of flux towers in Europe that reveal a difference between the temporal responses of forest and grassland ecosystems...

  14. Isoprene emission and photosynthesis during heatwaves and drought in black locust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bamberger


    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions like heatwaves and drought can substantially affect tree physiology and the emissions of isoprene. To date, however, there is only limited understanding of isoprene emission patterns during prolonged heat stress and next to no data on emission patterns during coupled heat–drought stress or during post-stress recovery. We studied gas exchange and isoprene emissions of black locust trees under episodic heat stress and in combination with drought. Heatwaves were simulated in a controlled greenhouse facility by exposing trees to outside temperatures +10 °C, and trees in the heat–drought treatment were supplied with half of the irrigation water given to heat and control trees. Leaf gas exchange of isoprene, CO2 and H2O was quantified using self-constructed, automatically operating chambers, which were permanently installed on leaves (n = 3 per treatment. Heat and combined heat–drought stress resulted in a sharp decline of net photosynthesis (Anet and stomatal conductance. Simultaneously, isoprene emissions increased 6- to 8-fold in the heat and heat–drought treatment, which resulted in a carbon loss that was equivalent to 12 and 20 % of assimilated carbon at the time of measurement. Once temperature stress was released at the end of two 15-day-long heatwaves, stomatal conductance remained reduced, while isoprene emissions and Anet recovered quickly to values of the control trees. Further, we found that isoprene emissions covaried with Anet during nonstress conditions, while during the heatwaves, isoprene emissions were not related to Anet but to light and temperature. Under standard air temperature and light conditions (here 30 °C and photosynthetically active radiation of 500 µmol m−2 s−1, isoprene emissions of the heat trees were by 45 % and the heat–drought trees were by 27 % lower than in control trees. Moreover, temperature response curves showed that not only the isoprene emission

  15. Isoprene emission and photosynthesis during heatwaves and drought in black locust (United States)

    Bamberger, Ines; Ruehr, Nadine K.; Schmitt, Michael; Gast, Andreas; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Arneth, Almut


    Extreme weather conditions like heatwaves and drought can substantially affect tree physiology and the emissions of isoprene. To date, however, there is only limited understanding of isoprene emission patterns during prolonged heat stress and next to no data on emission patterns during coupled heat-drought stress or during post-stress recovery. We studied gas exchange and isoprene emissions of black locust trees under episodic heat stress and in combination with drought. Heatwaves were simulated in a controlled greenhouse facility by exposing trees to outside temperatures +10 °C, and trees in the heat-drought treatment were supplied with half of the irrigation water given to heat and control trees. Leaf gas exchange of isoprene, CO2 and H2O was quantified using self-constructed, automatically operating chambers, which were permanently installed on leaves (n = 3 per treatment). Heat and combined heat-drought stress resulted in a sharp decline of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance. Simultaneously, isoprene emissions increased 6- to 8-fold in the heat and heat-drought treatment, which resulted in a carbon loss that was equivalent to 12 and 20 % of assimilated carbon at the time of measurement. Once temperature stress was released at the end of two 15-day-long heatwaves, stomatal conductance remained reduced, while isoprene emissions and Anet recovered quickly to values of the control trees. Further, we found that isoprene emissions covaried with Anet during nonstress conditions, while during the heatwaves, isoprene emissions were not related to Anet but to light and temperature. Under standard air temperature and light conditions (here 30 °C and photosynthetically active radiation of 500 µmol m-2 s-1), isoprene emissions of the heat trees were by 45 % and the heat-drought trees were by 27 % lower than in control trees. Moreover, temperature response curves showed that not only the isoprene emission factor changed during both heat and heat

  16. London's Suicide Bombers: Botched Operation


    Clonan, Tom


    Thursday’s attacks on London’s tube network and on a double-decker bus in Hackney bear the hallmarks of a botched operation. As more information emerges, the authorities in London have confirmed that at least three of the devices isolated on Thursday were of a similar size to those detonated by Islamic extremists during the 7/7 attack on London earlier this month. The fourth device appears to have been slightly smaller. These devices consist of three main components. The first is a batter...

  17. Eye casualty services in London (United States)

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S


    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  18. Disentangling the response of forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves under idealized land-atmosphere coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van C.; Teuling, A.J.


    This study investigates the difference in land–atmosphere interactions between grassland and forest during typical heatwave conditions in order to understand the controversial results of Teuling et al. (2010) (hereafter T10), who found the systematic occurrence of higher sensible heat fluxes over

  19. Hot Under the Collar: Lessons from the 2003 Heatwave in France and the Security Implications for Coping with Environmental Threats in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Stephenson


    Full Text Available In the sweltering temperatures of August 2003 there were over 15,000 fatalities in France, the majority among the elderly. The heatwave (canicule was the greatest natural catastrophe in Europe for 50 years. Political mismanagement contributed to the death toll and government initially to blame medical services. However, other politico-cultural, societal and psychological factors may have contributed to the failure to protect the most vulnerable citizens. This article identifies 20 obstacles (“pathogens” to ensuring effective response in the face of environmental or weather-related threats, distinguishing between state-institutional and individual-community barriers, most of which have a cultural dimension. These factors require greater consideration by policy-makers to improve preparedness for environmental threats in the EU. The case raises questions about crisis management and how best to reduce risk for elderly populations, illustrating the limits of the state in offering social protection through institutionalised solidarity mechanisms, and recognises calls to strengthen community-capacity.

  20. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012


    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert


    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  1. Embodied Protest in Occupy London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Reinecke, Juliane

    In this paper we discuss the relation of embodied protest and public space in Occupy London. We draw on Agamben’s notion of the homo sacer – the excluded included life embodied by the figure of the homeless, refugee and so forth – to analyze how in protest camps embodied protest relates to resist......In this paper we discuss the relation of embodied protest and public space in Occupy London. We draw on Agamben’s notion of the homo sacer – the excluded included life embodied by the figure of the homeless, refugee and so forth – to analyze how in protest camps embodied protest relates...... with the general public and media. Particularly, tensions became manifest as the homines sacri of the homeless people joined the camp. We discuss the implications of Agamben’s biopolitical insights for the relation of resistance, public space and community building in protest movements....

  2. Observations and simulation of katabatic flows during a heatwave in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agustsson, H.; Olafsson, H. [Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland); Institute for Meteorological Research, Reykjavik (Iceland); Icelandic Meteorological Office, Reykjavik (Iceland); Cuxart, J.; Mira, A. [Univ. of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    Katabatic flows during a heatwave in August 2004 in Iceland are studied using observations and a high-resolution simulation with a numerical atmospheric model. In relation with the very high daytime temperatures, weak synoptic winds and clear skies, a radiative surface cooling in excess of 10-15 C was observed during the night throughout Iceland. The simulations and initial conditions are compared to available observations. Most of the observed winds, including patterns where weak synoptic winds or katabatic flow interact with orography, are reproduced well. They reveal that the katabatic flow in Southern Iceland can be characterized as low Froude number 'tranquil' flow. The simulations also give valuable indications of locations of relatively strong katabatic winds where no observations are currently available and where katabatic flows are presumably of importance for the local wind climate. (orig.)

  3. Subsurface intensification of marine heatwaves off southeastern Australia: The role of stratification and local winds (United States)

    Schaeffer, A.; Roughan, M.


    Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are becoming more common with record events occurring around the world and unprecedented biological impacts including mass mortality and habitat shifts. However, little is known about the statistical characteristics of MHWs due to the lack of long-term in situ observations. Using two historical data sets spanning from 1953 (and 1992) to 2016, we use a seasonally varying climatology and temperature anomalies to identify and characterize MHW events down to 100 m depth in coastal waters off southeastern Australia. We show that MHWs regularly extend the full depth of the water column, with a maximum intensity below the surface. Extreme temperatures at depth are driven by local downwelling favorable winds that mix the water column and reduce the stratification. These results show the importance of considering subsurface hydrography and that sea surface temperature is insufficient to fully understand MHWs which are having disastrous ecological consequences in coastal regions globally.

  4. Disentangling the response of forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves under idealized land-atmosphere coupling (United States)

    van Heerwaarden, C. C.; Teuling, A. J.


    This study investigates the difference in land-atmosphere interactions between grassland and forest during typical heatwave conditions in order to understand the controversial results of Teuling et al. (2010) (hereafter T10), who found the systematic occurrence of higher sensible heat fluxes over forest than over grassland during heatwaves. With a simple but accurate coupled land-atmosphere model, we show that existing parametrizations are able to reproduce the findings of T10 for normal summer and heatwave conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the coupled system to changes in incoming radiation and early-morning temperature typical for European heatwaves. Our results suggest that the fast atmospheric control of stomatal resistance can explain the observed differences between grassland and forest. The atmospheric boundary layer has a buffering function therein: increases in stomatal resistance are largely compensated for by increases in the potential evaporation due to atmospheric warming and drying. In order to disentangle the contributions of differences in several static and dynamic properties between forest and grassland, we have performed a virtual experiment with artificial land-use types that are equal to grassland, but with one of its properties replaced by that of forest. From these, we confirm the important role of the fast physiological processes that lead to the closure of stomata. Nonetheless, for a full explanation of T10's results, the other properties (albedo, roughness and the ratio of minimum stomatal resistance to leaf-area index) play an important but indirect role; their influences mainly consist of strengthening the feedback that leads to the closure of the stomata by providing more energy that can be converted into sensible heat. The model experiment also confirms that, in line with the larger sensible heat flux, higher atmospheric temperatures occur over forest. As our parametrization for stomatal resistance is empirical

  5. High-resolution geological maps of central London, UK: Comparisons with the London Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Paul


    Full Text Available This study presents new thickness maps of post-Cretaceous sedimentary strata beneath central London. >1100 borehole records were analysed. London Clay is thickest in the west; thicker deposits extend as a narrow finger along the axis of the London Basin. More minor variations are probably governed by periglacial erosion and faulting. A shallow anticline in the Chalk in north-central London has resulted in a pronounced thinning of succeeding strata. These results are compared to the position of London Underground railway tunnels. Although tunnels have been bored through the upper levels of London Clay where thick, some tunnels and stations are positioned within the underlying, more lithologically variable, Lower London Tertiary deposits. Although less complex than other geological models of the London Basin, this technique is more objective and uses a higher density of borehole data. The high resolution of the resulting maps emphasises the power of modelling an expansive dataset in a rigorous but simple fashion.

  6. See you at London Vet Show. (United States)


    London Vet Show is fast approaching: it takes place from November 17 to 18 and is being held at ExCeL London for the first time. Zoe Davies, marketing manager, highlights some of what BVA is offering at the event. British Veterinary Association.

  7. The Dynamical Linkage of Atmospheric Blocking to Drought, Heatwave and Urban Heat Island in Southeastern US: A Multi-Scale Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong


    Full Text Available Atmospheric blocking is a long standing structure stalled in the mid-troposphere which is often associated with extreme weather events such as droughts, heatwaves, flood and cold air outbreak. A striking atmospheric blocking is identified to persist over the US during 13–17 August 2007, exacerbating the existing drought over the Southeastern US. This pronounced blocking event not only intensified the concurrent drought conditions, but also led to a record-breaking heatwave over the Southeast of the US. The excessive heat observed during this heatwave is attributable to the subsidence-associated adiabatic warming as well as the dry-and-warm air advection over Alabama and the neighboring states. At the local scale, we choose Birmingham, AL, as the study area for exploring the blocking influence on urban heat island. Based on the remote sensing data, the surface (skin urban heat island is found to be 8 ∘ C in this area on the block-onset day. This provides partial evidences that the surface urban heat island intensity is likely amplified by the blocking-induced heat waves. The present work provides a unique case study in which blocking, drought, heatwave and urban heat island all occur concurrently, and interplay across a spectrum of spatial scales. We conclude that atmospheric blocking is capable of reinforcing droughts, initiating heatwaves, and probably amplifying the urban heat island intensity during the concurrent period.

  8. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi


    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... attention to the social processes whereby vulnerability is modified and renegotiated during the post-disaster period where resources for disaster alleviation and reconstruction enter local communities. Specifically, we explore the social dynamics of house damage classification in the wake of the 2006...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  9. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.


    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  10. Assessing the Short-Term Effects of Heatwaves on Mortality and Morbidity in Brisbane, Australia: Comparison of Case-Crossover and Time Series Analyses (United States)

    Tong, Shilu; Wang, Xiao Yu; Guo, Yuming


    Background Heat-related impacts may have greater public health implications as climate change continues. It is important to appropriately characterize the relationship between heatwave and health outcomes. However, it is unclear whether a case-crossover design can be effectively used to assess the event- or episode-related health effects. This study examined the association between exposure to heatwaves and mortality and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) from non-external causes in Brisbane, Australia, using both case-crossover and time series analyses approaches. Methods Poisson generalised additive model (GAM) and time-stratified case-crossover analyses were used to assess the short-term impact of heatwaves on mortality and EHAs. Heatwaves exhibited a significant impact on mortality and EHAs after adjusting for air pollution, day of the week, and season. Results For time-stratified case-crossover analysis, odds ratios of mortality and EHAs during heatwaves were 1.62 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36–1.94) and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14–1.30) at lag 1, respectively. Time series GAM models gave similar results. Relative risks of mortality and EHAs ranged from 1.72 (95% CI: 1.40–2.11) to 1.81 (95% CI: 1.56–2.10) and from 1.14 (95% CI: 1.06–1.23) to 1.28 (95% CI: 1.21–1.36) at lag 1, respectively. The risk estimates gradually attenuated after the lag of one day for both case-crossover and time series analyses. Conclusions The risk estimates from both case-crossover and time series models were consistent and comparable. This finding may have implications for future research on the assessment of event- or episode-related (e.g., heatwave) health effects. PMID:22655052

  11. An evaluation of the performance of a WRF multi-physics ensemble for heatwave events over the city of Melbourne in southeast Australia (United States)

    Imran, H. M.; Kala, J.; Ng, A. W. M.; Muthukumaran, S.


    Appropriate choice of physics options among many physics parameterizations is important when using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The responses of different physics parameterizations of the WRF model may vary due to geographical locations, the application of interest, and the temporal and spatial scales being investigated. Several studies have evaluated the performance of the WRF model in simulating the mean climate and extreme rainfall events for various regions in Australia. However, no study has explicitly evaluated the sensitivity of the WRF model in simulating heatwaves. Therefore, this study evaluates the performance of a WRF multi-physics ensemble that comprises 27 model configurations for a series of heatwave events in Melbourne, Australia. Unlike most previous studies, we not only evaluate temperature, but also wind speed and relative humidity, which are key factors influencing heatwave dynamics. No specific ensemble member for all events explicitly showed the best performance, for all the variables, considering all evaluation metrics. This study also found that the choice of planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme had largest influence, the radiation scheme had moderate influence, and the microphysics scheme had the least influence on temperature simulations. The PBL and microphysics schemes were found to be more sensitive than the radiation scheme for wind speed and relative humidity. Additionally, the study tested the role of Urban Canopy Model (UCM) and three Land Surface Models (LSMs). Although the UCM did not play significant role, the Noah-LSM showed better performance than the CLM4 and NOAH-MP LSMs in simulating the heatwave events. The study finally identifies an optimal configuration of WRF that will be a useful modelling tool for further investigations of heatwaves in Melbourne. Although our results are invariably region-specific, our results will be useful to WRF users investigating heatwave dynamics elsewhere.

  12. Spatial vulnerability of Australian urban populations to extreme heat events (United States)

    Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Phan, Thu; Lynch, Kellie; McInnes, Judith


    Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers' need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future. This study identified threshold temperatures for all Australian capital cities, developed a spatial index of population vulnerability, and used climate model output to predict changes in the number of days exceeding temperature thresholds in the future, as well as changes in risk related to changes in urban density and an ageing population. The study has shown that daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts can be used to calculate temperature thresholds for heat alert days. The key risk factors related to adverse health outcomes were found to be areas with intense urban heat islands, areas with higher proportions of older people, and areas with ethnic communities. Maps of spatial vulnerability have been developed to provide information to assist emergency managers, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale that target vulnerable groups and address heat-related health risks. The numbers of days exceeding current heat thresholds are predicted to increase over the next 20 to 40 years in all Australian capital cities.

  13. Career development at London Vet Show. (United States)


    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Developing a heatwave early warning system for Sweden: evaluating sensitivity of different epidemiological modelling approaches to forecast temperatures. (United States)

    Åström, Christofer; Ebi, Kristie L; Langner, Joakim; Forsberg, Bertil


    Over the last two decades a number of heatwaves have brought the need for heatwave early warning systems (HEWS) to the attention of many European governments. The HEWS in Europe are operating under the assumption that there is a high correlation between observed and forecasted temperatures. We investigated the sensitivity of different temperature mortality relationships when using forecast temperatures. We modelled mortality in Stockholm using observed temperatures and made predictions using forecast temperatures from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts to assess the sensitivity. We found that the forecast will alter the expected future risk differently for different temperature mortality relationships. The more complex models seemed more sensitive to inaccurate forecasts. Despite the difference between models, there was a high agreement between models when identifying risk-days. We find that considerations of the accuracy in temperature forecasts should be part of the design of a HEWS. Currently operating HEWS do evaluate their predictive performance; this information should also be part of the evaluation of the epidemiological models that are the foundation in the HEWS. The most accurate description of the relationship between high temperature and mortality might not be the most suitable or practical when incorporated into a HEWS.

  15. Possible association of the western Tibetan Plateau snow cover with the decadal to interdecadal variations of northern China heatwave frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiwei [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Jiang, Zhihong; Zhong, Shanshan; Wang, Lijuan [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Li, Jianping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)


    Northern China has been subject to increased heatwave frequency (HWF) in recent decades, which deteriorates the local droughts and desertification. More than half a billion people face drinking water shortages and worsening ecological environment. In this study, the variability in the western Tibetan Plateau snow cover (TPSC) is observed to have an intimate linkage with the first empirical orthogonal function mode of the summer HWF across China. This distinct leading mode is dominated by the decadal to inter-decadal variability and features a mono-sign pattern with the extreme value center prevailing over northern China and high pressure anomalies at mid- and upper troposphere over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. A simplified general circulation model is utilized to examine the possible physical mechanism. A reduced TPSC anomaly can induce a positive geopotential height anomaly at the mid- and upper troposphere and subsequently enhance the climatological high pressure ridge over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. The subsidence associated with the high pressure anomalies tends to suppress the local cloud formation, which increases the net radiation budget, heats the surface, and favors more heatwaves. On the other hand, the surface heating can excite high pressure anomalies at mid- and upper troposphere. The latter further strengthens the upper troposphere high pressure anomalies over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. Through such positive feedback effect, the TPSC is tied to the interdecadal variations of the northern China HWF. (orig.)

  16. Impacts of the 2003 and 2015 summer heatwaves on permafrost-affected rock-walls in the Mont Blanc massif. (United States)

    Ravanel, L; Magnin, F; Deline, P


    Rockfall is one of the main geomorphological processes that affects the evolution and stability of rock-walls. At high elevations, rockfall is largely climate-driven, very probably because of the warming of rock-wall permafrost. So with the ongoing global warming that drives the degradation of permafrost, the related hazards for people and infrastructure could continue to increase. The heatwave of summer 2015, which affected Western Europe from the end of June to August, had a serious impact on the stability of high-altitude rock-walls, including those in the Mont Blanc massif. A network of observers allowed us to survey the frequency and intensity of rock-wall morphodynamics in 2015, and to verify its relationship with permafrost. These observations were compared with those of the 2003 summer heatwave, identified and quantified by remote sensing. A comparison between the two years shows a fairly similar rockfall pattern in respect of total volumes and high frequencies (about 160 rockfalls >100m3) but the total volume for 2003 is higher than the 2015 one (about 300,000m3 and 170,000m3 respectively). In both cases, rockfalls were numerous but with a low magnitude and occurred in permafrost-affected areas. This suggests a sudden and remarkable deepening of the active layer during these two summers, rather than a longer-term warming of the permafrost body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing vulnerability


    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P


    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the people most at risk from the effects of climate variability and climate change? It is not an easy question to answer. How can we compare the hazards facing the inhabitants of a small island as the sea...

  18. Nearshore and offshore co-occurrence of marine heatwaves and cold-spells (United States)

    Schlegel, Robert W.; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Wernberg, Thomas; Smit, Albertus J.


    A changing global climate places shallow water ecosystems at more risk than those in the open ocean as their temperatures may change more rapidly and dramatically. To this end, it is necessary to identify the occurrence of extreme ocean temperature events - marine heatwaves (MHWs) and marine cold-spells (MCSs) - in the nearshore (<400 m from the coastline) environment as they can have lasting ecological effects. The occurrence of MHWs have been investigated regionally, but no investigations of MCSs have yet to be carried out. A recently developed framework that defines these events in a novel way was applied to ocean temperature time series from (i) a nearshore in situ dataset and (ii) 1/4 ° NOAA Optimally Interpolated sea surface temperatures. Regional drivers due to nearshore influences (local-scale) and the forcing of two offshore ocean currents (broad-scale) on MHWs and MCSs were taken into account when the events detected in these two datasets were used to infer the links between offshore and nearshore temperatures in time and space. We show that MHWs and MCSs occur at least once a year on average but that proportions of co-occurrence of events between the broad- and local scales are low (0.20-0.50), with MHWs having greater proportions of co-occurrence than MCSs. The low rates of co-occurrence between the nearshore and offshore datasets show that drivers other than mesoscale ocean temperatures play a role in the occurrence of at least half of nearshore events. Significant differences in the duration and intensity of events between different coastal sections may be attributed to the effects of the interaction of oceanographic processes offshore, as well as with local features of the coast. The decadal trends in the occurrence of MHWs and MCSs in the offshore dataset show that generally MHWs are increasing there while MCSs are decreasing. This study represents an important first step in the analysis of the dynamics of events in nearshore environments, and

  19. The Potential Impact of Directionality, Colour Perceptions and Cultural Associations on Disaster Messages During Heatwaves in the UK. (United States)

    Tang, Chris; Rundblad, Gabriella


    The health risks posed by heatwaves have been well documented. In the UK, before and during a heatwave, alerts are issued to the general public based on a tiered warning system integrating the use of colour and number sequences. There has of yet been no formal assessment of the public response to these messages. Cultural and language barriers make some members of ethnic minority communities particularly hard to reach. These may be less challenging amongst younger community members, who may be well placed to instigate the circulation of warning information to those less able or willing to use conventional channels. This qualitative study assesses the role of age and ethnic and cultural background in the conceptualisation of the number and colour systems used as part of the Heat-Health Watch System (HHWS) and the National Severe Weather Warning Service (NSWWS). Young and older participants were recruited from the Bangladeshi and white British populations of Tower Hamlets. All participants were given a cognitive task that required them to identify and draw associations between 12 cards depicting the four colours and numbers used in the warning system and four pictures providing contextualisation in terms of heatwave risk. A qualitative analysis of the heuristics used in the group discussions provided insights into the conceptualisations basic to interpreting colour and number sequences as representations of risk graduations, and how interpretation might be influenced by age and ethnic and cultural background. There were considerable differences in the interpretation of young Bangladeshi and older white British participants, on the one hand, and older Bangladeshi participants, on the other. Young Bangladeshis and older white British participants conceptualised the colours and numbers as a vertical scale, with the numbers/colours at "the top" corresponding to representations of higher temperature. This conceptualisation was mainly based on strong associations between

  20. Rapid-access gynecological oncology clinic outcomes in North London, UK


    Bansal,Jassimran; Goldrick,Isabelle; Manchanda, Ranjit; Olaitan, Adeola


    Jassimran K Bansal,1,* Isabelle G Goldrick,1,* Ranjit Manchanda,2–4 Adeola Olaitan5 1Medical School, University College London, 2Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, 3Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Barts Health NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, London, 4Gynaecological Cancer Research Centre, University College London, London, 5Department of Gynaecological Oncology, University College London Hospital, London, UK *These authors contributed equally ...

  1. Some Comments on London Theory for Superconductors


    M. A. Grado Caffaro; M. Grado Caffaro


    The basic formulae of London theory for superconductors are reviewed. Moreover, an expression for the spatial charge density in a type-II superconductor is obtained; this equation is associated with sinusoidal oscillations. Considerations on both penetration depth and coherence length are exposed.

  2. Reading Samuel Selvon's The Lonely Londoners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This literature is a representation of this generation's overall experiences in. Britain, London in particular. According to Stein, their writing addresses the iconography of Britain as well as the exertion of cultural power. He regards the writing of this people as novel, and by extension, a literature of transformation which does not ...

  3. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946 (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria


    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  4. 3 worlds in 1: London international


    Bartram, Angela


    video work selected and curated by Edward Lucie-Smith as part of the 'London International' section. Exhibition Dates June 30th – July 31st 2011 Klaipeda Culture Communication Centre, Baznyciu str.4, LT-91246 Klaipeda Lithuania. Website:

  5. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement....... The data stems from archival records held by the College, complemented by external databases, and a survey conducted among all academic staff in 2013....

  6. Staging the orient. Aladdin London - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Marie-Louise


    En sammenligning af John O'Keefes / Charles Farleys sceniske opsætning af Aladdin-eventyret fra Tusind og én nats eventyr i London (1813) med Adam Oehlenschlägers Aladdin-lystspil i København (1805). Artiklen diskuterer de to versioner af eventyrstykket som fortolkning og respons på to forskellig...

  7. Loss and material culture in South London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.; Parrott, F.


    This article describes the ways in which people, mainly selected from a single street in South London, utilize material culture in dealing with various experiences of separation and loss, such as death or the ending of a relationship. It starts from a dialectical approach to all relationships as

  8. The state of ocular health among London's homeless population. (United States)

    Sawers, N


    PurposeTo investigate the demographics, visual impairment, and diagnoses of patients presenting to Vision Care for Homeless People (VCHP), Crisis clinics for London's under-researched homeless population.Patients and methodsTwo hundred eighty-three patients records, including data on sociodemographic, diabetic status, visual acuity, and ocular examination, via a comprehensive eye test were reviewed from the VCHP clinics held at 10 London 'Crisis at Christmas' centres in 2014.ResultsTwo hundred eighty-three individual patients were seen at the VCHP clinics. Eighty-nine percent of patients were male and 11% were female. Thirty-two percent (90) patients had an ocular pathology. Lens problems, including cataracts (7%), vitreoretinal (6%), ocular motility (5%), and external eye disease (5%), were the four most common pathologies. In total, 6.4% of the patients reported that they were diabetic and a medical referral letter was given to 10% of the patients seen. Two hundred thirty-three were dispensed glasses (82%). Readers were most common (39%), then distance (28%), bifocals (15%). Presenting visual impairment was 12% in the patients tested. After refractive correction, this dropped to 2.5%.ConclusionThis study shows that there is a high prevalence of uncorrected refractive error among patients attending the Crisis for Christmas eye clinic. These data also show high prevalence of ocular pathology. There is a clear need for the provision of eye tests and spectacles to tackle the issues and prevent visual impairment. More research and eye care services are needed to investigate how this is linked to their living status and enable this vulnerable population to transition out of homelessness.

  9. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E. (Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given.

  10. Report of Charrette re-connect New London 2010. (United States)


    Members of Re-New London Council Board informally met with Dr. Norman Garrick in November 2009. A lively discussion regarding the : New London landscape in general and leverage points for revitalization ensued. Norman related his observations as he e...

  11. Report of Charrette : re-connect New London 2010. (United States)


    "Members of Re-New London Council Board informally met with Dr. Norman Garrick in November 2009. A lively discussion regarding the : New London landscape in general and leverage points for revitalization ensued. Norman related his observations as he ...

  12. London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay: look & feel style guide



    The guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay Emblem (the “Emblem”).

  13. London 2012 Olympics: the lessons for landscape and regeneration


    Güler, Gülşen; Holden, Robert


    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics development i...

  14. Host government directorate: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic emblem guidelines



    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”), the London 2012 Paralympic Games Emblem (the “Paralympic Emblem”) and the Dual London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Emblems (“Dual Emblems”) by authorised Host Government Directorate only.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Belyaev


    Full Text Available Reasons why the City, oldest London global financial centre, keeps to hold up leading positions in the financial world, are thoroughly discussed. Initially, this phenomenon was explained by dominating position England held as world industrial power. However, the City has not lost its leadership over last decades when England economics suffered bad times. This is explained by traditions, by the history as well as by specific position London holds as place where «business is made» as well as by the trend to «clustering» i.e. concentration characteristic for the market of financial services, all this making it possible for financial companies to cut their costs and to provide their clients with services on more attractive conditions.

  16. Asthma control in London secondary school children. (United States)

    Harris, Katherine; Mosler, Gioia; Williams, Samson A; Whitehouse, Abigail; Raine, Rosalind; Grigg, Jonathan


    The asthma control test (ACT) is a validated tool for assessing control in asthmatic children aged 12 years and older. Using the ACT, we sought to assess asthma control and knowledge in London secondary school children. Secondary schools in London, UK, participated in this study. Children with doctor-diagnosed asthma were invited to complete an online questionnaire that included the ACT and questions about asthma. Suboptimal asthma control was defined as an ACT score of ≤ 19 out of a maximum score of 25. Data are summarised as median and interquartile range (IQR), and were analysed by either Mann-Whitney test, or chi-square test. A p value of asthma control was reported by 49.6% of students. Over a third (42.4%) of students prescribed a short-acting β2-agonist inhaler felt uncomfortable using it at school, and 29.2% (n = 173) reported not using this inhaler when wheezy. 56.4% (n = 220) of those with regular inhaled corticosteroids did not take them as prescribed, and 41.7% did not know what this inhaler was for. Suboptimal control was associated with a greater proportion of students reporting that they were 'somewhat', 'hardly' or 'not at all' comfortable using inhalers at school (52.7% vs 29.1%, p asthma control and poor asthma knowledge are common in London schoolchildren.

  17. The etemic model of Gypsy Roma Traveller community vulnerability: is it time to rethink our understanding of vulnerability? (United States)

    Heaslip, Vanessa; Hean, Sarah; Parker, Jonathan


    To present a new etemic model of vulnerability. Despite vulnerability being identified as a core consequence of health and health experiences, there has been little research exploring the meaning of vulnerability as a concept. Yet, being vulnerable is known to have dire physical/mental health consequences. It is therefore a fundamental issue for nurses to address. To date, the meaning of the term vulnerability has been influenced by the work of Spiers (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31, 2000, 715, The Essential Concepts of Nursing: Building Blocks for Practice, 2005, Elsevier, London). Spiers identified two aspects of vulnerability: the etic (external judgment of another persons' vulnerability) and the emic (internal lived experience of vulnerability). This approach has led to a plethora of research which has explored the etic (external judgment) of vulnerability and rendered the internal lived (or emic) experience invisible. Consequences of this, for marginalised communities such as Gypsy Roma Travellers include a lack of culturally sensitive services compounding health inequalities. Position paper. Drawing upon a qualitative phenomenological research study exploring the lived experience of vulnerability from a Gypsy Roma Travelling community (published previously), this paper presents a new model of vulnerability. This etemic model of vulnerability values both external and internal dimensions of vulnerability and argues for a fusion of these two opposing perspectives. If nurses and other health- and social care professionals wish to develop practice that is successful in engaging with Gypsy Roma Travellers, then there is a need to both understand and respect their community. This can be achieved through an etemic approach to understanding their vulnerability achieved by eliciting lived experience alongside the appreciation of epidemiological studies. If nurses and health practitioners used this etemic approach to practice then it would enable both the development

  18. [Aging and becoming vulnerable]. (United States)

    Monod, Stéfanie; Sautebin, Annelore


    "The vulnerable are those whose autonomy, dignity and integrity are capable of being threatened". Based on this ethical definition of vulnerability, four risk factors of vulnerability might be identified among elderly persons, and are described in this article: the functional limitation, the loss of autonomy, the social precariousness and the restriction of access to medical care. A clinical case of elderly abuse is presented to illustrate vulnerability. Finally, some recommendations to lower the risk of vulnerability in elderly persons are proposed.

  19. Honor, brotherhood, and the corporate ethos of London's Barber-Surgeons' Company, 1570-1640. (United States)

    Chamberland, Celeste


    As the largest and most civically active body of medical practitioners in the late Tudor and early Stuart period, surgeons played a vital role in London's urban landscape, but remained precariously vulnerable to abasement due to the regular contact with death and disease necessitated by their work. Based on an analysis of guild records, printed surgical manuals, and conduct literature, this study explores the emergent corporate ethos of London's Barber-Surgeons' Company and addresses the identity formation of surgeons in the late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth centuries. By implementing codes of conduct and uniform standards of practice, punishing transgressions of propriety, and developing legislation to limit the activities of unlicensed and foreign practitioners, Company officers ardently sought social and occupational legitimacy within a milieu characterized by a tremendous emphasis on status and hierarchy. Rooted in methodology drawn from the social history of medicine and cultural anthropology, this study argues that in response to the persistent stigma associated with their work and London's increasingly prevalent culture of credit, surgeons, like other artisanal groups, sought to enhance their social legitimacy and occupational respectability by manipulating contemporary social rituals, reinforcing the honorable associations of their work, and preserving the veneer of brotherhood and camaraderie.

  20. London forces in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Poperenko


    Full Text Available Surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with terrace steps was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy with high spatial resolution. Spots with positive and negative charges were found in the vicinity of the steps. Values of the charges depended both on the microscope needle scan velocity and on its motion direction. The observed effect was theoretically explained with account of London forces that arise between the needle tip and the graphite surface. In this scheme, a terrace step works as a nanoscale diode for surface electric currents.

  1. On exact solutions of a heat-wave type with logarithmic front for the porous medium equation (United States)

    Kazakov, A. L.; Lempert, A. A.; Orlov, S. S.; Orlov, S. S.


    The paper deals with a nonlinear second-order parabolic equation with partial derivatives, which is usually called “the porous medium equation”. It describes the processes of heat and mass transfer as well as filtration of liquids and gases in porous media. In addition, it is used for mathematical modeling of growth and migration of population. Usually this equation is studied numerically like most other nonlinear equations of mathematical physics. So, the construction of exact solution in an explicit form is important to verify the numerical algorithms. The authors deal with a special solutions which are usually called “heat waves”. A new class of heat-wave type solutions of one-dimensional (plane-symmetric) porous medium equation is proposed and analyzed. A logarithmic heat wave front is studied in details. Considered equation has a singularity at the heat wave front, because the factor of the highest (second) derivative vanishes. The construction of these exact solutions reduces to the integration of a nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE). Moreover, the Cauchy conditions lead us to the fact that this equation has a singularity at the initial point. In other words, the ODE inherits the singularity of the original problem. The qualitative analysis of the solutions of the ODE is carried out. The obtained results are interpreted from the point of view of the corresponding heat waves’ behavior. The most interesting is a damped solitary wave, the length of which is constant, and the amplitude decreases.

  2. Verification of pre-monsoon temperature forecasts over India during 2016 with a focus on heatwave prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Singh


    Full Text Available The operational medium-range weather forecasting based on numerical weather prediction (NWP models are complemented by the forecast products based on ensemble prediction systems (EPSs. This change has been recognised as an essentially useful tool for medium-range forecasting and is now finding its place in forecasting the extreme events. Here we investigate extreme events (heatwaves using a high-resolution NWP model and its ensemble models in union with the classical statistical scores to serve verification purposes. With the advent of climate-change-related studies in the recent past, the rising number of extreme events and their plausible socio-economic effects have encouraged the need for forecasting and verification of extremes. Applying the traditional verification scores and associated methods to both the deterministic and the ensemble forecast, we attempted to examine the performance of the ensemble-based approach in comparison to the traditional deterministic method. The results indicate an appreciable competence of the ensemble forecast at detecting extreme events compared to the deterministic forecast. Locations of the events are also better captured by the ensemble forecast. Further, it is found that the EPS smoothes down the unexpectedly increasing signals, thereby reducing the false alarms and thus proving to be more reliable than the deterministic forecast.

  3. Verification of pre-monsoon temperature forecasts over India during 2016 with a focus on heatwave prediction (United States)

    Singh, Harvir; Arora, Kopal; Ashrit, Raghavendra; Rajagopal, Ekkattil N.


    The operational medium-range weather forecasting based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are complemented by the forecast products based on ensemble prediction systems (EPSs). This change has been recognised as an essentially useful tool for medium-range forecasting and is now finding its place in forecasting the extreme events. Here we investigate extreme events (heatwaves) using a high-resolution NWP model and its ensemble models in union with the classical statistical scores to serve verification purposes. With the advent of climate-change-related studies in the recent past, the rising number of extreme events and their plausible socio-economic effects have encouraged the need for forecasting and verification of extremes. Applying the traditional verification scores and associated methods to both the deterministic and the ensemble forecast, we attempted to examine the performance of the ensemble-based approach in comparison to the traditional deterministic method. The results indicate an appreciable competence of the ensemble forecast at detecting extreme events compared to the deterministic forecast. Locations of the events are also better captured by the ensemble forecast. Further, it is found that the EPS smoothes down the unexpectedly increasing signals, thereby reducing the false alarms and thus proving to be more reliable than the deterministic forecast.

  4. James Henry Greathead and the London Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Wright


    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and early history of the device known as the ‘Greathead Shield’, an important innovation in Victorian engineering crucial to constructing the London Underground. The aim is to explore the basis on which, many years later, a South African engineer, James Henry Greathead, was accorded prominent public acknowledgment, in the form of a statue, for ‘inventing’ the Shield. From a cultural studies perspective, how is the meaning of ‘invention’ to be understood, given that several other brilliant engineers were involved? The question is adjudicated using the notion of cultural ‘extelligence’, seen in relation to several contemporary and historical accounts, including Greathead’s own record of his achievements in the proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers and presented in The City and South London Railway (1896, edited by James Forrest. The paper was first delivered at the conference on ‘Novelty and Innovation in the Nineteenth Century’ held at the North-West University in May 2016.

  5. Five Rings: Enclosing the London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan William Gardner


    Full Text Available Considering the successive iterations of the fence surrounding the London 2012 Olympic site in Stratford, east London, I demonstrate that during the five periods of enclosure considered, these boundaries have highlighted the London Games’ contested past, present, and future. An examination of the material and discursive constructions of each of these boundaries shows the Janus-faced nature of their relationship to the wider ‘mega-event’. I conclude that though the purpose of such enclosures may initially seem obvious, in actuality they, as parts of a wider assemblage, can act unpredictably both to support and challenge the Olympic brand and its existence in this part of east London.

  6. The London low emission zone baseline study. (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul


    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  7. What Does Vulnerability Mean? (United States)

    Parley, Fiona F


    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  8. Heatwaves and urban heat islands: A comparative analysis of multiple cities (United States)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Bou-Zeid, E.


    The recent International Panel on Climate Change report predicts the highly urbanized Northeastern U.S. to be at high risk to heat waves. Since urban residents and infrastructure are known to be highly vulnerable to extreme heat, the goal of this paper is to understand the interaction between the synoptic-scale heat wave and the city-scale urban heat island (UHI) effects. The study also qualitatively analyzes the primary factors that contribute to UHIs by comparing their intensities in different cities with distinct geo-physical characteristics. Our results, generated by using the Weather Research and Forecasting model augmented with advanced urban surface parameterizations, confirm that the amplitude of UHI is related to the physical size of the city. However, the results suggest that cities of comparabale sizes might interact differently with heat waves: in New York City; Washington, DC; and Baltimore (but not in Philadelphia) the regular UHI was amplified more strongly during heat waves compared to smaller cities. The results also establish that the pattern of UHI in different cities, its variability, and its interaction with heat waves are inherently linked to dynamic factors.

  9. Leading increasingly linguistically diverse London schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mehmedbegović


    Full Text Available Engaging with bilingual parents, students and teachers with little awareness of the benefits of bilingualism has initiated a search for factors resulting in the low value attached to certain types of bilingualism. Working on the hypothesis that prevalent practice is influenced more by attitudes to bilingualism rather than relevant research and pedagogical theory, this research focuses on attitudes. This small-scale qualitative study conducted with a group of London headteachers provides an insight into the attitudes to bilingualism and how they impact on policy and practice in schools with significant proportions of multilingual learners. It also raises the question if schools which claim to support multilingual students in realising their full potential can achieve that without including home languages as an integral part of learning.

  10. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967 (United States)

    Yandell, John


    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  11. Fear of Crime among Elderly Jews in Boston and London. (United States)

    Ginsberg, Yona


    Examines the impact of fear of crime on the daily behavior of elderly Jews in racially mixed, deteriorating neighborhoods in Boston and London. Results showed the Boston elderly retreated behind locked doors, while the London elderly continued their daily routine. (JAC)

  12. London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay style guide for licensees



    The guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay Emblem (the “Emblem”), by authorised licensees only.

  13. Genome-wide transcriptomic responses of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Nanozostera noltii under a simulated heatwave confirm functional types. (United States)

    Franssen, Susanne U; Gu, Jenny; Winters, Gidon; Huylmans, Ann-Kathrin; Wienpahl, Isabell; Sparwel, Maximiliane; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich


    Genome-wide transcription analysis between related species occurring in overlapping ranges can provide insights into the molecular basis underlying different ecological niches. The co-occurring seagrass species, Zostera marina and Nanozostera noltii, are found in marine coastal environments throughout the northern hemisphere. Z. marina is often dominant in subtidal environments and subjected to fewer temperature extremes compared to the predominately intertidal and more stress-tolerant N. noltii. We exposed plants of both species to a realistic heat wave scenario in a common-stress-garden experiment. Using RNA-seq (~7million reads/library), four Z. marina and four N. noltii libraries were compared representing northern (Denmark) and southern (Italy) locations within the co-occurring range of the species' European distribution. A total of 8977 expressed genes were identified, of which 78 were directly related to heat stress. As predicted, both species were negatively affected by the heat wave, but showed markedly different molecular responses. In Z. marina the heat response was similar across locations in response to the heatwave at 26°C, with a complex response in functions related to protein folding, synthesis of ribosomal chloroplast proteins, proteins involved in cell wall modification and heat shock proteins (HSPs). In N. noltii the heat response markedly differed between locations, while HSP genes were not induced in either population. Our results suggest that as coastal seawater temperatures increase, Z. marina will disappear along its southern most ranges, whereas N. noltii will continue to move north. As a consequence, sub- and intertidal habitat partitioning may weaken in more northern regions because the higher thermal tolerance of N. noltii provides a competitive advantage in both habitats. Although previous studies have focused on HSPs, the present study clearly demonstrates that a broader examination of stress related genes is necessary. Copyright

  14. Turner's prize[London transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrington, M.


    The article describes Ken Livingstone's plans for solving London's traffic problems: Derek Turner will be 'in charge of the capital's streets' but Livingstone will chair the board meetings. The radical new scheme will apply to both the Greater London Authority, its transport branch Transport for London (TfL) and 33 London Boroughs. Within TfL there is a core division called 'street management services' which has five area teams for day-to-day street management including road maintenance and street lighting. Other departments are communications, support services, traffic technology services, service development and performance, a London bus department and a department concentrating on congestion charging. There are plans to support pedestrians and cyclists but 'bus travel is really what it is all about'.

  15. Computer vulnerability risk analysis.



    The discussions presented in this dissertation have been undertaken in answer to the need for securing the intellectual assets stored on computer systems. Computer vulnerabilities and their influence on computer systems and the intellectual assets they possess are the main focus of this research. In an effort to portray the influence of vulnerabilities on a computer system, a method for assigning a measure of risk to individual vulnerabilities is proposed. This measure of risk, in turn, gives...

  16. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London (United States)

    French, Linda M.


    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  17. Collider – the LHC in London

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Sanders


    In November the London Science Museum will open a major new exhibition about the LHC. The project marks an ambitious new approach for the museum who will work with an eclectic design team that includes a video artist and a playwright. Both Olivier Award winners, they are more renowned for their work on stage and screen than inside museums.   Image courtesy of Science Museum / Nissen Richards Studio. The Science Museum team came to Geneva expecting to be blown away by the extraordinary physics and engineering at CERN and they weren’t disappointed. But what impressed them most was the people who made it all happen. Physicists of all kinds, restaurant staff, engineers, administrators, those working in transport and logistics, all had in common a passion for CERN and an enthusiasm for communicating their work. “What really struck us was how every single person mentioned the spirit of international collaboration and the importance of curiosity,” Alison Boyle told the ...

  18. Tracker electronics testing at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia



    Jonathon Fulcher and Rob Bainbridge testing a rack of CMS Tracker readout electronics at Imperial College London. The signals from the front end APV chips will be transmitted optically to racks of electronics ~100m away in an adjacent underground cavern where they are fed into ~20 crates where 500 CMS Front End Driver boards (FEDs) are located. The FED inputs are 8 fibre ribbons, each ribbon consisting of 12 fibres, each fibre carrying the serially multiplexed data originating from 2 APVs. To test the FEDs special tester boards have been designed to produce simulated APV data in optical form. In the picture the yellow cables are the fibres, which originate from the FED tester boards on the left hand side of the crate as 96 individual fibres, which are then combined into the 8 fibre ribbons feeding the FED board on the right hand side of the crate. Fig. 2 shows an APV25 test board mounted in the X-ray irradiation setup, Fig. 3 the X-ray machine where the chips are irradiated and Fig. 4 the MGPA (Multi-Gain Pre...

  19. Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    licenses/by/4.0) ... industries are cataloguing their products around high price to capitalise on greater revenues and profits. ... London luxury hotel industry has and continues to grow, yet. Slattery (2012) insists prices for rooms ...

  20. The London Underground: Dust and Hazards to Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Seaton; J. Cherrie; M. Dennekamp; K. Donaldson; J. F. Hurley; C. L. Tran


    Aims: To assess hazards associated with exposure to dust in the London Underground railway and to provide an informed opinion on the risks to workers and the travelling public of exposure to tunnel dust. Methods...

  1. Health impact assessment of the 2012 London Olympic transport plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Mark; Ravelli, Robert J; Sinclair-Williams, Mike


    Transport is a structural determinant of health. We have assessed the potential of transport plans for the 2012 London Olympic Games to achieve the sustainability commitment of 'encouraging healthy living...

  2. Multi-Criteria Assessment of Spatial Robust Water Resource Vulnerability Using the TOPSIS Method Coupled with Objective and Subjective Weights in the Han River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Sung Chung


    Full Text Available This study developed a multi-criteria approach to spatially assess the robust water resource vulnerability in sub-basins and applied it to the Han River basin. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC suggested three factors of vulnerability; namely, exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were used in this study with respect to water quantity and quality. In this study, 16 water quantity indicators and 13 water quality indicators were selected to identify the vulnerability using the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method. Environmental and socioeconomic data were obtained from the national statistics database, and hydrological data were simulated using the calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model. Expert surveys and Shannon entropy method were used to determine subjective and objective weights for all indicators, individually. As a result, water quantity-vulnerable sub-basins were associated with high water use and water leakage ratios. Water quality-vulnerable sub-basins were associated with relatively high values of maximum consecutive dry days and heatwave days. The water quantity indices of both weighting methods showed relatively similar spatial distributions, while the distribution of water quality indices was distinct. These results suggest that considering different weighting methods is important for assessing the robust water resource vulnerability of sub-basins.

  3. Eating fuet in London: From Autoethnography to Transnational Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rubio


    Full Text Available My own experience as a young Spanish migrant in London drove me to consider the importance that Spanish food has for emigrants and to consider its role within the community. This article presents food as a metaphor of the youth migration process to London during the economic crisis, and is based on three elements: how they construct their identity, their transition to adulthood and their condition as transmigrants.

  4. GPs' compliance with health and safety legislation and their occupational health needs in one London health authority. (United States)

    Kennedy, Ioanna; Williams, Siân; Reynolds, Anne; Cockcroft, Anne; Solomon, Jack; Farrow, Stephen


    This survey assessed general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge of and compliance with, health and safety legislation and occupational health guidance in one London health authority. The response rate was 85%. Although the majority of practices were aware of the most important piece of legislation--The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations, 1992--less than one in ten practices had carried out the required systematic risk assessments. Compliance with other health and safety legislation and related employment issues was also poor. The health of GPs and their staff may be at risk and these general practices may be vulnerable to prosecution by the Health and Safety Executive. PMID:12236278

  5. Spectator Consumer Behaviors at the 2012 London Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Ekmekci


    Full Text Available Although the Paralympics are the world’s second largest sporting event after the Olympics and continue to grow in popularity, there is little available research regarding spectators of sport competitions for disabled athletes. The purpose of this study was to profile spectators’ consumer behaviors in order to understand what factors explain spectators’ spending, length of stay, and attendance at the London Paralympic Games. Data was collected in a six-day period from a sample of 504 people present in London at three Paralympic sport facilities during the 2012 Paralympic Games. The results of the regression analyses revealed that nationality, attended contests, group size, having a connection with a Paralympic athlete, length of stay, gender and London Olympics’ spectators were significant determinants of Paralympics spectators’ spending in London. The data also indicated that spending, being from England (or not, gender, and being a friend/relative of a Paralympic athlete significantly affected spectators’ length of stay in London. Additionally, spectators’ attendance at the London Paralympic contests was predicted by spending, the size of the travel group, Beijing Paralympics’ spectators and age.

  6. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom)


    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce

  7. County Population Vulnerability (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  8. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik


    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  9. Vulnerability in Agriculture


    Znaor, Darko


    The impact from climate change on agriculture is expected to be significant because of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate conditions in general. Precipitation, temperature, weather extremes and evaporation rates all impact production. Agriculture is important to the economy of Croatia due to its overall value and its impact on food security, vulnerable populations, and the employment it generates. In 2001, 92% of Croatia was classified as rural and 48% of the Croatian population live...

  10. A heatwave at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    It's getting hot in Buildings 201 and 860, over-heating even... But no reason to panic! We're talking about the superheated water boilers of CERN's two heating plants, which heat all the buildings on the Meyrin and Prévessin sites.   View of the three boilers and the control centre of the Meyrin heating plant. CERN's two heating plants each comprise three gas* boilers, with generators of 15 MW in the case of Meyrin and 5 MW in the case of Prévessin. Both inject pressurised water, superheated to 125 degrees, into several kilometres of pipes, 22 km on the Meyrin site and 5 km in Prévessin. "A single boiler is sufficient most of the time but a second kicks in automatically during very cold weather, and a third is there on stand-by," explains Christophe Martel, head of the GS Department section responsible for CERN's heating and air-conditioning systems. All of CERN's buildings have a sub-station that receives the superheated water from the boilers an...

  11. Exploring anterograde associative memory in London taxi drivers. (United States)

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A


    London taxi drivers are renowned for their navigation ability, spending a number of years acquiring 'The Knowledge' of London's complex layout and having to pass stringent examinations to obtain an operating licence. In several studies, this navigation skill has been associated with increased posterior but also decreased anterior hippocampal grey matter volume. Neuropsychologically, gain and loss has also been documented in taxi drivers; while very skilled at navigation in London, they are significantly poorer than controls at learning and recalling new object-location associations. Here we tested a group of London taxi drivers and matched control participants on this object-location associations task, while also subjecting them to a battery of challenging anterograde associative memory tests involving verbal, visual and auditory material both within and across modalities. Our aim was to assess whether their difficulty in previous studies reflected a general problem with associative memory, or was restricted to the spatial domain. We replicated previous findings of poor learning and memory of object-location associations. By contrast, their performance on the other anterograde associative memory tasks was comparable with controls. This resolves an outstanding question in the memory profile of London taxi drivers following hippocampal plasticity, and underlines the close relationship between space and the hippocampus.

  12. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by London Academy

    CERN Multimedia


    London Academy is a multicultural academy in Edgware, outer London. Within an extremely caring and supportive environment, students, including those in the sixth form, many pupils, flourish and achieve well. The Principal`s clear vision of a learning community that develops in its students the skills and values that will enable them to live their lives as respectful, caring and responsible citizens is both shared and realised. The event was organised from London Academy by the Physics Teacher, Ms Pamela Chabba; the older science students, especially those who are studying pure physics, are very excited about the event linking them to CERN. They range between 14-18 years old and many plan to go on to study sciences at university.

  13. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  14. Fritz London and the scale of quantum mechanisms (United States)

    Monaldi, Daniela


    Fritz London's seminal idea of ;quantum mechanisms of macroscopic scale;, first articulated in 1946, was the unanticipated result of two decades of research, during which London pursued quantum-mechanical explanations of various kinds of systems of particles at different scales. He started at the microphysical scale with the hydrogen molecule, generalized his approach to chemical bonds and intermolecular forces, then turned to macrophysical systems like superconductors and superfluid helium. Along this path, he formulated a set of concepts-the quantum mechanism of exchange, the rigidity of the wave function, the role of quantum statistics in multi-particle systems, the possibility of order in momentum space-that eventually coalesced into a new conception of systems of equal particles. In particular, it was London's clarification of Bose-Einstein condensation that enabled him to formulate the notion of superfluids, and led him to the recognition that quantum mechanics was not, as it was commonly assumed, relevant exclusively as a micromechanics.

  15. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  16. Frailty and Social Vulnerability. (United States)

    Andrew, Melissa K


    Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to health. Intrinsic factors are familiar topics in health research and include medical conditions, medications, genetics and frailty, while extrinsic factors stem from social and physical environments. This chapter builds on others in this volume, in which a deficit accumulation approach to frailty has been described. The concept of social vulnerability is presented. Social vulnerability stems from the accumulation of multiple and varied social problems and has bidirectional importance as a risk factor for poor health outcomes and as a pragmatic consideration for health care provision and planning. Importantly, the social factors that contribute to overall social vulnerability come into play at different levels of influence (individual, family and friends, peer groups, institutions and society at large). A social ecology perspective is discussed as a useful framework for considering social vulnerability, as it allows for attention to each of these levels of influence. Tying together what we currently understand about frailty (in medical and basic science models) and social vulnerability, the scaling potential of deficit accumulation is discussed, given that deficit accumulation can be understood to occur at many levels, from the (sub-)cellular level to tissues, organisms/complex systems and societies. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belling Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1 To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2 To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3 To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10, lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13 representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8 and non-London network professionals (n = 2. Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed

  18. Parish apprenticeship and the old poor law in London1 (United States)

    Levene, Alysa


    This article offers an examination of the patterns and motivations behind parish apprenticeship in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century London. It stresses continuity in outlook from parish officials binding children, which involved placements in both the traditional and industrializing sectors of the economy. Evidence on the ages, employment types, and locations of 3,285 pauper apprentices bound from different parts of London between 1767 and 1833 indicates a variety of local patterns. The analysis reveals a pattern of youthful age at binding, a range of employment experiences, and parish-specific links to particular trades and manufactures. PMID:20939134

  19. Parish apprenticeship and the old poor law in London. (United States)

    Levene, Alysa


    This article offers an examination of the patterns and motivations behind parish apprenticeship in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century London. It stresses continuity in outlook from parish officials binding children, which involved placements in both the traditional and industrializing sectors of the economy. Evidence on the ages, employment types, and locations of 3,285 pauper apprentices bound from different parts of London between 1767 and 1833 indicates a variety of local patterns. The analysis reveals a pattern of youthful age at binding, a range of employment experiences, and parish-specific links to particular trades and manufactures.

  20. Algebra of the Visual: The London Underground Map and the Art It Has Inspired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ashton-Smith


    Full Text Available "Algebra of the Visual: The London Underground Map and the Art It Has Inspired" by Alan Ashton-Smith. The London Underground symbolizes London, and the London Underground map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, symbolizes the London Underground. Accordingly, Beck’s map has in itself come to be a recognizable signifier of London. Its impact resonates beyond this city though: it is also the prototype for metro maps worldwide, with its basic topological structure having been adopted for use on the subways of many other cities. (NANO: New American Notes Online

  1. The Royal Entries of Henry VI in a London Civic Manuscript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourassa, Kristin


    London Metropolitan Archives, MS Letter Book K, contains descriptions of Henry VI’s royal entries into both Paris (1431) and London (1432). Their placement one after the other in a London Letter Book was likely the work of the city’s common clerk, John Carpenter, who was the author of the descrip......London Metropolitan Archives, MS Letter Book K, contains descriptions of Henry VI’s royal entries into both Paris (1431) and London (1432). Their placement one after the other in a London Letter Book was likely the work of the city’s common clerk, John Carpenter, who was the author...

  2. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.


    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  3. The London handicap scale: validation of a Yoruba (Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the validity of a Yoruba translated version of the London Handicap Scale (LHS). The LHS is a valid and reliable measure of participation that has been validated in different cultures, but not among Yoruba speaking people of West Africa. Methods A validation study which involved 20 post-stroke ...

  4. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research paper set out to explore the following research question: “what shape and form should a building be in order to achieve energy efficiency in the design and construction of the tall office building?” This involved the exploratory case study of a spheroid building, the Greater London Authority (GLA) building.

  5. Opinions from senior managers of London's luxury hotels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: Hotel spas, guest satisfaction, spa expectations, wellness centres. Introduction ... (Thieson 2012). A luxury hotel is more than just quality accommodation, ... revenue departments, similarly to that of food and beverage operations. .... customers' agenda (SpaFinder 2014), presenting the hotel spas of London with a ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant


    Full Text Available De los relatos que Jack London ha consagrado al boxeo, A Piece of Steak es sin dudas aquel que merece hoy nuestra mayor atención, e incluso un lugar en el panteón de los textos literarios sobre el Noble Arte, y junto a él otros tres títulos...

  7. Contestation of Globalization in Odia Ofeimun's "London Letter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, as a process and not yet a state, in all its social, economic and cultural aspirations, coupled with its trappings of contradictions, depends largely on the centrality of the city. Whether from London to New York, the Asian Tigers to Lagos and Johannesburg, the image of the city looms large in such a way that ...

  8. Airline pricing behaviour in the London-Paris market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, E.; Rietveld, P.


    Low-cost carriers like easyJet, Buzz and Ryanair use catching slogans highlighting their sometimes very low fares to attract passengers. This paper analyses pricing behaviour in the London-Paris market where low-cost carriers and conventional carriers are active. The central question is whether

  9. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist (United States)

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.


    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  10. Developing an Integrated Institutional Repository at Imperial College London (United States)

    Afshari, Fereshteh; Jones, Richard


    Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how a highly integrated approach to repository development and deployment can be beneficial in producing a successful archive. Design/methodology/approach: Imperial College London undertook a significant specifications process to gather and formalise requirements for its repository system. This was done…

  11. Middling migration: contradictory mobility experiences of Indian youth in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.; Verstappen, S.


    In this paper we examine the contradictory migration experiences of Indian youngsters who recently moved to Britain on a student or temporary work visa. All of them lived in London at the time of the interview, and are from middle class families in Gujarat. Like many of their peers in developing

  12. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox - Boulton, Helen


    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573),

  13. Participation and Performance at the London 2012 Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer


    The current paper predicts the medal tally for the London 2012 Olympic Games. The forecast procedure consists of analyzing participation and success at the country level of the three most recent editions of the Olympic Summer Games. Potential explanatory variables for medal winnings are income per

  14. Skin Colour Awareness and Preference in London Nursery School Children (United States)

    Laishley, Jenny


    Study focuses on children aged 3 to 5 years from 3 London areas. Contrary to expectation, awareness of differences in skin color was not a simple function of age and contact with colored children and adults; no clear evidence of prejudiced thinking was found in the subjects studied. (RJ)

  15. Idealism to Realism- Representing London in Black British Writing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pasture and in the pursuit of the Golden Fleece. It comprises of the literature written in English by Caribbean, African and Asian writers emanating from immigrants from colonies formerly colonized by Britain. These writers have something in common which is their disillusionment with Britain, especially London and what it ...

  16. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  17. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente


    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  18. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21. 146 deaths (60% were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7 other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43% of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%. The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03. Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found.

  19. Sébastien Lechevalier (editor), The Great Transformation of Japanese Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2014. 240 pp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria


    Book review of: Sébastien Lechevalier (editor), The Great Transformation of Japanese Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2014.......Book review of: Sébastien Lechevalier (editor), The Great Transformation of Japanese Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2014....

  20. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira


    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  1. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study.


    Woodcock, J; Tainio, M; Cheshire, J.; O Brien, O.; Goodman, A


    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate ...

  2. Dark London: Dimensions and characteristics of dark tourism supply in the UK capital


    Powell, Raymond; Iankova, Katia


    This paper will investigate the characteristics of the supply of dark tourism in London, UK through an examination of the identified main dark sites in London, UK. Our methodology is based on web analysis of the presence of marketed and non-marketed dark tourist sites in London, their web visitation, the level of their commercialisation and the characteristics which place them in the various scales as categorised in current literature, notably Stone (2006). We identified that London offers a ...

  3. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.


    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of

  4. Inner London's Education Authority: Reflections on ILEA Twenty-Five Years after Closure (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter


    It is 25 years since the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was abolished and management of education in central London transferred to 13 London boroughs. The author reflects on the experience of being an ex-ILEA head teacher, and of managing one of the new local education authorities in the immediate post-ILEA period. He begins by commenting…

  5. VT - Vermont Social Vulnerability Index (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when responding to or recovering from threats to public health. The Vermont Social Vulnerability Index...

  6. Vulnerability survival analysis: a novel approach to vulnerability management (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Sullivan, John; Cybenko, George


    Computer security vulnerabilities span across large, enterprise networks and have to be mitigated by security engineers on a routine basis. Presently, security engineers will assess their "risk posture" through quantifying the number of vulnerabilities with a high Common Vulnerability Severity Score (CVSS). Yet, little to no attention is given to the length of time by which vulnerabilities persist and survive on the network. In this paper, we review a novel approach to quantifying the length of time a vulnerability persists on the network, its time-to-death, and predictors of lower vulnerability survival rates. Our contribution is unique in that we apply the cox proportional hazards regression model to real data from an operational IT environment. This paper provides a mathematical overview of the theory behind survival analysis methods, a description of our vulnerability data, and an interpretation of the results.

  7. Heat-Wave Effects on Oxygen, Nutrients, and Phytoplankton Can Alter Global Warming Potential of Gases Emitted from a Small Shallow Lake. (United States)

    Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Laurion, Isabelle; Clayer, François; Maranger, Roxane


    Increasing air temperatures may result in stronger lake stratification, potentially altering nutrient and biogenic gas cycling. We assessed the impact of climate forcing by comparing the influence of stratification on oxygen, nutrients, and global-warming potential (GWP) of greenhouse gases (the sum of CH4, CO2, and N2O in CO2 equivalents) emitted from a shallow productive lake during an average versus a heat-wave year. Strong stratification during the heat wave was accompanied by an algal bloom and chemically enhanced carbon uptake. Solar energy trapped at the surface created a colder, isolated hypolimnion, resulting in lower ebullition and overall lower GWP during the hotter-than-average year. Furthermore, the dominant CH4 emission pathway shifted from ebullition to diffusion, with CH4 being produced at surprisingly high rates from sediments (1.2-4.1 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Accumulated gases trapped in the hypolimnion during the heat wave resulted in a peak efflux to the atmosphere during fall overturn when 70% of total emissions were released, with littoral zones acting as a hot spot. The impact of climate warming on the GWP of shallow lakes is a more complex interplay of phytoplankton dynamics, emission pathways, thermal structure, and chemical conditions, as well as seasonal and spatial variability, than previously reported.

  8. "Mothering through Islam": Narratives of Religious Identity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ryan


    Full Text Available This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgroundsin London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations ofIslamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particularthe paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of andgive meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest thatthe women use Islam in four key ways: (i as a framework for teaching theirchildren right and wrong, (ii as a means of protecting children from the ‘moral’dangers of British society, (iii as an authoritative voice that reinforces parentingand (iv as a means of critiquing specific aspects of both the traditional andBritish culture in which they live and daily negotiate their different cultural andreligious belonging. In attempting to instil religious values in their London-basedchildren, these mothers have to negotiate the hostility that Islam increasinglyprovokes in British society’s public arenas.

  9. The Integrated Care Pilot in North West London


    Steeden, Andrew


    In 2011–2012 partners in the provision of health in social care came together in North West London from five local authorities, two major acute trusts, two community trusts, two mental health trusts, two ‘third sector’ organisations and over 100 general practices. Their aim was to support collaborative working in geographic areas of about 50 000 population for improved patient experience, quality of outcomes and cost-efficiency.

  10. Waterspace planning and the River Thames in London


    Pinch, PL


    London is a city that stands, for many, at the pinnacle of neoliberal global urbanization and market-led residential and commercial property investment. Its iconic River Thames has become a focus for much of this development, particularly of luxury apartments. There has been an emerging sense that the river increasingly has been captured by a specific set of class interests and its edges privatized to the exclusion of other claims on the Thames’ identity, usage and meaning. Although cognizant...

  11. Collect (Galerie Marzee) at the Saatchi Gallery (London)


    Boyd, JMB


    COLLECT is the premier annual fair in Europe for international contemporary craft of museum quality.\\ud \\ud Originally held at the V&A, and now re launched at the Saatchi Gallery in London, COLLECT has an enviable reputation as a major event on the international cultural calendar, with a loyal audience of private collectors and museum curators.\\ud \\ud Jonathan Boyd's work was displayed by Galerie Marzee (the worlds largest comtemporary jewllery gallery). His work exploreed the themes and narr...

  12. A London shop window for PPARC industry partnership successes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neale, R


    The UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council recently held a seminar in London to reveal the results of the impressive work they are doing in fostering partnerships between science and industry. They have many different types of funded programmes, the purpose of all of them is to encourage industry and entrepreneurs to both benefit from and service the requirements of particle physics science and technology (1 page).

  13. Provision of NHS-funded spectacles in South London. (United States)

    Jessa, Zahra; Evans, Bruce J W; Thomson, David W; Rowlands, Gill


    In the UK the National Health Service (NHS) funds primary eyecare in the form of General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) mostly via 'sight tests' with community optometrists. Eligible groups include those aged 60 years or more and many are also entitled to an NHS optical voucher to be used to fund spectacles. Only some optical practices provide spectacles whose cost is fully covered by the voucher value which we describe as voucher value spectacles (VVS). As part of a larger study investigating vision screening in the older population, we sought to investigate the proportion of practices that provide VVS. A questionnaire was sent to all optical practices in South London and also a more national sample of optometrists using the UK optometry e-mail discussion list. All 75 respondents provide NHS sight tests. VVS were provided by 59% of the total sample (70% of the South London sample). For those who supply VVS, the number of frames that were provided for patients to choose from ranged from 1 to 100, with a median of 16.5. Of those practitioners who did not supply VVS, 13% provided spectacles whose lens cost was fully covered by the NHS Voucher. In South London nearly a third of the practices do not provide VVS and it has been suggested that this is because the voucher values are uneconomic. The limited availability of VVS may act as one of the barriers that result in so many older people in the UK having poor vision simply through lack of appropriate spectacles.

  14. School bullying and traumatic dental injuries in East London adolescents. (United States)

    Agel, M; Marcenes, W; Stansfeld, S A; Bernabé, E


    To explore the association between school bullying and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) among 15-16-year-old school children from East London. Data from phase III of the Research with East London Adolescents Community Health Survey (RELACHS), a school-based prospective study of a representative sample of adolescents, were analysed. Adolescents provided information on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic measures and frequency of bullying in school through self-administered questionnaires and were clinically examined for overjet, lip coverage and TDI. The association between school bullying and TDI was assessed using binary logistic regression models. The prevalence of TDI was 17%, while lifetime and current prevalence of bullying was 32% and 11%, respectively. The prevalence of TDI increased with a growing frequency of bullying; from 16% among adolescents who had never been bullied at school, to 21% among those who were bullied in the past but not this school term, to 22% for those who were bullied this school term. However, this association was not statistically significant either in crude or adjusted regression models. There was no evidence of an association between frequency of school bullying and TDI in this sample of 15-16-year-old adolescents in East London.

  15. The ClearfLo project - Understanding London's meteorology and composition (United States)

    Belcher, Stephen; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia


    ClearfLo is a large multi-institutional project funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ClearfLo established integrated measurements of meteorology, gaseous and particulate composition/loading of London's (UK) urban atmosphere in 2011 and 2012 to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. A new and unique long-term measurement infrastructure was established in London at street level, urban background and elevated sites and contrasted against rural locations to determine the urban increment in meteorology and pollution. This approach enables understanding the seasonal variations in the meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. In addition two intensive observation periods (IOPs) provide more detail in winter 2012 and during the Olympics in summer 2012 focusing upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer, chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production, in particular the role of volatile organic compounds, and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution and composition of particulate matter. In this talk we present early analysis of the meteorology and air quality measurements within ClearfLo. In particular we show measurements that indicate the dominant regimes of London's boundary layer.

  16. Change in Urban Albedo in London: A Multi-scale Perspective (United States)

    Susca, T.; Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.


    climate is calculated using numerical modelling to mitigate the urban heat island in London. The co-benefits from decreasing the urban temperature are then considered. These include a reduction in the peak of tropospheric ozone formation, a decrease heat stress to the city dwellers as well as in energy demand. The extreme summer temperatures have most of the impact on people socially and physically vulnerable people. The decrease in summer temperatures has positive effects on human health decreasing the mortality for natural causes as well as for respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases promoting socially equality. The increase in urban albedo - with a particular reference to changes in pavements and rooftops - can be easily integrated in urban and building maintenance plans. Since the increase in urban albedo can affect both the global and local scale, the results of this extensive and multi-level study are useful to address-policy-relevant strategies for coping with the effects of climate. In particular, they can provide insights for multi-level governance strategies and for shaping mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  17. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London-Olympic Park cohort. (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G


    The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a 'natural experiment', provided by the building and rapid occupation of East Village. Findings from the study will be generalisable to

  18. [Homicides and social vulnerability]. (United States)

    Tavares, Ricardo; Catalan, Valeria Dutra Batista; Romano, Pedro Machado de Melo; Melo, Elza Machado


    The goal of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of homicide rates (H) according to the social vulnerability index (SVI) and the quality of urban life index (QUL) in Betim, State of Minas Gerais, from 2006 to 2011. Descriptive analysis was performed using Moran's spatial correlation analysis, and the H, SVI and QUL spatial analyses. During this period there were 1,383 deaths, mostly of males (91.9%), aged 15-24 years (46.9%), brown/black (76.9%), with secondary education (51.1%), and single (83.9%). No spatial autocorrelation was revealed, indicating that the distribution of homicide rates is random; the same occurred with the SVI and the QUL index. Taken together, however, the H, SVI and QUL index overlapped, which was analyzed using different theories of crime, such as those addressing socioeconomic issues, arms of drugs dealing and Durkheim's and Habermas' theories, namely anomie and colonization of the lifeworld. social vulnerability and homicide are associated from both empirical and theoretical perspectives.

  19. Assessing flash flood vulnerability using a multi-vulnerability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiorgos Konstantinos


    Full Text Available In the framework of flood risk assessment, while the understanding of hazard and exposure has significantly improved over the last years, knowledge on vulnerability remains one of the challenges. Current approaches in vulnerability research are characterised by a division between social scientists and natural scientists. In order to close this gap, we present an approach that combines information on physical and social vulnerability in order to merge information on the susceptibility of elements at risk and society. With respect to physical vulnerability, the study is based on local-scale vulnerability models using nonlinear regression approaches. Modified Weibull distributions were fit to the data in order to represent the relationship between process magnitude and degree of loss. With respect to social vulnerability we conducted a door-to-door survey which resulted in particular insights on flood risk awareness and resilience strategies of exposed communities. In general, both physical and social vulnerability were low in comparison with other European studies, which may result from (a specific building regulations in the four Mediterranean test sites as well as general design principles leading to low structural susceptibility of elements at risk, and (b relatively low social vulnerability of citizens exposed. As a result it is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of exposure and capacities in flood risk management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU


    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  1. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project


    Jake Kouns


    This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB) project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability co...

  2. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Kouns


    Full Text Available This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability collection on the Internet.

  3. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson


    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  4. Improving the Health Forecasting Alert System for Cold Weather and Heat-Waves In England: A Proof-of-Concept Using Temperature-Mortality Relationships. (United States)

    Masato, Giacomo; Bone, Angie; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Cavany, Sean; Neal, Robert; Dankers, Rutger; Dacre, Helen; Carmichael, Katie; Murray, Virginia


    In this study a prototype of a new health forecasting alert system is developed, which is aligned to the approach used in the Met Office's (MO) National Severe Weather Warning Service (NSWWS). This is in order to improve information available to responders in the health and social care system by linking temperatures more directly to risks of mortality, and developing a system more coherent with other weather alerts. The prototype is compared to the current system in the Cold Weather and Heatwave plans via a case-study approach to verify its potential advantages and shortcomings. The prototype health forecasting alert system introduces an "impact vs likelihood matrix" for the health impacts of hot and cold temperatures which is similar to those used operationally for other weather hazards as part of the NSWWS. The impact axis of this matrix is based on existing epidemiological evidence, which shows an increasing relative risk of death at extremes of outdoor temperature beyond a threshold which can be identified epidemiologically. The likelihood axis is based on a probability measure associated with the temperature forecast. The new method is tested for two case studies (one during summer 2013, one during winter 2013), and compared to the performance of the current alert system. The prototype shows some clear improvements over the current alert system. It allows for a much greater degree of flexibility, provides more detailed regional information about the health risks associated with periods of extreme temperatures, and is more coherent with other weather alerts which may make it easier for front line responders to use. It will require validation and engagement with stakeholders before it can be considered for use.

  5. Margaret Storm Jameson and the London PEN Centre: Mobilising Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer BIRKETT


    Full Text Available Founded in London in October 1921 by Mrs. C. A. Dawson Scott, PEN (“Poets, Essayists and Novelists” started life as a literary dining club, on the American model. Its beginnings were explicitly apolitical – refusal to take any particular political stand was one of the founding principles – and politeness was its watchword. John Galsworthy was invited to be first President, in preference to H. G. Wells, partly because he was “big enough to act as a magnet to draw in all the rest,” but mostly ...

  6. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London (United States)

    Skuce, A.


    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  7. Changing geographies of access to medical education in London. (United States)

    Brown, Gavin; Garlick, Pamela


    This paper highlights the need for health geographers to consider the social and cultural geographies of who gets to train as a doctor. The paper presents a case study of a scheme intended to widen access to medical education for working class students from inner London. This work examines the role of local education markets and cultures of education in shaping the aspirations and achievements of potential future doctors. It employs ethnographic data to consider how 'non-traditional' learners acclimatise to medical school. Our findings indicate that the students who succeed best are those who can see themselves as belonging within the education system, regardless of their social and cultural background.

  8. '"Against the grand project": Iain Sinclair's local London'


    Weston, Daniel


    The dust-jackets of Iain Sinclair’s books are laden with endorsements describing him as the preeminent metropolitan writer of London. Yet those same texts often re-inscribe specifically local and regional practices. A walk around the perimeter of the borough of Hackney, for example, is described, in terms invoking ancient parochial rituals, as “beating the bounds.” This article, focusing on one of London’s most prominent literary spokesmen as a regional or local writer, challenges the convent...

  9. Regeneralized London free energy for high-Tc vortex lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shahzamanian


    Full Text Available   The London free-energy is regeneralized by the Ginsburg-Landau free-energy density in the presence of both d and s order parameters. We have shown that the strength of the s-d coupling, makes an important rule to determine the form of the lattice vortex. Appearance of the ratios of the coherence length to penetration depth in the higher order corrections of the free-energy density will truncate these corrections for even large values of .

  10. "Three in the Room": Embodiment, Disclosure, and Vulnerability in Qualitative Research. (United States)

    Harris, Magdalena


    The researcher's body in qualitative research is often absented, an absence that can render deceptively tidy research accounts. In this article, I reflect on the interplay of embodiment and disclosure in the interview dynamic and the way in which my body became an object of inquiry in the research process. Three qualitative studies inform the article: the first exploring the experiences of 40 people living with hepatitis C in New Zealand and Australia, the second comprising life-history interviews with 38 people who inject drugs in London, and the third following 27 people through hepatitis C treatment in London. Bodily and verbal disclosures of my history, as someone with/without hepatitis C and a former heroin user, affected the energy of the interview dynamic, also embodied understandings of illness and drug use. Disclosure can enhance researcher vulnerability and I close with reflection on the ethical implications of "enhanced rapport" in the research situation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. ""Thames Valley cotton pickers"": Race and youth in London blues culture


    Goody, Matthew Christopher


    This study addresses the reception of African American blues music and the ensuing production of English blues in London from 1955 to 1966. It concentrates on London adolescents' unexpected fascination with a musical style that they virtually had no contact with prior to 1955, while analyzing how this immersion in African American culture shaped their cultural identity. Analysis of the influence of African American blues music in London during this period highlights the BBC's weakened influen...

  12. Vulnerability assessment of vegetation types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonas, Z


    Full Text Available on the potential loss of natural habitat due to habitat transformation and degradation processes, which will threaten the biodiversity of the area. In this assessment, two classes of vulnerability are referred to as land use vulnerability and degradation...

  13. Safety effects of the London cycle superhighways on cycle collisions. (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J; Liu, Pan


    This paper evaluates the effects of the London Cycle Superhighways (CS) on cycle collisions. A total of 45 CS segments and 375 control segments are observed for a period of 8 years in London. Variables such as road characteristics, crash history and socio-economic information are included in the data set. Traffic characteristics including traffic volume, cycle volume and traffic speed are obtained from Department for Transport. We first estimate the safety effects on the CS routes using Empirical Bayes methods. Then propensity score matching methods are also applied for comparison. The introduction of cycle superhighways caused cycling traffic volumes to increase dramatically along CS routes with no significant impacts on collision rates. Our models find that the increase in traffic was associated with a rise in annual total cycle collisions of around 2.6 per km (38% in percentage). However, when we re-estimate the effects based on cycle collision rates rather than levels, our results also show that the CS routes are not more dangerous or safer than the control roads. Among the four CS routes, CS3 performs the best in protecting cyclists with a large proportion of segregated lanes whilst the cyclists have to share the lanes with motorists on other routes. It is recommended that consistent safety designs should be applied on all CS routes for a safer cycling environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon Capture and Storage and the London Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects will be required by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to contribute fully to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. For CCS to reach its emissions reduction potential, the 2009 IEA publication Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage recommends that international legal obstacles associated with global CCS deployment be removed by 2012 -- including the prohibition on transboundary CO2 transfer under the London Protocol. The London Protocol was amended by contracting parties in 2009 to allow for cross-border transportation of CO2 for sub-seabed storage, but the amendment must be ratified by two-thirds of contracting parties to enter into force. It is unlikely that this will occur in the near term; this working paper therefore outlines options that may be available to contracting parties under international law to address the barrier to deployment presented by Article 6, pending formal entry into force of the 2009 amendment.

  15. Operationalisation of physical vulnerability to natural hazards: Vulnerability curves versus vulnerability indicators (United States)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria


    Physical vulnerability to natural hazards is often presented as a function of the intensity of the process and the degree of loss (vulnerability or fragility curves). However, a considerable amount of studies argue that physical vulnerability assessment should focus on the identification of these variables that influence the vulnerability of an element at risk (vulnerability indicators). In this study, the focus is on the comparison between the two methods and the provision of recommendations for improved operationalisation and assessment of physical vulnerability. The comparison is illustrated through a case study in South Tyrol. The two methods have been applied at the same study area that suffered significant damages due to a debris flow event in 1987. A vulnerability curve has been developed for the buildings that suffered damages, as well as a database including physical vulnerability indicators for the same set of buildings. The comparison of the results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods showing that they should complement rather than oppose each other.

  16. Offshore wind power fundaments. Practical experience from the projects London Array and Dan Tysk; Offshore Windkraft Fundamente. Praxiserfahrung aus den Projekten London Array und DanTysk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Moritz [Bilfinger Berger Ingenieurbau GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Ingenieurwasserbau


    Based on a collection of diagrams and images the authors of the contribution under consideration report on practical experiences resulting from the project London Array and Dan Tysk with respect to the foundations of offshore wind turbines.

  17. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linas Jočys


    .... It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop...

  18. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress Report from London 2015. (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Akasaka, Takashi


    The Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was held in London from 29 August to 2 September 2015. It is the leading conference in cardiology in the world, with presentations on the latest scientific discoveries, innovations, technology, education, and clinical practices. More than 32,000 delegates and 5,000 exhibitors from 140 countries participated, sharing a number of scientific presentations, including 28 clinical hot lines, 18 clinical trial updates, 20 registry studies, 12 basic and translational science hot line studies, and 4,533 abstract studies. Japan had the highest number of accepted abstracts at the Congress, indicating the great contribution of Japanese scientists and the Japanese Circulation Society.

  19. Cosmic Rays & ULF Waves: Research in Schools Projects in London (United States)

    Archer, Martin


    Research in Schools (RiS) projects offer school students opportunities to experience scientific research over prolonged periods within their school environment. Over the past two years we have piloted a RiS programme with five London schools across two research areas: the cosmic ray muons which serve as backgrounds to current neutrino experiments; and the magnetospheric ultra-low frequency waves that play a key role within space weather. From the evaluation of this pilot programme we have found that RiS can have significantly positive results on students' understanding and appreciation of science, as well as equipping them with vital skills. Teachers are also found to benefit from the projects, reconnecting them with their subject at an academic level, challenging them and aiding towards their professional development. It is important to note that supervision from current researchers was key to these outcomes. Finally, a number of recommendations on project structure, resources and workloads are presented.

  20. Training of assistant forensic medical examiners in London, UK. (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M; Norfolk, Guy A


    The overall aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the quality of current practical training in London with a view to improving future training as part of faculty development. New trainees in clinical forensic medicine (CFM), Assistant Forensic Medical Examiners (AFMEs), were interviewed to gather their views of their recent training experience and to attempt to identify problems with implementing the training as it stands. An overwhelming theme emerged that there should be a more formal structure to the training of newly appointed FMEs. Each trainee should have a named clinical and educational supervisor during the training period. Furthermore it should be mandatory for educational supervisors to undergo training and review of performance. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgaker, T.; Ruud, K.; Bak, Keld L.


    Ab initio calculations of Raman differential intensities are presented at the self-consistent field (SCF) level of theory. The electric dipole-electric dipole, electric dipole-magnetic dipole and electric dipole-electric quadrupole polarizability tensors are calculated at the frequency of the inc...... of the incident light, using SCF linear response theory. London atomic orbitals are employed, imposing gauge origin invariance on the calculations. Calculations have been carried out in the harmonic approximation for CFHDT and methyloxirane.......Ab initio calculations of Raman differential intensities are presented at the self-consistent field (SCF) level of theory. The electric dipole-electric dipole, electric dipole-magnetic dipole and electric dipole-electric quadrupole polarizability tensors are calculated at the frequency...

  2. ATLAS Virtual Visit London-20-08-2014

    CERN Multimedia


    Working at the highest energy particle accelerator in the world, a group of scientists gathers each year to discuss the science and discovery potential of extremely energetic and complex phenomena that might emerge from the proton collisions at the LHC. The BOOST Conference of 2014 is hosted by the UCL HEP Group at the heart of London, and features an evening of particle physics, including an introduction to the Higgs and the Large Hadron Collider, a virtual visit to CERN hosted by David Miller of Chicago University, a talk by TEDx speaker Lily Asquith (Argonne National Lab/Sussex Uni) on sonification of LHC data, and a question and answer session! More information can be found on the conference website at:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Caplan


    Full Text Available he Olympic Games in London in 2012 is being built online as well as off through official and unofficial photographs which serve to position ‘2012’ within a discourse of legacy and participation. This paper looks at how network protocols can be addressed as what Bruno Latour would call ‘actants’, non-human actors that generate and discipline that visualisation within a particular network scopic regime (Jay, 1988. Following Galloway (2004, protocols such as JPEG/EXIF and XML can be seen as generating new scopic texts/practices around archive and openness which underpin 2012 ideologies of legacy and participation. The paper goes on to explore the potential of critical intervention in that regime using Benjamin’s model of writing history developed in The Arcades Project (1999.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity of overseas patients in inner London: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshall Alice M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the referral, admission, treatment, and outcome of overseas patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in central London. Ethical, legal and economic implications, and the involvement of consulates in the admission process, are discussed. Method Assessment and review of overseas patients admitted between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. Non-parametric statistical tests were used, and relevant outcomes described. Results 19% of admissions were overseas patients. Mean age was 38 years. 90% were unattached; 84% were white, 71% from European countries. 45% spoke fluent English. Differences in socio-economic status between home country and England were found. 74% were unwell on arrival; 65% travelled to England as tourists. 65% of admissions came via the police. 32% had been ill for more than one year before admission; 68% had psychiatric history. 77% were admitted and 48% discharged under section of the Mental Health Act. 74% had psychotic disorders, all of them with positive symptoms. 55% showed little to moderate improvement in mental state; 10% were on Enhanced Care Programme Approach. Relatives of 48% of patients were contacted. The Hospital repatriated 52% of patients; the Mental Health Team followed up 13% of those discharged. The average length of admission was 43.4 days (range 1–365. Total cost of admissions was GBP350, 600 ($577, 490; average individual cost was GBP11, 116 (range GBP200-81, 000. Conclusions Mentally ill overseas individuals are a vulnerable group that need recognition by health organisations to adapt current practice to better serve their needs. The involvement of consulates needs further evaluation.

  5. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan


    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  6. The electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App - The London man who went to the Tokio Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App - The London man who went to the Tokio Olympics. Presentation at MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0, London, England.

  7. Development and validation of the Dutch version of the London Handicap Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Detmar, S.B.


    BACKGROUND: The London Handicap Scale (LHS) was found to be a valid and reliable scale for measuring participation restrictions in adults. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the development and assesses the construct-related validity of a Dutch version of the London Handicap Scale (DLHS). METHODS: The

  8. Engendering City Politics and Educational Thought: Elite Women and the London Labour Party, 1914-1965 (United States)

    Martin, Jane


    This article uses biographical approaches to recover the contribution of hitherto neglected figures in the history of education and the political history of the Left in London. Place and location are important since it is important to grasp the uniqueness of the London County Council within the framework of English local government and of the…

  9. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale (United States)

    Almár, Iván


    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  10. Vulnerability Identification Errors in Security Risk Assessments


    Taubenberger, Stefan


    At present, companies rely on information technology systems to achieve their business objectives, making them vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. Information security risk assessments help organisations to identify their risks and vulnerabilities. An accurate identification of risks and vulnerabilities is a challenge, because the input data is uncertain. So-called ’vulnerability identification errors‘ can occur if false positive vulnerabilities are identified, or if vulnerabilities remain u...

  11. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach


    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus


    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  12. VT - Vermont Heat Vulnerability Index (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This map shows: The overall vulnerability of each town to heat related illness. This index is a composite of the following themes: Population Theme, Socioeconomic...

  13. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant


    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information...

  14. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, stresses such as natural or human-caused...

  15. Care home managers' views of dental services for older people living in nursing and residential homes in inner city London. (United States)

    Belsi, A; Gonzalez-Maffe, J; Jones, K; Wright, D; Gallagher, J E


    To investigate care home managers' views on the provision of dental care (current and future; urgent, check-up and follow-up) for their residents, barriers to care and the impact of policy changes, by type of home (nursing vs residential), with a view to informing the planning and provision of care. A cross sectional postal questionnaire survey and follow-up semi-structured interviews. Care homes in South East London. PARTCIPANTS: All care home managers in three south east London boroughs. A 72% response rate (n=152) was achieved, 140 of which were designated as nursing and/or residential homes (92%). Almost all managers reported that the care homes had arrangements in place for residents to access some elements of dental care (99%, n=148). Reported barriers to care included residents' fear of treatment (53%), patients' limited mobility (45%) and waiting times for services (42%). Limited mobility (p=0.01) and transport issues (p=0.01) were more significant barriers for nursing homes, whereas fear (p=0.02) was more significant for residential homes. Access to a range of dental services and modes of service delivery were requested for the future; most notable were the demands for domiciliary services to be available to nursing homes and for residential homes to access local general dental practitioners to meet the needs of their residents. Managers report having arrangements in place for residents to access dental services; however, there was a clear view that future arrangements should be more appropriate to the needs and vulnerabilities of their residents.

  16. Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research: report on a symposium at King's College London, London UK. (United States)

    Persaud, Shanta J; Arden, Catherine; Bergsten, Peter; Bone, Adrian J; Brown, James; Dunmore, Simon; Harrison, Moira; Hauge-Evans, Astrid; Kelly, Catriona; King, Aileen; Maffucci, Tania; Marriott, Claire E; McClenaghan, Neville; Morgan, Noel G; Reers, Christina; Russell, Mark A; Turner, Mark D; Willoughby, Emma; Younis, Mustafa Y G; Zhi, Z L; Jones, Peter M


    Laboratory-based research aimed at understanding processes regulating insulin secretion and mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction and loss in diabetes often makes use of rodents, as these processes are in many respects similar between rats/mice and humans. Indeed, a rough calculation suggests that islets have been isolated from as many as 150,000 rodents to generate the data contained within papers published in 2009 and the first four months of 2010. Rodent use for islet isolation has been mitigated, to a certain extent, by the availability of a variety of insulin-secreting cell lines that are used by researchers world-wide. However, when maintained as monolayers the cell lines do not replicate the robust, sustained secretory responses of primary islets which limits their usefulness as islet surrogates. On the other hand, there have been several reports that configuration of MIN6 β-cells, derived from a mouse insulinoma, as three-dimensional cell clusters termed ‘pseudoislets’ largely recapitulates the function of primary islet β-cells. The Diabetes Research Group at King’s College London has been using the MIN6 pseudoislet model for over a decade and they hosted a symposium on “Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research”, which was funded by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), in London on 15th and 16th April 2010. This small, focused meeting was conceived as an opportunity to consolidate information on experiences of working with pseudoislets between different UK labs, and to introduce the theory and practice of pseudoislet culture to laboratories working with islets and/or β-cell lines but who do not currently use pseudoislets. This short review summarizes the background to the development of the cell line-derived pseudoislet model, the key messages arising from the symposium and emerging themes for future pseudoislet research.

  17. A Critical Analysis of Britain's Living, Dead and Zombie Multiculturalism: From 7/7 to the London 2012 Olympic Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Allen


      A day after the London 2012 Bid Committee succeeded in bringing the Olympic Games to Britain using the slogan "the world in one city", a series of coordinated suicide bomb attacks occurred across London (7/7...

  18. An integrated framework for software vulnerability detection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar


    Jul 15, 2017 ... framework for security vulnerability minimization using design of object-oriented software. The proposed frame- work minimizes vulnerability by restricting the flow of vulnerable information. Agrawal and Khan [40] proposed a framework to identify, analyse and mitigate vulnerabilities during the development ...

  19. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands (United States)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.


    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  20. Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability. (United States)

    Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John


    Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  1. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman


    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  2. Compounding vulnerability: pregnancy and schizophrenia. (United States)

    Dudzinski, Denise M


    The predominant ethical framework for addressing reproductive decisions in the maternal-fetal relationship is respect for the woman's autonomy. However, when a pregnant schizophrenic woman lacks such autonomy, healthcare providers try to both protect her and respect her preferences. By delineating etic (objective) and emic (subjective) perspectives on vulnerability, I argue that options which balance both perspectives are preferable and that acting on etic perspectives to the exclusion of emic considerations is rarely justified. In negotiating perspectives, we balance the etic commitment to protect the vulnerable patient and her fetus from harm with the emic concern to empower a decisionally incapacitated woman. Equilibrium is best achieved by nurturing interdependent relationships that empower and protect the vulnerable woman. The analysis points to the need for better social support for mentally ill patients.

  3. The Dialectal Provenance of London, Wellcome Library, Ms 5262

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban-Segura Laura


    Full Text Available This paper takes into consideration the language found in London, Wellcome Library, MS 5262, a one-volume codex from the early fifteenth century which holds a medical recipe collection. The manuscript, written in Middle English (and with a few fragments in Latin, represents a fine exemplar of a remedybook, a type of writing that has been traditionally considered to be popular. The main aim is to study the dialect of the text contained in folios 3v-61v in order to localise it geographically. The methodology followed for the purpose is grounded on the model supplied by the Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English (LALME (McIntosh et al. 1986, which consists of several stages including the completion of a survey questionnaire, the creation of the linguistic profile of the text and the application of the ‘fit’-technique (McIntosh et al. 1986, vol. 1: 10-12; Benskin 1991. Extralinguistic features of the manuscript may also be taken into consideration. This comprehensive analysis will help us to circumscribe the dialectal provenance and/or local origin of the text accurately.

  4. Efficient Calculation of Molecular Integrals over London Atomic Orbitals. (United States)

    Irons, Tom J P; Zemen, Jan; Teale, Andrew M


    The use of London atomic orbitals (LAOs) in a nonperturbative manner enables the determination of gauge-origin invariant energies and properties for molecular species in arbitrarily strong magnetic fields. Central to the efficient implementation of such calculations for molecular systems is the evaluation of molecular integrals, particularly the electron repulsion integrals (ERIs). We present an implementation of several different algorithms for the evaluation of ERIs over Gaussian-type LAOs at arbitrary magnetic field strengths. The efficiencies of generalized McMurchie-Davidson (MD), Head-Gordon-Pople (HGP), and Rys quadrature schemes are compared. For the Rys quadrature implementation, we avoid the use of high precision arithmetic and interpolation schemes in the computation of the quadrature roots and weights, enabling the application of this algorithm seamlessly to a wide range of magnetic fields. The efficiency of each generalized algorithm is compared by numerical application, classifying the ERIs according to their total angular momenta and evaluating their performance for primitive and contracted basis sets. In common with zero-field integral evaluation, no single algorithm is optimal for all angular momenta; thus, a simple mixed scheme is put forward that selects the most efficient approach to calculate the ERIs for each shell quartet. The mixed approach is significantly more efficient than the exclusive use of any individual algorithm.

  5. Geological Society of London Issues Statement on Climate Change (United States)

    Summerhayes, Colin


    On 1 November the Geological Society of London (GSL) published a statement ( about the geological evidence relating to past climates, atmospheric carbon levels, and their interrelationships. The online version also carries a list of recommendations for further reading. The GSL's Geoscientist magazine ( reported Bryan Lovell, GSL president, as saying, “Climate change is a defining issue of our time, whose full understanding needs geology's long perspective. Earth scientists can read…the geological record of changes in climate that occurred long before we were around to light so much as a camp fire, let alone burn coal, gas and oil. A dramatic global warming event 55 million years ago gives us a particularly clear indication of what happens when there is a sudden release of 1500 billion tonnes of carbon into Earth's atmosphere. It gets hot, the seas become more acid, and there is widespread extinction of life. We are a third of the way to repeating that ancient natural input of carbon through our own agency. The message from the rocks is that it would be a good idea to stop pulling that carbon trigger.”

  6. Language Choice in Expressing Anger among Arab-English Londoners

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    Жан-Марк Деваеле


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to partially replicate the study in Dewaele (2013. We want to determine whether the independent variables linked to the preference of the first (L1 or second language (L2 for the communication of anger among a large heterogeneous group of long-time multilinguals from all over the world (Dewaele 2013 have similar effects in one relatively homogeneous linguistic and cultural group, namely 110 English-speaking Arabs living in London (UK. The analysis of quantitative and qualitative data showed that, in line with the findings in Dewaele (2013, L1 Arabic was preferred over L2 English for expressing anger at oneself, family, friends and at strangers. However, English was preferred to express anger in writing and occasionally in instances of divergence with Arabic-speaking interlocutors (Sachdev, Giles &Pauwels 2013. Frequency of use of English for anger was linked to lower age of onset of L2 learning, naturalistic or mixed L2 learning context, frequency of general use of the L2 and degree of L2 socialization and higher perceived emotionality of English. Gender, age and education were also linked to language choices. Participants explained how their religious beliefs, their cultural and ideological background affect their choice of language for expressing anger.

  7. Ethnic variations in orthodontic treatment need in London schoolchildren

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    Jopanputra Pooja


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in children from minority ethnic groups and compare the need to the white population. The second objective was to explore variations in agreement between subjective and objective treatment need in a multiethnic context using the aesthetic component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN AC. Methods A cross-sectional study in North West London, 14 schools were randomly selected from the 27 schools in the two boroughs of Harrow and Hillingdon. Comparison between objective and subjective treatment need was carried out using IOTN AC index. Clinical orthodontic treatment need was also recorded using the dental health component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN DHC. Results 2,788 children were examined and completed the questionnaire. 16% of the study population were already wearing appliances or had finished orthodontic treatment. Of the remaining children; 15% had definite need for treatment using the dental health component of the IOTN. There was no significant variation in the need for orthodontic treatment between different ethnic backgrounds (P > 0.05 whether using the AC or DHC components of the IOTN index. However, poor agreement was detected between professional and subjective assessment of ethnic minority of orthodontic treatment need using IOTN AC index. Conclusion Orthodontic treatment need in children of ethnic minorities does not differ significantly from the vast majority of white children. However treatment need based on aesthetic index continues to vary in all ethnic groups from the professional aesthetic assessment

  8. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

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    Georgia Black

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. METHODS: We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. FINDINGS: We identified five key themes: (1 Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2 Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3 Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4 Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5 Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. INTERPRETATION: Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  9. Evaluating sexual health planning for the London 2012 Olympics. (United States)

    Lorenc, Ava; Robinson, Nicola


    The public health impact of mass gatherings should not be underestimated, requiring careful planning. This evaluation identified the successes and failures of a programme targeted to mitigate against potential increases in sexual ill health during the London 2012 Olympics. Programme planning was evaluated using documentary analysis. Stakeholders' experiences were explored using an online survey. Finally, selected stakeholders were interviewed in depth. Over 100 documents were analysed, 36 survey responses received and 12 interviews conducted. Most respondents felt aims were appropriate, potentially overambitious. 'Business as usual', with no disruption or increased demand, was reported in sexual health services. Some interviewees felt evidence for increased demand was limited, although contingency planning was needed. Signposting service users and providing 'residual risk responses' appeared successful. Planned service transformation was not fully achieved and perhaps inappropriate, although new service collaborations emerged. Over 2000 individuals participated; wider public engagement was seen as inappropriate. A 'Sex Factor 2012' competition was particularly successful. Legacy opportunities included planning work, groundwork for transformation, relationship building and continuing the resilience changes. The Games allowed sexual health services to explore new ways of working, engage with stakeholders and develop new relationships, although in reality demand for services did not increase. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Anatomists and entrepreneurs in early eighteenth-century London. (United States)

    Guerrini, Anita


    Anatomical demonstration in the eighteenth century took place in many formats. In this essay I discuss public anatomical demonstration as performed by entrepreneurial anatomists in London between 1700 and 1740. These anatomists offered courses, advertised in newspapers, to anyone who was willing to pay. In contrast to courses offered in official settings to prospective physicians and surgeons, these courses emphasized natural philosophy and natural theology rather than practical knowledge. Entrepreneurial lecturers also aimed to entertain. In this article I examine the lectures of James Douglas, William Cheselden, and Frank Nicholls, each of whom differed significantly from the others in style and content but were all anatomical entrepreneurs. All of them, moreover, employed not only human cadavers but also living and dead animals in their lessons. I examine the content of the lectures and the motivations of the lecturers' audiences. I also argue that the prevailing historiographical representation of eighteenth-century science as "polite" requires considerable revision to accommodate as impolite an activity as public anatomy.

  11. London 2012: occupational health in the construction programme. (United States)

    Waterman, Lawrence


    This article explores the approach to occupational health in the UK construction industry in both broad and narrow contexts. The construction programme for the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games includes the creation of a large urban park in east London containing many sports venues and served by enhanced infrastructure. The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), responsible for the construction programme, is developing plans that seek to assure the health of the thousands of workers who will be engaged in this work. Such plans are not being drafted in a vacuum. In addition to considerable consultation with stakeholders the ODA is also drawing on some of the exciting work that has been undertaken in occupational health in recent years. In particular, the move from a focus on technical health services provided by 'experts' to an acceptance that health issues should be managed within employing organizations. Understanding this broad context provides a solid basis for analysing the specific proposals for occupational support during the Olympic Park construction.

  12. Familism and Social Inclusion: Hispanics in New London, Connecticut

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    Maria Amparo Cruz-Saco


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the financial support and inclusiveness within Hispanic families in New London, Connecticut, and the causes of their social exclusion in the larger society. We designed and administered a survey of 114 items that was answered by 148 participants representing 1.3% of the non-Puerto Rican Hispanic population. Using factor analysis, we reduced a large number of items in two familism scores to four latent factors: "Financial Support for Family", "Obligation to Family", "Plan to Return", and "Filial Responsibility". We found that financial support for family and obligation to family are strongly endorsed by participants. Approximately one-half would return back to their home countries where they believe to be happier. One-fifth rejects this option. Three-quarters of participants remit money to family, parents in particular, who reside in countries of origin. In contrast to other studies, remitting money is not affected by any given personal characteristic such as gender, income or level of education. Similarly, participants remit irrespective of their degree of self-reported familism measured by scores on the latent factors. A large incidence of poverty among this population, lack of English proficiency, low skills, immigration status, and a lack of voice and political representation inhibit their social inclusion.

  13. Security-related vulnerability life cycle analysis


    Vache Marconato, Géraldine; Nicomette, Vincent; Kaâniche, Mohamed


    International audience; This paper deals with the characterization of security-related vulnerabilities based on public data reported in the Open Source Vulnerability Database. We focus on the analysis of vulnerability life cycle events corresponding to the vulnerability discovery, the vulnerability disclosure, the patch release, and the exploit availability. We study the distribution of the time between these events considering different operating systems (Windows, Unix, Mobile OS), and diffe...

  14. Heatwave warning for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Engineers have been able to start warming up the first sectors of the LHC where the tests on the superconductor circuits have been completed. Raising the temperature from 1.9 K to 300 K is a remarkable but delicate process.   Filling the first liquid-helium truck for external storage. The first update on LS1, published in the previous edition of the Bulletin, announced the start of the Electrical Quality Assurance (ElQA) tests on the LHC magnets. These tests began on 22 February and have already been completed in two Sectors: “The integrity of the magnets’ electrical insulation has been fully verified in sectors 4-5 and 5-6,” reports Mirko Pojer, Engineer in Charge of the LHC. “This is vital in order for the magnets to function properly at the nominal current, which we should reach in 2015. The ElQA team has also run other tests, in particular to verify the electrical insulation between the coils. Fortunately, we have not detected any major problems so...

  15. Social vulnerability, age and resilience

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    Wanda Pereira Patrocinio


    Full Text Available This article aims to present a conceptual exposition on social vulnerability and its implications for the aging process. We conducted a survey of theme in Latin American literature, considering the social reality of Latin America closer to the Brazilian social reality, with a higher probability of relationships and approaches to the issue at hand. The second part of the article discusses the situation of old age amid the existence of social vulnerability to, third party, presenting the importance of community resilience to overcome adversity in this way. With this, we hope that our reflections will contribute to the field of research and practice in the field of social gerontology.

  16. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A


    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  17. Stuart London's standard of living: re-examining the Settlement of Tithes of 1638 for rents, income, and poverty. (United States)

    Baer, William C


    The Settlement of Tithes of 1638 can be tested for biases in its London rents. Even so, it proves to be a relatively good source for seventeenth-century London, and for calculating associated median and mean rents, as well as a Gini coefficient of inequality for the distribution of resources. Through other evidence in the Settlement, rent/income ratios for London can be approximated, and from them estimates made of London's median income. Median rents and income also allow estimates of the percentage of Londoners in poverty. Though the last is inevitably disputable, the estimate holds up well to testing by other evidence.

  18. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan


    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  19. Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.


    Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London (South Kensington), die ich wahrend eines kurzen Aufenthaltes daselbst untersuchen konnte, umfasst folgende Formen: Cassiopea andromeda Eschscholtz, Australien, Mozambique, Madagascar, Suez. „ „ var. maldivensis Browne,


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenton Storey


    ....2 This article explores Fraser's work for the London Times, charting his development as a journalist during the California gold rush in 1849 and then between 1858 and 1866 when he wrote about British Columbia...

  1. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

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    D. Martin


    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  2. Visual Autobiographies in East London: Narratives of Still Images, Interpersonal Exchanges, and Intrapersonal Dialogues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cigdem Esin; Corinne Squire


      This article reports on how a study of visual autobiographical workshops, conducted with social diverse groups in East London, provides us with insights about the narrative nature of still images...

  3. London Model of Multicultural Development: Urban Administrative Initiatives and Cultural Integration of Ethnic Minorities

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    A B Berson


    Full Text Available London is among most culturally diverse cities in Europe and in the world. This paper will investigate ethnic cultural integration of immigrants within the city's social space. Firstly the paper explores multi-cultural political inclusion strategies of London administration, municipal service provision and policy and cultural integration programs both on the city level and locally in London boroughs. Secondly this paper raises the question of the initiatives of ethnic minorities, the issue of ghettoisation and linguistic segregation of the city and analyzes the impact of such integration on social city space. The paper also analyses the preparation to Olympic Games 2012 in London as they are presented as cultural cohesion element.

  4. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.


    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  5. Trust, Endangerment and Divine Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mikkel Gabriel


    Faith is trusting God in the midst of endangerment. Yet, human experience of excessive suffering has challenged any spontaneous trust in God. In this article, I reconsider the idea of faith as trust in God, adding an emphasis on the divine vulnerability in the incarnation, and I develop a more...

  6. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  7. The Sindhi Hindus of London − Language Maintenance or Language Shift?


    Maya Khemlani David


    The linguistic situation of the Sindhi language in London is examined with a view to determining whether the community is maintaining the use of its ethnic language. The Sindhi Hindus of London are a language community, which have never been researched. The language choice of the community in different domains and for a range of language functions is discussed. Both external and internal factors of language shift have weakened the linguistic and communicative competence of Sindhi speakers in ...

  8. Exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in London: incidence, survival and bystander response


    Edwards, Melanie J; Fothergill, Rachael T


    Objective The study aimed to (1) establish the incidence of exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in London, (2) investigate survival from exercise-related SCA and (3) examine factors related to survival. Method This retrospective observational study examined 2 years’ data from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) cardiac arrest registry for patients in whom resuscitation was attempted following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), a cardiac cause was presumed and the arrest occurre...

  9. The Merchant Taylors Company of London 1580-1645: with special reference to government and politics


    Sleigh-Johnson, N. V.


    During the period 1580-1645, the Merchant Taylors Company, one of the twelve major livery companies of London, assumed a central place in the social, financial, and political affairs of the capital. The archives of the Company, more varied and extensive than is often assumed, have allowed a detailed study of the nature and organisation of one of early modern London's major social organisations. That organisation embraced two highly distinct and autonomous bodies. The l...

  10. Talkin’ or talking? Phonological variation in the speech of London teenagers

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    Costin-Valentin Oancea


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the (ing variable in the speech of London teenagers. The study is based on a corpus consisting of approximately five hours of speech collected at Queen Mary’s College, University of London, in October 2012. I argue that the nonstandard form [n], usually associated with the speech of boys is frequently used by girls, contrary to the findings found in the literature on (ing.

  11. Do specialist community public health nurses assess risk factors for depression, suicide, and self-harm among South Asian mothers living in London? (United States)

    Baldwin, Sharin; Griffiths, Peter


    Evidence indicates that suicide rates are higher in South Asian women in the United Kingdom compared with other ethnic groups, suggesting increased vulnerability to attempted suicide and mental distress in these women. Specialist Community Public Health Nurses (SCPHNs, including health visitors) are in an ideal position to assess such risk. The objectives are to determine whether SCPHNs assess known risk factors for depression, self-harm, and suicide during initial contact with South Asian mothers in London; the extent to which these risk factors are documented in the nursing records; and whether their assessments of South Asian women differ from those of other ethnic groups. Structured content analysis of semistructured interviews with 8 SCPHNs and analysis of 60 matched pairs of SCPHN records were carried out in an inner London community. The results revealed that SCPHNs assessed general risk factors for postnatal depression and some culture-specific factors when assessing South Asian mothers. Documentation of risk factors was under-represented in the SCPHN records and there was a significant difference between the documented risk factors for South Asian women and women from other ethnic groups. While SCPHNs understood some aspects of South Asian culture, service improvements must be made to ensure better care provision.

  12. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness. (United States)

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta


    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.

  13. East London experience with enteric fever 2007-2012.

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    Jayshree Dave

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation and epidemiology for patients with enteric fever at two hospitals in East London during 2007-2012 is described with the aim to identify preventive opportunities and to reduce the cost of treatment.A retrospective analysis of case notes from patients admitted with enteric fever during 2007 to 2012 with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis was undertaken. Details on clinical presentation, travel history, demographic data, laboratory parameters, treatment, patient outcome and vaccination status were collected.Clinical case notes were available for 98/129 (76% patients including 69 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and 29 Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi. Thirty-four patients (35% were discharged from emergency medicine without a diagnosis of enteric fever and then readmitted after positive blood cultures. Seventy-one of the 98 patients (72% were UK residents who had travelled abroad, 23 (23% were foreign visitors/new entrants to the UK and four (4% had not travelled abroad. Enteric fever was not considered in the initial differential diagnosis for 48/98 (49% cases. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 0-57 days. The total cost of bed days for managing enteric fever was £454,000 in the two hospitals (mean £75,666/year. Median time to clinical resolution was five days (range 1-20. Seven of 98 (7% patients were readmitted with relapsed or continued infection. Six of the 71 (8% patients had received typhoid vaccination, 34 (48% patients had not received vaccination, and for 31 cases (44% vaccination status was unknown.Further interventions regarding education and vaccination of travellers and recognition of the condition by emergency medicine clinicians in travellers to South Asia is required.

  14. Royal London space analysis: plaster versus digital model assessment. (United States)

    Grewal, Balpreet; Lee, Robert T; Zou, Lifong; Johal, Ama


    With the advent of digital study models, the importance of being able to evaluate space requirements becomes valuable to treatment planning and the justification for any required extraction pattern. This study was undertaken to compare the validity and reliability of the Royal London space analysis (RLSA) undertaken on plaster as compared with digital models. A pilot study (n = 5) was undertaken on plaster and digital models to evaluate the feasibility of digital space planning. This also helped to determine the sample size calculation and as a result, 30 sets of study models with specified inclusion criteria were selected. All five components of the RLSA, namely: crowding; depth of occlusal curve; arch expansion/contraction; incisor antero-posterior advancement and inclination (assessed from the pre-treatment lateral cephalogram) were accounted for in relation to both model types. The plaster models served as the gold standard. Intra-operator measurement error (reliability) was evaluated along with a direct comparison of the measured digital values (validity) with the plaster models. The measurement error or coefficient of repeatability was comparable for plaster and digital space analyses and ranged from 0.66 to 0.95mm. No difference was found between the space analysis performed in either the upper or lower dental arch. Hence, the null hypothesis was accepted. The digital model measurements were consistently larger, albeit by a relatively small amount, than the plaster models (0.35mm upper arch and 0.32mm lower arch). No difference was detected in the RLSA when performed using either plaster or digital models. Thus, digital space analysis provides a valid and reproducible alternative method in the new era of digital records.

  15. Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Speirs, N.


    AIM—To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
SETTING—40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs.
PARTICIPANTS—Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing.
RESULTS—39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5).
CONCLUSIONS—Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.


  16. Connected or informed?: Local Twitter networking in a London neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bingham-Hall


    Full Text Available This paper asks whether geographically localised, or ‘hyperlocal’, uses of Twitter succeed in creating peer-to-peer neighbourhood networks or simply act as broadcast media at a reduced scale. Literature drawn from the smart cities discourse and from a UK research project into hyperlocal media, respectively, take on these two opposing interpretations. Evidence gathered in the case study presented here is consistent with the latter, and on this basis we criticise the notion that hyperlocal social media can be seen as a community in itself. We demonstrate this by creating a network map of Twitter followers of a popular hyperlocal blog in Brockley, southeast London. We describe various attributes of this network including its average degree and clustering coefficient to suggest that a small and highly connected cluster of visible local entities such as businesses form a clique at the centre of this network, with individual residents following these but not one another. We then plot the locations of these entities and demonstrate that sub-communities in the network are formed due to close geographical proximity between smaller sets of businesses. These observations are illustrated with qualitative evidence from interviews with users who suggest instead that rather than being connected to one another they benefit from what has been described as ‘neighbourhood storytelling’. Despite the limitations of working with Twitter data, we propose that this multi-modal approach offers a valuable way to investigate the experience of using social media as a communication tool in urban neighbourhoods.

  17. Fifteen years of genetic testing from a London developmental clinic. (United States)

    Best, Sunayna; Rosser, Elisabeth; Bajaj, Monika


    To evaluate genetic disease among children referred to a community paediatric clinic. Retrospective cohort study. Community paediatric clinic, Tower Hamlets, London. All patients seen for first time in the Child Development Team (CDT) clinic between 1999 and 2013. Clinical notes were reviewed. Genetic test results were obtained. Exploratory Excel analysis was performed. Patients without an identified genetic disorder were labelled 'more likely genetic cause' if they had at least two out of three risk factors: developmental delay, congenital abnormality or parental consanguinity, and 'unlikely genetic cause' if they had one or no risk factors, or an obvious alternative cause. Prevalence of genetic diagnoses and parental consanguinity, undertaking of genetic tests, predicted likelihood of a genetic cause among unsolved patients. 749 patients were included. 404 (53.9%) had undergone genetic testing and 158 of those tested (39.1%) had a confirmed genetic diagnosis. Parental relatedness was documented in 461 patients, of which 128 (27.8%) had first-cousin parents. The number of patients undergoing genetic testing increased over time. Aneuploidies and syndromic/Mendelian disorders were most common. Of the 591 patients without a genetic diagnosis, 29.9% were classified 'more likely genetic cause'. Patients with consanguineous parents were significantly more likely to have a diagnosed genetic disorder than those with non-consanguineous parents (43/128 vs 72/333), particularly an autosomal recessive condition (27/43 vs 6/72). Genetic disease was common and genetic testing is important in evaluating children in this clinic. Consanguinity increases the likelihood of autosomal recessive disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. The nurse as advocate for vulnerable persons. (United States)

    Copp, L A


    This paper discusses the following issues. Advocacy: in planning and implementing nursing care; in primary care; in terminal care; in nursing research; and in health promotion/disease prevention. That which comprises a vulnerable population. Continuum of vulnerability: the potentially vulnerable; the circumstantially vulnerable; the temporarily vulnerable; the episodically vulnerable; the permanently vulnerable; and the inevitably vulnerable. Damaging one's humanity and self-image: loss of independence; barriers to the ability to make choices; the absences and presence of that which is needed; and the loss of individuality. Types of advocacy: human advocacy; animal advocacy; political advocacy; moral-ethical advocacy; legal advocacy; spiritual advocacy; and individual system advocacy. Advocacy concomitants: risk; heat; and prevention.

  19. Helping air quality managers identify vulnerable communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C


    Full Text Available population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritisation model is proposed for potential use by air quality managers in conjunction with their air quality management plans. The model includes factors such as vulnerability caused by poverty, respiratory...

  20. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ


    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  1. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework. (United States)


    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  2. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons (United States)

    Crews, Douglas E.


    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2–11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman’s correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative

  3. Virtuous aging and existential vulnerability. (United States)

    Laceulle, Hanne


    In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging. Humanistic gerontology seems to be the most promising field to look for languages capable of contemplating such existential vulnerabilities. The potential contribution of philosophy in this field remains underdeveloped so far, however. This article therefore aims to introduce insights from the philosophical tradition to (humanistic) gerontology. More specifically, it focuses on the tradition of virtue ethics, arguing that virtue is a particularly relevant notion to explore in dealing with existential vulnerability in later life. The notion of virtue is clarified by discussing a selection of philosophical perspectives on this topic, by Aristotle, MacIntyre and Swanton. Next a brief overview will be given of some of the ways the notion of virtue has found its way into gerontological discourse so far. The article ends with an analysis of the merits of virtue-ethical discourse for the study of aging and later life, and pleads for more inclusion of philosophical ideas such as virtue in gerontology, as these can enrich our conceptual frameworks and help us relate to deep existential questions regarding the experience of aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Urban Vulnerability Assessment Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaei


    Full Text Available Purpose. Physical expansion of urban areas and cities is of great importance nowadays. Irreparable damages will thus be caused by lack of proper planning against natural disasters. Crisis management will therefore guide through prevention, preparedness, disaster relief, and recovery by planning an appropriate program. Methodology. Principal processes of crisis management against earthquake in Iran were evaluated and discussed. Multicriteria earthquake crisis management was then proposed by means of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Vulnerability of 19 urban areas in Qazvin city was studied and analyzed as a case study. Three main criteria were considered as “physical dimensions and physical vulnerability texture,” “the amount of urban texture responsibility to aid after crisis,” and “possibility of city reversibility after the crisis.” These criteria were divided into 20 subcriteria which were prioritized by a questionnaire survey. Findings. “High population density,” “urban texture of old and repairable buildings,” “lack of relief and medical services,” “a few organic texture areas,” “sidewalks with less than 6 meters width in the region,” and “lack of open spaces in the area” were concluded to be the most important reasons causing high vulnerability of urban texture in Qazvin city.

  5. Enhancing protection for vulnerable waters (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; Lane, Charles R.; Serran, Jacqueline N.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Christensen, Jay R.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; Dekeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David B.; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Rains, Kai C.; Smith, Lora


    Governments worldwide do not adequately protect their limited freshwater systems and therefore place freshwater functions and attendant ecosystem services at risk. The best available scientific evidence compels enhanced protections for freshwater systems, especially for impermanent streams and wetlands outside of floodplains that are particularly vulnerable to alteration or destruction. New approaches to freshwater sustainability -- implemented through scientifically informed adaptive management -- are required to protect freshwater systems through periods of changing societal needs. One such approach introduced in the US in 2015 is the Clean Water Rule, which clarified the jurisdictional scope for federally protected waters. However, within hours of its implementation litigants convinced the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit to stay the rule, and the subsequently elected administration has now placed it under review for potential revision or rescission. Regardless of its outcome at the federal level, policy and management discussions initiated by the propagation of this rare rulemaking event have potential far-reaching implications at all levels of government across the US and worldwide. At this timely juncture, we provide a scientific rationale and three policy options for all levels of government to meaningfully enhance protection of these vulnerable waters. A fourth option, a 'do-nothing' approach, is wholly inconsistent with the well-established scientific evidence of the importance of these vulnerable waters.

  6. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment. (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan


    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  7. Neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Double, Kay L


    The classic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. To date the relatively selective vulnerability of this brain region is not understood. The unique feature of dopaminergic neurons of the human substantia nigra pars compacta is the presence of the polymer pigment neuromelanin which gives this region its characteristic dark colour. In the healthy brain, neuromelanin appears to play a functional role to protect neurons from oxidative load but we have shown that in the Parkinson's disease brain the pigment undergoes structural changes and is associated with aggregation of α-synuclein protein, even early in the disease process. Further, the role of the pigment as a metal binder has also been suggested to underlie the relative vulnerability of these neurons, as changes in metal levels are suggested to be associated with neurodegenerative cascades in Parkinson's disease. While most research to date has focused on the role of iron in these pathways we have recently shown that changes in copper may contribute to neuronal vulnerability in this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Capturing Agroecosystem Vulnerability and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen C. J. Groot


    Full Text Available Vulnerability and resilience are two crucial attributes of social-ecological systems that are used for analyzing the response to disturbances. We assess these properties in relation to agroecosystem buffer capacity and adaptive capacity, which depend on the ‘window of opportunities’ of possible changes in terms of selected performance indicators, i.e., the solution space. The vulnerability of the system was quantified as the distance of performance indicators between original and disturbed systems. The buffer capacity was derived from the size of the solution space that could be obtained after reconfiguration of farm components (crops, animals, fertilizers, etc. that were present on the original farm, whereas the assessment of adaptive capacity was derived in a similar way, but after allowing innovation by introducing new components to the farm. To illustrate the approach, we applied these concepts to two dairy farms in Northwest Michoacán, Mexico. After a disturbance resulting in a fodder maize yield decline, both economic profitability and soil organic matter inputs were reduced. The scope for recovery was different between the farms, but the projected improvements in profitability and organic matter inputs would require considerable changes in the farm configurations, and thus flexibility in farm management. High resilience requires a farmer with the managerial ability to make the required changes to move through the proposed solution space. The approach we present here offers a generic quantitative assessment of vulnerability and resilience concepts, based on a combined assessment of the social and ecological dimensions of agroecosystems.

  9. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  10. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann


    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  11. Vulnerability Is Dynamic! Conceptualising a Dynamic Approach to Coastal Tourism Destinations’ Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, J.R.; Amelung, B.; Lamers, M.A.J.


    Coastal regions and islands are among the most popular tourist destinations.
    They are also highly vulnerable to climate change. Much of the literature on
    vulnerability, including IPCC reports, states that vulnerability is dynamic. However,
    vulnerability conceptualisations in the tourism

  12. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung


    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  13. Comparative Analysis on the Performances of 800mts track events between London, 2012 and Rio, 2016 Olympics




    The purpose of the study was to analyze the performance of 800mts track events between London and Rio Olympics. There may be significant differences in the performance of 800 of Rio (2016) Olympics than London (2012) Olympics. There may not be significant differences in the performance of 800 in Rio, 2016 Olympics than London 2012 Olympics. The data collected for this study were through secondary sources and the census sampling was considered for collecting data. In order to find the differen...

  14. London 2012 and the impact of the UK's Olympic and Paralympic legislation: protecting commerce or preserving culture?


    James, MD; Osborn, G.


    The general commercial rights associated with the Olympic Movement are protected in the UK by the Olympic Symbols etc (Protection) Act 1995. In addition, the UK Government, in response to a requirement of the Host City Contract with the International Olympic Committee, created the London Olympic Association Right under section 33 and Schedule 4 of the London Olympic and Paralympic Games Act 2006. These provisions enable the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games to exploit, to the f...

  15. Changing incidence and management of penetrating neck injuries in the South East London trauma centre. (United States)

    Harris, R; Olding, C; Lacey, C; Bentley, R; Schulte, K M; Lewis, D; Kandasamy, N; Oakley, R


    A total of 17 cases of penetrating neck injury were managed by the otolaryngology team at King's College Hospital over a 3-year period in the 1980s. In April 2010 King's College Hospital became the major trauma centre for South East London. This prospective cohort study compares the incidence, changing demographic features and treatment outcomes of penetrating neck trauma in South East London over the previous 23 years. Data were collected over a 12-month period (April 2010 to March 2011) and a selective management protocol was introduced to standardise initial investigations and further treatment. The past 23 years have seen a 550% increase in the incidence of penetrating neck injuries in South East London, with a marked increase in gun crime. Only 38% of cases underwent negative neck exploration in 2011 compared with 65% in 1987. Selective conservative management based on the absence of haemodynamic instability or radiological findings reduces length of hospital stay, lightens surgical workload and cuts costs without affecting morbidity or mortality. The increased incidence of penetrating neck injury is a reflection of more interpersonal violence rather than a consequence of the larger South East London trauma centre catchment area. Tackling this problem requires focus on wider issues of community prevention. Sharing of data between the four London trauma centres and the police is needed to help prevent interpersonal violence and develop a universal treatment algorithm for other institutions to follow.

  16. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance. (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  17. The (Un)Reliability of NVD Vulnerable Versions Data: an Empirical Experiment on Google Chrome Vulnerabilities


    Nguyen, Viet Hung; Massacci, Fabio


    NVD is one of the most popular databases used by researchers to conduct empirical research on data sets of vulnerabilities. Our recent analysis on Chrome vulnerability data reported by NVD has revealed an abnormally phenomenon in the data where almost vulnerabilities were originated from the first versions. This inspires our experiment to validate the reliability of the NVD vulnerable version data. In this experiment, we verify for each version of Chrome that NVD claims vulnerable is actually...

  18. Memory Vulnerability Diagnosis for Binary Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Feng-Yi


    Full Text Available Vulnerability diagnosis is important for program security analysis. It is a further step to understand the vulnerability after it is detected, as well as a preparatory step for vulnerability repair or exploitation. This paper mainly analyses the inner theories of major memory vulnerabilities and the threats of them. And then suggests some methods to diagnose several types of memory vulnerabilities for the binary programs, which is a difficult task due to the lack of source code. The diagnosis methods target at buffer overflow, use after free (UAF and format string vulnerabilities. We carried out some tests on the Linux platform to validate the effectiveness of the diagnosis methods. It is proved that the methods can judge the type of the vulnerability given a binary program.

  19. Security simulation for vulnerability assessment (United States)

    Hennessey, Brian; Norman, Bradley; Wesson, Robert B.


    This paper discusses simulation technologies developed to "stimulate" an operational command and control security system. The paper discusses simulation techniques used to create a virtual model of a facility in which to conduct vulnerability assessment exercises, performance benchmarking, CONOPS development and operator training. The paper discusses the specific techniques used for creating a 3d virtual environment and simulating streaming IP surveillance cameras and motion detection sensors. In addition the paper discusses advanced scenario creation techniques and the modeling of scenario entities, including vehicles, aircraft and personnel. The paper draws parallels with lessons learned in using Air Traffic Control simulators for operator training, incident recreation, procedure development and pre acquisition planning and testing.

  20. To Moscow with love: partial reconstruction of Vygotsky's trip to London. (United States)

    van der Veer, René; Zavershneva, Ekaterina


    The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) left the Soviet Union only once to attend a conference on the education of the deaf in London. So far almost nothing was known about this trip, which took place in a period when Vygotsky was still completely unknown as a psychologist, both inside his own country and abroad. Making use of a newly discovered notebook, it proved possible to partially reconstruct Vygotsky's journey and stay in London. Vygotsky's very personal remarks show him to have been a very sensitive and spirited man, who was prey to strong emotions during the conference and afterwards. Rather surprisingly, Vygotsky's own paper about the education of the deaf was never presented during the conference and the stay in London appears to have had a limited value for his own scientific development.

  1. Droughts and Dragons: Geography, Rainfall, and Eighteenth-Century London's Water Systems. (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Carry

    By the end of the eighteenth century the majority of households in London received a piped water supply. This article examines the geographical, technological, and environmental challenges that London's private water companies faced as they created and expanded the large technological networks necessary to provide the growing city's water supply. It identifies geography and drought as the main drivers of innovation in London's water supply neworks, and argues that the main impediment to expansion for the majority of the water companies was overcoming the differences in elevation between their intake points and customer bases, with major improvements often made as a result of water shortages. The timing and the success or failure of a company's technological improvements proved pivotal in the subsequent development of the water market.

  2. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics (United States)

    McGuinness, I. M.


    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  3. An analysis of population and social change in London wards in the 1980s. (United States)

    Congdon, P


    "This paper discusses the estimation and projection of small area populations in London, [England] and considers trends in intercensal social and demographic indices which can be calculated using these estimates. Information available annually on vital statistics and electorates is combined with detailed data from the Census Small Area Statistics to derive demographic component based population estimates for London's electoral wards over five year periods. The availability of age disaggregated population estimates permits derivation of small area social indicators for intercensal years, for example, of unemployment and mortality. Trends in spatial inequality of such indicators during the 1980s are analysed and point to continuing wide differentials. A typology of population and social indicators gives an indication of the small area distribution of the recent population turnaround in inner London, and of its association with other social processes such as gentrification and ethnic concentration." excerpt

  4. Resourceful masculinities: exploring heterosexual Black men's vulnerability to HIV in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Husbands, Winston; Oakes, Wesley; Mbulaheni, Tola; Ongoïba, Fanta; Pierre-Pierre, Valérie; Luyombya, Henry


    Heterosexually active Black men are alleged to endorse masculine norms that increase their and their female partners' vulnerability to HIV. These norms include Black men's inability or reluctance to productively engage their own health-related personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities. We draw on data from the iSpeak research study in Ontario, Canada, to assess whether and how heterosexual Black men cope with personal and inter-personal vulnerability, namely that heterosexual Black men: avoid emotionally supportive relationships with other men (and women), which diminishes their capacity to productively acknowledge and resolve their health-related challenges; are reticent to productively acknowledge and address HIV and health on a personal level; and are pathologically secretive about their health, which compounds their vulnerability and precipitates poor health outcomes. iSpeak was implemented in 2011 to 2013, and included two focus groups with HIV-positive and HIV-negative self-identified heterosexual men (N = 14) in Toronto and London, a focus group with community-based health promotion practitioners who provide HIV-related services to Black communities in Ontario (N = 6), and one-on-one interviews with four researchers distinguished for their scholarship with/among Black communities in Toronto. Participants in the men's focus group were recruited discretely through word-of-mouth. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Team members independently read the transcripts, and then met to identify, discuss and agree on the emerging themes. We demonstrate that iSpeak participants (a) engage their personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities creatively and strategically, (b) complicate and challenge familiar interpretations of Black men's allegedly transgressive masculinity through their emotional and practical investment in their health, and (c) demonstrate a form of resourceful masculinity that ambiguously aligns with patriarchy. We conclude

  5. On the relation between weather-related disaster impacts, vulnerability and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.; Petersen, A.C.; Ligtvoet, W.


    Disasters such as floods, storms, heatwaves and droughts can have enormous implications for health, the environment and economic development. In this article, we address the question of how climate change might have influenced the impact of weather-related disasters. This relation is not

  6. HIV in East London: ethnicity, gender and risk. Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukutu Cecilia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While men who have sex with men remain the group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV infection in the UK, the number of new diagnoses among heterosexuals has risen steadily over the last five years. In the UK, three-quarters of heterosexual men and women diagnosed with HIV in 2004 probably acquired their infection in Africa. This changing epidemiological pattern is particularly pronounced in East London because of its ethnically diverse population. Design and methods The objective of the study was to examine the social, economic and behavioural characteristics of patients with HIV infection currently receiving treatment and care in hospitals in East London. The research focused on ethnicity, gender, sexuality, education, employment, housing, HIV treatment, stigma, discrimination, religion, migration and sexual risk behaviour. People diagnosed with HIV infection attending outpatient treatment clinics at St Bartholomew's, the Royal London, Whipp's Cross, Homerton, Newham and Barking hospitals (all in East London over a 4–6 month period were invited to participate in the study in 2004–2005. Those who agreed to participate completed a confidential, self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire. During the study period, 2680 patients with HIV attended the outpatient clinics in the six participating hospitals, of whom 2299 were eligible for the study and 1687 completed a questionnaire. The response rate was 73% of eligible patients and 63% of all patients attending the clinics during the survey period. Discussion A clinic-based study has allowed us to survey nearly 1700 patients with HIV from diverse backgrounds receiving treatment and care in East London. The data collected in this study will provide valuable information for the planning and delivery of appropriate clinical care, social support and health promotion for people living with HIV not only in East London but in other parts of the capital as well as elsewhere in the UK.

  7. Integrated Cancer System: a perspective on developing an integrated system for cancer services in London. (United States)

    Haire, K; Burton, C; Park, R; Reynolds, J; Stewart, D; Purushotham, A D


    This article explores the potential for integrated cancer systems to improve the quality of care and deliver cost efficiencies and improve outcomes for cancer patients. Currently, patients in the UK still have poorer survival rates than comparable countries such as Canada, Sweden, Norway and Australia. Improving the quality of cancer services is a key policy objective and cancer is a priority outcome measure in both the NHS and Public Health Outcomes Framework. Evidence suggests that better integrated delivery has the potential to improve the quality and reduce the cost of healthcare, and ultimately improve health outcomes. One of the key themes from the Model of Care for Cancer Services (1) was that cancer services should be commissioned along pathways and that provider networks should be established to deliver care. London has two integrated cancer systems; one covering north central and east London (London Cancer) and the other covering west and south London (London Cancer Alliance). There a number of areas in cancer care that the current model of service provision has failed to adequately address and which have the potential to improve significantly though implementation of integrated services. These include improving early diagnosis, reducing inequalities in access to treatment and outcomes and maximising research and training across the system. Important drivers for the integration of cancer services are strong clinical leadership, shared informatics systems, focusing on quality of services and improving patient experience. Emerging needs of integrated cancer in London are around strengthening the involvement of primary care, public health and the third sector; working to develop sufficient capacity and expertise in primary care and collaborating more closely with commissioners to develop integrated systems.

  8. Measuring dynamics of household vulnerability in selected coastal megacities to inform transformative adaptation (United States)

    Birkmann, J.; Solecki, W. D.


    Understanding conditions and dynamics of household vulnerability and risk is key for building community resilience. Two different methodological approaches of vulnerability, risk and resilience assessment for selected global megacities are presented to address this research issue. First, an indicator-based approach was executed to compare susceptibility, coping and adaptive capacities for Lagos, Kolkata, Lagos, London, New York, and Tokyo on a neighborhood by neighborhood scale. Second, a household survey that has been conducted in Kolkata, Lagos, and New York to explore specific features of susceptibility, risk management capacities and transformations within at risk neighborhoods. The results of both methods underscore the dynamics of vulnerability. Lessons learned for disaster risk management and urban planning are derived, particularly in terms of defining priorities for a more inclusive and resilient urban development, and transformative adaptation. The findings also provide opportunity to critically review the potential outcomes of the New Urban Agenda (outcome of UN-Habitat III). The research has been undertaken within a larger international research team in the Belmont funded project Transformation of Urban Coasts.

  9. Vulnerability of network of networks (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.


    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  10. Students' vulnerability in educational research. (United States)

    Sykes, L M; Dullabh, H


    Dental teaching institutions in South Africa recently implemented "learner-centred" curricula and expected educators to alter their teaching styles accordingly, but perhaps without providing adequate training in this paedagogical philosophy. At the same time, the lecturers were required to conduct evidence-based research to evaluate the outcomes. Thus, clinicians/lecturers also became researchers, using their own students or student material for assessment purposes. Previously, this form of educational research, which was carried out in normal academic settings, was not subject to review by Institutional Review Boards (IRB). However, concerns have risen that learners may be a vulnerable population due to their position in the academic institution, and the power and knowledge differentials that exist between them and the lecturer/researcher. This raises ethical concerns regarding their autonomy and ability to provide free, voluntary, informed consent to be research participants. This paper questions whether educational research may lead to student vulnerability, and proposes some recommendations for educators and institutions involved in educational research.

  11. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  12. Sao Paulo city and London architectonic epigraphs: a comparison from an information design perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lena Farias


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study on inscriptions containing the names of architects and builders found in the façades of building in the cities of São Paulo and London. For the study, 123 architectonic epigraphs found in São Paulo city historic centre were compared with 71 inscriptions of the same kind found in the regions of Westminster and Camden, in central London. The focus of the analysis is the informational aspects of the inscriptions, including its location, size, typographic configuration and content.

  13. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals. (United States)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian


    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  14. The Sindhi Hindus of London − Language Maintenance or Language Shift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David


    Full Text Available The linguistic situation of the Sindhi language in London is examined with a view to determining whether the community is maintaining the use of its ethnic language. The Sindhi Hindus of London are a language community, which have never been researched. The language choice of the community in different domains and for a range of language functions is discussed. Both external and internal factors of language shift have weakened the linguistic and communicative competence of Sindhi speakers in the language contact situation of the United Kingdom.

  15. Beyond the 'post-industrial' city: valuing and planning for industry in London


    Ferm, J. A.; Jones, E.M.


    This paper examines the challenges that planners face if industry is to survive and thrive in a growing ‘post-industrial’ city. It examines London, where the difference between the value of land for residential and industrial use, and the pressure to address the housing crisis, is leading to the rapid loss of industrial land and premises. The paper first explores the role of industry in a high-value city such as London, arguing that trends in manufacturing in advanced economies are increasing...

  16. Multiconfigurational self-consistent field calculations of nuclear shieldings using London atomic orbitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, Kenneth; Helgaker, Trygve; Kobayashi, Rika


    to corresponding individual gauges for localized orbitals (IGLO) results. The London results show better basis set convergence than IGLO, especially for heavier atoms. It is shown that the choice of active space is crucial for determination of accurate nuclear shielding constants.......Nuclear shielding calculations are presented for multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions using London atomic orbitals (gauge invariant atomic orbitals). Calculations of nuclear shieldings for eight molecules (H2O, H2S, CH4, N2, CO, HF, F2, and SO2) are presented and compared...

  17. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas


    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this

  18. Vulnerability and resilience: a critical nexus. (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna


    Not all forms of human fragility or vulnerability are unavoidable. Sometimes we knowingly and intentionally impose conditions of vulnerability on others; and sometimes we knowingly and intentionally enter into and assume conditions of vulnerability for ourselves (for example, when we decide to trust or forgive, enter into intimate relationships with others, become a parent, become a subject of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment, and the like). In this article, I propose a presently overlooked basis on which one might evaluate whether the imposition or assumption of vulnerability is acceptable, and on which one might ground a significant class of vulnerability-related obligations. Distinct from existing accounts of the importance of promoting autonomy in conditions of vulnerability, this article offers a preliminary exploration of the nature, role, and importance of resilience promotion, its relationship to autonomy promotion, and its prospects for improving human wellbeing in autonomy inhibiting conditions.

  19. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.


    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  20. A Framework for Assessing Fiscal Vulnerability


    Murray Petrie; Richard Hemming


    Fiscal vulnerability describes a situation where a government is exposed to the possibility of failure to meet its aggregate fiscal policy objectives. The suggested framework for assessing vulnerability highlights four macro-fiscal aspects of vulnerability: incorrect specification of the initial fiscal position; sensitivity of short-term fiscal outcomes to risk; threats to longer-term fiscal sustainability; and structural or institutional weaknesses affecting the design and implementation of ...

  1. Large-Scale Road Network Vulnerability Analysis


    Jenelius, Erik


    Disruptions in the transport system can have severe impacts for affected individuals, businesses and the society as a whole. In this research, vulnerability is seen as the risk of unplanned system disruptions, with a focus on large, rare events. Vulnerability analysis aims to provide decision support regarding preventive and restorative actions, ideally as an integrated part of the planning process.The thesis specifically develops the methodology for vulnerability analysis of road networks an...

  2. 'Islamic fatalism': life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London--an interview study 2. (United States)

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon


    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in eastern London demonstrated frequent appeals to God and deprecation of personal agency. This paper offers an interpretation of this apparent 'fatalism', which argues for the logical downplaying of human agency and ambition in archaic Arabia, contemporary rural Sylhet and among first generation Sylheti migrants in London.

  3. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah


    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  4. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others


    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  5. Vulnerability in patients and nurses and the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship. (United States)

    Angel, Sanne; Vatne, Solfrid


    To examine the mutual vulnerability of patients and nurses, anticipating that an enhanced understanding of the phenomenon may help reduce vulnerability. Patient vulnerability is a key issue in nursing, aimed at protecting the patient from harm. In the literature, vulnerability is described both from a risk perspective and a subjective perspective. This implies that the objective dimension of patient vulnerability does not necessarily reflect the patient's own perception of being vulnerable. However, external judgment may influence internal perception. Adding to this complexity, attention has also been drawn to the vulnerability of the nurse. A definition deduced from central literature on vulnerability captures the complexity of objective versus subjective vulnerability. Based on the perspective of vulnerability in general, vulnerability in healthcare services shows how dependency may increase patient vulnerability. Further, despite education, training and supportive settings, patients may increase nurse vulnerability. The core of this mutuality is explored in the light of Martin Heidegger's philosophy of being. The patient's need for help from the nurse opens the patient to engage in supportive and/or harmful encounters. Thus, dependency adds to the vulnerability related to health issues. The nurse's vulnerability lies in her engagement in caring for the patient. If failing to provide proper care, the nurse's existence as 'a good nurse' is threatened. This is exacerbated if the patient turns against the nurse. Therefore, the core of vulnerability seems to lie in the fact that the patient and the nurse are both striving to be the persons they want to be, and the persons they have not yet become. Recognition of the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship calls for collective acknowledgement of the demanding nature of caring relationships, for support and for a strengthening of professional skills. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Immigrants and health care: sources of vulnerability. (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Escarce, José J; Lurie, Nicole


    Immigrants have been identified as a vulnerable population, but there is heterogeneity in the degree to which they are vulnerable to inadequate health care. Here we examine the factors that affect immigrants' vulnerability, including socioeconomic background; immigration status; limited English proficiency; federal, state, and local policies on access to publicly funded health care; residential location; and stigma and marginalization. We find that, overall, immigrants have lower rates of health insurance, use less health care, and receive lower quality of care than U.S.-born populations; however, there are differences among subgroups. We conclude with policy options for addressing immigrants' vulnerabilities.

  7. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Jočys


    Full Text Available ICMPv6 is the newest version of internet control message protocol, whose main purpose is to send error message indicating packet processing failure. It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop. This paper will discuss Windows (XP, 7, 8.1 and Linux Ubuntu 14 operating systems resistance to RA flooding attack research and countermeasures to minimize this vulnerability.

  8. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen


    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  9. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov


    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...

  10. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun


    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  11. Rasch analysis of the London Handicap Scale in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Yoo-Im


    Although activity and participation are the target domains in stroke rehabilitation interventions, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the validity of participation measurement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale in community-dwelling stroke patients, using Rasch analysis. Participants were 170 community-dwelling stroke survivors. The data were analyzed using Winsteps (version 3.62) with the Rasch model to determine the unidimensionality of item fit, the distribution of item difficulty, and the reliability and suitability of the rating process for the London Handicap Scale. Data of 16 participants did not fit the Rasch model and there were no misfitting items. The person separation value was 2.42, and the reliability was .85; furthermore, the rating process for the London Handicap Scale was found to be suitable for use with stroke patients. This was the first trial to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale using Rasch analysis; the results supported the suitability of this scale for use with stroke patients.

  12. LondonMet e-Packs: A Pragmatic Approach to Learner/Teacher Autonomy (United States)

    Tschirhart, Cecile; Rigler, Elina


    Online learning can play an important role in engaging language learners and fostering autonomy. The LondonMet e-pack, which provides online interactive language learning materials, is used as a case study to illustrate some of the theoretical and practical issues faced by those implementing online language learning programmes. This article begins…

  13. Michael Underwood, MD (1737-1820): physician-accoucheur of London. (United States)

    Dunn, P M


    Underwood was the first physician-accoucheur to be appointed to the Royal College of Physicians in London. The same year, 1784, he published a textbook which did much to establish paediatrics as an emerging discipline in its own right. The book contains several original descriptions of childhood diseases.

  14. Michael Underwood, MD (1737–1820): physician‐accoucheur of London (United States)

    Dunn, P M


    Underwood was the first physician‐accoucheur to be appointed to the Royal College of Physicians in London. The same year, 1784, he published a textbook which did much to establish paediatrics as an emerging discipline in its own right. The book contains several original descriptions of childhood diseases. PMID:16492954

  15. Michael Underwood, MD (1737–1820): physician‐accoucheur of London


    Dunn, P M


    Underwood was the first physician‐accoucheur to be appointed to the Royal College of Physicians in London. The same year, 1784, he published a textbook which did much to establish paediatrics as an emerging discipline in its own right. The book contains several original descriptions of childhood diseases.

  16. Dating the Shift to English in the Financial Accounts of Some London Livery Companies: A Reappraisal (United States)

    Alcolado Carnicero, José Miguel


    A mixed-language phenomenon such as language shift has been acknowledged to constitute one of the hallmarks of the manuscripts in which the members of the City of London livery companies recorded their financial transactions during the late medieval period. Despite these texts having been studied by scholars in very diverse disciplines,…

  17. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.  Created: 8/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2016.

  18. Death, memory and collecting: creating the conditions for ancestralisation in South London households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parrott, F.; Byrne, S.; Clarke, A.; Harrison, R.; Torrence, R.


    This chapter presents case studies of the collections that played a part in peoples’ understanding and experience of death and bereavement, from an ethnographic study of households, loss and material culture in South London. The focus on death, memory and collecting serves to highlight the way

  19. Remixing Multiliteracies: Theory and Practice from New London to New Times. Language and Literacy Series (United States)

    Serafini, Frank, Ed.; Gee, Elisabeth, Ed.


    Bringing together renowned scholars in literacy education, this volume offers the first comprehensive account of the evolution and future of multiliteracies pedagogy. This groundbreaking collection examines the rich contributions of the New London Group (NLG)--an international gathering of noted scholars who met in 1996 and influenced the…

  20. Urban Education: Confronting the Contradictions--An Analysis with Special Reference to London (United States)

    Grace, Gerald


    This paper attempts to provide some answers to two questions: What are the distinctive challenges of urban education (especially in London) and how can schools help to meet them? Using theoretical frameworks derived from the writings of two leading scholars of the urban, Manuel Castells and David Harvey, this paper argues that the challenges…

  1. Teaching the Very Recent Past: "Miriam's Vision" and the London Bombings (United States)

    Kitson, Alison; Thompson, Sarah


    "Miriam's Vision" is an educational project developed by the Miriam Hyman Memorial Trust, an organisation set up in memory of Miriam Hyman, one of the 52 victims of the London bombings of 2005. The project has developed a number of subject-based modules, including history, which are provided free to schools through the website…

  2. Fra Bartolomeo della Porta detto Fra Bartolomeo, Adorazione del Bambino, National Gallery, London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Chris


    En artikel om et maleri af Fra Bartolomeo i National Gallery i London udlånt til en udstilling i Museo Tosio Martinengo I Brescia i forbindelse med opdagelsen af et fuldstændigt overensstemmende maleri i dette museums magasiner. Hypotesen var at Bresciabilledet var et værkstedsarbejde lavet på...

  3. Peer Mentoring Experiences of Psychology Students at the London Metropolitan University Writing Centre (United States)

    Bakhshi, Savita; Harrington, Kathy; O'Neill, Peter


    "It really helps knowing that you are going to have someone around to help you..." This short article reports on research taking place into peer writing tutorials at London Metropolitan University and examines in particular, the experiences of psychology students who have taken part in the scheme. Some of the implications of this…

  4. 77 FR 16198 - Safety & Security Zones; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Thames River, New London, CT (United States)


    ... Admiral Shear State Pier. The specific geographic locations of the regulated areas and specific... on the Thames ] River between New London City Pier and Fort Trumbull. The geographic locations of the... sites, television and radio broadcasts. If you think that your business, organization, or governmental...

  5. Advanced source apportionment of size-resolved trace elements at multiple sites in London during winter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Visser; J G Slowik; M Furger; P Zotter; N Bukowiecki; F Canonaco; U Flechsig; K Appel; D C Green; A H Tremper; D E Young; P I Williams; J D Allan; H Coe; L R Williams; C Mohr; L Xu; N L Ng; E Nemitz; J F Barlow; C H Halios; Z L Fleming; U Baltensperger; A S H Prévôt


      Trace element measurements in PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3 aerosol were performed with 2 h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London...

  6. From the Tokugawas to Taiping; from Shakespeare's London to the Gulag (Booksearch). (United States)

    English Journal, 1992


    Presents descriptions of nine historical novels (not set in the Americas) recommended for junior and senior high readers, ranging from seventeenth-century Japan and nineteenth-century China to Shakespeare's London and war-torn Europe in the twentieth century. (SR)

  7. The Aspirations and Realities of Prison Education for Under-25s in the London Area (United States)

    Rogers, Lynne; Hurry, Jane; Simonot, Margaret; Wilson, Anita


    The purpose of this study, undertaken in 2012, was to describe provision available for under- 25s in prisons and to gain insight into the particularities of prison education. Six custodial establishments serving the London area were visited (prisons or Young Offender Institutions) and available statistical data were collected from a larger sample.…

  8. Intermodal competition in the London-Paris passenger market: High-speed rail and air transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, C.L.; Pels, E.


    This paper studies inter- and intramodal competition in the London-Paris passenger market during the period 2003-2009. We identify the degree to and conditions under which High-Speed Rail is a viable substitute for airline travel. Using pooled cross-sectional data we estimate multinomial and mixed

  9. Gideon Fagan's studies at the Royal College of Music in London ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African composer Gideon Fagan (1904-1980) studied at the Royal College of Music (RCM) in London between 1922 and 1926. Fagan followed in the footsteps of his elder brother Johannes (1898-1920) who had committed suicide in 1920 while a student at the RCM. Considering his brother's tragic death, ...

  10. Biliteracy in a Monolingual School System? English and Gujarati in South London. (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian


    Draws on research with 4-7-year-olds in a South London primary school to provide a longitudinal case study of one child's relationship to mother tongue literacy within the classroom. Findings demonstrate how the child, from the age of 4, actively combined Gujarati and English to enhance her literacy learning and to construct text that synthesized…

  11. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War. (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael S.


    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  12. Post-Event Volunteering Legacy: Did the London 2012 Games Induce a Sustainable Volunteer Engagement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Koutrou


    Full Text Available The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.

  13. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the essay, Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague.  Created: 11/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/20/2014.

  14. Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Martin Elste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elste, Martin


    Uuest heliplaadist "Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll; Reger: Variationen und Fuge über ein Thema von Beethoven op. 86. London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos/ Koch Records 2 CD 8843/44 (WD: 107'13") DDD

  15. The Expenditure Impacts of London's Higher Education Institutions: The Role of Diverse Income Sources (United States)

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim


    This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…

  16. Environmental risk factors influencing bicycle theft: A spatial analysis in London, UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mburu, L; Helbich, M


    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific

  17. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs (United States)

    Pring, Tim


    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  18. Mind the gap: financial London and the regional class pay gap. (United States)

    Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel


    The hidden barriers, or 'gender pay gap', preventing women from earning equivalent incomes to men is well documented. Yet recent research has uncovered that, in Britain, there is also a comparable class-origin pay gap in higher professional and managerial occupations. So far this analysis has only been conducted at the national level and it is not known whether there are regional differences within the UK. This paper uses pooled data from the 2014 and 2015 Labour Force Survey (N = 7,534) to stage a more spatially sensitive analysis that examines regional variation in the class pay gap. We find that this 'class ceiling' is not evenly spatially distributed. Instead it is particularly marked in Central London, where those in high-status occupations who are from working-class backgrounds earn, on average, £10,660 less per year than those whose parents were in higher professional and managerial employment. Finally, we inspect the Capital further to reveal that the class pay gap is largest within Central London's banking and finance sector. Challenging policy conceptions of London as the 'engine room' of social mobility, these findings suggest that class disadvantage within high-status occupations is particularly acute in the Capital. The findings also underline the value of investigating regional differences in social mobility, and demonstrate how such analysis can unravel important and previously unrecognized spatial dimensions of class inequality. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  19. "Little Prisoners of City Streets": London Elementary Schools and the School Journey Movement, 1918-1939 (United States)

    Barron, Hester


    This article examines the experience of the "school journey", an educational fieldtrip of a fortnight's duration, as practised in London's interwar elementary schools. Established historical debates over perceptions of the countryside in interwar Britain have previously failed to discuss the messages promoted in schools. This article…

  20. Leaving London: A Study of Two Public Schools and Athleticism 1870-1914. (United States)

    Humble, N. J.


    Discusses how athleticism was used to imbue qualities of patriotism, manliness, courage, obedience, and physical fitness in British middle- and upper-class boys during the 1870s. Examines the idea of whether the ideology of athleticism contributed to various London schools moving from the inner-city to the suburbs in 1897 and 1902. (GEA)

  1. Cecilia John: An Australian Heads the London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics, 1932-1955 (United States)

    Pope, Joan


    The London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics (LSDE) was established in 1913, and a significant figure in its history was the remarkable Cecilia John, one of seven Australians to complete the three-year course between 1917 and 1927. Apart from two short visits to Australia, John lived and taught in England for the remainder of her life. Following the…

  2. An assessment of heavy metal pollution in the East London and Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 2, 2001 ... on a filter-disc between sheets of filter paper and left to dry at room temperature. Analyses of water samples ... gently for 30 min on a hot-plate. The beaker was cooled and 2 ml HClO4, 5 ml ..... Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development. Elsevier. Applied Science, London and New York.

  3. Forging New Identities: Young Refugees and Minority Students Tell Their Stories. Views from London and Amsterdam. (United States)

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This document is a collection of writings by refugee and minority children from the George Orwell School in London (England) and the Montessori College in Oost, Amsterdam (the Netherlands). About one-third of the students at the George Orwell School, were refugees. These students were aged 11 to 16 years old. About 30 to 40% of the students at the…

  4. Learners' retention: A case of two primary schools in East London ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... framework for teacher knowledge that upholds the relationship between the two main components of a learning environment: retaining and learner dropout. The data is systematically categorized and analysed thematically. Keywords: Learner Retention, Gross Enrolment Ratio, School Drop-Out, East London, South Africa ...

  5. The London Geography Alliance: Re-Connecting the School Subject with the University Discipline (United States)

    Standish, Alex; Hawley, Duncan; Willy, Tessa


    The London Geography Alliance was established to provide a network of subject-based support to primary and secondary schools, by linking teachers and university lecturers. Workshops and fieldwork were conducted over a 17-month period to address different aspects of the geography curriculum. The effects of the project were evaluated using…

  6. London 2012 and beyond: concluding reflections on peacemaking, sport and the Olympic movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.


    The 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games have reinvigorated the debate on Olympic legacies for peace and development. Addressing this debate and building on the articles in this collection, this epilogue argues that the theoretical-conceptual understanding of peace and peacemaking remains poorly

  7. Listening to those on the frontline: service users' experiences of London tuberculosis services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudioni M


    Full Text Available Markella Boudioni, Susan McLaren, Ruth Belling, Leslie WoodsInstitute for Leadership and Service Improvement, Faculty of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, UKAim: To explore tuberculosis (TB service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision.Background: Thirty-nine percent of all new UK TB cases occur in London. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs. Overall, research suggests inadequate control of London's TB transmission; TB has become a health care priority for all London Primary Care Trusts. Service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision have not been explored adequately previously.Methods: A qualitative research design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Ten service users, purposively selected in key risk groups across London, were interviewed. All interviews were digitally recorded with users' permission, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically.Results: Participants were treated in local hospitals for 6–12 months. Treatment was administered by TB nurses to inpatients and outpatients receiving directly observed therapy in consultation with medical staff and home visits for complex cases. Two participants did not realize the importance of compliance. Overall, they were satisfied with many TB services' aspects, communication, and service organization. Early access, low suspicion index amongst some GPs, and restricted referral routes were identified as service barriers. Other improvement areas were information provision on drug side effects, diet, nutritional status, and a few health professionals' attitudes. The effects on people varied enormously from minimal impact to psychological shock; TB also affected social and personal aspects of their life. With regard to further support facilities, some positive views on managed accommodation by TB-aware professionals for those with accommodation problems were identified.Conclusion: This

  8. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study. (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O'Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna


    To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Central and inner London, England. Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). 578,607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change -72 DALYs (95% credible interval -110 to -43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; -15 (-42 to -6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change -49 DALYs (-88 to -17) among men; -1 DALY (-27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled benefits of cycling were much larger than the harms. Using background injury rates in the youngest age

  9. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time. (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S


    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  10. Vulnerability to air pollution: a building block in assessing vulnerability to multiple stressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Matooane_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7198 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Matooane_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Mamopeli Matooane, MSc. Juanette... John, MSc. Riëtha Oosthuizen, MSc. Vulnerability to air pollution: a building block in assessing vulnerability to multiple stressors 30 August 2010 Overview • VulnerabilityVulnerability assessment - Scope - Approach - Assessing...

  11. Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval London. (United States)

    Krakowka, Kathryn


    This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85). The overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault. Using both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessing the sources and bioaccessibility of Lead in Soils from London (United States)

    Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna; Chenery, Simon


    The lead content of soil is important since it is toxic to humans and particularly because children tend to more readily absorb lead than do adults: children absorb up to 40% into the bloodstream from ingested or inhaled lead, versus 5-15% in adults. Studies have shown that relatively low concentrations of lead in blood can lead to significant decrease in IQ of children (e.g. Jakubowski, 2011) leading to neuropathy and hypertension in adults. The British Geological Survey has recently completed a systematic high-density geochemical soil survey of the Greater London Area (GLA) in which over 6000 surface soil samples were collected and analysed for 50 elements. The Pb content of the soils range from 11 mg/kg to greater than 10000 mg/kg with mean and median values of 301 and 185 mg/kg, respectively. The ingestion bioaccessible fraction of Pb was measured using an in-vitro bioaccessibility test showing that 68% of the total Pb in London soils is bioaccessible. Measurement of Pb isotopic ratios in selected soils matched with those found in London air particulates and, to a lesser extent, with petrol lead. Self modelling mixture resolution of the 50 element geochemical data set was used to identify geochemically distinct components in the data with Pb being associated with 11 of the components which were of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Relationships between the soil components, the bioaccessible fraction and the Pb isotope ratios provided an indication of the sources of mobile lead in the London soils. References JAKUBOWSKI, M. 2011. Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children - the current concepts of risk assessment. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Vol. 24, 1-7. APPLETON, J D, CAVE, M R, and WRAGG, J. 2012. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 171, 265-272.

  13. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  14. The ghost of Christmas past: health effects of poverty in London in 1896 and 1991. (United States)

    Dorling, D; Mitchell, R; Shaw, M; Orford, S; Smith, G D

    To compare the extent to which late 20th century patterns of mortality in London are predicted by contemporary patterns of poverty and by late 19th century patterns of poverty. To test the hypothesis that the pattern of mortality from causes known to be related to deprivation in early life can be better predicted by the distribution of poverty in the late 19th century than by that in the late 20th century. Data from Charles Booth's survey of inner London in 1896 were digitised and matched to contemporary local government wards. Ward level indices of relative poverty were derived from Booth's survey and the 1991 UK census of population. All deaths which took place within the surveyed area between 1991 and 1995 were identified and assigned to contemporary local government wards. Standardised mortality ratios for various causes of death were calculated for each ward for all ages, under age 65, and over age 65. Simple correlation and partial correlation analysis were used to estimate the contribution of the indices of poverty from 1896 and 1991 in predicting ward level mortality ratios in the early 1990s. Inner London. For many causes of death in London, measures of deprivation made around 1896 and 1991 both contributed strongly to predicting the current spatial distribution. Contemporary mortality from diseases which are known to be related to deprivation in early life (stomach cancer, stroke, lung cancer) is predicted more strongly by the distribution of poverty in 1896 than that in 1991. In addition, all cause mortality among people aged over 65 was slightly more strongly related to the geography of poverty in the late 19th century than to its contemporary distribution. Contemporary patterns of some diseases have their roots in the past. The fundamental relation between spatial patterns of social deprivation and spatial patterns of mortality is so robust that a century of change in inner London has failed to disrupt it.

  15. Basic life support education in secondary schools: a cross-sectional survey in London, UK. (United States)

    Salciccioli, Justin D; Marshall, Dominic C; Sykes, Mark; Wood, Alexander D; Joppa, Stephanie A; Sinha, Madhurima; Lim, P Boon


    Basic life support (BLS) training in schools is associated with improved outcomes from cardiac arrest. International consensus statements have recommended universal BLS training for school-aged children. The current practice of BLS training in London schools is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess current practices of BLS training in London secondary schools. A prospective audit of BLS training in London secondary schools was conducted. Schools were contacted by email, and a subsequent telephone interview was conducted with staff familiar with local training practices. Response data were anonymised and captured electronically. Universal training was defined as any programme which delivers BLS training to all students in the school. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the results. A total of 65 schools completed the survey covering an estimated student population of 65 396 across 19 of 32 London boroughs. There were 5 (8%) schools that provide universal training programmes for students and an additional 31 (48%) offering training as part of an extracurricular programme or chosen module. An automated external defibrillator (AED) was available in 18 (28%) schools, unavailable in 40 (61%) and 7 (11%) reported their AED provision as unknown. The most common reasons for not having a universal BLS training programme are the requirement for additional class time (28%) and that funding is unavailable for such a programme (28%). There were 5 students who died from sudden cardiac arrest over the period of the past 10 years. BLS training rates in London secondary schools are low, and the majority of schools do not have an AED available in case of emergency. These data highlight an opportunity to improve BLS training and AEDs provision. Future studies should assess programmes which are cost-effective and do not require significant amounts of additional class time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  16. Towards Individualized Vulnerability in Migration Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegar, Veronika


    The Dutch parliament recently pledged for separate reception centres for vulnerable asylum seekers. In a reaction, the Dutch State Secretary of Security and Justice Klaas Dijkhoff objected to this claim, arguing that placing “vulnerable groups” into separate reception centres is stigmatizing.

  17. The politics of vulnerability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Warner, J.F.; Weijs, B.


    Much conceptual confusion exists over the concepts of vulnerability and (social) resilience, reinforced by the different paradigms (the article identifies four) and disciplinary traditions underlying their use. While since the 1980s the social construction of "vulnerability" as a driver for disaster

  18. evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    prepared in France by Margat (1968). In Germany,. Vierhuff et al. (1981) made a vulnerability map of the former Federal Republic of Germany before reunification on the same scale. The current international practices in mapping groundwater vulnerability have been reviewed by Vrba and Zaprozec (1994), Magiera (2000),.

  19. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  20. Methods to Secure Databases Against Vulnerabilities (United States)


    source database management system. Recent history shows security incidents involving database management system vulnerabilities resulting in the...Many commercial and government organizations utilize some form of proprietary or open source database management system. Recent history shows security...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Database vulnerabilities. Presentation tiers in Python and Java

  1. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood (United States)

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael


    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  2. IT Security Vulnerability and Incident Response Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, W.H.M.; Paulus, S.; Pohlman, N.; Reimer, H.


    This paper summarises the results of a Dutch PhD research project on IT security vulnerability and incident response management, which is supervised by the University of Twente in the Netherlands and which is currently in its final stage. Vulnerabilities are ‘failures or weaknesses in computer

  3. Vulnerability, Borderline Personality Disorders. Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borderline personality disorder and vulnerability are difficult to assess and are rather elusive to define. A case study material is presented from a cognitive analytical model. An attempt of the dominant features of cognitive analytical therapy and discussion of vulnerability in relation to personality disorder is provided.

  4. Vulnerability in a Stochastic Dynamic Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Chris; Gunning, Jan Willem


    Most measures of vulnerability are a-theoretic and essentially static. In this paper we use a stochastic Ramsey model to find a household's optimal welfare and we measure vulnerability as the shortfall from the welfare attained if the household consumed permanently at the poverty line. The results

  5. Vulnerability assessments as a political creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, Maartje; Maat, Harro; Crane, Todd A.


    Vulnerability assessments are a cornerstone of contemporary disaster research. This paper shows how research procedures and the presentation of results of vulnerability assessments are politically filtered. Using data from a study of tsunami risk assessment in Portugal, the paper demonstrates

  6. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics (United States)

    Roumani, Yaman


    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  7. Climate change vulnerability assessment in Georgia (United States)

    Binita KC; J. Marshall Shepherd; Cassandra Johnson Gaither


    Climate change is occurring in the Southeastern United States, and one manifestation is changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events. A vulnerability assessment is performed in the state of Georgia (United States) at the county level from 1975 to 2012 in decadal increments. Climate change vulnerability is typically measured as a function of exposure to physical...

  8. Gender, vulnerability, and violence in urban Pakistan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers used an index of vulnerability to violence to survey approximately 2400 people. The survey results, along with interviews and other research tools reveal how access to services and household vulnerability are major drivers of violence and how ideas about. 'masculinity' and 'femininity' interact with these ...

  9. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change : Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the factors affecting vulnerability to climate change on the whole island of Madagascar;; to better understand existing and possible adaptation strategies;; to explore various intervention strategies under different scenarios; and; to reinforce national capacity in analysis of climate change vulnerability and adaptation.

  10. Chemical facility vulnerability assessment project. (United States)

    Jaeger, Calvin D


    Sandia National Laboratories, under the direction of the Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, conducted the chemical facility vulnerability assessment (CFVA) project. The primary objective of this project was to develop, test and validate a vulnerability assessment methodology (VAM) for determining the security of chemical facilities against terrorist or criminal attacks (VAM-CF). The project also included a report to the Department of Justice for Congress that in addition to describing the VAM-CF also addressed general observations related to security practices, threats and risks at chemical facilities and chemical transport. In the development of the VAM-CF Sandia leveraged the experience gained from the use and development of VAs in other areas and the input from the chemical industry and Federal agencies. The VAM-CF is a systematic, risk-based approach where risk is a function of the severity of consequences of an undesired event, the attack potential, and the likelihood of adversary success in causing the undesired event. For the purpose of the VAM-CF analyses Risk is a function of S, L(A), and L(AS), where S is the severity of consequence of an event, L(A) is the attack potential and L(AS) likelihood of adversary success in causing a catastrophic event. The VAM-CF consists of 13 basic steps. It involves an initial screening step, which helps to identify and prioritize facilities for further analysis. This step is similar to the prioritization approach developed by the American Chemistry Council (ACC). Other steps help to determine the components of the risk equation and ultimately the risk. The VAM-CF process involves identifying the hazardous chemicals and processes at a chemical facility. It helps chemical facilities to focus their attention on the most critical areas. The VAM-CF is not a quantitative analysis but, rather, compares relative security risks. If the risks are deemed too high, recommendations are developed for

  11. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira


    Full Text Available The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating the vulnerability, the safety aspect defined by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT norm NBR ISO/IEC 27002 which will be violated, which lines of code generate the vulnerability and what should be done to avoid it, and the threat agent used by each of them. This classification allows the identification of possible points of vulnerability, allowing the developer to correct the identified gaps.

  12. Reproductive Health and Reproductive Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić


    Full Text Available Reproductive health represents, almost to an equal extent, a socio-cultural and a medical fact. What influences it, both positively and negatively, stems from the ways in which we culturally cognize and act with regard to reproductive behavior. These thoughts and actions are conditioned by a culturally contextualized conceptualization of human physiology which is, in turn, based on the conceptualization of sexuality, and especially, the normativization of gender roles. Therefore, reproductive health is, above all, female health, when viewed as a socio-cultural category, meaning that reproductive vulnerability mostly refers to those factors that negatively influence female reproductive health. These factors are social – they negatively influence reproductive health through the institutional and legally normative aspects, they are economic – they decrease the number of those who, in a certain socio-cultural context, have timely access to quality medical care, and they are cultural – they reinforce modes of thinking and behavior which do not take into consideration the right of every human being to his or her own sexual and reproductive life, but rather insist on conforming individual sexuality and reproductive desires and capacities to the dominant cultural norm.

  13. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson


    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  14. Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships. (United States)

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Kristoffersen, Andreas Aarseth; Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Gangestad, Steven W


    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of various social relationships, including human romantic relationships. Competing models predict, alternatively, positive or negative associations between naturally-occurring OT levels and romantic relationship quality. Empirical tests of these models have been equivocal. We propose a novel hypothesis ('Identify and Invest') that frames OT as an allocator of psychological investment toward valued, vulnerable relationships, and test this proposal in two studies. In one sample of 75 couples, and a second sample of 148 romantically involved individuals, we assess facets of relationships predicting changes in OT across a thought-writing task regarding one's partner. In both studies, participants' OT change across the task corresponded positively with multiple dimensions of high relationship involvement. However, increases in participants' OT also corresponded to their partners reporting lower relationship involvement. OT increases, then, reflected discrepancies between assessments of self and partner relationship involvement. These findings are robust in a combined analysis of both studies, and do not significantly differ between samples. Collectively, our findings support the 'Identify and Invest' hypothesis in romantic couples, and we argue for its relevance across other types of social bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. National Levee Database: monitoring, vulnerability assessment and management in Italy (United States)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso


    Italian levees and historical breach failures to be exploited in the framework of an operational procedure addressed to the seepage vulnerability assessment of river reaches where the levee system is an important structural measure against flooding. For its structure, INLED is a dynamic geospatial database with ongoing efforts to add levee data from authorities with the charge of hydraulic risk mitigation. In particular, the database is aimed to provide the available information about: i) location and condition of levees; ii) morphological and geometrical properties; iii) photographic documentation; iv) historical levee failures; v) assessment of vulnerability to overtopping and seepage carried out through a procedure based on simple vulnerability indexes (Camici et al. 2014); vi) management, control and maintenance; vii)flood hazard maps developed by assuming the levee system undamaged/damaged during the flood event. Currently, INLED contains data of levees that are mostly located in the Tiber basin, Central Italy. References Apel H., Merz B. & Thieken A.H. Quantification of uncertainties in flood risk assessments. Int J River Basin Manag 2008, 6, (2), 149-162. Camici S,, Barbetta S., Moramarco T., Levee body vulnerability to seepage: the case study of the levee failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 (central Italy)", Journal of Flood Risk Management, in press. Colleselli F. Geotechnical problems related to river and channel embankments. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Springer, 1994. H. R.Wallingford Consultants (HRWC). Risk assessment for flood and coastal defence for strategic planning: high level methodology technical report, London, 2003. Mazzoleni M., Bacchi B., Barontini S., Di Baldassarre G., Pilotti M. & Ranzi R. Flooding hazard mapping in floodplain areas affected by piping breaches in the Po River, Italy. J Hydrol Eng 2014, 19, (4), 717-731.

  16. Dentists with enhanced skills (Special Interest) in Endodontics: gatekeepers views in London. (United States)

    Ghotane, Swapnil G; Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Kendall, Nick; Robertson, Claire; Gallagher, Jennifer E


    Dentists with a special interest hold enhanced skills enabling them to treat cases of intermediate complexity. The aim of this study was to explore primary dental care practitioners' views of dentists with a special interest (DwSIs) in Endodontics in London, with reference to an educational and service initiative established by (the former) London Deanery in conjunction with the NHS. A cross-sectional postal survey of primary care dentists working across different models of care within London was conducted, with a target to achieve views of at least 5 % of London's dentists. The questionnaire instrument was informed by qualitative research and the dental literature and piloted prior to distribution; data were analysed using SPSS v19 and STATA v12.0. Six per cent of London's primary care dentists (n = 243) responded to the survey; 53 % were male. Just over one third (37 %; n = 90) were aware of the DwSI service being provided. Most practitioners reported that having access to a DwSI in Endodontics would support the care of their patients (89 %; n = 215), would carry out more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care if adequately reimbursed (93 %; n = 220), and had more time (76 %; n = 180). Female respondents appeared to be less confident in doing endodontic treatment (p = 0.001). More recently qualified respondents reported greater need for training/support for performing more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.001), were more dissatisfied with access to endodontic service in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.007) and more interested to train as a DwSI in endodontics (p = 0.001) compared with respondents having a greater number of years of clinical experience since qualification. The findings lend support to the concept of developing dentists with enhanced skills as well as ensuring additional funding, time and support to facilitate more routine endodontics through the NHS primary care to meet

  17. Groundwater vulnerability mapping of Qatar aquifers (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa


    Qatar is one of the most arid countries in the world with limited water resources. With little rainfall and no surface water, groundwater is the only natural source of fresh water in the country. Whilst the country relies mainly on desalination of seawater to secure water supply, groundwater has extensively been used for irrigation over the last three decades, which caused adverse environmental impact. Vulnerability assessment is a widely used tool for groundwater protection and land-use management. Aquifers in Qatar are carbonate with lots of fractures, depressions and cavities. Karst aquifers are generally more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers as any anthropogenic-sourced contaminant, especially above a highly fractured zone, can infiltrate quickly into the aquifer and spread over a wide area. The vulnerability assessment method presented in this study is based on two approaches: DRASTIC and EPIK, within the framework of Geographical Information System (GIS). Results of this study show that DRASTIC vulnerability method suits Qatar hydrogeological settings more than EPIK. The produced vulnerability map using DRASTIC shows coastal and karst areas have the highest vulnerability class. The southern part of the country is located in the low vulnerability class due to occurrence of shale formation within aquifer media, which averts downward movement of contaminants.

  18. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health. (United States)

    Straehle, Christine


    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Vulnerability of intertropical littoral areas (United States)

    Manighetti, Isabelle; De Wit, Rutger; Duvail, Stéphanie; Seyler, Patrick


    The coastal zone is of very high importance for human development and human wellbeing. Half of the global urban population lives in the coastal zone, where it has access to both continental and marine ecosystem services and to maritime transport. These urban populations coexist with rural and traditional coastal populations, some of which still possess good traditional ecological knowledge of the coastal ecosystems. Marine biodiversity and favourable environmental conditions sustain fisheries and aquaculture, represent a source of inspiration for humankind and provide numerous opportunities for recreation and tourism. In addition, coastal areas provide nursery functions for juvenile fish and invertebrates, which is important for the fish and crayfish stocks exploited offshore. Located at the interface between marine energy and continental processes, the coastal landscapes are dynamic environments. Nevertheless, the destruction of habitats and the increasing exploitation of the coastal zone represent serious threats to the ecosystems. Moreover, human land use and modifications in the watersheds have strong impacts on the coastal zone primarily by contributing to their pollution and nutrient over-enrichment. Damming and creation of reservoirs upstream also heavily modify the hydrology of the watersheds and often dramatically reduce the delivery of sediments to the coastal zone. In addition to these regional and local anthropogenic impacts, the coastal zone is vulnerable to global change among which sea level rise and climate change are particularly important drivers. Many coastal zones extend along giant faults and subduction zones, which makes them particularly exposed to earthquakes and tsunami hazards. Other forms of natural hazards are caused by hurricanes and cyclones that develop at sea and whose trajectories often hit the coastlines.

  20. Spatial scan statistics in vulnerability assessment (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Ornetsmüller, Christine


    In the European Alps the concept of risk has increasingly been applied in order to reduce the susceptibility of society to mountain hazards. Risk is defined as a function of the magnitude and frequency of a hazard process times consequences; the latter being quantified by the value of elements at risk exposed and their vulnerability. Vulnerability means the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from the impact of a natural hazard. Recent empirical studies suggested a dependency of the degree of loss on the hazard impact, and respective vulnerability (or damage-loss) functions were developed. However, until now only little information is available on the spatial characteristics of vulnerability on a local scale; considerable ranges in the loss ratio for medium process intensities only provide a hint that there might me mutual reasons for lower or higher loss rates. In this paper we therefore focus on the spatial dimension of vulnerability by searching for spatial clusters in the damage ratio of elements at risk exposed. By using the software SaTScan, we applied an ordinal data model and a normal data model in order to detect spatial distribution patterns of five individual torrent events in Austria. For both models, we detected some significant clusters of high damage ratios, and consequently high vulnerability. Moreover, secondary clusters of high and low values were found. Based on our results, the assumption that lower process intensities result in lower damage ratios, and therefore in lower vulnerability, and vice versa, has to be partly rejected. The spatial distribution of vulnerability is not only dependent on the process intensities but also on the overall land use pattern and the individual constructive characteristics of the buildings exposed. Generally we suggest the use of a normal data model for test sites exceeding a minimum of 30 elements at risk exposed. As such, the study enhanced our understanding of spatial vulnerability patterns on

  1. ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars (United States)

    Hobson, Art


    The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

  2. Pricing vulnerable options with stochastic volatility (United States)

    Wang, Guanying; Wang, Xingchun; Zhou, Ke


    In this paper, we investigate the pricing issue of vulnerable options with stochastic volatility by decomposing stochastic volatility into the long-term and short-term volatility. We describe the short-term fluctuation of stochastic volatility using a mean-reverting process, and assume the long-term volatility to be a constant. Based on the proposed model, we derive a pricing formula of vulnerable options in a special case. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the impacts of two stochastic volatility components on vulnerable option prices.

  3. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.


    Abstract The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented. PMID:22144852

  4. The City of Others: Photographs from the City of London Asylum Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bressey


    Full Text Available This photographic essay presents images from the City of London Asylum archive as a example of how the visual can be used to expand our investigations of social histories of Victorian London, particularly the multi-cultural nature of the city. The essay argues that images are an essential part of the research process, but also discusses some of the disadvantages and ethical tensions encountered through the use of such portraits for historical recovery. Despite these caveats, the paper concludes that we have much to learn from the images that present images of the city that would otherwise be difficult, if not impossible, for twenty-first-century researchers to access.

  5. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...... analyzed. The results show that consultants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges before the Olympics (e.g. negotiating your role) and Challenges during the Olympics (e.g. dealing with the media...

  6. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War. (United States)

    Quin, Grégory


    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  7. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK. (United States)

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R


    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  8. From Sanctuaries to Prefigurative Social Change: Creating Health-Enabling Spaces in East London Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine A. Guerlain


    for effective community mobilization. AIDS Care, 22(Suppl. 2, 1569-1579; and a discussion of how creating these spaces is an act of prefigurative social change. Our findings suggest that in East London, participation in community gardens is not based on a common political intention or self-conscious motive to prefigure a new society, but instead on the shared practice of gardening. This results in unintended benefits that often address participants’ personal adversities in ways that contribute to the material, relational and symbolic deprivation of their daily lives – opening up new possibilities for being, seeing and doing. In this sense, community gardens in East London offer an alternative to traditional notions of prefigurative social action that are predicated on strategic intention. We argue for an understanding of prefiguration that better accounts for what participants themselves would like to achieve in their own lives, rather than in relation to externally imposed notions of what counts as political change.

  9. Using ActivHeal dressings in a London teaching hospital: a cost analysis. (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah

    Lower-cost 'generic' wound dressings are now available in the dressing categories of foams, films, alginates, gels and hydrocolloids. This offers the possibility of achieving significant financial savings while retaining good clinical standards of wound care. To test the potential for cost saving in a typical London teaching hospital, the ActivHeal range of dressings was substituted for normal 'branded' dressings over a 3-month period, during which dressing cost and clinical effectiveness were assessed. The result was an equivalent yearly cost saving of pound55 221 (54%), with retention of performance standards across the dressing range. Two years after the trial, wards in University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust continue to benefit from significant annual cost savings on dressings by using the ActivHeal range of products, while maintaining a high standard of clinical care.

  10. First-order phase transition and tricritical point in multiband U (1 ) London superconductors (United States)

    Sellin, Karl A. H.; Babaev, Egor


    The order of the superconducting phase transition is a classical problem. Single-component type-2 superconductors exhibit a continuous "inverted-X Y " phase transition, as was first demonstrated for U (1 ) lattice London superconductors by a celebrated duality mapping with subsequent backing by numerical simulations. Here we study this problem in multiband U (1 ) London superconductors and find evidence that by contrast the model has a tricritical point. The superconducting phase transition becomes first order when the Josephson length is sufficiently large compared to the magnetic field penetration length. We present evidence that the fluctuation-induced dipolar interaction between vortex loops makes the phase transition discontinuous. We discuss that this mechanism is also relevant for the phase transitions in multicomponent gauge theories with higher broken symmetry.

  11. Looking back on the London Olympics: Independent outcome and hindsight effects in decision evaluation. (United States)

    Blank, Hartmut; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen


    Outcome bias and hindsight bias are related, but how exactly? To remedy theoretical ambiguity and non-existent directly relevant empirical research, we contrast an older idea (Baron & Hershey, 1988, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 54, 569) that sees outcome bias as partly mediated through hindsight bias with the idea that the two biases independently affect decision evaluations. In an Internet study of retrospections on the 2012 London Olympics, evaluations of the Games' success and its foreseeability had independent effects on evaluations of the International Olympic Committee's decision to award the Olympics to London; there was no evidence of mediation. Further theoretical discussion emphasizes the need to distinguish between a holistic assessment of decisions and a more specific assessment of the decision-making process in future outcome bias research. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Natural History Museum, London

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment


    Nature Live is a programme of daily events which take place at the Natural History Museum, London. Nature Live brings together scientists and visitors to explore, discover and discuss the natural world and our place within it. In each event visitors get the chance to meet our scientists, see the specimens they study and ask lots of questions. Today Nature Live will feature a live link to the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors the amazing opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. As well as to discover how scientists at the Museum and at CERN are all looking back through deep time to answer those big questions on the origins of life, the universe and everything.

  13. Political opposition in patriarchal East London, 1950-1960: dilemmas of paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Atkinson


    Full Text Available This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban adminis tration. Patriarchal ism, as a sys tem, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuanced. The Location Native Advisory Boards vacillated between opposition to the white patriarchal order and compliance with it. Towards the late 1950s, the political climate became ever more polarized. The paper draws on archival sources from East London to show that patriarchalism, as a moral system, was sufficiently robust to accommodate a variety of viewpoints, within the white and black communities. But as violent resistance took its toll during the 1950s, more coercive forms of paternalism came increasingly to the fore.

  14. Bipartisan politics and practical knowledge: advertising of public science in two London newspapers, 1695-1720. (United States)

    Wigelsworth, Jeffrey R


    This article explores the enticement of consumers for natural philosophy (buyers of books, audiences at public lectures and purchasers of instruments) in London between 1695 and 1720 through advertisements placed in two political newspapers. This twenty-five-year period witnessed both the birth of public science and the rage of party politics. A consideration of public science adverts within the Whig-leaning Post Man and the Tory-leaning Post Boy reveals that members of both the Whig and Tory parties were equally targeted and that natural philosophy was sold to London's reading population in bipartisan fashion. In the process of integrating natural philosophy into the wider culture through commercial sales, political allegiances were not imprinted on the advertising process. This conclusion raises questions regarding the historiographical assertion of Whig-supported public science and Tory opposition to it at the level of consumers.

  15. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R


    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  16. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool (United States)


    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of removal of TSA's maritime vulnerability self... transportation security incident (TSI)\\1\\ must conduct a vulnerability assessment and submit a security plan to...

  17. Identity management strategies among HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London


    Jaspal, Rusi; Williamson, I. R.


    Open access article This study set out to explore the social-psychological aspects of living with HIV among a group of HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London, and the strategies that they deployed to manage ensuing threats to their identities. Focus group and individual interview data were collected from 14 Colombian gay men living with HIV, and were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and identity process theory. The following themes are discussed: (1) identity struggles and co...

  18. Orwell Court. Gegen/Blicke in einer betongewordenen Wohnutopie im Londoner Nordosten


    Raul Gschrey


    Die Fotoserie und der Begleittext untersuchen Blicke und Gegenblicke innerhalb des im Londoner Stadtteil Hackney gelegenen Wohnkomplexes „Orwell Court“, der von Videoüberwachung, Zäunen und Warnschildern dominiert wird. Assoziationen zu dessen Namen, der auf den Autoren des dystopischen Romans 1984 verweist, dienen als Referenz für die Betrachtung des speziellen Raumgefühls des „Orwell Court“, der (Sicherheits)Architektur, sowie deren Individualisierung und Subversion.

  19. Issues facing Japanese postgraduate students studying at the University of London, with special reference to gender


    Akiko, Nishio


    Abstract This study is based on interviews and questionnaires with 52 Japanese postgraduate students (25 women and 27 men) at the University of London and the author's participant observation. It examines (1) the issues Japanese postgraduate students face while studying abroad, (2) what made them decide to study abroad, and (3) their thoughts on the period following their course, all with special reference to gender. Previous studies on international students have tended to focus on a...

  20. Art Fairs as a Medium for Branding Young and Emerging Artists: The Case of Frieze London


    Lee, Soo Hee; Lee, Jin Woo


    While previous researchers have attempted to explain the uncertain quality of visual arts with reference to branding theory, they have overlooked the role of art fairs. Socio-cultural approaches to branding allow us to explore the function of intermediaries in valuing contemporary arts. This article aims to analyze the role of art fairs in the process of branding young and emerging artists. In particular, a prestigious art fair, Frieze London, serves as an instrumental case study for developi...

  1. Promoting access to dental care in South London: adult patients’ perspectives


    Haji Moris, Sylviana; Carty, Orla; Wanyonyi, Kristina L.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.


    Objective: To evaluate patients’ views on health service initiatives established to improve uptake of NHS primary dental care amongst adult patients in a socially deprived area, comparing practices with extended and regular contract capacity. Study design: Service evaluation and cross-sectional survey. Method: Questionnaire survey of patients attending a random sample of dental practices in three inner-metropolitan boroughs of south London following initiatives to improve access to dental car...

  2. 4 years' experience of head and neck tuberculosis in a south London hospital (United States)

    Choudhury, N; Bruch, G; Kothari, P; Rao, G; Simo, R


    In a south London department of otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery, 33 cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed in 4 years. The most common presentation was cervical adenitis (58%) and in some cases the initial investigations suggested malignant disease. Most of the patients were of non-British origin but none proved to be HIV seropositive. Fine-needle aspiration was positive for tuberculosis in 7 of 19 patients. 21 patients required a surgical procedure for diagnosis. PMID:15928377

  3. Travelers’ tales: magic and superstition on early modern European and London stages


    Katritzky, M. A.


    This examination of early modern stage magic overviews its occurrence in the earliest type of mixed-gender professional theater, the Italian commedia dell’arte, discusses necromancers and stage magicians, and concludes by inquiring into the significance of magical impotence superstitions for the London stage. Drawing on travel journals and medical treatises as well as more familiar sources, it confirms that ‘travelers’ tales’ can represent an invaluable documentary resource for the theater hi...

  4. Orwell Court. Gegen/Blicke in einer betongewordenen Wohnutopie im Londoner Nordosten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Gschrey


    Full Text Available Die Fotoserie und der Begleittext untersuchen Blicke und Gegenblicke innerhalb des im Londoner Stadtteil Hackney gelegenen Wohnkomplexes „Orwell Court“, der von Videoüberwachung, Zäunen und Warnschildern dominiert wird. Assoziationen zu dessen Namen, der auf den Autoren des dystopischen Romans 1984 verweist, dienen als Referenz für die Betrachtung des speziellen Raumgefühls des „Orwell Court“, der (SicherheitsArchitektur, sowie deren Individualisierung und Subversion.

  5. From 'nobody to somebody' : challenges and opportunities for Gujarati women learning English in London


    Ray, Smita


    This qualitative case study explores the language learning experiences of a sample of Gujarati women in London and uses tools of qualitative inquiry including 20 semi-structured interviews, two focus groups, observation and document analysis. The process of learning English as a second language is explored through an intersectional lens that takes account of gender, race and class and the corresponding identity constructions of Gujarati women. An inability to speak English for these women is ...

  6. Active Ageing:Social and Cultural Integration of Older Turkish Alevi Refugees in London


    Oglak, Sema; Hussein, Shereen Ahmed


    Ageing of migrants in Europe has become an important policy issue, especially within the context of health inequalities and increasing health care costs. Based on in-depth interviews with older Alevi/Kurdish refugees in London, we explore the cumulative impact of difficult migration trajectories on the experience of ageing. The findings highlight the important role of cultural capital and transnational ties throughout the refugees’ migration journeys and particularly at old age. However, the ...

  7. Form or Function? The Impact of New Football Stadia on Property Prices in London


    Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Georgios, Kavetsos


    This paper focuses on the channels through which stadium externalities capitalize into property prices. We investigate two of the largest stadium investment projects of the recent decade – the This paper focuses on the channels through which stadium externalities capitalize into property prices. We investigate two of the largest stadium investment projects of the recent decade – the New Wembley and the Emirates stadium in London, UK. Evidence suggests positive stadium externalities, which are...

  8. Desensitisation to cigarette package graphic health warnings: a cohort comparison between London and Singapore (United States)

    Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Chisnall, Ben; Li, Mingyue; Tan, Sarah; Douiri, Abdel; Anantham, Devanand; Steier, Joerg


    Objectives We compared 2 sociocultural cohorts with different duration of exposure to graphic health warning labels (GHWL), to investigate a possible desensitisation to their use. We further studied how a differing awareness and emotional impact of smoking-associated risks could be used to prevent this. Setting Structured interviews of patients from the general respiratory department were undertaken between 2012 and 2013 in 2 tertiary hospitals in Singapore and London. Participants 266 participants were studied, 163 Londoners (35% smokers, 54% male, age 52±18 years) and 103 Singaporeans (53% smokers, p=0.003; 78% male, p<0.001; age 58±15 years, p=0.012). Main outcomes and measures 50 items assessed demographics, smoking history, knowledge and the deterring impact of smoking-associated risks. After showing 10 GHWL, the impact on emotional response, cognitive processing and intended smoking behaviour was recorded. Results Singaporeans scored lower than the Londoners across all label processing constructs, and this was consistent for the smoking and non-smoking groups. Londoners experienced more ‘disgust’ and felt GHWL were more effective at preventing initiation of, or quitting, smoking. Singaporeans had a lower awareness of lung cancer (82% vs 96%, p<0.001), despite ranking it as the most deterring consequence of smoking. Overall, ‘blindness’ was the least known potential risk (28%), despite being ranked as more deterring than ‘stroke’ and ‘oral cancer’ in all participants. Conclusions The length of exposure to GHWL impacts on the effectiveness. However, acknowledging the different levels of awareness and emotional impact of smoking-associated risks within different sociocultural cohorts could be used to maintain their impact. PMID:27798017

  9. The establishment of histology in the curriculum of the London medical schools:1826-1886.


    Bracegirdle, P. H.


    This thesis sets out the way in which histology became established in the curriculum of the London medical schools between 1826 and 1886. The text provides a very large number of references to original material, some of it previously unreported. Histology had its origins in continental Europe in the early years of the nineteenth century, in the work of Bichat. The introductory chapter examines how this was translated both as to language and as to practical experience into En...

  10. Misuse of psychotropic substances: outline and recommendations of a conference held in London in March 1980. (United States)

    Ghodse, A H; Khan, I


    A conference was held in London in March 1980 on the use and misuse of psychotropic substances. The conference noted that there was a preponderance of medical practitioners who prescribed psychotropic substances. The topics covered ranged from the extent of use of psychotropic substances to the effects of their use in producing different types of morbidity. Consideration was given to controls of psychotropic substances, including steps to reduce their misuse without restricting their legitimate use.

  11. An Interview with Masoud Yazdani, editor of London-based Intellect Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan


    Full Text Available Sean Scanlan conducted an email interview with Masoud Yazdani, the editor of Intellect Books, an independent academic publisher in the fields of creative practice and popular culture, whose aim is to publish scholarly books and journals that provide a vital space for widening critical debate in new and emerging subjects. An Interview with Masoud Yazdani, editor of London-based Intellect Books by Sean Scanlan.

  12. Greek manuscripts at the Wellcome Library in London: a descriptive catalogue. (United States)

    Bouras-Vallianatos, Petros


    This article presents a new, detailed catalogue of the Greek manuscripts at the Wellcome Library in London. It consists of an introduction to the history of the collection and its scholarly importance, followed by separate entries for each manuscript. Each entry identifies the text(s) found in the respective manuscript - including reference to existing printed edition(s) of such texts - and gives a physical description of the codex, details on its provenance and bibliographical references.

  13. The Class of London 2012: Some Sociological Reflections on the Social Backgrounds of Team GB Athletes


    Andy Smith; David Haycock; Nicola Hulme


    This rapid response article briefly examines one feature of the relationship between social class and elite sport: the social backgrounds of the Olympians who comprised Team GB (Great Britain) at the 2012 London Olympics Games, and especially their educational backgrounds, as a means of shedding sociological light on the relationship between elite sport and social class. It is claimed that, to a large degree, the class-related patterns evident in the social profiles of medal-winners are expre...

  14. Surface and subsurface structural response on the City of London cable tunnels project


    Legge, N.B.; Bloodworth, A.G.


    This paper presents surface and subsurface ground and structural response to the excavation of an urban cable tunnel within London clay and the Lambeth Group strata. Project specific tunnelling volume losses were estimated and found to be dependent on face advance and geology. The presence of adjacent buildings reduced predicted ?greenfield? settlements. The tunnel passed below a continuous section comprising basements, box rail tunnels and other structures. These structures generally respond...

  15. Energy consumption and work-travel trips: London, Birmingham, and Manchester, 1981 – 2001


    Martin Frost; Nigel Spence


    The changing modal composition and volume of work travel in London, Birmingham, and Manchester and their resultant energy consumption implications are considered in this research. Essentially, the mechanism is to calculate the passenger km travelled by mode and then to apply mode-specific energy consumption parameters to calculate energy consumption. By classifying work-travel trips according to their travel mode and their location and orientation (within, out of, and into town) it is possibl...

  16. Special Affects? Nationalist and Cosmopolitan Discourses Through the Transmission of Emotions: Empirical Evidence from London 2012


    Pope, Mark; Rolf, Niklas; Siklodi, Nora


    International sporting and mega-events such as London 2012 provide a pertinent case study through which to explore contemporary approaches to nationalism and cosmopolitanism. Using original focus group evidence from participants with expertise in the Olympics, this article provides an insight into how nationalist and cosmopolitan discourses emerge in dialogue between informed individuals set against an emotionally charged background. The evidence indicates that the transmission of emotions mi...

  17. The NHS Health Check programme: implementation in east London 2009?2011


    Robson, John; Dostal, Isabel; Madurasinghe, Vichithranie; Sheikh, Aziz; Hull, Sally; Boomla, Kambiz; Page, Helen; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra


    OBJECTIVES: To describe implementation and results from the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme.DESIGN: Three-year observational open cohort study: 2009-2011.PARTICIPANTS: People of age 40-74 years eligible for an NHS Health Check.SETTING: 139/143 general practices in three east London primary care trusts (PCTs) serving an ethnically diverse and socially disadvantaged population.METHOD: Implementation was supported with education, IT support and performance reports. Tower Ham...

  18. Drawing from Fancy: The Intersection of Art and Design in Mid-Eighteenth-Century London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puetz, Anne


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to bring the world of mid-eighteenth-century British design into fruitful conversation with contemporary art theory and practice. Taking the neighbourhood and milieu of the St Martin's Lane area in London as a starting point, I investigate connections between British "rococo" design and William Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty in terms of shared formal values and contemporary implications of "modernity". I argue for a mutual indebtedness rather than "art" directing "design".

  19. Wastewater filtration and re-use: an alternative water source for London. (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan D; Blunt, Martin J


    The rapid growth and climate of the Greater London region have contributed towards large deficits in water supply. Inexpensive, energy-efficient and sustainable water resource schemes are increasingly sought as a means to boost supply. Here, we propose a small-scale recycling scheme whereby tertiary-treated wastewater is pumped to the Cretaceous chalk of the London Basin. By taking advantage of the natural filtration properties of the underlying chalk, contaminants can be effectively attenuated over relatively short length scales to result in pure water. The problem is approached from four different scales. First, we define two localities in London where such a pumping scheme might operate; regions which combine a thick unsaturated zone and high chalk transmissivity, both essential to ensure maximum contaminant removal and minimum environmental impact. Secondly, the effects of pumping fluid into the Chalk at the two localities are quantified using a finite-difference groundwater flow model. We show that rivers impose a regular groundwater flow regime, whereas pre-existing abstraction wells will lead to less predictable results. Thirdly, we consider the effect of fractures on channelling rapid fluid flow within the rock mass. By digitising a fracture map based upon outcrop measurements from chalk exposed on the Kent coast similar to that beneath London, we quantify transport patterns of wastewater after injection. Imbibition to the chalk matrix (and therefore filtration) will occur where fluid pressure gradients are highest, for instance around disconnected fracture tips. Finally we demonstrate the efficacy of chalk in contaminant removal by injecting an analogue 'effluent' through a chalk core. ICP-AES analysis on the recovered solution shows the contaminants (viz. a suite of heavy metals) are arrested or removed over relatively small time- and length-scales. Numerical and analytical solutions fit the data poorly, shedding some light on the importance of

  20. Treating London-Dispersion Effects with the Latest Minnesota Density Functionals: Problems and Possible Solutions. (United States)

    Goerigk, Lars


    It is shown that the latest Minnesota density functionals (SOGGA11, M11-L, N12, MN12-L, SOGGA11-X, M11, N12-SX, and MN12-SX) do not properly describe London-dispersion interactions. Grimme's DFT-D3 correction can solve this problem partially; however, double-counting of medium-range electron correlation can occur. For the related M06-L functional, the alternative VV10 van der Waals kernel is tested, but it experiences similar double-counting. Most functionals give unphysical dissociation curves for the argon dimer, an indication for method-inherent problems, and further investigation is recommended. These results are further evidence that the London-dispersion problem in density functional theory approximations is unlikely to be solved by mere empirical optimization of functional parameters, unless the functionals contain components that ensure the correct asymptotic long-range behavior. London dispersion is ubiquitous, which is why the reported findings are not only important for theoreticians but also a reminder to the general chemist to carefully consider their choice of method before undertaking computational studies.

  1. ‘To the great public’: The Architectural Image in the Early Illustrated London News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hultzsch


    Full Text Available The 'Illustrated London News', launched in May 1842 as the first illustrated newspaper and quickly copied across Europe, North America and beyond, was full of architectural images. New buildings, ancient ruins, construction sites, royal visits, wars, theatre performances, exotic expeditions, historical essays and innumerable other subjects gave occasion to feature the built, whether for its own sake or as background setting. Images and texts were produced and consumed with an urge and at a speed never seen before. The building, through the illustrated press, left the static confines of the book and the framed print and became peopled by the purposeful bourgeoisie. Through a close analysis of a range of articles on the new Royal Exchange, the refurbished London Colosseum as well as the Queen’s Scotland tour, this essay explores the role of the architectural image in the illustrated press by focusing on its relationship to the accompanying text. Untangling the mechanics of representation and perception, it identifies modes of intellectual, affective, and kinetic vision through which architecture was represented to the remote reading public. By externalising and stabilising vision, the 'Illustrated London News' thus created a virtual public sphere in which the dramatic technological and material changes occurring in the period could be absorbed and normalized.

  2. Impact of Air Temperature on London Ambulance Call-Out Incidents and Response Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliyyah A. Mahmood


    Full Text Available Ambulance services are in operation around the world and yet, until recently, ambulance data has only been used for operational purposes rather than for assessing public health. Ambulance call-out data offers new and valuable (near real-time information that can be used to assess the impact of environmental conditions, such as temperature, upon human health. A detailed analysis of London ambulance data at a selection of dates between 2003 and 2015 is presented and compared to London temperature data. In London, the speed of ambulance response begins to suffer when the mean daily air temperature drops below 2 °C or rises above 20 °C. This is explained largely by the increased number of calls past these threshold temperatures. The baseline relationships established in this work will inform the prediction of likely changes in ambulance demand (and illness types that may be caused by seasonal temperature changes and the increased frequency and intensity of extreme/severe weather events, exacerbated by climate change, in the future.

  3. Drastic reduction in the growth temperature of graphene on copper via enhanced London dispersion force. (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Li, Zhancheng; Cui, Ping; Fan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hui; Zeng, Changgan; Zhang, Zhenyu


    London dispersion force is ubiquitous in nature, and is increasingly recognized to be an important factor in a variety of surface processes. Here we demonstrate unambiguously the decisive role of London dispersion force in non-equilibrium growth of ordered nanostructures on metal substrates using aromatic source molecules. Our first-principles based multi-scale modeling shows that a drastic reduction in the growth temperature, from ~1000°C to ~300°C, can be achieved in graphene growth on Cu(111) when the typical carbon source of methane is replaced by benzene or p-Terphenyl. The London dispersion force enhances their adsorption energies by about (0.5-1.8) eV, thereby preventing their easy desorption, facilitating dehydrogenation, and promoting graphene growth at much lower temperatures. These quantitative predictions are validated in our experimental tests, showing convincing demonstration of monolayer graphene growth using the p-Terphenyl source. The general trends established are also more broadly applicable in molecular synthesis of surface-based nanostructures.

  4. Model Making and Anti-Competitive Practices in the Late Eighteenth-Century London Sculpture Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craske, Matthew


    Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of anti-competitive practices, and the associated discontents, that rose to the fore in the London sculpture trade in the late eighteenth century (1770-1799. It charts the business strategies and technical procedures of the most economically successful practitioners, whose workshops had some of the characteristics of manufactories, and whose critics accused them of conducting a "monopoly" trade. Small-scale practitioners lost out in the competition for great public contracts on account of their design processes and their inability to represent any manifestation of "establishment". A combination of three factors increased the gap between a handful of powerful "manufacturers" and the rest of the trade: the foundation of the Royal Academy, shifts in the ways designs were evaluated, and a growing number of very lucrative contracts for public sculpture. I conclude that such were the discontents within the London trade that by the 1790s, there was a marked tendency for practitioners who were not manufacturers to be attracted to democratic political movements, to the Wilkite call for liberty and the rise of civic radicalism in the merchant population of London.

  5. Evaluating the use of an urban consolidation centre and electric vehicles in central London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Browne


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the role that can be played by urban consolidation centres (UCCs in reducing freight traffic and its environmental impacts in towns and cities. It is based on the before and after evaluation of a trial led by a major stationery and office supplies company in which urban freight deliveries in central London made from a depot in the suburbs using diesel vehicles were replaced with the use of an urban micro-consolidation centre located in the delivery area together with the use of electrically-assisted cargo tricycles and electric vans. The results show that the total distance travelled and the CO2eq emissions per parcel delivered fell by 20% and 54% respectively as a result of this delivery system. However, the evaluation has also indicated that the distance travelled per parcel rose substantially in the City of London delivery area as a result of the electric vehicles having far smaller load limits in both weight and volume compared with diesel vans. But, at the same time, the trial system was able to virtually eliminate CO2eq emissions per parcel delivered in the City of London. The trial proved successful from the company's perspective in transport, environmental and financial terms. The company therefore decided to continue the operation beyond the end of the trial with it being officially launched during 2010.

  6. The Judo World Ranking List and the Performances in the 2012 London Olympics. (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula Ferreira


    In 2009, the International Judo Federation (IJF) created a World Ranking List (WRL) to classify athletes according to their performance in international-level competitions and to qualify athletes for the Olympic Games. Considering that this ranking system provides useful information concerning athletes' performance in competitions during a 2-year period and during Olympic Games, the objective of this paper was to verify how long- and short-term performances in WRL competitions predict the performance in the 2012 London Olympic Games. Data from 233 male and 154 female athletes who took part in the London Olympic Games were analyzed considering: measures of long- and short-term performance, as well as measures of athlete approach to the Olympic Games and the points obtained in the 2012 London Olympic Games. Athletes were divided into male and female groups. Stepwise linear regression was conducted to predict points acquired in the Olympic Games. Significance level was set at 5% for all analyses. The equation found for females was: 46.055 + 0.142 (points valid in the two years period) - 14.422 (number of competitions in 2012) (adjusted R(2) = 0.240, standard error = 130 points, P Olympics could be predicted, respectively, by variables derived from the IJF WRL.

  7. Uncertainties in Tidally Adjusted Estimates of Sea Level Rise Flooding (Bathtub Model for the Greater London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali P. Yunus


    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR from global warming may have severe consequences for coastal cities, particularly when combined with predicted increases in the strength of tidal surges. Predicting the regional impact of SLR flooding is strongly dependent on the modelling approach and accuracy of topographic data. Here, the areas under risk of sea water flooding for London boroughs were quantified based on the projected SLR scenarios reported in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC fifth assessment report (AR5 and UK climatic projections 2009 (UKCP09 using a tidally-adjusted bathtub modelling approach. Medium- to very high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs are used to evaluate inundation extents as well as uncertainties. Depending on the SLR scenario and DEMs used, it is estimated that 3%–8% of the area of Greater London could be inundated by 2100. The boroughs with the largest areas at risk of flooding are Newham, Southwark, and Greenwich. The differences in inundation areas estimated from a digital terrain model and a digital surface model are much greater than the root mean square error differences observed between the two data types, which may be attributed to processing levels. Flood models from SRTM data underestimate the inundation extent, so their results may not be reliable for constructing flood risk maps. This analysis provides a broad-scale estimate of the potential consequences of SLR and uncertainties in the DEM-based bathtub type flood inundation modelling for London boroughs.

  8. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    term emergency relief. ... Using case studies from Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan and Tanzania, this action-research project seeks to contribute to the development of adaptive strategies by gathering knowledge on vulnerability to drought within different ...

  9. Vulnerability in the South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J


    Full Text Available Categories and factors associated with vulnerability EmploymentFuel useDiseaseDisease state Cultural practicesBody burdenObesityGender Socio-economic status Background exposure FitnessRace Education...

  10. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) Mapping Dashboard (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The interactive maps are visual representations of the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Data were extracted from the US Census and the American Community Survey.

  11. Aquifer vulnerability for Colorado and New Mexico (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Data Series provides raster data representing an estimate of aquifer vulnerability calculated for each 30-meter raster cell. Depth to...

  12. Characterizing vulnerable plaque features with intravascular elastography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaar, J.A.; Korte, C.L. de; Mastik, F.; Strijder, C.; Pasterkamp, G.; Boersma, E.; Serruys, P.W.; Steen, A.F.W. van der


    BACKGROUND: In vivo detection of vulnerable plaques is presently limited by a lack of diagnostic tools. Intravascular ultrasound elastography is a new technique based on intravascular ultrasound and has the potential to differentiate between different plaques phenotypes. However, the predictive

  13. Violence and vulnerabilities: Afghans in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Alimia


    Full Text Available Given that the majority of Afghans who live in Pakistan today are unlikely to return to Afghanistan, more needs to be done to address their vulnerabilities and protect them from harassment and violence.

  14. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.


    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  15. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison


    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  16. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS]. (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa


    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  17. A stakeholder dialogue on European vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega-Leinert, de la A.C.; Schröter, D.; Leemans, R.; Fritsch, U.; Pluimers, J.C.


    A stakeholder dialogue was embedded in the ATEAM project to facilitate the development and dissemination of its European-wide vulnerability assessment of global change impacts. Participating stakeholders were primarily ecosystem managers and policy advisers interested in potential impacts on

  18. Distributed Generation to Counter Grid Vulnerability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nerad, Anton H


    In this paper I examine how the United States can best defend against the interruption of critical electrical energy by hostile acts, identify and examine some of the vulnerabilities to our nation's...

  19. Computed Tomography Biomarkers of Vulnerable Coronary Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyulas Tiberiu


    Full Text Available An unstable plaque has a high risk of thrombosis and at the same time for a fast progression of the stenosis degree. Also, “high-risk plaque” and “thrombosis-prone plaque” are used as synonym terms for characterization of a vulnerable plaque. The imaging biomarkers for vulnerable coronary plaques are considered to be spotty calcifications, active remodeling, low-density atheroma and the presence of a ring-like attenuation pattern, also known as the napkin-ring sign. Computed cardiac tomography can determine the plaque composition by assessing the plaque density, which is measured in Hounsfield units (HU. The aim of this manuscript was to provide an update about the most frequently used biomarkers of vulnerability in a vulnerable plaque with the help of computed cardiac tomography.

  20. Vulnerable Zone Indicator System (Option 2) (United States)

    Enter your latitude and longitude to access the Vulnerable Zone Indicator System. VZIS can help you determine if your area could be affected by a chemical accident at a facility that submitted a Risk Management Plan (RMP).

  1. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt's Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Hereher


    Full Text Available The Egyptian Mediterranean coast was examined for the vulnerability to sea-level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (CVI, which was derived from the geologic and physical characteristics of the coast. This paper is the first to apply the CVI along the Egyptian coasts. The coast has different geomorphologic aspects ranging from steep-slope-rocky cliffs to gentle sloping deltaic sediments. Although the coast is under low tidal effect and low height waves, results showed that more than one-third of the 1000 km long coast is severely vulnerable to sea-level rise. Unfortunately, the area under high vulnerability to sea-level rise comprises the densely populated Nile Delta coast. National actions should be implemented to safeguard the entire coast at the threatened locations.

  2. Environmental conflicts and women's vulnerability in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based violence since environmental conflicts increase women's vulnerability ... Those who use violence may bully, intimidate, verbally insult, sexually ..... schools: Case studies from the Durban Metropolitan Area, M.A. dissertation submitted to.

  3. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android


    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira; Anderson F. P. dos Santos; Ricardo Choren


    The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating ...

  4. Smoking among vulnerable populations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kilibarda


    Smoking rates are exceptionally high among vulnerable populations in all age groups, among males and females. There is a concern that smoking prevention and cessation are not prioritized for these populations and ignoring tobacco use in these populations will worsen their already vulnerable health and social position due to the long-term health effects of smoking. Development and implementation of tailored individual and social network-level interventions are needed.

  5. Measuring populations' vulnerabilities for famine and food security interventions: the case of Ethiopia's Chronic Vulnerability Index. (United States)

    Burg, Jericho


    The concept of vulnerability has become an important part of food security analyses since the 1980s. It is seen as having two sides: exposure to external hazards; and an inability to cope with those shocks, attributed to social, political, and economic factors. Numerous attempts have been made to construct models to determine levels of vulnerability among populations. This paper analyses one such attempt, the Chronic Vulnerability Index (CVI), developed to measure levels of vulnerability to food insecurity in Ethiopia. The example of the CVI reveals many of the difficulties associated with producing a basic model of vulnerability that can be used in disaster mitigation. Ultimately, the CVI assumes that vulnerability is a linear, additive phenomenon with discrete causes and effects and fails to capture interactions between hazards and the human systems that produce and complicate them. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternatives to the CVI.

  6. Characteristics and practices of Traditional Chinese Medicine retail shops in London, UK: A cross-sectional study using an observational approach. (United States)

    Teng, Lida; Shaw, Debbie; Barnes, Joanne


    (133/794, 16.8%); obstetrics, gynaecology, and urinary-tract disorders (122/794, 15.4%); skin (102/794, 12.9%); gastrointestinal system (62/794, 7.8%). Specific conditions/uses that were frequently promoted included eczema (19/23 shops, 82.6%), arthritis (18/23, 78.3%), acne (17/23, 73.9%), obesity/weight loss/slimming (17/23, 73.9%) and psoriasis (17/23, 73.9%). Claimed conditions/uses included some serious medical conditions (e.g. diabetes, cancer and hypertension) and those focusing on vulnerable groups (e.g. children's diseases and pregnancy treatments). TCM shops in London, UK, typically displayed names of a wide range of medical conditions/uses for TCMs using readily understandable medical terms, implying TCM can be used to prevent or treat these conditions. However, many of these advertisements did not comply with UK regulations on medical claims for herbal medicines. Future studies should explore how these advertisements influence consumers' decisions to access TCM in the UK, practices of TCM shop staff towards the supply of TCMs in the UK, and what are the health implications at the individual and population levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Close strangers or strange friends?: the London Olympics and Anglo-Norwegian sports relations in a historical perspective


    Goksøyr, Matti


    This article studies similarities and disparities between the two nations England and Norway as they could be observed before and during the London 2012 Olympics, and discuss them in the historical perspective of geopolitical and sportive relations. The main perspective is how these relations have been seen and experienced from Norway. The article also studies whether the London Olympics of 2012 did present new forms of relationships between the two geographical neighbours. The article discus...

  8. Population genomics of cardiometabolic traits: design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Shah

    Full Text Available Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array (Metabochip incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1 fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2 precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3 investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4 use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies.

  9. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco (United States)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen


    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  10. Identifying socio-demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities in a diverse London community: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatch Stephani L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responses to public health need require information on the distribution of mental and physical ill health by demographic and socioeconomic factors at the local community level. Methods The South East London Community Health (SELCoH study is a community psychiatric and physical morbidity survey. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face computer assisted interviews with 1698 adults aged 16 years and over, from 1076 randomly selected private households in two south London boroughs. We compared the prevalence of common mental disorders, hazardous alcohol use, long standing illness and general physical health by demographic and socioeconomic indicators. Unadjusted and models adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic indicators are presented for all logistic regression models. Results Of those in the sample, 24.2% reported common mental disorder and 44.9% reported having a long standing illness, with 15.7% reporting hazardous alcohol consumption and 19.2% rating their health as fair or poor. The pattern of indicators identifying health inequalities for common mental disorder, poor general health and having a long term illness is similar; individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have poorer health and physical health worsens as age increases for all groups. The prevalence of poor health outcomes by ethnic group suggests that there are important differences between groups, particularly for common mental disorder and poor general health. Higher socioeconomic status was protective for common mental disorder, fair or poor health and long standing illness, but those with higher socioeconomic status reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. The proportion of participants who met the criteria for common mental disorder with co-occurring functional limitations was similar or greater to those with poor physical health. Conclusions Health service providers and policy makers should prioritise high risk, socially defined

  11. London Calling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Lisbeth Rieshøj


    The above contribution appears in Down The Block: An Anthology of City Life; available at In this anthology, new authors and bloggers react to life in cities throughout the world. With a foreword by Mary Beard, Cambridge University Professor and Times Literary...... Supplement Editor....

  12. analysis and mapping of climate change risk and vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    to climate change and, thereby identify vulnerable hotspots. A biophysical and socio-economic indicator based integrated vulnerability assessment technique was used to map climate change vulnerability. Indicators were generated and analysed under three components of vulnerability, namely exposure, sensitivity and ...

  13. Windows Server 2012 vulnerabilities and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. López


    Full Text Available This investigation analyses the history of the vulnerabilities of the base system Windows Server 2012 highlighting the most critic vulnerabilities given every 4 months since its creation until the current date of the research. It was organized by the type of vulnerabilities based on the classification of the NIST. Next, given the official vulnerabilities of the system, the authors show how a critical vulnerability is treated by Microsoft in order to countermeasure the security flaw. Then, the authors present the recommended security approaches for Windows Server 2012, which focus on the baseline software given by Microsoft, update, patch and change management, hardening practices and the application of Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS. AD RMS is considered as an important feature since it is able to protect the system even though it is compromised using access lists at a document level. Finally, the investigation of the state of the art related to the security of Windows Server 2012 shows an analysis of solutions given by third parties vendors, which offer security products to secure the base system objective of this study. The recommended solution given by the authors present the security vendor Symantec with its successful features and also characteristics that the authors considered that may have to be improved in future versions of the security solution.

  14. Vulnerability synthetic indices: a literature integrative review. (United States)

    Schumann, Lívia Rejane Miguel Amaral; Schumann, Lívia Amaral; Moura, Leides Baroso Azevedo


    The concept of vulnerability is delimited by dynamic social and multigenerational processes involving at least three dimensions: exposure to risk trajectories, internal and external capabilities of reaction and possibilities of adaptation based on both the intensity of risk and the resilience of people. In order to identify and describe the synthetic indices of vulnerability, there was an integrative literature review. We consulted free access articles indexed in the following databases: BioMed, Bireme, PubMed, Reldalyc, SciELO and Web of Science; and we used controlled descriptors in English and Portuguese for all time slots available with selection and analysis of 47 studies that reported results of 23 synthetic indices of vulnerability. The results showed that the synthetic indices of vulnerability address four themes: social determinants of health; environmental and climatic conditions; family and course of life; territories and specific geographic areas. It was concluded that the definition of the components and indicators, as well as the methodologies adopted for the construction of synthetic indices need to be evaluated by means of the limitations and advantages of reporting the vulnerability through summary measures in policy formulation and decision-making aimed at human development.

  15. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment (United States)

    Maria, Rizka


    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small–moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  16. Modelling coastal vulnerability : Design and evaluation of a vulnerability model for tropical storms and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.


    This resarch thesis focuses on vulnerability of societies in low lying coastal and deltaic environments to tropical cyclonic storms and floods. Models that explore vulnerability under various planned and unplanned conditions hardly exist. Within the Andhra Pradesh Cyclone Hazard Mitigation Project

  17. Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya. (United States)

    Ochola, Samuel O; Eitel, Bernhard; Olago, Daniel O


    This paper assesses the vulnerability of schools to floods in the Nyando River catchment (3,600 km(2)) in western Kenya and identifies measures needed to reduce this vulnerability. It surveys 130 schools in the lower reaches, where flooding is a recurrent phenomenon. Of the primary schools assessed, 40% were vulnerable, 48% were marginally vulnerable and 12% were not vulnerable. Of the secondary schools, 8% were vulnerable, 73% were marginally vulnerable and 19% were not vulnerable. Vulnerability to floods is due to a lack of funds, poor building standards, local topography, soil types and inadequate drainage. The Constituencies Development Fund (CDF), established in 2003, provides financial support to cover school construction and reconstruction costs; CDF Committees are expected to adopt school building standards. In an effort to promote safe and resilient construction and retrofitting to withstand floods, this paper presents vulnerability reduction strategies and recommendations for incorporating minimum standards in the on-going Primary School Infrastructure Programme Design.

  18. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  19. Life and death of the people of London: a historical GIS of Charles Booth's inquiry. (United States)

    Orford, Scott; Dorling, Danny; Mitchell, Richard; Shaw, Mary; Smith, George Davey


    Social reformer Charles Booth undertook a massive survey into the social and economic conditions of the people of London at the end of the 19th century. An important innovation of his Inquiry was the construction of large, detailed maps displaying social class of inner London on a street-by-street basis. These provide a detailed and vivid picture of the geography of poverty and affluence at this time. These maps have been digitised, georeferenced and linked to contemporary ward boundaries allowing Booth's measurement of social class to be matched to the measurement of social class in the 1991 census of population and standardised mortality ratios derived for all causes of death in the survey area between 1991 and 1995. The social class data were used to derive an index of relative poverty for both time periods and a comparison of the geographies of relative poverty and their relationship with contemporary mortality was made. Although the overall standard of living had increased, the geography of poverty at the end of the 19th century was very similar to that at the end of the 20th century. Moreover, the geography of all causes of death for people over the age of 65 was more strongly related to the geography of poverty in the late 19th century than contemporary patterns of poverty. This relationship was also true for mortality for specific diseases that are related to deprivation in early life. The paper concludes that the spatial patterns of poverty in inner London are extremely robust and a century of change has failed to disrupt it.

  20. Evaluating Force-Field London Dispersion Coefficients Using the Exchange-Hole Dipole Moment Model. (United States)

    Mohebifar, Mohamad; Johnson, Erin R; Rowley, Christopher N


    London dispersion interactions play an integral role in materials science and biophysics. Force fields for atomistic molecular simulations typically represent dispersion interactions by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential using empirically determined parameters. These parameters are generally underdetermined, and there is no straightforward way to test if they are physically realistic. Alternatively, the exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) model from density-functional theory predicts atomic and molecular London dispersion coefficients from first principles, providing an innovative strategy to validate the dispersion terms of molecular-mechanical force fields. In this work, the XDM model was used to obtain the London dispersion coefficients of 88 organic molecules relevant to biochemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry and the values compared with those derived from the Lennard-Jones parameters of the CGenFF, GAFF, OPLS, and Drude polarizable force fields. The molecular dispersion coefficients for the CGenFF, GAFF, and OPLS models are systematically higher than the XDM-calculated values by a factor of roughly 1.5, likely due to neglect of higher order dispersion terms and premature truncation of the dispersion-energy summation. The XDM dispersion coefficients span a large range for some molecular-mechanical atom types, suggesting an unrecognized source of error in force-field models, which assume that atoms of the same type have the same dispersion interactions. Agreement with the XDM dispersion coefficients is even poorer for the Drude polarizable force field. Popular water models were also examined, and TIP3P was found to have dispersion coefficients similar to the experimental and XDM references, although other models employ anomalously high values. Finally, XDM-derived dispersion coefficients were used to parametrize molecular-mechanical force fields for five liquids-benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, n-pentane, and n-hexane-which resulted in improved accuracy in the

  1. Use of supplements by Japanese elite athletes for the 2012 Olympic Games in London. (United States)

    Sato, Akiko; Kamei, Akiko; Kamihigashi, Etsuko; Dohi, Michiko; Akama, Takao; Kawahara, Takashi


    To investigate supplement use among Japanese elite athletes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study using individual interviews during athletes' medical evaluations. One to 5 months before the Olympic Games in 2012, London, United Kingdom. Five hundred fifty-two Japanese athletes for the London Games, including candidates. Sex, sports, supplement category, and participation. Whether athletes used supplements, what products were used, the frequency and purposes of use, and from what sources athletes received information on supplements. All 552 athletes were interviewed by pharmacists regarding supplement use and agreed to the survey. Of them, 452 (81.9%) used 1 or more supplement products in the year before the study; a total of 952 different products (mean = 1.7, SD = 1.4) were used. The most commonly used supplement was amino acids (310 athletes; 56.2%), and 358 (38.7%) of the total products were amino acids. Of the athletes, 241 (43.7%) took at least 1 supplement daily, and of the supplements, 457 (49.4%) were taken daily. The most common purpose for supplement use was recovery from fatigue-327 (59.2%) athletes chose this answer, and 486 (52.5%) products were used for this purpose. Finally, regarding athletes' information sources on supplements, coaches, managers, and trainers were the most frequent advisors (275 athletes, 49.8%; 466 products, 50.4%). The results revealed widespread supplement use among Japanese elite athletes for the London Olympic Games. Education system was required not only for athletes but also for athletes' entourage, such as coaches, managers, trainers, and supplement companies. This study will provide basic data for establishing an education system that would better guide athletes' use of supplements.

  2. Creativity and psychopathology: a shared vulnerability model. (United States)

    Carson, Shelley H


    Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz


    Full Text Available Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people’s life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time

  4. Mapping Regional Drought Vulnerability: a Case Study (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Zeynolabedin, A.; Olyaei, M. A.


    Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people's life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time series. Vulnerabilities

  5. Handling Undiscovered Vulnerabilities Using a Provenance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Anantharaj


    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on a novel approach at preventing exploits from vulnerabilities which remain uncovered during the testing phase of a system's development lifecycle. The combination of predicted usage patterns, a Provenance network model and a clustering methodology provide a secure failure mechanism for both known and unknown security issues within the system. The paper also addresses of the requisite supporting infrastructure and deployment issues related to the model. The idea is to approach the growing problem of newer and more complex vulnerabilities in an ever more intricate and vast set of systems using a generic software state mapping procedure for recognizable (and thus the complementary unrecognizable patterns to judge the stability at each step in an operation sequence. Thus abstracting these vulnerabilities at a higher level provides us a generic technique to classify and handle such concerns in the future and in turn prevent exploits before a corrective patch is released.

  6. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben


    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... 0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest...

  7. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F


    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... and 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  8. Reflexivity and vulnerability in collaborative knowledge production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    -reports of positive learning outcomes and fails to illuminate how power is always at play leaving certain participants exposed and potentially vulnerable (Fenwick, 2008). As such, it remains unclear how power relations unfold in moment-by-moment interactions including how the researcher’s position matters...... because their voices are subjugated and they appear to be vulnerable. The extent of this development in the peer interactions and the reproductive nature of the knowledge produced were unexpected. In other words we – the researchers – became struck in the analytical process. In the final part of the paper......, we discuss how the reproduction of power relations invokes ethical concerns and raises critical perspectives on the undeniable common good of collaborative research in which participants’ vulnerability may be overlooked in potentially reflexive moments (Nordentoft and Kappel, 2011). Still, we find...

  9. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis (United States)

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin


    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  10. A movement of their own: Voices of young feminist activists in the London Feminist Network


    Mackay, F.


    A so-called “resurgence” of feminist activism in the UK is currently being reported by journalists, commentators and academics, with young women seemingly at the fore. This is remarkable given the reported backlash against feminism and the widely held view of young people in general, and young \\ud women in particular, as politically apathetic.In this qualitative study I focus on eight young feminist activists who arguably form part of this resurgence. \\ud All are members of the London Feminis...

  11. Your name is not good enough: introducing the ORCID researcher identifier at Imperial College London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Reimer


    Full Text Available The ORCID researcher identifier ensures that research outputs can always reliably be traced back to their authors. ORCID also makes it possible to automate the sharing of research information, thereby increasing data quality, reducing duplication of effort for academics and saving institutions money. In 2014, Imperial College London created ORCID identifiers (iDs for academic and research staff. This article discusses the implementation project in the context of the role of ORCID in the global scholarly communications system. It shows how ORCID can be used to automate reporting, help with research data publication and support open access (OA.

  12. Report of the Implementation of Fight for Peace in East London 2007- 08


    Madgin, Rebecca


    This study reports on the findings from the implementation of Fight for Peace in East\\ud London between October 2007 and March 2008. Fight for Peace (FFP) aimed to offer ‘real alternatives for children and youth to crime, drug trafficking and violence via social inclusion through sports, education, access to the formal work market, the promotion of a culture of peace and building youth leaders’. The project’s methodology was based on a holistic 5 pillar approach: 1. Boxing and Martial arts; 2...

  13. Optimization of effective atom centered potentials for london dispersion forces in density functional theory. (United States)

    von Lilienfeld, O Anatole; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Sebastiani, Daniel


    We add an effective atom-centered nonlocal term to the exchange-correlation potential in order to cure the lack of London dispersion forces in standard density functional theory. Calibration of this long-range correction is performed using density functional perturbation theory and an arbitrary reference. Without any prior assignment of types and structures of molecular fragments, our corrected generalized gradient approximation density functional theory calculations yield correct equilibrium geometries and dissociation energies of argon-argon, benzene-benzene, graphite-graphite, and argon-benzene complexes.

  14. The “School Foodshed”: schools and fast-food outlets in a London borough


    Caraher, M.; Lloyd, S; Madelin, T.


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the location of fast-food outlets around secondary schools and the influence of fast-food availability on the food choices of school children in an inner-London borough. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A number of methods including: mapping of outlets relative to schools; sampling food; gathering data on secondary school food policies; observing food behaviour in fast food outlets and focus groups with young people. Findings were fed bac...

  15. Sustainable cities: A research by McKinsey and Siemens on sustainable development in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denig, Stefan


    The research Sustainable Urban Infrastructure conducted by McKinsey and Company and Siemens assesses technological levers of varying effectiveness, and with different cost implications, which can all contribute to greater environmental sustainability in cities, drawing in particular on the example of London. It's the first comprehensive research focusing on technological and economic implications of a city's infrastructure management in the fields of energy, buildings and transportation. The encouraging message is that many of the levers to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in urban agglomerations not only help protect the environment, but also pay back from an economic point of view.

  16. Jinn, psychiatry and contested notions of misfortune among east London Bangladeshis. (United States)

    Dein, Simon; Alexander, Malcolm; Napier, A David


    This study examines understandings of misfortune among east London Bangladeshis, particularly with respect to the role of jinn spirits. It reports on the findings of ethnographic interviews among 40 members of this community. Appeal to jinn explanations is commonplace at times of psychological disturbance and unexplained physical symptoms. Resort to traditional healers is frequent. These explanations are contested by different groups in the community. The findings are examined within the context of a discourse on tradition and modernity with particular emphasis on Islam and modernity.

  17. London relation and fluxoid quantization for monopole currents in U(1) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Vandana; Browne, Dana A; 10.1103/PhysRevD.47.1715


    We explore the analogy between quark confinement and the Meissner effect in superconductors. We measure the response of color-magnetic "supercurrents" from Dirac magnetic monopoles to the presence of a static quark-antiquark pair in four dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory. Our results indicate that in the confined phase these currents screen the color-electric flux due to the quarks in an electric analogy of the Meisner effect. We show that U(1) lattice guage theory obeys both a dual London equation and an electric fluxoid quantization condition.

  18. The effect of the London-van der Waals dispersion force on interline heat transfer (United States)

    Wayner, P. C., Jr.


    A theoretical procedure to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the interline region (junction of liquid-solid-vapor) from the macroscopic optical and thermophysical properties of the system is outlined. The analysis is based on the premise that the interline transport processes are controlled by the London-van der Waals dispersion force between condensed phases (solid and liquid). Numerical values of the dispersion constant are presented. The procedure is used to compare the relative size of the interline heat sink of various systems using a constant heat flux mode. This solution demonstrates the importance of the interline heat flow number, which is evaluated for various systems.

  19. The trypanosomatid evolution workshop London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Jamie


    Full Text Available The trypanosome evolution workshop, a joint meeting of the University of Exeter and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, focused on topics relating to trypanosomatid and vector evolution. The meeting, sponsored by The Wellcome Trust, The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Disease of World Health Organization and the British Section of the Society of Protozoologists, brought together an international group of experts who presented papers on a wide range of topics including parasite and vector phylogenies, molecular methodology and relevant biogeographical data.

  20. Length of migration and eating habits of Portuguese university students living in London, United Kingdom. (United States)

    Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Caraher, Martin


    Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment.