WorldWideScience

Sample records for heating system design

  1. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  2. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral....... The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis...... of the tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed....

  3. Stirling engine external heat system design with heat pipe heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godett, Ted M.; Ziph, Benjamin

    1986-01-01

    This final report presents the conceptual design of a liquid fueled external heating system (EHS) and the preliminary design of a heat pipe heater for the STM-4120 Stirling cycle engine, to meet the Air Force mobile electric power (MEP) requirement for units in the range of 20 to 60 kW. The EHS design had the following constraints: (1) Packaging requirements limited the overall system dimensions to about 330 mm x 250 mm x 100 mm; (2) Heat flux to the sodium heat pipe evaporator was limited to an average of 100 kW/m and a maximum of 550 kW/m based on previous experience; and (3) The heat pipe operating temperature was specified to be 800 C based on heat input requirements of the STM4-120. An analysis code was developed to optimize the EHS performance parameters and an analytical development of the sodium heat pipe heater was performed; both are presented and discussed. In addition, construction techniques were evaluated and scale model heat pipe testing performed.

  4. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  5. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  6. Design and performance of a thermosiphon heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Mulaweh, H.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University at Fort Wayne, 2101 E. Coliseum Blvd., Fort Wayne, IN 46805 (United States)

    2006-04-01

    The design and performance of a thermosiphon heat recovery system that recovers heat rejected from an air conditioner is described by presenting some experimental test data. This paper presents an experimental setup that was designed, developed, and constructed to help the undergraduate mechanical engineering students in understanding the basic heat transfer processes by utilizing real life applications such as using waste heat from a window type air conditioner to heat water for residential and commercial use. Heat recovery from an air conditioner by thermosiphon is attractive because it eliminates the need for a circulating pump. Results indicate that the design of the thermosiphon heat recovery system was a success. [Author].

  7. Performance Analysis and Design of Liquid Based Solar Heating System

    OpenAIRE

    kerme, Esa; Kaneesamkandi, Zakariya

    2015-01-01

    Designing of a solar heating system involves appropriate sizing of different components based on predicted solar insolation and heating load demand. But, it is a complex problem due to unpredictable weather data components. A number of design methods are available for solar heating systems. In this paper, f-chart method has been used due to its simplified design procedure, analysis and low cost in selecting the sizes and type of solar collectors and in estimating the annual thermal performanc...

  8. Solar heating system final design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  9. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  10. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific ata other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items in this report include systeem candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and coolin systems for installation and operational test. Two-heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences (SFR), Multi-Family Residences (MFR) and commercial applications.

  11. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  12. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A summary is presented of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items in this report include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences (SFR), Multiple-Family Residences (MFR), and commerical applications.

  13. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  14. Optimal Design of Piping Systems for District Heating,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    First, a method for determining the optimal size for a single pipe segment in a district heating system is developed. The method is general enough to...excessive throttling losses in the consumer’s control valves. The method developed here should be feasible for designing the piping networks for district ... heating systems of moderate size, and its major advantage is its flexibility. (MM)

  15. Optimal design of solar water heating systems | Alemu | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pe1formance of the preliminary design is predicted by using either/chart method or by translate it simulation of solar heating system. Often, optimization is done off-line after correlating the annual contribution of solar energy to the heating load and collector area using simulation resu!ts by analytical methods. In this work ...

  16. Thermochemical heat storage - system design issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Trausel, F.; Finck, C.J.; Vliet, L.D. van; Cuypers, R.

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical materials (TCMs) are a promising solution for seasonal heat storage, providing the possibility to store excess solar energy from the warm season for later use during the cold season, and with that all year long sustainable energy. With our fixed bed, vacuum reactors using zeolite as

  17. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

  18. Designs for maximum utilization of district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.L.

    1978-01-23

    The sensitivities of district heating costs to various design parameters are explored. Some recent studies evaluating the economics of district heating are briefly summarized. The bases and methods for the cost and design sensitivity studies are outlined. Cost and design relationships are examined. These relationships are developed as part of a design study for a city with a population of 175,000. Use of a specific city as a basis for these studies shows the importance of site specific factors in the development of the best district heating design for the city. The problems of utilizing the delivered water are briefly reviewed. Some alternatives system designs are compared in terms of economics, energy efficiency, and their potential for widespread application. (MHR)

  19. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  20. Engineering design aspects of the heat-pipe power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, B. M.; Houts, M. G.; Poston, D. I.; Berte, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Heat-pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space power system designed at Los Alamos that can provide up to 1,000 kWt for many space nuclear applications. The design of the reactor is simple, modular, and adaptable. The basic design allows for the use of a variety of power conversion systems and reactor materials (including the fuel, clad, and heat pipes). This paper describes a project that was undertaken to develop a database supporting many engineering aspects of the HPS design. The specific tasks discussed in this paper are: the development of an HPS materials database, the creation of finite element models that will allow a wide variety of investigations, and the verification of past calculations.

  1. Engineering design aspects of the heat-pipe power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capell, B.M.; Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Berte, M.

    1997-10-01

    The Heat-pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space power system designed at Los Alamos that can provide up to 1,000 kWt for many space nuclear applications. The design of the reactor is simple, modular, and adaptable. The basic design allows for the use of a variety of power conversion systems and reactor materials (including the fuel, clad, and heat pipes). This paper describes a project that was undertaken to develop a database supporting many engineering aspects of the HPS design. The specific tasks discussed in this paper are: the development of an HPS materials database, the creation of finite element models that will allow a wide variety of investigations, and the verification of past calculations.

  2. Optimization-based design of waste heat recovery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano

    product and process system in terms of efficiency and sustainability. Today, some of the most important chemical product design problems are solvents and working fluids. Solvents are a vital part in the recovery of valuable resources in separation processes or waste water treatment. Working fluids....../or selected. This dissertation focuses on the chemical product and process systems used for waste heat recovery. Here, chemical products are working fluids, which are under continuous development and screening to fulfill regulatory environmental protection and safe operation requirements. Furthermore......, for the recovery of low-grade waste heat, new fluids and processes are needed to make the recovery technically and economically feasible. As the chemical product is influential in the design of the process system, the design of novel chemical products must be considered with the process system. Currently, state...

  3. Design of a heating system for plasma flux simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fallas-Chinchilla, Juan Carlos; Fallas-Agüero, Manuel; Del Valle-Gamboa, Juan Ignacio; Fonseca-Flores, Luis Diego

    2013-01-01

    VASIMR® plasma rocket and its possible applications are promoting innovations in the space propulsion area. Ad Astra Rocket Company (VASIMR® designer) constantly needs instruments to evaluate the plasma engine and its components, in order to acquire critical information to warrant a safe operation. This study describes the design and construction of a heating system, to simulate a plasma flux within a ceramic tube. This part of the engine plays a critical role, transporting a gas to ionize at...

  4. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  5. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  6. System design package for solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    This package contains information used to evaluate the design of Solaron's solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling and back-up heating (when solar energy is not available). Included in the package are such items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A Solaron solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  7. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  8. DESIGN OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECUPERATION FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O' Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800°C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  9. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development: quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-11

    This program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for single-family residences, multiple-family residences and commercial applications. This document describes the progress of the program during the fifth program quarter, 1 July 1977 to 30 September 1977.

  10. Design and Evaluation of a Photovoltaic/Thermal-Assisted Heat Pump Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Liang Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, modelling and performance evaluation of a photovoltaic/thermal-assisted heat pump water heating (PVTA-HPWH system. The cooling effect of a refrigerant simultaneously enhances the PVT efficiency and effectively improves the coefficient of performance (COP of the HPWH system. The proposed model was built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment by considering the reciprocal energy exchange between a PVT evaporator and a HPWH system. In addition, the power consumption needs of the HPWH are provided by the PV electricity using a model-based control methodology. System performance is evaluated through a real field test. The results have demonstrated the power autarchy of the proposed PVTA-HPWH system with better PVT efficiency and COP. In addition, the good agreement between the model simulation and the experimental measurements demonstrate the proposed model with sufficient confidence.

  11. Study on the System Design of a Solar Assisted Ground Heat Pump System Using Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of hybrid systems using multiple heat sources in buildings to ensure a stable energy supply and improve the system performance has gained attention. Among them, a heat pump system using both solar and ground heat was developed and various system configurations have been introduced. However, establishing a suitable design method for the solar-assisted ground heat pump (SAGHP system including a thermal storage tank is complicated and there are few quantitative studies on the detailed system configurations. Therefore, this study developed three SAGHP system design methods considering the design factors focused on the thermal storage tank. Using dynamic energy simulation code (TRNSYS 17, individual performance analysis models were developed and long-term quantitative analysis was carried out to suggest optimum design and operation methods. As a result, it was found that SYSTEM 2 which is a hybrid system with heat storage tank for only a solar system showed the highest average heat source temperature of 14.81 °C, which is about 11 °C higher than minimum temperature in SYSTEM 3. Furthermore, the best coefficient of performance (COP values of heat pump and system were 5.23 and 4.32 in SYSYEM 2, using high and stable solar heat from a thermal storage tank. Moreover, this paper considered five different geographical and climatic locations and the SAGHP system worked efficiently in having high solar radiation and cool climate zones and the system COP was 4.51 in the case of Winnipeg (Canada where the highest heating demand is required.

  12. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select...... the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used....... The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters are varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each...

  13. Design for micro-combined cooling, heating and power systems stirling engines and renewable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Design for Micro-Combined Cooling, Heating & Power Systems’ provides a manual for the technical and structural design of systems for supplying decentralised energy in residential buildings. It presents the micro-combined cooling, heating & power systems Stirling engines & renewable energy sources (mCCHP-SE-RES) systems in an accessible manner both for the public at large, and for professionals who conceive, design or commercialise such systems or their components.  The high performance levels of these systems are demonstrated within the final chapter by the results of an experiment in which a house is equipped with a mCCHP-SE-RES system. The reader is also familiarized with the conceptual, technical and legal aspects of modern domestic energy systems; the components that constitute these systems; and advanced algorithms for achieving the structural and technical design of such systems. In residential buildings, satisfying demands of durable development has gradually evolved from necessity to...

  14. The design of integrated cooling processes in district heating systems; Kylprocessers design i fjaerrvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Viktoria [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology; Setterwall, Fredrik [Fredrik Setterwall Konsult AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Andersson, Mikael [AB Berglunds Rostfria, Boden (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results from an investigation regarding the design of integrated cooling processes in district heating systems. Increasing investment levels in district heating networks combined with expanding comfort cooling demand makes heat-driven cooling processes extremely interesting. This solution has a great potential tbe cost effective. At the same time, the problem with the environmentally harmful refrigerants used in conventional vapor compression chillers is avoided. In many cases it is beneficial for the district heating provider to lower the supply and/or return temperatures in the network, at least for part of the year. In combined heat and power generation (CHP) a lower supply temperature means that the electricity yield increases. In this context, it is important to consider that conventional absorption chillers are designed to run on 120 deg C heat. However,they can work on heat with temperature as low as 80 deg C if a chiller with a large enough generator area is used, although this has a negative impact on the dimensions of other components and leads ta lower coefficient of performance. For these reasons low temperature driven absorption chillers have been developed in recent years. Two concepts (from different manufacturers) are now available on the market. Factors that affect the choice of district heat-integrated cooling processes have been investigated in this study. Key system aspects that embody a holistic view on the production of heating, cooling and power are especially highlighted. Important tasks have been: To quantify the following effects on the design of an integrated cooling process: the temperatures in the district heating net, available cooling water temperature (to cool the absorber and condenser), electricity price, and the composition of the energy system (e.g. fuel and CHP or power-only mode of operation). To analyze the potential of the low temperature driven chiller concept with regards to energy and cost

  15. Efficiency and cost analysis of a designed in-line water heating system compared to a conventional water heating system in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, Rupert; Le Roux, Estie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors compares the efficiency and cost of a designed in-line water heating system with a conventional water heating system (geyser) in South Africa. The paper provides an overview on water heating systems and heating elements and provides the typical water consumption required by an average household in South Africa. A summary on the design of the in-line water heating system together with a system cost analysis is provided. The designed in-line water heating system ta...

  16. Sensitivity and Design of a Transcritical CO2 Cooling and Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Chan; Veje, Christian; Willatzen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical design study of a transcritical CO2 heat pump system for simultaneous cooling and heating. The heat pump model consists of the components: compressor, internal heat exchanger, valve, evaporator and gas cooler. The evaporator and the gas cooler are both water...... coupled intended for district cooling and heating respectively. Initially a thermodynamic cycle analysis has been done on the system followed by a heat transfer analysis of the heat exchangers using finite difference models. The main subject of this paper is an investigation of the effects that parameter...

  17. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM DESIGN DESCRIPTION FOR THE HEATING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM NO. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-12-05

    The Heating and Ventilation System provides the atmospheric conditions in FFTF as required to assure that plant objectives can be met in a safe and practical manner. Included are functions and design requirements, a physical description of the system, safety considerations, principles of operation, and maintenance principles.

  18. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This system design package for the Central Data Processing System consists of the Software Performance Specification, Hardware Performance Specification, Software Verification Plan, CDPS Development Program, Qualification and Acceptance Test Procedures, Qualification Test and Analysis Report, and Qualification and Acceptance Test Review. The Central Data Processing System, located at IBM's Federal System Division facility in Huntsville, Alabama, provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications.

  19. Feasibility and design studies for heat recovery from a refrigeration system with a Canopus heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, S.C.; Singh, M. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the feasibility of heat recovery from the condenser of a vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system through a Canopus heat exchanger (CHE) between the compressor and condenser components. The presence of the CHE makes it possible to recover the superheat of the discharged vapour and utilize it for increasing the temperature of the external fluid (water) removing heat from the condenser. The effects of the operating temperatures in the condenser and evaporator for different inlet water temperatures and mass flow rates on the heat recovery output and its distribution over the condenser and CHE (the fraction of the condenser heat available through the CHE), available outlet water temperature and heat recovery factor have all been studied and optimum operating parameters for feasible heat recovery have been ascertained. The parametric results obtained for different working fluids, such as R-22, R-12, R-717 and R-500, have been presented. It is found that, in general, a heat recovery factor of the order of 2.0 and 40% of condenser heat can be recovered through the Canopus heat exchanger for a typical set of operating conditions. (Author)

  20. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  1. Ocmulgee National Monument Visitor Center solar heating and cooling system design review data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    This document has been prepared as a part of the detailed design of the solar heating and cooling system to be installed at the Ocmulgee National Monument Visitor Center. It describes the 50 percent design review data for this site, and discusses the design approaches, system trade studies, subsystem design and development approach, solar collectors, preliminary specifications and other related information.

  2. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  3. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.

  4. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-12-22

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

  5. Design of RF Heat Therapy System Based on DS18B20 and FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Liangyu Su

    2014-01-01

    In the process of research and development of this subject, it compares the three major heat physics technology. According to the organizational characteristics of glioma, it uses radiofrequency capacitive heating method. For conventional temperature sensor’s interchangeability and unstable control method faults, it designed an implement RF heat treatment temperature field measure and temperature control system which use high precision digital temperature sensor DS18B20 and programmable logic...

  6. Design considerations for residential solar heating and cooling systems utilizing evacuated tube solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D. S.; Ward, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    As solar heating systems become a commercial reality, greater efforts are now being employed to incorporate solar cooling components in order to obtain a complete solar heating and cooling system, and thus take advantage of the cost-effectiveness of year-round use of the solar equipment. The solar heating and cooling system design presented incorporates design considerations which have been obtained from previous experimental efforts utilizing evacuated tube solar collectors. These advanced collectors are capable of significantly higher efficiencies, even at the higher temperatures required for solar cooling operation. Most of the considerations presented are based on the experience gained in the design and performance of the solar heating and cooling systems for CSU Solar Houses I through IV.

  7. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  8. Hydride heat pump. Volume I. Users manual for HYCSOS system design program. [HYCSOS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, R.; Moritz, P.

    1978-05-01

    A method for the design and costing of a metal hydride heat pump for residential use and a computer program, HYCSOS, which automates that method are described. The system analyzed is one in which a metal hydride heat pump can provide space heating and space cooling powered by energy from solar collectors and electric power generated from solar energy. The principles and basic design of the system are presented, and the computer program is described giving detailed design and performance equations used in the program. The operation of the program is explained, and a sample run is presented. This computer program is part of an effort to design, cost, and evaluate a hydride heat pump for residential use. The computer program is written in standard Fortran IV and was run on a CDC Cyber 74 and Cyber 174 computer. A listing of the program is included as an appendix. This report is Volume 1 of a two-volume document.

  9. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    The result of several years of analysis of Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power (DCS-CHP) systems is a design that is predicted to convert sunlight to heat at 8-10% solar-electric efficiency while simultaneously capturing ~60% of that initial sunlight as usable heat (at 100ºC). In contrast to similarly sized photovoltaic systems in the U.S. that cost ~$7.90/Watt of generator rated peak electrical output, in mass production the proposed collector and generator system sized a...

  10. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurns, John M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bäck, Harald [Sweco Industry AB, P.O. Box 286, 201 22 Malmö (Sweden); Gierow, Martin [Lunds Energikoncernen AB, P.O. Box 25, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  11. System design package for solar heating and cooling site data acquisition subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Site Data Acquisition Subsystem (SDAS) designed to collect data from sensors located on residential or commercial buildings using a solar heating and/or cooling system is described. It takes the data obtained from sensors located on the solar system, processes the data into suitable format, stores the data for a period of time, and provides the capability for either telephone retrieval by the central data processing system or manual retrieval of the data for transfer to a central site. The SDAS is also designed so that it will not degrade the operation of the solar heating/cooling system which it is monitoring.

  12. A Small-Sized HTGR System Design for Multiple Heat Applications for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Ohashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Japan Atomic Energy Agency has conducted a conceptual design of a 50 MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR for multiple heat applications, named HTR50S, with the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 750°C and 900°C. It is first-of-a-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system to be deployed in developing countries in the 2020s. The design concept of HTR50S is to satisfy the user requirements for multipurpose heat applications such as the district heating and process heat supply based on the steam turbine system and the demonstration of the power generation by helium gas turbine and the hydrogen production using the water splitting iodine-sulfur process, to upgrade its performance compared to that of HTTR without significant R&D utilizing the knowledge obtained by the HTTR design and operation, and to fulfill the high level of safety by utilizing the inherent features of HTGR and a passive decay heat removal system. The evaluation of technical feasibility shows that all design targets were satisfied by the design of each system and the preliminary safety analysis. This paper describes the conceptual design and the preliminary safety analysis of HTR50S.

  13. Optimal Design of a Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, the optimum design of thermoelectric car seat climate control (CSCC) is studied analytically in an attempt to achieve high system efficiency. Optimal design of a thermoelectric device (element length, cross-section area and number of thermocouples) is carried out using our newly developed optimization method based on the ideal thermoelectric equations and dimensional analysis to improve the performance of the thermoelectric device in terms of the heating/cooling power and the coefficient of performance (COP). Then, a new innovative system design is introduced which also includes the optimum input current for the initial (transient) startup warming and cooling before the car heating ventilation and air conditioner (HVAC) is active in the cabin. The air-to-air heat exchanger's configuration was taken into account to investigate the optimal design of the CSCC.

  14. Multicriteria optimization approach to design and operation of district heating supply system over its life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Piotr; Duzinkiewicz, Kazimierz; Grochowski, Michał

    2017-11-01

    District Heating (DH) systems are commonly supplied using local heat sources. Nowadays, modern insulation materials allow for effective and economically viable heat transportation over long distances (over 20 km). In the paper a method for optimized selection of design and operating parameters of long distance Heat Transportation System (HTS) is proposed. The method allows for evaluation of feasibility and effectivity of heat transportation from the considered heat sources. The optimized selection is formulated as multicriteria decision-making problem. The constraints for this problem include a static HTS model, allowing considerations of system life cycle, time variability and spatial topology. Thereby, variation of heat demand and ground temperature within the DH area, insulation and pipe aging and/or terrain elevation profile are taken into account in the decision-making process. The HTS construction costs, pumping power, and heat losses are considered as objective functions. Inner pipe diameter, insulation thickness, temperatures and pumping stations locations are optimized during the decision-making process. Moreover, the variants of pipe-laying e.g. one pipeline with the larger diameter or two with the smaller might be considered during the optimization. The analyzed optimization problem is multicriteria, hybrid and nonlinear. Because of such problem properties, the genetic solver was applied.

  15. Design of RF Heat Therapy System Based on DS18B20 and FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyu Su

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of research and development of this subject, it compares the three major heat physics technology. According to the organizational characteristics of glioma, it uses radiofrequency capacitive heating method. For conventional temperature sensor’s interchangeability and unstable control method faults, it designed an implement RF heat treatment temperature field measure and temperature control system which use high precision digital temperature sensor DS18B20 and programmable logic device FPGA. This system contains temperature setting, temperature display, control algorithm, the FPGA chip configuration, signal power amplifier and the control of DS18B20 function. Finally, this system is used for pork to record the temperature field of heating experiments of center, edge and surface temperature.

  16. Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.

  17. Preliminary design review package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-25

    This preliminary design review package, consisting of the Software Performance Specification, Hardware Performance Specification, and the Verification Plan for the Central Data Processing System (CDPS), was prepared by the IBM Corporation. The Central Data Processing System, located at IBM's FSD facility in Huntsville, Alabama, provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems at remote sites. These sites include residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications.

  18. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  19. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  20. System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

  1. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  2. Heat Exchanger Design Options and Tritium Transport Study for the VHTR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to consider heat exchanger options and tritium transport in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The heat exchanger options include types, arrangements, channel patterns in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE), coolant flow direction, and pipe configuration in shell-and-tube designs. Study considerations include: three types of heat exchanger designs (PCHE, shell-and-tube, and helical coil); single- and two-stage unit arrangements; counter-current and cross flow configurations; and straight pipes and U-tube designs in shell-and-tube type heat exchangers. Thermal designs and simple stress analyses were performed to estimate the heat exchanger options, and the Finite Element Method was applied for more detailed calculations, especially for PCHE designs. Results of the options study show that the PCHE design has the smallest volume and heat transfer area, resulting in the least tritium permeation and greatest cost savings. It is theoretically the most reliable mechanically, leading to a longer lifetime. The two-stage heat exchanger arrangement appears to be safer and more cost effective. The recommended separation temperature between first and second stages in a serial configuration is 800oC, at which the high temperature unit is about one-half the size of the total heat exchanger core volume. Based on simplified stress analyses, the high temperature unit will need to be replaced two or three times during the plant’s lifetime. Stress analysis results recommend the off-set channel pattern configuration for the PCHE because stress reduction was estimated at up to 50% in this configuration, resulting in a longer lifetime. The tritium transport study resulted in the development of a tritium behavior analysis code using the MATLAB Simulink code. In parallel, the THYTAN code, previously performed by Ohashi and Sherman (2007) on the Peach Bottom data, was revived

  3. Cost optimization of the design of CHCP (combined heat, cooling and power) systems under legal constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Miguel A.; Ramos, Jose C.; Serra, Luis M. [Group of Thermal Engineering and Energy Systems (GITSE), Aragon Institute of Energy Research (I3A), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, CPS de Ingenieros, Maria de Luna 3, 5018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Combined heat, cooling and power (CHCP) systems are interesting for the supply of different energy services in urban districts and in large buildings. CHCP systems utilize a fuel's energy to a greater extent, because the cogenerated heat can be used for heating in winter as well as for cooling in summer with an absorption refrigerator. The use of thermal energy storage (TES) provides the additional advantage of covering variable thermal demands while the production system operates continuously at nominal conditions. Thus, energy supply systems integrating the technologies of cogeneration, absorption refrigeration and thermal storage can provide substantial benefits from economic, energetic and environmental viewpoints. In this paper an optimization model is developed, using mixed integer linear programming (MILP), to determine the preliminary design of CHCP systems with thermal storage. The objective function to be minimized is the total annual cost. Taking into account the legal constraints imposed on cogeneration systems in Spain, the optimization model is applied to design a system providing energy services for a set of buildings constituted of 5000 apartments located in the city of Zaragoza (Spain). The effect of legal constraints in the design and operation of CHCP systems is highlighted in this study. (author)

  4. Preliminary design review package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Central Data Processing System (CDPS) is designed to transform the raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems. Software requirements for the CDPS are described. The programming standards to be used in development, documentation, and maintenance of the software are discussed along with the CDPS operations approach in support of daily data collection and processing.

  5. Tunable biasing magnetic field design of ferrite tuner for ICRF heating system in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manman, XU; Yuntao, SONG; Gen, CHEN; Yanping, ZHAO; Yuzhou, MAO; Guang, LIU; Zhen, PENG

    2017-11-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating has been used in tokamaks as one of the most successful auxiliary heating tools and has been adopted in the EAST. However, the antenna load will fluctuate with the change of plasma parameters in the ICRF heating process. To ensure the steady operation of the ICRF heating system in the EAST, fast ferrite tuner (FFT) has been carried out to achieve real-time impedance matching. For the requirements of the FFT impedance matching system, the magnet system of the ferrite tuner (FT) was designed by numerical simulations and experimental analysis, where the biasing magnetic circuit and alternating magnetic circuit were the key researched parts of the ferrite magnet. The integral design goal of the FT magnetic circuit is that DC bias magnetic field is 2000 Gs and alternating magnetic field is ±400 Gs. In the FTT, E-type magnetic circuit was adopted. Ferrite material is NdFeB with a thickness of 30 mm by setting the working point of NdFeB, and the ampere turn of excitation coil is 25 through the theoretical calculation and simulation analysis. The coil inductance to generate alternating magnetic field is about 7 mH. Eddy-current effect has been analyzed, while the magnetic field distribution has been measured by a Hall probe in the medium plane of the biasing magnet. Finally, the test results show the good performance of the biasing magnet satisfying the design and operating requirements of the FFT.

  6. Design of Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test Environment Chamber, Cooling System, and Radio Frequency Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Reid, R. S.; Stewart, E. T.; Davis, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipes will be experimentally tested to examine heat pipe aging. To support this evaluation, an environmental test chamber and a number of auxiliary subsystems are required. These subsystems include radio frequency (RF) power supplies/inductive coils, recirculation water coolant loops, and chamber gas conditioning. The heat pipes will be grouped, based on like power and gas mixture requirements, into three clusters of five units each, configured in a pentagonal arrangement. The highest powered heat pipe will be tested separately. Test chamber atmospheric purity is targeted at <0.3 ppb oxygen at an approximate operating pressure of 76 torr (.1.5 psia), maintained by active purification (oxygen level is comparable to a 10(exp -6) torr environment). Treated water will be used in two independent cooling circuits to remove .85 kW. One circuit will service the RF hardware while the other will maintain the heat pipe calorimetry. Initial procedures for the startup and operation of support systems have been identified. Each of these subsystems is outfitted with a variety of instrumentation, integrated with distributed real-time controllers and computers. A local area network provides communication between all devices. This data and control network continuously monitors the health of the test hardware, providing warning indicators followed by automatic shutdown should potentially damaging conditions develop. During hardware construction, a number of checkout tests.many making use of stainless steel prototype heat pipes that are already fabricated.will be required to verify operation.

  7. Design and performance simulation of a new solar continuous solid adsorption refrigeration and heating hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.J.; Wang, R.Z. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). Inst. of Refrigeration and Cryogenics

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, the design of a new continuous solid adsorption refrigeration and heating hybrid system driven by solar energy was proposed, and its performance simulation and analysis were made under the normal working conditions. Some performance parameters of the system were obtained, and the effects of water mass in water tank on the system's COP{sub cooling}, COP{sub heating} etc. were discussed. The simulation indicated: the system could refrigerate continuously with such a design, and at the conditions of that the daily sun-radiation is 21.6 MJ, the mean ambient temperature is 29.9{sup o}C, the evaporating temperature is 5{sup o}C, the heat-collecting coefficient of upper bed {eta}is 60%, and the heat-transfer coefficient between lower bed and ambient {alpha} is 2 W/m{sup 2} K, by day a hybrid system of single combined bed could furnish 30 kg hot water of 47.8{sup o}C, and had a mean COP{sub cooling} of 0.18, a mean COP{sub heating} of 0.34, a continuous mean SCP{sub a} of 17.6 W/kg, a continuous mean SCP{sub c} of 87.8 W/m{sup 2}, and a continuous mean SHP{sub c} of 165.9 W/m{sup 2}; and at night it had a cooling capacity of 0.26 MJ/kg of adsorbent, and a cooling capacity of 1.3 MJ/m{sup 2} of heat-collecting area. (Author)

  8. Design and evaluation of aircraft heat source systems for use with high-freezing point fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives were the design, performance and economic analyses of practical aircraft fuel heating systems that would permit the use of high freezing-point fuels on long-range aircraft. Two hypothetical hydrocarbon fuels with freezing points of -29 C and -18 C were used to represent the variation from current day jet fuels. A Boeing 747-200 with JT9D-7/7A engines was used as the baseline aircraft. A 9300 Km mission was used as the mission length from which the heat requirements to maintain the fuel above its freezing point was based.

  9. Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    Large shares of variable renewable energy (VRE), requires flexibility solutions are developed. Considerable flexibility potentials exist from large consumers, e.g. power-to-heat (P2H) in district heating (DH). However, the existing grid tariffs obliterate the price signals from the wholesale...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....

  10. Design of DC Conduction Pump for PGSFR Active Decay Heat Removal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dehee; Hong, Jonggan; Lee, Taeho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A DC conduction pump has been designed for the ADHRS of PGSFR. A VBA code developed by ANL was utilized to design and optimize the pump. The pump geometry dependent parameters were optimized to minimize the total current while meeting the design requirements. A double-C type dipole was employed to produce the calculated magnetic strength. Numerical simulations for the magnetic field strength and its distribution around the dipole and for the turbulent flow under magnetic force will be carried out. A Direct Current (DC) conduction Electromagnetic Pump (EMP) has been designed for Active Decay Heat Removal System (ADHRS) of PGSFR. The PGSFR has active as well as passive systems for the DHRS. The passive DHRS (PDHRS) works by natural circulation head and the ADHRS is driven by an EMP for the DHRS sodium loop and a blower for the finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger (FHX). An Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) can be also considered for the ADHRS, but DC conduction pump has been chosen. Selection basis of DHRS EMP is addressed and EMP design for single ADHRS loop with 1MWt heat removal capacity is introduced.

  11. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitler, J. D.; Culling, J. R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  12. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  13. In Situ Corrosion and Heat Loss Assessment of Two Nonstandard Underground Heat Distribution System Piping Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    of system integrity with re- spect to pressurization performance. As shown in the box at the bottom of Figure 35, a failure rate of 45.7% was...relative position disa - grees with field observations shown above. 4. Conduit Temperature: Supply and Return – Slightly warm to touch when first...cannot be and have not been in- spected or serviced since the system was installed. Furthermore, in many places the conduit system is out of compliance

  14. Design and Analysis of a Passive Heat Removal System for a Small Modular Reactor Using Star CCM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Raymond Michael

    Next generation nuclear power plants, specifically small modular reactor designs, are the best alternative to fossil fuels for power generation due to their power density and low carbon emissions and constant awareness of safety concerns. A promising safety feature of new designs is the removal of heat by passive systems in accident scenarios. The passive systems require no moving parts and no intervention by personnel. These systems must be accurately simulated for better understanding of the heat transport phenomena: natural convection cooling. Due to the fact that most work developing these passive heat removal systems are proprietary information, a passive heat removal system for a small modular reactor was designed and simulated in Star CCM+ to evaluate the capability of natural convective flows to remove decay heat in a shutdown scenario. The size and dimensions of the heat exchanger are based on the Westinghouse-SMR design. The design of the passive heat removal system was a hexagonal lattice heat exchanger. The final design was projected to dissipate the 56MW of decay heat at the rate simulated in Star CCM+.

  15. Design approaches for solar industrial process-heat systems: nontracking and line-focus collector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.; Dougherty, D.A.; Gee, R.C.; Masterson, P.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    The design methodology for solar industrial process heat systems is described, and an overview is given of the use of solar energy in industry. A way to determine whether solar energy makes sense for a particular application is described. The basic system configurations used to supply hot water or steam are discussed, and computer-generated graphs are supplied that allow the user to select a collector type. Detailed energy calculations are provided, including the effects of thermal losses and storage. The selection of subsystem components is described, and control systems, installation and start-up details, economics, and safety and environmental issues are explained. (LEW)

  16. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan

    2013-01-01

    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  17. Factors which affect heat rejection system design for lunar production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Swanson, Belinda

    This paper presents a radiation model of radiators on the surface moon. The driving factors on radiator area are the operating temperature and solar radiation. In addition, five types of radiators are examined. Heat pipe radiators are currently the best type available due to its light mass, high reliability and wide operating temperature range. However, liquid droplet radiators show tremendous potential because of its light mass, simple design and immunity to meteoroid puncture.

  18. Design, construction and evaluation of a system of forced solar water heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, E.; Bautista, G. A.; Ortiz, I. L.

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this project was to design, construct and evaluate a system of forced solar water heating for domestic consumption, at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana-Bucaramanga, Colombia; using solar energy. This is a totally system independent of the electrical grid and an important characteristic is the heating water doesn't mix with the consumption water. The system receives the solar radiation through a flat-plate collector, which it transmits the heat to the water that it flow with impulse from the centrifugal pump of 12VDC, the water circulates toward helical serpentine it is inside of the tank of the storage whose capacity is 100 liters of water. The temperature of the tank is regulated with a controller in such a way that de-energized the pump when it gets the temperature required. The performance thermal or efficiency of the system was evaluated like a relationship between the delivered energy to the water in storage tank and the incident energy in the flat-plate collector.

  19. Design and simulation of a hybrid ventilation system with earth-air heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athienitis, A.K.; Zhao, M. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Roy, M. [Martin Roy and Associes Group Conseil Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    A simulation study was conducted during the design phase of a new circus building in Montreal which includes a hybrid ventilation system through which fresh air is supplied from an earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE). The EAHE has the potential to satisfy the cooling needs of the building and can also be used to preheat fresh air, thereby satisfying one-third or more of the building's heating needs. Another feature of the building is that it uses displacement ventilation by which the air is supplied at low velocities through large diffusers behind the top level seats or under the seats. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to help size the supply and return units of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system, as well as the exhaust chimney. The primary objective of the CFD simulation was to determine the maximum velocity and temperature in the seated area to ensure thermal comfort. CFD simulation predictions were found to be in good agreement with preliminary measurements taken in the building. In order to monitor the operation of the system over the next year, the underground ducts were equipped with temperature sensors at several depths into the soil. The energy efficiency of the hybrid HVAC system will be assessed and the velocity and temperature distribution in the theatre will be examined under various operating and energy load conditions. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Heat transport modeling for the design of a low enthalpy open-loop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Piccinini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A case study of hydrogeological characterization and heat transport modeling for the design of a low enthalpy system in the Province of Treviso (Italy is here presented. It is an open loop system that pumps and re-injects groundwater from a confined aquifer of the high Veneto plain. This type of systems is the most efficient in terms of yield, but its construction is highly conditioned by the availability of groundwater resource and by the environmental laws related to groundwater exploitation. Groundwater flow modeling with MODFLOW 2005 led to a good aquifer parameters estimation, by means of the quantitative calibration of a pumping test made on the pumping well and an observation piezometer. Then, with the heat transport modeling with SEAWAT 4 the distance between pumping well and re-injecting well has been optimized, avoiding so the thermal feedback effect. The lack of sitespecific data for dispersivity parameters has been solved through a sensitivity analysis on the main dispersivity parameters of heat transport. Finally, in order to comply with the environmental laws, a long-term forecasting simulation (duration of 20 years has been set up in order to evaluate the open loop system thermal impact on the aquifer. The obtained results put in evidence that the design of low enthalpy systems strongly needs a detailed hydrogeological characterization of the aquifer interested by the pumping and that numerical modeling is the most effective tool in support of the definition of the optimal distance between pumping and re-injecting wells in the open loop systems.

  1. Detailed Design of the Safety Residual Heat Removal System and a Circulation Pump for the KIJANG Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyungi; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Kim, Seonghoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Primary cooling system (PCS) circulates the coolant from the reactor core to the heat exchanger. Therefore the heat generated from the fuel assembly in the reactor core is removed continuously. The PCS is designed based on the required thermal design flow rate of the reactor core, uncertainty of measuring instruments and the safe functions. Primary coolant is generally dumped into the pool and goes to the reactor core through the flow guide. The fission heat generated from the fuel assembly is transferred to the coolant, and then heated coolant goes to the PCS equipment room in order to remove the heat through the heat exchanger. SRHSR is designed based on the required flow rate and system constraints. Centrifugal pump of Case 1 with a non-dimensional specific speed of 0.97 [-] and specific diameter of 3.33 [-] is chosen as the SRHRS pump for the KJRR.

  2. Preliminary design of a solar heat receiver for a Brayton cycle space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, H. M.; Mueller, L. A.; Namkoong, D.

    1972-01-01

    The preliminary design of a solar heat receiver for use as a heat source for an earth-orbiting 11-kWe Brayton-cycle engine is described. The result was a cavity heat receiver having the shape of a frustum of a cone. The wall of the cone is formed by 48 heat-transfer tubes, each tube containing pockets of lithium fluoride for storing heat for as much as 38 minutes of fullpower operation in the shade. Doors are provided in order to dump excess heat especially during operation in orbits with full sun exposure. The receiver material is predominantly columbium - 1-percent-zironium (Cb-1Zr) alloy. Full-scale testing of three heat-transfer tubes for more than 2000 hours and 1250 sun-shade cycles verified the design concept.

  3. Design of a Solar Water Heating System for Kuti Hall, University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents an energy audit to determine daily heating load and energy eliminated by Solar Water Heating (SWH) system. Monthly average daily irradiance in plane of solar collector and Cold water temperature calculated from weather data collated to determine heating load. Mathematical model was developed ...

  4. Intelligent design of waste heat recovery systems using thermoelectric generators and optimization tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goudarzi, A. M.; Mozaffari, Ahmad; Samadian, Pendar

    2014-01-01

    design to maximize the electricity demand of Damavand power plant as the biggest thermal system in Middle East sited in Iran. The idea of designing is laid behind applying a number of thermoelectric modules within the condenser in order to recover the waste heat of the thermal systems. Besides......, the authors have developed some intelligent tools to elaborate on the performance of their proposed model. Firstly, an artificial neural network has been utilized to estimate the potential power generation of the thermoelectric modules. At the second step, computational fluid dynamic solver, FLUENT is used...... to determine the variation of the temperature through the length of the thermoelectric module assembly. Based on the gained results, an intelligent multi-objective optimization algorithm called Pareto based mutable smart bee is developed to optimize the properties of the thermoelectric component....

  5. Solar heating and cooling system design and development (status summay through December 1977)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-06

    The program scope is to develop, fabricate, install, and monitor the operation of prototype solar heating and cooling systems. Application studies have been completed for three application categories: single-family residential, multi-family residential, and commercial. The program currently consists of development of heating and cooling euipment for single-family residential and commercial applications and eight operational test sites (four heating and four heating and cooling). Four are single-family residences and four are commercial buildings.

  6. The role of heat pump technologies in the design of future sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten Boje; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps with existing CHP units, is critically sensitive to the operational mode...... of the heat pump vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance (COP), which is set by the temperature level of the heat source. When using only ambient air as the heat source, the total heat production costs increases by about 10%, while the partial use of condensed flue gas from the CHP unit as a heat...... source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the operational analysis shows that when a large-scale heat pump is integrated with an existing CHP unit, the projected spot market situation in Nord Pool, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-bound power generation electricity...

  7. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  8. Design and performance of vacuum system for high heat flux test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy Kidambi, Rajamannar; Mokaria, Prakash; Khirwadkar, Samir; Belsare, Sunil; Khan, M. S.; Patel, Tushar; Krishnan, Deepu S.

    2017-04-01

    High heat flux test facility (HHFTF) at IPR is used for testing thermal performance of plasma facing materials or components. It consists of various subsystems like vacuum system, high power electron beam system, diagnostic and calibration system, data acquisition and control system and high pressure high temperature water circulation system. Vacuum system consists of large D-shaped chamber, target handling system, pumping systems and support structure. The net volume of vacuum chamber is 5 m3 was maintained at the base pressure of the order of 10-6 mbar for operation of electron gun with minimum beam diameter which is achieved with turbo-molecular pump (TMP) and cryo pump. A variable conductance gate valve is used for maintaining required vacuum in the chamber. Initial pumping of the chamber was carried out by using suitable rotary and root pumps. PXI and PLC based faster real time data acquisition and control system is implemented for performing the various operations like remote operation, online vacuum data measurements, display and status indication of all vacuum equipments. This paper describes in detail the design and implementation of various vacuum system for HHFTF.

  9. Conceptual Design of a Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems Using Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Khan, Lutful I.; Nayagam, Vedha; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy

    2006-01-01

    Condensing heat exchangers are used in many space applications in the thermal and humidity control systems. In the International Space Station (ISS), humidity control is achieved by using a water cooled fin surface over which the moist air condenses, followed by "slurper bars" that take in both the condensate and air into a rotary separator and separates the water from air. The use of a cooled porous substrate as the condensing surface provides and attractive alternative that combines both heat removal as well as liquid/gas separation into a single unit. By selecting the pore sizes of the porous substrate a gravity independent operation may also be possible with this concept. Condensation of vapor into and on the porous surface from the flowing air and the removal of condensate from the porous substrate are the critical processes involved in the proposed concept. This paper describes some preliminary results of the proposed condensate withdrawal process and discusses the on-going design and development work of a porous media based condensing heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center.

  10. Combined bio and solar heating system. Handbook for system design; Kombinerade bio- och solvaermesystem. Handbok foer systemutformning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to compile the knowledge available concerning combined pellets and solar system in order to support companies in their systems design. This publication deals with experience gained in research on solar and pellet heating, and gives proposals to system design, various technical solutions, and how systems should be controlled. When solar and pellets are combined, there are many possibilities to interconnect the systems. There are different traditions in different countries, which makes the system solutions vary from country to country. A general conclusion is that conventional Swedish boilers with built-in hot water heater are not appropriate for conventional solar systems. It gives rise to complex solutions and it is difficult to achieve good stratification in the water tank. In a solar system, it is important that the tank can be discharged in such a way that sharp stratification is obtained. This means that the tank bottom must be chilled to the temperature of incoming cold water and that the middle part must be cooled to the same temperature as the radiator return. If solar panels even in winter can work to preheat the cold water of 10 to 20 C, a much better efficiency is obtained on collectors than if the radiator return must be preheated, which at best is at a temperature level of between 30 and 40 C. To this end, the radiator return is placed well up from the bottom of the tank and the tap water is preheated in a loop that starts in the tank bottom. Another important parameter in the tank design is that heat losses are kept low, it is important that the solar heat can produce the hot water even during overcast periods in summer and to keep energy consumption low. In modern houses where the tank is placed in the living area, it is important to avoid high temperatures in the room where the tank is placed. To obtain a good isolation one must ensure that there is an airtight layer across the isolation that also closes tightly against

  11. Design, Simulation, and Analysis of Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fresart, Edouard Thomas

    Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results were used to project annual cost and energy savings for the solar water heaters. The projected energy savings for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona are 80% when using the SunEarthRTM system with an insulated and glazed flat-plate collector, and 49% when using the FAFCO RTM system with unglazed, non-insulated flat-plate collectors. Utilizing all available federal, state, and utility incentives, a consumer could expect to recoup his or her investment after the fifth year if purchasing a SunEarth RTM system, and after the eighth year if purchasing a FAFCO RTM system. Over the 20-year analysis period, a consumer could expect to save 2,519 with the SunEarthRTM system, and 971 with the FAFCORTM system.

  12. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  13. Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Optimum Design of Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung

    2018-02-01

    The optimum design of a thermoelectric system for application in car seat climate control has been modeled and its performance evaluated experimentally. The optimum design of the thermoelectric device combining two heat exchangers was obtained by using a newly developed optimization method based on the dimensional technique. Based on the analytical optimum design results, commercial thermoelectric cooler and heat sinks were selected to design and construct the climate control heat pump. This work focuses on testing the system performance in both cooling and heating modes to ensure accurate analytical modeling. Although the analytical performance was calculated using the simple ideal thermoelectric equations with effective thermoelectric material properties, it showed very good agreement with experiment for most operating conditions.

  14. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A SOFTWARE DESIGN TOOL FOR HYBRID SOLAR-GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN HEATING- AND COOLING-DOMINATED BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuzturk, C. C. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Chiasson, A. D. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Filburn, T. P. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-11-29

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primary benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems is

  16. Design of Low-Energy District Heating System for a Settlement with Low-Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    With the integration of new low-energy buildings the traditional district heating (DH) systems with high operating temperatures will have significantly higher heat loss according to the heat supplied to the district. The relatively higher heat loss could be reduced with low operating temperatures...... of 55 °C and 25 °C in supply and return line of DH network, respectively with a convenient control of in-house installations (substations). Traditional DH pipe dimensioning methods were based on size searching algorithm in which lowest possible pipe diameter was defined according to the limit of max...

  17. Heat Sink Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    HEAT SINK DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION I...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) December 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HEAT SINK DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Heat sinks are devices that are used to enhance heat dissipation

  18. Design and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Ejector Refrigeration/Heat Pump System for Naval Surface Ship Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Ezgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Naval surface ships should use thermally driven heating and cooling technologies to continue the Navy’s leadership role in protecting the marine environment. Steam ejector refrigeration (SER or steam ejector heat pump (SEHP systems are thermally driven heating and cooling technologies and seem to be a promising technology to reduce emissions for heating and cooling on board naval surface ships. In this study, design and thermodynamic analysis of a seawater cooled SER and SEHP as an HVAC system for a naval surface ship application are presented and compared with those of a current typical naval ship system case, an H2O-LiBr absorption heat pump and a vapour-compression heat pump. The off-design study estimated the coefficient of performances (COPs were 0.29–0.11 for the cooling mode and 1.29–1.11 for the heating mode, depending on the pressure of the exhaust gas boiler at off-design conditions. In the system operating at the exhaust gas boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa, the optimum area ratio obtained was 23.30.

  19. Holistic Modeling, Design & Analysis of Integrated Stirling and Auxiliary Clean Energy Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amrit Om

    The research revolves around the development of a model to design and analyze Stirling systems. Lack of a standard approach to study Stirling systems and difficulty in generalizing existing approaches pose stiff challenges. A stable mathematical model (integrated second order adiabatic and dynamic model) is devised and validated for general use. The research attempts to design compact combined heat and power (CHP) system to run on multiple biomass fuels and solar energy. Analysis is also carried out regarding the design of suitable auxiliary systems like thermal energy storage system, biomass moisture removal system and Fresnel solar collector for the CHP Stirling system.

  20. Design Optimization of Heat Wheels for Energy Recovery in HVAC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Antonellis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Air to air heat exchangers play a crucial role in mechanical ventilation equipment, due to the potential primary energy savings both in case of refurbishment of existing buildings or in case of new ones. In particular, interest in heat wheels is increasing due to their low pressure drop and high effectiveness. In this paper a detailed optimization of design parameters of heat wheels is performed in order to maximize sensible effectiveness and to minimize pressure drop. The analysis is carried out through a one dimensional lumped parameters heat wheel model, which solves heat and mass transfer equations, and through appropriate correlations to estimate pressure drop. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data of a heat wheel tested in specific facilities, and good agreement is attained. The device optimization is performed through the variation of main design parameters, such as heat wheel length, channel base, height and thickness and for different operating conditions, namely the air face velocity and the revolution speed. It is shown that the best configurations are achieved with small channel thickness and, depending on the required sensible effectiveness, with appropriate values of wheel length and channel base and height.

  1. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Design and Fabrication for Systems with Large Pressure Differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chordia, Lalit [Thar Energy, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Portnoff, Marc A. [Thar Energy, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Green, Ed [Thar Energy, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The project’s main purpose was to design, build and test a compact heat exchanger for supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycle recuperators. The compact recuperator is required to operate at high temperature and high pressure differentials, 169 bar (~2,500 psi), between streams of sCO2. Additional project tasks included building a hot air-to-sCO2 Heater heat exchanger (HX) and design, build and operate a test loop to characterize the recuperator and heater heat exchangers. A novel counter-current microtube recuperator was built to meet the high temperature high differential pressure criteria and tested. The compact HX design also incorporated a number of features that optimize material use, improved reliability and reduced cost. The air-to-sCO2 Heater HX utilized a cross flow, counter-current, micro-tubular design. This compact HX design was incorporated into the test loop and exceeded design expectations. The test loop design to characterize the prototype Brayton power cycle HXs was assembled, commissioned and operated during the program. Both the prototype recuperator and Heater HXs were characterized. Measured results for the recuperator confirmed the predictions of the heat transfer models developed during the project. Heater HX data analysis is ongoing.

  2. Recovery act. Development of design and simulation tool for hybrid geothermal heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaojie [ClimateMaster, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Ellis, Dan [ClimateMaster, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-05-29

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is one of the most energy efficient HVAC technologies in the current market. However, the heat imbalance may degrade the ability of the ground loop heat exchanger (GLHX) to absorb or reject heat. The hybrid GSHP system, which combines a geothermal well field with a supplemental boiler or cooling tower, can balance the loads imposed on the ground loop heat exchangers to minimize its size while retaining superior energy efficiency. This paper presents a recent simulation-based study with an intention to compare multiple common control strategies used in hybrid GSHP systems, including fixed setpoint, outside air reset, load reset, and wetbulb reset. A small office in Oklahoma City conditioned by a hybrid GSHP system was simulated with the latest version of eQUEST 3.7[1]. The simulation results reveal that the hybrid GSHP system has the excellent capability to meet the cooling and heating setpoints during the occupied hours, balance thermal loads on the ground loop, as well as improve the thermal comfort of the occupants with the undersized well field.

  3. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  4. Heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  5. Design, Fabrication, and Efficiency Study of a Novel Solar Thermal Water Heating System: Towards Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal heat-pump system for small scale hot water production for household purposes. The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting its use and effectiveness in domestic and industrial applications especially in water heating. The easiest and the most used method is the conversion of solar energy into thermal energy. We developed a prototype solar water heating system for experimental test. We reported the investigation of solar thermal conversion efficiency in different seasons which is 29.24% in summer, 14.75% in winter, and 15.53% in rainy season. This paper also discusses the DC heater for backup system and the current by using thermoelectric generator which are 3.20 V in summer, 2.120 V in winter, and 1.843 V in rainy season. This solar water heating system is mostly suited for its ease of operation and simple maintenance. It is expected that such novel solar thermal technology would further contribute to the development of the renewable energy (solar driven heating/hot water service and therefore lead to significant environmental benefits.

  6. Waste-heat steam producing systems: Design elements in chemical engineering processes. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gericke, B.

    1983-12-01

    The author deals with the increasing economic importance of waste-heat boilers which are used in industrial production processes for electricity and/or steam generation. In 'Part 1', published in the preceeding journal no. 11, waste-heat systems were presented for the high-temperature range. In this 'Part 2', the author shows, illustrated by examples, which type of waste-heat boiler is suitable for certain processes, which problems have to be considered, and which solutions have been found.

  7. Effect of Design Static Pressure Level on Energy Efficiency at Low Energy District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Low-Energy District Heating (DH) systems with low-temperature operations, such as 55 °C in terms of supply and 25 °C in terms of return, were considered to be the 4th generation of the DH systems for the low-energy future with energy efficiencies focused to be achieved at newly built and existing...... buildings by the Danish building regulations. Therefore focus has been given to reduce the heat demand of the consumer site with integration of low-energy buildings, to be considered for new settlements and with renovation of existing buildings to low-energy class. The reduction of heat demand increases...... the ratio of heat loss from the DH network in comparison to the heat supplied to the district. In our former studies, the low-energy DH system was optimized with the aim of reducing the heat loss from the low-energy DH network in a certain limit of static pressure level of 10 bara. Thus, in this present...

  8. Preliminary Design of Compact Condenser in an Organic Rankine Cycle System for the Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a thermodynamic cycle for the production of electrical power in the 2–5 kW range, suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles. The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system, which is able to produce sufficient power to sustain the air conditioning system or other auxiliaries. The working fluids R134a and R245fa have been used in the ORC system, and the systems are simulated by CAMEL-ProTM software. The cycles are generated starting from the same heat source: the exhaust gas of a typical 2.0 L Diesel engine (or from a small size turbine engine. The design of the condenser has been performed to obtain a very compact component, evaluating the heat exchanger tube and fins type design. Through empirical formulas, the area of heat exchange, the heat required to exchange and the pressure drop in the element have been calculated. A commercial software package is used to build the model of the condenser, then a thermal and mechanical analysis and a CFD analysis are realized to estimate the heat exchange. Finally the evaluations, the possible future studies and possible improvements of the system are shown.

  9. Instructor's Manual for Teaching and Practical Courses on Design of Systems and Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    Presented are guidelines for instructors of two courses in the design, installation, and operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These courses are: (1) Design of Systems, and (2) Sizing, Installation, and Operation of Systems. Limited in scope to active solar systems for residential buildings, these courses place primary emphasis upon…

  10. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

  11. Design, Development, and Performance Evaluation of Solar Heating System for Disinfection of Domestic Roof-Harvested Rainwater

    OpenAIRE

    Akintola, O. A.; Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    2015-01-01

    A box-type solar heater was designed, constructed, and used to determine the effect of solar heating on quality of domestic roof-harvested rainwater (DRHRW). During testing, naturally contaminated DRHRW was harvested in Ibadan, Nigeria, and released into the system at 93.96?Lh?1 (2.61 ? 10?5?m3?s?1) in a continuous flow process. Water temperatures at inlet, within the heating chamber, and at outlet from the heating chamber and solar radiation were monitored at 10?min interval. Samples were co...

  12. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  13. Cheap heat pump heating system for low-energy-consumption housing -- Design handbook; Kostenguenstige Waermepumpenheizung fuer Niedrigenergiehaeuser: Technisches Handbuch: Grundlagen, Planungsvorgehen und Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, T. [Fachhochschule beider Basel, Muttenz (Switzerland); Buehring, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Duerig, M.; Keller, P.; Zweifel, G. [Fachhochschule Zentralschweiz, School of Engineering and Architecture, Lucerne (Switzerland); Huber, A.; Widmer, P. [Huber Energietechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Shafai, E. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Institut fuer Mess- und Regeltechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a technical handbook on the principles and planning processes involved in designing and installing heating systems for low-energy and so-called passive houses with air-renewal systems and provides examples taken from practice. The manual is intended to provide guidance to architects, planners and manufacturers. In the first part of the three-part manual, the basics of energy balances, ecological assessment and modern control techniques are dealt with, the second part covers integral planning, feasibility and manufacturing techniques and the third part gives examples of three houses built to so-called 'Minergie' low-energy and 'passive house' standards. The factors to be taken into account when planning low-energy and passive houses heated with heat pumps are discussed and calculation tools aiding the dimensioning and simulation of the systems are introduced.

  14. Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2014-06-01

    All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

  15. Waste-heat steam producing systems: Design elements in chemical-engineering processes. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gericke, B.

    1983-11-01

    The author deals with the increasing economic importance of waste-heat boilers which are used in industrial production processes for electricity and/or steam generation. In ''Part I'' of the article waste-heat systems are presented for the high-temperature range, and in ''Part II'' systems for the medium temperature range (''Part II'' will be published in the following ''Issue No. 12''). Illustrated by examples, the author shows which type of waste-heat boilers is suitable for certain processes, which problems have to considered and which solutions have been found.

  16. Theoretical comparison of solar water/space-heating combi systems and stratification design options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of differently designed solar combi systems is performed with weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year (55ºN). Three solar combi system designs found on the market are investigated. The investigation focuses on the influence of stratification on the thermal...

  17. Design of the ITER upper port electron cyclotron heating and current drive system based on remote steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. F. Graswinckel,; van den Berg, M. A.; Bongers, W. A.; Donne, A. J. H.; Goede, A. P. H.; Cardozo, N. L.; Ronden, D. M. S.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.

    2008-01-01

    A design is presented for the electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive system of the ITER upper port launchers based on the remote steering (RS) concept. In this concept the millimeter-wave beam is steered by a mirror that is located at the back end of the launcher waveguide. The RS concept

  18. Comparison between design and actual energy performance of a HVAC-ground coupled heat pump system in cooling and heating operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, S. [Energesis Ingenieria S.L., Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montero, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work compares the experimental results obtained for the energy performance study of a ground coupled heat pump system with the design values predicted by means of standard methodology. The system energy performance of a monitored ground coupled heat pump system is calculated using the instantaneous measurements of temperature, flow and power consumption and these values are compared with the numerical predictions. These predictions are performed with the TRNSYS software tool following standard procedures taking the experimental thermal loads as input values. The main result of this work is that simulation results solely based on nominal heat pump capacities and performances overestimate the measured overall energy performance by a percentage between 15% and 20%. A sensitivity analysis of the simulation results to changes in percentage of its input parameters showed that the heat pump nominal coefficient of performance is the parameter that mostly affects the energy performance predictions. This analysis supports the idea that the discrepancies between experimental results and simulation outputs for this ground coupled system are mainly due to heat pump performance degradation for being used at partial load. An estimation of the impact of this effect in energy performance predictions reduces the discrepancies to values around 5%. (author)

  19. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Sompayrac, Robert; Conger, Bruce; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2009-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  20. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification...

  1. Prototype solar heating and combined heating cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The design and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is discussed. The program management and systems engineering are reported, and operational test sites are identified.

  2. System Modeling of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) Subassembly for Prototype Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Chad; Padilla, Sebastian; Iacomini, Christie; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes modeling methods for the three core components of a Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) subassembly: the sorbent bed, a sublimation (cooling) heat exchanger (SHX), and a condensing icing (warming) heat exchanger (CIHX). The primary function of the MTSA, removing carbon dioxide from a ventilation loop, is performed via the sorbent bed. The CIHX is used to heat the sorbent bed for desorption and to remove moisture from the ventilation loop while the SHX is alternately employed to cool the sorbent bed via sublimation of a spray of water at low pressure to prepare the reconditioned bed for the next cycle. This paper describes a system level model of the MTSA as developed in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT including assumptions on geometry and physical phenomena, modeling methodology and relevant pa ra mete rizatio ns. Several areas of particular modeling interest are discussed. In the sorbent bed, capture of the translating CO2 saturation front and associated local energy and mass balance in both adsorbing and desorbing modes is covered. The CIHX poses particular challenges for modeling in SINDA/FLUINT as accounting for solids states in fluid submodels are not a native capability. Methods for capturing phase change and latent heat of ice as well as the transport properties across a layer of low density accreted frost are developed. This extended modeling capacity is applicable to temperatures greater than 258 K. To extend applicability to the minimum device temperature of 235 K, a method for a mapped transformation of temperatures from below the limit temperatures to some value above is given along with descriptions for associated material property transformations and the resulting impacts to total heat and mass transfer. Similar considerations are shown for the SHX along with assumptions for flow mechanics and resulting model methods for sublimation in a flow.

  3. Optimal design of the first stage of the plate-fin heat exchanger for the EAST cryogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfeng, JIANG; Zhigang, ZHU; Qiyong, ZHANG; Ming, ZHUANG; Xiaofei, LU

    2018-03-01

    The size of the heat exchanger is an important factor determining the dimensions of the cold box in helium cryogenic systems. In this paper, a counter-flow multi-stream plate-fin heat exchanger is optimized by means of a spatial interpolation method coupled with a hybrid genetic algorithm. Compared with empirical correlations, this spatial interpolation algorithm based on a kriging model can be adopted to more precisely predict the Colburn heat transfer factors and Fanning friction factors of offset-strip fins. Moreover, strict computational fluid dynamics simulations can be carried out to predict the heat transfer and friction performance in the absence of reliable experimental data. Within the constraints of heat exchange requirements, maximum allowable pressure drop, existing manufacturing techniques and structural strength, a mathematical model of an optimized design with discrete and continuous variables based on a hybrid genetic algorithm is established in order to minimize the volume. The results show that for the first-stage heat exchanger in the EAST refrigerator, the structural size could be decreased from the original 2.200 × 0.600 × 0.627 (m3) to the optimized 1.854 × 0.420 × 0.340 (m3), with a large reduction in volume. The current work demonstrates that the proposed method could be a useful tool to achieve optimization in an actual engineering project during the practical design process.

  4. Ideal Heat Exchange System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  5. Solar heating system design package for a single-family residence at William O'Brien State Park, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    Honeywell, Inc. has undertaken the design, fabrication, installation, and monitoring of a prototype solar heating and hot water system for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources' single-family dwelling located at O'Brien State Park, 30 miles east of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Documentation submitted by Honeywell for government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status in order to provide the contractor with approval to commit the system to fabrication are included.

  6. Solar Heating Systems: Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This Instructor's Guide for a Solar Heating System Curriculum is designed to accompany the Student Manual and the Progress Checks and Test Manual for the course (see note), in order to facilitate the instruction of classes on solar heating systems. The Instructor's Guide contains a variety of materials used in teaching the courses, including…

  7. Optimum heat storage design for SDHWsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design's influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems, SDHWsystems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHWsystems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built...... analysis of the tank design's influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible.By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed.......-in spiral. The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHWsystems based on a mantle tank.The tank design's influence on the thermal performance of the SDHWsystems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct...

  8. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Stricter legislation on sulphur oxide emissions from ships will apply as of 2015 in emission control areas. Consequently, prices on low sulphur fuels are expected to increase drastically, providing a strong incentive to find alternative ways of complying with the legislation and improving...... the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...

  9. Design of solar adsorption refrigeration system with CPC and study on the heat and mass transfer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W. P.; Li, M.; Wang, Y. F.; He, J. H.; He, J. X.

    2017-11-01

    To overcome the problem that the heat source temperature is limited and the lower part of the adsorption tube cannot effectively absorb the solar radiation when solar radiation as the heat source of the adsorption refrigeration system. From the perspective of enhancing the adsorption refrigeration unit tube to absorb solar radiation, thereby strengthening the heat transfer characteristic of adsorption bed, which can improve the efficiency of the refrigeration unit refrigerating capacity and system refrigeration efficiency. Solar adsorption refrigeration system based on CPC was designed and constructed in this paper. The heat and mass transfer performance of the adsorption refrigeration system were studied. The experimental results show that the temperature of the adsorption bed with parabolic concentrating structure can rise to 100°C under low irradiation condition. When the irradiation intensity is 600 w/m2 and 400 w/m2, the average temperature rising to desorption temperature reaches 0.67°C and 0.50°C, respectively. It can effectively solve the problem that the conventional adsorption bed is difficult to reach the required desorption temperature due to the low power density of the sunlight. In the experiment, the system COP were 0.166 and 0.143 when the system in the irradiance of 600 w/m2 and 400 w/m2.

  10. Design and experimental study of a mixed energy recovery system, heat pipes and indirect evaporative equipment for air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Francisco Javier Rey; Gomez, Eloy Velasco; Diez, Fernando Varela; Martin, Ruth Herrero [Valladolid Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering aand Fluid Mechanics, Valladolid (Spain); Plasencia, Mario Antonio Alvarez-Guerra [Cienfuegos Univ., Faculty of Computer Engineering, Cienfuegos (Spain)

    2003-11-01

    Current difficulties surrounding air conditioning systems involve an increase in input air aimed at improving indoor air quality (IAQ), the financial costs arising from energy consumption and external environmental impact, linked to the greenhouse effect (GWP) and the destruction of the ozone layer (ODP). One alternative technique which offers an adequate combination of IAQ and acceptable energy saving is the introduction of energy recovery systems using air extracted from air-conditioned premises. We have designed a mixed air-energy recovery system, consisting of two heat pipes and indirect evaporative recuperators. The experimental set-up used is described and the proposed energy recovery system is characterised. A staggered set-up has been chosen for the input air pipe and a parallel one for the extracted air for variable recirculation. By means of the trace gas method and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) the amount of exfiltrated flow in the installation is measured. The energy characterisation of the mixed energy recovery system was performed by means of the experimental design technique. An analysis was carried out of the influence of factors such as temperature, flow, relative humidity, water flow, etc. on the basic characteristics defined by the mixed system: heat flow, heat efficiency and COP. (Author)

  11. ComfortPower. Design, construction and evaluation of a combined fuel-cell and heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Catator AB has constructed, commissioned and evaluated a combined fuel-cell and heat-pump system (ComfortPower). The basic idea behind the project was to demonstrate the possibility to achieve ultrahigh thermal efficiencies when combining fuel-cell technologies and heat pumps. Moreover, the system should provide a great flexibility with respect to the fuel mix and should in addition to heat provide surplus electricity and cooling. The system was built on a HT-PEM platform (high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell from Serenergy a/s), which was operated by Catators proprietary Optiformer technology. The power generator was combined with a heat pump module (F1145-5, 230 V), supplied by Nibe. The system was packaged into a cabinet (1.65 x 0.6 x 0.6 m) comprising the power module, the heat pump, all necessary balance-of-plant components and the control system. The power output from the fuel-cell system was around 1.35 kW, which enabled operation of the heat pump compressor. By utilizing surplus heat energy from the fuel cell it was possible to achieve a favourable operation point in the heat pump system, resulting in a high overall COP (coefficient of performance). The heat output from the system was as high as 10 kW whereas 6 kW cooling could be provided. The thermal efficiencies measured in experiments were normally around 200%, calculated on the lower heating value of the fuel. A number of fuels have been investigated in the fuel cell system, including both gaseous (natural gas/LPG) and liquid fuels (alcohols and kerosene). Indeed, the system has a wide fuel flexibility, which opens up for a variety of applications in campus villages and buildings. This study has demonstrated the possibility to reduce the carbon dioxide footprint by a factor of 2 over conventional boilers in heating applications. In addition the unit can be operated on a variety of fuels and can produce cooling and electricity in addition to heat. A fully working system has been designed

  12. Study and Optimization of Design Parameters in Water Loop Heat Pump Systems for Office Buildings in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Fernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water loop heat pump (WLHP air conditioning systems use heat pumps connected to a common water circuit to fulfill the energy demands of different thermal zones in a building. In this study, the energy consumption was analyzed for the air conditioning of an office building in the typical climate of four important cities of the Iberian Peninsula. The energy consumption of one water loop heat pump system was compared with a conventional water system. Two design parameters, the range in the control temperatures and the water loop thermal storage size, were tested. Energy redistribution is an important advantage of the WLHP system, but significant savings came from high efficiency parameters in the heat pumps and minor air flow rates in the cooling tower. The low thermal level in the water loop makes this technology appropriate to combine with renewable sources. Using natural gas as the thermal energy source, a mean decrease in CO2 emissions of 8.1% was reached. Simulations showed that the installation of big thermal storage tanks generated small energy savings. Besides, the total annual consumption in buildings with high internal loads can be reduced by keeping the water loop as cool as possible.

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  14. Design and Research of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Dive System on HL-2M Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Rao, Jao; Song, Shaodong; Wang, He; Chen, Gangyu; Kang, Zhihua; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jieqiong; Ye, Jiruo; Feng, Kun; Lu, Bo; Huang, Bo; Wang, Chao; Wang, Mingwei; Xuan, Weimin; Rao, Lieying; Li, Qing; Mao, Xiaohui; Duan, Xuru; Liu, Yong

    2017-07-01

    A research has been conducted to develop an 8MW electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) system on HL-2M tokamak. The ECRH system compromise eight 1MW gyrotrons, eight evacuated transmission lines and three launchers. The main purpose of the ECRH system was to suppress the neo-classical tearing modes and control the plasma profile. This paper presents an overview of the design and studies performed in this framework. Some primary test results of the critical components have been released in this paper, e.g. polarizers, power monitor and fast steering launchers.

  15. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  16. Development and Experimental Validation of a TRNSYS Dynamic Tool for Design and Energy Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ruiz-Calvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pump (GSHP systems stand for an efficient technology for renewable heating and cooling in buildings. To optimize not only the design but also the operation of the system, a complete dynamic model becomes a highly useful tool, since it allows testing any design modifications and different optimization strategies without actually implementing them at the experimental facility. Usually, this type of systems presents strong dynamic operating conditions. Therefore, the model should be able to predict not only the steady-state behavior of the system but also the short-term response. This paper presents a complete GSHP system model based on an experimental facility, located at Universitat Politècnica de València. The installation was constructed in the framework of a European collaborative project with title GeoCool. The model, developed in TRNSYS, has been validated against experimental data, and it accurately predicts both the short- and long-term behavior of the system.

  17. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. Quarterly report, 9 October 1976-9 January 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Honeywell is to develop twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems. Six of these are to be heating and six are to be heating/cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications. Schedules and technical discussions are given, along with illustrations on the progress made from October 9, 1976 through January 9, 1977.

  18. Design of Phosphor Thermometry System for Transient High Heat Flux Surface Thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Frankel, Jay I [ORNL; Beshears, David L [EMCO

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A transformative calibration methodology is presented for predicting transient surface temperatures in a thermally conducting medium from in-depth, time-varying temperature measurements. The surface temperature is resolved using two experimental runs and a newly devised first-kind Volterra integral equation. The first experimental run involves calibration with known surface temperature while the second run involves resolving the surface temperature of interest through the ill-posed integral equation. This paper presents the concept genesis and numerically demonstrates the concept for feasibility, robustness, stability and accuracy. From this demonstration, we propose to implement surface placed thermographic phosphors in the calibration stage of the inverse method for estimating the required surface temperature. As a preliminary study, we consider transient, constant property, onedimensional heat conduction in a semi-infinite medium. It is mathematically demonstrated that a Volterra integral equation of the first kind is developed for estimating the surface temperature using a calibrated system (host material and sensor). Sensor characterization, explicit sensor positioning and thermophysical properties are implicitly contained in the new calibration integral equation. The calibration integral equation displays only four terms; namely, the measured front surface temperature and corresponding measured in-depth temperature response associated with the calibration run; and, the unknown surface temperature and its measured in-depth temperature response associated with the second run. Preliminary numerical results indicate the merit of the concept. This paper suggests using thermographic phosphors for estimating the surface temperature in the calibration portion of the process owing to their rapid thermal response, good surface thermal contact characteristics and lack of capacitance for assuring minimal delay. Though the present paper describes the theoretical

  19. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  20. Toward the Design of an Induction Heating System for Asphalt Pavements with the Finite Element Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Kasbergen, C.; Scarpas, Athanasios; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2017-01-01

    Induction technology was introduced to the paving industry to assist pavement operations by heating asphalt layers efficiently from the surface. Many experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of inductive particles on the heating efficiency of asphalt mixes. However,

  1. Design, Development, and Performance Evaluation of Solar Heating System for Disinfection of Domestic Roof-Harvested Rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, O A; Sangodoyin, A Y

    2015-01-01

    A box-type solar heater was designed, constructed, and used to determine the effect of solar heating on quality of domestic roof-harvested rainwater (DRHRW). During testing, naturally contaminated DRHRW was harvested in Ibadan, Nigeria, and released into the system at 93.96 Lh(-1) (2.61 × 10(-5) m(3) s(-1)) in a continuous flow process. Water temperatures at inlet, within the heating chamber, and at outlet from the heating chamber and solar radiation were monitored at 10 min interval. Samples were collected at both inlet to and outlet from the heating chamber at 10 min interval for microbiological analysis. The highest plate stagnation temperature, under no-load condition, was 100°C. The solar water heater attained a maximum operational temperature of 75°C with 89.6 and 94.4% reduction in total viable count and total coliform count, respectively, while Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were completely eradicated at this temperature. The solar heater developed proved to be effective in enhancing potability of DRHRW in Ibadan, Nigeria. This may be an appropriate household water treatment technology for developing countries, hence, a way of resolving problem of low quality water for potable uses.

  2. Annex 3: BRIDGESIM, a simulation tool for the system design of bridge heating for ice prevention with solar heat stored in a seasonal ground duct store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.

    2006-12-15

    This is the Annex 3 of the annual report 2006 of the Serso project. This appendix provides details on the BRIDGESIM simulation tool for the simulation of a bridge heating system that uses heat stored in summer in a long-term diffusive borehole store to ensure an ice-free surface on a road bridge in winter. The operation of the control system which controls the heating system is described. The simulation tool is described and the various input parameters are discussed, as is the parametrisation of the tool itself. These parameters include not only timescales but also data on the borehole heat exchangers, data on the buried heating pipes in the road surface, thermal conductivity of the circulating heat-transfer fluid, ground parameters, intermediate water tank parameters and many other related data. The running of the simulation and output data are also described. Outputs are also presented in graphical form.

  3. Improved solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  4. Solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  5. Heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1977-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  6. Optimization in solar heating/photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourazelis, Dimitrios G.

    1990-12-01

    This thesis is a design of an alternative system which may provide heating to the Naval Postgraduate School swimming pool. Particularly, it is a solar heating/photovoltaic system designed for a better efficiency and less cost of installation and maintenance. Principles of heat transfer, control and fluid dynamics theory are used for the determination of this heating system elements. The feasibility of its installation and use its analyzed.

  7. Optimization in solar heating/photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vourazelis, Dimitrios G.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis is a design of an alternative system which may provide heating to the Naval Postgraduate School swimming pool. Particularly, it is a solar heating/photovoltaic system designed for a better efficiency and less cost of installation and maintenance. Principles of heat transfer, control and fluid dynamics theory are used for the determination of this heating system elements. The feasibility of its installation and use is analy...

  8. New counter flow heat exchanger designed for ventilation systems in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2007-01-01

    that the heat exchanger is capable of continuously defrosting itself at outside air temperatures well below the freezing point while still maintaining a very high efficiency. Further analysis and development of a detailed simulation model of a counter flow air-to-air heat exchanger will be described in future...... drop. Preheating the inlet air (outdoor air) to a temperature above 0 degrees C before it enters the exchanger is one solution often used to solve the problem, however, this method reduces the energy saving potential significantly. To minimize the energy cost, a more efficient way to solve the freezing...

  9. Analysis and Optimization Design of a Solar Water Heating System Based on Life Cycle Cost Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization method to design a solar water heating (SWH system based on life cycle cost (LCC. A genetic algorithm is employed to optimize its configuration and sizing as the optimization technique. To ensure that the optimal solution obtained from the proposed method is a practical design, three constraint conditions, including the energy balance, solar fraction, and available space to install solar collectors, have been set. In addition, the real devices available in the marketplace are considered in the optimization process that searches for optimal configuration and sizing, which is represented by the type and number of each component. By using the proposed method, a SWH system in an office building, South Korea has been designed and optimized. It is observed that a low solar fraction does not always present a decrease in the LCC. A trade-off between the equipment cost and the energy cost results in an optimal design of the SWH system that yields the minimum LCC.

  10. 14 CFR 27.859 - Heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heating systems. 27.859 Section 27.859... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.859 Heating systems. (a) General. For each heating system that involves the passage of cabin air over, or close to, the exhaust...

  11. Design review package for the on-site monitor for solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The performance specification and verification matrix for the on-site monitor (OSM) is presented. The OSM is a portable device which, when connected to the Site Data Acquisition subsystem, allows readout of data on solar heating and cooling operational test sites.

  12. District heating substations - design and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-12-15

    These technical regulations for district heating substations are sector-wide regulations for the Swedish district heating sector, describing the design, installation, use and maintenance of substations. If a district heating substation is to operate in the best possible way, the building's space heating and domestic hot water systems must comply with the requirements in these regulations and with those issued by public authorities. These regulations also describe aspects that must be considered when substations need to be replaced. The use then of correct values for the building energy requirements ensures that the new substation will be properly matched to its duties. These regulations are intended for use by: - those responsible for contacts between the district heating supplier and the customer. - those who own, operate and/or administer a building or facility that is heated by district heating. - those who design, manufacture, purchase, test or install substations. It is recommended that enquiries should refer to the Swedish District Heating Association's technical regulations when specifying requirements. The procurement criteria described in these regulations should be applied when evaluating tenders

  13. Study on high temperature design methodology of heat-resistant materials for GEN-IV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. W.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, J. H.; Park, D. G.; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Hing, J. H

    2005-08-15

    Analysis of the existing high temperature design and assessment codes such as US(ASME-NH,Draft Code Case for Alloy 617), France(RCC-MR), UK(R5), Japan(BDS/DDS/FDS) for Gen IV reactor structure has been carried out. In addition the scope and fields for research and development is needed in the future have been defined. For assessing the high temperature creep cracks, time dependent fracture mechanics (TDFM) parameters of the C and Ct were analyzed. The creep propagation data were obtained from the creep crack growth tests for type 316LN stainless steels, and creep crack growth testing machine for Gen-IV system up to 950 .deg. C was set up. Damage mechanism and causes for creep-fatigue were investigated. The difference between prediction creep-fatigue life and experimental life were investigated. Material properties for analysis creep-fatigue damage were recommended. The assessment procedure (Draft) on creep-fatigue crack initiation has been developed based on the technical appendix A16 of French RCC-MR code. Ultrasonic wave signal against creep ruptured specimens of type 316LN stainless steel was obtained. It was identified that creep damage can be evaluated by ultrasonic method. The NDT techniques evaluated include Barkhausen noise, magnetic hysteresis parameters, positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering. Experimental procedure and evaluation method of material integrity were developed through the fracture toughness test of Cr-Mo steel.

  14. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

  15. Thermal design heat sinks, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, compact heat exchangers, and solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H S

    2010-01-01

    The proposed is written as a senior undergraduate or the first-year graduate textbook,covering modern thermal devices such as heat sinks, thermoelectric generators and coolers, heat pipes, and heat exchangers as design components in larger systems. These devices are becoming increasingly important and fundamental in thermal design across such diverse areas as microelectronic cooling, green or thermal energy conversion, and thermal control and management in space, etc. However, there is no textbook available covering this range of topics. The proposed book may be used as a capstone design cours

  16. Test and evaluation of Fern Engineering Company, Incorporated, solar heating and hot water system. [structural design criteria and system effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Tests, test results, examination and evaluation by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., of a single family solar heating and hot water system consisting of collector, storage, control, transport, and data acquisition are presented. The structural characteristics of the solar flat plate collectors were evaluated according to snow and wind loads indicated in various building codes to determine their suitability for use both Michigan and Pennsylvania where prototype systems were installed. The flame spread classification of the thermal insulation is discussed and the fire tests conducted on components are described. The operation and dielectrics withstand tests of the energy transport module indicate the module is capable of rated air delivery. Tests of the control panel indicate the relay coil temperatures exceed the temperature limits allowed for the insulating materials involved.

  17. A preliminary design study of a pool-type FBR 'ARES' eliminating intermediate heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, N.; Nishi, Y.; Kinoshita, I.; Yoshida, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae Research Lab., Nuclear Systems Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    An innovative reactor concept 'ARES' (Advanced Reactor Eliminating Secondary system) is proposed to aim at reducing the construction cost of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). This concept is developed to show the ultimate cost down potential of LMFBR's at their commercial stage. The electrical output is 1500 MW, while the thermal output is 3900 MW. Main components of the primary cooling system are four electromagnetic pumps (EMP) and eight double-wall-tube steam generators (SG). Both of them are installed in a reactor vessel like pool type LMFBR's. An intermediate heat transport system which a previous LMFBR has it eliminated, main components of which are intermediate heat exchangers (IHX), secondary pumps and secondary piping. Further, a high reliable SG could decrease the occurrence of water leak accidents and reduce the related mitigation systems. In this study, structure concept, approach to embody a high reliable SG and accidents analyses are carried out. Flow path configuration is mainly discussed in investigation of the structure concept. In case of a water leak accident in a SG, the fault SG must be isolated to prevent a reaction production from flowing into the core. The measure to cut both inlet and outlet coolant flow paths by siphon-break mechanism is adopted to be consistent with the decay heat removal operation. The safety design approach of the double-wall-tube SG is investigated to limit the accident occurrence below 10{sup -7} (1/ry). A tube-to-tube weld is excluded from the reference design, because the welding process is too difficult and complicated to prevent adhesion of the double-wall-tube effectively. The reliability of the tube-to-tube-sheet was evaluated as 10{sup -10} (1/hr) for an inner tube and 10{sup -9} (1/hr) for an outer tube with reference to the failure experience of previous SG's. The failure must be detected within 60 to 120 minutes. Finally, a seamless U tube type of double

  18. Heating Systems Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This instructional package is intended for use in training Air Force personnel enrolled in a program for apprentice heating systems specialists. Training includes instruction in fundamentals and pipefitting; basic electricity; controls, troubleshooting, and oil burners; solid and gas fuel burners and warm air distribution systems; hot water…

  19. Design Considerations for Fusible Heat Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Sheth, Rubik B.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally radiator designs are based off a passive or flow through design depending on vehicle requirements. For cyclical heat loads, a novel idea of combining a full flow through radiator to a phase change material is currently being investigated. The flow through radiator can be designed for an average heat load while the phase change material can be used as a source of supplemental heat rejections when vehicle heat loads go above the average load. Furthermore, by using water as the phase change material, harmful radiation protection can be provided to the crew. This paper discusses numerous trades conducted to understand the most optimal fusible heat sink design for a particular heat load. Trades include configuration concepts, amount of phase change needed for supplemental heat rejection, and the form of interstitial material needed for optimal performance. These trades were used to culminate to a fusible heat sink design. The paper will discuss design parameters taken into account to develop an engineering development unit.

  20. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

    1993-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  1. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center Group; Dawson, R. [Aerospace Design and Fabrication Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States); Blue, B.; Dunn, P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

    1994-09-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  2. Integrated working fluid-thermodynamic cycle design of organic Rankine cycle power systems for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    recovery. Inthis paper, an organic Rankine cycle process and its pure working fluid are designed simultaneously forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine. This approach can overcome designissues caused by the high sensitivity between the fluid and cycle design variables...... the simultaneousdesign approach the optimum solution was found in 5.04 s, while a decomposed approach found thesame solution in 5.77 h. However, the decomposed approach provided insights on the correlationbetween the fluid and cycle design variables by analyzing all possible solutions. It was shown that thehigh...

  3. Conceptual designs and cost estimates of mechanical draft wet/dry and natural draft dry cooling systems using Curtiss-Wright integral fin-tube heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberski, R.J.; Bentz, J.C.

    1979-04-01

    This study was performed to establish a conceptual design and cost evaluation of an advanced technology mechanical draft wet/dry and natural draft dry cooling systems for large electric power plants using a high performance integral fin-tube heat transfer surface. This study was part of an overall DOE program to develop and demonstrate advanced concept cooling systems for large electric power plants. The results obtained show significant economic advantages compared to results previously published for conventional cooling systems. These advantages are due to the higher heat transfer and lower pressure loss which occur with the use of the selected multi-port integral fin-tubes.

  4. Optimal Design of Cogeneration Systems in Industrial Plants Combined with District Heating/Cooling and Underground Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dovì

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP systems in both power stations and large plants are becoming one of the most important tools for reducing energy requirements and consequently the overall carbon footprint of fundamental industrial activities. While power stations employ topping cycles where the heat rejected from the cycle is supplied to domestic and industrial consumers, the plants that produce surplus heat can utilise bottoming cycles to generate electrical power. Traditionally the waste heat available at high temperatures was used to generate electrical power, whereas energy at lower temperatures was either released to the environment or used for commercial or domestic heating. However the introduction of new engines, such as the ones using the organic Rankine cycle, capable of employing condensing temperatures very close to the ambient temperature, has made the generation of electrical power at low temperatures also convenient. On the other hand, district heating is becoming more and more significant since it has been extended to include cooling in the warm months and underground storage of thermal energy to cope with variable demand. These developments imply that electric power generation and district heating/cooling may become alternative and not complementary solutions for waste energy of industrial plants. Therefore the overall energy management requires the introduction of an optimisation algorithm to select the best strategy. In this paper we propose an algorithm for the minimisation of a suitable cost function, for any given variable heat demand from commercial and domestic users, with respect to all independent variables, i.e., temperatures and flowrates of warm fluid streams leaving the plants and volume and nature of underground storage. The results of the preliminary process integration analysis based on pinch technology are used in this algorithm to provide bounds on the values of temperatures.

  5. Bed geometries, fueling strategies and optimization of heat exchanger designs in metal hydride storage systems for automotive applications: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Dornheim, Martin; Sloth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    given to metal hydride storage tanks for light duty vehicles, since this application is the most promising one for such storage materials and has been widely studied in the literature. Enhancing cooling/heating during hydrogen uptake and discharge has found to be essential to improve storage systems...

  6. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development utilizing advanced, high-performance heat transfer techniques. Volume 1. Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-12

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC Demonstration Plant. In turn, this Demonstration Plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an ocean thermal power plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the Demonstration Plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibility studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report describes the full-size power system module, and summarizes the design parameters and associated costs for the Demonstration Plant module (prototype) and projects costs for commercial plants in production. The material presented is directed primarily toward the surface platform/ship basic reference hull designated for use during conceptual design; however, other containment vessels were considered during the design effort so that the optimum power system would not be unduly influenced or restricted. (WHK)

  7. Large Efficient Intelligent Heating Relay Station System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. Z.; Wei, X. G.; Wu, M. Q.

    2017-12-01

    The design of large efficient intelligent heating relay station system aims at the improvement of the existing heating system in our country, such as low heating efficiency, waste of energy and serious pollution, and the control still depends on the artificial problem. In this design, we first improve the existing plate heat exchanger. Secondly, the ATM89C51 is used to control the whole system and realize the intelligent control. The detection part is using the PT100 temperature sensor, pressure sensor, turbine flowmeter, heating temperature, detection of user end liquid flow, hydraulic, and real-time feedback, feedback signal to the microcontroller through the heating for users to adjust, realize the whole system more efficient, intelligent and energy-saving.

  8. District heating substations. Performance, operation and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollerstrand, J.

    1997-09-01

    This thesis work is concerned with the efficient layout and operation of substations, i.e. those district heating (DH) system units which connect the network and internal building heating systems, such as radiator heating systems and domestic hot water distribution networks. The ambition was to make realistic investigations closely related to practical technologies within the field

  9. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  10. Introduction to solar heating and cooling design and sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    This manual is designed to introduce the practical aspects of solar heating/cooling systems to HVAC contractors, architects, engineers, and other interested individuals. It is intended to enable readers to assess potential solar heating/cooling applications in specific geographical areas, and includes tools necessary to do a preliminary design of the system and to analyze its economic benefits. The following are included: the case for solar energy; solar radiation and weather; passive solar design; system characteristics and selection; component performance criteria; determining solar system thermal performance and economic feasibility; requirements, availability, and applications of solar heating systems; and sources of additional information. (MHR)

  11. Design and fabrication of a 3-D printable counter-low/precipitation heat exchanger for use with a novel off-grid solid state refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sean Thomas

    Off-grid refrigeration technologies are currently limited to either vapor-compression cycles driven by photovoltaics or solar thermal absorption cycles. Rebound Technologies has recently developed a novel off-grid refrigeration system called Sunchill(TM) for agricultural applications in humid environments in the developing world. The Sunchill(TM) refrigeration system utilizes the daily high and low temperatures to drive a 24 hour refrigeration cycle. Cooling is provided by the dissolution of an endothermic salt, sodium carbonate decahydrate. Once the salt is solvated and cooling is delivered to freshly harvest crops, the system is "recharged" in a multi-step process that relies on a solar collector, an air-gap membrane unit and a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger, which is the focus of this thesis, is required to remove 36.6 MJ of heat over a twelve hour period in order to "recharge" the system. The heat exchanger is also required to transfer heat from a fresh water stream to a cold brine solution to generate the cold water necessary to submerse and cool harvested crops. To provide a sustainable technology to the target community, the feasibility of fabricating the heat exchanger via the low cost 3-D printing method of fused filament fabrication (FFF) was examined. This thesis presents the design, development, and manufacturing considerations that were performed in support of developing a waterproof, counter-flow, 3-D printable heat exchanger. Initial geometries and performance were modeled by constructing a linear thermal resistance network with truncating temperatures of 30°C (saturated brine temperature) and 18°C (average daily low temperature). The required surface area of the heat exchanger was found to be 20.46 m2 to remove the required 36.6 MJ of heat. Iterative print tests were conducted to arrive at the wall thickness, hexagon shape, and double wall structure of the heat exchanger. A laboratory-scale heat exchanger was fabricated using a Lulzbot Taz 4

  12. Design of serially connected district heating heat pumps utilising a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The design of two heat pumps (HP), connected in series, was investigated for operation in the district heating (DH) network of the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark. The installation was dimensioned to supply 7.2 MW of heat at a temperature of 85 °C. The heat pumps utilise a geothermal heat source...

  13. Ventilation and Heat Recovering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bancea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects concerning the heat reducing for ventilation, achieved by using heat recovering components and a combined heating--ventilating system, assuring both comfort and human health are presented. The floor imbedded systems together with air outlets elements could fulfill all the aesthetically desires, as well as comfort and they are ideal for family houses.

  14. Conceptual design study, Phase 1, Task 7.3. Shutdown heat removal system. Working group final report. Volume 2. Overall results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1979-11-01

    Task 7.3 of the Conceptual Design Study (CDS) had the objective of choosing an optimal Shutdown Heat Removal System (SHRS) for the CDS plant. A working group was formed with the primary objective of defining a SHRS consensus position. This position could define specific recommended system concepts or it could identify the work and information needed to establish the preferred SHRS for the CDS plant. This report documents the recommended SHRS position for CDS.

  15. Ideal Point Design and Operation of CO2-Based Transcritical Rankine Cycle (CTRC System Based on High Utilization of Engine’s Waste Heats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted a study specially to systematically analyze combined recovery of exhaust gas and engine coolant and related influence mechanism, including a detailed theoretical study and an assistant experimental study. In this research, CO2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC was used for fully combining the wastes heats. The main objective of theoretical research was to search an ‘ideal point’ of the recovery system and related influence mechanism, which was defined as operating condition of complete recovery of two waste heats. The theoretical methodology of this study could also provide a design reference for effective combined recovery of two or multiple waste heats in other fields. Based on a kW-class preheated CTRC prototype that was designed by the ‘ideal point’ method, an experimental study was conducted to verify combined utilization degree of two engine waste heats by the CTRC system. The operating results showed that the prototype can gain 44.4–49.8 kW and 22.7–26.7 kW heat absorption from exhaust gas and engine coolant, respectively. To direct practical operation, an experimental optimization work on the operating process was conducted for complete recovery of engine coolant exactly, which avoided deficient or excessive recovery.

  16. Design of combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    )] This paper addresses an experimentally and theoretically investigation of three different marketed combi systems. Two different combi systems, based on the above mentioned system design, with units where the auxiliary energy supply system is built into the same cabinet as the hot-water tank and one combi...... with constant daily hot water consumption, consumption patterns and space heating demand for all days, and the results are used to validate TrnSys models. Based on simulation models of the combi systems, the thermal behavior is simulated and the thermal performance and the solar fraction of the systems...... simulation models where a number of different design-, control- and consumption parameters are varied....

  17. Heat pipe cooling system with sensible heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1988-01-01

    A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat sink material. The use of a sensible heat sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission heat load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.

  18. Guidelines for design and operation of compression heat pump, air conditioning and refrigerating systems with natural working fluids. Final report from Annex 22 of the IEA Heat Pump Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, J. [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    1998-12-01

    The report is divided into seven sections: Section 1, `The Natural Way`, addresses important environmental issues concerning the use of natural working fluids in heat pumping systems, applications where synthetic working fluids traditionally have been the sole alternative. The TEWI (total Equivalent Warming Impact) concept that includes the direct and indirect impact of working fluids and heat pumping systems on global warming is described and discussed in detail. Section 2, `Annex 22, Activities and Results`, presents IEA Annex 22 with regard to participants, main objectives, scope, activities and results during its 3 1/2 years of operation. The activities include both task-sharing activities carried out by all the participating countries as well as cost-sharing activities executed by the Operating Agent. In the presentation, particular focus is placed on the 25 research and development projects that have been carried out in the Annex period. Section 3, `Safety Aspects of Ammonia, Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide`, addresses the safety aspects of ammonia, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide as working fluids in residential, commercial and industrial heat pumping systems. The Quantitative Risk Analysis as well as risk evaluation by means of indices are presented. Safety standards and regulations with regard to classification of working fluids, system design and location, occupancies and maximum working fluid charges are also described. Important physical properties and safety parameters are listed for each of the working fluids, including toxicity, flammability and high pressure characteristics. It is also referred to a number of completed risk analyses. Sections 4 and 5, `Ammonia/Hydrocarbons as Working Fluids`, present the use of ammonia and hydrocarbons as working fluids in heat pumping systems. The basic properties of the fluids are discussed, focusing on design parameters, operational conditions, energy efficiency and safety aspects. Key technologies concerning the

  19. Waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-12-19

    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuit into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.

  20. KSTAR RF heating system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, J. G.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, C. K. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    Design, high-voltage test, and installation of 6 MW ICRF heating system for KSTAR is completed. The antenna demonstrated satisfactory standoff at high voltages up to 41 kV for 300 sec. The result indicates good power handling capabilities of the antenna as high as 10 MW/m2. This power density is equivalent to RF power coupling of 6 MW into a 4 {omega}/m target plasma, and is typical of advanced tokamak heating scenarios. In addition, vacuum feed through, DC break, and liquid stub developed for 300 sec operation are installed, as well as a 2 MW, 30-60MHz transmitter. The transmitter successfully produced output powers of 600 kW continuously, 1.5{approx}1.8 MW for 300 sec, and 2 MW for 100 msec or shorter pulses. A realtime control system based on DSP and EPICS is developed, installed, and tested on the ICRF system. Initial results from feasibility study indicate that the present antenna and the transmission lines could allow load-resilient operation on KSTAR. Until the KSTAR tokamak start to produce plasmas in 2008, however, hands-on operational experiences are obtained from participating in ICRF heating experiments at ASDEX and DIII-D tokamaks arranged through international cooperation.

  1. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  2. Development and application of a specially designed heating system for temperature-programmed high-performance liquid chromatography using subcritical water as the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutenberg, T; Goetze, H-J; Tuerk, J; Ploeger, J; Kiffmeyer, T K; Schmidt, K G; Kohorst, W gr; Rohe, T; Jansen, H-D; Weber, H

    2006-05-05

    A specially designed heating system for temperature-programmed HPLC was developed based on experimental measurements of eluent temperature inside a stainless steel capillary using a very thin thermocouple. The heating system can be operated at temperatures up to 225 degrees C and consists of a preheating, a column heating and a cooling unit. Fast cycle times after a temperature gradient can be realized by an internal silicone oil bath which cools down the preheating and column heating unit. Long-term thermal stability of a polybutadiene-coated zirconium dioxide column has been evaluated using a tubular oven in which the column was placed. The packing material was stable after 50h of operation at 185 degrees C. A mixture containing four steroids was separated at ambient conditions using a mobile phase of 25% acetonitrile:75% deionized water and a mobile phase of pure deionized water at 185 degrees C using the specially designed heating system and the PBD column. Analysis time could be drastically reduced from 17 min at ambient conditions and a flow rate of 1 mL/min to only 1.2 min at 185 degrees C and a flow rate of 5 mL/min. At these extreme conditions, no thermal mismatch was observed and peaks were not distorted, thus underlining the performance of the developed heating system. Temperature programming was performed by separating cytostatic and antibiotic drugs with a temperature gradient using only water as the mobile phase. In contrast to an isocratic elution of this mixture at room temperature, overall analysis time could be reduced two-fold from 20 to 10 min.

  3. District Heating System Using Heat Pump Installations and CHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating puThe article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating pumps, evaporators heating and hot water. Heat pumps use carbon dioxide as refrigerant. During the transitional period of the year, and the summer heat pump for preparing hot-water supply system uses the heat of the surrounding air. The heat of the ambient air is used in the intermediate heat exchanger between the first and second stages of the heat pump to cool the gas after the first stage of the compressor of the heat pump.

  4. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    the inlet water temperature for the Dh preheating gas cooler unit. The lower the inlet temperature, the higher the Cop. The CO{sub 2} system will therefore achieve the highest COP at low city water temperatures, and when there is negligible mixing and minimum conductive heat transfer between the hot and cold water in the DHW tank during the tapping and charging periods. (5) The COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is generally more sensitive to variations in the compressor efficiency than that of conventional brine/water-to-water heat pump systems. It is therefore of particular importance to apply a high-efficiency compressor. (6) At each operating mode and temperature programme, there will be an optimum gas cooler (high-side) pressure that leads to a maximum COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. However, at moderate DHW temperatures, the heat pump can be operated at constant high-side pressure in all heating modes with only a minor reduction in the COP. This is favourable, since it simplifies the operation of the system and reduces the first cost. (7) During operation in the combined heating mode, the COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump may be higher than in the DHW heating mode due to similar temperature approaches at the cold outlet of the gas coolers and lower optimum high-side pressure. The higher the DHW temperature, the larger the COP difference for the operating modes. (8) The integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system will be more complex than the state-of-the art residential heat pump systems due to the requirement for a tripartite gas cooler, extra valves and tubing for by-pass of fluids, an inverter controlled pump in the DHW circuit as well as an especially designed DHW storage tank. The application of optimum high-side pressure control will further increase the technical and operational complexity of the system. (9) Conductive heat transfer between the DHW and the cold city water in the storage tank during the tapping and charging periods

  5. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  6. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  7. Heat Flow Characteristics of a Newly-Designed Cooling System with Multi-Fans and Thermal Baffle in the Wheel Loader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidai Liao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional cooling case, there is usually one fan in charge of heat transfer and airflow for all radiators. However, this seems to be inappropriate, or even insufficient, for modern construction machinery, as its overall heat flow density is increasing but thermal distribution is becoming uneven. In order to ensure that the machine works in a better condition, this paper employs a new cooling system with multiple fans and an independent cooling region. Based on the thermal flow and performance requirements, seven fans are divided into three groups. The independent cooling region is segregated from the engine region by a thermal baffle to avoid heat flowing into the engine region and inducing an overheat phenomenon. The experiment validates the efficiency of the new cooling system and accuracy of simulation. After validation, the simulation then analyzes heat transfer and flow characteristics of the cooling system, changing with different cross-sections in different axis directions, as well as different distances of the fan central axes. Finally, thermal baffles are set among the fan groups and provided a better cooling effect. The research realizes a multi-fan scheme with an independent cooling region in a wheel loader, which is a new, but high-efficiency, cooling system and will lead to a new change of various configurations and project designs in future construction machinery.

  8. A Simplified Heat Pump Model for use in Solar Plus Heat Pump System Simulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Perers, Bengt; Anderssen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger; Kovacs, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the he...

  9. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system......The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...

  10. Space shuttle heat pipe thermal control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    Heat pipe (HP) thermal control systems designed for possible space shuttle applications were built and tested under this program. They are: (1) a HP augmented cold rail, (2) a HP/phase change material (PCM) modular heat sink and (3) a HP radiating panel for compartment temperature control. The HP augmented cold rail is similar to a standard two-passage fluid cold rail except that it contains an integral, centrally located HP throughout its length. The central HP core helps to increase the local power density capability by spreading concentrated heat inputs over the entire rail. The HP/PCM modular heat sink system consists of a diode HP connected in series to a standard HP that has a PCM canister attached to its mid-section. It is designed to connect a heat source to a structural heat sink during normal operation, and to automatically decouple from it and sink to the PCM whenever structural temperatures are too high. The HP radiating panel is designed to conductively couple the panel feeder HPs directly to a fluid line that serves as a source of waste heat. It is a simple strap-on type of system that requires no internal or external line modifications to distribute the heat to a large radiating area.

  11. Low heat transfer oxidizer heat exchanger design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanic, P. G.; Kmiec, T. D.; Peckham, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    The RL10-IIB engine, a derivative of the RLIO, is capable of multi-mode thrust operation. This engine operates at two low thrust levels: tank head idle (THI), which is approximately 1 to 2 percent of full thrust, and pumped idle (PI), which is 10 percent of full thrust. Operation at THI provides vehicle propellant settling thrust and efficient engine thermal conditioning; PI operation provides vehicle tank pre-pressurization and maneuver thrust for log-g deployment. Stable combustion of the RL10-IIB engine at THI and PI thrust levels can be accomplished by providing gaseous oxygen at the propellant injector. Using gaseous hydrogen from the thrust chamber jacket as an energy source, a heat exchanger can be used to vaporize liquid oxygen without creating flow instability. This report summarizes the design and analysis of a United Aircraft Products (UAP) low-rate heat transfer heat exchanger concept for the RL10-IIB rocket engine. The design represents a second iteration of the RL10-IIB heat exchanger investigation program. The design and analysis of the first heat exchanger effort is presented in more detail in NASA CR-174857. Testing of the previous design is detailed in NASA CR-179487.

  12. Investigation of aluminum heat sink design with thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Yazid Ameer, Muhammad; Rahman, Ataur; Khan, Ahsan Ali

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an investigation of aluminium heat sink designs with thermoelectric generator. Basically, for thermoelectric generator (Peltier module), the thermal conversion uses Peltier effect. Two heat sinks with different design, with thermoelectric module of Bismuth Telluride, Bi 2 Te 3 were used in this investigation. The simulation and experimental studies were conducted with two different heat sinks attached with thermoelectric generator (TEG). System modelling was used to collect data and to predict the behaviour and performance of thermoelectric modules. Experiment was conducted in exhaust system at muffler section since the temperature at muffler section meets the requirement of thermoelectric generator.The result of the experiments shows that rectangular fin heat sink is more efficient in heat transfer compared to circular tube fin heat sink due to its geometry and properties.

  13. Experimental evaluation of a breadboard heat and product-water removal system for a space-power fuel cell designed with static water removal and evaporative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Prokipius, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the design of a heat and product-water removal system to be used with fuel cell having static water removal and evaporative cooling. The program, which was conducted on a breadboard version of the system, provided a general assessment of the design in terms of operational integrity and transient stability. This assessment showed that, on the whole, the concept appears to be inherently sound but that in refining this design, several facets will require additional study. These involve interactions between pressure regulators in the pumping loop that occur when they are not correctly matched and the question of whether an ejector is necessary in the system.

  14. Solar Heating Systems: Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This Student Manual for a Solar Heating System curriculum contains 22 units of instructional materials for students to use in a course or courses on solar heating systems (see note). For each unit (task), objectives, assignment sheets, laboratory assignments, information sheets, checkpoints (tests), and job sheets are provided. Materials are set…

  15. Heat loads in hypersonic vehicle design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschel, E.H. [Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Heat loads are the major issue in high-speed vehicle design. Heat loads prediction capabilities need to be improved with regard to the materials and structure concept, and the aerodynamic and propulsion performance. Surface radiation cooling is the basic means to reduce heat loads on high-speed vehicles. Strong couplings can exist with the aerodynamic performance of vehicles, the structure and materials design, and flow-physics and thermochemical phenomena. Qualitative knowledge is available to interpret (computation) results and flight data, and to give the designer insight into related disciplinary and interdisciplinary vehicle design problems. Flow-physics and thermo-chemical models in prediction tools are inadequate. Heat loads and the related surface-temperature effects pose very important and challenging research and development problems. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of failures in operation of heat networks of large heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalskaya, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of deviations in heat network parameters on operation of heating system and hot-water supply systems in buildings is examined. The consequences of a decrease in the water temperature in a heat network under extreme weather conditions in a range below the design ambient air temperature, the efficiency of disconnection of a hot water supply system (HWSS) heater in this period, and deviations in the normal heat supply in the transition period at relatively high outdoor temperatures are considered. The specific and scope of failures depend on the design-heating load to design hot water supply load ratio for the heat network. A mathematical model was developed, and numerical investigation was performed of modern schemes of heat points which are designed primarily for covering the hot water supply load and recovering the heating system heat output in case of low or no hot water consumption in HWSS. The performed calculations demonstrate that the heating system has no time to restore its heat output, thereby considerably reducing air temperature in the heated premises. The lower the ambient air temperature and the lower the ratio of the design loads for hot water supply and heating, the greater is this decrease. At the same time, in case of a sudden decrease in the outdoor temperature and an accident in the heat supply system, the heating system must be the priority consumer, since a heating failure not only decreases the thermal comfort of consumers but can cause emergency situations in local utility systems, such as a cold water supply system. Correction of failures in a heat supply system requires calculation of operating conditions of heat networks.

  17. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for Indirect Forced-Circulation Solar Water Heating System Using NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the multi-objective optimization of an indirect forced-circulation solar water heating (SWH system was performed to obtain the optimal configuration that minimized the life cycle cost (LCC and maximized the life cycle net energy saving (LCES. An elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II was employed to obtain the Pareto optimal solutions of the multi-objective optimization. To incorporate the characteristics of practical SWH systems, operation-related decision variables as well as capacity-related decision variables were included. The proposed method was used to conduct a case study wherein the optimal configuration of the SWH system of an office building was determined. The case study results showed that the energy cost decreases linearly and the equipment cost increases more significantly as the LCES increases. However, the results also showed that it is difficult to identify the best solution among the Pareto optimal solutions using only the correlation between the corresponding objective function values. Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the energy and economic performances of the Pareto optimal solutions are significantly influenced by the ratio of the storage tank volume to the collector area (RVA. Therefore, it is necessary to simultaneously consider the trade-off and the effect of the RVA on the Pareto optimal solutions while selecting the best solution from among the optimal solutions.

  18. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  19. A Novel Design Method for Optimizing an Indirect Forced Circulation Solar Water Heating System Based on Life Cycle Cost Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the energy performance and economic benefits of solar water heating (SWH systems, the installation and operation-related design variables as well as those related to capacity must be optimized. This paper presents a novel design method for simultaneously optimizing the various design variables of an indirect forced-circulation SWH system that is based on the life cycle cost and uses a genetic algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is assessed by evaluating the long-term performance corresponding to four cases, which are optimized using different annual solar fractions and sets of the design variables. When the installation and operation-related design variables were taken into consideration, it resulted in an efficient and economic design and an extra cost reduction of 3.2%–6.1% over when only the capacity-related design variables were considered. In addition, the results of parametric studies show that the slope and mass flow rate of the collector have a significant impact on the energy and economic performances of SWH systems. In contrast, the mass flow rate in the secondary circuit and the differences in the temperatures of the upper and lower dead bands of the differential controller have a smaller impact.

  20. Design and Development of a Sub-Zero Fluid System for Demonstration of Orion's Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Ahlstrom, Thomas D.; Le, Hung V.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle's Exploration Mission 2 is expected to loiter in Lunar orbit for a relatively long period of time. In low Lunar orbit (LLO) the thermal environment is cyclic - extremely cold in the eclipse and relatively hot near the subsolar point. Phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HXs) are the best option for long term missions in these environments. A PCM HX allows a vehicle to store excess waste energy by thawing a phase change material such as n-pentadecane wax. During portions of the orbit that are extremely cold, the excess energy is rejected, resolidifying the wax. Due to the inherent risk of compromising the heat exchanger during multiple freeze and thaw cycles, a unique payload was designed for the International Space Station to test and demonstration the functions of a PCM HX. The payload incorporates the use of a pumped fluid system and a thermoelectric heat exchanger to promote the freezing and thawing of the PCM HX. This paper shall review the design and development undertaken to build such a system.

  1. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...... is a tank in tank heat storage with domestic hot water in the inner tank and space heating water in the outer tank. The total tank volume is 750 liters and the solar collector area is 9 m2. The auxiliary energy supply system is based on electrical heating element(s)/heat pump and is different for all three...... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys...

  2. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...... in the heating system. The heat storage was tested in a heat storage test facility. The most important characteristics of the heat storage were determined by means of the tests and recommendations for the design of the heat storage were given....

  3. Solar heating system installed at Lynchburg, VA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    A detailed design report for a retrofitted solar heating and cooling system for a 1780 square foot office building is presented. The system is composed of a 400 square foot flat plate collector, a 2,000 gallon storage tank, a gas auxiliary boiler, a duct distribution system utilizing a hot water duct coil and water-to-air heat pump, and a hot water preheater. The control system, data acquisition system, technical data, and maintenance procedure are discussed. Detailed specifications, circuits, and drawings for the components are included. (WHK)

  4. Optimal Control of Solar Heating System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2017-02-21

    Forced-circulation solar heating system has been widely used in process and domestic heating applications. Additional pumping power is required to circulate the water through the collectors to absorb the solar energy. The present study intends to develop a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) to obtain the minimum pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net heat energy gain Qnet (= Qs − Wp/ηe) was found to be the cost function for MPPT. The step-up-step-down controller was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.

  5. Design and Economic Potential of an Integrated High-Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Combined Cooling, Heat, and Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Kyle S.

    Clean distributed generation power plants can provide a much needed balance to our energy infrastructure in the future. A high-temperature fuel cell and an absorption chiller can be integrated to create an ideal combined cooling, heat, and power system that is efficient, quiet, fuel flexible, scalable, and environmentally friendly. With few real-world installations of this type, research remains to identify the best integration and operating strategy and to evaluate the economic viability and market potential of this system. This thesis informs and documents the design of a high-temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller demonstration system at a generic office building on the University of California, Irvine (UCI) campus. This work details the extension of prior theoretical work to a financially-viable power purchase agreement (PPA) with regard to system design, equipment sizing, and operating strategy. This work also addresses the metering and monitoring for the system showcase and research and details the development of a MATLAB code to evaluate the economics associated with different equipment selections, building loads, and economic parameters. The series configuration of a high-temperature fuel cell, heat recovery unit, and absorption chiller with chiller exhaust recirculation was identified as the optimal system design for the installation in terms of efficiency, controls, ducting, and cost. The initial economic results show that high-temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller systems are already economically competitive with utility-purchased generation, and a brief case study of a southern California hospital shows that the systems are scalable and viable for larger stationary power applications.

  6. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible heat pipes charged with different filling ratios were measured under thermal power inputs ranging from 2 W to 12 W while the device was bent at different angles. The fabricated heat pipes with a 30% filling ratio demonstrated a low thermal resistance less than 0.01 K/W. Compared with the vertically oriented straight heat pipes, bending from 30° up to 120° has negligible influence on the heat-transfer performance. Furthermore, repeated heating tests indicated that the fabricated flexible heat pipes have consistent and reliable heat-transfer performance, thus would have important applications for advanced thermal management in three dimensional and flexible electronic devices.

  7. Analysis of the design and economics of molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation systems providing heat and power for commercial buildings and H2 for FC vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study models the operation of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) tri-generation systems for “big box” store businesses that combine grocery and retail business, and sometimes gasoline retail. Efficiency accounting methods and parameters for MCFC tri-generation systems have been developed. Interdisciplinary analysis and an engineering/economic model were applied for evaluating the technical, economic, and environmental performance of distributed MCFC tri-generation systems, and for exploring the optimal system design. Model results show that tri-generation is economically competitive with the conventional system, in which the stores purchase grid electricity and NG for heat, and sell gasoline fuel. The results are robust based on sensitivity analysis considering the uncertainty in energy prices and capital cost. Varying system sizes with base case engineering inputs, energy prices, and cost assumptions, it is found that there is a clear tradeoff between the portion of electricity demand covered and the capital cost increase of bigger system size. MCFC Tri-generation technology provides lower emission electricity, heat, and H2 fuel. With NG as feedstock the CO2 emission can be reduced by 10%-43.6%, depending on how the grid electricity is generated. With renewable methane as feedstock CO2 emission can be further reduced to near zero.

  8. Stochastic modelling of central heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    and the degree Erhvervsforsker (a special Danish degree, equivalent to ``Industrial Ph.D.''). The thesis is mainly concerned with experimental design and system identification for individual components in water based central heating systems. The main contribution to this field is on the nonlinear dynamic...

  9. Inverse problem and variation method to optimize cascade heat exchange network in central heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wei, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yinping; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    Urban heating in northern China accounts for 40% of total building energy usage. In central heating systems, heat is often transferred from heat source to users by the heat network where several heat exchangers are installed at heat source, substations and terminals respectively. For given overall heating capacity and heat source temperature, increasing the terminal fluid temperature is an effective way to improve the thermal performance of such cascade heat exchange network for energy saving. In this paper, the mathematical optimization model of the cascade heat exchange network with three-stage heat exchangers in series is established. Aim at maximizing the cold fluid temperature for given hot fluid temperature and overall heating capacity, the optimal heat exchange area distribution and the medium fluids' flow rates are determined through inverse problem and variation method. The preliminary results show that the heat exchange areas should be distributed equally for each heat exchanger. It also indicates that in order to improve the thermal performance of the whole system, more heat exchange areas should be allocated to the heat exchanger where flow rate difference between two fluids is relatively small. This work is important for guiding the optimization design of practical cascade heating systems.

  10. Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics

    2004-07-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)

  11. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Chengyi Song; Wen Shang; Peng Tao; Tao Deng

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible ...

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  13. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.; Minor, Eric N.

    2017-11-14

    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.

  14. Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power Systems (MCNSPS) conceptual design and evaluation report. Volume 2, technologies 1: Reactors, heat transport, integration issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetch, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power System (MCNSPS) study are summarized and candidate systems and subsystems are described. Particular emphasis is given to the heat rejection system and the space reactor subsystem.

  15. Heat exchanger optimization for geothermal district heating systems: A fuel saving approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagdas, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    One of the most commonly used heating devices in geothermal systems is the heat exchanger. The output conditions of heat exchangers are based on several parameters. The heat transfer area is one of the most important parameters for heat exchangers in terms of economics. Although there are a lot of methods to optimize heat exchangers, the method described here is a fairly easy approach. In this paper, a counter flow heat exchanger of geothermal district heating system is considered and optimum design values, which provide maximum annual net profit, for the considered heating system are found according to fuel savings. Performance of the heat exchanger is also calculated. In the analysis, since some values are affected by local conditions, Turkey's conditions are considered. (author)

  16. Combat Vehicle Cooling/Heating Design Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Robert E., and Gaudio, Ralph, Jr.; "Application of the Ranque - Hilsch Vortex Tube to Aircrew Cooling Problems" Report AMRL-TR-67-124; Wright-Patterson... Tube 3-7 3.6 Expendable Heat Sink 3-9 3.7 Absorption Cooling 3-10 3.8 Evaporative Cooling 3-11 3.9 Summary 3-12 4.0 COMPARATIVE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE 4...3-6 3-5 Vortex Tube System Schematic 3-8 3-6 Expendable Heat Sink System Schematic 3-9 3-7 Absorption Cooling System Schematic 3-10 4-1 Air Cycle

  17. Optimum design of heat exchanger for environmental control system of an aircraft using entropy generation minimization (EGM) technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bello-Ochende, T

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available are only significant in the nozzles and diffusers.  The analysis is performed for cruise mode of typical commercial jets.  All devices are adiabatic; heat transfer is only significant in the heat exchangers.  Duct, pipe and valve losses... relation b a bsabs P PTT     00 (5) The diffuser was modelled as an adiabatic device, therefore 𝑇0𝑏 = 𝑇0𝑎 . The diffuser increases the pressure of the air by reducing its velocity; exit pressure at the diffuser is defined by Equation (6...

  18. Design and Economic Analysis of a Heating/Absorption Cooling System Operating with Municipal Solid Waste Digester: A Case Study of Gazi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşar, Gökhan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Amirabedin, Ehsan; Topal, Hüseyin

    2013-12-01

    Recovering energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important issues of energy management in developed countries. This raises even more interest as world fossil fuel reserves diminish and fuel prices rise. Being one of main processes of waste disposal, anaerobic digestion can be used as a means to reduce fossil fuel and electricity consumption as well as reducing emissions. With growing demand for cooling in Turkey, especially during warm seasons and considering the energy costs, utilizing heat-driven absorption cooling systems coupled with an anaerobic digester for local cooling purposes is a potentially interesting alternative for electricity driven compression cooling. The aim of this article is to study the viability of utilizing biogas obtained from MSW anaerobic digestion as the main fuel for heating facilities of Gazi University, Turkey and also the energy source for an absorption cooling system designed for the central library of the aforementioned campus. The results prove that the suggested system is sustainably and financially appealing and has the potential to replace the conventional electricity driven cooling systems with a reasonable net present worth; moreover, it can notably reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  19. District heating (DH) network design and operation toward a system-wide methodology for optimizing renewable energy solutions (SMORES) in Canada: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, A.; Boulter, R.; Church, K.

    2012-01-01

    better energy delivery performance than high-temperature district heating (HTDH) (Tsupply> 100 C), decreasing the heat loss by approximately 40%. The low-temperature networks (Tsupplyinvestment. The implementation...... in Canada. The paper discusses critical issues and quantifies the performance of design concepts for DH supply to low heat density areas. DH is a fundamental energy infrastructure and is part of the solution for sustainable energy planning in Canadian communities....

  20. EHMS: Exhaust Heat Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, T.; Schmidt, M.; Weinbrenner, M.; Geskes, P. [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Pollutant concentrations in diesel engines are reduced by cooling of the recirculated exhaust. This reduces emissions and particulate matter. The cooler technology can also be used for heating the passenger compartment faster and more economically. The authors present a model ready for seral production, including an exhaust flap for bypass control for use as auxiliary heating system. Further applications in gasoline engines are pointed out. (orig.)

  1. Prototype solar heating and hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Alternative approaches to solar heating and hot water system configurations were studied, parametrizing the number and location of the dampers, the number and location of the fans, the interface locations with the furnace, the size and type of subsystems, and operating modes. A two-pass air-heating collector was selected based on efficiency and ease of installation. Also, an energy transport module was designed to compactly contain all the mechanical and electrical control components. System performance calculations were carried out over a heating season for the tentative site location at Tunkhnana, Pa. Results illustrate the effect of collector size, storage capacity, and use of a reflector. Factors which affected system performance include site location, insulative quality of the house, and of the system components. A preliminary system performance specification is given.

  2. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.833 Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. Pressurization ...

  3. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang C.; Mei, Viung C.; Murphy, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  4. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    representation allows infeasible production. Using MIP or NLP optimisation, the number of operation hours and the total production of heat from HPs are significantly increased, as the HPs may be used to shave the load patterns of CHP units in significantly constrained energy systems. A MIP energy system model...

  5. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  6. A model for the evaluation of heat loss from underground cables in non-uniform soil to optimize the system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salata F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of technologies and underground systems, analysis of thermal fields in soil has become a topic of great interest in the developing technology of buried structures. In this work, we have investigated the steady state temperature field (from linear heat sources - buried cable - in a different type of soil and excavation geometry. In a laboratory, a physical model was built on scale, which reproduces an "undisturbed" area containing a linear thermal source. This scale model was produced for experimental activity. A measuring chain was made to analyze the thermal field in various types of soils, by varying the electrical current through the line source. The physical model was recreated using a finite volume calculation software. Analysis of the different field system configurations were completed and we have studied a model for the improvement of the design method.

  7. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. [Sensible heat storage using Caloria HT43 and mixture of gravel and sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The proposed 100-MWe Commercial Plant Thermal Storage System (TSS) employs sensible heat storage using dual liquid and solid media for the heat storage in each of four tanks, with the thermocline principle applied to provide high-temperature, extractable energy independent of the total energy stored. The 10-MW Pilot Plant employs a similar system except uses only a single tank. The high-temperature organic fluid Caloria HT43 and a rock mixture of river gravel and No. 6 silica sand were selected for heat storage in both systems. The system design, installation, performance testing, safety characteristics, and specifications are described in detail. (WHK)

  8. Design considerations for effective control of an afterburner sub-system in a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system (FCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    This article investigates various control strategies for a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system (FCS), with a specific focus on the afterburner sub-system. The afterburner sub-system recovers heat and by-products from the excess fuel and oxidant not consumed within the fuel cell. The overall performance of a CHP FCS depends crucially on the control of the afterburner sub-system because the control of this sub-system (1) determines the extent of thermal energy recovered from the system, between 35 and 55% of fuel energy input; (2) establishes the rate limiting step in the control of the overall CHP FCS because the rate at which the afterburner can combust excess fuel and oxidant safely and raise steam affects the rate at which the fuel cell's electrical power output can change; and (3) impacts upstream mass and energy flows strongly, such as the system's overall water balance and also the raising of steam for the upstream fuel processor and cathode humidification, as this is the point in the system where the CHP FCS becomes closed loop for heat and mass flows. Using an Aspen Plus ® chemical engineering model of the CHP FCS, this article (1) identifies potential challenges in operating the afterburner sub-system, (2) discusses various options for ameliorating those challenges, and (3) recommends viable solutions. The two challenges it discusses in detail are (1) the danger of overheating the afterburner, and (2) the danger of overheating a downstream steam generator. Regarding the first challenge, in the low anode hydrogen utilization (AHU) range (66-85%) specified by some fuel cell manufacturers, the afterburner is in danger of overheating beyond its maximum rated operating point. Regarding the second challenge, also at low anode hydrogen utilizations, the steam generator is in danger of overheating beyond its maximum rated operating point. This article demonstrates that one solution for overcoming these challenges is to dilute the afterburner's stream

  9. Army Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems Program. ML-1 analytical design report. Volume II. Systems analysis: heat transfer and fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1961-01-01

    The analysis preceding and supporting the design of the cooling system of the ML-1, a mobile, low-power, nuclear power plant, is described in sufficient detail for an engineer to follow the development of the design. Test results and similar data are used to support the calculations whenever possible.

  10. Calcium bromide hydration for heat storage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ai Niwa; Noriyuki Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    A chemical reaction is a common and simple way to produce heat for a heat storage system. The reaction produces heat energy without the use of electricity or fuel. The goal of this study was to develop a heat storage system for use in automobiles, which is able to provide heat rapidly via a hydration reaction. A heat storage system without an evaporator stores high-density heat and has a high heat output rate since the solid–liquid product that is formed is transferred as a heat medium to the...

  11. Multi-objective design optimization of a micro heat sink for Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (CPVT) systems using a genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Karathanassis, I. K.; Papanicolaou, E.; Belessiotis, V; Bergeles, G.

    2013-01-01

    An optimization methodology for a microchannel, plate-fin heat sink suitable for the cooling of a linear parabolic trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (CPVT) system is applied in this study. Two different microchannel configurations are considered, Fixed (FWμ) and stepwise Variable-Width (VWμ) microchannels respectively. The performance evaluation criteria comprise the thermal resistance of the heat sink and the cooling medium pressure drop through the heat sink. Initially, the effect o...

  12. Influence of structural design condensing part of NH3 heat pipe to heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantúch Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes influence design heat exchangers to efficiency condensation liquid ammonia in the gravitational heat pipe. Analyse adverse factors in the operation and flow of ammonia in heat pipe. Also describes heat transfer characteristics of heat pipe in low-potential geothermal heat transport simulations.

  13. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  14. Compact interior heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} mobile heat pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, Armin

    2003-07-01

    The natural refrigerant carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers new possibilities for design of flexible, efficient and environmentally safe mobile heat pumping systems. As high-efficient car engines with less waste heat are developed, extra heating of the passenger compartment is needed in the cold season. A reversible transcritical CO{sub 2} system with gliding temperature heat rejection can give high air delivery temperature which results in rapid heating of the passenger compartment and rapid defogging or defrosting of windows. When operated in cooling mode, the efficiency of transcritical CO{sub 2} systems is higher compared to common (HFC) air conditioning systems, at most dominant operating conditions. Several issues were identified for the design of compact interior heat exchangers for automotive reversible CO{sub 2} heat pumping systems. Among theses issues are: (1) Refrigerant flow distribution, (2) Heat exchanger fluid flow circuiting, (3) Air temperature uniformity downstream of the heat exchanger, (4) Minimization of temperature approach, (5) Windshield flash fogging due to retained water inside the heat exchanger, (6) Internal beat conduction in heating mode operation, and (7) Refrigerant side pressure drop In order to provide a basis for understanding these issues, the author developed a calculation model and set up a test facility and investigated different prototype heat exchangers experimentally.

  15. Commercial high efficiency dehumidification systems using heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    An improved heat pipe design using separately connected two-section one-way flow heat pipes with internal microgrooves instead of wicks is described. This design is now commercially available for use to increase the dehumidification capacity of air conditioning systems. The design also includes a method of introducing fresh air into buildings while recovering heat and controlling the humidity of the incoming air. Included are applications and case studies, load calculations and technical data, and installation, operation, and maintenance information.

  16. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltero Victor Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  17. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  18. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...... is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only...... as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found....

  19. Design, development, and fabrication of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem. Potassium bifluoride/water solution investigations. [for portable life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Kellner, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    A series of investigations was conducted to characterize the physical properties of potassium bifluoride and water solutions for use as the fusible heat sink material in a regenerable portable life support system.

  20. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the ongoing development of high temperature PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. High temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer the possibility of using...

  1. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    and modelling a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. Numerical simulations are carried out using an open source software developed at Technical University of Denmark called Dynamic Network Analysis (DNA). The machinery system suggested in this paper...

  2. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  3. Heat Rejection Concepts for Brayton Power Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee; Beach, Duane; Yuko, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications. The Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Space Brayton conversion system designs tend to optimize at efficiencies of about 20 to 25 percent with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 600 K range. A notional HRS was developed for a 100 kWe-class Brayton power system that uses a pumped sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport loop coupled to a water heat pipe radiator. The radiator panels employ a sandwich construction consisting of regularly-spaced circular heat pipes contained within two composite facesheets. Heat transfer from the NaK fluid to the heat pipes is accomplished by inserting the evaporator sections into the NaK duct channel. The paper evaluates various design parameters including heat pipe diameter, heat pipe spacing, and facesheet thickness. Parameters were varied to compare design options on the basis of NaK pump pressure rise and required power, heat pipe unit power and radial flux, radiator panel areal mass, and overall HRS mass.

  4. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Justesen, Kristian Kjær

    The present work describes the ongoing development of high temperature PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. High temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer the possibility of using...... liquid fuels such as methanol, due to the increased robustness of operating at higher temperatures (160-180oC). Using liquid fuels such as methanol removes the high volume demands of compressed hydrogen storages, simplifies refueling, and enables the use of existing fuel distribution systems. The liquid...... methanol is converted to a hydrogen rich gas with CO2 trace amounts of CO, the increased operating temperatures allow the fuel cell to tolerate much higher CO concentrations than Nafion-based membranes. The increased tolerance to CO also enables the use of reformer systems with less hydrogen cleaning steps...

  5. Calcium bromide hydration for heat storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Niwa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemical reaction is a common and simple way to produce heat for a heat storage system. The reaction produces heat energy without the use of electricity or fuel. The goal of this study was to develop a heat storage system for use in automobiles, which is able to provide heat rapidly via a hydration reaction. A heat storage system without an evaporator stores high-density heat and has a high heat output rate since the solid–liquid product that is formed is transferred as a heat medium to the object that requires heat. The exothermic heat produced from the solid–liquid reaction was measured, and the relationship between the equivalence ratio and the reaction heat was evaluated. The heat output and heat recovered by the heat storage system, which comprised a reaction vessel and a heat exchanger, were measured. We selected solid CaBr2 because it was the best metal halide for a hydration reaction and had a high heat yield from the dissolution reaction. With this system, we were able to achieve a heat recovery rate of 582 kJ/L-H2O. We found no degradation in the chemical composition of CaBr2 after it being recycled 100 times.

  6. Coefficient of Performance Stabilisation in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wołoszyn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of installations with ground source heat pumps is steadily increasing. As they involve high investment costs, they require deliberate action and analysis. Research on the influence of design, materials and operating parameters on their coefficient of performance becomes of great importance. In this article the authors propose a new ground source heat pump system with horizontal ground heat exchanger and subsurface irrigation system. In order to examine the possibility of applying the system, the influence of soil moisture content on the heat pump coefficient of performance was investigated in this research. Conducting research on the real object is extremely expensive, so it was decided to conduct simulation studies using the finite element method. The presented results of research confirm that the soil moisture content has the greatest impact on the heat pump system coefficient of performance. The developed ground source heat pump system with subsurface irrigation system allow to reduce the length of ground heat exchanger loop.

  7. Solar hot water space heating system. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, T

    1979-08-13

    A retrofit solar heating system was installed on Madison Hall at Jordan College, Cedar Springs, Michigan. The system provides heating and domestic water preheating for a campus dormitory. Freeze protection is provided by a draindown system. The building and solar system, construction progress, and design changes are described. Included in appendices are: condensate trap design, structural analysis, pictures of installation, operating instructions, maintenance instructions, and as-built drawings. (MHR)

  8. The analysis of thermal network of district heating system from investor point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulics of a thermal network of a district heating system is a very important issue, to which not enough attention is often paid. In this paper the authors want to point out some of the important aspects of the design and operation of thermal networks in district heating systems. The design boundary conditions of a heat distribution network and the requirements on active pressure - circulation pump - influencing the operation costs of the centralized district heating system as a whole, are analyzed in detail. The heat generators and the heat exchange stations are designed according to the design heat loads after thermal insulation, and modern boiler units are installed in the heating plant.

  9. GPM Avionics Module Heat Pipes Design and Performance Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenstein, Laura; DeChristopher, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international network of satellites that provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow. The GPM core satellite carries an advanced radar / radiometer system to measure precipitation from space and serve as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites. Through improved measurements of precipitation globally, the GPM mission will help to advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle, improve forecasting of extreme events that cause natural hazards and disasters, and extend current capabilities in using accurate and timely information of precipitation to directly benefit society. The avionics module on the core satellite contains a number of electronics boxes which are cooled by a network of aluminum/ammonia heat pipes and a honeycomb radiator which contains thirteen embedded aluminum/ammonia heat pipes. All heat pipes were individually tested by the vendor (Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.) prior to delivery. Following delivery to NASA, the flight avionics radiator and the flight spare transport heat pipes were mounted to flight-like test structure and a system level thermal vacuum test was performed. This test, which used simulators in place of all electronics boxes, was done to verify the operation of the thermal control system as a whole. This presentation will discuss the design of the avionics module heat pipes, and then discuss performance tests results for the individual heat pipes prior to delivery and for the system level thermal vacuum test. All heat pipes met their performance requirements. However, it was found that the power was too low in some instances to start all of the smaller radiator spreader heat pipes when they were tested in a reflux configuration (which is the nominal test configuration). Although this lowered the efficiency of the radiator somewhat, it did not impact the operating

  10. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Designs were completed, hardware was received, and hardware was shipped to two sites. A change was made in the heat pump working fluid. Problem investigation of shroud coatings for the collector received emphasis.

  11. CO2 as a heat pump working fluid for retrofitting hydronic heating systems in Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkemann, T.; Kruse, H. [FKW Research Center for Refrigeration and Heat Pumps, University of Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Oostendorp, P.A. [TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The use of heat pumps instead of conventional heating systems seems to be a promising way to reduce CO2 emissions contributing to the global warming impact in the field of space heating. Concerning the equipment of new buildings one can see a growing market for heat pumps in some cases due to governmental supporting measures. Since the number of existing buildings is much higher than the number of new buildings, the use of heat pumps should also be expanded to this market. Due to the design of the older systems with high supply temperatures of the hydronic heating system the application of existing heat pumps is limited. The transcritical process with CO2 seems to be promising for this application. Cycle calculations considering the typical design of existing heating systems were made to obtain information about the cycle characteristics and the energetic behavior of a CO2 heat pump in such a system. The calculations were done for an air to water heat pump since this type is better suited for all-purpose installation for retrofit. It was found that a control of the high side pressure of the heat pump cycle is recommended to achieve a high COP for all seasonary conditions of the heat sink and the heat source as well as for the behavior of the volumetric heating capacity. The use of an internal heat exchanger is however not recommended since the advantages concerning COP and the behavior of the volumetric heating capacity is negligible while it leads to significantly higher discharge temperatures. Seasonal performance factors (SPF) were estimated on the basis of cycle calculations. For a heating system with design supply and return temperatures of 70C and 50C a value of 2.8 was found. In order to optimize the heat pump performance, a modification of the usual design of the heating system is proposed. The temperature difference between supply and return should be enlarged by reducing the mass flow of the water in the existing hydronic system. Calculations show that

  12. Compact seasonal PCM heat storage for solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark

    Space heating of buildings and preparation of domestic hot water accounts for a large part of the society’s energy consumption. Solar radiation is an abundant and renewable energy source which can be harvested by solar collectors and used to cover heating demands in the built environment....... The seasonal availability of solar energy does however not match with the heating demands in buildings which typically are large in winter periods when limited solar energy is available. Heat can be stored over a few days in water stores but continuous heat losses limits the storage periods. The possibility...... of storing heat from summer where solar energy is widely available to winter periods where the heating demands are large, allows for implementing more renewable energy in our energy system. The phase change material (PCM) sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) melts at 58 °C. The melting process requires...

  13. Heat pumps in combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Heat pumps have previously been proposed as a way to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy in DH (district heating) networks by integrating, e.g., wind power. The paper identifies and compares five generic configurations of heat pumps in DH systems. The operational performance...... of the considered cases. When considering a case where the heat pump is located at a CHP (combined heat and power) plant, a configuration that increases the DH return temperature proposes the lowest operation cost, as low as 12 EUR MWh-1 for a 90 °C e 40 °C DH network. Considering the volumetric heating capacity......, a third configuration is superior in all cases. Finally, the three most promising heat pump configurations are integrated in a modified PQ-diagram of the CHP plant. Each show individual advantages, and for two, also disadvantages in order to achieve flexible operation....

  14. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  15. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    , the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...... on the outlet temperature of the gas cooler, the evaporation temperature and the efficiency of the compressor. General correlations for this optimal heat rejection pressure were derived based on cycle simulations. The correlations presented in this paper provide a basis for designing transcritical carbon...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems....

  16. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  17. An optimization approach for district heating strategic network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordin, Chiara; Gordini, Angelo; Vigo, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    District heating systems provide the heat generated in a centralized location to a set of users for their residential and commercial heating requirements. Heat distribution is generally obtained by using hot water or steam flowing through a closed network of insulated pipes and heat exchange

  18. Absorption heat pumps in heating and cooling systems. Absorptiolaempoepumppu rakennusten laemmitys- ja jaeaehdytysjaerjestelmaessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aittomaeki, A.; Vaelimaeki, A.; Koepsi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of an absorption heat pumps as the heating and cooling system of an office building has been studied by means of a simulation model, designed for this application purpose. The effects of an absorption heat pump on emissions that are harmful to the environment depend on the fuel used. If the fuel is lightweight oil or gas, the sulphur and particle emissions diminish, but NO[sub x] and hydrocarbon emissions may increase as the combustion units become smaller. The use of an absorption heat pump reduces CFC emissions because other refrigerants are used in an absorption heat pump.

  19. Absorption heat pumps in heating and cooling systems; Absorptiolaempoepumppu rakennusten laemmitys- ja jaeaehdytysjaerjestelmaessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aittomaeki, A.; Vaelimaeki, A.; Koepsi, M.

    1989-12-31

    The application of an absorption heat pumps as the heating and cooling system of an office building has been studied by means of a simulation model, designed for this application purpose. The effects of an absorption heat pump on emissions that are harmful to the environment depend on the fuel used. If the fuel is lightweight oil or gas, the sulphur and particle emissions diminish, but NO{sub x} and hydrocarbon emissions may increase as the combustion units become smaller. The use of an absorption heat pump reduces CFC emissions because other refrigerants are used in an absorption heat pump.

  20. Thermal Transport Model for Heat Sink Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James A.; Kelley, Richard L.; Brown, Ari D.; Smith, Stephen J.; Kilbourne, Caroline a.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the development of a finite element model for describing thermal transport through microcalorimeter arrays in order to assist in heat-sinking design. A fabricated multi-absorber transition edge sensor (PoST) was designed in order to reduce device wiring density by a factor of four. The finite element model consists of breaking the microcalorimeter array into separate elements, including the transition edge sensor (TES) and the silicon substrate on which the sensor is deposited. Each element is then broken up into subelements, whose surface area subtends 10 10 microns. The heat capacity per unit temperature, thermal conductance, and thermal diffusivity of each subelement are the model inputs, as are the temperatures of each subelement. Numerical integration using the Finite in Time Centered in Space algorithm of the thermal diffusion equation is then performed in order to obtain a temporal evolution of the subelement temperature. Thermal transport across interfaces is modeled using a thermal boundary resistance obtained using the acoustic mismatch model. The document concludes with a discussion of the PoST fabrication. PoSTs are novel because they enable incident x-ray position sensitivity with good energy resolution and low wiring density.

  1. Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems in Buildings Supplied by Low-Temperature District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek

    District heating (DH) systems supplied by renewable energy sources are one of the main solutions for achieving a fossil-free heating sector in Denmark by 2035. To reach this goal, the medium temperature DH used until now needs to transform to a new concept reflecting the requirement for lower heat...... loss from DH networks required by the reduced heating demand of low-energy and refurbished buildings combined with the lower supply temperatures required by using renewable heat sources. Both these needs meet in the recently developed concept of low-temperature DH designed with supply....../return temperatures as low as 50°C/25°C and highly insulated pipes with reduced inner diameter. With this design, the heat loss from the DH networks can be reduced to one quarter of the value for traditional DH designed and operated for temperatures of 80°C/40°C. However, such low temperatures bring challenges...

  2. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  3. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo; Capaz, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    We propose using phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body. The mechanism is based on inducing a traveling modulation of the acoustic phonon velocity along the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pumping can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We have derived an estimate of the lowest achievable temperature. We have also analyzed this mechanism in the framework of simple one-dimensional microscopic models, which can be exactly solved with non-equilibrium Green function techniques. J. S. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.

  4. Induction Heating Process Design Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Triwinarko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating is clean environmental heating process due to a non-contact heating process. There is lots of the induction heating type that be used in the home appliance but it is still new technology in Indonesia. The main interesting area of the induction heating design is the efficiency of the usage of energy and choice of the plate material. COMSOL Multiphysics Software can be used to simulate and estimate the induction heating process. Therefore, the software can be used to design the induction heating process that will have a optimum efficiency. The properties of the induction heating design were also simulated and analyzed such as effect of inductors width, inductors distance, and conductive plate material. The result was shown that the good design of induction heating must have a short width and distance inductor and used silicon carbide as material plate with high frequency controller.

  5. Advances in design of air-heating collectors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johannsen, A

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the operation of air-heating collectors are discussed. The fundamental differences between the design principles of air-heating as opposed to water-heating collectors are highlighted. The main requirement is the transfer of heat from...

  6. Study and development of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle (design and testing of flow directors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the fabrication, design of flow director, fluid flow direction analysis and testing of flow director of a magnetic heat pump. The objectives of the project are: (1) to fabricate a demonstration magnetic heat pump prototype with flow directors installed; and (2) analysis and testing of flow director and to make sure working fluid loops flow through correct directions with minor mixing. The prototype was fabricated and tested at the Development Testing Laboratory of Kennedy Space Center. The magnetic heat pump uses rear earth metal plates rotate in and out of a magnetic field in a clear plastic housing with water flowing through the rotor plates to provide temperature lift. Obtaining the proper water flow direction has been a problem. Flow directors were installed as flow barriers between separating point of two parallel loops. Function of flow directors were proven to be excellent both analytically and experimentally.

  7. Agent-based modelling of heating system adoption in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper introduces agent-based modelling as a methodological approach to understand the effect of decision making mechanism on the adoption of heating systems in Norway. The model is used as an experimental/learning tool to design possible interventions, not for prediction. The intended users of the model are therefore policy designers. Primary heating system adoptions of electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were selected. Random topology was chosen to represent social network among households. Agents were households with certain location, number of peers, current adopted heating system, employed decision strategy, and degree of social influence in decision making. The overall framework of decision-making integrated theories from different disciplines; customer behavior theory, behavioral economics, theory of planned behavior, and diffusion of innovation, in order to capture possible decision making processes in households. A mail survey of 270 Norwegian households conducted in 2008 was designed specifically for acquiring data for the simulation. The model represents real geographic area of households and simulates the overall fraction of adopted heating system under study. The model was calibrated with historical data from Statistics Norway (SSB). Interventions with respects to total cost, norms, indoor air quality, reliability, supply security, required work, could be explored using the model. For instance, the model demonstrates that a considerable total cost (investment and operating cost) increase of electric heating and heat pump, rather than a reduction of wood pellet heating's total cost, are required to initiate and speed up wood pellet adoption. (Author)

  8. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  9. Heat pump for district cooling and heating at Oslo Airport, Gardermoen[Aquifer thermal energy systems (ATES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, Geir; Vangsnes, Geir

    2006-07-01

    At Gardermoen, one of the largest groundwater reservoirs in Norway is located. This aquifer is used for both heating and cooling of Gardermoen Airport. In the summer, ground water is pumped from cold wells and used for cooling before it is returned to the warm wells. In winter, this process is turned around, as ground water from the warm wells is used as heat source for the heat pump. The heat pump is mainly designed for cooling, and the design cooling demand is 9 MW. The district cooling water is pre-cooled by the ground water, and post cooled by the combined heat pump/refrigeration plant. The base heat load is covered by the heat pump. Additional heat is supplied from a heat energy central with bio fuels as well as oil heated and electrically heated boilers. During the last years, heat production from the heat pump was about 11 GWh/year, and the heat pump also provides about 8 GWh/year of the cooling demand. In addition, approximately 3 GWh/year cold is produced by direct heat exchange with ground water. Compared with a district heating system heated by fossil fuels, and a conventional refrigeration system for district cooling, the pay back period for the aquifer heat pump system is within a couple of years (author) (ml)

  10. Heat-load simulator for heat sink design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, A. M.; Vaughn, T. J.

    1968-01-01

    Heat-load simulator is fabricated from 1/4-inch aluminum plate with a contact surface equal in dimensions and configuration to those of the electronic installation. The method controls thermal output to simulate actual electronic component thermal output.

  11. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  12. Introduction to thermo-fluids systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia McDonald, André

    2012-01-01

    A fully comprehensive guide to thermal systems design covering fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer and thermodynamic power cycles Bridging the gap between the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics, and the practical design of thermo-fluids components and systems, this textbook focuses on the design of internal fluid flow systems, coiled heat exchangers and performance analysis of power plant systems. The topics are arranged so that each builds upon the previous chapter to convey to the reader that topics are not stand-alone i

  13. Heat pipe heat rejection system. [for electrical batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroliczek, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype of a battery heat rejection system was developed which uses heat pipes for more efficient heat removal and for temperature control of the cells. The package consists of five thermal mock-ups of 100 amp-hr prismatic cells. Highly conductive spacers fabricated from honeycomb panels into which heat pipes are embedded transport the heat generated by the cells to the edge of the battery. From there it can be either rejected directly to a cold plate or the heat flow can be controlled by means of two variable conductance heat pipes. The thermal resistance between the interior of the cells and the directly attached cold plate was measured to be 0.08 F/Watt for the 5-cell battery. Compared to a conductive aluminum spacer of equal weight the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer has approximately one-fifth of the thermal resistance. In addition, the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer virtually eliminates temperature gradients along the cells.

  14. Heat pump concepts for nZEB Technology developments, design tools and testing of heat pump systems for nZEB in the USA: Country report IEA HPT Annex 40 Task 2, Task 3 and Task 4 of the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Payne, W. Vance [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ling, Jiazhen [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Radermacher, Reinhard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The IEA HPT Annex 40 "Heat pump concepts for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings" deals with the application of heat pumps as a core component of the HVAC system for Nearly or Net Zero energy buildings (nZEB). This report covers Task 2 on the system comparison and optimisation and Task 3 dedicated to the development of adapted technologies for nZEB and field monitoring results of heat pump systems in nZEB. In the US team three institutions are involved and have worked on the following projects: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will summarize development activities through the field demonstration stage for several integrated heat pump (IHP) systems electric ground-source (GS-IHP) and air-source (AS-IHP) versions and an engine driven AS-IHP version. The first commercial GS-IHP product was just introduced to the market in December 2012. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex. The University of Maryland will contribute a software development project to Task 2 of the Annex. The software ThermCom evaluates occupied space thermal comfort conditions accounting for all radiative and convective heat transfer effects as well as local air properties. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working on a field study effort on the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF). This residential building was constructed on the NIST campus and officially opened in summer 2013. During the first year, between July 2013 and June 2014, baseline performance of the NZERTF was monitored under a simulated occupancy protocol. The house was equipped with an air-to-air heat pump which included a dedicated dehumidification operating mode. Outdoor conditions, internal loads and modes of heat pump operation were monitored. Field study results with respect to heat pump operation will be reported and recommendations on heat pump optimization for a net zero energy building will be provided. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex.

  15. Learning Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Harold G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need to learn how to design learning systems involving the synthesis of systems thinking and design actions. Design intelligence is considered, based on theories of multiple intelligence; new models of the information age that require systems design are discussed; and the roles of symbolic analysts and symbolic synthesists are…

  16. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Super-insulated homes offer many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for super insulated homes.

  17. Design and test of a self-controlled heat pipe radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdling, B.; Hembach, R.

    1973-01-01

    A 15,000-W spacecraft waste heat rejection system utilizing heat pipe radiator panels has been investigated. Of the several concepts initially identified, a series system was selected for more in-depth analysis. As a demonstration of system feasibility, a nominal 500-W radiator panel has been designed, built, and bench tested. The panel, which is a module of the 15,000-W system, consists of a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) header, and six isothermalizer heat pipes attached to a radiator. The thermal load to the VCHP is supplied by a Freon 21 liquid loop via an integral heat exchanger. This paper describes the results of the system studies and the radiator design. Also presented are test data on the VCHP, heat exchanger and isothermalizer heat pipes.

  18. The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool -- Mark IV User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-09-27

    The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool consists of a Modulating HPDM (Heat Pump Design Model) and a parametric-analysis (contour-data generating) front-end. Collectively the program is also referred to as MODCON which is in reference to the modulating and the contour data generating capabilities. The program was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Department of Energy to provide a publicly-available system design tool for variable- and single-speed heat pumps.

  19. Heat and mass transfer in building services design

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Building design is increasingly geared towards low energy consumption. Understanding the fundamentals of heat transfer and the behaviour of air and water movements is more important than ever before. Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Services Design provides an essential underpinning knowledge for the technology subjects of space heating, water services, ventilation and air conditioning. This new text: *provides core understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow from a building services perspective *complements a range of courses in building services engineering *

  20. Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, October 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    The goals of this project are: (1) to develop guidelines for the design and use of thermosypohon side-arm heat exchangers in solar domestic water heating systems, and (2) to establish appropriate modeling and testing criteria for evaluating the performance of systems using this type of heat exchanger.

  1. Indoor temperatures for calculating room heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a typical office room with a radiant heating system and a mechanical ventilation system was selected as the research subject. Indoor temperature formulas for calculating the room heat loss (including transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss) and heating capacity of the hybrid...... for calculating ventilation heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... change rates on the indoor temperatures were performed using the proposed model. When heated surface temperatures and air change rates were from 21.0 to 29.0 degrees C and from 0.5 to 4.0 h-1, the indoor temperatures for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss were between 20...

  2. An Integrated Control System for Heating and Indoor Climate Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature hydronic heating and cooling systems connected to renewable energy sources have gained more attention in the recent decades. This is due to the growing public awareness of the adverse environmental impacts of energy generation using fossil fuel. Radiant hydronic sub-floor heating...... in terms of energy efficiency, associated energy cost and occupants’ thermal comfort is the main objective to be fulfilled via design of an integrated controller. We also proposed control strategies to manage energy consumption of the building to turn domestic heat demands into a flexible load in the smart...... which geothermal heat pump, solar driven heat pumps and the other types are categorized as renewable or renewable energy sources. In the present study, we investigated modeling and control of hydronic heat emitters integrated with a ground-source heat pump. Optimization of the system performance...

  3. Industrial heating principles, techniques, materials, applications, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Deshmukh, Yeshvant V

    2005-01-01

    Industry relies on heating for a wide variety of processes involving a broad range of materials. Each process and material requires heating methods suitable to its properties and the desired outcome. Despite this, the literature lacks a general reference on design techniques for heating, especially for small- and medium-sized applications. Industrial Heating: Principles, Techniques, Materials, Applications, and Design fills this gap, presenting design information for both traditional and modern heating processes and auxiliary techniques.The author leverages more than 40 years of experience int

  4. Intensification of Convective Heat Transfer in Heating Device of Mobile Heating System with BH-Heat Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Directions pertaining to intensification of convective heat transfer in a soft heating device have been experimentally investigated  in the paper and the most efficient one has been selected that is creation of artificial roughness on the device surface. The considered heating device for a heat supply system of a mobile object has been made of soft polymer material (polyvinyl chloride. Following  evaluation results of  heat exchange intensification a criteria equation has been obtained for calculation of external heat transfer with due account of heat transfer intensification.

  5. Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat integration to minimise energy usage in multipurpose batch plants has been in published literature for more than two decades. In most present methods, time is fixed a priori through a known schedule, which leads to suboptimal results...

  6. Software Design Analyzer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    CRISP80 software design analyzer system a set of programs that supports top-down, hierarchic, modular structured design, and programing methodologies. CRISP80 allows for expression of design as picture of program.

  7. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  8. A heating system for piglets in farrowing house using waste heat from biogas engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payungsak Junyusen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design and test a heating system for piglets in farrowing house by utilising the waste heat from a biogas engine as a heat source. The study was separated into three parts: the study on the biogas combined heat and power plant, the investigation on the properties of the heat panel, and the installation and testing of the heating system. From the experiment, the condition producing 60 kW of electrical power was a proper one, in which electrical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were 14% and 1.22 m3/kWh respectively. Generating both electricity and heat increased the overall efficiency to 37.7% and decreased the specific fuel consumption to 0.45 m3/kWh. The heat panel, which was made of a plastic material, had a thermal conductivity of 0.58 W/mC and the maximum compressive force and operating pressure of 8.1 kN and 0.35 bar respectively. The surface temperature of the panel was dependent on the inlet water temperature. When hot water of 44C was supplied into the farrowing house with room temperature of 26C, the average surface temperature was 33C. The developed heating system could provide heat for 4.3 farrowing houses. The payback period of this project was 2.5 years.

  9. Design Guideline for Primary Heat Exchanger in a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sunil; Seo, Kyoung-Woo; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Chi, Dae-Young; Park, Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, analytical study is conducted to track the variation of the PCS outlet temperature in conditions of the constant core power and constant SCS inlet temperature. The PCS circulates demineralized water to remove the heat generated in reactor core. The heat is transferred to the cold water of the SCS through the primary heat exchanger. In JRTR, Plate-type Heat Exchanger (PHE) was used as the primary heat exchanger. The cooling tower automatically sets the SCS inlet temperature constant by fan speed control. The flow rate of SCS is adjusted to be identical with the PCS flow rate. To design the PHE, the inlet and outlet temperatures and the flow rates for both systems should be determined. The flow rate has the allowable band for the safe operation from the lower limit to upper limit resulting in different temperature distribution in the PHE. Specially, the PCS outlet temperature which is the core inlet temperature is used for a safety parameter for the reactor shutdown. Therefore, we need to figure out which limit for the flow rate should be used from the conservative point of view. At 200 kg/s of PCS and SCS flow rates, the inlet and outlet temperatures are 41.3℃and 34℃, respectively. With increase of the flow rate, both of PCS inlet and outlet temperatures decrease to 33.6℃ and 39.9℃. This result means the low limit of the allowable flow band should be used for the conservative design of primary heat exchanger. If the upper limit of the allowable flow band is used, the PCS outlet temperature which is the safety parameter used for the reactor shutdown increases with decrease of the flow rate.

  10. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  11. Port Graham Community Building Biomass Heating Design Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Patrick [Port Graham Village Corporation, Anchorage, AK (United States); Sink, Charles [Chugachmiut, Anchorage, Alaska (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Native Village of Port Graham completed preconstruction activities to prepare for construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system to five or more community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Project Description Native Village of Port Graham (NVPG) completed preconstruction activities that pave the way towards reduced local energy costs through the construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system. NVPG plans include installation of a GARN WHS 3200 Boiler that uses cord wood as fuel source. Implementation of the 700,000 Btu per hour output biomass community building heat utility would heat 5-community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Heating system is estimated to displace 85% of the heating fuel oil or 5365 gallons of fuel on an annual basis with an estimated peak output of 600,000 Btu per hour. Estimated savings is $15,112.00 per year. The construction cost estimate made to install the new biomass boiler system is estimated $251,693.47 with an additional Boiler Building expansion cost estimated at $97,828.40. Total installed cost is estimated $349,521.87. The WHS 3200 Boiler would be placed inside a new structure at the old community Water Plant Building site that is controlled by NVPG. Design of the new biomass heat plant and hot water loop system was completed by Richmond Engineering, NVPG contractor for the project. A hot water heat loop system running off the boiler is designed to be placed underground on lands controlled by NVPG and stubbed to feed hot water to existing base board heating system in the following community buildings: 1. Anesia Anahonak Moonin Health and Dental Clinic 2. Native Village of Port Graham offices 3. Port Graham Public Safety Building/Fire Department 4. Port Graham Corporation Office Building which also houses the Port Graham Museum and Head Start Center 5. North Pacific Rim Housing Authority Workshop/Old Fire Hall Existing community buildings fuel oil heating systems are to be retro-fitted to

  12. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  13. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results....

  14. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Matuska; Borivoj Sourek

    2017-01-01

    Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized loa...

  15. Plasma heating systems planned for the Argonne experimental power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoncini, P.; Brooks, J.; Fasolo, J.; Mills, F.; Moretti, A.; Norem, J.

    1976-01-01

    A scoping study and conceptual design of a tokamak experimental power reactor (TEPR) have been completed. The design objectives of the TEPR are to operate for ten years at or near electrical power breakeven conditions with a duty factor of greater than or equal to 50 percent and to demonstrate the feasibility of tokamak fusion power reactor techniques. These objectives can be met by a design which has a major radius of 6.25 m and a plasma radius of 2.1 m. Parameters for this reactor are listed, and a diagram is given. This paper will describe TEPR plasma heating systems. Neutral beam heating and rf heating are described.

  16. A Comparison between heat transfer performance of rectangular and semicircular tubes considering boundary effects on Brownian motions in the presence of Ag / water nanofluids: Applicable in the design of cooling system of photovoltaic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Jafarimoghaddam

    Full Text Available The present study aims to experimentally investigate heat transfer performance of rectangular and semicircular tubes in the presence of Ag / water nanofluids. The nanoparticles of Ag (silver were used in seven different volume concentrations of 0.03%, 0.07%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 1% and 2%. The experiment was conducted in relatively low Reynolds numbers of 301 to 740. A heater with the power of 200 W was used to keep the outer surface of the tubes under a constant heat flux condition. In addition, the rectangular tube has been designed within the same length as the semicircular one and also within the same hydraulic diameter. Moreover, the average nanoparticles size was 20 nm. The outcome results of the present empirical work indicate that, for all the examined Reynolds numbers, the semicircular tube has higher convective heat transfer coefficient for all the utilized volume concentrations of Ag nanoparticles. The possible reasons behind this advantage are discussed through the present work mainly by taking the boundary effect on Brownian motions into account. Coming to this point that the conventional design for cooling system of photovoltaic cells is a heat sink with the rectangular graves, it is discussed that using a semicircular design may have the advantage over the rectangular one in convective heat transfer coefficient enhancement and hence a better cooling performance for these solar cells.

  17. A Comparison between heat transfer performance of rectangular and semicircular tubes considering boundary effects on Brownian motions in the presence of Ag / water nanofluids: Applicable in the design of cooling system of photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarimoghaddam, Amin; Aberoumand, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to experimentally investigate heat transfer performance of rectangular and semicircular tubes in the presence of Ag / water nanofluids. The nanoparticles of Ag (silver) were used in seven different volume concentrations of 0.03%, 0.07%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 1% and 2%. The experiment was conducted in relatively low Reynolds numbers of 301 to 740. A heater with the power of 200 W was used to keep the outer surface of the tubes under a constant heat flux condition. In addition, the rectangular tube has been designed within the same length as the semicircular one and also within the same hydraulic diameter. Moreover, the average nanoparticles size was 20 nm. The outcome results of the present empirical work indicate that, for all the examined Reynolds numbers, the semicircular tube has higher convective heat transfer coefficient for all the utilized volume concentrations of Ag nanoparticles. The possible reasons behind this advantage are discussed through the present work mainly by taking the boundary effect on Brownian motions into account. Coming to this point that the conventional design for cooling system of photovoltaic cells is a heat sink with the rectangular graves, it is discussed that using a semicircular design may have the advantage over the rectangular one in convective heat transfer coefficient enhancement and hence a better cooling performance for these solar cells.

  18. Optimum design parameters of a heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Bayram; Yakut, Kenan; Kotcioglu, Isak [Ataturk Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey); Celik, Cafer [Ataturk Univ., Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2005-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the longitudinal and lateral separations of consecutively enlarged-contracted arranged fin pairs, widths of the fins, angle of attack, heights of fins and flow velocity on the heat and pressure drop characteristics were investigated using the Taguchi experimental-design method. Nusselt number and friction factor were considered as performance parameters. An L{sub 18}(2{sup 1}*3{sup 7}) orthogonal array was selected as an experimental plan for the eight parameters mentioned above. First of all, each goal was optimized, separately. Then, all the goals were optimized together, considering the priority of the goals, and the optimum results were found to be fin width of 15 mm, angle of attack of 15 deg, fin height of 100 mm, span-wise distance between fins of 20 mm, stream-wise distance between fins of 10 mm, span-wise distance between slices of 20 mm, stream-wise distances between slices of 20 mm at a flow velocity of 4 m/s. (Author)

  19. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in the latent heat of molten salts as a means of conserving fossil fuels and lowering the cost of electric power was evaluated. Public utility systems provided electric power on demand. This demand is generally maximum during late weekday afternoons, with considerably lower overnight and weekend loads. Typically, the average demand is only 60% to 80% of peak load. As peak load increases, the present practice is to purchase power from other grid facilities or to bring older less efficient fossil-fuel plants on line which increase the cost of electric power. The widespread use of oil-fired boilers, gas turbine and diesel equipment to meet peaking loads depletes our oil-based energy resources. Heat exchangers utilizing molten salts can be used to level the energy consumption curve. The study begins with a demand analysis and the consideration of several existing modern fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants for use as models. Salts are evaluated for thermodynamic, economic, corrosive, and safety characteristics. Heat exchanger concepts are explored and heat exchanger designs are conceived. Finally, the economics of TES conversions in existing plants and new construction is analyzed. The study concluded that TES is feasible in electric power generation. Substantial data are presented for TES design, and reference material for further investigation of techniques is included.

  20. LPV Identification of a Heat Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with incremental system identification of district heating systems to improve control performance. As long as various parameters, e.g. valve settings, are kept fixed, the dynamics of district heating systems can be approximated well by linear models; however, the dynamics change ...

  1. A Project to Design and Build Compact Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Students designed and manufactured compact, shell-and-tube heat exchangers in a project-based learning exercise integrated with our heat transfer course. The heat exchangers were constructed from common building materials available at home improvement centers. The cost of materials for a device was less than $20. The project gave students…

  2. Performance of Different Experimental Absorber Designs in Absorption Heat Pump Cycle Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ibarra-Bahena

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The absorber is a major component of absorption cycle systems, and its performance directly impacts the overall size and energy supplies of these devices. Absorption cooling and heating cycles have different absorber design requirements: in absorption cooling systems, the absorber works close to ambient temperature, therefore, the mass transfer is the most important phenomenon in order to reduce the generator size; on the other hand, in heat transformer absorption systems, is important to recover the heat delivered by exothermic reactions produced in the absorber. In this paper a review of the main experimental results of different absorber designs reported in absorption heat pump cycles is presented.

  3. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  4. An experimental investigation devoted to determine heat transfer characteristics in a radiant ceiling heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Aliihsan; Acikgoz, Ozgen; Çebi, Alican; Çetin, Gürsel; Dalkilic, Ahmet Selim; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-08-01

    Investigations on heated ceiling method can be considered as a new research area in comparison to the common wall heating-cooling and cooled ceiling methods. In this work, heat transfer characteristics of a heated radiant ceiling system was investigated experimentally. There were different configurations for a single room design in order to determine the convective and radiative heat transfer rates. Almost all details on the arrangement of the test chamber, hydraulic circuit and radiant panels, the measurement equipment and experimental method including uncertainty analysis were revealed in detail indicating specific international standards. Total heat transfer amount from the panels were calculated as the sum of radiation to the unheated surfaces, convection to the air, and conduction heat loss from the backside of the panels. Integral expression of the view factors was calculated by means of the numerical evaluations using Matlab code. By means of this experimental chamber, the radiative, convective and total heat-transfer coefficient values along with the heat flux values provided from the ceiling to the unheated surrounding surfaces have been calculated. Moreover, the details of 28 different experimental case study measurements from the experimental chamber including the convective, radiative and total heat flux, and heat output results are given in a Table for other researchers to validate their theoretical models and empirical correlations.

  5. An experimental investigation devoted to determine heat transfer characteristics in a radiant ceiling heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Aliihsan; Acikgoz, Ozgen; Çebi, Alican; Çetin, Gürsel; Dalkilic, Ahmet Selim; Wongwises, Somchai

    2018-02-01

    Investigations on heated ceiling method can be considered as a new research area in comparison to the common wall heating-cooling and cooled ceiling methods. In this work, heat transfer characteristics of a heated radiant ceiling system was investigated experimentally. There were different configurations for a single room design in order to determine the convective and radiative heat transfer rates. Almost all details on the arrangement of the test chamber, hydraulic circuit and radiant panels, the measurement equipment and experimental method including uncertainty analysis were revealed in detail indicating specific international standards. Total heat transfer amount from the panels were calculated as the sum of radiation to the unheated surfaces, convection to the air, and conduction heat loss from the backside of the panels. Integral expression of the view factors was calculated by means of the numerical evaluations using Matlab code. By means of this experimental chamber, the radiative, convective and total heat-transfer coefficient values along with the heat flux values provided from the ceiling to the unheated surrounding surfaces have been calculated. Moreover, the details of 28 different experimental case study measurements from the experimental chamber including the convective, radiative and total heat flux, and heat output results are given in a Table for other researchers to validate their theoretical models and empirical correlations.

  6. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  7. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient.

  8. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  9. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology: (1) Heat flux is one of a number of parameters, together with pressure, temperature, flow, etc. of interest to engine designers and fluid dynamists, (2) The measurement of heat flux is of interest in directly determining the cooling requirements of hot section blades and vanes, and (3)In addition, if the surface and gas temperatures are known, the measurement of heat flux provides a value for the convective heat transfer coefficient that can be compared with the value provided by CFD codes.

  10. Greenhouse cooling and heat recovery using fine wire heat exchangers in a closed pot plant greenhouse: design of an energy producing greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.C.; Zwart, de H.F.; Campen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse cooling system with heat storage for completely closed greenhouses has been designed, based on the use of a fine wire heat exchanger. The performance of the fine wire heat exchangers was tested under laboratory conditions and in a small greenhouse compartment. The effects of the system

  11. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Tomsik, T. M.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Conyers, H. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2014-01-01

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  12. Genetic Algorithm Design of a 3D Printed Heat Sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tong [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a genetic algorithm- (GA-) based approach is discussed for designing heat sinks based on total heat generation and dissipation for a pre-specified size andshape. This approach combines random iteration processesand genetic algorithms with finite element analysis (FEA) to design the optimized heat sink. With an approach that prefers survival of the fittest , a more powerful heat sink can bedesigned which can cool power electronics more efficiently. Some of the resulting designs can only be 3D printed due totheir complexity. In addition to describing the methodology, this paper also includes comparisons of different cases to evaluate the performance of the newly designed heat sinkcompared to commercially available heat sinks.

  13. Two-phase plate-fin heat exchanger modeling for waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; de Jager, B.; Willems, F.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and model validation for a modular two-phase heat exchanger that recovers energy in heavy-duty diesel engines. The model is developed for temperature and vapor quality prediction and for control design of the waste heat recovery system. In the studied waste heat

  14. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Control of the heating and cooling system needs to be able to maintain the indoor temperatures within the comfort range under the varying internal loads and external climates. To maintain a stable thermal environment, the control system needs to maintain the balance between the heat gain/loss of ...

  15. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant h...

  16. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  17. Solar water heating for aquaculture : optimizing design for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Thwaites, J. [Taylor Munro Energy Systems Inc., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a solar water heating project at Redfish Ranch, the first Tilapia tropical fish farm in British Columbia. The fish are raised in land-based tanks, eliminating the risk of contamination of local ecosystems. As a tropical species, they requires warm water. Natural gas or propane boilers are typically used to maintain tank temperatures at 26 to 28 degrees C. Redfish Ranch uses solar energy to add heat to the fish tanks, thereby reducing fossil-fuel combustion and greenhouse gas emissions. This unique building-integrated solar system is improving the environmental status of of this progressive industrial operation by offsetting fossil-fuel consumption. The system was relatively low cost, although substantial changes had to be made to the roof of the main building. The building-integrated design of the solar water heating system has reduced operating costs, generated local employment, and shows promise of future activity. As such, it satisfies the main criteria for sustainability. 7 refs.

  18. Designing photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.J.

    1987-03-22

    Photovoltaic system design understanding has matured rapidly in the last decade. Initially the design process emphasized detailed modeling, load match, and on-site energy storage. This entire approach ended once the systems were allowed to operate interactively with the utility. Current design thinking emphasizes system energy cost in relation to utility avoided cost. This leads to a new logic that allows for much simplified design procedures. This paper reviews these procedures for the two types of grid-connected photovoltaic systems and presents a brief discussion of balance-of-system options.

  19. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    The project “Solar/electric heating systems in the future energy system” was carried out in the period 2008‐2013. The project partners were DTU Byg, DTU Informatics (now DTU Compute), DMI, ENFOR A/S and COWI A/S. The companies Ajva ApS, Ohmatex ApS and Innogie ApS worked together with the project...... partners in two connected projects in order to develop solar/electric heating systems for laboratory tests. The project was financed by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation under the Danish Council for Strategic Research in the program Sustainable Energy and Environment. The DSF number...... of the project is 2104‐07‐0021/09‐063201/DSF. This report is the final report of the project. The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating...

  20. Heat exchangers selection, rating, and thermal design

    CERN Document Server

    Kakaç, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Bestselling Second EditionThe first edition of this work gathered in one place the essence of important information formerly scattered throughout the literature. The second edition adds the following new information: introductory material on heat transfer enhancement; an application of the Bell-Delaware method; new correlation for calculating heat transfer and friction coefficients for chevron-type plates; revision of many of the solved examples and the addition of several new ones.-MEMagazine

  1. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  2. Radiant heat transfer network in the simulated protective clothing ; System under high heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukazawa, T.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.; Penders-van Elk, N.; Tochihara, Y.; Havenith, G.

    2005-01-01

    A radiant network model was developed for design of the protective clothing system against solar and infrared radiative heat flux. A one-dimensional model was employed in the present study, because the aim of this study was to obtain precise temperature distribution through the system with use of a

  3. Demonstrations of electric heating systems. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M.; Laitila, R.; Ruska, T.

    1998-07-01

    In 1991, Imatran Voima launched the Demonstration Project of Electric Heating Systems. The project investigated in detail the energy consumption, housing comfort and electric power output rates of approximately one hundred electrically heated single-family houses and updated the investment cost information of heating systems. The project implemented and monitored quality electric heating concepts that guarantee a high standard of housing comfort. The targets in the project provided with combinations of floor, ceiling and window heating systems totalled 33. Furthermore, the project included 42 targets provided with water-circulated floor or radiator heating systems and 22 houses that had moved from oil or district heating systems into electric heating. The number of metering years received in the energy consumption measurements totalled 339. During the course of the project, six partial reports, one master's thesis and three summary reports were published. This is the final report of the project. It deals in brief with the major results. The best electric heating concept, in terms of housing comfort, is a floor heating system using cables supplemented by ceiling and window heating. Thanks to the heating units installed in the structures, the operative temperature grows by about one degree in comparison with a corresponding target heated with radiators. A typical, room-specifically-heated 140 m{sup 2} house consumes a total of 24,000 kWh of energy per year. Of this amount, electric space heating accounts for 11,500 kWh, heating with wood for 1,500 kWh, heating of tap water for 4,000 kWh and household electricity for 7,000 kWh. In a house provided with a water-circulated electric heating system the total energy consumption is, owing to the adjustment and storage losses, about 10 % higher. Of the energy consumption in the house, most part takes place during the period of nighttime electricity. The nighttime load in a 24-hour period with very low temperatures

  4. Design and demonstration of heat pipe cooling for NASP and evaluation of heating methods at high heating rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of two heating methods for demonstration of NASP leading edge heat pipe technology was conducted. The heating methods were and rf induction heated plasma jet and direct rf induction. Tests were conducted to determine coupling from the argon plasma jet on a surface physically similar to a heat pipe. A molybdenum tipped calorimeter was fabricated and installed in an rf induction heated plasma jet for the test. The calorimetric measurements indicated a maximum power coupling of approximately 500 W/cm{sup 2} with the rf plasma jet. The effect of change in gas composition on the heating rate was investigated using helium. An alternative to the plasma heating of a heat pipe tip, an rf concentrator was evaluated for coupling to the hemispherical tip of a heat pipe. A refractory metal heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested for the evaluation. The heat pipe was designed for operation at 1400 to 1900 K with power input to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a hemispherical nose tip. Power input of 800 W/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated using the rf concentrator. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  5. District Heating Network Design and Configuration Optimization with Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the configuration of a district heating network which connects from the heating plant to the end users is optimized. Each end user in the network represents a building block. The connections between the heat generation plant and the end users are represented with mixed integer and the pipe friction and heat loss formulations are non-linear. In order to find the optimal district heating network configuration, genetic algorithm which handles the mixed integer nonlinear programming problem is chosen. The network configuration is represented with binary and integer encoding and is optimized in terms of the net present cost. The optimization results indicates that the optimal DH network configuration is determined by multiple factors such as the consumer heating load, the distance between the heating plant to the consumer, the design criteria regarding the pressure and temperature limitation, as well as the corresponding network heat loss.

  6. Design of a nuclear isotope heat source assembly for a spaceborne mini-Brayton power module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, D.; Gorland, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a study to develop a feasible design definition of a heat source assembly (HSA) for use in nominal 500-, 1200-, or 2000-W(e) mini-Brayton spacecraft power systems. The HSA is a modular design which is used either as a single unit to provide thermal energy to the 500-W(e) mini-Brayton power module or in parallel with one or two additional HSAs for the 1200- or 2000-W(e) power module systems. Principal components consist of a multihundred watt RTG isotope heat source, a heat source heat exchanger which transfers the thermal energy from the heat source to the mini-Brayton power conversion system, an auxiliary cooling system which provides requisite cooling during nonoperation of the power conversion module and an emergency cooling system which precludes accidental release of isotope fuel in the event of system failure.

  7. Feasibility study of the university of Utah TRIGA reactor power upgrade - part II: Thermohydraulics and heat transfer study in respect to cooling system requirements and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babitz Philip

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic conditions of the University of Utah's TRIGA Reactor were simulated using SolidWorks Flow Simulation, Ansys, Fluent and PARET-ANL. The models are developed for the reactor's currently maximum operating power of 90 kW, and a few higher power levels to analyze thermohydraulics and heat transfer aspects in determining a design basis for higher power including the cost estimate. It was found that the natural convection current becomes much more pronounced at higher power levels with vortex shedding also occurring. A departure from nucleate boiling analysis showed that while nucleate boiling begins near 210 kW it remains in this state and does not approach the critical heat flux at powers up to 500 kW. Based on these studies, two upgrades are proposed for extended operation and possibly higher reactor power level. Together with the findings from Part I studies, we conclude that increase of the reactor power is highly feasible yet dependable on its purpose and associated investments.

  8. Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can...... solar collector area of the system, was achieved. Active heating from the sand storage was not observed. The pay-back time for the system can be estimated to be similar to solar heated domestic hot water systems in general. A number of minor improvements on the system could be pointed out....

  9. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  10. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  11. Monogroove heat pipe design: Insulated liquid channel with bridging wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Brown, R. F.; Kosson, R. L.

    1985-05-01

    A screen mesh artery supported concentrically within the evaporator section of a heat pipe liquid channel retains liquid in the channel. Continued and uniform liquid feed to the heat pipe evaporation section (20) during periods of excessive heat transfer is assured. The overall design provides high evaporation and condensation film coefficients for the working fluid by means of the circumferential grooves in the walls of the vapor channel, while not interfering with the overall heat transport capability of the axial groove. The design has particular utility in zero-g environments.

  12. Combined solar heat and power system with a latent heat storage - system simulations for an economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Verena; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    Decentralized solar combined heat and power (CHP) systems can be economically feasible, especially when they have a thermal storage. In such systems, heat provided by solar thermal collectors is used to generate electricity and useful heat for e.g. industrial processes. For the supply of energy in times without solar irradiation, a thermal storage can be integrated. In this work, the performance of a solar CHP system using an active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger is investigated. Annual yield calculations are conducted in order to calculate annual energy gains and, based on them; economic assumptions are used to calculated economic numbers in order to assess the system performance. The energy savings of a solar system, compared to a system with a fossil fuel supply, are calculated. Then the net present value and the dynamic payback are calculated with these savings, the initial investment costs and the operational costs. By interpretation and comparison of these economic numbers, an optimum system design in terms of solar field size and storage size was determined. It has been shown that the utilization of such systems can be economical in remote areas without gas and grid connection. Optimal storage design parameters in terms of the temperature differences in the heat exchanger and the storage capacity have been determined which can further increase the net present value of such system.

  13. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  14. Heat transfer and fluid flow in nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fenech, Henri

    1982-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid in Flow Nuclear Systems discusses topics that bridge the gap between the fundamental principles and the designed practices. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover analysis of the predicting thermal-hydraulics performance of large nuclear reactors and associated heat-exchangers or steam generators of various nuclear systems. Chapter 1 tackles the general considerations on thermal design and performance requirements of nuclear reactor cores. The second chapter deals with pressurized subcooled light water systems, and the third chapter covers boiling water reacto

  15. Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    Energy systems are becoming increasingly complex, integrating across traditionally separate sectors such as transportation, heating, cooling and electricity. Integration through the use of district heating is the main topic of this editorial introducing volume 10 of the International Journal...... of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The editorial and the volume presents work on district heating system scenarios in Austria, grid optimisation using genetic algorithms and finally design of energy scenarios for the Italian Alpine town Bressanone-Brixen from a smart energy approach. © 2016, Aalborg...

  16. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chung-Won; Lee, Ho-Seong; Won, Jong-Phil; Lee, Moo-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volum...

  17. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  18. HVAC systems design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Thoroughly updated with the latest codes, technologies, and practices, this all-in-one resource provides details, calculations, and specifications for designing efficient and effective residential, commercial, and industrial HVAC systems. HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fifth Edition, features new information on energy conservation and computer usage for design and control, as well as the most recent International Code Council (ICC) Mechanical Code requirements. Detailed illustrations, tables, and essential HVAC equations are also included. This comprehensive guide contains everything you need to design, operate, and maintain peak-performing HVAC systems.

  19. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  20. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  1. Heat savings in buildings in a 100% renewable heat and power system in Denmark with different shares of district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Balyk, Olexandr

    2014-01-01

    . A further expansion of district heating network in Denmark is assessed and penetration of heat savings is analysed in this context.If all heat saving measures, included in the model, are implemented, heat demand in Danish buildings in 2050 could be reduced by around 40%. Results show that it is cost...... levels of heat savings, which can be implemented by reducing heat transmission losses through building elements and by installing ventilation systems with heat recovery, in different future Danish heat and power system scenarios. Today almost 50% of heat demand in Denmark is covered by district heating...

  2. Solar system design to heating water for a biodigester; Diseno de un sistema solar de calentamiento de agua para un biodigestor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Castro, Lucia Monica; Quinto Diez, Pedro [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: moni-80-lgc@hotmail.com; pqd510@hotmail.com; Tovar Galvez, Luis Raul [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones de Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: ltovarg@ipn.mx

    2010-11-15

    In this paper a Solar System of Heating Water (SSHW) to provide energy to a biodigester which produces biogas located in the Interdisciplinary Center of Investigation of Studies About Environment and Development (CIIEMAD) is assessed. This evaluation is made by means of the f Method considerating the extraterrestrial radiation, the earth radiation in the zone and the necessary energy to maintain at 55 degrees Celsius the mixture inside the biodigester. The data were introduced in the SOLAR program to calculate both the harnessing area m{sup 2} and the storage capacity in L/m{sup 2}. To guarantee the good performance of the SSHW, a control and monitoring system for the temperature of the mix inside the biodigester is proposed. It also controls the input and output temperature to the solar collectors, as well as the cost analysis which shows the savings of fuel of the SSHW with a conventional system to heating water. [Spanish] En este articulo se evalua un sistema solar de calentamiento de agua (SSCA) para proveer energia a un biodigestor que forma parte del sistema de generacion de biogas (SGB) ubicado en el Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones de Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo (CIIEMAD). Dicha evaluacion se realiza por medio del Metodo f de diseno que considera datos de radiacion terrestre, radiacion extraterrestre sobre la zona y la energia necesaria para mantener la temperatura de la mezcla dentro del biodigestor a 55 grados centigrados. Los datos fueron introducidos en el programa SOLAR para el calculo del area de captacion en m{sup 2} y la capacidad de almacenamiento en L/m{sup 2}. Para garantizar el buen funcionamiento del SSCA se propone un sistema de control y monitoreo de la temperatura de la mezcla dentro del biodigestor. Tambien se controla la temperatura de entrada y salida a los colectores solares, asi como el analisis de costos que muestra el ahorro de combustible del SSCA con un sistema convencional de calentamiento de agua.

  3. Rectenna system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. C.; Dickinson, R. M.; Nalos, E. J.; Ott, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The function of the rectenna in the solar power satellite system is described and the basic design choices based on the desired microwave field concentration and ground clearance requirements are given. One important area of concern, from the EMI point of view, harmonic reradiation and scattering from the rectenna is also designed. An optimization of a rectenna system design to minimize costs was performed. The rectenna cost breakdown for a 56 w installation is given as an example.

  4. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic circuits of multifunctional solar systems of air drainage, heating (hot water supply and heating, cooling and air conditioning are developed on the basis of open absorption cycle with a direct absorbent regeneration. Basic decisions for new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus included in evaporative cooling system, are based on film interaction of flows of gas and liquid and in them, for the creation of nozzle, multi-channel structures from polymeric materials and porous ceramics are used. Preliminary analysis of multifunctional systems possibilities is implemented.

  5. Thermo-hydraulic design of earth-air heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Paepe, M. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Janssens, A. [Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    Earth-air heat exchangers, also called ground tube heat exchangers, are an interesting technique to reduce energy consumption in a building. They can cool or heat the ventilation air, using cold or heat accumulated in the soil. Several papers have been published in which a design method is described. Most of them are based on a discretisation of the one-dimensional heat transfer problem in the tube. Three-dimensional complex models, solving conduction and moisture transport in the soil are also found. These methods are of high complexity and often not ready for use by designers. In this paper, a one-dimensional analytical method is used to analyse the influence of the design parameters of the heat exchanger on the thermo-hydraulic performance. A relation is derived for the specific pressure drop, linking thermal effectiveness with pressure drop of the air inside the tube. The relation is used to formulate a design method which can be used to determine the characteristic dimensions of the earth-air heat exchanger in such a way that optimal thermal effectiveness is reached with acceptable pressure loss. The choice of the characteristic dimensions, becomes thus independent of the soil and climatological conditions. This allows designers to choose the earth-air heat exchanger configuration with the best performance. (author)

  6. Thermo-hydraulic design of earth-air heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepe, M. de [Ghent University (Belgium). Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics; Janssens, A. [Ghent University (Belgium). Department of Architecture and Urbanism

    2003-05-01

    Earth-air heat exchangers, also called ground tube heat exchangers, are an interesting technique to reduce energy consumption in a building. They can cool or heat the ventilation air, using cold or heat accumulated in the soil. Several papers have been published in which a design method is described. Most of them are based on a discretisation of the one-dimensional heat transfer problem in the tube. Three-dimensional complex models, solving conduction and moisture transport in the soil are also found. These methods are of high complexity and often not ready for use by designers. In this paper, a one-dimensional analytical method is used to analyse the influence of the design parameters of the heat exchanger on the thermo-hydraulic performance. A relation is derived for the specific pressure drop, linking thermal effectiveness with pressure drop of the air inside the tube. The relation is used to formulate a design method which can be used to determine the characteristic dimensions of the earth-air heat exchanger in such a way that optimal thermal effectiveness is reached with acceptable pressure loss. The choice of the characteristic dimensions, becomes thus independent of the soil and climatological conditions. This allows designers to choose the earth-air heat exchanger configuration with the best performance. (author)

  7. Absorption Cycle Heat Pump Model for Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    Heat pumps have recently received increasing interest due to green energy initiatives and increasing energy prices. In this paper, a nonlinear dynamic model of a single-effect LiBr-water absorption cycle heat pump is derived for simulation and control design purposes. The model is based...... on an actual heat pump located at a larger district heating plant. The model is implemented in Modelica and is based on energy and mass balances, together with thermodynamic property functions for LiBr and water and staggered grid representations for heat exchangers. Model parameters have been fitted...... to operational data and different scenarios are simulated to investigate the operational stability of the heat pump. Finally, this paper provides suggestions and examples of derivation of lower order linear models for control design. © Copyright IEEE - All rights reserved....

  8. Application and design of an economizer for waste heat recovery in a cogeneration plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martić Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy increase cost has required its more effective use. However, many industrial heating processes generate waste energy. Use of waste-heat recovery systems decreases energy consumption. This paper presents case study of waste heat recovering of the exhaust flue gas in a 1415 kWe cogeneration plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing an economizer to heat the condensed and fresh water in thermal degasification unit and reduce steam use for maintaining the temperature of 105˚C for oxygen removal. Design methodology of economizer is presented.

  9. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter

    2005-01-01

    and foundation on the performance of the floor heating sys-tem. The ground coupled floor heating model is validated against measurements from a single-family house. The simulation model is coupled to a whole-building energy simu-lation model with inclusion of heat losses and heat supply to the room above...... the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further...

  10. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  11. Psychology of system design

    CERN Document Server

    Meister, D

    2014-01-01

    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  12. Heat exchanger design considerations for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.; Van Hagan, T.H.; King, J.H.; Spring, A.H.

    1980-02-01

    Various aspects of the high-temperature heat exchanger conceptual designs for the gas turbine (HTGR-GT) and process heat (HTGR-PH) plants are discussed. Topics include technology background, heat exchanger types, surface geometry, thermal sizing, performance, material selection, mechanical design, fabrication, and the systems-related impact of installation and integration of the units in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. The impact of future technology developments, such as the utilization of nonmetallic materials and advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction, is also discussed.

  13. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  14. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  15. A structured approach to heat exchanger network retrofit design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reisen, J.L.B.

    2008-01-01

    Process plants have high energy consumption. Much energy can be saved by a proper design of the heat exchanger network, which contains the main heat transferring equipment of the plant. Existing plants can often be made more energy-efficient by a retrofit: the (physical) modification of the

  16. CFD as a Design Tool for a Concentric Heat Exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Joris; Bühler, Simon; wilcox, D; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2012-01-01

    A concentric gas-to-gas heat exchanger is designed for application as a recuperator in the domestic boiler industry. The recuperator recovers heat from the exhaust gases of a combustion process to preheat the ingoing gaseous fuel mixture resulting in increased fuel efficiency. This applied study

  17. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  18. OPTIMISATION OF MANTLE TANKS FOR LOW FLOW SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    A model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle of a mantle tank has been developed. The model is validated by means of measurements with varying operational conditions for different designed mantle tanks. The model has been implemented in an existing detailed mathematical...... with the programme and by means of tests of three SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks. Based on the investigations design rules for mantle tanks are proposed. The model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle is approximate. In addition, the measurements have revealed...

  19. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  20. Co-optimized design of microchannel heat exchangers and thermoelectric generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Yazawa, K.; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Designs of heat exchangers have mostly been disconnected to the performance of thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems. The development work, mostly focused on thermoelectric materials, required a significant amount of engineering parametric analysis. In this work, a micro plate-fin heat exchanger...

  1. A solar heating system with annual storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, F.; Raffellini, G.

    1981-07-01

    A solar heated house with long term storage capability, built in Trento, Italy, is described. The one story house was built from modular components and has a total heated volume of 1130 cu m. Flat plate solar collectors with a water-antifreeze medium are located beneath the lawn, and six cylindrical underground tanks holding 130 cu m of water heated by thermal energy from the collectors are situated under the garden. The house walls have an 8 cm cavity filled with 5 cm of formaldehyde foam, yielding a heat transmission (U) of 0.37 W/sq m/deg C. The roof and ceilings are insulated with fiberglass and concrete, producing U-values of 0.46 W/sq m/deg C and 0.57 W/sq m/deg C, respectively. Heat pumps using 6 kW move thermal energy between the house and the tanks. Direct hot water heating occurs in the summer, and direct home heating when the stored water temperature exceeds 32 C. A computer model was developed which traces the annual heat flow and it is shown that the system supplies all heating requirements for the house, with electrical requirements equal to 20 percent of the annual house needs.

  2. On the Design and Response of Domestic Ground-Source Heat Pumps in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Underwood

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design and response of ground source heat pumps coupled to vertical closed loop arrays in UK domestic applications are investigated in this article. Two typical UK house types are selected as the vehicle for the study and a detailed dynamic thermal modelling method is used to arrive at time-series heating demands for the two houses. A new empirical heat pump model is derived using experimental data taking into account the deteriorating performance of the heat pump during periods of light load. The heat pump model is incorporated into an existing numerical ground model and completed with a classical effectiveness type heat exchange model of the closed loop array. The model is used to analyse array sizing and performance over an extended time period, as well as sensitivity of the design to soil conductivity and borehole heat exchanger resistance and sensitivity to over-sizing and part-load behavior of the heat pump. Results show that the UK’s standard for ground source design (the Microgeneration Certification Scheme may lead to under-estimated array sizes and that heating system over-sizing and deleterious part-load heat pump performance can add up to 20% to the electrical consumption of these systems.

  3. Thermo-mechanics in packed beds: Modeling and design of high temperature heat storage

    OpenAIRE

    Dreißigacker, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Several novel power plant technologies, such as concentrating solar power (CSP) plants or adiabatic compressed air storage (ACAES), depend on heat storage systems as a central plant element. Where gaseous heat transfer media at elevated temperature levels are used, a regenerator-type heat storage is a particularly cost-effective solution. A large-scale design based on a packed bed inventory can further reduce investment costs, but is fraught with the risk of mechanical failures caused by the ...

  4. Conceptual design of NBI beamline for VEST plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.S., E-mail: tskim@kaeri.re.kr; In, S.R.; Jeong, S.H.; Park, M.; Chang, D.H.; Jung, B.K.; Lee, K.W.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • VEST NBI injector is conceptually designed to support further VEST plasma experiment. • VEST NBI injector composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, electrostatic ion dumps, NB vessel with cryopump, and rotating calorimerter. • The vacuum vessel of the beamline is divided into two parts for high injection efficiency and different direction (co- and counter-current) of neutral beam injection. • An ion source for the VEST NBI system was also designed to deliver neutral hydrogen beams with a power of 0.3 MW. The plasma generator of the VEST NB ion source has modified TFTR bucket multi-cusp chamber. The plasma generator has twelve hair-pin shaped tungsten filaments used as a cathode and an arc chamber including a bucket and an electron dump which serve as anode. The accelerator system consists of three grids, each having extraction area of 100 mm × 320 mm and 64 shaped slits of 3 mm spacing. • The preliminary structure design and the layout of the main components of the injector have been completed. Simulation and calculation for optimization of the NB beamline design results prove that the parameters of ion source, neutralization efficiency (76%:95% equilibrium neutralization efficiency), and beam power transmission efficiency (higher than 90%) are in agreement with design targets of the VEST NB beamline. • This VEST NBI system will provide a neutral beam of ∼0.6 MW for both heating and current drive in torus plasma. - Abstract: A 10 m s-pulsed NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) system for VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) plasma heating is designed to provide a beam power of more than 0.6 MW with 20 keV H° neutrals. The VEST NBI injector is composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, residual ion dump, NB vessel with a cryopump, and rotating calorimeter. The position and size of these beamline components are roughly determined with geometric

  5. CFD Simulation and Experimental Analyses of a Copper Wire Woven Heat Exchanger Design to Improve Heat Transfer and Reduce the Size of Adsorption Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John White

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The chief objective of this study is the proposal design and CFD simulation of a new compacted copper wire woven fin heat exchanger and silica gel adsorbent bed used as part of an adsorption refrigeration system. This type of heat exchanger design has a large surface area because of the wire woven fin design. It is estimated that this will help improve the coefficient of performance (COP of the adsorption phase and increase the heat transfer in this system arrangement. To study the heat transfer between the fins and porous adsorbent reactor bed, two experiments were carried out and matched to computational fluid dynamics (CFD results.

  6. PREDICTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM SYNTHESIS OF DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrotin S.A.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A combined system of building heating predictive control has been synthesized in the research. Following algorithms are described: adaptive algorithm of very short-term temperature forecast and algorithm of anticipatory control of heat supply to building heating taking into account different outside climate influence on elevations of a building.

  7. Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District Heating system. [using cogeneration heat production and aquifiers for heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District heating project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district heating systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is based on cogeneration and the storage of heat in aquifers.

  8. A Freezable Heat Exchanger for Space Suit Radiator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, James A.; Mason, Georgia R.; Copeland, Robert J.; Trevino, Luis a.

    2008-01-01

    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut s metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to space, thus becoming the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the astronaut during an EVA can reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator. Radiators have no moving parts and are thus highly reliable. Past freezable radiators have been too heavy, but the weight can be greatly reduced by placing a small and freeze tolerant heat exchanger between the astronaut and radiator, instead of making the very large radiator freeze tolerant. Therefore, the key technological innovation to improve space suit radiator performance was the development of a lightweight and freezable heat exchanger that accommodates the variable heat load generated by the astronaut. Herein, we present the heat transfer performance of a newly designed heat exchanger that endured several freeze / thaw cycles without any apparent damage. The heat exchanger was also able to continuously turn down or turn up the heat rejection to follow the variable load.

  9. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 7. Examination on design and control of the system partially recovering exhaust heat of heat pump; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 7. Bubuntekina hainetsu kaishu wo koryoshita baai no sekkei seigyoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The capacity and performance of the existing system that recovers the overall heating and cooling exhaust heat completely into a seasonal storage tank and the system that discharges the exhaust heat slightly to the outside and recovers it partially were compared and investigated. The system uses a central single-duct discharge system as an air-conditioning system. A heat pump and a flat-plate solar collector installed on the roof of a building are used as the heat source. The seasonal storage tank in the ground just under the building is a cylindrical water tank of 5 m deep with the concrete used as body. The upper surface of a storage tank is heat-insulated by a stylo-platform of 200 mm, and the lower side surface by a stylo-platform of 100 mm. Calculation when the difference in temperature used in a seasonal storage tank is set to 35{degree}C and 25{degree}C was performed for the system that has two control methods. The overall exhaust heat recovery system is almost the same in energy performance as the partial exhaust heat recovery system. The partial exhaust heat recovery system is more advantageous on the economic side. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  11. Designing Menu Selection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Ben

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the multiple design issues involved in creating successful menu selection systems: semantic organization, response time, display rates, shortcuts for frequent users, titles, phrasing of menu items, graphic layout, and selection mechanisms. Pop-up and embedded menus, experimental results, and design guidelines are also covered.…

  12. Characterization and potential of nonmetallic piping systems for district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.H.; Karnitz, M.A.; Naus, D.J.; Bryson, J.W. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to characterize and evaluate the potential of nonmetallic piping systems for district heating applications. This investigation considered both currently available products and future products. Analyses of the cost components of district heating systems were performed for current steel heating piping technology. A comparison was then made with hypothetical nonmetallic piping technology, and opportunities where savings might occur were noted. As a result of these analyses, a conceptual design for a preinsulated, nonmetallic piping was developed to take advantage of likely areas of overall cost reduction. This design based on low-cost field fabrication and existing materials, used a postchlorinated polyvinylchloride carrier pipe supported structurally by high-density urethane foam and polyethylene jacketing. A structural analysis of this conceptual design was performed using two-dimensional, finite elements. The results are promising for practical operating temperatures.

  13. A novel design method for ground source heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel design method for ground source heat pump. The ground source heat pump operation is controllable by using several parameters, such as the total meters of buried pipe, the space between wells, the thermal properties of soil, thermal resistance of the well, the initial temperature of soil, and annual dynamic load. By studying the effect of well number and well space, we conclude that with the increase of the well number, the inlet and outlet water temperatures decrease in summer and increase in winter, which enhance the efficiency of ground source heat pump. The well space slightly affects the water temperatures, but it affects the soil temperature to some extent. Also the ground source heat pump operations matching with cooling tower are investigated to achieve the thermal balance. This method greatly facilitates ground source heat pump design.

  14. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  15. Telecommunications systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The general configuration of deep space telecommunication systems is reviewed with regard to the design criteria necessary to insure the integrity of the system's telemetry, command, and tracking functions. The signal to noise spectral density ratios that characterize telecommunications performance are defined in terms of the link parameters. For design control, a statistical approach to predict link performance and to assess its uncertainty is described.

  16. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    A collection of quarterly reports from the AiResearch Manufacturing Company covering the period July 12, 1976, through December 31, 1977, is presented. AiResearch Manufacturing Company is developing eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems. This effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25 and 75-ton size units.

  17. Better Duct Systems for Home Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    Duct systems used in forced-air space-conditioning systems are a vital element in home energy efficiency. How well a system works makes a big difference in the cost and the effectiveness of heating and cooling a home. At the same time, a duct system that is poorly designed or maintained can have a detrimental effect on the health of the people who live in the house, through the unintended distribution of indoor air pollution.

  18. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  19. Heat sink structural design concepts for a hypersonic research airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    Hypersonic research aircraft design requires careful consideration of thermal stresses. This paper relates some of the problems in a heat sink structural design that can be avoided by appropriate selection of design options including material selection, design concepts, and load paths. Data on several thermal loading conditions are presented on various conventional designs including bulkheads, longerons, fittings, and frames. Results indicate that conventional designs are inadequate and that acceptable designs are possible by incorporating innovative design practices. These include nonintegral pressure compartments, ball-jointed links to distribute applied loads without restraining the thermal expansion, and material selections based on thermal compatibility.

  20. Designing Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2010-01-01

    the potential to revitalize and transform citizen engagement in democracy.  Although the majority of web 2.0 systems enable these discourses to some extent, government institutions commission and manage specialized deliberation systems (information systems designed to support participative discourse) intended...... to promote citizen engagement.  The most common examples of these are political discussion forums.  Though usually considered trivial adaptations of well-known technologies, these types of deliberative systems are often unsuccessful, and present a distinct set of design and management challenges.......  In this article we analyze the issues involved in establishing political deliberation systems under four headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, service management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement.  We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study...

  1. Research on Heat Exchange Process in Aircraft Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichindaev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Using of heat-exchanger-condenser in the air conditioning system of the airplane Tu-204 (Boeing, Airbus, Superjet 100, MS-21, etc.) for cooling the compressed air by the cold air with negative temperature exiting the turbine results in a number of operational problems. Mainly it’s frosting of the heat exchange surface, which is the cause of live-section channels frosting, resistance increasing and airflow in the system decreasing. The purpose of this work is to analyse the known freeze-up-fighting methods for heat-exchanger-condenser, description of the features of anti-icing protection and offering solutions to this problem. For the problem of optimizing the design of heat exchangers in this work used generalized criterion that describes the ratio of thermal resistances of cold and hot sections, which include: the ratio of the initial values of heat transfer agents flow state; heat exchange surface finning coefficients; factors which describes the ratio of operating parameters and finning area. By controlling the ratio of the thermal resistances can be obtained the desired temperature of the heat exchange surface, which would prevent freezing. The work presents the results of a numerical study of the effect of different combinations of regime and geometrical factors changes on reduction of the heat-exchanger-condenser freezing surface area, including using of variable ratio of thermal resistances.

  2. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  3. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-11-11

    A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

  5. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to provide...

  6. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Duic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Hybridisation of district heating systems can contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or through the share increase of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption while reducing negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In this work....... Several energy sources for heat production have been considered in 8 different simulation cases. Simulation results show that the heat production costs could be reduced with introduction of different energy systems into an existing district heating system. Renewable energy based district heating systems...... could contribute to heat production costs decrease in district heating systems up to 30% in comparison with highly efficient heat production technologies based on conventional fuels....

  7. Monogroove heat pipe development for the space constructible radiator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Brown, R.; Kosson, R.

    1983-06-01

    A high-capacity, high-reliability space radiator is needed in order to satisfy the future heat rejection requirements of large space platforms or space stations. The Space Constructible Radiator (SCR) system is being developed to fill this need. The most important component of the SCR system is the high-capacity monogroove heat pipe which theoretically has a heat transport capacity of 12,700 W-m to 25,400 W-m. This performance represents a better than two order of magnitude increase in transport capacity over currently existing heat pipes. The present investigation is concerned with testing developments which occurred in connection with the monogroove heat pipe during the last two years. A short description of the SCR system is presented, and results are provided for two series of tests which were run on a 15.7-m long heat pipe. The first test series included both performance and diagnostic tests, which pointed to some design modifications which were necessary. The second test series, run on the modified heat pipe, showed improved performance.

  8. Experimental investigations on solar heating/heat pump systems for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Perers, Bengt

    In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer in the combi......In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer...... in the combined solar heating/heat pump system type when the heat pump makes use of a horizontal ground source heat exchanger. The knowledge is gained by experimental investigations on a solar heating/heat pump system and forms the basis for improved marketed combined solar heating/heat pump systems....

  9. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    . In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  10. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  11. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    could reach up to 20% with utilisation of solar energy as supplement energy source in traditional fossil fuel based district heating systems. In this work, the performance of hybrid district energy system for a particular location will be analysed. For performance analysis, mathematical model...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...... sources that can complement each other on daily and yearly basis and reduce negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In district heating systems, hybridisation could be performed through utilisation of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Potential of fuel and emission reduction...

  12. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  13. Demand modelling for central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    Most researchers in the field of heat demand estimation have focussed on explaning the load for a given plant based on rather few measurements. This approach is simply the only one adaptable with the very limited data material and limited computer power. This way of dealing with the subject is here called the top-down approach, due to the fact that one tries to explain the load from the overall data. The results of such efforts are discussed in the report, leading to inspiration for own work. Also the significance of the findings to the causes for given heat loads are discussed and summarised. Contrary to the top-down approach applied in literature, a here-called bottom-up approach is applied in this work, describing the causes of a given partial load in detail and combining them to explain the total load for the system. Three partial load 'components' are discussed: 1) Space heating. 2) Hot-Water Consumption. 3) Heat losses in pipe networks. The report is aimed at giving an introduction to these subjects, but at the same time at collecting the previous work done by the author. Space heating is shortly discussed and loads are generated by an advanced simulation model. A hot water consumption model is presented and heat loads, generated by this model, utilised in the overall work. Heat loads due to heat losses in district heating a given a high priority in the current work. Hence a detailed presentation and overview of the subject is given to solar heating experts normally not dealing with district heating. Based on the 'partial' loads generated by the above-mentioned method, an overall load model is built in the computer simulation environment TRNSYS. The final tool is then employed for the generation of time series for heat demand, representing a district heating area. The results are compared to alternative methods for the generation of heat demand profiles. Results form this comparison will be presented. Computerised modelling of systems

  14. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model......, various simulations of solar heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar...

  15. Linear heating system for measurement of thermoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A linear heating system is developed using a 8031/51 microcontroller for the measurement of thermoluminescence (TL) in alkali halides and other related compounds. This system also measures the temperature and the amount of light emitted by the sample for TL studies.

  16. Further testing of solar water heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Watson, M.

    2002-07-01

    In a study for the DTI, the Energy Monitoring Company compared the amount of energy which eight solar water heaters could generate. The systems were operated side by side over about six months. In one series of tests the systems were operated entirely as solar systems, and in another, auxiliary top-up heating was applied. The two systems were evaluated and the relative advantages/disadvantages discussed.

  17. The Design of the Trading Mechanism to Adapt the Development of Mixed Cooling Heating and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. N.; Li, Z. H.; Zhou, H. M.; Zhao, Q.; Xu, X. F.

    2017-08-01

    The enterprise who has combined cooling heating and power system has both the customer group and the power generation resources. Therefore, it can be used as a power user, and can also be used as a power generation enterprise to participate in the direct purchase of electricity. This paper combines characteristics of mixed cooling heating and power, designs application business model of mixed cooling heating and power, and puts forward to the scene of cooling heating and power trading scheme, helping the enterprise according to the power supply and demand situation in the region adjust their positions and participate in the electricity market.

  18. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  19. Design of Refractory Metal Life Test Heat Pipe and Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pipe life tests have seldom been conducted on a systematic basis. Typically, one or more heat pipes are built and tested for an extended period at a single temperature with simple condenser loading. Results are often reported describing the wall material, working fluid, test temperature, test duration, and occasionally the nature of any failure. Important information such as design details, processing procedures, material assay, power throughput, and radial power density are usually not mentioned. We propose to develop methods to generate carefully controlled data that conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. The test approach detailed in this Technical Publication will use 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipe units that have an approximate12-in length and 5/8-in diameter. Two specific test series have been identified: (1) Long-term corrosion rates based on ASTM-G-68-80 (G-series) and (2) corrosion trends in a cross-correlation sequence at various temperatures and mass fluences based on a Fisher multifactor design (F-series). Evaluation of the heat pipe hardware will be performed in test chambers purged with an inert purified gas (helium or helium/argon mixture) at low pressure (10-100 torr) to provide thermal coupling between the heat pipe condenser and calorimeter. The final pressure will be selected to minimize the potential for voltage breakdown between the heat pipe and radio frequency (RF) induction coil (RF heating is currently the planned method of powering the heat pipes). The proposed calorimeter is constructed from a copper alloy and relies on a laminar flow water-coolant channel design to absorb and transport energy

  20. EHF SATCOM system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. Jamil

    Future satellite systems will differ considerably from the current versions. The impetus for change is a result of the need for more capacity, wider bandwidth requirements for enhanced services, increasing demand for mobile communications, advances in technology, developments in satellite payload systems, and a demand for secure military communications. To a large extent all of these needs can be satisfied by the use of extremely high frequency satellite communication (EHF Satcom) systems. EHF Satcom system design, features, pros and cons of using the system, particularly for military applications, and the current status of EHF SATCOM in Canada, U.S., Europe, and Japan are examined. The demand for bandwidth will continue to increase due to the growth of communication as well as due to enhanced services for business and entertainment. The increased bandwidth needs will be met by operating at higher frequencies, and perhaps by using extremely high frequency/superhigh frequency (EHF/SHF) satellites. Design of such systems involves a consideration of numerous aspects of design, technology, cost, and services. Advances in technology will make EHF/SHF systems feasible for military applications, as well as commercial mobile terminals, and high data rate terminals. The use of higher frequencies and small antennas will aid mobile communications. On-board processing will be akin to putting a switch in the space, providing flexibility of rates, connectivity, and services.

  1. High heat transfer oxidizer heat exchanger design and analysis. [RL10-2B engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiec, Thomas D.; Kanic, Paul G.; Peckham, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The RL10-2B engine, a derivative of the RL10, is capable of multimode thrust operation. This engine operates at two low thrust levels: tank head idle (THI), which is approximately 1 to 2% of full thrust, and pumped idle (PI), which is 10% of full thrust. Operation at THI provides vehicle propellant settling thrust and efficient engine thermal conditioning; PI operation provides vehicle tank pre-pressurization and maneuver thrust for low-g deployment. Stable combustion of the RL10-2B engine during the low thrust operating modes can be accomplished by using a heat exchanger to supply gaseous oxygen to the propellant injector. The oxidizer heat exchanger (OHE) vaporizes the liquid oxygen using hydrogen as the energy source. The design, concept verification testing and analysis for such a heat exchanger is discussed. The design presented uses a high efficiency compact core to vaporize the oxygen, and in the self-contained unit, attenuates any pressure and flow oscillations which result from unstable boiling in the core. This approach is referred to as the high heat transfer design. An alternative approach which prevents unstable boiling of the oxygen by limiting the heat transfer is referred to as the low heat transfer design and is reported in Pratt & Whitney report FR-19135-2.

  2. Heat recovery and seed recovery development project: preliminary design report (PDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkett, A. H.; Alexander, K. C.; Bolek, A. D.; Blackman, B. K.; Kurrle, P. E.; Tram, S. V.; Warren, A. M.; Ziobrowski, A. J.

    1981-06-01

    The preliminary design and performance characteristics are described of the 20 MWt heat recovery and seed recovery (HRSR) system to be fabricated, installed, and evaluated to provide a technological basis for the design of commercial size HRSR systems for coal-fired open-cycle MHD power plants. The system description and heat and material balances, equipment description and functional requirements, controls, interfacing systems, and operation and maintenance are detailed. Appendices include: (1) recommended environmental requirements for compliance with federal and state of Tennessee regulations, (2) channel and diffuser simulator, (3) equipment arrangement drawings, and (4) channel and diffuser simulator barrel drawings. (WHK)

  3. Large Scale Solar Heating:Evaluation, Modelling and Designing

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Alfred; Svendsen, Svend; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out based on measurements on the Marstal plant, Denmark, and through comparison with published and unpublished data from other plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performance...

  4. Distributed System Design Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a design checklist targeted to fault-tolerant distributed electronic systems. Many of the questions and discussions in this checklist may be generally applicable to the development of any safety-critical system. However, the primary focus of this report covers the issues relating to distributed electronic system design. The questions that comprise this design checklist were created with the intent to stimulate system designers' thought processes in a way that hopefully helps them to establish a broader perspective from which they can assess the system's dependability and fault-tolerance mechanisms. While best effort was expended to make this checklist as comprehensive as possible, it is not (and cannot be) complete. Instead, we expect that this list of questions and the associated rationale for the questions will continue to evolve as lessons are learned and further knowledge is established. In this regard, it is our intent to post the questions of this checklist on a suitable public web-forum, such as the NASA DASHLink AFCS repository. From there, we hope that it can be updated, extended, and maintained after our initial research has been completed.

  5. Sustaining Engagements for Integrated Heat-Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtanj, J.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme heat events are on the rise, evidenced by the record breaking heat in the summer of 2016 in the US, increased heat-related death toll in south Asia, and projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The impacts, responses and adaptation to extreme heat are inherently local or region in nature and require multisector engagement to manage current and future heat risks. Understanding the character of the information demand, who needs it, when and how it is needed, how it is used, and the remaining research questions, requires sustained engagement of multiple science and decision making communities. The construct of Integrated Information Systems provides the framework that sustains this dialogue, supports the production of useful information, and the translation of knowledge to action. The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS), a multi-agency collaboration, working at state, local and international levels, designed to facilitate an integrated approach to providing a suite of decision support services that reduce heat-related illness and death. NIHHIS sustains engagement across the public health, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, planning, housing, communication, climate, weather and other science communities. This presentation will highlight NIHHS sustained engagements in the Rio Grande Bravo region, other NIHHIS pilots, and international efforts building on the NIHHIS framework. NIHHIS, launched by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2015, now has over eight Federal partners and a burgeoning mix of pilots, projects and partners at state, local and international levels.

  6. House-internal heating systems; Husinterna vaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof; Wollerstrand, Janusz [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2005-07-01

    In this report the placement of the circulation-pump in of waterborne radiator systems, as well as their filling and deairation are investigated. The study was done by literature studies and interviews with consultants and companies active on the HVAC-market. It was concluded that different placements of the pump in relationship to the heat exchanger exist, and the arguments for the choice of placement are varying. The main explanation of the choice of placement is that it is based on experience/or by practical reasons. The most important factor influencing the placement of the pump found, was how the pump is situated in relation to the expansion-tank. To maintain pressure in the whole system the expansion-tank should be placed on the suction side of the pump without any intermediate pressure-dropping devices in between. This placement ensures overpressure in the whole radiator-system and reduces the risk of unwanted leak in of air. To avoid cavitation sufficient static pressure on the suction side of the pump is necessary. The pressure increases with the temperature, which must be taken into consideration if the pump is placed on the warm side of the heat-exchanger. From this point of view a placement in the return-pipe from the radiator-system is to be preferred. Before advices for HVAC-branch regarding placement of the circulation-pump in the heating systems can be implemented, it is of big importance to analyse and clearly specify the advantages and disadvantages of a certain placement of the pump. There is a need of directions to get house-internal systems to operate properly together with district heating system. This is especially important when older heating systems with burners and shunt valves are being connected. Filling and deairation of the radiator system is of great importance for the function of the system. A radiator-system with significant level of air remains is difficult to adjust and will not work properly. Air in the radiators leads to

  7. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model used to calculate the boiler efficiency on a monthly basis was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions...... showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...

  8. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  9. Method for optimal design of pipes for low-energy district heating, with focus on heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    -effective solutions for DH networks in low-heat density areas. We start with a review of theories and methods for steady-state heat loss calculation. Next, the article shows how detailed calculations with 2D-modeling of pipes can be carried out by means of computer software based on the finite-element method (FEM...... showed the influence of the soil temperature throughout the year. Finally, the article describes proposals for the optimal design of pipes for low-energy applications and presents methods for decreasing heat losses....... factors in the optimal design of low-energy DH systems. Various pipe configurations are considered in this paper: flexible pre-insulated twin pipes with symmetrical or asymmetrical insulation, double pipes, and triple pipes. These technologies represent potential energy-efficient and cost...

  10. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Future Circular Collider (FCC accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar®—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  11. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Pawel; Chorowski, Maciej Pawel; Polinski, J

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  12. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pumps for a Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2012-01-01

    Humans on a spacecraft require significant amounts of water for drinking, food, hydration, and hygiene. Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical for long duration space exploration. One of the more promising consumable-free methods of reclaiming wastewater is the distillation/condensation process used in the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). The CDS heats wastewater to the point of vaporization then condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating for evaporation and the product water flow requires cooling for condensation. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately would require two separate units, each of which would demand large amounts of electrical power. Mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained by heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the CDS system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump analysis and performance tests are provided. The mass, volume, and power requirement for each heat pump option is compared and the advantages and disadvantages of each system are listed.

  13. Heat-Flux Gage thermophosphor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, K.W.

    1991-08-01

    This document describes the installation, hardware requirements, and application of the Heat-Flux Gage (Version 1.0) software package developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Applied Technology Division. The developed software is a single component of a thermographic phosphor-based temperature and heat-flux measurement system. The heat-flux transducer was developed by EG G Energy Measurements Systems and consists of a 1- by 1-in. polymethylpentene sheet coated on the front and back with a repeating thermographic phosphor pattern. The phosphor chosen for this application is gadolinium oxysulphide doped with terbium. This compound has a sensitive temperature response from 10 to 65.6{degree}C (50--150{degree}F) for the 415- and 490-nm spectral emission lines. 3 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  15. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  16. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......-plate collectors. For solar heating plants, the yearly energy output from these evacuated tubular collectors is about 40%-90% higher than the output from typical flat-plate collectors at an operation temperature of about 50°C....

  17. Field Measurements of Heating System Efficiency in Nine Electrically-Heated Manufactured Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Bob; Siegel, J.; Palmiter, L.; Baylon, D.

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on nine manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest. The testing procedure collects real-time data on heating system energy use and heating zone temperatures, allowing direct calculation of heating system efficiency.

  18. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  19. Modelling of Thermal Behavior of Borehole Heat Exchangers of Geothermal Heat Pump Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gornov V.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of comparing the accuracy of the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, modeling non-steady thermal behavior of geothermal heat pump heating systems (GHCS and of the similar model “conventional” using finite difference methods for solving spatial non-steady problems of heat conductivity. The software package is based on the method of formulating mathematical models of thermal behavior of ground low-grade heat collection systems developed by INSOLAR group of companies. Equations of mathematical model of spatial non-steady thermal behavior of ground mass of low-grade heat collection system obtained by the developed method have been solved analytically that significantly reduced computing time spent by the software complex “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” for calculations. The method allows to turn aside difficulties associated with information uncertainty of mathematical models of the ground thermal behavior and approximation of external factors affecting the ground. Use of experimentally obtained information about the ground natural thermal behavior in the software package allows to partially take into account the whole complex of factors (such as availability of groundwater, their velocity and thermal behavior, structure and arrangement of ground layers, the Earth’s thermal background, precipitation, phase transformations of moisture in the pore space, and more, significantly influencing the formation of thermal behavior of the ground mass of a low-grade geothermal heat collection system. Numerical experiments presented in the article confirmed the high convergence of the results obtained through the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” with solutions obtained by conventional finite-difference methods.

  20. The Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Composite Heat Exchange Coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Derek J.; Meador, Michael A.; Shin, Euy-Sik; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Several heat exchanger (HX) test panels were designed, fabricated and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center to explore the fabrication and performance of several designs for composite heat exchangers. The development of these light weight, high efficiency air-liquid test panels was attempted using polymer composites and carbon foam materials. The fundamental goal of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of the composite HX for various space exploration and thermal management applications including Orion CEV and Altair. The specific objectives of this work were to select optimum materials, designs, and to optimize fabrication procedures. After fabrication, the individual design concept prototypes were tested to determine their thermal performance and to guide the future development of full-size engineering development units (EDU). The overall test results suggested that the panel bonded with pre-cured composite laminates to KFOAM Grade L1 scored above the other designs in terms of ease of manufacture and performance.

  1. Progress in Heat Watch Warning System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Scott C.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.

    2004-12-01

    Among all atmospheric hazards, heat is the most deadly. With such recent notable heat events as the Chicago Heat Wave of 1995, much effort has gone into redeveloping both the methods by which it is determined whether a day will be “oppressive,” as well as the mitigation plans that are implemented when an oppressive day is forecast to occur.This article describes the techniques that have been implemented in the development of new synoptic-based heat watch warning systems. These systems are presently running for over two dozen locations worldwide, including Chicago, Illinois; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Rome, Italy; and Shanghai, China; with plans for continued expansion. Compared to traditional systems based on arbitrary thresholds of one or two meteorological variables, these new systems account for the local human response by focusing upon the identification of the weather conditions most strongly associated with historical increases in mortality. These systems must be constructed based on the premise that weather conditions associated with increased mortality show considerable variability on a spatial scale. In locales with consistently hot summers, weather/mortality relationships are weaker, and it is only the few hottest days each year that are associated with a response. In more temperate climates, relationships are stronger, and a greater percentage of days can be associated with an increase in mortality.Considering the ease of data transfer via the World-Wide Web, the development of these systems includes Internet file transfers and Web page creation as components. Forecasts of mortality and recommendations to call excessive-heat warnings are available to local meteorological forecasters, local health officials, and other civic authorities, who ultimately determine when warnings are called and when intervention plans are instituted.

  2. Experimental Study of Heat Energy Absorber with Porous Medium for Thermoelectric Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric conversion system usually consists of the heat absorber, the thermoelectric generator (TEG and the heat sink, while the heat absorber collects the heat to increase the temperature on the hot surface of TEG and enhances the generating electricity. This study experimentally investigated the performance of the brass-beads packed-bed heat absorber for the thermoelectric conversion system. The packed-bed heat absorber is installed in a square channel with the various flow orientation systems and the small ratio of channel width to bead diameter. The flow orientation systems included the straight flow and jet flow systems. This study showed the local and average heat transfer characteristics for various parameters. The experimental results can be the base of designs for the novel porous heat absorber of the thermoelectric conversion system.

  3. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  4. Linear heating system for measurement of thermoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    scence intensity is monitored. The theory of TL usually assumes that the sample temperature varies linearly with time, although more general theories have been formu- lated and calculations made for non-linear heating system. Previous descriptions of apparatus for the measurement of TL have been published elsewhere ...

  5. Solar Heating Systems: Progress Checks & Tests Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This manual contains Progress Checks and Tests for use in a Solar Heating Systems curriculum (see note). It contains master copies of all Progress Checks and Unit Tests accompanying the curriculum, organized by unit. (The master copies are to be duplicated by each school so that adequate copies are available for student use in a self-paced student…

  6. Design of horizontal fin array for radiative heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mutari Hajara; Shuaibu, Bilyaminu

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the analytical and simulation results of optimizing the radiative heat transfer performance of horizontal rectangular fin array heat sink. The fin thickness and inter-fin spacing need to be properly designed to eliminate surface area changes accompanying the creation of fin structures. Analytical expression for this change in area is developed in this work and used in identifying the optimum number of fins and their corresponding inter-fin spacing for a given rectangular space of a radiative heat sink. COMSOL Multiphysics software is used to simulate the structures considered in the above analysis. The performances of the simulated structures as radiative heat sinks are compared with the ones suggested by the developed empirical equation. The results from the two methods agreed with each successfully in the sense that the structures with large numerical radiative power from the simulations are found to also be the optimum structures suggested by the analytical formula derived in this work.

  7. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  8. Emergency heat removal system for a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunckel, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat removal system for nuclear reactors serving as a supplement to an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) comprises a plurality of heat pipes having one end in heat transfer relationship with either the reactor pressure vessel, the core support grid structure or other in-core components and the opposite end located in heat transfer relationship with a heat exchanger having heat transfer fluid therein. The heat exchanger is located external to the pressure vessel whereby excessive core heat is transferred from the above reactor components and dissipated within the heat exchanger fluid.

  9. Model Development and Experimental Validation of the Fusible Heat Sink Design for Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas; Sheth, Rubik; Le, Hung

    2013-01-01

    The Fusible Heat Sink is a novel vehicle heat rejection technology which combines a flow through radiator with a phase change material. The combined technologies create a multi-function device able to shield crew members against Solar Particle Events (SPE), reduce radiator extent by permitting sizing to the average vehicle heat load rather than to the peak vehicle heat load, and to substantially absorb heat load excursions from the average while constantly maintaining thermal control system setpoints. This multi-function technology provides great flexibility for mission planning, making it possible to operate a vehicle in hot or cold environments and under high or low heat load conditions for extended periods of time. This paper describes the modeling and experimental validation of the Fusible Heat Sink technology. The model developed was intended to meet the radiation and heat rejection requirements of a nominal MMSEV mission. Development parameters and results, including sizing and model performance will be discussed. From this flight-sized model, a scaled test-article design was modeled, designed, and fabricated for experimental validation of the technology at Johnson Space Center thermal vacuum chamber facilities. Testing showed performance comparable to the model at nominal loads and the capability to maintain heat loads substantially greater than nominal for extended periods of time.

  10. Numerical Investigation of Floor Heating Systems in Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Jensen, Claus Franceos

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an investigation of floor heating systems is performed with respect to heating demand and room temperature. Presently (2001) no commercially available building simulation programs that can be used to evaluate heating demand and thermal comfort in buildings with building integrated...... – a heavy system integrated into the concrete floor and a light system which is placed in heat transfer plates – have been investigated, using different supply temperatures to the floor heating system, and different control strategies. The aim of the study is to compare the two types of floor heating...... temperature of the floor of approximately 24 °C, even during the summer period where there is no heating demand. The results of the investigation show an increased heating demand when floor heating systems are compared to an ideal heating system. This larger heating demand is a consequence of imperfect...

  11. Borehole model for simulation transport geothermal heat with heat pipe system and with forced circulation of heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the call OPVaV-2008/2.2/01-SORO Operational Programme Research and Development - knowledge and technology transfer from research and development into practice (ITMS-26220220057, whose strategic goal is "Device to use low-potential geothermal heat without forced circulation of heat carrier deep in the well "in the Department of Energy laboratory techniques to construct a simulator of transport low potential of geothermal energy in comparative test-drilling in the laboratory. The article describes a device that was designed as a scale model of two deep boreholes each of which withdraws the earth's heat by heat transfer technology and heat carrier. Device using forced circulation of heat carrier will respond in the construction of equipment currently used to transport heat from deep borehole. As the heat carrier will be used CO2. Facilities without using forced circulation of heat carrier, the new technology, which will be used as heat carrier ammonia (NH3.

  12. Novel Natural Convection Heat Sink Design Concepts From First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    effective f fluid ,m i mean mixing-cup at inlet ,m o mean mixing-cup at outlet open open boundary p pressure rad radiation s surface th...utilizing principles of the stack effect (i.e., using multiple inlets to create a suction effect to draw cooler ambient air into the tube). The second...of flow and heat transfer were carried out for constant temperature heat addition for single vertical tubes, multiple stacked tubes, tube system

  13. Design and construction of a hybrid system of heating air by combustion of biomass and solar radiation, using phase change material (PCM as a source of thermal storage, for cassava drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Torres-Gallo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted of designing, building and validation a hybrid system of heating air by combustion of biomass and solar radiation, using phase change material (PCM as a thermal storage source, for cassava drying, a small scale. The dryer consists of a centrifugal fan, two solar collectors, a fuel burner solid (rice husk and a tray dryer. System validation was performed drying up Yucca. The PCM allowed to follow the drying process, even when the solar radiation was below 116,22 ± 31,94 W / m2, being able to maintain drying air temperatures in the two solar collectors at 46 ± 4, 29 ° C and 51 ± 4.08 ° C for an additional 45 min. The drying time was 10 h and 45 min, the efficiency of the solar collectors was 43.91 % and the rice husk burner of 36.72 %.

  14. The influence of heat exchanger design on the synthesis of heat exchanger networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liporace F.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger network (HEN synthesis has been traditionally performed without accounting for a more detailed unit design, which is important since the final HEN may require unfeasible units. Recently, publications on this matter have appeared, as well as softwares that simultaneously perform synthesis and units design. However, these publications do not clearly show the influence of the new added features on the final HEN. Hence, this work aims at showing that units' design can strongly affect the final HEN. Improvements on heat transfer area and total annual cost estimations, which influence the HEN structural evolution, are the main responsible for that. It is also shown the influence of some design bounds settings, which can indicate an unfeasible unit design and, therefore, the need for a new match search or the maintenance of a loop. An example reported in the literature is used to illustrate the discussion.

  15. Design and Test of a Liquid Oxygen / Liquid Methane Thruster with Cold Helium Pressurization Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C.; Morehead, Robert L.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    A liquid oxygen / liquid methane 2,000 lbf thruster was designed and tested in conjuction with a nozzle heat exchanger for cold helium pressurization. Cold helium pressurization systems offer significant spacecraft vehicle dry mass savings since the pressurant tank size can be reduced as the pressurant density is increased. A heat exchanger can be incorporated into the main engine design to provide expansion of the pressurant supply to the propellant tanks. In order to study the systems integration of a cold-helium pressurization system, a 2,000 lbf thruster with a nozzle heat exchanger was designed for integration into the Project Morpheus vehicle at NASA Johnson Space Center. The testing goals were to demonstrate helium loading and initial conditioning to low temperatures, high-pressure/low temperature storage, expansion through the main engine heat exchanger, and propellant tank injection/pressurization. The helium pressurant tank was an existing 19 inch diameter composite-overwrap tank, and the targert conditions were 4500 psi and -250 F, providing a 2:1 density advantage compared to room tempatrue storage. The thruster design uses like-on-like doublets in the injector pattern largely based on Project Morpheus main engine hertiage data, and the combustion chamber was designed for an ablative chamber. The heat exchanger was installed at the ablative nozzle exit plane. Stand-alone engine testing was conducted at NASA Stennis Space Center, including copper heat-sink chambers and highly-instrumented spoolpieces in order to study engine performance, stability, and wall heat flux. A one-dimensional thermal model of the integrated system was completed. System integration into the Project Morpheus vehicle is complete, and systems demonstrations will follow.

  16. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.; Haslett, R.

    1980-01-01

    The selection and evaluation phase of a program to develop active heat exchange concepts for latent heat thermal energy storage systems applicable to the utility industry is described. An evaluation of suitable storage media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 to 400/sup 0/C) limited the candidates to molten salts from the chloride, hydroxide and nitrate families, based on high storage capacity, good corrosion characteristics and availability in large quantities at reasonable cost. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a chloride eutectic (20.5KCl-24.5NaCl-55.0MgCl/sub 2/% by wt), with a nominal melting point of 385/sup 0/C. Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application (300 MW/sub t/ storage for 6 hours). Two concepts were selected for hardware development: a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which has been nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. In addition to improving performance by providing a nearly constant heat transfer rate during discharge, these active heat exchanger concepts were estimated to cost at least 25% less than the passive tube-shell design.

  17. Design Development Analyses in Support of a Heatpipe-Brayton Cycle Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeve, Brian E.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    One of the power systems under consideration for nuclear electric propulsion or as a planetary surface power source is a heatpipe-cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton cycle. In this system, power is transferred from the heatpipes to the Brayton gas via a heat exchanger attached to the heatpipes. This paper discusses the fluid, thermal and structural analyses that were performed in support of the design of the heat exchanger to be tested in the SAFE-100 experimental program at the Marshall Space Flight Center: An important consideration throughout the design development of the heat exchanger w its capability to be utilized for higher power and temperature applications. This paper also discusses this aspect of the design and presents designs for specific applications that are under consideration.

  18. Design, development and test of a capillary pump loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroliczek, E. J.; Ku, J.; Ollendorf, S.

    1984-06-01

    The development of a capillary pump loop (CPL) heat pipe, including computer modeling and breadboard testing, is presented. The computer model is a SINDA-type thermal analyzer, combined with a pressure analyzer, which predicts the transients of the CPL heat pipe during operation. The breadboard is an aluminum/ammonia transport system which contains multiple parallel evaporator and condenser zones within a single loop. Test results have demonstrated the practicality and reliability of such a design, including heat load sharing among evaporators, liquid inventory/temperature control feature, and priming under load. Transport capability for this system is 65 KW-M with individual evaporator pumps managing up to 1.7 KW at a heat flux of 15 W/sq cm. The prediction of the computer model for heat transport capabilities is in good agreement with experimental results.

  19. Exergy performance of different space heating systems: A theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    , the effects of floor covering resistance on the whole system performance were studied using two heat sources; a natural gas fired condensing boiler and an air-source heat pump. The heating systems were also compared in terms of auxiliary exergy use for pumps and fans. The low temperature floor heating system...... performed better than other systems in terms of exergy demand. The use of boiler as a heat source for a low-exergy floor heating system creates a mismatch in the exergy supply and demand. Although an air-source heat pump could be a better heat source, this depends on the origin of the electricity supplied...... the performance of the floor heating and the whole system. The exergy input to auxiliary components plays a significant role in the overall exergy performance of systems, and its effects become even more significant for low temperature heating systems....

  20. Systems engineering agile design methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the paradigm of the engineering design process. The authors discuss agile systems and engineering design. The book captures the entire design process (functionbases), context, and requirements to affect real reuse. It provides a methodology for an engineering design process foundation for modern and future systems design. This book captures design patterns with context for actual Systems Engineering Design Reuse and contains a new paradigm in Design Knowledge Management.

  1. Heat pump air conditioning system for pure electric vehicle at ultra-low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the ordinary heat pump air conditioning system of a pure electric vehicle runs at ultra-low temperature, the discharge temperature of compressor will be too high and the heating capacity of the system will decay seriously, it will lead to inactivity of the heating system. In order to solve this problem, a modification is put forward, and an experiment is also designed. The experimental results show that in the same conditions, this new heating system increases more than 20% of the heating capacity; when the outside environment temperature is negative 20 degrees, the discharge temperature of compressor is below 60 degrees.

  2. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, CT. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut. The information consists of description of system and components, operation and maintenance manual, as-built drawings and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The solar facility has 2,561 sq. ft. of liquid flat plate collectors and a 6000 gallon, stone lined, well-insulated storage tank. Freeze protection is provided by a 50 percent glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. From the storage tank, solar heated water is fed into the building's distributed heat pump loop via a modulating three-way valve. If the storage tank temperature drops below 80/sup 0/F, the building loop may be supplied from the existing electrical hot water boilers. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size, 25,000 sq. ft. of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system makes available for other users up to 150 KVA of existing electrical generating capacity.

  3. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2018-01-01

    Power density, efficiency, cost, and reliability are the major challenges when designing a power electronic system. Latest advancements in power semiconductor devices (e.g., silicon carbide devices) and topological innovations have vital contributions to power density and efficiency. Nevertheless......, dedicated heat sink systems for thermal management are required to dissipate the power losses in power electronic systems; otherwise, the power devices will be heated up and eventually fail to operate. In addition, in many mission critical applications (e.g., marine systems), the operating condition (i.......e., mission profiles) is usually harsh, where the input power can change quickly and randomly, resulting in considerable temperature swings in the power electronics. This may induce failures to the power electronic systems. If remain untreated (i.e., ill-designed system without considering reliability...

  4. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  5. Formula study for plate heat exchanger in the central heating regulation of the indirect connection hot water heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui CUI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plate heat exchanger has unique advantages and becomes dominant heat exchange equipment in heating engineering, but there is no heating regulation formula of plate exchanger applied in central heating regulation of indirect connection hot water heating. This paper analyzes the condition that the heating user's system adopts quality regulation method and the hot water network system adopts quality-flow regulation method, and obtains the regulation formulas of plate exchanger applied in central heating regulation of indirect connection hot water heating used for the above two systems. Empirical calculation shows that the formula can be applied to the quality regulation and the mass flow regulation of the different flow optimization adjustment coefficient, and it is an all-round formula.

  6. The RETScreen model for simulating the performance of solar air heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, S. [Enermodal Engineering Ltd., Kitchener, ON (Canada); Meloche, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Diversification Laboratory

    2002-07-01

    RETScreen is a simple to use screening tool that assesses the cost, financial performance, annual energy savings and reduction in greenhouse gases of renewable energy technologies. This paper described the current designs of solar air heating systems to meet process heating loads or ventilation requirements. The solar air heating (SAH) module was added to the RETScreen program to determine the feasibility of solar ventilation air heating systems. The RETScreen program was used to calculate the energy savings from solar heating, reduction in wall heat loss and destratification of indoor air. Some recent examples of cost effective uses of solar air heating systems which offer high solar collection efficiencies and low construction cost were presented. The 3 most common applications of solar air heating include: (1) industrial ventilation air heating systems in which a solar ventilation air heating system supplies and distributes solar heated air, (2) commercial ventilation air heating in which a solar collector is used as a pre-heater to a make-up air heater or conventional HVAC system, and (3) process air heating systems in which a solar air heating system is used as either a stand alone system or as a pre-heater in agricultural crop drying or process air heating. Outdoor air is the inlet to a perforated-plate collector, the most common type of solar collector usually mounted on south facing walls or roofs. It was determined that the cost effectiveness of the system depends on the cost of the energy displaced, the design of the system, the length of the heating season, and installed cost of the equipment. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekret, Robert; Nitkiewicz, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  8. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  9. Friction pull plug welding: chamfered heat sink pull plug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Edmond R. (Inventor); Cantrell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid state repair process for defects up to one inch in length, only requiring single sided tooling (OSL) for usage on flight hardware. Experimental data has shown that the mass of plug heat sink remaining above the top of the plate surface after a weld is completed (the plug heat sink) affects the bonding at the plug top. A minimized heat sink ensures complete bonding of the plug to the plate at the plug top. However, with a minimal heat sink three major problems can arise, the entire plug could be pulled through the plate hole, the central portion of the plug could be separated along grain boundaries, or the plug top hat can be separated from the body. The Chamfered Heat Sink Pull Plug Design allows for complete bonding along the ISL interface through an outside diameter minimal mass heat sink, while maintaining enough central mass in the plug to prevent plug pull through, central separation, and plug top hat separation.

  10. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  11. Nonlocal heat transport and improved target design for x-ray heating studies at x-ray free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoidn, Oliver; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2018-01-01

    The extremely high-power densities and short durations of single pulses of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) have opened new opportunities in atomic physics, where complex excitation-relaxation chains allow for high ionization states in atomic and molecular systems, and in dense plasma physics, where XFEL heating of solid-density targets can create unique dense states of matter having temperatures on the order of the Fermi energy. We focus here on the latter phenomena, with special emphasis on the problem of optimum target design to achieve high x-ray heating into the warm dense matter (WDM) state. We report fully three-dimensional simulations of the incident x-ray pulse and the resulting multielectron relaxation cascade to model the spatial energy density deposition in multicomponent targets, with particular focus on the effects of nonlocal heat transport due to the motion of high energy photoelectrons and Auger electrons. We find that nanoscale high-Z /low-Z multicomponent targets can give much improved energy density deposition in lower-Z materials, with enhancements reaching a factor of 100. This has three important benefits. First, it greatly enlarges the thermodynamic parameter space in XFEL x-ray heating studies of lower-Z materials. Second, it allows the use of higher probe photon energies, enabling higher-information content x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements such as in two-color XFEL operations. Third, while this is merely one step toward optimization of x-ray heating target design, the demonstration of the importance of nonlocal heat transport establishes important common ground between XFEL-based x-ray heating studies and more traditional laser plasma methods.

  12. Design of a concentric heat exchanger using computational fluid dynamics as design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Joris; Bühler, Simon; wilcox, D; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2013-01-01

    A concentric gas-to-gas heat exchanger is designed for application as a recuperator in the domestic boiler industry. The recuperator recovers heat from the exhaust gases of a combustion process to preheat the ingoing gaseous fuel mixture resulting in increased fuel efficiency. This applied study

  13. Improving the performance of district heating systems by utilization of local heat boosters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falcone, A.; Dominkovic, D. F.; Pedersen, A. S.

    District Heating (DH) plays an important role into the Danish energy green transition towards the future sustainable energy systems. The new, 4 th generation district heating network, the so called Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH), tends to lower the supply temperature of the heat down to ...

  14. Analysis of a hybrid PV/thermal solar-assisted heat pump system for sports center water heating application

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Y.; Chow, T. T.; Ménézo, C.; Dupeyrat, P.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the...

  15. Seven Operation Modes and Simulation Models of Solar Heating System with PCM Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical model and dynamic simulation models of a solar phase-change heat storage heating system with a plate solar collector, phase-change material (PCM storage tank, plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary heat sources were established. A control strategy and numerical models for each of seven different operation modes that cover the entire heating season of the system were developed for the first time. The seven proposed operation modes are Mode 1: free cooling; Mode 2: reservation of heat absorbed by the solar collector in the PCM storage tank when there is no heating demand; Mode 3: direct supply of the heating demand by the solar collector; Mode 4: use of the heat absorbed by the solar collector to meet the heating demands, with the excess heat stored in the PCM storage tank; Mode 5: use of heat stored in the PCM storage tank to meet the heating demands, Mode 6: combined use of heat stored in the PCM storage tank and the auxiliary heating sources to meet the heating demands; and Mode 7: exclusive use of the auxiliary heat sources in order to meet the heating demands. Mathematical models were established for each of the above seven operation modes, taking into consideration the effects of the outdoor meteorological parameters and terminal load on the heating system. The real-time parameters for the entire heating season of the system with respect to the different operation modes can be obtained by solving the simulation models, and used as reference for the optimal design and operation of the actual system.

  16. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  17. Hybrid space heating/cooling system with Trombe wall, underground venting, and assisted heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, J.W.; James, L.C.; Stevens, S.; Autry, A.N.; Nussbaum, M.; MacQueen, S.V.

    1983-06-22

    Our goal was to design and monitor a hybrid solar system/ground loop which automatically assists the standard, thermostatically controlled home heating/cooling system. The input from the homeowner was limited to normal thermostat operations. During the course of the project it was determined that to effectively gather data and control the various component interactions, a micro-computer based control system would also allow the HVAC system to be optimized by simple changes to software. This flexibility in an untested concept helped us to achieve optimum system performance. Control ranged from direct solar heating and direct ground loop cooling modes, to assistance of the heat pump by both solar space and ground loop. Sensors were strategically placed to provide data on response of the Trombe wall (surface, 4 in. deep, 8 in. deep), and the ground loop (inlet, 3/4 length, outlet). Micro-computer hardware and computer programs were developed to make cost effective decisions between the various modes of operation. Although recent advances in micro-computer hardware make similar control systems more readily achievable utilizing standard components, attention to the decision making criteria will always be required.

  18. Integrated Cabin and Fuel Cell System Thermal Management with a Metal Hydride Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovland, V.

    2004-12-01

    Integrated approaches for the heating and cooling requirements of both the fuel cell (FC) stack and cabin environment are critical to fuel cell vehicle performance in terms of stack efficiency, fuel economy, and cost. An integrated FC system and cabin thermal management system would address the cabin cooling and heating requirements, control the temperature of the stack by mitigating the waste heat, and ideally capture the waste heat and use it for useful purposes. Current work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) details a conceptual design of a metal hydride heat pump (MHHP) for the fuel cell system and cabin thermal management.

  19. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  20. Solar water and space heating system for Northern Europe. Solar system case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, P.E.

    1983-09-01

    This report outlines the findings of a system optimisation study for a combined solar heating system for domestic hot water and space heating. The study was carried out under given constraints such as climate and local HVAC regulations. The prime objective was to develope a solar heating system with a maximum output per invested ECU. Secondary objectives were to produce: 1. a system that would operate without any interference on the user's part, 2. a high degree of reliability; since owing to the back-up heating system it would not always be possible to determine decreases in performance. The work was carried out in 3 different stages. The first stage, referred to as ''sketch design'' represents a primary attempt based on conclusions drawn from previous experience.

  1. Heat Exchanger for Motor Vehicle Cooling System

    OpenAIRE

    Thuliez, Jean-Luc; Chevroulet, Tristan; Stoll, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Heat exchanger for a motor vehicle cooling system including a sleeve-like meter hermetically mounted on, and surrounding, a hollow tubular chassis meter of the vehicle. The sleeve is provided with inlets and outlets communicating with the space between the sleeve and the chassis meter and vehicle coolant flows through the inlet and outlet. Air, flowing over the outside surface of the sleeve and the inside surface of the chassis meter, cools the vehicle coolant. SMH - MCC Smart, car concepts (...

  2. Performance Characteristics of a Modularized and Integrated PTC Heating System for an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input power of 5.6 kW were integrated in the modularized system, which was designed for improved heating power density and light weight compared to the conventional heating system, in which the controller is separated. We experimentally investigated the performance characteristics, namely, the heating capacity, energy efficiency, and pressure drop, of a prototype of the developed heating system and found it to have satisfactory performance. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of heating systems for electric vehicles.

  3. Condensing Heat Exchanger Concept Developed for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Nayagam, Vedha

    2005-01-01

    The current system for moisture removal and humidity control for the space shuttles and the International Space Station uses a two-stage process. Water first condenses onto fins and is pulled through "slurper bars." These bars take in a two-phase mixture of air and water that is then separated by the rotary separator. A more efficient design would remove the water directly from the air without the need of an additional water separator downstream. For the Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems (CHESS) project, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center are designing a condensing heat exchanger that utilizes capillary forces to collect and remove water and that can operate in varying gravitational conditions including microgravity, lunar gravity, and Martian gravity.

  4. Some Problems of the Integration of Heat Pump Technology into a System of Combined Heat and Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Böszörményi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The closure of a part of the municipal combined heat and power (CHP plant of Košice city would result in the loss of 200 MW thermal output within a realtively short period of time. The long term development plan for the Košice district heating system concentrates on solving this problem. Taking into account the extremely high (90 % dependence of Slovakia on imported energy sources and the desirability of reducing the emission of pollutantst the alternative of supplying of 100 MW thermal output from geothermal sources is attractive. However the indices of economic efficiency for this alternative are unsatisfactory. Cogeneration of electricity and heat in a CHP plant, the most efficient way of supplying heat to Košice at the present time. If as planned, geothermal heat is fed directly into the district heating network the efficiency would be greatly reduced. An excellent solution of this problem would be a new conception, preferring the utilization of geothermal heat in support of a combined electricity and heat production process. The efficiency of geothermal energy utilization could be increased through a special heat pump. This paper deals with several aspects of the design of a heat pump to be integrated into the system of the CHP plant.

  5. Design of Solar Heat Sheet for Air Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, S. Shanmuga; Premalatha, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, I.

    2011-12-01

    The technique of harnessing solar energy for drying offers significant potential to dry agricultural products such as food grains, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants, thereby eliminating many of the problems experienced with open-sun drying and industrial drying, besides saving huge quantities of fossil fuels. A great deal of experimental work over the last few decades has already demonstrated that agricultural products can be satisfactorily dehydrated using solar energy. Various designs of small scale solar dryers have been developed in the recent past, mainly for drying agricultural products. Major problems experienced with solar dryers are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on local weather conditions. While back-up heaters and hybrid dryers partly solved this issue, difficulties in controlling the drying air temperature and flow rate remains a problem, and affects the quality of the dried product. This study is aimed at eliminating the fluctuations in the quality of hot air supplied by simple solar air heaters used for drying fruits, vegetables and other applications. It is an attempt to analyse the applicability of the combination of an glazed transpired solar collector (tank), thermal storage and a intake fan(suction fan) to achieve a steady supply of air at a different atmospheric temperature and flow rate for drying fruits and vegetables. Development of an efficient, low-cost and reliable air heating system for drying applications is done.

  6. Modeling and design of a high efficiency hybrid heat pump clothes dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward; Butterfield, Andrew; Caldwell, Dustin; Crook, Alexander; Winkelman, Austin

    2017-09-01

    Computational modeling is used to design a hybrid heat pump clothes dryer capable of saving 50% of the energy used by residential clothes dryers with comparable drying times. The model represents the various stages of a drying cycle from warm-up through constant drying rate and falling drying rate phases and finishing with a cooldown phase. The model is fit to data acquired from a U.S. commercial standard vented electric dryer, and when a hybrid heat pump system is added, the energy factor increases from 3.0 lbs/kWh to 5.7-6.0 lbs/kWh, depending on the increase in blower motor power. The hybrid heat pump system is designed from off-the-shelf components and includes a recuperative heat exchanger, an electric element, and an R-134a vapor compression heat pump. Parametric studies of element power and heating element use show a trade-off between energy savings and cycle time. Results show a step-change in energy savings from heat pump dryers currently marketed in the U.S. based on performance represented by Enery Star from standardized DOE testing.

  7. The research of heating efficiency of different induction heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konesev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer models of tape and coil inductors are described, and a comparison of the heating efficiency depending on various parameters is made. The developed computer model was made in the ELCUT 6.0. As a result of the simulation, data on the heating characteristics (depending on the various parameters of the heating elements are obtained. The average statistical data of a series of experiments with a tape inductor are given. It is shown that for the same parameters (values of inductance and number of wires, the tape version inductor heats up a pipe to a higher temperature (by 5.08% than the inductor in the coil version in 10 minutes.

  8. The maximum overall coefficient of performance of a solar-driven heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zijun; Chen, Jincan

    1994-12-01

    The optimal performance of the solar-driven heat pump system consisting of a solar collector and a three-heat-source heat pump is studied, based on the linear heat-loss model of solar collectors and the general optimum relation of endoreversible three-heat-source heat pumps. The overall coefficient of performance of the system is adopted to be an objective function. The optimum operating temperature of the solar collector and the maximum overall coefficient of performance and maximum rate of heat pumping of the system are found. The results obtained here have more realistic meaning than those of classical thermodynamics for the optimal design and operation of practical solar-driven heat pump systems. Moreover, it is proven that it is not economic to use a solar-driven heat pump under certain circumstances. Finally, it is expounded that for a solar-driven heat pump system, the product of the efficiency of the solar collector and the coefficient of performance of the three-heat-source heat pump at maximum rate of heat pumping may not be used to calculate the optimal operating temperature of the solar collector and determine the optimal performance of the system.

  9. Intelligent Tutoring Systems as Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert K. W.; Lee, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes the notion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) as design in order to engage ITS development with more rigor. Topics include engineering design versus ITS design; systems approach; design as problem solving; a hierarchy of paradigms; the emergence of an agent-theoretic approach; and the need for an ITS design notation. (Author/LRW)

  10. Aerothermal Protuberance Heating Design and Test Configurations for Ascent Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles E.; Neumann, Richard D.; Freeman, Delma

    2010-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate protuberance heating for the purposes of vehicle design and modification. These tests represent a state of the art approach to both testing and instrumentation for defining aerothermal protuberance effects on the protuberance and surrounding areas. The testing was performed with a number of wind tunnel entries beginning with the proof of concept "pathfinder" test in the Test Section 1 (TS1) tunnel in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The TS1 section (see Figures 1a and 1b) is a lower Mach number tunnel and the Test Section 2 (TS2) has overlapping and higher Mach number capability as showin in Figure 1c. The pathfinder concept was proven and testing proceeded for a series of protuberance tests using an existing splitter aluminum protuberance mounting plate, Macor protuberances, thin film gages, total temperature and pressure gages, Kulite pressure transducers, Infra-Red camera imaging, LASER velocimetry evaluations and the UPWT data collection system. A boundary layer rake was used to identify the boundary layer profile at the protuberance locations for testing and helped protuberance design. This paper discusses the techniques and instrumentation used during the protuberance heating tests performed in the UPWT in TS1 and TS2. Runs of the protuberances were made Mach numbers of 1.5, 2.16, 2.65, and 3.51. The data set generated from this testing is for ascent protuberance effects and is termed Protuberance Heating Ascent Data (PHAD) and this testing may be termed PHAD-1 to distinguish it from future testing of this type.

  11. A Conceptual Design Study on the Application of Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Technology to the Solar Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Robertson, C. S.; Ehde, C. L.; Divakaruni, S. M.; Stacy, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    Alkali metal heat transfer technology was used in the development of conceptual designs for the transport and storage of sensible and latent heat thermal energy in distributed concentrator, solar Stirling power conversion systems at a power level of 15 kWe per unit. Both liquid metal pumped loop and heat pipe thermal transport were considered; system configurations included: (1) an integrated, focal mounted sodium heat pipe solar receiver (HPSR) with latent heat thermal energy storage; (2) a liquid sodium pumped loop with the latent heat storage, Stirling engine-generator, pump and valves located on the back side of the concentrator; and (3) similar pumped loops serving several concentrators with more centralized power conversion and storage. The focus mounted HPSR was most efficient, lightest and lowest in estimated cost. Design confirmation testing indicated satisfactory performance at all angles of inclination of the primary heat pipes to be used in the solar receiver.

  12. Multilevel Flow Modeling of Domestic Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) is a well recognized methodology for functional modeling of complex systems which primarily focuses on the representation of their goals and functions. It has been successfully used in industrial process, e.g. nuclear power plant, chemical plants etc. to facilitate...... i.e. supplying and transferring thermal energy, it is off interest to use MFM to investigate similarities and differences between different implementations. In this paper, three typical domestic European heating systems, which differ from each other in the number of temperature sensors and auxiliary...

  13. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  14. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation of the central solar heating technology is based on measurements on the case plant in Marstal, Denmark, and on published and unpublished data for other, mainly Danish, CSDHP plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performances are reported, based on the experiences from the last decade. The measurements from the Marstal case are analysed, experiences extracted and minor improvements to the plant design proposed. For the detailed designing and energy planning of CSDHPs, a computer simulation model is developed and validated on the measurements from the Marstal case. The final model is then generalised to a 'generic' model for CSDHPs in general. The meteorological reference data, Danish Reference Year, is applied to find the mean performance for the plant designs. To find the expectable variety of the thermal performance of such plants, a method is proposed where data from a year with poor solar irradiation and a year with strong solar irradiation are applied. Equipped with a simulation tool design studies are carried out spreading from parameter analysis over energy planning for a new settlement to a proposal for the combination of plane solar collectors with high performance solar collectors, exemplified by a trough solar collector. The methodology of utilising computer simulation proved to be a cheap and relevant tool in the design of future solar heating plants. The thesis also exposed the demand for developing computer models for the more advanced solar collector designs and especially for the control operation of CSHPs. In the final chapter the CSHP technology is put into perspective with respect to other possible technologies to find the relevance of the application

  15. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  16. Properties of Alloy 617 for Heat Exchanger Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Laboratory; Carroll, Laura Jill [Idaho National Laboratory; Benz, Julian Karl [Idaho National Laboratory; Wright, Julie Knibloe [Idaho National Laboratory; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Laboratory; Lybeck, Nancy Jean [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-10-01

    Abstract – Alloy 617 is among the primary candidates for very high temperature reactor heat exchangers anticipated for use up to 950ºC. Elevated temperature properties of this alloy and the mechanisms responsible for the observed tensile, creep and creep-fatigue behavior have been characterized over a wide range of test temperatures up to 1000ºC. Properties from the current experimental program have been combined with archival information from previous VHTR research to provide large data sets for many heats of material, product forms, and weldments. The combined data have been analyzed to determine conservative values of yield and tensile strength, strain rate sensitivity, creep-rupture behavior, fatigue and creep- fatigue properties that can be used for engineering design of reactor components. Phenomenological models have been developed to bound the regions over which the engineering properties are well known or can be confidently extrapolated for use in design.

  17. Study of heating performance of radiant ceiling heating system and its impact on workers thermal comfort level of workers in typical industrial work shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aliabadi

    2013-08-01

    .Conclusion: Due to large space of these industrial units, producing appropriate heating by convection mechanism is too difficult and expensive. The results confirmed that if radiant heating system applied based on scientific design principles they could be effective in promotion of thermal comfort due to heating surrounding surface by radiant and also reducing fuel consumption.

  18. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  19. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF HEAT PUMP STATION GAS COOLER AT THE WIDE RANGE OF HEAT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  20. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  1. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle

  2. Boundary control of nonlinear coupled heat systems using backstepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bendevis, Paul

    2016-10-20

    A state feedback boundary controller is designed for a 2D coupled PDE system modelling heat transfer in a membrane distillation system for water desalination. Fluid is separated into two compartments with nonlinear coupling at a membrane boundary. The controller sets the temperature on one boundary in order to track a temperature difference across the membrane boundary. The control objective is achieved by an extension of backstepping methods to these coupled equations. Stability of the target system via Lyapunov like methods, and the invertibility of the integral transformation are used to show the stability of the tracking error.

  3. Study of heat exchange in cooling systems of heat-stressed structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikulin, A. V.; Yaroslavtsev, N. L.; Zemlyanaya, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing working parameters of the cycle of gas-turbine engines, complicating design of gas-turbine plants, as well as growing aerodynamic, thermal, static, and dynamic loads, necessitate the development of promising cooling systems for heat-stressed structures. This work is devoted to an experimental study of heat exchange in ducts equipped with systems of inclined and cross walls (fins). It has been found that an increase in the Reynolds number Re from 3000 to 20000 leads to a decrease in the heat exchange, which is characterized by the relative Nusselt number overline{Nu}, by 19-30% at the angle of inclination of the walls φ = 0, 40°, 50°, and 90° if the length of the walls x w is comparable to the spacing b s and by 12-15% at φ = 30° and 90° if x w ≫ b s. If cross walls are used in cooling ducts, the length of the walls x w plays the governing role; an increase in this characteristic from 1.22 × 10-3 to 3.14 × 10-3 m leads to an increase in the intensity of heat exchange by 30-40% and to a decrease in the capacity of the entire system of the walls. It has been shown that, on surfaces with wavy fins, the intensity of heat exchange is closest to that determined in the models under study. For example, values of the Colborne criterion StPr2/3 for ducts equipped with wavy fins and for the models under study differ only slightly (by 2-20% depending on the value of the angle φ). However, the difference for surfaces with short plate fins and ducts equipped with inclined walls is high (30-40%). This is due to the design features of these surfaces and to the severe effect of the inlet portion on heat exchange, since the surfaces are characterized by a higher ratio of the duct length to the hydraulic diameter L/d h at small fin thicknesses ((0.1-0.15) × 10-3 m). The experimental results can be used in developing designs of nozzle and rotor blades of high-temperature gas turbines in gas-turbine engines and plants.

  4. A Framework for Systemic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As designers move upstream from traditional product and service design to engage with challenges characterised by complexity, uniqueness, value conflict, and ambiguity over objectives, they have increasingly integrated systems approaches into their practice. This synthesis of systems thinking with design thinking is forming a distinct new field of systemic design. This paper presents a framework for systemic design as a mindset, methodology, and set of methods that together enable teams to learn, innovate, and adapt to a complex and dynamic environment. We suggest that a systemic design mindset is inquiring, open, integrative, collaborative, and centred. We propose a systemic design methodology composed of six main activities: framing, formulating, generating, reflecting, inquiring, and facilitating. We view systemic design methods as a flexible and open-ended set of procedures for facilitating group collaboration that are both systemic and designerly.  

  5. Technical Design of Flexible Thin-Film Solar Heating Clothes with Switchable Output Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yu Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the research and development of thermal clothes through technical design, by adopting unique removable electronic equipment and applying carbon fiber material to thermal clothes against cold, so as to meet the requirements of active heating and passive warmth retention. Firstly, the specification of power supply system was determined in accordance with the requirements of power system, and the specification of charging system was determined according to the specification of power system. Then circuit system was designed and tested. Fianlly, the electronic device was configured on the clothes appropriately, so that it should be conforms to ergonomic principles, convenient and fast.

  6. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.

  7. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems. Quarterly report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-06

    The General Electric Company is developing eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  8. Large-scale heat pumps in sustainable energy systems: System and project perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blarke Morten B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps (HP with existing combined heat and power (CHP plants, is critically sensitive to the operational mode of the HP vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance, mainly given by the temperature level of the heat source. When using ground source for low-temperature heat source, heat production costs increases by about 10%, while partial use of condensed flue gasses for low-temperature heat source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the analysis shows that when a large-scale HP is integrated with an existing CHP plant, the projected spot market situation in The Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool towards 2025, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-supply constrained power generation electricity, further reduces the operational hours of the CHP unit over time, while increasing the operational hours of the HP unit. In result, an HP unit at half the heat production capacity as the CHP unit in combination with a heat-only boiler represents as a possibly financially feasible alternative to CHP operation, rather than a supplement to CHP unit operation. While such revised operational strategy would have impacts on policies to promote co-generation, these results indicate that the integration of large-scale HP may jeopardize efforts to promote co-generation. Policy instruments should be designed to promote the integration of HP with lower than half of the heating capacity of the CHP unit. Also it is found, that CHP-HP plant designs should allow for the utilization of heat recovered from the CHP unit’s flue gasses for both concurrent (CHP unit and HP unit and independent operation (HP unit only. For independent operation, the recovered heat is required to be stored. .

  9. Update on Modular Laser Launch System and Heat Exchanger Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kare, Jordin T.

    2011-11-01

    The heat-exchanger (HX) thruster and modular laser array provide a comparatively low-risk route to a ground-to-orbit laser launch system. Recently, the reference designs for the propulsion system, laser array, and overall launch system have evolved significantly. By combining a variable flow of dense propellant with the primary hydrogen propellant, the heat exchanger thruster can trade reduced Isp for increased thrust at liftoff, with minimal increase in tank mass. Single-mode CW fiber lasers up to 10 kW power allow a beam module to be built with off-the-shelf commercial lasers. Low-cost high-radiance laser diode arrays can deliver launch-level fluxes of 5-10 MW/m2 over tens of kilometers, sufficient to power a vehicle through the atmosphere, and high enough to hand off propulsion to a main laser array several hundred kilometers downrange. These and other enhancements enable a system design with a true single-stage vehicle in which the only component not yet demonstrated is the silicon-carbide heat exchanger itself.

  10. Designer as Ethnographer: A Study of Domestic Cooking and Heating Product Design for Irish Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    White, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    In many ways, the design of domestic cooking and heating products reflects the zeitgeist of Irish culture throughout the 20th and into the 21st century. From domesticity to materialism, these products have evolved to meet fundamental human needs within the home. Concurrent with this, the methods and processes designers use to create domestic artefacts have evolved and changed. The emergence of Design Ethnography illustrates an evolution where Design has appropriated an establis...

  11. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation Industry Team (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  12. Solar Colletors Combined with Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Dwellings - Analyses of System Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating buildings and domestic hot water in dwellings is increasing rapidly in Sweden. The heat pump extracts heat from the ground by a U-pipe in a vertical borehole. In order to reduce the electricity demand in the system, the combination with solar collectors is introduced. This system may be designed in many ways and the advantages differ a lot. Solar heat can also be used for recharging of boreholes when neighbouring boreholes are thermally influenc...

  13. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  14. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  15. 40 CFR 63.104 - Heat exchange system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat exchange system or at locations where the cooling water enters and exits each heat exchanger or any combination of heat exchangers. (i) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of recirculating... manufacturing process units. (iii) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of each heat exchanger or any...

  16. Control systems for ITER diagnostics, heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simrock, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.simrock@iter.org

    2016-11-15

    The ITER Diagnostic, Heating and Current Drive systems might appear, on the face of it, to have very different control requirements. There are approximately 45 diagnostic systems, including magnetic sensors for plasma position and shape determination, imaging systems in the IR and visible, Thompson scattering for electron temperature and density, neutron detectors and collective scattering for alpha particle density and energy distribution. The H&CD systems encompass Electron Cyclotron Heating, using 24 1MW, 170 GHz gyrotrons and 5 steerable launchers to deliver 20 MW to the plasma, Ion Cyclotron Heating, using 8 3MW, 40–55 MHz sources and two multi-element launchers to deliver 20 MW to the plasma, and 2 Negative Ion Neutral Beam Injectors, each of which can deliver up to 16.5 MW of 1 MeV beams to the plasma. Although there are substantial differences in the needs for protection, when handling multi-MW heating systems, and in data throughput for many diagnostics, the formal processes needed to translate system requirements into Instrumentation and Control are identical. Due to the distributed procurement of ITER sub-systems and the need to integrate as painlessly as possible to CODAC, the formal processes, together with a substantial degree of standardization, are even more than usually essential. Starting from the technical, safety and protection, integration and operation requirements, a loop of functional analysis and signal listing is used to generate the controller configuration and the conceptual architecture. These elements in their turn lead to the physical and software design. The paper will describe the formal processes of control system design and the methods used by the ITER project to achieve the standardization of systems engineering practices. These have been applied to several use-cases covering all operation relevant phases such as plasma operation, maintenance, testing and conditioning. There are a number of running contracts that are developing

  17. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    -scale solar thermal, large heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat, and waste incineration. Where the energy density in the building stock is not high enough for DH to be economical, geothermal heat pumps can be recommended for individual heating systems, even though biomass consumption is higher......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...

  18. Design of a low temperature district heating network with supply recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The focus on continuing improving building energy efficiency and reducing building energy consumption brings the key impetus for the development of the new generation district heating (DH) system. In the new generation DH network, the supply and return temperature are designed low in order...

  19. Energy and Exergy Analysis and Optimization of Combined Heat and Power Systems. Comparison of Various Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Costea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of various CHP system configurations, such as Vapour Turbine, Gas Turbine, Internal Combustion Engine, External Combustion Engine (Stirling, Ericsson, when different thermodynamic criteria are considered, namely the first law efficiency and exergy efficiency. Thermodynamic optimization of these systems is performed intending to maximize the exergy, when various practical related constraints (imposed mechanical useful energy, imposed heat demand, imposed heat to power ratio or main physical limitations (limited heat availability, maximum system temperature allowed, thermo-mechanical constraints are taken into account. A sensitivity analysis to model parameters is given. The results have shown that the various added constraints were useful for the design allowing to precise the influence of the model main parameters on the system design. Future perspective of the work and recommendations are stated.

  20. Analysis of economic and environmental benefits of a new heat pump air conditioning system with a heat recovery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, lingxue

    2017-08-01

    The paper designs a new wind-water cooling and heating water conditioner system, connects cooling tower with heat recovery device, which uses cooling water to completely remove the heat that does not need heat recollection, in order to ensure that the system can work efficiently with higher performance coefficient. After the test actual engineering operation, the system’s maximum cooling coefficient of performance can reach 3.5. Its maximum comprehensive coefficient of performance can reach 6.5. After the analysis of its economic and environmental, we conclude that the new system can save 89822 kw per year. It reflects energy-saving and environmental benefits of the cold and hot water air conditioning system.