WorldWideScience

Sample records for heating curves show

  1. The Heating Curve Adjustment Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornaat, W.; Peitsman, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    In apartment buildings with a collective heating system usually a weather compensator is used for controlling the heat delivery to the various apartments. With this weather compensator the supply water temperature to the apartments is regulated depending on the outside air temperature. With

  2. Turbulent Heat Transfer in Curved Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2013-11-01

    In the present investigation, turbulent heat transfer in fully-developed curved pipe flow with axially uniform wall heat flux has been numerically studied. The Reynolds numbers under consideration are Reτ = 210 (DNS) and 1,000 (LES) based on the mean friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the Prandtl number (Pr) is 0.71. For Reτ = 210 , the pipe curvature (κ) was fixed as 1/18.2, whereas three cases of κ (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) were computed in the case of Reτ = 1,000. The mean velocity, turbulent intensities and heat transfer rates obtained from the present calculations are in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental results. To elucidate the secondary flow structures due to the pipe curvature, the mean quantities and rms fluctuations of the flow and temperature fields are presented on the pipe cross-sections, and compared with those of the straight pipe flow. To study turbulence structures and their influence on turbulent heat transfer, turbulence statistics including but not limited to skewness and flatness of velocity fluctuations, cross-correlation coefficients, an Octant analysis, and turbulence budgets are presented and discussed. Based on our results, we attempt to clarify the effects of Reynolds number and the pipe curvature on turbulent heat transfer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).

  3. Flow and heat transfer in a curved channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinich, P. F.; Graham, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Flow and heat transfer in a curved channel of aspect ratio 6 and inner- to outer-wall radius ratio 0.96 were studied. Secondary currents and large longitudinal vortices were found. The heat-transfer rates of the outer and inner walls were independently controlled to maintain a constant wall temperature. Heating the inner wall increased the pressure drop along the channel length, whereas heating the outer wall had little effect. Outer-wall heat transfer was as much as 40 percent greater than the straight-channel correlation, and inner-wall heat transfer was 22 percent greater than the straight-channel correlation.

  4. The Hardy inequality and the heat flow in curved wedges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2016), s. 91-113 ISSN 0032-5155 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Hardy inequality * heat equation * large-time behaviour * curved wedges * Dirichlet Laplacian * conical singularities * Brownian motion * subcriticality Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.735, year: 2016

  5. Blood flow in curved pipe with radiative heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogulu, A.; Bestman, A.R.

    1992-03-01

    Blood flow in a curved pipe such as the aorta is modelled in this study. The aorta is modelled as a curved pipe of slowly varying cross-section. Asymptotic series expansions about a small parameter δ, which is a measure of the curvature ratio is employed to obtain the velocity and temperature distributions. The study simulates the effect of radio-frequency heating, for instance during physiotherapy, on the flow of blood in the cardiovascular system assuming an external constant pressure gradient; and our results agree very well with results obtained by Pedley. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  6. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the tube bank fin heat exchanger with fin punched with flow redistributors and curved triangular vortex generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Jin, Hua; Song, KeWei; Wang, LiangChen; Wu, Xiang; Wang, LiangBi

    2017-10-01

    The heat transfer performance of the tube bank fin heat exchanger is limited by the air-side thermal resistance. Thus, enhancing the air-side heat transfer is an effective method to improve the performance of the heat exchanger. A new fin pattern with flow redistributors and curved triangular vortex generators is experimentally studied in this paper. The effects of the flow redistributors located in front of the tube stagnation point and the curved vortex generators located around the tube on the characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop are discussed in detail. A performance comparison is also carried out between the fins with and without flow redistributors. The experimental results show that the flow redistributors stamped out from the fin in front of the tube stagnation points can decrease the friction factor at the cost of decreasing the heat transfer performance. Whether the combination of the flow redistributors and the curved vortex generators will present a better heat transfer performance depends on the size of the curved vortex generators. As for the studied two sizes of vortex generators, the heat transfer performance is promoted by the flow redistributors for the fin with larger size of vortex generators and the performance is suppressed by the flow redistributors for the fin with smaller vortex generators.

  7. Unsteady laminar flow with convective heat transfer through a rotating curved square duct with small curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Rabindra Nath, E-mail: rnmondal71@yahoo.com; Shaha, Poly Rani [Department of Mathematics, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100 (Bangladesh); Roy, Titob [Department of Mathematics, Vikarunnesa Nun School and College, Boshundhara, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Yanase, Shinichiro, E-mail: yanase@okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2016-07-12

    Unsteady laminar flow with convective heat transfer through a curved square duct rotating at a constant angular velocity about the center of curvature is investigated numerically by using a spectral method, and covering a wide range of the Taylor number −300≤Tr≤1000 for the Dean number Dn = 1000. A temperature difference is applied across the vertical sidewalls for the Grashof number Gr = 100, where the outer wall is heated and the inner wall cooled, the top and bottom walls being adiabatic. Flow characteristics are investigated with the effects of rotational parameter, Tr, and the pressure-driven parameter, Dn, for the constant curvature 0.001. Time evolution calculations as well as their phase spaces show that the unsteady flow undergoes through various flow instabilities in the scenario ‘multi-periodic → chaotic → steady-state → periodic → multi-periodic → chaotic’, if Tr is increased in the positive direction. For negative rotation, however, time evolution calculations show that the flow undergoes in the scenario ‘multi-periodic → periodic → steady-state’, if Tr is increased in the negative direction. Typical contours of secondary flow patterns and temperature profiles are obtained at several values of Tr, and it is found that the unsteady flow consists of two- to six-vortex solutions if the duct rotation is involved. External heating is shown to generate a significant temperature gradient at the outer wall of the duct. This study also shows that there is a strong interaction between the heating-induced buoyancy force and the centrifugal-Coriolis instability in the curved channel that stimulates fluid mixing and consequently enhances heat transfer in the fluid.

  8. Extension of the master sintering curve for constant heating rate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Tammy Michelle

    density of the pellets based on the green density and the theoretical density of each of the compositions. The Master Sintering Curve (MSC) model is then utilized to generate data that can be utilized to predict the final density of the respective powder over a range of heating rates. The Elton Master Sintering Curve Extension (EMSCE) is developed to extend the functionality of the MSC tool. The parameters generated from the original MSC are used in tandem with the solution to the closed integral, theta ≡ 1cTo T1Texp -QRT dT, over a set range of temperatures. The EMSCE is used to generate a set of sintering curves having both constant heating rate and isothermal hold portions. The EMSCE extends the usefulness of the MSC by allowing this generation of a complete sintering schedule rather than just being able to predict the final relative density of a given material. The EMSCE is verified by generating a set of curves having both constant heating rate and an isothermal hold for the heat-treatment. The modeled curves are verified experimentally and a comparison of the model and experimental results are given for a selected composition. Porosity within the final product can hinder the product from sintering to full density. It is shown that some of the compositions studied did not sinter to full density because of the presence of large porosity that could not be eliminated in a reasonable amount of time. A statistical analysis of the volume fraction of porosity is completed to show the significance of the presence in the final product. The reason this is relevant to the MSC is that the model does not take into account the presence of porosity and assumes that the samples sinter to full density. When this does not happen, the model actually under-predicts the final density of the material.

  9. The effect of buoyancy on flow and heat transfer in curved pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki, Munekazu; Ishigaki, Hiroshi; 望月 宗和; 石垣 博

    1994-01-01

    Fully developed laminar flow in a heated horizontal curved pipe is studied numerically. The thermal boundary conditions at the wall are uniform wall heat flux axially and uniform wall temperature peripherally. Flow and heat transfer are governed by Dean number, Prandtl number and buoyancy number. Detailed prediction of the friction factor, average heat transfer rate, velocity profile, temperature profile and secondary-flow streamlines are given.

  10. An analytic model of pool boiling critical heat flux on an immerged downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hui; Pan, Liang-ming; Wu, Yao; Chen, De-qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin liquid film and supplement of liquid contribute to the CHF. • CHF increases from the bottom to the upper of the lowerhead. • Evaporation of thin liquid film is dominant nearby bottom region. • The subcooling has significant effects on the CHF. - Abstract: In this paper, an analytical model of the critical heat flux (CHF) on the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling has been proposed, which hypothesizes that the CHF on the downward facing curved is composed of two parts, i.e. the evaporation of the thin liquid film underneath the elongated bubble adhering to the lower head outer surface and the depletion of supplement of liquid due to the relative motion of vapor bubbles along with the downward facing curved. The former adopts the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability analysis of vapor–liquid interface of the vapor jets which penetrating in the thin liquid film. When the heat flux closing to the CHF point, the vapor–liquid interface becomes highly distorted, which block liquid to feed the thin liquid film and the thin liquid film will dry out gradually. While the latter considers that the vapor bubbles move along with the downward facing curved surface, and the liquid in two-phase boundary layer enter the liquid film that will be exhausted when the CHF occurs. Based on the aforementioned mechanism and the energy balance between the thin liquid film evaporation and water feeding, and taking the subcooling of the bulk water into account, the mathematic model about the downward facing curved surface CHF has been proposed. The CHF of the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling increases along with the downward facing orientation except in the vicinity of bottom center region, because in this region the vapor bubble almost stagnates and the evaporation of the thin liquid film is dominant. In addition, the subcooling has significant effect on the CHF. Comparing the result of this model with the published experimental results show

  11. Heat rate curve approximation for power plants without data measuring devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (CY

    2012-07-01

    In this work, a numerical method, based on the one-dimensional finite difference technique, is proposed for the approximation of the heat rate curve, which can be applied for power plants in which no data acquisition is available. Unlike other methods in which three or more data points are required for the approximation of the heat rate curve, the proposed method can be applied when the heat rate curve data is available only at the maximum and minimum operating capacities of the power plant. The method is applied on a given power system, in which we calculate the electricity cost using the CAPSE (computer aided power economics) algorithm. Comparisons are made when the least squares method is used. The results indicate that the proposed method give accurate results.

  12. The Transcriptional Heat Shock Response of Salmonella Typhimurium Shows Hysteresis and Heated Cells Show Increased Resistance to Heat and Acid Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pin, C.; Hansen, Trine; Munoz-Cuevas, M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if the transcriptional response of Salmonella Typhimurium to temperature and acid variations was hysteretic, i.e. whether the transcriptional regulation caused by environmental stimuli showed memory and remained after the stimuli ceased. The transcriptional activity of non......, implying that down-regulation was significantly less synchronized than upregulation. The hysteretic transcriptional response to heat shock was accompanied by higher resistance to inactivation at 50uC as well as cross-resistance to inactivation at pH 3; however, growth rates and lag times at 43uC and at p......H 4.5 were not affected. The exposure to pH 5 only caused up-regulation of 12 genes and this response was neither hysteretic nor accompanied of increased resistance to inactivation conditions. Cellular memory at the transcriptional level may represent a mechanism of adaptation to the environment...

  13. Characterization of Radial Curved Fin Heat Sink under Natural and Forced Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadke, Rishikesh; Bhole, Kiran

    2018-02-01

    Heat exchangers are important structures widely used in power plants, food industries, refrigeration, and air conditioners and now widely used in computing systems. Finned type of heat sink is widely used in computing systems. The main aim of the design of the heat sink is to maintain the optimum temperature level. To achieve this goal so many geometrical configurations are implemented. This paper presents a characterization of radially curved fin heat sink under natural and forced convection. Forced convection is studied for the optimization of temperature for better efficiency. The different alternatives in geometry are considered in characterization are heat intensity, the height of the fin and speed of the fan. By recognizing these alternatives the heat sink is characterized by the heat flux usually generated in high-end PCs. The temperature drop characteristics across height and radial direction are presented for the constant heat input and air flow in the heat sink. The effect of dimensionless elevation height (0 ≤ Z* ≤ 1) and Elenbaas Number (0.4 ≤ El ≤ 2.8) of the heat sink were investigated for study of the Nusselt number. Based on experimental characterization, process plan has been developed for the selection of the similar heat sinks for desired output (heat dissipation and temperature distribution).

  14. Numerical analysis of unsteady conjugate heat transfer for initial evolution of thermal stratification in a curved pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Wee Kyung; Kim, Yun Il; Cho, Sang Jin; Choi, Seok Ki

    2000-01-01

    A detailed numerical analysis of initial evolution of thermal stratification in a curved pipe with a finite wall thickness is performed. A primary emphasis of the present study is placed on the investigation of the effect of existence of pipe wall thickness on the evolution of thermal stratification. A simple and convenient numerical method of treating the unsteady conjugate heat transfer in Cartesian as well as non-orthogonal coordinate systems is presented. The proposed unsteady conjugate heat transfer analysis method is implemented in a finite volume thermal-hydraulic computer code based on a cell-centered, non-staggered grid arrangement, the SIMPLEC algorithm and a higher-order bounded convection scheme. Calculations are performed for initial evolution of thermal stratification with high Richardson number in a curved pipe. The predicted results show that the thermally stratified flow and transient conjugate heat transfer in a curved pipe with a specified wall thickness can be satisfactorily analyzed by using the numerical method presented in this paper. As the result, the present analysis method is considered to be effective for the determination of transient temperature distributions in the wall of curved piping system subjected to internally thermal stratification. In addition, the method can be extended to be applicable for the simulation of turbulent flow of thermally stratified fluid

  15. Assessment of CHF enhancement mechanisms in a curved, rectangular channel subjected to concave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturgis, J.C.; Mudawar, I.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to examine the enhancement in critical heat flux (CHF) provided by streamwise curvature. Curved and straight rectangular flow channels were fabricated with identical 5.0 x 2.5 mm cross sections and heated lengths of 101.6 mm in which the heat was applied to only one wall--the concave wall (32.3 mm radius) in the curved channel and a side wall in the straight. Tests were conducted using FC-72 liquid with mean inlet velocity and outlet subcooling of 0.25 to 10 m s -1 and 3 to 29 C, respectively. Centripetal acceleration for curved flow reached 315 times earth's gravitational acceleration. Critical heat flux was enhanced due to flow curvature at all conditions but the enhancement decreased with increasing subcooling. For near-saturated conditions, the enhancement was approximately 60% while for highly subcooled flow it was only 20%. The causes for the enhancement were identified as (1) increased pressure on the liquid-vapor interface at wetting fronts, (2) buoyancy forces and (3) increased subcooling at the concave wall. Flow visualization tests were conducted in transparent channels to explore the role of buoyancy forces in enhancing the critical heat flux. These forces were observed to remove vapor from the concave wall and distribute it throughout the cross section. Vapor removal was only effective at near-saturated conditions, yielding the observed substantial enhancement in CHF relative to the straight channel

  16. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline; Hecking, Harald

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  17. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  18. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs

  20. First results of saturation curve measurements of heat-resistant steel using GEANT4 and MCNP5 codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Duc-Tam; Tran, Thien-Thanh; Le, Bao-Tran; Vo, Hoang-Nguyen; Chau, Van-Tao; Tran, Kim-Tuyet; Huynh, Dinh-Chuong

    2015-01-01

    A gamma backscattering technique is applied to calculate the saturation curve and the effective mass attenuation coefficient of material. A NaI(Tl) detector collimated by collimator of large diameter is modeled by Monte Carlo technique using both MCNP5 and GEANT4 codes. The result shows a good agreement in response function of the scattering spectra for the two codes. Based on such spectra, the saturation curve of heat-resistant steel is determined. The results represent a strong confirmation that it is appropriate to use the detector collimator of large diameter to obtain the scattering spectra and this work is also the basis of experimental set-up for determining the thickness of material. (author)

  1. MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekriladze, I.G. [Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi (Georgia)], e-mail: shekri@geo.net.ge

    2009-07-01

    A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)

  2. MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekriladze, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)

  3. X-ray heating and the optical light curve of HZ Herculis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrenod, S.C.; Shields, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss theoretically the optical light curve of HZ Her, the binary companion of the pulsed X-ray source Her X-1. Using model stellar atmospheres, we construct light curves that are in agreement with UBV photometry of HZ Her except for the sharpness of the minimum. Unlike previous authors, we find that heating of the photosphere of HZ Her by the observed X-ray flux is sufficient to explain the amplitude of the light variations in each color, if the X-ray emission persists at HZ Her throughout the 35-day ON-OFF CYCLE. We rule out a corona surrounding HZ Her as the source of the extra light near minimum, and we also rule out a model wherein the extra light is caused by a stellar wind that electron-scatters optical light emitted by the photosphere of the hot side of the star

  4. CAN LARGE TIME DELAYS OBSERVED IN LIGHT CURVES OF CORONAL LOOPS BE EXPLAINED IN IMPULSIVE HEATING?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored

  5. Laboratory simulations show diabatic heating drives cumulus-cloud evolution and entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, Roddam; Diwan, Sourabh Suhas; Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; Sreenivas, K. R.; Bhat, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    Clouds are the largest source of uncertainty in climate science, and remain a weak link in modeling tropical circulation. A major challenge is to establish connections between particulate microphysics and macroscale turbulent dynamics in cumulus clouds. Here we address the issue from the latter standpoint. First we show how to create bench-scale flows that reproduce a variety of cumulus-cloud forms (including two genera and three species), and track complete cloud life cycles—e.g., from a “cauliflower” congestus to a dissipating fractus. The flow model used is a transient plume with volumetric diabatic heating scaled dynamically to simulate latent-heat release from phase changes in clouds. Laser-based diagnostics of steady plumes reveal Riehl–Malkus type protected cores. They also show that, unlike the constancy implied by early self-similar plume models, the diabatic heating raises the Taylor entrainment coefficient just above cloud base, depressing it at higher levels. This behavior is consistent with cloud-dilution rates found in recent numerical simulations of steady deep convection, and with aircraft-based observations of homogeneous mixing in clouds. In-cloud diabatic heating thus emerges as the key driver in cloud development, and could well provide a major link between microphysics and cloud-scale dynamics. PMID:21918112

  6. Survival curves after X-ray and heat treatments for melanoma cells derived directly from surgical specimens of tumours in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofstad, E.K.; Wahl, A.; Tveit, K.M.; Monge, O.R.; Brustad, T.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray and heat survival curves were established for melanoma cells derived directly from surgical specimens of tumours in man by using the Courtenay soft agar colony assay. The plating efficiency for 11 of the 14 melanomas studied was sufficiently high (PE = 0.3-58%) to measure cell survival over at least two decades. Experiments repeated with cells stored in liquid nitrogen showed that the survival assay gave highly reproducible results. The melanomas exhibited individual and characteristic survival curves whether exposed to radiation or heat (43.5 0 C). The D 0 -values were in the ranges 0.63-1.66 Gy (X-rays) and 33-58 min (heat). The survival curves were similar to those reported previously for human melanoma xenografts. The radiation sensitivity of the cells was not correlated to the heat sensitivity. Since the melanomas appeared to be very heterogeneous in radiation response in vitro as melanomas are known to be clinically, it is suggested that melanomas may be suitable for prospective studies aimed at establishing whether clinical radioreponsiveness somehow is related to in vitro survival curve parameters. (orig.)

  7. Numerical Simulation of Heat and Flow Behaviors in Butt-fusion Welding Process of HDPE Pipes with Curved Fusion Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Kyung Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunwoong; Oh, Ju Seok [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Butt-fusion welding process is used to join the polymeric pipes. Recently, some researchers suggest the curved surface to enhance a welding quality. We investigated how curved welding surface affects heat and flow behaviors of polymer melt during the process in 2D axisymmetric domain with finite element method, and discussed the effect to the welding quality. In this study, we considered HDPE pipes. In heat soak stage, curved phase interface between the melt and solid is shown along the shape of welding surface. In jointing stage, squeezing flow is generated between curved welding surface and phase interface. The low shear rate in fusion domain reduces the alignment of polymer to the perpendicular direction of pipes, and then this phenomenon is expected to help to enhance the welding quality.

  8. First order reversal curve analysis on NdFeB nanocomposite ribbons subjected to Joule heating treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampillo, L.G. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Saccone, F.D., E-mail: fsaccone@fi.uba.ar [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin-Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Barao Geraldo 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sirkin, H.R.M. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd-lean amorphous precursors subjected to Joule heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange-spring magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FORC diagrams of irreversible switching fields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This last techniques helped us to verify the optimized treatments conditions. - Abstract: Amorphous precursors with composition Nd{sub 4.5}Fe{sub 72-x}Co{sub 3+x}Cr{sub 2}Al{sub 1}B{sub 17.5} (x = 0, 2, 7, 12) were thermally treated by the Joule heating technique with a linearly varying electrical current. The crystallization kinetics was followed by monitoring the resistance of the ribbons during the heating up to the final applied current. Crystallized nanostructured phases coexist with an amorphous matrix, as it was observed by means of Moessbauer Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The irreversible magnetic response of the Joule heated ribbons was analyzed by the First Order Reversal Curves (FORC) diagram technique. For the optimal treatments, associated with the higher maximum energy products for each sample composition, it was found that the main interaction is of a strongly dipolar characteristic. Over annealed samples show a FORC diagram that gives into account of softening, due to grain growth, for those phases precipitated at the first crystallization stage. When it is measured at 20 K, the hardest magnetic sample (Fe = 72 at.%, Co = 3 at.%, I{sub final} = 0.5 A), exhibits a diagram with characteristics corresponding to dipolar interactions of soft phases. This fact is consistent with an enhancement of the exchange length due to the increase in the soft phase stiffness as it is expected at low temperatures.

  9. An H minority heating regime in Tore Supra showing improved L mode confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.T.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Aniel, T.

    2000-01-01

    Tore Supra experiments are at present devoted to the study of high density regimes with radiofrequency heating. Recently, an improved L mode confinement regime has been observed in plasmas heated by ion cyclotron hydrogen minority heating, at relatively high densities up to 80% of the Greenwald limit. The quality of energy confinement is as good as that of ELMy H mode. The main physical mechanism of this regime has not been clearly identified. However, some features very similar to those of previous improved confinement modes using neutral beam heating in other tokamaks have been observed. (author)

  10. CELLS OVEREXPRESSING HSP27 SHOW ACCELERATED RECOVERY FROM HEAT-INDUCED NUCLEAR-PROTEIN AGGREGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMPINGA, HH; BRUNSTING, JF; STEGE, GJJ; KONINGS, AWT; LANDRY, J

    1994-01-01

    Protein denaturation/aggregation upon cell exposure to heat shock is a likely cause of cell death. in the nucleus, protein aggregation has often been correlated to inhibition of nuclear located processes and heat-induced cell killing. in Chinese hamster 023 cells made thermotolerant by a prior

  11. Thermoluminescence glow curve for UV induced ZrO2:Ti phosphor with variable concentration of dopant and various heating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Tiwari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis and characterization of Ti doped ZrO2 nanophosphors. The effects of variable concentration of titanium on thermoluminescence (TL behaviour are studied. The samples were prepared by combustion a synthesis technique which is suitable for less time taking techniques also for large scale production for nano phosphors. The starting material used for sample preparation are Zr(NO33 and Ti(NO33 and urea used as a fuel. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD with variable concentration of Ti (0.05–0.5 mol% there is no any phase change found with increase the concentration of Ti. Sample shows cubic structure and the particle size calculated by Scherer's formula. The surface morphology of prepared phosphor was determined by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM technique for optimized concentration of dopant. The good connectivity with grains and the semi-sphere like structure was found by FEGSEM. The functional group analysis was determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The prepared phosphor examined by thermoluminescence technique. For recording TL glow curve every time 2 mg phosphor was irradiated by UV 254 nm source and fixed the heating rate at 5 °C s−1. Sample shows well resolved peak at 167 °C with a shoulder peak at 376 °C. The higher temperature peak shows the well stability and less fading in prepared phosphor. Also the effect of Ti concentration at fixed UV exposure time was studied. The effect of UV exposure time and dose versus intensity plot was studied. Sample shows linear response with dose and broaden peak with high temperature shows the more stability and less fading in TL glow curve. The linear dose response, high stability and less fading phenomenon shows the sample may be useful for thermoluminescence dosimetry application. Trapping parameters are calculated for every recorded glow curve. The

  12. Heat transport as torsional responses and Keldysh formalism in a curved spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Shitade, Atsuo

    2013-01-01

    We revisit a theory of heat transport in the light of a gauge theory of gravity and find the proper heat current with a corresponding gauge field, which yields the natural definitions of the heat magnetization and the Kubo-formula contribution to the thermal conductivity as torsional responses. We also develop a general framework for calculating gravitational responses by combining the Keldysh and Cartan formalisms. By using this framework, we explicitly calculate these two quantities and rep...

  13. Tropical Drosophila ananassae of wet-dry seasons show cross resistance to heat, drought and starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanderkala Lambhod

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plastic responses to multiple environmental stressors in wet or dry seasonal populations of tropical Drosophila species have received less attention. We tested plastic effects of heat hardening, acclimation to drought or starvation, and changes in trehalose, proline and body lipids in Drosophila ananassae flies reared under wet or dry season-specific conditions. Wet season flies revealed significant increase in heat knockdown, starvation resistance and body lipids after heat hardening. However, accumulation of proline was observed only after desiccation acclimation of dry season flies while wet season flies elicited no proline but trehalose only. Therefore, drought-induced proline can be a marker metabolite for dry-season flies. Further, partial utilization of proline and trehalose under heat hardening reflects their possible thermoprotective effects. Heat hardening elicited cross-protection to starvation stress. Stressor-specific accumulation or utilization as well as rates of metabolic change for each energy metabolite were significantly higher in wet-season flies than dry-season flies. Energy metabolite changes due to inter-related stressors (heat versus desiccation or starvation resulted in possible maintenance of energetic homeostasis in wet- or dry-season flies. Thus, low or high humidity-induced plastic changes in energy metabolites can provide cross-protection to seasonally varying climatic stressors.

  14. Visualized study on specific points on demand curves and flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junfeng; Huang Yanping; Wang Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Specific points on the demand curve and flow patterns are visually studied. → Bubbly, churn, and annular flows were observed. → Onset of flow instability and bubbly-churn transition occurs at the same time. → The evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined. - Abstract: A simultaneous visualization and measurement study on some specific points on demand curves, such as onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of significant void (OSV), onset of flow instability (OFI), and two-phase flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel, having a width of 40 mm and a gap of 3 mm, was carried out. New experimental approaches were adopted to identify OSV and OFI in a narrow rectangular channel. Under experimental conditions, the ONB could be predicted well by the Sato and Matsumura model. The OSV model of Bowring can reasonably predict the OSV if the single-side heated condition is considered. The OFI was close to the saturated boiling point and could be described accurately by Kennedy's correlation. The two-phase flow patterns observed in this experiment could be classified into bubbly, churn, and annular flow. Slug flow was never observed. The OFI always occurred when the bubbles at the channel exit began to coalesce, which corresponded to the beginning of the bubbly-churn transition in flow patterns. Finally, the evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel.

  15. Numerical analysis of transient heat conduction in downward-facing curved sections during quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, C.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Pool boiling from downward-facing surfaces is of interest in many applications such as cooling of electric cables, handling of containers of hazardous liquids and external cooling of nuclear reactor vessels. Here, a two-dimensional numerical analysis was performed to determine pool boiling curves from downward-facing curved stainless-steel and copper surfaces during quenching in saturated water. To ensure stability and accuracy of the numerical solution, the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method based on finite control volume representations was employed. A time dependent boundary condition was provided by the measured temperature at nine interior locations near the boiling surface. Best results were obtained using a grid of 20x20 CVs and a non-iterative approach. Calculated temperatures near the top surface of the metal sections agreed with measured values to within 0.5 K and 2.5 K for the copper and stainless-steel sections, respectively. The running time on a Pentium 90 MHz PC for the entire boiling curve was 7% of the real transient time and 4% of that of a simplified Gaussian elimination (SGE) method for the Crank-Nicolson scheme

  16. A statistical method for estimating wood thermal diffusivity and probe geometry using in situ heat response curves from sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis D

    2012-12-01

    The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by using the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system to infer the velocity of water through a porous medium. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale and subsequently to upscale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for sampling and simultaneously estimating the tree's thermal diffusivity and probe spacing from in situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio measurement device. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require knowledge of probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential for obtaining reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests can be obtained in different seasons and can be automated using the existing data logging system. Empirical factors are introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology may be tested for its applicability to realistic field conditions, with an ultimate goal of calibrating heat ratio sap flow systems in practical applications.

  17. Peristaltic flow of Powell-Eyring fluid in curved channel with heat transfer: A useful application in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, S; Mustafa, M; Hayat, T; Alsaedi, A

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we explore the heat transfer characteristics in the peristaltic transport of Powell-Eyring fluid inside a curved channel with complaint walls. The study has motivation toward the understanding of blood flow in microcirculatory system. Formulation is developed in the existence of velocity slip and temperature jump conditions. Perturbation approach has been utilized to present series expressions of axial velocity and temperature distributions. Streamlines are prepared to analyze the interesting phenomenon of trapping. Moreover, the plots of heat transfer coefficient for a broad range of embedded parameters are presented and discussed. The results indicate that slip effects substantially influence the velocity and temperature distributions. Axial flow accelerates when slip parameter is incremented. Temperature rises and wall heat flux grows when viscous dissipation effect is strengthened. In contrast to the planar channels, here velocity and temperature functions do not exhibit symmetry with respect to the central line. In addition, bolus size and its shape are different in upper and lower portions of the channel. Heat transfer coefficient enlarges when the curvature effects are reduced. The behaviors of wall tension and wall mass parameters on the profiles are qualitatively similar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distortion of absorption-line velocity curves due to x-ray heating in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgrom, M.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of X-ray heating on the measured absorption line velocities, in X-ray binaries with low X-rays to optical luminosities ratio are considered. These effects may be appreciable even for such binaries where the effect of X-ray heating on the light-curve is negligible. The effects are studied qualitatively and suggest possible ways to partially eliminate the systematic errors introduced by them. The individual systems Cyg x-1 and SMC x-1 are treated and the results of numerical calculations are presented for them. For Cyg x-1 it is found that the effect is detectable during the X-ray 'high' state in all regions of the spectrum. During the 'low' state it may be important in the red region of the spectrum. The results for the case in which soft X-ray fluxes (E < or approximately .4 keV, suggested by theoretical models) are present are also given. For SMC x-1 a strong effect for Hα, Hβ, Hγ had been found. This effect may be responsible for the observed variable velocity curve. We also find for SMC x-1 that the average X-ray intensity falling on the primary must be considerably smaller than what is derived from the detected flux, or else the effect is too large. (author)

  19. In silico sampling reveals the effect of clustering and shows that the log-normal rank abundance curve is an artefact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of clustering on rank abundance, species-individual (S-N)and species-area curves was investigated using a computer programme for in silico sampling. In a rank abundance curve the abundances of species are plotted on log-scale against species sequence. In an S-N curve the number of species

  20. Reply to comments on-The effect of the heating rate on the characteristics of some experimental thermoluminescence glow curves by Rasheedy et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheedy, M S; Zahran, E M

    2006-01-01

    In the paper by Kumar et al, some criticism is advanced to the analysis of the glow curves measured under different heating rates in the laboratory, which appeared in our recent paper [M.S. Rasheedy and E.M. Zahran, 2006 Phys. Scr., 73 98-102]. According to this analysis the area under the glow curve is conserved in both TL-time plots and TL-temperature plots. On the contrary, Kumar et al supposed increase of the area under the glow curve with increasing the heating rate in the case of TL-temperature plots. Since this criticism discredits a physical reason for conservation of the area under the glow curves due to conservation of the imparted dose at different heating rates, a reply appears to be timely

  1. Heat capacities and asymmetric criticality of the (liquid + liquid) coexistence curves for {dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane, or n-tridecane}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Shi, Aiqin; Liu, Shixia; Yin, Tianxiang; Shen, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coexistence curves of dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane (or + n-tridecane) were measured. • Isobaric heat capacity per unit volume of critical binary solutions dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane (or + n-tridecane) were determined. • The critical exponent β are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. • The asymmetry of the coexistence curves were discussed by the complete scaling theory. - Abstract: The (liquid + liquid) coexistences and the critical behavior of isobaric heat capacity per unit volume for critical binary solutions {dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane, or n-tridecane} have been studied. The critical exponents β and α were deduced and found to be consistent with the 3D-Ising values. The critical amplitudes were determined and used to test the asymmetric criticality of coexistence curves. It was found that the heat capacity does play an important role in describing the asymmetric criticality of the coexistence curves

  2. Wavelet maxima curves of surface latent heat flux associated with two recent Greek earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cervone

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi sensor data available through remote sensing satellites provide information about changes in the state of the oceans, land and atmosphere. Recent studies have shown anomalous changes in oceans, land, atmospheric and ionospheric parameters prior to earthquakes events. This paper introduces an innovative data mining technique to identify precursory signals associated with earthquakes. The proposed methodology is a multi strategy approach which employs one dimensional wavelet transformations to identify singularities in the data, and an analysis of the continuity of the wavelet maxima in time and space to identify the singularities associated with earthquakes. The proposed methodology has been employed using Surface Latent Heat Flux (SLHF data to study the earthquakes which occurred on 14 August 2003 and on 1 March 2004 in Greece. A single prominent SLHF anomaly has been found about two weeks prior to each of the earthquakes.

  3. Wavelet maxima curves of surface latent heat flux associated with two recent Greek earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.; Napoletani, D.; Singh, R. P.

    2004-05-01

    Multi sensor data available through remote sensing satellites provide information about changes in the state of the oceans, land and atmosphere. Recent studies have shown anomalous changes in oceans, land, atmospheric and ionospheric parameters prior to earthquakes events. This paper introduces an innovative data mining technique to identify precursory signals associated with earthquakes. The proposed methodology is a multi strategy approach which employs one dimensional wavelet transformations to identify singularities in the data, and an analysis of the continuity of the wavelet maxima in time and space to identify the singularities associated with earthquakes. The proposed methodology has been employed using Surface Latent Heat Flux (SLHF) data to study the earthquakes which occurred on 14 August 2003 and on 1 March 2004 in Greece. A single prominent SLHF anomaly has been found about two weeks prior to each of the earthquakes.

  4. Complete replication-competent adenovirus 11p vectors with E1 or E3 insertions show improved heat stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Ya-Fang, E-mail: ya-fang.mei@umu.se [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Virology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå (Sweden); Wu, Haidong, E-mail: haidong.wu@umu.se [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Virology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå (Sweden); Hultenby, Kjell, E-mail: kjell.hultenby@ki.se [Division of Clinical Research Centre, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, SE-14186 Stockholm (Sweden); Silver, Jim, E-mail: jim.silver@umu.se [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Virology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå (Sweden)

    2016-10-15

    Conventional adenovirus vectors harboring E1 or E3 deletions followed by the insertion of an exogenous gene show considerably reduced virion stability. Here, we report strategies to generate complete replication-competent Ad11p(RCAd11p) vectors that overcome the above disadvantage. A GFP cassette was successfully introduced either upstream of E1A or in the E3A region. The resulting vectors showed high expression levels of the hexon and E1genes and also strongly induced the cytopathic effect in targeted cells. When harboring oversized genomes, the RCAd11pE1 and RCAd11pE3 vectors showed significantly improved heat stability in comparison to Ad11pwt;of the three, RCAd11pE3 was the most tolerant to heat treatment. Electron microscopy showed that RCAd11pE3, RCAd11pE1, Ad11pwt, and Ad11pE1 Delmanifested dominant, moderate, minimum, or no full virus particles after heat treatment at 47 °C for 5 h. Our results demonstrated that both genome size and the insertion site in the viral genome affect virion stability. -- Highlights: •Replicating adenovirus 11p GFP vectors at the E1 or E3 region were generated. •RCAd11pE3 and RCAd11pE1 vectors manifested significantly improved heat stability. •RCAd11pE3 and RCAd11pE1 showed more full viral particles than Ad11pwt after heating. •We demonstrated that both genome size and the insertion site affect virion stability.

  5. Complete replication-competent adenovirus 11p vectors with E1 or E3 insertions show improved heat stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Ya-Fang; Wu, Haidong; Hultenby, Kjell; Silver, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Conventional adenovirus vectors harboring E1 or E3 deletions followed by the insertion of an exogenous gene show considerably reduced virion stability. Here, we report strategies to generate complete replication-competent Ad11p(RCAd11p) vectors that overcome the above disadvantage. A GFP cassette was successfully introduced either upstream of E1A or in the E3A region. The resulting vectors showed high expression levels of the hexon and E1genes and also strongly induced the cytopathic effect in targeted cells. When harboring oversized genomes, the RCAd11pE1 and RCAd11pE3 vectors showed significantly improved heat stability in comparison to Ad11pwt;of the three, RCAd11pE3 was the most tolerant to heat treatment. Electron microscopy showed that RCAd11pE3, RCAd11pE1, Ad11pwt, and Ad11pE1 Delmanifested dominant, moderate, minimum, or no full virus particles after heat treatment at 47 °C for 5 h. Our results demonstrated that both genome size and the insertion site in the viral genome affect virion stability. -- Highlights: •Replicating adenovirus 11p GFP vectors at the E1 or E3 region were generated. •RCAd11pE3 and RCAd11pE1 vectors manifested significantly improved heat stability. •RCAd11pE3 and RCAd11pE1 showed more full viral particles than Ad11pwt after heating. •We demonstrated that both genome size and the insertion site affect virion stability.

  6. Transgenerational effects of mild heat in Arabidopsis thaliana show strong genotype specificity that is explained by climate at origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Maartje P; Kubisch, Alexander; Ouborg, N Joop; Pagel, Jörn; Schmid, Karl J; Vergeer, Philippine; Lampei, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Transgenerational environmental effects can trigger strong phenotypic variation. However, it is unclear how cues from different preceding generations interact. Also, little is known about the genetic variation for these life history traits. Here, we present the effects of grandparental and parental mild heat, and their combination, on four traits of the third-generation phenotype of 14 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We tested for correlations of these effects with climate and constructed a conceptual model to identify the environmental conditions that favour the parental effect on flowering time. We observed strong evidence for genotype-specific transgenerational effects. On average, A. thaliana accustomed to mild heat produced more seeds after two generations. Parental effects overruled grandparental effects in all traits except reproductive biomass. Flowering was generally accelerated by all transgenerational effects. Notably, the parental effect triggered earliest flowering in genotypes adapted to dry summers. Accordingly, this parental effect was favoured in the model when early summer heat terminated the growing season and environments were correlated across generations. Our results suggest that A. thaliana can partly accustom to mild heat over two generations and genotype-specific parental effects show non-random evolutionary divergence across populations that may support climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Modeling global and local dependence in a pair of commodity forward curves with an application to the US natural gas and heating oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohana, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model for the joint evolution of correlated commodity forward curves. Each forward curve is directed by two state variables, namely slope and level, and the model is meant to capture both the local and global dependence structures between slopes and levels. Our framework can be interpreted as an extension of the concept of cointegration to forward curves. The model is applied to a US database of heating oil and natural gas futures prices over the period February 2000-February 2009. We find the long-run slope and level relationships between natural gas and heating oil markets, analyze the lead and lag properties between the two energy commodities, the volatilities and correlations between their daily co-movements and evaluate the robustness of these observations to the turmoil experienced by energy markets since 2003. (author)

  8. Numerical study for Darcy-Forchheimer flow due to a curved stretching surface with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available The current investigation presents Darcy-Forchheimer flow of viscous fluid caused by a curved stretching sheet. Flow for porous space is characterized by Darcy-Forchheimer relation. Concept of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions is also utilized. Heat transfer for Cattaneo–Christov theory characterizing the feature of thermal relaxation is incorporated. Nonlinear differential systems are derived. Shooting algorithm is employed to construct the solutions for the resulting nonlinear system. The characteristics of various sundry parameters are studied and discussed. Skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate are numerically described. Keywords: 2D flow, Curved stretching surface, Darcy-Forchheimer porous medium, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux, Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

  9. Simultaneous development of laparoscopy and robotics provides acceptable perioperative outcomes and shows robotics to have a faster learning curve and to be overall faster in rectal cancer surgery: analysis of novice MIS surgeon learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melich, George; Hong, Young Ki; Kim, Jieun; Hur, Hyuk; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Nam Kyu; Sender Liberman, A; Min, Byung Soh

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopy offers some evidence of benefit compared to open rectal surgery. Robotic rectal surgery is evolving into an accepted approach. The objective was to analyze and compare laparoscopic and robotic rectal surgery learning curves with respect to operative times and perioperative outcomes for a novice minimally invasive colorectal surgeon. One hundred and six laparoscopic and 92 robotic LAR rectal surgery cases were analyzed. All surgeries were performed by a surgeon who was primarily trained in open rectal surgery. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Operative time and CUSUM plots were used for evaluating the learning curve for laparoscopic versus robotic LAR. Laparoscopic versus robotic LAR outcomes feature initial group operative times of 308 (291-325) min versus 397 (373-420) min and last group times of 220 (212-229) min versus 204 (196-211) min-reversed in favor of robotics; major complications of 4.7 versus 6.5 % (NS), resection margin involvement of 2.8 versus 4.4 % (NS), conversion rate of 3.8 versus 1.1 (NS), lymph node harvest of 16.3 versus 17.2 (NS), and estimated blood loss of 231 versus 201 cc (NS). Due to faster learning curves for extracorporeal phase and total mesorectal excision phase, the robotic surgery was observed to be faster than laparoscopic surgery after the initial 41 cases. CUSUM plots demonstrate acceptable perioperative surgical outcomes from the beginning of the study. Initial robotic operative times improved with practice rapidly and eventually became faster than those for laparoscopy. Developing both laparoscopic and robotic skills simultaneously can provide acceptable perioperative outcomes in rectal surgery. It might be suggested that in the current milieu of clashing interests between evolving technology and economic constrains, there might be advantages in embracing both approaches.

  10. Critical behavior of binary mixture of {x C6H5CN + (1 - x) CH3(CH2)12CH3}: Measurements of coexistence curves, turbidity, and heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Tianxiang; Lei Yuntao; Huang Meijun; Chen Zhiyun; Mao Chunfeng; An Xueqin; Shen Weiguo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Coexistence curve, turbidity and heat capacity of critical solution were measured. → Critical amplitudes were determined to test universal ratios. → Complete scaling theory was verified. → Monotonic critical crossover behavior was demonstrated. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) coexistence curve, turbidity, and isobaric heat capacity per unit volume for the critical solution of {benzonitrile + n-tetradecane} have been measured. The critical exponents β, ν, γ, and α and system-dependent critical amplitudes B, ξ 0 , χ 0 , and A ± , corresponding to the difference of the general density variable of two coexisting phases Δρ, the correlation length ξ, the osmotic compressibility χ, and the isobaric heat capacity per unit volume C p V -1 , have been deduced and were used to test some universal ratios. The behavior of the diameter of the coexistence curves showed good agreement with the complete scaling theory. The analysis of effective critical exponent β eff , which was well described by the crossover model proposed by Anisimov and Sengers, and effective critical exponent α eff indicated monotonic crossover phenomena from 3D-Ising behavior to mean-field one as the temperature departed from the critical point.

  11. Influence of the interior design of a room on the room temperature curve and the heating energy. Einfluss der Innenbauweise eines Raumes auf den Raumtemperaturverlauf und die Heizenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruefenacht, A.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a numerical method for the calculation of layer and surface temperature of any coated building component with any temperature curves for both sides. It is shown how interior heat sources and insolation of the surface can be included into the calculation. The effects of variations of the influence of the outer temperature on the energy household of buildings are of special interest; the main interest however is concentrated on the inner components.

  12. The Small Heat Shock Protein α-Crystallin B Shows Neuroprotective Properties in a Glaucoma Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Anders

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to irreversible retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss and is one of the main causes of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of glaucoma remains unclear, and novel approaches for neuroprotective treatments are urgently needed. Previous studies have revealed significant down-regulation of α-crystallin B as an initial reaction to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP, followed by a clear but delayed up-regulation, suggesting that this small heat-shock protein plays a pathophysiological role in the disease. This study analyzed the neuroprotective effect of α-crystallin B in an experimental animal model of glaucoma. Significant IOP elevation induced by episcleral vein cauterization resulted in a considerable impairment of the RGCs and the retinal nerve fiber layer. An intravitreal injection of α-crystallin B at the time of the IOP increase was able to rescue the RGCs, as measured in a functional photopic electroretinogram, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and RGC counts. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and antibody-microarray measurements indicated that a α-crystallin injection distinctly up-regulated all of the subclasses (α, β, and γ of the crystallin protein family. The creation of an interactive protein network revealed clear correlations between individual proteins, which showed a regulatory shift resulting from the crystallin injection. The neuroprotective properties of α-crystallin B further demonstrate the potential importance of crystallin proteins in developing therapeutic options for glaucoma.

  13. Critical behaviour of binary mixture of {xC6H5CN + (1 - x)CH3(CH2)7CH3}: Measurements of coexistence curves, light scattering, and heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yuntao; Chen Zhiyun; Wang Nong; Mao Chunfeng; An Xueqin; Shen Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Liquid + liquid coexistence, light scattering, and isobaric heat capacity per unit volume for the critical solutions of (benzonitrile + n-nonane) have been measured. The critical exponents relating to the coexistence curve β, the osmotic compressibility γ, the correlation length ν, and the heat capacity α have been deduced and the values are consistent with the 3D-Ising values in the range close to the critical point. The experimental results of the liquid + liquid coexistence were analyzed to examine the Wegner correction terms and the behaviour of the diameter of the coexistence curves. The light scattering data were well described by the crossover model proposed by Anisimov and Sengers, and showed a tendency of monotonic crossover of the critical exponents γ and ν from the 3D-Ising values to the mean-field values as the temperature departures from the critical point. From calorimetric measurements, the amplitude A ± and the critical background B cr of the heat capacity in the critical region have been deduced and some universal ratios are tested.

  14. Light mirror reflection combined with heating/cooling curves as a method of studying phase transitions in transparent and opaque petroleum products: Apparatus and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, Yu.L.

    2007-01-01

    A portable low weight low cost apparatus 'Phasafot' and method for determining pour and cloud points of petroleum products, as well as precipitation and melting temperatures of paraffins in both transparent (diesel fuels), semi-transparent (lube oils) and opaque (crude oils) samples are described. The method consists in illuminating the surface of a sample with an oblique light beam and registering the intensity of specularly reflected light while heating/cooling the sample in the temperature range of its structural transitions. The mirror reflection of a light beam from an ideally smooth liquid surface falls in intensity when the surface becomes rough (dim) due to crystal formation. Simultaneous recording of the temperature ramp curve and the mirror reflection curve enables the determination of the beginning and end of crystallization of paraffins in both transparent and opaque petroleum products. Besides, their rheological properties can be accurately determined by rocking or tilting the instrument while monitoring the sample movement via its mirror reflection

  15. Using IR spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution to elucidate mechanism of heat-induced decomposition of an organic complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpushkin, Evgeny; Gvozdik, Nataliya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    the opportunity to carry out simultaneous thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry analysis and IR/Raman/mass spectrometry investigation of the evolving gaseous products. However, elucidation of the mechanism of the reactions occurring upon heat- ing is not completely straightforward, due to a number...

  16. Critical behavior of binary mixture of {(1 − x) C6H5CN + x CH3(CH2)9CH3}: Measurements of coexistence curves, turbidity, and heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Tianxiang; Lei Yuntao; Mao Chunfeng; Chen Zhiyun; An Xueqin; Shen Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coexistence curve, isobaric heat capacity and turbidity measurements have been reported. ► Asymmetry of the coexistence curves has been analyzed by the complete scaling theory. ► Heat capacity has been shown to be important in describing the asymmetric criticality. ► Universal amplitude ratios have been tested. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) coexistence curve, turbidity, and isobaric heat capacity per unit volume for the critical solution of {benzonitrile + n-undecane} have been measured. The critical exponents β, ν, γ, and α have been deduced, which were found to be consistent with the theoretic predictions. Meanwhile, the experimental data have also been analyzed to obtain the system-dependent critical amplitudes B, ξ 0 , χ 0 , A ± , and D corresponding to the difference of the general density variable of two coexisting phases Δρ, the correlation length ξ, the osmotic compressibility χ, the isobaric heat capacity per unit volume C p V −1 , and the first term of correction-to-scaling for the isobaric heat capacity per unit volume, which were used to test some universal ratios. It was found that the coexistence curve may be well described by the crossover model proposed by Gutkowski et al. The critical-fluctuation induced contribution to the background heat capacity B cr was obtained and used to analyze the asymmetric behavior of the diameter of the coexistence curve. The result indicated that the asymmetry of the coexistence curve can be well described by the complete scaling theory proposed by Anisimov et al., and the heat capacity does make a significant contribution to this asymmetric behavior.

  17. Exploring the potential of acquisition curves of the anhysteretic remanent magnetization as a tool to detect subtle magnetic alteration induced by heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Lennart V.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Mullender, Tom A. T.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, many new methods and improved protocols to determine the absolute paleointensity of lavas reliably have been proposed. Here we study eight recent flows from three different volcanic edifices (Mt. Etna, La Palma and Hawaii) with the so-called multispecimen parallel differential pTRM (MSP) method including the recently proposed domain-state correction (MSP-DSC) (Fabian and Leonhardt, 2010). Surprisingly, apart from approximately correct paleointensity values, we observe major underestimates of the paleofield. These deviations are possibly related to alteration that is not revealed by rock-magnetic analysis. We explore the potential of high-resolution acquisition curves of the anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) to detect subtle alteration in the samples. It appears that assessing changes in the ARM acquisition properties before and after heating to the desired MSP temperature discriminates between underestimates and approximately correct estimations of the paleofield in the outcomes of the MSP-DSC protocol. By combining observations from the domain-state corrected MSP protocol and ARM acquisition experiments before and after heating, an extended MSP protocol is suggested which makes it possible to assess the best set temperature for the MSP-DSC protocol and to label MSP results as being approximately correct, or an underestimate of the paleofield.

  18. Boiling curve in high quality flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralkar, B.S.; Hein, R.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1980-01-01

    The post dry-out heat transfer regime of the flow boiling curve was investigated experimentally for high pressure water at high qualities. The test section was a short round tube located downstream of a hot patch created by a temperature controlled segment of tubing. Results from the experiment showed that the distance from the dryout point has a significant effect on the downstream temperatures and there was no unique boiling curve. The heat transfer coefficients measured sufficiently downstream of the dryout point could be correlated using the Heineman correlation for superheated steam, indicating that the droplet deposition effects could be neglected in this region

  19. Longitudinal data analysis of polymorphisms in the κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes shows differential effects along the trajectory of the lactation curve in tropical dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Samir Julián Calvo; Cadavid, Henry Cardona; Corrales, Juan David; Munilla, Sebastián; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    The κ-casein (CSN-3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) genes are extensively polymorphic in ruminants. Several association studies have estimated the effects of polymorphisms in these genes on milk yield, milk composition, and cheese-manufacturing properties. Usually, these results are based on production integrated over the lactation curve or on cross-sectional studies at specific days in milk (DIM). However, as differential expression of milk protein genes occurs over lactation, the effect of the polymorphisms may change over time. In this study, we fitted a mixed-effects regression model to test-day records of milk yield and milk quality traits (fat, protein, and total solids yields) from Colombian tropical dairy goats. We used the well-characterized A/B polymorphisms in the CSN-3 and BLG genes. We argued that this approach provided more efficient estimators than cross-sectional designs, given the same number and pattern of observations, and allowed exclusion of between-subject variation from model error. The BLG genotype AA showed a greater performance than the BB genotype for all traits along the whole lactation curve, whereas the heterozygote showed an intermediate performance. We observed no such constant pattern for the CSN-3 gene between the AA homozygote and the heterozygote (the BB genotype was absent from the sample). The differences among the genotypic effects of the BLG and the CSN-3 polymorphisms were statistically significant during peak and mid lactation (around 40-160 DIM) for the BLG gene and only for mid lactation (80-145 DIM) for the CSN-3 gene. We also estimated the additive and dominant effects of the BLG locus. The locus showed a statistically significant additive behavior along the whole lactation trajectory for all quality traits, whereas for milk yield the effect was not significant at later stages. In turn, we detected a statistically significant dominance effect only for fat yield in the early and peak stages of lactation (at about 1-45 DIM

  20. Singular interactions supported by embedded curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O Teoman

    2012-01-01

    In this work, singular interactions supported by embedded curves on Riemannian manifolds are discussed from a more direct and physical perspective, via the heat kernel approach. We show that the renormalized problem is well defined, the ground state is finite and the corresponding wavefunction is positive. The renormalization group invariance of the model is also discussed. (paper)

  1. Prediction of flow boiling curves based on artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Junmei; Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., Xi'an; Su Guanghui

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the main system parameters on flow boiling curves were analyzed by using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the database selected from the 1960s. The input parameters of the ANN are system pressure, mass flow rate, inlet subcooling, wall superheat and steady/transition boiling, and the output parameter is heat flux. The results obtained by the ANN show that the heat flux increases with increasing inlet sub cooling for all heat transfer modes. Mass flow rate has no significant effects on nucleate boiling curves. The transition boiling and film boiling heat fluxes will increase with an increase of mass flow rate. The pressure plays a predominant role and improves heat transfer in whole boiling regions except film boiling. There are slight differences between the steady and the transient boiling curves in all boiling regions except the nucleate one. (authors)

  2. Heat indicators of oxidative stress, inflammation and metal transport show dependence of cadmium pollution history in the liver of female zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing-Ling; Guo, Sai-Nan; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Xia, Hu

    2017-10-01

    Environmental stressors such as high temperature and metal exposure may occur sequentially, simultaneously, previously in aquatic ecosystems. However, information about whether responses to high temperature depend on Cd exposure history is still unknown in fish. Zebrafish were exposed to 0 (group 1), 2.5 (group 2) and 5μg/L (group 3) cadmium (Cd) for 10 weeks, and then each group was subjected to Cd-free water maintained at 26°C and 32°C for 7days respectively. 26 indicators were used to compare differences between 26°C and 32°C in the liver of female zebrafish, including 5 biochemical indicators (activity of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and iNOS; LPO; MT protein), 8 molecular indicators of oxidative stress (mRNA levels of Nrf2, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, HSF1, HSF2, HSP70, MTF-1 and MT), 5 molecular indicators of inflammation (mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS and NF-κB), 8 molecular indicators of metal transport (mRNA levels of, ZnT1, ZnT5, ZIP8, ZIP10, ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1). All biochemical indicators were unchanged in group 1 and changed in group 2 and 3. Contrarily, differences were observed in almost all of molecular indicators of inflammation and metal transport in group 1, about half in group 2, and few in group 3. We also found that all molecular indicators of oxidative stress in group 2 and fewer in group 1 and 3 were significantly affected by heat. Our data indicated that heat indicators of oxidative stress, inflammation and metal transport showed dependence of previous cadmium exposure in the liver of zebrafish, emphasizing metal pollution history should be carefully considered when evaluating heat stress in fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  4. Imaging of fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve (OJIP) parameters, applied in a screening study with wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) genotypes under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedmowski, Christoph; Brüggemann, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    We quantified the influence of heat stress (HS) on PSII by imaging of parameters of the fast chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) induction (OJIP) kinetic of 20 genotypes of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) covering a broad geographical spectrum. We developed a standardised screening procedure, allowing a repetitive fluorescence measurement of leaf segments. The impact of HS was quantified by calculating a Heat Resistance Index (HRI), derived from the decrease of the Performance Index (PI) caused by HS treatment and following recovery. For the genotype showing the lowest HRI, reduced maximum quantum yield (φP0) and increased relative variable fluorescence of the O-J phase (K-Peak) were detected after HS, whereas the basal fluorescence (F0) remained stable. An additional feature was a lowered fraction of active (QA-reducing) reaction centres (RCs). The disturbances disappeared after one day of recovery. Spatial heterogeneities of fluorescence parameters were detected, as the negative effect of HS was stronger in the leaf areas close to the leaf tip. The results of this study prove that chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) is suitable for the detection of HS symptoms and that imaging of JIP-Test parameters should be considered in future screening and phenotyping studies aiming for the characterisation of plant genotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  6. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  7. Design fatigue curve for Hastelloy-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Isoharu; Muto, Yasushi; Tsuji, Hirokazu

    1983-12-01

    In the design of components intended for elevated temperature service as the experimental Very High-Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), it is essential to prevent fatigue failure and creep-fatigue failure. The evaluation method which uses design fatigue curves is adopted in the design rules. This report discussed several aspects of these design fatigue curves for Hastelloy-X (-XR) which is considered for use as a heat-resistant alloy in the VHTR. Examination of fatigue data gathered by a literature search including unpublished data showed that Brinkman's equation is suitable for the design curve of Hastelloy-X (-XR), where total strain range Δ epsilon sub(t) is used as independent variable and fatigue life Nsub(f) is transformed into log(log Nsub(f)). (author)

  8. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  9. Heat techniques in the light of the innovation curve. New technology for gas appliances and solar water heaters; Warmtetechnieken in het licht van de innovatiecurve. Nieuwe technologie gezocht voor gastoestel en zonneboilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebregt, R.

    2012-09-15

    The development, market introduction and deployment of new techniques often follows an S-shaped curve. The gas-fired boiler transformed from a conventional apparatus into the current high efficiency boiler. Will the high efficiency electricity boiler be the next breakthrough technique? The electrical and gas heat pumps are fully developed techniques, but this does not apply to their use in Dutch single-family dwellings [Dutch] De ontwikkeling, marktintroductie en toepassing van nieuwe technieken verloopt vaak volgens een S-vormige curve. De gasketel transformeerde van conventioneel toestel naar de huidige hr-ketel. Is de hre-ketel de volgende doorbraaktechniek? De elektrische en de gaswarmtepomp zijn uitontwikkelde technieken, maar nog niet voor de toepassing in een Nederlandse eengezinswoning.

  10. Targeting the maximum heat recovery for systems with heat losses and heat gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah; Lee, Carmen Kar Mun; Lee, Kim Yau; Abd Manan, Zainuddin; Fraser, Duncan M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Illustration of heat gains and losses from process streams. - Highlights: • Maximising energy savings through heat losses or gains. • Identifying location where insulation can be avoided. • Heuristics to maximise heat losses or gains. • Targeting heat losses or gains using the extended STEP technique and HEAT diagram. - Abstract: Process Integration using the Pinch Analysis technique has been widely used as a tool for the optimal design of heat exchanger networks (HENs). The Composite Curves and the Stream Temperature versus Enthalpy Plot (STEP) are among the graphical tools used to target the maximum heat recovery for a HEN. However, these tools assume that heat losses and heat gains are negligible. This work presents an approach that considers heat losses and heat gains during the establishment of the minimum utility targets. The STEP method, which is plotted based on the individual, as opposed to the composite streams, has been extended to consider the effect of heat losses and heat gains during stream matching. Several rules to guide the proper location of pipe insulation, and the appropriate procedure for stream shifting have been introduced in order to minimise the heat losses and maximise the heat gains. Application of the method on two case studies shows that considering heat losses and heat gains yield more realistic utility targets and help reduce both the insulation capital cost and utility cost of a HEN

  11. Quasi-Static Transient Thermal Stresses in an Elliptical Plate due to Sectional Heat Supply on the Curved Surfaces over the Upper Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalsingh Khalsa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to determine quasi-static thermal stresses in a thin elliptical plate which is subjected to transient temperature on the top face with zero temperature on the lower face and the homogeneous boundary condition of the third kind on the fixed elliptical curved surface. The solution to conductivity equation is elucidated by employing a classical method. The solution of stress components is achieved by using Goodier’s and Airy’s potential function involving the Mathieu and modified functions and their derivatives. The obtained numerical results are accurate enough for practical purposes, better understanding of the underlying elliptic object, and better estimates of the thermal effect on the thermoelastic problem. The conclusions emphasize the importance of better understanding of the underlying elliptic structure, improved understanding of its relationship to circular object profile, and better estimates of the thermal effect on the thermoelastic problem.

  12. District heating grid of the Daqing Nuclear Heating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changwen, Ma [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsingua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1997-09-01

    The Daqing Nuclear Heating Plant is the first commercial heating plant to be built in China. The plant is planned to be used as the main heat resource of one residential quarter of Daqing city. The main parameters of the heating plant are summarized in the paper. The load curve shows that the capacity of the NHP is about 69% of total capacity of the grid. The 12 existing boilers can be used as reserve and peak load heat resources. Two patterns of load following have have been considered and tested on the 5MW Test Heating Reactor. Experiment shows load of heat grid is changed slowly, so automatic load following is not necessary. (author). 9 figs, 1 tab.

  13. Measurements of the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in convexly curved boundary layers - Effects of curvature, recovery and free-stream turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Simon, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of streamwise convex curvature, recovery, and freestream turbulence intensity on the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in a mature boundary layer are studied using a specially designed three-wire hot-wire probe. Increased freestream turbulence is found to increase the profiles throughout the boundary layer on the flat developing wall. Curvature effects were found to dominate turbulence intensity effects for the present cases considered. For the higher TI (turbulence intensity) case, negative values of the turbulent Prandtl number are found in the outer half of the boundary layer, indicating a breakdown in Reynolds analogy.

  14. Fibre-optical measurement of the time curve of layer temperatures in a well as a result of heat injection and heat extraction; Untersuchung der zeitlichen Entwicklung von Schichttemperaturen in einer Bohrung bei Waermeaus- und Waermeeinspeisung mit Hilfe faseroptischer Temperaturmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtig, E; Groswig, S; Kasch, M [GESO GmbH, Jena (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The relations between the thermal processes around a 200 m deep geothermal well and the petrographic composition were studied using the fibre optic temperature sensing method. The heat injection and heat extraction properties depend on the petrographic properties (porosity, permeability) of the individual layers. Coarse sandy, water saturated layers have good properties, silts and clays have poor properties for het storage and heat extraction. Heat transport occurs in well defined layers with good hydraulic properties and can be explained by a convective heat transport model. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit faseroptischen Temperaturmessungen in einer Erdwaermesonde (EWS)-Bohrung wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen den thermischen Prozessen unmittelbar um die EWS und dem petrographischen Aufbau untersucht. Das Waermeein- bzw. -ausspeisevermoegen haengt von der petrographischen Ausbildung der einzelnen Schichten ab (Porositaet, Kf-Wert). Grobsandige bis kiesige, wassergesaettigte Schichten haben guenstige, schluffig-tonige unguenstige Eigenschaften fuer die Waermeaus- bzw. -einspeisung. Der wesentliche Waermetransport erfolgt in definierten geringmaechtigen Schichten mit guten hydraulischen Eigenschaften. Der Waermetransport in poroesen, wassergefuellten Schichten kann mit einem konvektiven Waermetransportmodell erklaert werden. (orig.)

  15. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  16. Heating and cooling with ground-loop heat pumps; Heizen und Kuehlen mit erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, Th.; Dott, R. [Institut Energie am Bau, Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, A. [Huber Energietechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-08-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of the SFOE-project 'Heating and cooling with ground coupled heat pumps' in which the benefits and costs of a heat pump heating and cooling system with a borehole heat exchanger were examined. In particular the dimensioning of the hydraulic system, control concept and user behaviour are dealt with. The results of the simulations of thermal building behaviour with MATLAB/SIMULINK, CARNOT, and EWS are discussed. The results of parameter studies carried out, including varying shading, cooling characteristic curves, temperature differences in the heat exchanger and the dead time between heating and cooling mode are discussed. These showed that a simple system with heat pump and borehole heat exchanger for heating or preparation of domestic hot water as well as for passive cooling proved to be the best choice.

  17. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  18. Development of a statistically-based lower bound fracture toughness curve (Ksub(IR) curve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wullaert, R.A.; Server, W.L.; Oldfield, W.; Stahlkopf, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    A program of initiation fracture toughness measurements on fifty heats of nuclear pressure vessel production materials (including weldments) was used to develop a methodology for establishing a revised reference toughness curve. The new methodology was statistically developed and provides a predefined confidence limit (or tolerance limit) for fracture toughness based upon many heats of a particular type of material. Overall reference curves were developed for seven specific materials using large specimen static and dynamic fracture toughness results. The heat-to-heat variation was removed by normalizing both the fracture toughness and temperature data with the precracked Charpy tanh curve coefficients for each particular heat. The variance and distribution about the curve were determined, and lower bounds of predetermined statistical significance were drawn based upon a Pearson distribution in the lower shelf region (since the data were skewed to high values) and a t-distribution in the transition temperature region (since the data were normally distributed)

  19. Mannheim Partner D-Curves in the Euclidean 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kazaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the idea of Mannheim partner curves for curves lying on surfaces. By considering the Darboux frames of surface curves, we define Mannheim partner D-curves and give the characterizations for these curves. We also find the relations between geodesic curvatures, normal curvatures and geodesic torsions of these associated curves. Furthermore, we show that definition and characterizations of Mannheim partner D-curves include those of Mannheim partner curves in some special cases.

  20. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  1. A note on families of fragility curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.; Bier, V.M.; Bley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the quantitative assessment of seismic risk, uncertainty in the fragility of a structural component is usually expressed by putting forth a family of fragility curves, with probability serving as the parameter of the family. Commonly, a lognormal shape is used both for the individual curves and for the expression of uncertainty over the family. A so-called composite single curve can also be drawn and used for purposes of approximation. This composite curve is often regarded as equivalent to the mean curve of the family. The equality seems intuitively reasonable, but according to the authors has never been proven. The paper presented proves this equivalence hypothesis mathematically. Moreover, the authors show that this equivalence hypothesis between fragility curves is itself equivalent to an identity property of the standard normal probability curve. Thus, in the course of proving the fragility curve hypothesis, the authors have also proved a rather obscure, but interesting and perhaps previously unrecognized, property of the standard normal curve

  2. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  3. Optical and IR light curves of VV Puppis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkody, P.; Bailey, J.A.; Hough, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We present optical (0.36 to 0.6 μm) light curves with time resolutions of seconds and infrared (IR) (1.25 to 2.2 μm) light curves with time resolutions of minutes for VV Puppis during a high state. The optical light curves show a single hump with largest amplitude in the V filter, while the IR light curves show a double hump sinusoidal variation. Flickering is evident in both the optical and IR light curves, with the largest amplitude in optical B light. Through subtraction of the low state fluxes from our high state values, we obtain a flux distribution of the accretion column which peaks at 0.55 μm and becomes #betta# 2 in the IR, consistent with current cyclotron models. Comparison of the observed IR variations throughout the orbit with the expected variations due to an M4 star heated by an accretion column at an inclination of 66 0 suggests that the IR light is a combination of the secondary star plus contributions from two emitting poles. (author)

  4. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  5. Anomalies in curved spacetime at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi-Filho, H.; Natividade, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the problem of the breakdown of conformal and gauge symmetries at finite temperature in curved spacetime background, when the changes in the background are gradual. We obtain the expressions for the Seeley's coefficients and the heat kernel expansion in this regime. As applications, we consider the self-interacting lambda phi''4 and chiral Schwinger models in curved backgrounds at finite temperature. (Author) 9 refs

  6. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  7. Contribution to the boiling curve of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Sodium in a pool was preheated to saturation temperatures at system pressures of 200, 350 and 500 torr. A test section of normal stainless steel was then extra heated by means of the conical fitting condenser zone of a heat pipe. Measurements were made of heat transfer fluxes, q in W/cm 2 , as a function of wall excess temperature above saturation, THETA = Tsub(w) - Tsub(s) in 0 C, both, in natural convection and in boiling regimes. These measurements make it possible to select the Subbotin natural convection and nucleate boiling curves among other variants proposed in literature. Further it is empirically demonstrated on water that the minimum film boiling point corresponds to the homogeneous nucleation temperature calculated by the Doering formula. Assuming that the minimum film boiling point of sodium can be obtained in the same manner, it is then possible to give an appoximate boiling curve of sodium for the use in thermal interaction studies. At 1 atm the heat transfer fluxes q versus wall temperatures THETA are for a point on the natural convection curve 0.3 W/cm 2 and 2 0 C; for start of boiling 1.6 W/cm 2 and 6 0 C; for peak heat flux 360 W/cm 2 and 37 0 C; for minimum film boiling 30 W/cm 2 and 905 0 C and for a point on the film boiling curve 160 W/cm 2 and 2,000 0 C. (orig.) [de

  8. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  9. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  10. Radiant absorption characteristics of corrugated curved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of modern paraboloidal concentrators for conversion of solar radiation into heat energy requires the development and implementation of compact and efficient heat absorbers. Accurate estimation of geometry influence on absorption characteristics of receiver tubes is an important step in this process. This paper deals with absorption characteristics of heat absorber made of spirally coiled tubes with transverse circular corrugations. Detailed 3-D surface-to-surface Hemicube method was applied to compare radiation performances of corrugated and smooth curved tubes. The numerical results were obtained by varying the tube curvature ratio and incident radiant heat flux intensity. The details of absorption efficiency of corrugated tubes and the effect of curvature on absorption properties for both corrugated and smooth tubes were presented. The results may have significance to further analysis of highly efficient heat absorbers exposed to concentrated radiant heating. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 42006

  11. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  12. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  13. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  14. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  15. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  16. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  17. Curve collection, extension of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)

  18. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  19. String Sigma Models on Curved Supermanifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Catenacci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We use the techniques of integral forms to analyze the easiest example of two-dimensional sigma models on a supermanifold. We write the action as an integral of a top integral form over a D = 2 supermanifold, and we show how to interpolate between different superspace actions. Then, we consider curved supermanifolds, and we show that the definitions used for flat supermanifolds can also be used for curved supermanifolds. We prove it by first considering the case of a curved rigid supermanifold and then the case of a generic curved supermanifold described by a single superfield E.

  20. Pre-nebular Light Curves of SNe I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, W. David [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fryer, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Matheson, Thomas [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We compare analytic predictions of supernova light curves with recent high-quality data from SN2011fe (Ia), KSN2011b (Ia), and the Palomar Transient Factory and the La Silla-QUEST variability survey (LSQ) (Ia). Because of the steady, fast cadence of observations, KSN2011b provides unique new information on SNe Ia: the smoothness of the light curve, which is consistent with significant large-scale mixing during the explosion, possibly due to 3D effects (e.g., Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities), and provides support for a slowly varying leakage (mean opacity). For a more complex light curve (SN2008D, SN Ib), we separate the luminosity due to multiple causes and indicate the possibility of a radioactive plume. The early rise in luminosity is shown to be affected by the opacity (leakage rate) for thermal and non-thermal radiation. A general derivation of Arnett’s rule again shows that it depends upon all processes heating the plasma, not just radioactive ones, so that SNe Ia will differ from SNe Ibc if the latter have multiple heating processes.

  1. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  2. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  3. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  4. Bragg Curve Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously

  5. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  6. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  7. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  8. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    In this thesis we study a formulation of Dirac fermions in curved spacetime that respects general coordinate invariance as well as invariance under local spin base transformations. We emphasize the advantages of the spin base invariant formalism both from a conceptual as well as from a practical viewpoint. This suggests that local spin base invariance should be added to the list of (effective) properties of (quantum) gravity theories. We find support for this viewpoint by the explicit construction of a global realization of the Clifford algebra on a 2-sphere which is impossible in the spin-base non-invariant vielbein formalism. The natural variables for this formulation are spacetime-dependent Dirac matrices subject to the Clifford-algebra constraint. In particular, a coframe, i.e. vielbein field is not required. We disclose the hidden spin base invariance of the vielbein formalism. Explicit formulas for the spin connection as a function of the Dirac matrices are found. This connection consists of a canonical part that is completely fixed in terms of the Dirac matrices and a free part that can be interpreted as spin torsion. The common Lorentz symmetric gauge for the vielbein is constructed for the Dirac matrices, even for metrics which are not linearly connected. Under certain criteria, it constitutes the simplest possible gauge, demonstrating why this gauge is so useful. Using the spin base formulation for building a field theory of quantized gravity and matter fields, we show that it suffices to quantize the metric and the matter fields. This observation is of particular relevance for field theory approaches to quantum gravity, as it can serve for a purely metric-based quantization scheme for gravity even in the presence of fermions. Hence, in the second part of this thesis we critically examine the gauge, and the field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaussian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical

  9. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  10. The Koch curve as a smooth manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Sniatycki, Jedrzej

    2008-01-01

    We show that there exists a homeomorphism between the closed interval [0,1] is contained in R and the Koch curve endowed with the subset topology of R 2 . We use this homeomorphism to endow the Koch curve with the structure of a smooth manifold with boundary

  11. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  12. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  13. Theoretical study of melting curves on Ta, Mo, and W at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Feng [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang (China)], E-mail: hawk_0816@yahoo.com.cn; Cai Lingcang [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang (China)

    2008-06-01

    The melting curves of tantalum (Ta), molybdenum (Mo), and tungsten (W) are calculated using a dislocation-mediated melting model. The calculated melting curves are in good agreement with shock-wave data, and partially in agreement with wire explosion and piston-cylinder data, but show large discrepancies with diamond-anvil cell (DAC) data. We propose that the melting mechanism caused by shock-wave and laser-heated DAC techniques are probably different, and that a systematic difference exists in the two melting processes.

  14. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  15. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  16. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  17. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  18. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  19. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  20. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...

  1. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  2. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  4. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  5. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  6. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  7. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  8. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  9. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  10. ECM using Edwards curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Birkner, P.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the

  11. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  12. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. An experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of a heat pipe heat exchanger with latent heat storage. Part II: Simultaneous charging/discharging modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongliang; Wang Zengyi; Ma Chongfang

    2006-01-01

    In this part of the paper, the performance of the simultaneous charging/discharging operation modes of the heat pipe heat exchanger with latent heat storage is experimentally studied. The experimental results show that the device may operate under either the fluid to fluid heat transfer with charging heat to the phase change material (PCM) or the fluid to fluid heat transfer with discharging heat from the PCM modes according to the initial temperature of the PCM. The melting/solidification curves, the performances of the heat pipes and the device, the influences of the inlet temperature and the mass flow rate of the cold water on the operation performance are investigated by extensive experiments. The experimental results also disclose that under the simultaneous charging/discharging operation mode, although the heat transfer from the hot water directly to the cold water may vary, it always takes up a major part of the total heat recovered by the cold water due to the very small thermal resistance compared with the thermal resistance of the PCM side. The melting/solidification processes taking place in the simultaneous charging/discharging operation are compared with those in the charging only and discharging only processes. By applying a simplified thermal resistance analysis, a criterion for predicting the exact operation modes was derived and used to explain the observed experimental phenomena

  15. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar heat power generation system (R and D on curved reflector light collection system); 1976 nendo taiyonetsu hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kyokumen shuko hoshiki system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    As a part of Sunshine Project, study was made on the solar heat power generation system using a solar collection system composed of plane and curved reflectors. In fiscal 1976, study was made on plant characteristics and plant operation by using system simulation program, and the concept design of the system was promoted. The reflectance of the plane reflector was improved up to 0.92 by remodeling the prototype collector fabricated in last fiscal year, and the prototype test facility of full-scale reflectors for 1,000kW solar power plant was prepared to obtain design data for large reflectors. The prototype heat collection loop control equipment which was prepared to simulate control of plant operation conditions according to solar radiation fluctuation, succeeded in prediction of solar radiation fluctuation within nearly 30min. New study was also made on a system using both accumulator and molten salt heat storage equipment, and each proper capacity for power plants was determined. In addition, high-temperature vapor generation for 2 hours was achieved by the prototype heat storage equipment using KCl-LiCl molten salt. (NEDO)

  16. Thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles for multi-stream waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufei; Tang, Qikui; Wang, Mengying; Feng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles (KC) for multi-stream waste heat recovery. • Divide waste heat into straight, convex and concave based on its composite curve. • Use heat ratio and temperature of the most point to show the feature of waste heat. • KC is suitable for straight and most concave heat, while ORC for convex one. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and Kalina cycle are the main technologies to recover waste heat for power generation. Up to now, many works dealing with the thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles are available, but these studies considered for heat recovery from a single heat source or stream. In the process industry, there are multiple waste heat streams, forming a complex heat source profile. In this paper, based on the simulation model developed in the Aspen Hysys software, the two cycles are calculated and compared. According to the waste heat composite curve, the multi-stream waste heat is divided into three kinds, straight, convex, and concave waste heat. Two parameters, the ratio of the heat above and below the most salient/concave point (R) and the temperature of the most point, are used to roughly express the feature of waste heat. With the efficiency from waste heat (exergy) to power as energy performance indicator, the calculation results for waste heat with maximum supply temperature 180 °C show that for straight and concave waste heat with R not less than 0.2, Kalina cycle is better than ORC, while for convex waste heat, ORC is preferable. The work can provide a reference to choose a suitable technology to recover low temperature waste heat for power generation in the process industry.

  17. Polar representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de

    2008-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic parameters: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. Any one of these quantities can be expressed as a function of any two others. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves, also referred to as four-quadrant curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, the four-quadrant configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the polar form appears as the simplest way to represent the homologous curves. In the polar method, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a

  18. Remote sensing used for power curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R; Joergensen, H E; Paulsen, U S; Larsen, T J; Antoniou, I; Thesbjerg, L

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviation in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. The comparison of the power curves obtained with the three instruments to the traditional power curve, obtained using a cup anemometer measurement, confirms the results obtained from the simulations. Using LiDAR profiles reduces the error in power curve measurement, when these are used as relative instrument together with a cup anemometer. Results from the SoDAR do not show such promising results, probably because of noisy measurements resulting in distorted profiles

  19. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  20. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  1. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  2. International Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.

  3. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  4. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  5. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  6. Containerless Heating Process of a Deeply Undercooled Metal Droplet by Electrostatic Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei-Long; Dai Bin; Liu Xue-Feng; Sun Yi-Ning; Sun Zhi-Bin; Yu Qiang; Zhai Guang-Jie

    2015-01-01

    We present the containerless heating process of a deeply undercooled metal droplet by electrostatic levitation. The problem of surface charge loss in the heating process is discussed and specific formulas are given to describe the basic process of charge supplement by the photoelectric and thermoelectric effects. The pure metal zirconium is used to be melted and solidified to analyze the heating process. The temperature-time curve clearly shows the features including melting, undercooling, recalescence and solid-state phase transformation. (paper)

  7. Stress-induced heating in commercial conductors and its possible influence on magnet performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, D.S.; Kroeger, D.M.; Moazed, A.

    1976-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements show that significant amounts of heat are generated when a multifilamentary composite conductor is stressed in tension to levels expected to occur in large, high-field magnet systems. When the stress on the conductor is repetitively cycled between zero and some maximum value, the amount of heat produced per cycle is constant after the first few cycles. Comparison is made between calorimetric determinations of heat injections and the work done on the specimen as indicated by stress-strain curves. Stress-strain curves for a number of commercial conductors indicate that the most important determinant of the magnitude of this effect is the choice of matrix material

  8. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  9. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  10. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de

    2015-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  11. Statistics from dynamics in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.; Wang, Y.

    1989-01-01

    We consider quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2 with a nonzero mass in curved spacetime. We show that the dynamical Bogolubov transformations associated with gravitationally induced particle creation imply the connection between spin and statistics: By embedding two flat regions in a curved spacetime, we find that only when one imposes Bose-Einstein statistics for an integer-spin field and Fermi-Dirac statistics for a half-integer-spin field in the first flat region is the same type of statistics propagated from the first to the second flat region. This derivation of the flat-spacetime spin-statistics theorem makes use of curved-spacetime dynamics and does not reduce to any proof given in flat spacetime. We also show in the same manner that parastatistics, up to the fourth order, are consistent with the dynamical evolution of curved spacetime

  12. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  13. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar heat power generation system (R and D on curved reflector light collection system); 1974 nendo taiyonetsu hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. kyokumen shuko hoshiki system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    This report composed of 6 parts summarizes the fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project research result on the solar heat power generation system with a curved reflector light collection system. Part 1 outlines the research target, research result and research system. Part 2 describes each research item in detail. This part on system and hardware researches is composed of (1) study on 1,000kW system, (2) development of plane/parabolic reflector light collection equipment, (3) development of parabolic reflector light collection equipment, (4) development of selective transparent membrane and selective absorption surface, and (5) study on heat storage equipment and heat exchange equipment. Part 3 describes the future R and D plan for every year focusing the fiscal 1975 R and D plan. Part 4 describes various cooperative activities with other research groups such as various committees related to the Sunshine Project, universities and Electrotechnical Laboratory. Part 5 describes several patents produced during this R and D. Part 6 summarizes the results on this R and D. (NEDO)

  14. Analysis of velocity planning interpolation algorithm based on NURBS curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-04-01

    To reduce interpolation time and Max interpolation error in NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) inter-polation caused by planning Velocity. This paper proposed a velocity planning interpolation algorithm based on NURBS curve. Firstly, the second-order Taylor expansion is applied on the numerator in NURBS curve representation with parameter curve. Then, velocity planning interpolation algorithm can meet with NURBS curve interpolation. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed NURBS curve interpolator meet the high-speed and high-accuracy interpolation requirements of CNC systems. The interpolation of NURBS curve should be finished.

  15. Explosions and light curves of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffet, B.

    1975-01-01

    The models developed to explain supernovae explosions are reviewed. The first one is thermonuclear explosion (simple or preceded by an implosion phase); the neutrino emission which results of such an explosion can have an important dynamical effect, according as the star is opaque or transparent to them; another theory involves the radiation pressure of the pulsar which is formed in the center of the star. The origin of the supernovae brightness is also uncertain: the initial heat due to the explosion does not seem to be sufficient; the brightness can result from the diffusion of the heat through the ejected matter or can be transported more rapidly by a shock wave. A model in which the heat is produced by the pulsar seems compatible with most observations (shapes of the brightness curves and the continuum spectra, expansion velocities, temperature and luminosity at the peak, total kinetic energy) [fr

  16. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  17. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  18. Effect of subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Glebov, A.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments were performed to investigate the effects of water subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from a downward-facing curved surface. Experiments used three copper sections of the same diameter (50.8 mm) and surface radius (148 mm), but different thickness (12.8, 20 and 30 mm). Local and average pool boiling curves were obtained at saturation and 5 K, 10 K, and 14 K subcooling. Water subcooling increased the maximum heat flux, but decreased the corresponding wall superheat. The minimum film boiling heat flux and the corresponding wall superheat, however, increased with increased subcooling. The maximum and minimum film boiling heat fluxes were independent of wall thickness above 20 mm and Biot Number > 0.8, indicating that boiling curves for the 20 and 30 thick sections were representative of quasi steady-state, but not those for the 12.8 mm thick section. When compared with that for a flat surface section of the same thickness, the data for the 12.8 mm thick section showed significant increases in both the maximum heat flux (from 0.21 to 0.41 MW/m{sup 2}) and the minimum film boiling heat flux (from 2 to 13 kW/m{sup 2}) and about 11.5 K and 60 K increase in the corresponding wall superheats, respectively.

  19. HEATING OF FLARE LOOPS WITH OBSERVATIONALLY CONSTRAINED HEATING FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Jiong; Liu Wenjuan; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We analyze high-cadence high-resolution observations of a C3.2 flare obtained by AIA/SDO on 2010 August 1. The flare is a long-duration event with soft X-ray and EUV radiation lasting for over 4 hr. Analysis suggests that magnetic reconnection and formation of new loops continue for more than 2 hr. Furthermore, the UV 1600 Angstrom-Sign observations show that each of the individual pixels at the feet of flare loops is brightened instantaneously with a timescale of a few minutes, and decays over a much longer timescale of more than 30 minutes. We use these spatially resolved UV light curves during the rise phase to construct empirical heating functions for individual flare loops, and model heating of coronal plasmas in these loops. The total coronal radiation of these flare loops are compared with soft X-ray and EUV radiation fluxes measured by GOES and AIA. This study presents a method to observationally infer heating functions in numerous flare loops that are formed and heated sequentially by reconnection throughout the flare, and provides a very useful constraint to coronal heating models.

  20. Numerical modeling of the effect of surface topology on the saturated pool nucleate boiling curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study of saturated pool nucleate boiling with an emphasis on the effect of surface topography is presented. The numerical model consisted of solving the three-dimensional transient heat conduction equation within the heater subjected to nucleate boiling over its upper surface. The surface topography model considered the distribution of the cavity and cavity angles based on exponential and normal probability functions. Parametric results showed that the saturated nucleate boiling curve shifted left and became steeper with an increase in the mean cavity radius. The boiling curve was found to be sensitive to the selection of how many cavities were selected for each octagonal cell. A small variation in the statistical parameters, especially cavity radii for smooth surfaces, resulted in noticeable differences in wall superheat for a given heat flux. This result indicated that while the heat transfer coefficient increased with cavity radii, the cavity radii or height alone was not sufficient to characterize the boiling curve. It also suggested that statistical experimental data should consider large samples to characterize the surface topology. The boiling curve shifted to the right when the cavity angle was obtained using a normal distribution. This effect became less important when the number of cavities for each cell was increasing because the probability of the potential cavity with a larger radius in each cell was increased. When the contact angle of the fluid decreased for a given mean cavity radii, the boiling curve shifted to the right. This shift was more pronounced at smaller mean cavity radii and decreased with increasing mean cavity radii

  1. Effects of time-temperature profiles on glow curves of germanium-doped optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S. E.; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.; Mohd Noor, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Germanium (Ge) doped silica optical fibres have demonstrated the great potential to be developed as a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeter that can be used in various applications in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology, UV dosimetry system and food irradiation industry. Different time-temperature profile (TTP) parameters of the TL reader have been employed by many researchers in various of TL studies. Nevertheless, none of those studies adequately addressed the effects of the reader's preheat temperature and heating rate on the kinetic parameters of the TL glow curve specifically, the Ge-doped silica optical fibres. This research addresses the issue of TTP parameters with special attention to the determination of the kinetic parameters of the glow curve. The glow curve responses were explored and the kinetic parameters were analyzed by the WinGCF software, to show the effect of the preheat temperature and heating rate of the reader on Ge-doped fibre irradiated with 18 Gy of 6 MV photons radiation. The effect of TTP parameters was discussed and compared against the commercial fibre and tailored made fibre of 6 mol% Ge-doped of flat and cylindrical shape. The deconvolution of glow peaks and the kinetic parameters were obtained by the WinGCF software. This enables to fit accurately (1.5%curves. A positive, moderate linear relationship exists between the TL response and the heating rate when the specific preheat temperature was used to read commercial fibre (50 °C) and cylindrical fibre (80 °C and 160 °C). It is found that the glow peaks of cylindrical fibre exhibit the highest peak integral as compared to flat and commercial fibres. This study revealed the possible relationship between the reader's TTP parameters and the kinetic parameters of TL glow curves for the commercial and tailored made Ge-doped silica optical fibres.

  2. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  3. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  4. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  5. Utilization of curve offsets in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltalab, Vahid; Yaman, Ulas; Dolen, Melik

    2018-05-01

    Curve offsets are utilized in different fields of engineering and science. Additive manufacturing, which lately becomes an explicit requirement in manufacturing industry, utilizes curve offsets widely. One of the necessities of offsetting is for scaling which is required if there is shrinkage after the fabrication or if the surface quality of the resulting part is unacceptable. Therefore, some post-processing is indispensable. But the major application of curve offsets in additive manufacturing processes is for generating head trajectories. In a point-wise AM process, a correct tool-path in each layer can reduce lots of costs and increase the surface quality of the fabricated parts. In this study, different curve offset generation algorithms are analyzed to show their capabilities and disadvantages through some test cases and improvements on their drawbacks are suggested.

  6. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1994-11-01

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4γ + 2 and γ >= 1 (γ = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2γ + 1 (resp. 4γ + 2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4γ + 4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the γ-involution has at least one common fixed point. (author). 15 refs

  7. Learning curves in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A

    2015-08-01

    Learning curves, which graphically show the relationship between learning effort and achievement, are common in published education research but are not often used in day-to-day educational activities. The purpose of this article is to describe the generation and analysis of learning curves and their applicability to health professions education. The authors argue that the time is right for a closer look at using learning curves-given their desirable properties-to inform both self-directed instruction by individuals and education management by instructors.A typical learning curve is made up of a measure of learning (y-axis), a measure of effort (x-axis), and a mathematical linking function. At the individual level, learning curves make manifest a single person's progress towards competence including his/her rate of learning, the inflection point where learning becomes more effortful, and the remaining distance to mastery attainment. At the group level, overlaid learning curves show the full variation of a group of learners' paths through a given learning domain. Specifically, they make overt the difference between time-based and competency-based approaches to instruction. Additionally, instructors can use learning curve information to more accurately target educational resources to those who most require them.The learning curve approach requires a fine-grained collection of data that will not be possible in all educational settings; however, the increased use of an assessment paradigm that explicitly includes effort and its link to individual achievement could result in increased learner engagement and more effective instructional design.

  8. A Journey Between Two Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Cherkis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.

  9. Generalized drying curves in conductive/convective paper drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Motta Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to conductive/convective drying of paper (cellulose sheets over heated surfaces, under natural and forced air conditions. The experimental apparatus consists in a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the paper samples (about 1 mm thick are placed. The system is submitted to ambient air under two different conditions: natural convection and forced convection provide by an adjustable blower. The influence of initial paper moisture content, drying (heated surface temperature and air velocity on drying curves behavior is observed under different drying conditions. Hence, these influence is studied through the proposal of generalized drying curves. Those curves are analyzed individually for each air condition exposed above and for both together. A set of equations to fit them is proposed and discussed.

  10. The J-resistance curve Leak-before-Break test program on material for the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Darlington Leak-Before-Break (DLBB) approach has been developed for large diameter (21, 22, 24 inch) SA106B heat transport (HT) piping and SA105 fittings as a design alternative to pipewhip restraints and in recognition of the questionable benefits of providing such restraints. Ontario Hydro's DLBB approach is based on the elastic plastic fracture mechanics method. In this test program, J-resistance curves were determined from actual pipe heats that were used in the construction of the Darlington heat transport systems (Units 1 and 2). Test blocks were prepared using four different welding procedures for nuclear Class I piping. The test program was designed to take into account the effect of various factors such as test temperature, crack plane orientation, welding effects, etc., which have influence on fracture properties. A total of 91 tests were conducted. An acceptable lower bound J-resistance curve for the piping steels was obtained by machining maximum thickness specimens from the pipes and by testing side grooved compact tension specimens. Test results showed that all pipes, welds and heat-affected zone materials within the scope of the DLBB program exhibited uppershelf toughness behaviour. All specimens showed high crack initiation toughness Jsub(lc), rising J-resistance curve and stable and ductile crack extension. Toughness of product forms depended on the direction of crack extension (circumferential versus axial crack orientation). Toughness of DLBB welds and parent materials at 250 0 C was lower than that at 20 0 C. (author)

  11. Asymptotic Translation Length in the Curve Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    We show that when the genus and punctures of a surface are directly proportional by some rational number the minimal asymptotic translation length in the curve complex has behavior inverse to the square of the Euler characteristic. We also show that when the genus is fixed and the number of punctures varies the behavior is inverse to the Euler characteristic.

  12. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  13. Cooling Curve of Strange Star in Strong Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Qin; LUO Zhi-Quan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, firstly, we investigate the neutrino emissivity from quark Urca process in strong magnetic field. Then, we discuss the heat capacity of strange stars in strong magnetic field. Finally, we give the cooling curve in strong magnetic field. In order to make a comparison, we also give the corresponding cooling curve in the case of null magnetic field. It turns out that strange stars cool faster in strong magnetic field than that without magnetic field.

  14. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  15. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  16. Modification of Flow Stress Curves and Constitutive Equations During Hot Compression Deformation of 5083 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Ping

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The flow stress behavior of 5083 aluminum alloy was investigated under hot compression deformation at 523-723K,strain rates of 0.01-10s-1 and true strains of 0-0.7 with Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. Based on the heat transfer effect on alloy deformation heat effect, the flow stress curves were corrected. The results show that influence of heat conduction can not be neglected and becomes more obvious with the increase of true strain. The corrected flow stress has little influence on the peak stress, but the steady flow stress softening trends to be diminished to some degree. The flow stress can be predicted by the Zener-Hollomon parameters in the constitutive equation. The corrected measured value exhibits a good agreement with the flow stress predicted by the constitutive equation, and the average relative error is only 5.21%.

  17. Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5curves. If 2curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...

  18. Global experience curves for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    In order to forecast the technological development and cost of wind turbines and the production costs of wind electricity, frequent use is made of the so-called experience curve concept. Experience curves of wind turbines are generally based on data describing the development of national markets, which cause a number of problems when applied for global assessments. To analyze global wind energy price development more adequately, we compose a global experience curve. First, underlying factors for past and potential future price reductions of wind turbines are analyzed. Also possible implications and pitfalls when applying the experience curve methodology are assessed. Second, we present and discuss a new approach of establishing a global experience curve and thus a global progress ratio for the investment cost of wind farms. Results show that global progress ratios for wind farms may lie between 77% and 85% (with an average of 81%), which is significantly more optimistic than progress ratios applied in most current scenario studies and integrated assessment models. While the findings are based on a limited amount of data, they may indicate faster price reduction opportunities than so far assumed. With this global experience curve we aim to improve the reliability of describing the speed with which global costs of wind power may decline

  19. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  20. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  2. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Sakane, Yusuke; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  3. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  4. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  5. Compact Hilbert Curve Index Algorithm Based on Gray Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert curve has best clustering in various kinds of space filling curves, and has been used as an important tools in discrete global grid spatial index design field. But there are lots of redundancies in the standard Hilbert curve index when the data set has large differences between dimensions. In this paper, the construction features of Hilbert curve is analyzed based on Gray code, and then the compact Hilbert curve index algorithm is put forward, in which the redundancy problem has been avoided while Hilbert curve clustering preserved. Finally, experiment results shows that the compact Hilbert curve index outperforms the standard Hilbert index, their 1 computational complexity is nearly equivalent, but the real data set test shows the coding time and storage space decrease 40%, the speedup ratio of sorting speed is nearly 4.3.

  6. Rationalization in architecture with surfaces foliated by elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    analytic form using elliptic functions. We use a gradient-driven optimization to approximate arbitrary planar curves by planar elastic curves. The method depends on an explicit parameterization of the space of elastic curves and on a method for finding a good initial guess for the optimization. We......We develop methods for rationalization of CAD surfaces using elastic curves, aiming at a costeffective fabrication method for architectural designs of complex shapes. By moving a heated flexible metal rod though a block of expanded polystyrene, it is possible to produce shapes with both positive...... and negative Gaussian curvature, either for direct use or for use as moulds for concrete casting. If we can control the shape of the rod, while moving, we can produce prescribed shapes. The flexible rod assumes at all times the shape of an Euler elastica (or elastic curve). The elastica are given in closed...

  7. Semi-lethal high temperature and heat tolerance of eight Camellia species

    OpenAIRE

    He, XY; Ye, H; Ma, JL; Zhang, RQ; Chen, GC; Xia, YY

    2012-01-01

    Annual leaf segments of eight Camellia species were used to study the heat tolerance by an electrical conductivity method, in combination with a Logistic equation to ascertain the semi-lethal high temperature by fitting the cell injury rate curve. Te relationship between the processing temperature and the cell injury rate in Camellia showed a typical "S" shaped curve, following the Logistic model. Te correlation coeficient was above 0.95. Te semi-lethal high temperature LT50 of the eight Came...

  8. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    is to derive statistical features from the time series and to use machine learning methods, generally supervised, to separate objects into a few of the standard classes. In this work, we transform the time series to two-dimensional light curve representations in order to classify them using modern deep......Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach...... learning techniques. In particular, we show that convolutional neural networks based classifiers work well for broad characterization and classification. We use labeled datasets of periodic variables from CRTS survey and show how this opens doors for a quick classification of diverse classes with several...

  9. Automation of heating system with heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdin, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Because of high prices of energy, we are upgrading our heating systems with newer, more fuel efficient heating devices. Each new device has its own control system, which operates independently from other devices in a heating system. With a relatively low investment costs in automation, we can group devices in one central control system and increase the energy efficiency of a heating system. In this project, we show how to connect an oil furnace, a sanitary heat pump, solar panels and a heat p...

  10. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  11. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  12. Influence on Heat Transfer Coefficient of Heat Exchanger by Velocity and Heat Transfer Temperature Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to insufficient heat transfer of heat exchanger, research the influence on the heat transfer coefficient impacted by velocity and heat transfer temperature difference of tube heat exchanger. According to the different heat transfer temperature difference and gas velocity,the experimental data were divided into group. Using the control variable method,the above two factors were analyzed separately. K一△T and k一:fitting curve were clone to obtain empirical function. The entire heat exchanger is as the study object,using numerical simulation methods,porous media,k一£model,second order upwind mode,and pressure一velocity coupling with SIMPLE algorithm,the entire heat exchanger temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution were given. Finally the trend of the heat transfer coefficient effected by the above two factors was gotten.

  13. Phase Curve Analysis of Super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Isabel; Hu, Renyu

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary questions when characterizing Earth-sized and super-Earth-sized exoplanets is whether they have a substantial atmosphere like Earth and Venus, or a bare-rock surface that may come with a tenuous atmosphere like Mercury. Phase curves of the planets in thermal emission provide clues to this question, because a substantial atmosphere would transport heat more efficiently than a bare-rock surface. Analyzing phase curve photometric data around secondary eclipse has previously been used to study energy transport in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. Here we use phase curve, Spitzer time-series photometry to study the thermal emission properties of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cancri e. We utilize a previously developed semi-analytical framework to fit a physical model to infrared photometric data of host star 55 Cancri from the Spitzer telescope IRAC 2 band at 4.5 μm. The model uses various parameters of planetary properties including Bond albedo, heat redistribution efficiency (i.e., the ratio between the radiative timescale and advective timescale of the photosphere), and atmospheric greenhouse factor. The phase curve of 55 Cancri e is dominated by thermal emission with an eastward-shifted hot spot located on the planet surface. We determine the heat redistribution efficiency to be ≈1.47, which implies that the advective timescale is on the same order as the radiative timescale. This requirement from the phase curve cannot be met by the bare-rock planet scenario, because heat transport by currents of molten lava would be too slow. The phase curve thus favors the scenario with a substantial atmosphere. Our constraints on the heat redistribution efficiency translate to a photosphere pressure of ~1.4 bar. The Spitzer IRAC 2 band is thus a window into the deep atmosphere of the planet 55 Cancri e.

  14. Heat pipe heat exchanger for heat recovery in air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Baky, Mostafa A.; Mohamed, Mousa M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minufiya University, Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

    2007-03-15

    The heat pipe heat exchangers are used in heat recovery applications to cool the incoming fresh air in air conditioning applications. Two streams of fresh and return air have been connected with heat pipe heat exchanger to investigate the thermal performance and effectiveness of heat recovery system. Ratios of mass flow rate between return and fresh air of 1, 1.5 and 2.3 have been adapted to validate the heat transfer and the temperature change of fresh air. Fresh air inlet temperature of 32-40{sup o}C has been controlled, while the inlet return air temperature is kept constant at about 26{sup o}C. The results showed that the temperature changes of fresh and return air are increased with the increase of inlet temperature of fresh air. The effectiveness and heat transfer for both evaporator and condenser sections are also increased to about 48%, when the inlet fresh air temperature is increased to 40{sup o}C. The effect of mass flow rate ratio on effectiveness is positive for evaporator side and negative for condenser side. The enthalpy ratio between the heat recovery and conventional air mixing is increased to about 85% with increasing fresh air inlet temperature. The optimum effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger is estimated and compared with the present experimental data. The results showed that the effectiveness is close to the optimum effectiveness at fresh air inlet temperature near the fluid operating temperature of heat pipes. (author)

  15. Effect of Forced Convection Heat Transfer on Weld Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Cooling Curves for GTAW Welds Superimposed on CCT Diagram ............. 26 11 - Photomacrographs Showing Weld Macrostructure (TS Plane...decomposition kinetics. Superposition of the weld metal cooling rates measured in this study on the CCT diagram shows that the time for nucleation and growth...m - TABLE 2 - TRANSFORMATION AND COOLING TIMES FROM CCT DIAGRAM *II I I. I I I Cooling Rate I Transformation I Time to Cool tL-I- I Heat Input I

  16. Flow instability and critical heat flux in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.W.; Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Kokolis, S.; Reddy, G.D.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Coutts, A.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to determine the onset of flow instability point in a heated annulus which is divided into four sub channels by non-conducting ribs. The onset of flow instability is identified by the minimum point in the pressure drop-velocity curve. Comparison with a ribless annulus show that the presence of ribs increases the minimum point velocity. In addition, data are presented which show that under certain conditions premature CHF can be induced by the ribs

  17. Correlation of heat transfer coefficient in quenching process using ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davare, Sandeep Kedarnath; Balachandran, G.; Singh, R. K. P.

    2018-04-01

    During the heat treatment by quenching in a liquid medium the convective heat transfer coefficient plays a crucial role in the extraction of heat. The heat extraction ultimately influences the cooling rate and hence the hardness and mechanical properties. A Finite Element analysis of quenching a simple flat copper sample with different orientation of sample and with different quenchant temperatures were carried out to check and verify the results obtained from the experiments. The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) was calculated from temperature history in a simple flat copper disc sample experimentally. This HTC data was further used as input to simulation software and the cooling curves were back calculated. The results obtained from software and using experimentation shows nearly consistent values.

  18. Focus on Physics: The Delightful Catenary Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2017-01-01

    When teaching how "tension" and "compression" relate to geometrical structures such as bridges, arches, and domes, The author shows a picture of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, completed in the 14th century, and presents a lesson on using the curve called a catenary to explain how he teaches about tension and compression…

  19. Exceptional curves on smooth rational surfaces with -K not nef and of self-intersection zero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahyane, Mustapha

    2001-08-01

    We prove that a smooth rational surface X defined over the field of complex numbers having an anti-canonical divisor not nef and of self-intersection zero has a finite number of (-1)-curves. A (-1)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-interaction -1. By giving an example, we also show that X may have no (-2)-curves, a (-2)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-intersection -2. (author)

  20. Light Curve Analysis of SAO23229

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Il Kim

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available We have made UBV light curves of a newly discovered eclipsing binary, SAO23229 at Sobaeksan Astronomy Observatory. We determined a minimum light time of HJD2448636.1170+/-0.0005 that is 3 minutes later than predicted time, and founda peculiar light variation at phase 0.75 that may not be secondary eclipse. Orbital period of SAO23229 would be 4.2 days rather than 2.1 days. Our analysis of the light curves shows that SAO23229 has a detached configuration consisting of two almost identical F type main sequence stars.

  1. Quantum fields in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  2. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  3. Study on constraints for heat removal duties of the main fractionator in delayed coking units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Yang; Zhang, Bingjian; Qi, Xin; Chen, Qinglin; Hui, Chi-Wai

    2014-01-01

    A novel method is presented in this paper to quantitatively define the heat removal of the main fractionator in delayed coking units on the basis of a fractionating precision diagram (Houghland diagram) and column grand composite curve (CGCC). By referring to the CGCC method, several envelopes are illustrated at draw trays including the top pumparound draw, diesel draw, intermediate pumparound draw and gas oil draw, the energy and material balances are then calculated. Assuming practical near-minimum thermodynamic condition (PNMTC), the minimum liquid reflux flow is zero in the envelope for pumparound trays without product draw and the minimum liquid reflux flow is defined by Houghland diagram for pumparound trays with product draw. The PNMTC-CGCC is constructed by calculating the enthalpy-flow deficit to quantitatively define the heat removal constraints in each envelope. Meanwhile, the corresponding practical heat removal curve is constructed. A case study shows that the high temperature heat removal ratio within the main fractionator increased by 8%. The proposed method offers heat removal inequality constraints for the model to optimize the heat integration between the main fractionator and the heat exchanger network. - Highlights: • A novel method defines the heat removal constraints of the main fractionator. • Fractionating precision diagram and column grand composite curve are combined. • The results are the inequality constraints in a simultaneous optimization model

  4. Asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.B.; Bonasera, A.; Cammarata, P.; Hagel, K.; Heilborn, L.; Kohley, Z.; Mabiala, J.; May, L.W.; Marini, P.; Raphelt, A.; Souliotis, G.A.; Wuenschel, S.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron–proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N−Z)/A . An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei

  5. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21-0.47+0.43 on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36-0.17+0.46.

  6. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  7. On the determination of the heat of fusion of one of the constituents of a binary mixture from the heat of fusion of the other, by measurement of the slopes of two liquidus curves at the eutectic point; Sur la determination de la chaleur de fusion d'un des constituants d'un melange binaire a partir de la chaleur de fusion de l'autre, par mesure des pentes des deux liquidus au point d'eutexie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dode, Maurice; Hagege, Raoul [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France)

    1959-07-01

    A method for calculating latent heats of fusion from binary diagrams of liquid-solid equilibrium was proposed several years ago by J. Bousquet and one of us. The method is base on the hypothesis of the regularity of the solution in a small region around the eutectic and involves an integration along the liquidus curves slightly extrapolated below the eutectic point. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 248, p. 2339-2341, sitting of April 20, 1959 [French] Une methode de calcul des chaleurs latentes de fusion a partir des diagrammes binaires d'equilibre liquide-solide a ete proposee il y a quelques annees par J. Bousquet et l'un de nous. La methode repose sur l'hypothese de la regularite de la solution dans un petit domaine autour de l'eutectique et comporte une integration le long des liquidus, legerement extrapoles en dessous de l'eutectique. Reproduction d'un article publie dans les Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 248, p. 2339-2341, seance du 20 avril 1959.

  8. Up the power curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This video demonstrates the practicality of energy conservation. It presents the important role it has in helping to solve America's energy problems. Shows a wide range of energy-saving ideas, and points out the significant dollar savings that can be achieved when these ideas are put into practice. Primary audience: business and civic organizations

  9. Positional glow curve simulation for thermoluminescent detector (TLD) system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, C.J.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Multi- and thin element dosimeters, variable heating rate schemes, and glow-curve analysis have been employed to improve environmental and personnel dosimetry using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Detailed analysis of the effects of errors and optimization of techniques would be highly desirable. However, an understanding of the relationship between TL light production, light attenuation, and precise heating schemes is made difficult because of experimental challenges involved in measuring positional TL light production and temperature variations as a function of time. This work reports the development of a general-purpose computer code, thermoluminescent detector simulator, TLD-SIM, to simulate the heating of any TLD type using a variety of conventional and experimental heating methods including pulsed focused or unfocused lasers with Gaussian or uniform cross sections, planchet, hot gas, hot finger, optical, infrared, or electrical heating. TLD-SIM has been used to study the impact on the TL light production of varying the input parameters which include: detector composition, heat capacity, heat conductivity, physical size, and density; trapped electron density, the frequency factor of oscillation of electrons in the traps, and trap-conduction band potential energy difference; heating scheme source terms and heat transfer boundary conditions; and TL light scatter and attenuation coefficients. Temperature profiles and glow curves as a function of position time, as well as the corresponding temporally and/or spatially integrated glow values, may be plotted while varying any of the input parameters. Examples illustrating TLD system functions, including glow curve variability, will be presented. The flexible capabilities of TLD-SIM promises to enable improved TLD system design

  10. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  11. Study on creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel using theta projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Facai; Tang, Xiaoying

    2017-10-01

    Creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel used for steam cooler was characterized using the theta projection method. Creep tests were conducted at the temperature of 923K under the stress ranging from 100-150MPa. Based on the creep curve results, four theta parameters were established using a nonlinear least square fitting method. Four theta parameters showed a good linearity as a function of stress. The predicted curves coincided well with the experimental data and creep curves were also modeled to the low stress level of 60MPa.

  12. Experimental investigation of heat transfer in the transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, K.; Weber, P.; Feng, Q.

    1990-10-01

    An experimental study of forced convective boiling heat transfer for upflow of water in a circular tube has been performed using a heat transfer system with temperature-controlled indirect Joule heating. By this way, complete boiling curves from incipience of boiling to fully established film boiling could be measured including the transition boiling regime. The boiling curves were traversed in a quasi-steady mode, usually by increasing the set-point wall temperature average at a constant time rate of 3.5 K/min. The vast majority of results covers the pressure range from 0.1 to 1.0 MPa, mass flux range from 25 to 200 kg/(m 2 s) and inlet subcooling from 5 to 30 K. The experimental results of transition boiling heat transfer obtained in the centre of the test section were correlated in terms of a heat flux/surface superheat relationship that was normalized by the maximum heat flux (local CHF) and its associated wall superheat, respectively, to anchor the transition boiling curve to its low temperature limit. The upper surface temperature limit of the transition boiling regime was determined by inspection of measured axial distributions of surface heat flux and corresponding wall temperature. The critical heat flux (CHF) and its corresponding wall superheat has been measured, too. These temperature-controlled results were compared also with power-controlled experiments. The data are presented in terms of a table and accurate empirical correlations following Katto's generalized correlation scheme. Taking into account previous CHF data at L/D ≤ 100 and same range of flow conditions the length effect was found to further depend on pressure and mass flux. The data for the critical wall superheat show a distinct dependence upon pressure, mass flux and inlet quality that has not been observed before with comparable clarity

  13. B-ducted Heating of Black Widow Companions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Nicolas; Romani, Roger W., E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The companions of evaporating binary pulsars (black widows and related systems) show optical emission suggesting strong heating. In a number of cases, large observed temperatures and asymmetries are inconsistent with direct radiative heating for the observed pulsar spindown power and expected distance. Here we describe a heating model in which the pulsar wind sets up an intrabinary shock (IBS) against the companion wind and magnetic field, and a portion of the shock particles duct along this field to the companion magnetic poles. We show that a variety of heating patterns, and improved fits to the observed light curves, can be obtained at expected pulsar distances and luminosities, at the expense of a handful of model parameters. We test this “IBS-B” model against three well-observed binaries and comment on the implications for system masses.

  14. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  15. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  16. Integrable Flows for Starlike Curves in Centroaffine Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Calini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We construct integrable hierarchies of flows for curves in centroaffine R^3 through a natural pre-symplectic structure on the space of closed unparametrized starlike curves. We show that the induced evolution equations for the differential invariants are closely connected with the Boussinesq hierarchy, and prove that the restricted hierarchy of flows on curves that project to conics in RP^2 induces the Kaup-Kuperschmidt hierarchy at the curvature level.

  17. Technological Progress and the Future of Kuznets Curve's

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Inyong; Kim, Hyunho; Yamamura, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    We use OECD members' data to ascertain that new-born technological inventions increase the degree of inequality but that this declines as the technology disperses into the overall economy (e.g., Galor and Tsiddon, 1997; Weil, 2005). Therefore, we show explicitly that Kuznets curve does not converge to a single inverted U-curve but fluctuates through technological progress as a sine curve.

  18. Path integrals on curved manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.; Steiner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A general framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. We also show how to perform general coordinate and space-time transformations in path integrals. The main result is that one has to subtract a quantum correction ΔV ∝ ℎ 2 from the classical Lagrangian L, i.e. the correct effective Lagrangian to be used in the path integral is L eff = L-ΔV. A general prescription for calculating the quantum correction ΔV is given. It is based on a canonical approach using Weyl-ordering and the Hamiltonian path integral defined by the midpoint prescription. The general framework is illustrated by several examples: The d-dimensional rotator, i.e. the motion on the sphere S d-1 , the path integral in d-dimensional polar coordinates, the exact treatment of the hydrogen atom in R 2 and R 3 by performing a Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation, the Langer transformation and the path integral for the Morse potential. (orig.)

  19. A novel method of calculating the energy deposition curve of nanosecond pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Kun; Wang, Xinying; Lu, Jiayu; Cui, Quansheng; Pang, Lei; Di, Dongxu; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the energy deposition curve is very important in the fields to which nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharges (NPDBDs) are applied. It helps the understanding of the discharge physics and fast gas heating. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model, composed of three capacitances, is introduced and a method of calculating the energy deposition curve is proposed for a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge (NPSDBD) plasma actuator. The capacitance C d and the energy deposition curve E R are determined by mathematically proving that the mapping from C d to E R is bijective and numerically searching one C d that satisfies the requirement for E R to be a monotonically non-decreasing function. It is found that the value of capacitance C d varies with the amplitude of applied pulse voltage due to the change of discharge area and is dependent on the polarity of applied voltage. The bijectiveness of the mapping from C d to E R in nanosecond pulse volumetric dielectric barrier discharge (NPVDBD) is demonstrated and the feasibility of the application of the new method to NPVDBD is validated. This preliminarily shows a high possibility of developing a unified approach to calculate the energy deposition curve in NPDBD. (paper)

  20. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  1. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  2. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...

  3. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  4. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  5. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  6. Experience Curves: A Tool for Energy Policy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neij, Lena; Helby, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Dannemand Andersen, Per; Morthorst, Poul Erik [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Durstewitz, Michael; Hoppe-Kilpper, Martin [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V., Kassel (DE); and others

    2003-07-01

    The objective of the project, Experience curves: a tool for energy policy assessment (EXTOOL), was to analyse the experience curve as a tool for the assessment of energy policy measures. This is of special interest, since the use of experience curves for the assessment of energy policy measures requires the development of the established experience curve methodology. This development raises several questions which have been addressed and analysed in this project. The analysis is based on case studies of wind power, an area with considerable experience in technology development, deployment and policy measures. Therefore, a case study based on wind power provides a good opportunity to study the usefulness of experience curves as a tool for the assessment of energy policy measures. However, the results are discussed in terms of using experience curves for the assessment of any energy technology. The project shows that experience curves can be used to assess the effect of combined policy measures in terms of cost reductions. Moreover, the result of the project show that experience curves could be used to analyse international 'learning systems', i.e. cost reductions brought about by the development of wind power and policy measures used in other countries. Nevertheless, the use of experience curves for the assessment of policy programmes has several limitations. First, the analysis and assessment of policy programmes cannot be achieved unless relevant experience curves based on good data can be developed. The authors are of the opinion that only studies that provide evidence of the validity, reliability and relevance of experience curves should be taken into account in policy making. Second, experience curves provide an aggregated picture of the situation and more detailed analysis of various sources of cost reduction, and cost reductions resulting from individual policy measures, requires additional data and analysis tools. Third, we do not recommend the use of

  7. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  8. NOISY DISPERSION CURVE PICKING (NDCP): a Matlab friendly suite package for fully control dispersion curve picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, I.; Calo, M.; Ramos, V.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a Matlab suite package (NDCP, Noisy Dispersion Curve Picking) that allows a full control over parameters to identify correctly group velocity dispersion curves in two types of datasets: correlograms between two stations or surface wave records from earthquakes. Using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN), the procedure to obtain the dispersion curves from records with a high noise level becomes difficult, and sometimes, the picked curve result in a misinterpreted character. For correlogram functions, obtained with cross-correlation of noise records or earthquake's coda, a non-homogeneous noise sources distribution yield to a non-symmetric Green's function (GF); to retrieve the complete information contained in there, NDCP allows to pick the dispersion curve in the time domain both in the causal and non-causal part of the GF. Then the picked dispersion curve is displayed on the FTAN diagram to in order to check if it matches with the maximum of the signal energy avoiding confusion with overtones or spike of noise. To illustrate how NDCP performs, we show exemple using: i) local correlograms functions obtained from sensors deployed into a volcanic caldera (Los Humeros, in Puebla, Mexico), ii) regional correlograms functions between two stations of the National Seismological Service (SSN, Servicio Sismológico Nacional in Spanish), and iii) surface wave seismic record for an earthquake located in the Pacific Ocean coast of Mexico and recorded by the SSN. This work is supported by the GEMEX project (Geothermal Europe-Mexico consortium).

  9. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  10. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  11. New waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fangtian; Fu Lin; Zhang Shigang; Sun Jian

    2012-01-01

    A new waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle (DHAC) was developed to increase the heating capacity of combined heat and power (CHP) through waste heat recovery, and enhance heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network through decreasing return water temperature by new type absorption heat exchanger (AHE). The DHAC system and a conventional district heating system based on CHP (CDH) were analyzed in terms of both thermodynamics and economics. Compared to CDH, the DHAC increased heating capacity by 31% and increased heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network by 75%. The results showed that the exergetic efficiency of DHAC was 10.41% higher and the product exergy monetary cost was 36.6¥/GJ less than a CHD. DHAC is an effective way to increase thermal utilization factor of CHP, and to reduce district heating cost. - Highlights: ► Absorption heat pumps are used to recover waste heat in CHP. ► Absorption heat exchanger can reduce exergy loss in the heat transfer process. ► New waste heat heating system (DHAC) can increase heating capacity of CHP by 31%. ► DHAC can enhance heat transmission capacity of the primary pipe network by 75%. ► DHAC system has the higher exergetic efficiency and the better economic benefit.

  12. Experimental and statistical requirements for developing a well-defined K/sub IR/ curve. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Oldfield, W.; Wullaert, R.A.

    1977-05-01

    Further development of a statistically well-defined reference fracture toughness curve to verify and compliment the K/sub IR/ curve presently specified in Appendix G, Section III of the ASME Code was accomplished by performing critical experiments in small specimen fracture mechanics and improving techniques for statistical analysis of the data. Except for cleavage-initiated fracture, crack initiation was observed to occur prior to maximum load for all of the materials investigated. Initiation fracture toughness values (K/sub Jc/) based on R-curve heat-tinting studies were up to 50 percent less than the previously reported equivalent energy values (K*/sub d/). At upper shelf temperatures, the initiation fracture toughness (K/sub Jc/) generally increased with stress intensification rate. Both K/sub Jc/--Charpy V-notch and K/sub Ic/--specimen strength ratio correlations are promising methods for predicting thick-section behavior from small specimens. The previously developed tanh curve fitting procedure was improved to permit estimates of the variances and covariances of the regression coefficients to be computed. The distribution of the fracture toughness data was determined as a function of temperature. Instrumented precracked Charpy results were used to normalize the larger specimen fracture toughness data. The transformed large specimen fracture toughness data are used to generate statistically based lower-bound fracture toughness curves for either static or dynamic test results. A comparison of these lower bound curves with the K/sub IR/ curve shows that the K/sub IR/ curve is more conservative over most of its range. 143 figures, 26 tables

  13. Laws governing the energy conversion of ionization curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgoskii, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The author attempts to determine if ionization curves are structured or smooth, the cause of the smoothing of the curves, the possibility of the curves having maxima and why, how many maxima are on the ionization curve, and which of these maxima is the fundamental maxima. The study shows that ionization curves without and additional maximum, i.e., with one fundamental maximum, can be obtained for potassium, rubidium, and cesium. This requires reduction of the density of the electrons in the stream and the density of the atoms of the target gas. It is also shown that in order to obtain ionization curves with additional maxima in the cases of neon, argon, and krypton, the measurements must be carried out at high densities of the electrons in the stream and of the atoms of the target gas

  14. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  15. PV experience curves for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwig, R.

    2005-01-01

    Experience curves are one of several tools used by policy makers to take a look at market development. Numerous curves have been constructed for PV but none specific to the Netherlands. The objective of this report is to take a look at the price development of grid-connected PV systems in the Netherlands using the experience curve theory. After a literature and internet search and attempts to acquire information from PV companies information on 51% of the totally installed capacity was found. Curves for the period 1991-2001 were constructed based on system price, BOS (balance-of-system) price and inverter price. The progress ratio of the locally learning BOS was similar to the globally learning module market. This indicates that the pace of development of the Dutch PV market is similar to the globally followed pace. Improvement of the detail of the data might help to get a better idea of which BOS components have declined most. The similar progress ratio also shows the importance of investing both in module and system research as is the case in the Netherlands

  16. Updated Hubbert curves analyze world oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    The question is not whether, but when, world crude oil production will start to decline, ushering in the permanent oil shock era. While global information for predicting this event is not so straightforward as the data M. King Hubbert used in creating his famous Hubbert Curve that predicted the US (Lower 48 states, or US/48) 1970 oil production peak, there are strong indications that most of the world's large exploration targets have now been found. Meanwhile, the earth's population is exploding along with the oil needs of Asia's developing nations. This article reviews Hubbert's original analyses on oil discovery and production curves for the US/48 and projects his proven methodology onto global oil discoveries and production as of 1992. The world's oil discovery curve peaked in 1962, and thence declined, as a Hubbert Curve predicts. However, global production was restricted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Otherwise, world production would have peaked in the mid-1990s. Two graphs show alternate versions of future global oil production

  17. Growth Curves for Girls with Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bertapelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273 girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915. Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines.

  18. Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1977-12-01

    Wave trajectories propagating obliquely to magnetic field in toroidal plasmas are studied theoretically. Results show that the ordinary wave at appropriate incident angle is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at first turning point and is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a hooked nail curve near second turning point and is cyclotron-damped away, resulting in local electron heating, before arriving at cyclotron resonance layer. (auth.)

  19. Heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fracture toughness of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations on the J Ic fracture toughness response of Alloy 718 was examined at room and elevated temperatures using the multiple-specimen R-curve technique. Six heats of alloy 718 were tested in the conventional and modified heat-treated conditions. The fracture toughness response for the modified superalloy was found to be superior to that exhibited by the conventional material. Heat-to-heat variations in the J Ic response of Alloy 718 were observed in both heat-treated conditions; the modified treatment exhibited much larger variability. The J Ic and corresponding K Ic fracture toughness values were analyzed statistically to establish minimum expected toughness, values for use in design and safety analyses. 26 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  1. Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin ŞPERLEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document

  2. Magnetic response of certain curved graphitic geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Davids, P.S.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-particle energy spectra associated with some members of buckyfamily (curved graphitic geometries), in particular C 50 , C 60 , C 70 and related fullerenes as well as coaxial helical microtubules of graphite, are obtained analytically within the mean-field approximation. These energy spectra are then used to calculate various response functions. Specifically, we calculate the specific heat, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility in the presence of an external magnetic field at low temperatures. For a single microtubule an extra peak superimposed on the first de Haas van Alphen (dHvA) oscillation in magnetic susceptibility is found in the 50--170 Tesla range depending on the radius which is possibly accessible in special (explosive flux compression) experiments. Finally, we point to important potential applications of these novel mesoscopic structures in nanotechnology

  3. Feynman propagator in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, P.; Raine, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Wick rotation is generalized in a covariant manner so as to apply to curved manifolds in a way that is independent of the analytic properties of the manifold. This enables us to show that various methods for defining a Feynman propagator to be found in the literature are equivalent where they are applicable. We are also able to discuss the relation between certain regularization methods that have been employed

  4. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  5. Aspherical Supernovae: Effects on Early Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsariardchi, Niloufar; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2018-04-01

    Early light from core-collapse supernovae, now detectable in high-cadence surveys, holds clues to a star and its environment just before it explodes. However, effects that alter the early light have not been fully explored. We highlight the possibility of nonradial flows at the time of shock breakout. These develop in sufficiently nonspherical explosions if the progenitor is not too diffuse. When they do develop, nonradial flows limit ejecta speeds and cause ejecta–ejecta collisions. We explore these phenomena and their observational implications using global, axisymmetric, nonrelativistic FLASH simulations of simplified polytropic progenitors, which we scale to representative stars. We develop a method to track photon production within the ejecta, enabling us to estimate band-dependent light curves from adiabatic simulations. Immediate breakout emission becomes hidden as an oblique flow develops. Nonspherical effects lead the shock-heated ejecta to release a more constant luminosity at a higher, evolving color temperature at early times, effectively mixing breakout light with the early light curve. Collisions between nonradial ejecta thermalize a small fraction of the explosion energy; we will address emission from these collisions in a subsequent paper.

  6. Interactions between bubble formation and heating surface in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer and bubble formation is investigated in pool boiling of propane. Size distributions of active nucleation sites on single horizontal copper and steel tubes with different diameter and surface finishes have been calculated from heat transfer measurements over wide ranges of heat flux and selected pressure. The model assumptions of Luke and Gorenflo for the heat transfer near growing and departing bubbles, which were applied in the calculations, have been slightly modified and the calculated results have been compared to experimental investigations by high speed video techniques. The calculated number of active sites shows a good coincidence for the tube with smaller diameter, while the results for the tube with larger diameter describe the same relative increase of the active sites. The comparison of the cumulative size distribution of the active and potential nucleation sites demonstrates the same slope of the curve and that the critical radius of a stable bubble nuclei is smaller than the average cavity size. (author)

  7. Interactions between bubble formation and heating surface in nucleate boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, Andrea [Leibniz University, Hannover (Denmark). Inst. of Thermodynamics], e-mail: ift@ift.uni-hannover.de

    2009-07-01

    The heat transfer and bubble formation is investigated in pool boiling of propane. Size distributions of active nucleation sites on single horizontal copper and steel tubes with different diameter and surface finishes have been calculated from heat transfer measurements over wide ranges of heat flux and selected pressure. The model assumptions of Luke and Gorenflo for the heat transfer near growing and departing bubbles, which were applied in the calculations, have been slightly modified and the calculated results have been compared to experimental investigations by high speed video techniques. The calculated number of active sites shows a good coincidence for the tube with smaller diameter, while the results for the tube with larger diameter describe the same relative increase of the active sites. The comparison of the cumulative size distribution of the active and potential nucleation sites demonstrates the same slope of the curve and that the critical radius of a stable bubble nuclei is smaller than the average cavity size. (author)

  8. Glow curve characteristics of bulb type thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Feher, I.; Felszerfalvi, J.

    1993-01-01

    TL dosemeter readers are equipped usually with thermocouples connected to the heater unit. This layout can well be applied to stabilize the position of the glow curve as a function of heating-up time. Bulb type TL dosemeters do not have temperature sensors, no possibility for stabilization, which can cause an additional readout error of dose determination. For this reason, the time dependence of glow curves for bulb-type TL dosemeters was measured, and a new microprocessor controlled readout device was developed. (N.T.) 2 refs.; 2 figs

  9. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  10. Vertex algebras and algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book co...

  11. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  12. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  13. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

    in a general equilibrium framework. For the empirical analysis we employ the IABS, a two percent sample of the German labor force. We find that the elasticity of the wage curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with a university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers......  Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  14. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  15. Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Bandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.

  16. Curved bones: An adaptation to habitual loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Nick

    2016-10-21

    Why are long bones curved? It has long been considered a paradox that many long bones supporting mammalian bodies are curved, since this curvature results in the bone undergoing greater bending, with higher strains and so greater fracture risk under load. This study develops a theoretical model wherein the curvature is a response to bending strains imposed by the requirements of locomotion. In particular the radioulna of obligate quadrupeds is a lever operated by the triceps muscle, and the bending strains induced by the triceps muscle counter the bending resulting from longitudinal loads acting on the curved bone. Indeed the theoretical model reverses this logic and suggests that the curvature is itself a response to the predictable bending strains induced by the triceps muscle. This, in turn, results in anatomical arrangements of bone, muscle and tendon that create a simple physiological mechanism whereby the bone can resist the bending due to the action of triceps in supporting and moving the body. The model is illustrated by contrasting the behaviour of a finite element model of a llama radioulna to that of a straightened version of the same bone. The results show that longitudinal and flexor muscle forces produce bending strains that effectively counter strains due to the pull of the triceps muscle in the curved but not in the straightened model. It is concluded that the curvature of these and other curved bones adds resilience to the skeleton by acting as pre-stressed beams or strainable pre-buckled struts. It is also proposed that the cranial bending strains that result from triceps, acting on the lever that is the radioulna, can explain the development of the curvature of such bones. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applications of artificial neutral network for the prediction of flow boiling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guanghui; Jia Dounan; Fukuda, Kenji; Morita, Koji; Pidduck, Mark; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Akasaka, Ryo

    2002-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was applied successfully to predict flow boiling curves. The databases used in the analysis are from the 1960's, including 1,305 data points which cover these parameter ranges: pressure P=100-1,000 kPa, mass flow rate G=40-500 kg/m 2 ·s, inlet subcooling ΔT sub =0-35degC, wall superheat ΔT w =10-300degC and heat flux Q=20-8,000 kW/m 2 . The proposed methodology allows us to achieve accurate results, thus it is suitable for the processing of the boiling curve data. The effects of the main parameters on flow boiling curves were analyzed using the ANN. The heat flux increases with increasing inlet subcooling for all heat transfer modes. Mass flow rate has no significant effects on nucleate boiling curves. The transition boiling and film boiling heat fluxes will increase with an increase in the mass flow rate. Pressure plays a predominant role and improves heat transfer in all boiling regions except the film boiling region. There are slight differences between the steady and the transient boiling curves in all boiling regions except the nucleate region. The transient boiling curve lies below the corresponding steady boiling curve. (author)

  18. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    in Rd, and methods to solve the initial and boundary value problem for geodesics allowing us to compute the Karcher mean and principal components analysis of data of curves. We apply the methods to study shape variation in synthetic data in the Kimia shape database, in HeLa cell nuclei and cycles...... of cardiac deformations. Finally we investigate a new application of Riemannian shape analysis in shape optimization. We setup a simple elliptic model problem, and describe how to apply shape calculus to obtain directional derivatives in the manifold of planar curves. We present an implementation based...

  19. Tracing a planar algebraic curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Falai; Kozak, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, an algorithm that determines a real algebraic curve is outlined. Its basic step is to divide the plane into subdomains that include only simple branches of the algebraic curve without singular points. Each of the branches is then stably and efficiently traced in the particular subdomain. Except for the tracing, the algorithm requires only a couple of simple operations on polynomials that can be carried out exactly if the coefficients are rational, and the determination of zeros of several polynomials of one variable. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  20. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....

  1. Temporal changes in morality attributed to heat extremes for 57 cities in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whanhee; Choi, Hayon Michelle; Kim, Dahye; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have reported that heat-related mortality decreased by adaptation during decades. However, since the frequency of extreme heat events is increasing, it is difficult to conclude with certainty that the heat mortality burden is decreasing. To examine temporal changes in mortality attributed to heat extremes in Northeast Asia, we collected temperature and mortality data covering the years 1972-2012 from 57 cities of 3 countries (Taiwan, Korea, and Japan) in Northeast Asia. Poisson regression curves were fitted to the data from each city. The temporal changes in heat-mortality association were estimated with a time-varying distributed lag non-linear model. Heat extremes were defined as temperatures greater than the 97.5th percentiles of city-specific average temperatures. Attributable deaths were calculated considering temporal variations in exposure and relative risk. The estimates were then pooled through meta-analysis. The results show that the mortality risk on extreme heat days declined during the study period in all countries. However, as summer temperatures in Japan have shown more heat extremes over time, the mortality risk attributed to heat increased during 2003-2012 (0.32%) compared with 1972-1981 (0.19%). Thus, to assess the total health burden due to heat extremes related to climate change, public health strategies should focus on the temporal variation in heat-mortality association as well as changes in the distribution of heat extremes overtime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciosmak, Paweł [Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw,ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  3. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  4. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/ β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  5. Logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film: the S-curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Mansoor, S. Bin

    2013-10-01

    The logistic characteristics of the averaged heat flux are investigated across the thin film incorporating the S-curve. Temporal behaviour of the heat flux vector is computed using the Boltzmann transport equation. The dispersion relations are introduced to account for the frequency dependent phonon transport across the film. The influence of film width on the characteristics of the averaged heat flux is also examined. It is found that temporal behaviour of the averaged heat flux follows the S-curve. The S-curve characteristics change for different film widths. The time to reach 95% steady value of the averaged heat flux is short for the film with small widths, which is attributed to the ballistic behaviour of phonons in the film.

  6. Logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film: the S-curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilbas, B.S.; Mansoor, S. Bin

    2013-01-01

    The logistic characteristics of the averaged heat flux are investigated across the thin film incorporating the S-curve. Temporal behaviour of the heat flux vector is computed using the Boltzmann transport equation. The dispersion relations are introduced to account for the frequency dependent phonon transport across the film. The influence of film width on the characteristics of the averaged heat flux is also examined. It is found that temporal behaviour of the averaged heat flux follows the S-curve. The S-curve characteristics change for different film widths. The time to reach 95% steady value of the averaged heat flux is short for the film with small widths, which is attributed to the ballistic behaviour of phonons in the film

  7. Signature Curves Statistics of DNA Supercoils

    OpenAIRE

    Shakiban, Cheri; Lloyd, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Euclidean signature curves for two dimensional closed curves in the plane and their generalization to closed space curves. The focus will be on discrete numerical methods for approximating such curves. Further we will apply these numerical methods to plot the signature curves related to three-dimensional simulated DNA supercoils. Our primary focus will be on statistical analysis of the data generated for the signature curves of the supercoils. We will try to esta...

  8. Photoelectic BV Light Curves of Algol and the Interpretations of the Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Il Kim

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized B and V photoelectric light curves of Algol are made with the observations obtained during 1982-84 with the 40-cm and the 61-cm reflectors of Yonsei University Observatory. These light curves show asymmetry between ascending and descending shoulders. The ascending shoulder is 0.02 mag brighter than descending shoulder in V light curve and 0.03 mag in B light curve. These asymmetric light curves are interpreted as the result of inhomogeneous energy distribution on the surface of one star of the eclipsing pair rather than the result of gaseous stream flowing from KOIV to B8V star. The 180-year periodicity, so called great inequality, are most likely the result proposed by Kim et al. (1983 that the abrupt and discrete mass losses of cooler component may be the cause of this orbital change. The amount of mass loss deduced from these discrete period changes turned out to be of the order of 10^(-6 - 10^(-5 Msolar.

  9. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour...... and the covered demand of each heat source as well as required peak unit capacity. The results showed that heat pumps using different heat sources yield better performance than a heat pump based on a single one. The performance was influenced by the composition of the different heat sources. It was found that 78......% groundwater, 22% seawater and 0% air resulted in highest COP of 3.33 for the given heat demand. Furthermore, the implementation of rule based short term storage made peak units redundant. The variation in base load capacity showed that heat pumps utilizing the analyzed heat sources could perform very...

  10. Lowcost automated control for steel heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambaldi, Edimilson; Magalhães, Ricardo R.; Barbosa, Bruno H.G.; Silva, Sandro P. da; Ferreira, Danton D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Control the furnace temperature measured by thermocouple and adjusts it. • Activating the furnace resistors through Pulse Width Modulation. • Appling heat treatments to steels by a low-cost controller. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a low cost, automated furnace control system for the heat treatment of steel. We used an open source electronic prototyping platform to control the furnace temperature, thus reducing human interaction during the heat process. The platform can be adapted to non-controlled commercial furnaces, which are often used by small businesses. A Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller was implemented to regulate the furnace temperature based on a defined heat treatment cycle. The embedded system activates the furnace resistors through Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), allowing for control of electrical power supplied to the furnace. Hardening and tempering were performed on standard steel samples using a traditional method (visual inspection without temperature control) as well the embedded system with PID feedback control. The results show that the proposed system can reproduce an arbitrary heat treatment curve with accuracy and provide the desired final hardness as inferred through metallographic analysis. In addition, we observed a 6% saving in energy consumption using the proposed control system. Furthermore, the estimated cost to implement the system is 42% lower than a commercial controller model implemented in commercial furnaces.

  11. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  12. Wheelset curving guidance using H∞ control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazizadeh, Alireza; Stichel, Sebastian; Feyzmahdavian, Hamid Reza

    2018-03-01

    This study shows how to design an active suspension system for guidance of a rail vehicle wheelset in curve. The main focus of the study is on designing the controller and afterwards studying its effect on the wheel wear behaviour. The controller is designed based on the closed-loop transfer function shaping method and ? control strategy. The study discusses designing of the controller for both nominal and uncertain plants and considers both stability and performance. The designed controllers in Simulink are then applied to the vehicle model in Simpack to study the wheel wear behaviour in curve. The vehicle type selected for this study is a two-axle rail vehicle. This is because this type of vehicle is known to have very poor curving performance and high wheel wear. On the other hand, the relative simpler structure of this type of vehicle compared to bogie vehicles make it a more economic choice. Hence, equipping this type of vehicle with the active wheelset steering is believed to show high enough benefit to cost ratio to remain attractive to rail vehicle manufacturers and operators.

  13. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…

  14. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  15. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  16. A Curve for all Reasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from biology, feel that every pattern in the living world, ranging from the folding of ... curves band c have the same rate of increase but reach different asymptotes. If these .... not at x = 0, but at xo' which is the minimum size at birth that will permit ...

  17. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  18. Graphical evaluation of complexometric titration curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinon, J L

    1985-04-01

    A graphical method, based on logarithmic concentration diagrams, for construction, without any calculations, of complexometric titration curves is examined. The titration curves obtained for different kinds of unidentate, bidentate and quadridentate ligands clearly show why only chelating ligands are usually used in titrimetric analysis. The method has also been applied to two practical cases where unidentate ligands are used: (a) the complexometric determination of mercury(II) with halides and (b) the determination of cyanide with silver, which involves both a complexation and a precipitation system; for this purpose construction of the diagrams for the HgCl(2)/HgCl(+)/Hg(2+) and Ag(CN)(2)(-)/AgCN/CN(-) systems is considered in detail.

  19. Analysis of threshold curves for superconducting interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.L.; Hamilton, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold curves for multijunction superconducting interferometers have been calculated previously, showing general agreement with observed features, especially in symmetric cases. We here add some more details to the analysis, paying particular attention to the effects of asymmetries in coupling, inductance, or critical currents. Feed-loop inductance and flux quantization in the feed loop can be important. A changing lobe pattern over many periods, asymmetries within a period, shifting patterns between runs spanning a warm-up, and sudden changes in pattern because of noise in the environment are all quantitatively explainable on the basis of this model. By use of a single ''calibration curve'', the inductance for symmetric two- or three-junction interferometers can be obtained immediately

  20. Yield stress independent column buckling curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    of the yield stress is to some inadequate degree taken into account in the Eurocode by specifying that steel grades of S460 and higher all belong to a common set of “raised” buckling curves. This is not satisfying as it can be shown theoretically that the current Eurocode formulation misses an epsilon factor......Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...... in the definition of the normalised imperfection magnitudes. By introducing this factor it seems that the GMNIA analysis and knowledge of the independency of residual stress levels on the yield stress can be brought together and give results showing consistency between numerical modelling and a simple modified...

  1. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  2. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  3. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  4. Specific heat study of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic model for an organic polymer chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Shaohua; Zhu Lin

    2008-01-01

    The specific heat of an infinite one-dimensional polymer chain bearing periodically arranged side radicals connected to the even sites is studied by means of quantum transfer-matrix method based on a Ising-Heisenberg model. In the absence of the exchange interactions between side radicals and the main chain, the curves of specific heat show a round peak due to the antiferromagnetic excitations for the all antiferromagnetic interactions along the polymer chain. Considering the exchange interactions between the side radicals and the main chain, the curves of the specific heat show double-peak structure for ferromagnetic interactions between the radicals and main chain, indicating that a competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions and the possibility of the occurrence of the stable ferrimagnetic state along the polymer chain

  5. Industrial excess heat for district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrović, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth; Elmegaard, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Method for utilisation potential of industrial excess heat for district heating. •Industrial excess heat from thermal processes is quantified at single production units. •Linking of industrial excess heat sources and district heating demands done in GIS. •Excess heat recovery using direct heat transfer and heat pumps. •5.1% of the Danish district heating demand could be supplied by industrial excess heat. -- Abstract: Excess heat is available from various sources and its utilisation could reduce the primary energy use. The accessibility of this heat is however dependent amongst others on the source and sink temperature, amount and potential users in its vicinity. In this work a new method is developed which analyses excess heat sources from the industrial sector and how they could be used for district heating. This method first allocates excess heat to single production units by introducing and validating a new approach. Spatial analysis of the heat sources and consumers are then performed to evaluate the potential for using them for district heating. In this way the theoretical potential of using the excess heat for covering the heating demand of buildings is determined. Through the use of industry specific temperature profiles the heat usable directly or via heat pumps is further found. A sensitivity analysis investigates the impact of future energy efficiency measures in the industry, buildings and the district heating grid on the national potential. The results show that for the case study of Denmark, 1.36 TWh of district heat could be provided annually with industrial excess heat from thermal processes which equals 5.1% of the current demand. More than half of this heat was found to be usable directly, without the need for a heat pump.

  6. Industrial excess heat for district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2017-01-01

    analyses excess heat sources from the industrial sector and how they could be used for district heating. This method first allocates excess heat to single production units by introducing and validating a new approach. Spatial analysis of the heat sources and consumers are then performed to evaluate...... the potential for using them for district heating. In this way the theoretical potential of using the excess heat for covering the heating demand of buildings is determined. Through the use of industry specific temperature profiles the heat usable directly or via heat pumps is further found. A sensitivity...... analysis investigates the impact of future energy efficiency measures in the industry, buildings and the district heating grid on the national potential. The results show that for the case study of Denmark, 1.36 TWh of district heat could be provided annually with industrial excess heat from thermal...

  7. Modeling of a heat sink and high heat flux vapor chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnjal, Aleksander

    conductivity and (2) internal heat transfer coefficient. Volume averaging theory (VAT) is used to rigorously cast the point wise conservation of energy, momentum and mass equations into a form that represents the thermal and hydraulic properties of the micro channel (porous media) morphology. Using the resulting VAT based field equations, optimization of a micro channel heated from one side is used to determine the optimum micro channel morphology. A small square of 1 cm2 is chosen as an example and the thermal resistance, 0C/W, and pressure drop are shown as a function of Reynolds number. The high heat flux removal on small surfaces at moderately small temperatures is achieved by bi-porous evaporator The device was analyzed with the possibility of heat flux magnitudes exceeding 1kW/cm2 by using advantages of a dual pore structure of a bi-porous wick. The heat transfer model of a thin bi-porous wick is developed and it incorporates thermo-physical properties of a bi-porous media. It is shown that physics of heat removal is characterized in three stages; conduction, big pore drying out and small pore drying out. The operating conditions of the wick have to be in a safe margin away from the total dry out. A complete dry out of the wick inevitably leads to the burn out, therefore more concern has been added to modeling of big pore dry out, since this will be a desired operational. The construction of the boiling/evaporation curves was successfully constructed by the model showing that the physic of heat removal on two different length scales is governed by thermo-physical properties for the appropriate scale. The model shows good prediction for various combinations of big and small pores size in the bi-porous wicks tested.

  8. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from: inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. The work presented under this task uses the first-principles based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to compute heat transfer from tank wall to the cryogenic fluids, and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  10. A systematic method to customize an efficient organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to recover waste heat in refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haoshui; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Yufei; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Eason, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiple waste heat streams in refinery are recovered for an ORC using a hot water intermediate. • WHCC and GCC are used to identify opportunities to save utility and/or upgrade waste heat. • The methods consider the interaction between the HEN and ORC in an integrated manner. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) convert low temperature waste heat into power. When there are multiple waste heat sources in a refinery, operability and safety considerations may make it more practical to use hot water as the medium to recover waste heat. The hot water stream can then release the heat to the organic working fluid in an ORC system. In this paper, how to customize an efficient ORC for a heat exchanger network (HEN) to optimally recover multiple strands of waste heat is investigated. Because the heat exchanger network structure, the hot water loop, and ORC system interact with each other, the coordination and synthesis of these systems ought to be considered simultaneously to maximize the energy performance. A methodology is proposed using the waste heat composite curve (WHCC) and grand composite curve (GCC) to diagnose inefficiencies in an existing heat exchanger network. In addition, the WHCC can be used to solve the problem of the tradeoff between waste heat quality and quantity recovered with an intermediate stream. WHCCs are classified into two types, and procedures for designing the recovery network for each type are presented while considering the interaction with working fluid selection. The methods proposed in this paper can help engineers diagnose problems with the original heat exchanger network, and determine the flowrate of hot water, the structure of the waste heat recovery network, the best working fluid and the operating conditions of ORC system in an integrated manner. The ideas are applied to an illustrative case study in collaboration with Sinopec. The case study shows the effectiveness of this method and compares different

  11. INVESTIGATION OF CURVES SET BY CUBIC DISTRIBUTION OF CURVATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ustenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Further development of the geometric modeling of curvelinear contours of different objects based on the specified cubic curvature distribution and setpoints of curvature in the boundary points. Methodology. We investigate the flat section of the curvilinear contour generating under condition that cubic curvature distribution is set. Curve begins and ends at the given points, where angles of tangent slope and curvature are also determined. It was obtained the curvature equation of this curve, depending on the section length and coefficient c of cubic curvature distribution. The analysis of obtained equation was carried out. As well as, it was investigated the conditions, in which the inflection points of the curve are appearing. One should find such an interval of parameter change (depending on the input data and the section length, in order to place the inflection point of the curvature graph outside the curve section borders. It was determined the dependence of tangent slope of angle to the curve at its arbitrary point, as well as it was given the recommendations to solve a system of integral equations that allow finding the length of the curve section and the coefficient c of curvature cubic distribution. Findings. As the result of curves research, it is found that the criterion for their selection one can consider the absence of inflection points of the curvature on the observed section. Influence analysis of the parameter c on the graph of tangent slope angle to the curve showed that regardless of its value, it is provided the same rate of angle increase of tangent slope to the curve. Originality. It is improved the approach to geometric modeling of curves based on cubic curvature distribution with its given values at the boundary points by eliminating the inflection points from the observed section of curvilinear contours. Practical value. Curves obtained using the proposed method can be used for geometric modeling of curvilinear

  12. An Alternate Light Curve Solution of AR Lacertae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Suh Park

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectric UBV light curves of AR Lacertae made in one season during 1981-82 are presented. Although the shape of the light curves in the outside eclipses show a strong distortion, the scatter of observations as well as phase coverage are better than those previously available. Fourier coefficients are derived from the V-light curve and observed curve successfully rectified to the Russell model. Light curve solutions are computed and the geometrical and physical parameters of AR Lac are derived as as = 0.812, ag = 0.341, j = 86°3, Ls = 0.372, Lg = 0.628, k = 0.53, Xs = 0.85, Xg = 0.4.

  13. A learning curve for solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Photovoltaics started its success story by predicting the cost degression depending on cumulated installed capacity. This so-called learning curve was published and used for predictions for PV modules first, then predictions of system cost decrease also were developed. This approach is less sensitive to political decisions and changing market situations than predictions on the time axis. Cost degression due to innovation, use of scaling effects, improved project management, standardised procedures including the search for better sites and optimization of project size are learning effects which can only be utilised when projects are developed. Therefore a presentation of CAPEX versus cumulated installed capacity is proposed in order to show the possible future advancement of the technology to politics and market. However from a wide range of publications on cost for CSP it is difficult to derive a learning curve. A logical cost structure for direct and indirect capital expenditure is needed as the basis for further analysis. Using derived reference cost for typical power plant configurations predictions of future cost have been derived. Only on the basis of that cost structure and the learning curve levelised cost of electricity for solar thermal power plants should be calculated for individual projects with different capacity factors in various locations.

  14. The free Maxwell field in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueskue, M.

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this thesis is to discuss quantizations of the free Maxwell field in flat and curved spacetimes. First we introduce briefly some notions from tensor analysis and the causal structure of spacetime. As an introduction to the main topic, we review some aspects of the two axiomatic quantum field theories, Wightman theory and algebraic quantum field theory. We also give an introduction into concepts of the quantization of fields on curved spacetime backgrounds. Then the wave equation and quantization of the Maxwell field in flat spacetimes is discussed. It follows a review of J. Dimock's quantization of the Maxwell field on curved spacetimes and then we come to our main result: We show explicitly that the Maxwell field, defined by dF=0 and δF=0, has a well posed initial value formulation on arbitrary globally hyperbolic spacetime manifolds. We prove the existence and uniqueness of fundamental solutions without employing a vector potential. Thus our solution is also applicable to spacetimes not satisfying the Poincare lemma and should lead to a quantization of the Maxwell field on non-trivial spacetime backgrounds. This in turn provides the opportunity to investigate physical states on non-trivial spacetime-topologies and could lead to the discovery of new quantum phenomena. (orig.)

  15. Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nicolás; Buiochi, Flávio; Brizzotti Andrade, Marco Aurélio; Adamowski, Julio Cezar

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM), to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods. PMID:28787875

  16. Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM, to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods.

  17. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  18. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  19. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  20. Implementation Learning and Forgetting Curve to Scheduling in Garment Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Badri, Huda; Deros, Baba Md; Syahri, M.; Saleh, Chairul; Fitria, Aninda

    2016-02-01

    The learning curve shows the relationship between time and the cumulative number of units produced which using the mathematical description on the performance of workers in performing repetitive works. The problems of this study is level differences in the labors performance before and after the break which affects the company's production scheduling. The study was conducted in the garment industry, which the aims is to predict the company production scheduling using the learning curve and forgetting curve. By implementing the learning curve and forgetting curve, this paper contributes in improving the labors performance that is in line with the increase in maximum output 3 hours productive before the break are 15 unit product with learning curve percentage in the company is 93.24%. Meanwhile, the forgetting curve improving maximum output 3 hours productive after the break are 11 unit product with the percentage of forgetting curve in the company is 92.96%. Then, the obtained 26 units product on the productive hours one working day is used as the basic for production scheduling.

  1. The fall of the black hole firewall: natural nonmaximal entanglement for the Page curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Sugita, Ayumu

    2015-12-01

    The black hole firewall conjecture is based on the Page curve hypothesis, which claims that entanglement between a black hole and its Hawking radiation is almost maximum. Adopting canonical typicality for nondegenerate systems with nonvanishing Hamiltonians, we show the entanglement becomes nonmaximal, and energetic singularities (firewalls) do not emerge for general systems. An evaporating old black hole must evolve in Gibbs states with exponentially small error probability after the Page time as long as the states are typical. This means that the ordinarily used microcanonical states are far from typical. The heat capacity computed from the Gibbs states should be nonnegative in general. However, the black hole heat capacity is actually negative due to the gravitational instability. Consequently the states are not typical until the last burst. This requires inevitable modification of the Page curve, which is based on the typicality argument. For static thermal pure states of a large AdS black hole and its Hawking radiation, the entanglement entropy equals the thermal entropy of the smaller system.

  2. Projection-based curve clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auder, Benjamin; Fischer, Aurelie

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on unsupervised curve classification in the context of nuclear industry. At the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France), the thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the reliability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code is quite complex and CPU time-consuming, it has to be approximated by a regression model. This regression process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, the CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k-means scheme, with a projection onto a lower dimensional space. We study the properties of the empirically optimal cluster centres found by the clustering method based on projections, compared with the 'true' ones. The choice of the projection basis is discussed, and an algorithm is implemented to select the best projection basis among a library of orthonormal bases. The approach is illustrated on a simulated example and then applied to the industrial problem. (authors)

  3. Elementary particles in curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)

  4. Heat simulation via Scilab programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Arifin Abdul

    2014-07-01

    This paper discussed the used of an open source sofware called Scilab to develop a heat simulator. In this paper, heat equation was used to simulate heat behavior in an object. The simulator was developed using finite difference method. Numerical experiment output show that Scilab can produce a good heat behavior simulation with marvellous visual output with only developing simple computer code.

  5. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  6. A novel NGL (natural gas liquid) recovery process based on self-heat recuperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Duc Long, Nguyen; Lee, Moonyong

    2013-01-01

    This study examined an innovative self-heat-recuperation technology that circulates latent and sensible heat in the thermal process and applied it to the NGL (natural gas liquid) recovery process. A CGCC (column grand composite curve) was used to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of implementing the heat pump system and self-heat-recuperation technology into a conventional distillation column. The proposed distillation based on self-heat recuperation reduced the energy consumption dramatically by compressing the effluent stream, whose temperature was increased to provide the minimum temperature difference for the heat exchanger, and circulating the stream heat in the process. According to a simulation of the proposed sequence, up to 73.43 and 83.48% of the condenser and reboiler energy, respectively, were saved compared to a conventional column. This study also proposes heat integration to improve the performance of self-heat recuperation. The results showed that the modified sequence saves up 64.35, 100.00 and 31.60% of the condenser energy requirements, reboiler energy requirements and OP (operating cost), respectively, compared to a classical heat pump system, and 90.24, 100.00, and 67.19%, respectively, compared to a conventional column. The use of these sequences to retrofit a distillation column to save energy was also considered. - Highlights: • Innovative self-heat-recuperation technology that circulates latent and sensible heat. • A CGCC (column grand composite curve) is used to assess the thermodynamic feasibility. • The proposed sequence saves up 67.19% of the OP (operating cost). • The proposed sequences can be used to retrofit a distillation column to save energy

  7. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  8. Numerical Investigation of the Microscopic Heat Current Inside a Nanofluid System Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Wavelet Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Gao, Di

    2018-04-03

    Molecular dynamics simulation is employed to investigate the microscopic heat current inside an argon-copper nanofluid. Wavelet analysis of the microscopic heat current inside the nanofluid system is conducted. The signal of the microscopic heat current is decomposed into two parts: one is the approximation part; the other is the detail part. The approximation part is associated with the low-frequency part of the signal, and the detail part is associated with the high-frequency part of the signal. Both the probability distributions of the high-frequency and the low-frequency parts of the signals demonstrate Gaussian-like characteristics. The curves fit to data of the probability distribution of the microscopic heat current are established, and the parameters including the mean value and the standard deviation in the mathematical formulas of the curves show dramatic changes for the cases before and after adding copper nanoparticles into the argon base fluid.

  9. A Tangent Bundle Theory for Visual Curve Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Guy; Ben-Shahar, Ohad

    2012-07-01

    Visual curve completion is a fundamental perceptual mechanism that completes the missing parts (e.g., due to occlusion) between observed contour fragments. Previous research into the shape of completed curves has generally followed an "axiomatic" approach, where desired perceptual/geometrical properties are first defined as axioms, followed by mathematical investigation into curves that satisfy them. However, determining psychophysically such desired properties is difficult and researchers still debate what they should be in the first place. Instead, here we exploit the observation that curve completion is an early visual process to formalize the problem in the unit tangent bundle R(2) × S(1), which abstracts the primary visual cortex (V1) and facilitates exploration of basic principles from which perceptual properties are later derived rather than imposed. Exploring here the elementary principle of least action in V1, we show how the problem becomes one of finding minimum-length admissible curves in R(2) × S(1). We formalize the problem in variational terms, we analyze it theoretically, and we formulate practical algorithms for the reconstruction of these completed curves. We then explore their induced visual properties vis-à-vis popular perceptual axioms and show how our theory predicts many perceptual properties reported in the corresponding perceptual literature. Finally, we demonstrate a variety of curve completions and report comparisons to psychophysical data and other completion models.

  10. ERROR VS REJECTION CURVE FOR THE PERCEPTRON

    OpenAIRE

    PARRONDO, JMR; VAN DEN BROECK, Christian

    1993-01-01

    We calculate the generalization error epsilon for a perceptron J, trained by a teacher perceptron T, on input patterns S that form a fixed angle arccos (J.S) with the student. We show that the error is reduced from a power law to an exponentially fast decay by rejecting input patterns that lie within a given neighbourhood of the decision boundary J.S = 0. On the other hand, the error vs. rejection curve epsilon(rho), where rho is the fraction of rejected patterns, is shown to be independent ...

  11. The Bell Curve: An Essay Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Culbertson

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally a book out of academia will break from scholarly circles and enter into the mainstream market. On even rarer occasions, it will gain considerable notoriety before its initial publication. Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life is such a book. Currently, it has entered the New York Times best- sellers list and appeared in most academic and mainstream periodical book reviews. Direct publicity for the book has also been strong. Although Herrnstein died September 24 of the past year, Murray has appeared on many popular television and radio talk shows.

  12. Electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Yun; Wang, Yong-Long; Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Fan; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2018-03-01

    By using the thin-layer approach, we derive the effective equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve. We find intrinsic spin-orbit, extrinsic spin-orbit, and extrinsic orbital angular-momentum and intrinsic orbital angular-momentum couplings induced by torsion, which can lead to geometric phase, spin, and orbital Hall effects. And we show the helicity inversion induced by curvature that can convert a right-handed circularly polarized electromagnetic wave into a left-handed polarized one, vice versa. Finally, we demonstrate that the gauge invariance of the effective dynamics is protected by the geometrically induced gauge potential.

  13. Biomass route shows lower cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1980-11-21

    There has been much discussion concerning the economics of using biomass for the production of substitute fuels and it has been argued that the net energy gain could be small or even negative. The development of the ATPAL process is described and it is claimed that only one quarter of the energy equivalent contained in the alcohol will be consumed in the total process. Both the pilot plant and a commercial scale plant with some modifications are described. The most significant advantage claimed for the ATPAL process is in its low process energy savings resulting from mechanical vapour recompression, recycling the heat and production of a low volume of effluent.

  14. On the solar curve of growth of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foy, R.

    1975-01-01

    Our purpose in the present work is to investigate whether or not the splitting of the solar curve of growth found in the case of iron applies to other elements. We show that, contrary to the solar curve of growth for iron, that for titanium is not split in its damping part; this result emphasizes that reference curves of growth have to be used very carefully in detailed analysis of stellar atmospheres. We confirm that the microturbulent velocity is very low in the solar photosphere, namely within the limits: 0.5 [de

  15. Developing Novel Reservoir Rule Curves Using Seasonal Inflow Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-yi; Tung, Ching-pin

    2015-04-01

    Due to significant seasonal rainfall variations, reservoirs and their flexible operational rules are indispensable to Taiwan. Furthermore, with the intensifying impacts of climate change on extreme climate, the frequency of droughts in Taiwan has been increasing in recent years. Drought is a creeping phenomenon, the slow onset character of drought makes it difficult to detect at an early stage, and causes delays on making the best decision of allocating water. For these reasons, novel reservoir rule curves using projected seasonal streamflow are proposed in this study, which can potentially reduce the adverse effects of drought. This study dedicated establishing new rule curves which consider both current available storage and anticipated monthly inflows with leading time of two months to reduce the risk of water shortage. The monthly inflows are projected based on the seasonal climate forecasts from Central Weather Bureau (CWB), which a weather generation model is used to produce daily weather data for the hydrological component of the GWLF. To incorporate future monthly inflow projections into rule curves, this study designs a decision flow index which is a linear combination of current available storage and inflow projections with leading time of 2 months. By optimizing linear relationship coefficients of decision flow index, the shape of rule curves and the percent of water supply in each zone, the best rule curves to decrease water shortage risk and impacts can be developed. The Shimen Reservoir in the northern Taiwan is used as a case study to demonstrate the proposed method. Existing rule curves (M5 curves) of Shimen Reservoir are compared with two cases of new rule curves, including hindcast simulations and historic seasonal forecasts. The results show new rule curves can decrease the total water shortage ratio, and in addition, it can also allocate shortage amount to preceding months to avoid extreme shortage events. Even though some uncertainties in

  16. An axisymmetrical non-linear finite element model for induction heating in injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Menotti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the heating and cooling phase of an induction heated injection molding tool accurately, the temperature dependent magnetic properties, namely the non-linear B-H curves, need to be accounted for in an induction heating simulation. Hence, a finite element model has been developed......, including the non-linear temperature dependent magnetic data described by a three-parameter modified Frohlich equation fitted to the magnetic saturation curve, and solved with an iterative procedure. The numerical calculations are compared with experiments conducted with two types of induction coils, built...... in to the injection molding tool. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental temperature measurements. It is also shown that the non-linearity can be used without the temperature dependency in some cases, and a proposed method is presented of how to estimate an effective linear permeability to use...

  17. Performance of heat engines with non-zero heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odes, Ron; Kribus, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Finite heat capacity is a second irreversibility mechanism in addition to thermal resistance. ► Heat capacity introduces thermal transients and reverse heat flow. ► Engine maximum power and efficiency are lower for finite heat capacity. ► Implementing the optimal engine cycle requires active control. - Abstract: The performance of a heat engine is analyzed subject to two types of irreversibility: a non-zero heat capacity, together with the more common finite heat transfer rate between the engine and the external heat reservoirs. The heat capacity represents an engine body that undergoes significant temperature variations during the engine cycle. An option to cut off the heat exchange between the engine and the external surrounding for part of the engine cycle is also explored. A variational approach was taken to find the engine’s internal temperature profile (which defines the internal thermodynamic cycle) that would produce maximum power. The maximum power is shown to be lower than the case of zero heat capacity, due to a loss of heat that is stored in the engine body and then lost, bypassing the thermodynamic cycle. The maximum efficiency and the efficiency at maximum power are also lower than the zero heat capacity case. Similar to the Curzon–Ahlborn analysis, power can be traded for increased efficiency, but for high heat capacity, the range of efficiency that is available for such a trade is diminished. Isolating the engine during part of the cycle reduces maximum power, but the efficiency at maximum power and the maximum efficiency are improved, due to better exploitation of heat stored in the engine body. This might be useful for real engines that are limited by the internal energy change during a single engine cycle or by the operating frequency, leading to a broader power–efficiency curve.

  18. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Manning, Adrian; Tureanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  19. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobakhidze, Archil, E-mail: archilk@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Manning, Adrian, E-mail: a.manning@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Tureanu, Anca, E-mail: anca.tureanu@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-06-10

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  20. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.

  1. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  2. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Magnetic Field on Natural Convection in a Curved-Shape Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheikholeslami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the magnetic field effect on natural convection heat transfer in a curved-shape enclosure. The numerical investigation is carried out using the control volume-based-finite element method (CVFEM. The numerical investigations are performed for various values of Hartmann number and Rayleigh number. The obtained results are depicted in terms of streamlines and isotherms which show the significant effects of Hartmann number on the fluid flow and temperature distribution inside the enclosure. Also, it was found that the Nusselt number decreases with an increase in the Hartmann number.

  3. Projection of curves on B-spline surfaces using quadratic reparameterization

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yijun

    2010-09-01

    Curves on surfaces play an important role in computer aided geometric design. In this paper, we present a hyperbola approximation method based on the quadratic reparameterization of Bézier surfaces, which generates reasonable low degree curves lying completely on the surfaces by using iso-parameter curves of the reparameterized surfaces. The Hausdorff distance between the projected curve and the original curve is controlled under the user-specified distance tolerance. The projected curve is T-G 1 continuous, where T is the user-specified angle tolerance. Examples are given to show the performance of our algorithm. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Domestic demand-side management (DSM): Role of heat pumps and thermal energy storage (TES) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Hewitt, N.J.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps are seen as a promising technology for load management in the built environment, in combination with the smart grid concept. They can be coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) systems to shift electrical loads from high-peak to off-peak hours, thus serving as a powerful tool in demand-side management (DSM). This paper analyzes heat pumps with radiators or underfloor heating distribution systems coupled with TES with a view to showing how a heat pump system behaves and how it influences the building occupants' thermal comfort under a DSM strategy designed to flatten the shape of the electricity load curve by switching off the heat pump during peak hours (16:00–19:00). The reference scenario for the analysis was Northern Ireland (UK). The results showed that the heat pump is a good tool for the purposes of DSM, also thanks to the use of TES systems, in particular with heating distribution systems that have a low thermal inertia, e.g. radiators. It proved possible to achieve a good control of the indoor temperature, even if the heat pump was turned off for 3 h, and to reduce the electricity bill if a “time of use” tariff structure was adopted. -- Highlights: ► Heat pump heating systems with thermal energy storage are considered. ► System behavior is investigated during a DSM strategy for reducing peak energy demand. ► Heat pump heating systems demonstrate to be able to have an active role in DSM programs. ► A TES system must be coupled with the heat pump in presence of low thermal inertia heating distribution systems. ► Central role played by incentives schemes to promote this technology

  5. Study of heat treatment parameters for large-scale hydraulic steel gate track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-zhou Cao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance external hardness and strength, a large-scale hydraulic gate track should go through heat treatment. The current design method of hydraulic gate wheels and tracks is based on Hertz contact linear elastic theory, and does not take into account the changes in mechanical properties of materials caused by heat treatment. In this study, the heat treatment parameters were designed and analyzed according to the bearing mechanisms of the wheel and track. The quenching process of the track was simulated by the ANSYS program, and the temperature variation, residual stress, and deformation were obtained and analyzed. The metallurgical structure field after heat treatment was predicted by the method based on time-temperature-transformation (TTT curves. The results show that the analysis method and designed track heat treatment process are feasible, and can provide a reference for practical projects.

  6. Dry out of a fluidized particle bed with internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keowen, R.S.; Catton, I.

    1975-03-01

    An apparatus was designed to adequately simulate the characteristics of a particle bed formed by nuclear reactor fuel after the reactor has been operable for some length of time at high power. This was accomplished by using a 10 KW, 453 Kc induction heater, coupled through a multi-turn work coil to particle beds of cast steel shot and lead shot in water. The temperature response and dryout condition was determined for various bed levels, particle diameters, and heat fluxes. Analysis of the data retrieved from the bed was used to generate a family of curves to predict the necessary conditions for dryout to occur within a fluidized particle bed with internal heat generation. The results presented here, with internal heat generation, show that previous results with bottom heating and volume heating are conservative. (U.S.)

  7. Parametric optimization and comparative study of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low grade waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Yiping; Wang Jiangfeng; Gao Lin

    2009-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycles for low grade waste heat recovery are described with different working fluids. The effects of the thermodynamic parameters on the ORC performance are examined, and the thermodynamic parameters of the ORC for each working fluid are optimized with exergy efficiency as an objective function by means of the genetic algorithm. The optimum performance of cycles with different working fluids was compared and analyzed under the same waste heat condition. The results show that the cycles with organic working fluids are much better than the cycle with water in converting low grade waste heat to useful work. The cycle with R236EA has the highest exergy efficiency, and adding an internal heat exchanger into the ORC system could not improve the performance under the given waste heat condition. In addition, for the working fluids with non-positive saturation vapor curve slope, the cycle has the best performance property with saturated vapor at the turbine inlet

  8. Thermoluminescence fast neutron dosimetry by laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, V.K.; Brown, M.D.; Braeunlich, P.

    1984-01-01

    Heating rates in excess of 10 4 K.sec -1 have been achieved for thin layers of TL dosemeters by laser heating. The high heating rate improves the signal to noise ratio up to a factor of 10 3 . Thus sensitive thin film fast neutron dosemeters with negligible self-shielding have become a practical reality. Thin samples of CaSO 4 :Dy have been investigated for their response to fast neutrons from a Pu-Be source and a 14.6 MeV neutron generator by using a hydrogenous radiator. A 15 watt CO 2 laser was focussed on the thin TLD layer to a spot size of less than 1 mm to heat it. An exposure of a few tens of milliseconds was sufficient to obtain a TLD curve, which was displayed and processed by a wave form digitiser. The laser spot could be scanned over the TLD sample by a x-y positioner and a large number of observations were obtained on each sample. Preliminary results show that it is possible to obtain a figure of merit of approx. 5% in a mixed n, γ field. A practical design for a fast neutron dosemeter is proposed. (author)

  9. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  10. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  11. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  12. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  13. Bragg Curve, Biological Bragg Curve and Biological Issues in Space Radiation Protection with Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honglu, Wu; Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M.; Lin, Z.; Rusek, A.

    2006-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure. Since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal since biological effects are influenced by the track structure of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the biological Bragg curve is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. To achieve a Bragg curve distribution, we exposed cells to energetic heavy ions with the beam geometry parallel to a monolayer of fibroblasts. Qualitative analyses of gamma-H2AX fluorescence, a known marker of DSBs, indicated increased clustering of DNA damage before the Bragg peak, enhanced homogenous distribution at the peak, and provided visual evidence of high linear energy transfer (LET) particle traversal of cells beyond the Bragg peak. A quantitative biological response curve generated for micronuclei (MN) induction across the Bragg curve did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono-to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the Bragg peak location. These results, along with other biological concerns, show that space radiation protection with shielding can be a complicated issue.

  14. Influence of experimental methods on crossing in magnetic force-gap hysteresis curve of HTS maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yiyun, E-mail: luyiyun6666@vip.sohu.co [Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471023 (China); Qin Yujie; Dang Qiaohong [Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471023 (China); Wang Jiasu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2010-12-01

    The crossing in magnetic levitation force-gap hysteresis curve of melt high-temperature superconductor (HTS) vs. NdFeB permanent magnet (PM) was experimentally studied. One HTS bulk and PM was used in the experiments. Four experimental methods were employed combining of high/low speed of movement of PM with/without heat insulation materials (HIM) enclosed respectively. Experimental results show that crossing of the levitation force-gap curve is related to experimental methods. A crossing occurs in the magnetic force-gap curve while the PM moves approaching to and departing from the sample with high or low speed of movement without HIM enclosed. When the PM is enclosed with HIM during the measurement procedures, there is no crossing in the force-gap curve no matter high speed or low speed of movement of the PM. It was found experimentally that, with the increase of the moving speed of the PM, the maximum magnitude of levitation force of the HTS increases also. The results are interpreted based on Maxwell theories and flux flow-creep models of HTS.

  15. Influence of experimental methods on crossing in magnetic force-gap hysteresis curve of HTS maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yiyun; Qin Yujie; Dang Qiaohong; Wang Jiasu

    2010-01-01

    The crossing in magnetic levitation force-gap hysteresis curve of melt high-temperature superconductor (HTS) vs. NdFeB permanent magnet (PM) was experimentally studied. One HTS bulk and PM was used in the experiments. Four experimental methods were employed combining of high/low speed of movement of PM with/without heat insulation materials (HIM) enclosed respectively. Experimental results show that crossing of the levitation force-gap curve is related to experimental methods. A crossing occurs in the magnetic force-gap curve while the PM moves approaching to and departing from the sample with high or low speed of movement without HIM enclosed. When the PM is enclosed with HIM during the measurement procedures, there is no crossing in the force-gap curve no matter high speed or low speed of movement of the PM. It was found experimentally that, with the increase of the moving speed of the PM, the maximum magnitude of levitation force of the HTS increases also. The results are interpreted based on Maxwell theories and flux flow-creep models of HTS.

  16. Methods for predicting isochronous stress-strain curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoshige, Masanori; Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke.

    1976-01-01

    Isochronous stress-strain curves show the relation between stress and total strain at a certain temperature with time as a parameter, and they are drawn up from the creep test results at various stress levels at a definite temperature. The concept regarding the isochronous stress-strain curves was proposed by McVetty in 1930s, and has been used for the design of aero-engines. Recently the high temperature characteristics of materials are shown as the isochronous stress-strain curves in the design guide for the nuclear energy equipments and structures used in high temperature creep region. It is prescribed that these curves are used as the criteria for determining design stress intensity or the data for analyzing the superposed effects of creep and fatigue. In case of the isochronous stress-strain curves used for the design of nuclear energy equipments with very long service life, it is impractical to determine the curves directly from the results of long time creep test, accordingly the method of predicting long time stress-strain curves from short time creep test results must be established. The method proposed by the authors, for which the creep constitution equations taking the first and second creep stages into account are used, and the method using Larson-Miller parameter were studied, and it was found that both methods were reliable for the prediction. (Kako, I.)

  17. Learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Schoots, K. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Columbia Univ., New York City, NY (United States). Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy

    2010-07-01

    We present learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and combined heat and power (CHP) SOFC systems with an electric capacity between 1 and 250 kW. On the basis of the cost breakdown of production cost data from fuel cell manufacturers, we developed a bottom-up model that allows for determining overall manufacturing costs from their respective cost components, among which material, energy, labor, and capital charges. The results obtained from our model prove to deviate by at most 13% from total cost figures quoted in the literature. For the early pilot stage of development, we find for SOFC manufacturing a learning rate between 14% and 17%, and for total SOFC system fabrication between 16% and 19%. We argue that the corresponding cost reductions result largely from learning-by-searching effects (R and D) rather than learning-by-doing. When considering a longer time frame that includes the early commercial production stage, we find learning rates between 14% and 39%, which represent a mix of phenomena such as learning-by-doing, learning-by-searching, economies-of-scale and automation. (orig.)

  18. Phonon dispersion curves of fcc La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassis, C.; Loong, C.; Zarestky, J.

    1982-01-01

    Large single crystals of fcc La were grown in situ and were used to study the lattice dynamics of this phase of La by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves have been measured along the [xi00], [xixi0], [xixixi], and [0xi1] symmetry directions at 660 and 1100 K. The T[xixixi] branch exhibits anomalous dispersion for xi>0.25 and, in addition, close to the zone boundary, the phonon frequencies of this branch decrease with decreasing temperature. This soft-mode behavior may be related to the #betta→α# transformation in La, an assumption supported by recent band-theoretical calculations of the generalized susceptibility of fcc La. At X the frequencies of the L[xi00] branch are considerably lower than those of the corresponding branch of #betta#-Ce; a similar but not as pronounced effect is observed for the frequencies of the L[xixixi] branch close to the point L. Since the calculated generalized susceptibility of fcc La exhibits strong peaks at X and L, these anomalies may be due to the renormalization of the phonon frequencies by virtual fbold-arrow-left-rightd transitions to the unoccupied 4f level in La. The data were used to evaluate the elastic constants, the phonon density of states, and the lattice specific heat at constant pressure C/sub P//sup

  19. The Heat Flux Analysis in an Annulus Narrows Gap With Initial Temperature Variations Using HeaTiNG-01 Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulya Juarsa; Efrizon Umar; Andhang Widi Harto

    2009-01-01

    An experiment to understand the complexity of boiling phenomena on a narrow gap, which has occurs in severe accident at TMI-2 NPP is necessary to be done in aimed to increase the understanding of accident management. The goal of research is to obtain a heat flux and critical heat flux (CHF) value during boiling heat transfer process in a narrow gap annulus. The method of research is experimental using HeaTiNG-01 test section. The experiment has been done with heating-up heated rod until a certain initial temperature, for this experiment, three initial temperature variations was decided at 650°C, 750°C dan 850°C. Then, a cooling process in heated rod by saturated water was recorded based on temperature data changes. Temperature data was used to calculate a value of heat flux and wall superheat temperature, until the results could be defined in boiling curve. The result of this research shows that, although the initial temperature of heated rod was different, the value of CHF is almost similar with CHF average 253.7 kW/m 2 with the changes of only 4.7%. The event of boiling in a narrow gap is not included pool boiling category based on the comparison of film boiling area of the experiment to Bromley correlations. (author)

  20. Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  1. Heat transfer coefficients during quenching of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, H.S.; Jalil, J.M. [University of Technology, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Heat transfer coefficients for quenching in water have been measured as a function of temperature using steel probes for a variety of iron alloys. The coefficients were derived from measured cooling curves combined with calculated heat-capacities. The resulting data were then used to calculate cooling curves using the finite volume method for a large steel sample and these curves have been demonstrated to be consistent with measured values for the large sample. Furthermore, by combining the estimated cooling curves with time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams it has been possible to predict the variation of hardness as a function of distance via the quench factor analysis. The work should prove useful in the heat treatment of the steels studied, some of which are in the development stage. (orig.)

  2. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  3. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  4. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    A mathematical model of the lactation curve provides summary information about culling and milking strategies ..... Table 2 Statistics of the edited data for first lactation Holstein cows ..... Application of different models to the lactation curves of.

  5. Dose-response curves from incomplete data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    Frequently many different responses occur in populations (animal or human) exposed to ionizing radiation. To obtain a dose-response curve, the exposed population is first divided into sub-groups whose members received the same radiation dose. To estimate the response, the fraction of subjects in each sub-group that showed the particular response of interest is determined. These fractions are plotted against dose to give the dose-response curve. This procedure of plotting the fractions versus the radiation dose is not the correct way to estimate the time distribution for a particular response at the different dose levels. Other observed responses competed for the individuals in the exposed population and therefore prevented manifestation of the complete information on the response-time distribution for one specific response. Such data are called incomplete in the statistical literature. A procedure is described which uses the by now classical Kaplan-Meier estimator, to establish dose-response curves from incomplete data under the assumption that the different observed responses are statistically independent. It is demonstrated that there is insufficient information in the observed survival functions to estimate the time distribution for one particular response if the assumption of independence is dropped. In addition, it is not possible to determine from the data (i.e. type of response and when it occurred) whether or not the different response-time distributions are independent. However, it is possible to give sharp bounds between which the response has to lie. This implies that for incomplete data, only a 'dose-response band' can be established if independence of the competing responses cannot be assumed. Examples are given using actual data to illustrate the estimation procedures

  6. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  7. Microgeographic differentiation in thermal performance curves between rural and urban populations of an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Nedim; Op de Beeck, Lin; Brans, Kristien I; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-12-01

    The rapidly increasing rate of urbanization has a major impact on the ecology and evolution of species. While increased temperatures are a key aspect of urbanization ("urban heat islands"), we have very limited knowledge whether this generates differentiation in thermal responses between rural and urban populations. In a common garden experiment, we compared the thermal performance curves (TPCs) for growth rate and mortality in larvae of the damselfly Coenagrion puella from three urban and three rural populations. TPCs for growth rate shifted vertically, consistent with the faster-slower theoretical model whereby the cold-adapted rural larvae grew faster than the warm-adapted urban larvae across temperatures. In line with costs of rapid growth, rural larvae showed lower survival than urban larvae across temperatures. The relatively lower temperatures hence expected shorter growing seasons in rural populations compared to the populations in the urban heat islands likely impose stronger time constraints to reach a certain developmental stage before winter, thereby selecting for faster growth rates. In addition, higher predation rates at higher temperature may have contributed to the growth rate differences between urban and rural ponds. A faster-slower differentiation in TPCs may be a widespread pattern along the urbanization gradient. The observed microgeographic differentiation in TPCs supports the view that urbanization may drive life-history evolution. Moreover, because of the urban heat island effect, urban environments have the potential to aid in developing predictions on the impact of climate change on rural populations.

  8. A New Relationship Between Soft X-Rays and EUV Flare Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares are the result of magnetic reconnection in the solar corona which converts magnetic energy into kinetic energy resulting in the rapid heating of solar plasma. As this plasma cools, it emits radiation at different EUV wavelengths when the dropping temperature passes a line’s temperature of formation. This results in a delay in the emissions from cooler EUV lines relative to hotter EUV lines. Therefore, characterizing how this hot plasma cools is important for understanding how the corresponding geo-effective extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance evolves in time. I present a simple new framework in which to study flare cooling by using a Lumped Element Thermal Model (LETM). LETM is frequently used in science and engineering to simplify a complex multi-dimensional thermal system by reducing it to a 0-D thermal circuit. For example, a structure that conducts heat out of a system is simplified with a resistive element and a structure that allows a system to store heat is simplified with a capacitive element. A major advantage of LETM is that the specific geometry of a system can be ignored, allowing for an intuitive analysis of the major thermal processes. I show that LETM is able to accurately reproduce the temporal evolution of cooler flare emission lines based on hotter emission line evolution. In particular, it can be used to predict the evolution of EUV flare light curves using the NOAA X-Ray Sensor (XRS).

  9. Bubble Collision in Curved Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    We study vacuum bubble collisions in curved spacetime, in which vacuum bubbles were nucleated in the initial metastable vacuum state by quantum tunneling. The bubbles materialize randomly at different times and then start to grow. It is known that the percolation by true vacuum bubbles is not possible due to the exponential expansion of the space among the bubbles. In this paper, we consider two bubbles of the same size with a preferred axis and assume that two bubbles form very near each other to collide. The two bubbles have the same field value. When the bubbles collide, the collided region oscillates back-and-forth and then the collided region eventually decays and disappears. We discuss radiation and gravitational wave resulting from the collision of two bubbles

  10. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  11. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  12. GLOBAL AND STRICT CURVE FITTING METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Y.; Mori, S.

    2004-01-01

    To find a global and smooth curve fitting, cubic B­Spline method and gathering­ line methods are investigated. When segmenting and recognizing a contour curve of character shape, some global method is required. If we want to connect contour curves around a singular point like crossing points,

  13. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.

  14. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...

  15. Holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds: Kuranishi structure

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This paper constructs a Kuranishi structure for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds. To avoid some technicalities of abstract Kuranishi structures, we embed our Kuranishi structure inside a moduli stack of curves. The construction also works for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in any compact symplectic manifold.

  16. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  17. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  18. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  19. Presheaves of Superselection Structures in Curved Spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2015-04-01

    We show that superselection structures on curved spacetimes that are expected to describe quantum charges affected by the underlying geometry are categories of sections of presheaves of symmetric tensor categories. When an embedding functor is given, the superselection structure is a Tannaka-type dual of a locally constant group bundle, which hence becomes a natural candidate for the role of the gauge group. Indeed, we show that any locally constant group bundle (with suitable structure group) acts on a net of C* algebras fulfilling normal commutation relations on an arbitrary spacetime. We also give examples of gerbes of C* algebras, defined by Wightman fields and constructed using projective representations of the fundamental group of the spacetime, which we propose as solutions for the problem that existence and uniqueness of the embedding functor are not guaranteed.

  20. The role of experience curves for setting MEPS for appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. - Highlights: • We integrate experience curves into life cycle cost calculations for MEPS. • For driers and refrigerators this results in at least twice the energy savings. • For flat panel televisions an experience curve is provided

  1. Using Peano Curves to Construct Laplacians on Fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Denali; Ott, Nadia; Strichartz, Robert

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new method to construct Laplacians on fractals using a Peano curve from the circle onto the fractal, extending an idea that has been used in the case of certain Julia sets. The Peano curve allows us to visualize eigenfunctions of the Laplacian by graphing the pullback to the circle. We study in detail three fractals: the pentagasket, the octagasket and the magic carpet. We also use the method for two nonfractal self-similar sets, the torus and the equilateral triangle, obtaining appealing new visualizations of eigenfunctions on the triangle. In contrast to the many familiar pictures of approximations to standard Peano curves, that do no show self-intersections, our descriptions of approximations to the Peano curves have self-intersections that play a vital role in constructing graph approximations to the fractal with explicit graph Laplacians that give the fractal Laplacian in the limit.

  2. Trends in scale and shape of survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

    2012-01-01

    The ageing of the population is an issue in wealthy countries worldwide because of increasing costs for health care and welfare. Survival curves taken from demographic life tables may help shed light on the hypotheses that humans are living longer and that human populations are growing older. We describe a methodology that enables us to obtain separate measurements of scale and shape variances in survival curves. Specifically, 'living longer' is associated with the scale variance of survival curves, whereas 'growing older' is associated with the shape variance. We show how the scale and shape of survival curves have changed over time during recent decades, based on period and cohort female life tables for selected wealthy countries. Our methodology will be useful for performing better tracking of ageing statistics and it is possible that this methodology can help identify the causes of current trends in human ageing.

  3. DECIPHERING THERMAL PHASE CURVES OF DRY, TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: dkoll@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Next-generation space telescopes will allow us to characterize terrestrial exoplanets. To do so effectively it will be crucial to make use of all available data. We investigate which atmospheric properties can, and cannot, be inferred from the broadband thermal phase curve of a dry and tidally locked terrestrial planet. First, we use dimensional analysis to show that phase curves are controlled by six nondimensional parameters. Second, we use an idealized general circulation model to explore the relative sensitivity of phase curves to these parameters. We find that the feature of phase curves most sensitive to atmospheric parameters is the peak-to-trough amplitude. Moreover, except for hot and rapidly rotating planets, the phase amplitude is primarily sensitive to only two nondimensional parameters: (1) the ratio of dynamical to radiative timescales and (2) the longwave optical depth at the surface. As an application of this technique, we show how phase curve measurements can be combined with transit or emission spectroscopy to yield a new constraint for the surface pressure and atmospheric mass of terrestrial planets. We estimate that a single broadband phase curve, measured over half an orbit with the James Webb Space Telescope, could meaningfully constrain the atmospheric mass of a nearby super-Earth. Such constraints will be important for studying the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial exoplanets as well as characterizing the surface conditions on potentially habitable planets.

  4. Heating and dynamics of two flare loop systems observed by AIA and EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qiu, J., E-mail: yingli@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We investigate heating and evolution of flare loops in a C4.7 two-ribbon flare on 2011 February 13. From Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) imaging observations, we can identify two sets of loops. Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectroscopic observations reveal blueshifts at the feet of both sets of loops. The evolution and dynamics of the two sets are quite different. The first set of loops exhibits blueshifts for about 25 minutes followed by redshifts, while the second set shows stronger blueshifts, which are maintained for about one hour. The UV 1600 observation by AIA also shows that the feet of the second set of loops brighten twice. These suggest that continuous heating may be present in the second set of loops. We use spatially resolved UV light curves to infer heating rates in the few tens of individual loops comprising the two loop systems. With these heating rates, we then compute plasma evolution in these loops with the 'enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops' model. The results show that, for the first set of loops, the synthetic EUV light curves from the model compare favorably with the observed light curves in six AIA channels and eight EIS spectral lines, and the computed mean enthalpy flow velocities also agree with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS. For the second set of loops modeled with twice-heating, there are some discrepancies between modeled and observed EUV light curves in low-temperature bands, and the model does not fully produce the prolonged blueshift signatures as observed. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies.

  5. Heat generation and temperature-rise in ordinary concrete due to capture of thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, E.A.; Amin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the heat generation and temperature-rise in local ordinary concrete as a biological shield due to capture of total thermal and reactor thermal neutrons. The total thermal neutron fluxes were measured and calculated. The channel number 2 of the ETRR-1 reactor was used in the measurements as a neutron source. Computer code ANISN (VAX version) and neutron multigroup cross-section library EURLiB-4 was used in the calculations. The heat generation and temperature-rise in local ordinary concrete were evaluated and calculated. The results were displayed in curves to show the distribution of thermal neutron fluxes and heat generation as well as temperature-rise with the shield thickness. The results showed that, the heat generation as well as the temperature-rise have their maximum values in the first layers of the shield thickness. 4 figs., 12 refs

  6. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  7. Mapping of potential heat sources for heat pumps for district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Rasmus; Persson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    The ambitious policy in Denmark on having a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050 requires radical changes to the energy systems to avoid an extensive and unsustainable use of biomass resources. Currently, wind power is being expanded and the increasing supply of electricity is slowly pushing the CHP (combined heat and power) plants out of operation, reducing the energy efficiency of the DH (district heating) supply. Here, large heat pumps for district heating is a frequently mentioned solution as a flexible demand for electricity and an energy efficient heat producer. The idea is to make heat pump use a low temperature waste or ambient heat source, but it has so far been very unclear which heat sources are actually available for this purpose. In this study eight categories of heat sources are analysed for the case of Denmark and included in a detailed spatial analysis where the identified heat sources are put in relation to the district heating areas and the corresponding demands. The analysis shows that potential heat sources are present near almost all district heating areas and that sea water most likely will have to play a substantial role as a heat source in future energy systems in Denmark. - Highlights: • The availability of heat sources for heat pumps in Denmark are mapped and quantified. • A novel methodology for assessment of low temperature industrial excess heat is presented. • There are heat sources available for 99% of district heating networks in Denmark. • The concentration of heat sources is generally bigger around bigger cities than smaller. • Ambient temperature heat sources will be more needed in district heating of big cities.

  8. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  9. On the frontier of boiling curve and beyond design of its origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosic, Z.V.

    2005-01-01

    An advanced approach of Extended Design of the Boiling Curve beyond its origin is proposed. It is developed from the fact that both CHF (Critical Heat Flux) and rewetting affect the Boiling Curve on the heating surface through two simultaneous processes taking place on both sides of the heating surface. The first is two-phase flow thermal-hydraulics with resultant heat transferred from the heating surface to the coolant. The second one is the heat conduction through material itself, allied with the balance of generated and accumulated energy. Both of these processes are triggered by the change in HTC (Heat Transfer Coefficient) on the heating surface, which accordingly influences the Boiling Curve. Depending on direction of the Transition - from nucleate to film boiling or vice versa - these processes act differently and direct the Boiling Curve to diverse paths. The proposed physically based concept recognises this fact and introduces HTC as the triggering parameter with instant effect. It is implemented in the subchannel code COBRA 3-CP providing stable rewetting which has been deficient in COBRA since its origin. Results of validation and obtained agreements with transient measured data prove legality of the advanced concept of Boiling Curve. This approach is being used for transient analyses of PWR (Pressurised Water Reactor) gaining benefits from properly predicting the rewetting. The method is well-qualified to be applied also in other thermal-hydraulic codes like COBRA/TRAC, COBRA-TF, TRAC and/or RELAP, where the classical steady-state and poolboiling approach has been originally implemented. (author)

  10. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  11. Power forward curves: a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, Shankar

    1999-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on managerial application of power forward curves, and examines the determinants of electricity prices such as transmission constraints, its inability to be stored in a conventional way, its seasonality and weather dependence, the generation stack, and the swing risk. The electricity forward curve, classical arbitrage, constructing a forward curve, volatilities, and electricity forward curve models such as the jump-diffusion model, the mean-reverting heteroscedastic volatility model, and an econometric model of forward prices are examined. A managerial perspective of the applications of the forward curve is presented covering plant valuation, capital budgeting, performance measurement, product pricing and structuring, asset optimisation, valuation of transmission options, and risk management

  12. Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve

  13. Optimization of heat supply systems employing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Decision making on the further development of heat supply systems requires optimization of the parameters. In particular, meeting the demands of peak load ranges is of importance. The heat supply coefficient α and the annual utilization of peak load equipment τ FS have been chosen as the characteristic quantities to describe them. The heat price at the consumer, C V , offers as the optimization criterion. The transport distance, temperature spread of the heating water, and different curves of annual variation of heat consumption on heat supply coefficient and heat price at the consumer. A comparison between heat supply by nuclear power plants and nuclear heating stations verifies the advantage of combined heat and power generation even with longer heat transport distances as compared with local heat supply by nuclear district heating stations based on the criterion of minimum employment of peak load boilers. (author)

  14. Mesoscopic photon heat transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir-Wingreen-Landauer-typ......We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir......-Wingreen-Landauer-type of conductance formula, which gives the photonic heat current through an arbitrary circuit element coupled to two dissipative reservoirs at finite temperatures. As an illustration we present an exact solution for the case when the intermediate circuit can be described as an electromagnetic resonator. We discuss...

  15. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  16. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  17. A numerical investigation of the effect of surface wettability on the boiling curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Yi Hsu

    Full Text Available Surface wettability is recognized as playing an important role in pool boiling and the corresponding heat transfer curve. In this work, a systematic study of pool boiling heat transfer on smooth surfaces of varying wettability (contact angle range of 5° - 180° has been conducted and reported. Based on numerical simulations, boiling curves are calculated and boiling dynamics in each regime are studied using a volume-of-fluid method with contact angle model. The calculated trends in critical heat flux and Leidenfrost point as functions of surface wettability are obtained and compared with prior experimental and theoretical predictions, giving good agreement. For the first time, the effect of contact angle on the complete boiling curve is shown. It is demonstrated that the simulation methodology can be used for studying pool boiling and related dynamics and providing more physical insights.

  18. The writhe of open and closed curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Mitchell A; Prior, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Twist and writhe measure basic geometric properties of a ribbon or tube. While these measures have applications in molecular biology, materials science, fluid mechanics and astrophysics, they are under-utilized because they are often considered difficult to compute. In addition, many applications involve curves with endpoints (open curves); but for these curves the definition of writhe can be ambiguous. This paper provides simple expressions for the writhe of closed curves, and provides a new definition of writhe for open curves. The open curve definition is especially appropriate when the curve is anchored at endpoints on a plane or stretches between two parallel planes. This definition can be especially useful for magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, and for isotropic rods with ends fixed to a plane

  19. Creep curve formularization at 950degC for Hastelloy XR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Yasushi

    1991-03-01

    Creep tests under constant stress were conducted on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy, Hastelloy XR, in air at 950degC. Minimum creep strain rate, time to the onset of tertiary creep and time to rupture were obtained as a function of applied stress. Then, a creep constitutive equation was made based on the Garofalo formula for primary and secondary creep and based on the Kachanov-Rabotnov formula for tertiary creep, which could represent fairly well the experimental creep deformation curves under the constant stress conditions. The creep deformation under the constant load condition corresponding to the stress increment was analysed using the creep constitutive equation and strain hardening law. Then the calculated creep strain showed slightly higher value than the experimental creep strain, and the calculated life was shorter than the experimental one. (author)

  20. Condensation heat transfer in plate heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    An Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger, previously tested as an evaporator, was retested as a condenser. Two series of tests with different chevron-angle plates were carried out using ammonia as a working fluid. The overall heat-transfer coefficient and pressure drop were measured, and the effects of operating parameters were determined. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions. In the analysis, a gravity-controlled condensation process was modeled theoretically, and the overall performance was calculated. The analysis shows that the overall heat-transfer coefficient can be predicted with an average uncertainty of about 10%. It is, however, important to consider the interfacial shear stress, because the effective friction factor is high for flow in plate heat exchangers

  1. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  2. Measurement of the heat of smoldering combustion in straws and stalks by means of simultaneous thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fang; Yi, Weiming; Zha, Jianwen [School of Light Industry and Agricultural Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China)

    2009-01-15

    In order to investigate reaction heat of agro-stalks smoldering, wheat straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, millet straw, sorghum stalk and sweet potato rattan powder were smoldered and pyrolyzed in a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA). The samples were placed in a platinum crucible (5 mm x 5 mm) with a lid (with a 1 mm hole) on a high-accuracy differential scanning calorimetry-heat capacity (DSC-cp) holder in the furnace of an STA and heated from 303 to 1073 K at a heating rate of 10 K min{sup -1}. Sweeping gas with a flow rate of 25 ml min{sup -1} was air and nitrogen during smoldering and pyrolysis, respectively. Results showed that the heat emission characteristic of the smoldering process differed remarkably from the pyrolysis process. Based on the analysis of the DSC curves, oxidative polymer degradation heat and char oxidation heat were obtained from experimental data. It showed that the oxidative polymer degradation heat of the agro-stalks is more than 6.92 MJ kg{sup -1} consumed matter, higher than that of cellulose paper. And char oxidation heat is around 23 MJ kg{sup -1} consumed matter, similar to that of cellulose paper, but higher than that of cigarette. Total net heat emission of smoldering in STA was also obtained. These data can be used as reference data in analyzing smoldering of agro-stalks under similar conditions. (author)

  3. Page curves for tripartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Zoe, Heeseung; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-01-01

    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A , B , and C ) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem. (paper)

  4. Vacuum polarization in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A necessary step in the process of understanding the quantum theory of gravity is the calculation of the stress-energy tensor of quantized fields in curved space-times. The determination of the stress tensor, a formally divergent object, is made possible in this dissertation by utilizing the zeta-function method of regularization and renormalization. By employing this scheme's representation of the renormalized effective action functional, an expression of the stress tensor for a massless, conformally invariant scalar field, first given by DeWitt, is derived. The form of the renormalized stress tensor is first tested in various examples of flat space-times. It is shown to vanish in Minkowski space and to yield the accepted value of the energy density in the Casimir effect. Next, the stress tensor is calculated in two space-times of constant curvature, the Einstein universe and the deSitter universe, and the results are shown to agree with those given by an expression of the stress tensor that is valid in conformally flat space-times. This work culminates in the determination of the stress tensor on the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole. This is accomplished by approximating the radial part of the eigen-functions and the metric in the vicinity of the horizon. The stress tensor at this level approximation is found to be pure trace. The approximated forms of the Schwarzschild metric describes a conformally flat space-time that possesses horizons

  5. Transient, heat-induced thermal resistance in the small intestine of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Heat-induced thermal resistance has been investigated in mouse jejunum by assaying crypt survival 24 h after treatment. Hyperthermia was achieved by immersing an exteriorized loop of intestine in a bath of Krebs-Ringer solution. Two approaches have been used. In the first, thermal survival curves were obtained following single hyperthermal treatments at temperatures in the range 42 to 44 0 C. Transient thermal resistance, inducted by a plateau in the crypt survival curve, developed during heating at temperatures around 42.5 0 C after 60 to 80 min. In the second series of experiments, a priming heat treatment (40.0, 41.0, 41.5, or 42.0 0 C for 60 min) was followed at varying intervals by a test treatment at 43.0 0 C. A transient resistance to the second treatment was induced, the extent and time of development being dependent upon the priming treatment. Crypt survival curves for thermally resistant intestine showed an increase in thermal D 0 and a decrease in n compared with curves from previously unheated intestine

  6. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Stephan B; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding) p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot be reliably distinguished. We also demonstrate this problem using as practical example the evaluation of the effect of malaria prevalence on economic growth between 1960 and 1996. These findings call recent studies into question that use the p-curve to infer that most published research findings are based on true effects in the medical literature and in a wide range of disciplines. p-values in observational research may need to be empirically calibrated to be interpretable with respect to the commonly used significance threshold of 0.05. Violations of randomization in experimental studies may also result in situations where the use of p-curves is similarly unreliable.

  7. Multi-q pattern classification of polarization curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Ricardo; Bastos, Ivan N.; Neto, Francisco D. Moura; Lopes, Francisco J. P.; Gonçalves, Wesley N.; Bruno, Odemir M.

    2014-02-01

    Several experimental measurements are expressed in the form of one-dimensional profiles, for which there is a scarcity of methodologies able to classify the pertinence of a given result to a specific group. The polarization curves that evaluate the corrosion kinetics of electrodes in corrosive media are applications where the behavior is chiefly analyzed from profiles. Polarization curves are indeed a classic method to determine the global kinetics of metallic electrodes, but the strong nonlinearity from different metals and alloys can overlap and the discrimination becomes a challenging problem. Moreover, even finding a typical curve from replicated tests requires subjective judgment. In this paper, we used the so-called multi-q approach based on the Tsallis statistics in a classification engine to separate the multiple polarization curve profiles of two stainless steels. We collected 48 experimental polarization curves in an aqueous chloride medium of two stainless steel types, with different resistance against localized corrosion. Multi-q pattern analysis was then carried out on a wide potential range, from cathodic up to anodic regions. An excellent classification rate was obtained, at a success rate of 90%, 80%, and 83% for low (cathodic), high (anodic), and both potential ranges, respectively, using only 2% of the original profile data. These results show the potential of the proposed approach towards efficient, robust, systematic and automatic classification of highly nonlinear profile curves.

  8. An analysis on the environmental Kuznets curve of Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zijian; Peng, Yue; Zhao, Yue

    2017-12-01

    In this paper based on the environmental and economic data of Chengdu from 2005 to 2014, the measurement models were established to analyze 3 kinds of environmental flow indicators and 4 kinds of environmental stock indicators to obtain their EKC evolution trajectories and characters. The results show that the relationship curve between the discharge of SO2 from industry and the GDP per capita is a positive U shape, just as the curve between discharge of COD from industry and the GDP per person. The relationship curve between the dust discharge from industry and the GDP per capita is an inverted N shape. In the central of the urban the relationship curve between the concentration of SO2 in the air and the GDP per person is a positive U shape. The relationship curves between the concentration of NO2 in the air and the GDP per person, between the concentration of the particulate matters and the GDP per person, and between the concentration of the fallen dusts and the GDP per person are fluctuating. So the EKC curves of the 7 kinds of environmental indicators are not accord with inverted U shape feature. In the development of this urban the environmental problems can’t be resolved only by economic growth. The discharge of industrial pollutants should be controlled to improve the atmospheric environmental quality and reduce the environmental risks.

  9. Growth curves in Down syndrome with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline D’Azevedo Sica

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: To assess dietary habits, nutritional status and food frequency in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS and congenital heart disease (CHD. Additionally, we attempted to compare body mass index (BMI classifications according to the World Health Organization (WHO curves and curves developed for individuals with DS. Method: Cross-sectional study including individuals with DS and CHD treated at a referral center for cardiology, aged 2 to 18 years. Weight, height, BMI, total energy and food frequency were measured. Nutritional status was assessed using BMI for age and gender, using curves for evaluation of patients with DS and those set by the WHO. Results: 68 subjects with DS and CHD were evaluated. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD was the most common heart disease (52.9%. There were differences in BMI classification between the curves proposed for patients with DS and those proposed by the WHO. There was an association between consumption of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion: Results showed that individuals with DS are mostly considered normal weight for age, when evaluated using specific curves for DS. Reviews on specific curves for DS would be the recommended practice for health professionals so as to avoid precipitated diagnosis of overweight and/or obesity in this population.

  10. Reconstruction of thermally quenched glow curves in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subedi, Bhagawan; Polymeris, George S.; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Pagonis, Vasilis; Kitis, George

    2012-01-01

    The experimentally measured thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of quartz samples are influenced by the presence of the thermal quenching effect, which involves a variation of the luminescence efficiency as a function of temperature. The real shape of the thermally unquenched TL glow curves is completely unknown. In the present work an attempt is made to reconstruct these unquenched glow curves from the quenched experimental data, and for two different types of quartz samples. The reconstruction is based on the values of the thermal quenching parameter W (activation energy) and C (a dimensionless constant), which are known from recent experimental work on these two samples. A computerized glow-curve deconvolution (CGCD) analysis was performed twice for both the reconstructed and the experimental TL glow curves. Special attention was paid to check for consistency between the results of these two independent CGCD analyses. The investigation showed that the reconstruction attempt was successful, and it is concluded that the analysis of reconstructed TL glow curves can provide improved values of the kinetic parameters E, s for the glow peaks of quartz. This also leads to a better evaluation of the half-lives of electron trapping levels used for dosimetry and luminescence dating.

  11. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly IBW-generated sheared flows

  12. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2003-01-01

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows

  13. Dissipative dark matter and the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foot, R., E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2016-07-01

    There is ample evidence from rotation curves that dark matter halos around disk galaxies have nontrivial dynamics. Of particular significance are: a) the cored dark matter profile of disk galaxies, b) correlations of the shape of rotation curves with baryonic properties, and c) Tully-Fisher relations. Dark matter halos around disk galaxies may have nontrivial dynamics if dark matter is strongly self interacting and dissipative. Multicomponent hidden sector dark matter featuring a massless 'dark photon' (from an unbroken dark U(1) gauge interaction) which kinetically mixes with the ordinary photon provides a concrete example of such dark matter. The kinetic mixing interaction facilitates halo heating by enabling ordinary supernovae to be a source of these 'dark photons'. Dark matter halos can expand and contract in response to the heating and cooling processes, but for a sufficiently isolated halo could have evolved to a steady state or 'equilibrium' configuration where heating and cooling rates locally balance. This dynamics allows the dark matter density profile to be related to the distribution of ordinary supernovae in the disk of a given galaxy. In a previous paper a simple and predictive formula was derived encoding this relation. Here we improve on previous work by modelling the supernovae distribution via the measured UV and H α fluxes, and compare the resulting dark matter halo profiles with the rotation curve data for each dwarf galaxy in the LITTLE THINGS sample. The dissipative dark matter concept is further developed and some conclusions drawn.

  14. Dissipative dark matter and the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.

    2016-01-01

    There is ample evidence from rotation curves that dark matter halos around disk galaxies have nontrivial dynamics. Of particular significance are: a) the cored dark matter profile of disk galaxies, b) correlations of the shape of rotation curves with baryonic properties, and c) Tully-Fisher relations. Dark matter halos around disk galaxies may have nontrivial dynamics if dark matter is strongly self interacting and dissipative. Multicomponent hidden sector dark matter featuring a massless 'dark photon' (from an unbroken dark U(1) gauge interaction) which kinetically mixes with the ordinary photon provides a concrete example of such dark matter. The kinetic mixing interaction facilitates halo heating by enabling ordinary supernovae to be a source of these 'dark photons'. Dark matter halos can expand and contract in response to the heating and cooling processes, but for a sufficiently isolated halo could have evolved to a steady state or 'equilibrium' configuration where heating and cooling rates locally balance. This dynamics allows the dark matter density profile to be related to the distribution of ordinary supernovae in the disk of a given galaxy. In a previous paper a simple and predictive formula was derived encoding this relation. Here we improve on previous work by modelling the supernovae distribution via the measured UV and H α fluxes, and compare the resulting dark matter halo profiles with the rotation curve data for each dwarf galaxy in the LITTLE THINGS sample. The dissipative dark matter concept is further developed and some conclusions drawn.

  15. Test for the statistical significance of differences between ROC curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Kronman, H.B.

    1979-01-01

    A test for the statistical significance of observed differences between two measured Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves has been designed and evaluated. The set of observer response data for each ROC curve is assumed to be independent and to arise from a ROC curve having a form which, in the absence of statistical fluctuations in the response data, graphs as a straight line on double normal-deviate axes. To test the significance of an apparent difference between two measured ROC curves, maximum likelihood estimates of the two parameters of each curve and the associated parameter variances and covariance are calculated from the corresponding set of observer response data. An approximate Chi-square statistic with two degrees of freedom is then constructed from the differences between the parameters estimated for each ROC curve and from the variances and covariances of these estimates. This statistic is known to be truly Chi-square distributed only in the limit of large numbers of trials in the observer performance experiments. Performance of the statistic for data arising from a limited number of experimental trials was evaluated. Independent sets of rating scale data arising from the same underlying ROC curve were paired, and the fraction of differences found (falsely) significant was compared to the significance level, α, used with the test. Although test performance was found to be somewhat dependent on both the number of trials in the data and the position of the underlying ROC curve in the ROC space, the results for various significance levels showed the test to be reliable under practical experimental conditions

  16. Topological Sound and Flocking on Curved Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Shankar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Active systems on curved geometries are ubiquitous in the living world. In the presence of curvature, orientationally ordered polar flocks are forced to be inhomogeneous, often requiring the presence of topological defects even in the steady state because of the constraints imposed by the topology of the underlying surface. In the presence of spontaneous flow, the system additionally supports long-wavelength propagating sound modes that get gapped by the curvature of the underlying substrate. We analytically compute the steady-state profile of an active polar flock on a two-sphere and a catenoid, and show that curvature and active flow together result in symmetry-protected topological modes that get localized to special geodesics on the surface (the equator or the neck, respectively. These modes are the analogue of edge states in electronic quantum Hall systems and provide unidirectional channels for information transport in the flock, robust against disorder and backscattering.

  17. Topological Sound and Flocking on Curved Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Suraj; Bowick, Mark J.; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2017-07-01

    Active systems on curved geometries are ubiquitous in the living world. In the presence of curvature, orientationally ordered polar flocks are forced to be inhomogeneous, often requiring the presence of topological defects even in the steady state because of the constraints imposed by the topology of the underlying surface. In the presence of spontaneous flow, the system additionally supports long-wavelength propagating sound modes that get gapped by the curvature of the underlying substrate. We analytically compute the steady-state profile of an active polar flock on a two-sphere and a catenoid, and show that curvature and active flow together result in symmetry-protected topological modes that get localized to special geodesics on the surface (the equator or the neck, respectively). These modes are the analogue of edge states in electronic quantum Hall systems and provide unidirectional channels for information transport in the flock, robust against disorder and backscattering.

  18. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  19. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  20. Aspects of quantum field theory in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulling, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The theory of quantum fields on curved spacetimes has attracted great attention since the discovery, by Stephen Hawking, of black-hole evaporation. It remains an important subject for the understanding of such contemporary topics as inflationary cosmology, quantum gravity and superstring theory. The topics covered include normal-mode expansions for a general elliptic operator, Fock space, the Casimir effect, the Klein 'paradox', particle definition and particle creation in expanding universes, asymptotic expansion of Green's functions and heat kernels, and renormalization of the stress tensor. (author)

  1. Aspects of quantum field theory in curved space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulling, S.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1989-01-01

    The theory of quantum fields on curved spacetimes has attracted great attention since the discovery, by Stephen Hawking, of black-hole evaporation. It remains an important subject for the understanding of such contemporary topics as inflationary cosmology, quantum gravity and superstring theory. The topics covered include normal-mode expansions for a general elliptic operator, Fock space, the Casimir effect, the Klein 'paradox', particle definition and particle creation in expanding universes, asymptotic expansion of Green's functions and heat kernels, and renormalization of the stress tensor. (author).

  2. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  3. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Zaman, Mostafa; Jiang, Liying

    2011-12-12

    In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g 31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  4. Heat transfer and fire spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal E. Anderson

    1969-01-01

    Experimental testing of a mathematical model showed that radiant heat transfer accounted for no more than 40% of total heat flux required to maintain rate of spread. A reasonable prediction of spread was possible by assuming a horizontal convective heat transfer coefficient when certain fuel and flame characteristics were known. Fuel particle size had a linear relation...

  5. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  6. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in curved channel with porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Ayub, Sadia; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-06-01

    Purpose of the present investigation is to examine the peristaltic flow through porous medium in a curved conduit. Problem is modeled for incompressible electrically conducting Ellis fluid. Influence of porous medium is tackled via modified Darcy's law. The considered model utilizes homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions with equal diffusivities for reactant and autocatalysis. Constitutive equations are formulated in the presence of viscous dissipation. Channel walls are compliant in nature. Governing equations are modeled and simplified under the assumptions of small Reynolds number and large wavelength. Graphical results for velocity, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction parameters are examined for the emerging parameters entering into the problem. Results reveal an activation in both homogenous-heterogenous reaction effect and heat transfer rate with increasing curvature of the channel.

  7. The learning curve for hip arthroscopy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Daniel J; de Sa, Darren; Simunovic, Nicole; Bhandari, Mohit; Safran, Marc R; Larson, Christopher M; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2014-03-01

    The learning curve for hip arthroscopy is consistently characterized as "steep." The purpose of this systematic review was to (1) identify the various learning curves reported in the literature, (2) examine the evidence supporting these curves, and (3) determine whether this evidence supports an accepted number of cases needed to achieve proficiency. The electronic databases Embase and Medline were screened for any clinical studies reporting learning curves in hip arthroscopy. Two reviewers conducted a full-text review of eligible studies and a hand search of conference proceedings and reference sections of the included articles. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied, and a quality assessment was completed for each included article. Descriptive statistics were compiled. We identified 6 studies with a total of 1,063 patients. Studies grouped surgical cases into "early" versus "late" in a surgeon's experience, with 30 cases being the most common cutoff used. Most of these studies used descriptive statistics and operative time and complication rates as measures of competence. Five of 6 studies showed improvement in these measures between early and late experience, but only one study proposed a bona fide curve. This review shows that when 30 cases was used as the cutoff point to differentiate between early and late cases in a surgeon's experience, there were significant reductions in operative time and complication rates. However, there was insufficient evidence to quantify the learning curve and validate 30, or any number of cases, as the point at which the learning curve plateaus. As a result, this number should be interpreted with caution. Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL AND DUAL TIMELIKE SPHERICAL CURVES IN DUAL MINKOWSKI SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNDER, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we give characterizations of dual timelike normal and dual timelike spherical curves in the dual Minkowski 3-space and we show that every dual timelike normal curve is also a dual timelike spherical curve. Keywords: Normal curves, Dual Minkowski 3-Space, Dual Timelike curves. Mathematics Subject Classifications (2000): 53C50, 53C40. DUAL MINKOWSKI UZAYINDA DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL VE DUAL TIMELIKE KÜRESEL EĞRİLER Özet: Bu çalışmada, dual Minkowski 3-...

  9. Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)

  10. MICA: Multiple interval-based curve alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Beck, Matthias; Bender, Bela Johannes; Spiecker, Heinrich; Backofen, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    MICA enables the automatic synchronization of discrete data curves. To this end, characteristic points of the curves' shapes are identified. These landmarks are used within a heuristic curve registration approach to align profile pairs by mapping similar characteristics onto each other. In combination with a progressive alignment scheme, this enables the computation of multiple curve alignments. Multiple curve alignments are needed to derive meaningful representative consensus data of measured time or data series. MICA was already successfully applied to generate representative profiles of tree growth data based on intra-annual wood density profiles or cell formation data. The MICA package provides a command-line and graphical user interface. The R interface enables the direct embedding of multiple curve alignment computation into larger analyses pipelines. Source code, binaries and documentation are freely available at https://github.com/BackofenLab/MICA

  11. Inverse Diffusion Curves Using Shape Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Durand, Fredo; Zheng, Changxi

    2018-07-01

    The inverse diffusion curve problem focuses on automatic creation of diffusion curve images that resemble user provided color fields. This problem is challenging since the 1D curves have a nonlinear and global impact on resulting color fields via a partial differential equation (PDE). We introduce a new approach complementary to previous methods by optimizing curve geometry. In particular, we propose a novel iterative algorithm based on the theory of shape derivatives. The resulting diffusion curves are clean and well-shaped, and the final image closely approximates the input. Our method provides a user-controlled parameter to regularize curve complexity, and generalizes to handle input color fields represented in a variety of formats.

  12. Modeling error distributions of growth curve models through Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    Growth curve models are widely used in social and behavioral sciences. However, typical growth curve models often assume that the errors are normally distributed although non-normal data may be even more common than normal data. In order to avoid possible statistical inference problems in blindly assuming normality, a general Bayesian framework is proposed to flexibly model normal and non-normal data through the explicit specification of the error distributions. A simulation study shows when the distribution of the error is correctly specified, one can avoid the loss in the efficiency of standard error estimates. A real example on the analysis of mathematical ability growth data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 is used to show the application of the proposed methods. Instructions and code on how to conduct growth curve analysis with both normal and non-normal error distributions using the the MCMC procedure of SAS are provided.

  13. An Approach to Define the Heat Flow in Drilling with Different Cooling Systems Using Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Lauro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat generated in the cutting zone with high-speed drilling causes damage in the machined part. The heat can affect the dimensions of the hole considering its diameter. Moreover, the heat reduces tool life of uncoated and coated tools. This paper shows experimental tests with high-speed drilling in hardened steel. Drilling was performed on AISI H13 steel with dimensions of 100 × 40 × 14 mm and 52 HRC. The work pieces were drilled with coated drills (TiAlN. A flooded lubricant system and the minimal quantity of lubricant (MQL were applied to investigate the ability to remove heat from the cutting zone and to compare with dry tests. FEM was applied to define the heat flow and the coefficient of convection for the cooling systems. A steepest descent method was employed to minimize the difference between empirical and simulation data. The results showed that the simulation technique used to find values for heat flow and the coefficient of convection were close to the literature reference. In addition, the adjustment errors of the simulated temperature curves were less than 10% when compared with trial curves. Furthermore, the MQL showed a capability of cooling 3.5 times higher than that of the flooded system.

  14. Heat savings in buildings in a 100% renewable heat and power system in Denmark with different shares of district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Balyk, Olexandr

    2014-01-01

    levels of heat savings, which can be implemented by reducing heat transmission losses through building elements and by installing ventilation systems with heat recovery, in different future Danish heat and power system scenarios. Today almost 50% of heat demand in Denmark is covered by district heating......The paper examines implementation of heat saving measures in buildings in 2050, under the assumption that heat and power supply comes solely from renewable resources in Denmark.Balmorel – a linear optimisation model of heat and power sectors in Denmark is used for investigating economically viable....... A further expansion of district heating network in Denmark is assessed and penetration of heat savings is analysed in this context.If all heat saving measures, included in the model, are implemented, heat demand in Danish buildings in 2050 could be reduced by around 40%. Results show that it is cost...

  15. The thermal curve of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Peter, J.; Siwek, A.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Gulminelli, F.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier measurements of nuclear matter thermal curve of liquid to gas phase transition presented two limitation: only one temperature measuring method was available and the mass number of the formed nuclei decreased from 190 to 50 when the excitation energy increased. To avoid these limitations experiments with the multidetector INDRA at GANIL were carried-out. Among the quasi-projectiles issued from the 36 Ar collisions at 52, 74, 95 A.MeV on the 58 Ni, nuclei of close masses were selected. The excitation energy was determined by the calorimetry of the charged products emitted by quasi-projectiles while the temperature was measured by three different methods. Very different apparent temperatures were obtained for the same excitation energy/nucleon. Only one curve displays a slope variation but no indication of plateau. With the quasi-projectiles obtained from the collisions of 129 Xe at 50 MeV/u on a 119 Sn target behaviors similar to those of 36 Ar were observed in the covered domain of excitation energy. To solve this puzzle and recover the initial temperatures of interest the only mean was to do a theoretical simulation in which one follows the de-excitation of the nuclei formed at different excitation energies and look for the thermal curve able to reproduce the observed temperatures. Two extreme possibilities were taken into account concerning the de-excitation process: either a sequential process established at E * /A≤ 3 MeV/u or a sudden multifragmentation in several hot fragments, most probably at E * /A≥ 10 MeV/u. In both cases it was possible to reproduce the whole set of experimental results concerning the 36 Ar projectile. The initial temperature increases steadily as a function of excitation energy showing no plateau or singular points. The results indicate that, being a system without external pressure, in its passage from the liquid phase to the gas phase the nucleus does not display necessarily a temperature plateau. Discussions on

  16. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  17. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  18. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  19. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Influence of variable oxygen concentration on the response of cells to heat or x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerweck, L.E.; Richards, B.; Jennings, M.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of oxygen concentration on the lethal response of cells exposed to 43 0 C hyperthermia was determined and compared to the response of cells exposed to radiation under equivalent culturing and environmental conditions. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were heated or irradiated 0.5 h after induction of hypoxia and then reoxygenated following treatment. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for heat or radiation was determined at the 1% survival level from least-squares fit of survival curves. A maximum OER of 3.1 +- 0.2 was observed in the 20 to 95% oxygen concentration range. The OER for heat, however, was 1.0 +- 0.1 irrespective of the gas-phase oxygen concentration. These results show that the lethal effects of heat are not influenced by the oxygen concentration at the time of treatment in CHO cells exposed to 43 0 C hyperthermia

  1. PLASMA SLOSHING IN PULSE-HEATED SOLAR AND STELLAR CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reale, F., E-mail: fabio.reale@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    There is evidence that coronal heating is highly intermittent, and flares are the high energy extreme. The properties of the heat pulses are difficult to constrain. Here, hydrodynamic loop modeling shows that several large amplitude oscillations (∼20% in density) are triggered in flare light curves if the duration of the heat pulse is shorter than the sound crossing time of the flaring loop. The reason for this is that the plasma does not have enough time to reach pressure equilibrium during heating, and traveling pressure fronts develop. The period is a few minutes for typical solar coronal loops, dictated by the sound crossing time in the decay phase. The long period and large amplitude make these oscillations different from typical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. This diagnostic can be applied both to observations of solar and stellar flares and to future observations of non-flaring loops at high resolution.

  2. Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Maekawa, T.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Wave trajectories in high density tokamak plasmas are studied numerically. Results show that the ordinary wave injected at an appropriate incident angle can propagate into the dense plasmas and is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at the plasma cutoff, is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a folded curve near the upper hybrid resonance layer, and is cyclotron damped away, resulting in local electron heating before arriving at the cyclotron resonance layer. Similar trajectory and damping are obtained when a microwave in a form of extraordinary wave is injected quasi-perpendicularly in the direction of decreasing toroidal field

  3. Impact of radial magnetic field on peristalsis in curved channel with convective boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Tasawar [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Tanveer, Anum, E-mail: qau14@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaadi, Fuad [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Mousa, Ghassan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the peristaltic flow in curved channel with combined heat/mass transfer and convective effects. The channel walls are flexible. An imposed magnetic field is applied in radial direction to increase the wave amplitude (used in ECG for synchronization purposes). The pseudoplastic fluid comprising shear-thinning/shear thickening effects has been used in mathematical modeling. Small Reynolds number assumption is employed to neglect inertial effects. Half channel-width to wavelength ratio is small enough for the pressure to be considered uniform over the cross-section. The graphical results obtained are compared with planar channel. Results show the non-symmetric behavior of sundry parameters in contrary to the planar case. Additionally more clear results are seen when the curved channel is approached. - Highlights: • The behavior of curvature parameter k on velocity is not symmetric. • Temperature is decreasing function of Biot number Bi. • Hartman number has similar qualitative effects on both velocity and temperature. • Behavior of concentration is opposite to that of temperature in a qualitative sense. • Bolus size via curvature parameter has opposite effect near the upper and lower channel walls.

  4. Parametric analysis of the curved slats fixed mirror solar concentrator for medium temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol-Nadal, Ramon; Martínez-Moll, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We thermally modeled the Curved Slats Fixed Mirror Solar Concentrator (CSFMSC). • A parametric analysis for three climates and two axial orientations are given. • The optimum values are determined for a range of the design parameters. • The CSFMSC has been well characterized for medium range temperature operation. - Abstract: The Curved Slats Fixed Mirror Solar Concentrator (CSFMSC) is a solar concentrator with a static reflector and a moving receiver. An optical analysis using ray-tracing tools was presented in a previous study in function of three design parameters: the number of mirrors N, the ratio of focal length and reflector width F/W, and the aperture concentration C a . However, less is known about the thermal behavior of this geometry. In this communication, the integrated thermal output of the CSFMSC has been determined in order to find the optimal values for the design parameters at a working temperature of 200 °C. The results were obtained for three different climates and two axial orientations (North–South, and East–West). The results show that CSFMSC can produce heat at 200 °C with an annual thermal efficiency of 41, 47, and 51%, dependent of the location considered (Munich, Palma de Mallorca, and Cairo). The best FMSC geometries in function of the design parameters are exhibited for medium temperature applications

  5. Environmental and energy efficiency evaluation of residential gas and heat pump heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganji, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Energy efficiency and source air pollutant emission factors of gas heaters, gas engine heat pumps, and electric heat pumps for domestic heating have been evaluated and compared. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, gas engine heat pumps have the highest energy efficiency followed by electric heat pumps and then gas heaters. Electric heat pumps produce more than twice as much NO x , and comparable CO 2 and CO per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. CO production per unit of useful heating energy from gas engine heat pumps without any emission control is substantially higher than electric heat pumps and natural gas heaters. NO x production per unit of useful heating energy from natural gas engine heat pumps (using lean burn technology) without any emission control is about the same as effective NO x production from electric heat pumps. Gas engine heat pumps produce about one-half CO 2 compared to electric heat pumps

  6. Isochronous relaxation curves for type 304 stainless steel after monotonic and cyclic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Relaxation tests to 100 hr were performed on type 304 stainless steel in the temperature range 480 to 650 0 C and were used to develop isochronous relaxation curves. Behavior after monotonic and cyclic strain was compared. Relaxation differed only slightly as a consequence of the type of previous strain, provided that plastic flow preceded the relaxation period. We observed that the short-time relaxation behavior did not manifest strong heat-to-heat variation in creep strength

  7. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat......Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...

  8. Statistics for products of traces of high powers of the frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Roditty-Gershon, Edva

    2011-01-01

    We study the averages of products of traces of high powers of the Frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves of genus g over a fixed finite field. We show that for increasing genus g, the limiting expectation of these products equals to the expectation when the curve varies over the unitary symplectic group USp(2g). We also consider the scaling limit of linear statistics for eigenphases of the Frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves, and show that their first few moments are Gaussian.

  9. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel, E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  10. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Study on minimum heat-flux point during boiling heat transfer on horizontal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Shigefumi

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of boiling heat transfer are usually shown by the boiling curve of N-shape having the maximum and minimum points. As for the limiting heat flux point, that is, the maximum point, there have been many reports so far, as it is related to the physical burn of heat flux-controlling type heating surfaces. But though the minimum heat flux point is related to the quench point as the problems in steel heat treatment, the core safety of LWRs, the operational stability of superconducting magnets, the start-up characteristics of low temperature machinery, the condition of vapor explosion occurrence and so on, the systematic information has been limited. In this study, the effects of transient property and the heat conductivity of heating surfaces on the minimum heat flux condition in the pool boiling on horizontal planes were experimentally examined by using liquid nitrogen. The experimental apparatuses for steady boiling, for unsteady boiling with a copper heating surface, and for unsteady boiling with a heating surface other than copper were employed. The boiling curves obtained with these apparatuses and the minimum heat flux point condition are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  12. Leptogenesis from loop effects in curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-05

    We describe a new mechanism — radiatively-induced gravitational leptogenesis — for generating the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe. We show how quantum loop effects in C and CP violating theories cause matter and antimatter to propagate differently in the presence of gravity, and prove this is forbidden in flat space by CPT and translation symmetry. This generates a curvature-dependent chemical potential for leptons, allowing a matter-antimatter asymmetry to be generated in thermal equilibrium in the early Universe. The time-dependent dynamics necessary for leptogenesis is provided by the interaction of the virtual self-energy cloud of the leptons with the expanding curved spacetime background, which violates the strong equivalence principle and allows a distinction between matter and antimatter. We show here how this mechanism is realised in a particular BSM theory, the see-saw model, where the quantum loops involve the heavy sterile neutrinos responsible for light neutrino masses. We demonstrate by explicit computation of the relevant two-loop Feynman diagrams how the size of the radiative corrections relevant for leptogenesis becomes enhanced by increasing the mass hierarchy of the sterile neutrinos, and show how the induced lepton asymmetry may be sufficiently large to play an important rôle in determining the baryon-to-photon ratio of the Universe.

  13. NEW CONCEPTS AND TEST METHODS OF CURVE PROFILE AREA DENSITY IN SURFACE: ESTIMATION OF AREAL DENSITY ON CURVED SPATIAL SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Shen

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  14. Fluidised bed heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.E.; Healey, E.M.; Roberts, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    Problems that have arisen during the initial stages of development of fluidised bed boilers in which heat transfer surfaces are immersed in fluidised solids are discussed. The very high heat transfer coefficients that are obtained under these conditions can be exploited to reduce the total heat transfer surface to a fraction of that in normal boilers. However, with the high heat flux levels involved, tube stressing becomes more important and it is advantageous to use smaller diameter tubes. One of the initial problems was that the pumping power absorbed by the fluidised bed appeared to be high. The relative influence of the fluidising velocity (and the corresponding bed area), tube diameter, tube spacing, heat transfer coefficient and bed temperature on pumping power and overall cost was determined. This showed the importance of close tube packing and research was undertaken to see if this would adversely affect the heat transfer coefficient. Pressure operation also reduces the pumping power. Fouling and corrosion tests in beds burning coal suggest that higher temperatures could be reached reliably and cost studies show that, provided the better refractory metals are used, the cost of achieving higher temperatures is not unduly high. It now remains to demonstrate at large scale that the proposed systems are viable and that the methods incorporated to overcome start up and part lead running problems are satisfactory. The promising role of these heat transfer techniques in other applications is briefly discussed

  15. The Thermal Phase Curve Offset on Tidally and Nontidally Locked Exoplanets: A Shallow Water Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, James; Vallis, Geoffrey K, E-mail: jp492@exeter.ac.uk, E-mail: g.vallis@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-20

    Using a shallow water model with time-dependent forcing, we show that the peak of an exoplanet thermal phase curve is, in general, offset from the secondary eclipse when the planet is rotating. That is, the planetary hot spot is offset from the point of maximal heating (the substellar point) and may lead or lag the forcing; the extent and sign of the offset are functions of both the rotation rate and orbital period of the planet. We also find that the system reaches a steady state in the reference frame of the moving forcing. The model is an extension of the well-studied Matsuno–Gill model into a full spherical geometry and with a planetary-scale translating forcing representing the insolation received on an exoplanet from a host star. The speed of the gravity waves in the model is shown to be a key metric in evaluating the phase curve offset. If the velocity of the substellar point (relative to the planet’s surface) exceeds that of the gravity waves, then the hot spot will lag the substellar point, as might be expected by consideration of forced gravity wave dynamics. However, when the substellar point is moving slower than the internal wave speed of the system, the hottest point may lead the passage of the forcing. We provide an interpretation of this result by consideration of the Rossby and Kelvin wave dynamics, as well as, in the very slowly rotating case, a one-dimensional model that yields an analytic solution. Finally, we consider the inverse problem of constraining planetary rotation rate from an observed phase curve.

  16. Deriving Area-storage Curves of Global Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Tang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Basic information including capacity, dam height, and largest water area on global reservoirs and dams is well documented in databases such as GRanD (Global Reservoirs and Dams), ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams). However, though playing a critical role in estimating reservoir storage variations from remote sensing or hydrological models, area-storage (or elevation-storage) curves of reservoirs are not publicly shared. In this paper, we combine Landsat surface water extent, 1 arc-minute global relief model (ETOPO1) and GRanD database to derive area-storage curves of global reservoirs whose area is larger than 1 km2 (6,000 more reservoirs are included). First, the coverage polygon of each reservoir in GRanD is extended to where water was detected by Landsat during 1985-2015. Second, elevation of each pixel in the reservoir is extracted from resampled 30-meter ETOPO1, and then relative depth and frequency of each depth value is calculated. Third, cumulative storage is calculated with increasing water area by every one percent of reservoir coverage area and then the uncalibrated area-storage curve is obtained. Finally, the area-storage curve is linearly calibrated by the ratio of calculated capacity over reported capacity in GRanD. The derived curves are compared with in-situ reservoir data collected in Great Plains Region in US, and the results show that in-situ records are well captured by the derived curves even in relative small reservoirs (several square kilometers). The new derived area-storage curves have the potential to be employed in global monitoring or modelling of reservoirs storage and area variations.

  17. SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE MID-IR LIGHT CURVES OF NEPTUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Sciences and Astrobiology Division, MS245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simon, Amy A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division (690.0), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wong, Michael H. [University of California, Department of Astronomy, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2016 February to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17 hr duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 μ m and 0.6 mag at 4.5 μ m. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18 hr light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 μ m) and W2 (4.6 μ m) from the Wide-feld Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )/ NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010–2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler / K 2 in the visible (amplitude ∼0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude ∼0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in Neptune’s atmosphere than for K 2. Methane gas is the dominant opacity source in Neptune’s atmosphere, and methane absorption bands are present in the HST 763 and 845 nm, WISE W1, and Spitzer 3.6 μ m filters.

  18. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2012-06-01

    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  19. Digital Level Layers for Digital Curve Decomposition and Vectorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Provot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present Digital Level Layers and show the motivations for working with such analytical primitives in the framework of Digital Geometry. We first compare their properties to morphological and topological counterparts, and then we explain how to recognize them and use them to decompose or vectorize digital curves and contours.

  20. Melting-curve extrema from a repulsive ''step'' potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.A.; Alder, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations in two dimensions for particles interacting with a repulsive ''step'' potential show melting-curve maxima and minima as well as solid-solid phase transitions. These features are similar to those observed in the phase diagram of cesium and cerium

  1. The 1.4 GHZ light curve of GRB 970508

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, TJ; Wijers, RAMJ; Groot, PJ; Strom, RG; De Bruyn, AG; Kouveliotou, C; Robinson, CR; van Paradus, J

    1998-01-01

    We report on Westerbork 1.4 GHz radio observations of the radio counterpart to gamma-ray burst GRB 970508, between 0.80 and 138 days after this event. The 1.4 GHz light curve shows a transition from optically thick to thin emission between 39 and 54 days after the event. We derive the slope p of the

  2. Hugoniot curve of vitreous silica and crystallisation under shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viard, Jean

    1959-01-01

    The Hugoniot curve of vitreous silica shows a discontinuity of slope towards 135 kb, a sign of the passage, from the vitreous state to a crystalline structure in the shock wave. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 820-822, sitting of 10 August 1959 [fr

  3. Numerical investigation of Dean vortices in a curved pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A.; Bosioc, A.; Stanciu, R.; Bernad, E. S.

    2013-10-01

    This study is devoted to the three-dimensional numerical simulation of developing secondary flows of Newtonian fluid through a curved circular duct. The numerical simulations produced for different Dean numbers show clearly the presence of two steady Dean vortices. Therefore, results confirm that helical flow constitutes an important flow signature in vessels, and its strength as a fluid dynamic index.

  4. Boiling and burnout phenomena under transient heat input, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigebumi; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Hideaki.

    1976-01-01

    In order to simulate the thermo-hydrodynamic conditions at reactor power excursions, a test piece was placed in a forced convective channel and heated with exponential power inputs. The boiling heat transfer and the burnout heat flux under the transient heat input were measured, and pressure and water temperature changes in the test section were recorded at the same time. Following experimental results were obtained; (1) Transient boiling heat transfer characteristics at high heat flux stayed on the stationary nucleate boiling curve of each flow condition, or extrapolated line of the curves. (2) Transient burnout heat flux increased remarkably with decreasing heating-time-constant, when the flow rate was lower and the subcooling was higher. (3) Transient burnout phenomena were expressed with the relation of (q sub(max) - q sub(sBO)) tau = constant at several flow conditions. This relation was derived from the stationary burnout mechanism of pool boiling. (auth.)

  5. Theoretical study of a melting curve for tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xi; Ling-Cang, Cai

    2009-01-01

    The melting curve of Sn has been calculated using the dislocation-mediated melting model with the 'zone-linking method'. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. According to our calculation, the melting temperature of γ-Sn at zero pressure is about 436 K obtained by the extrapolation of the method from the triple point of Sn. The results show that this calculation method is better than other theoretical methods for predicting the melting curve of polymorphic material Sn. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  6. The Cyclic Stress-Strain Curve of Polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Rasmussen, K. V.; Winter, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    The internal stresses implied by the Sachs model are estimated for individual PSBs at low plastic strain amplitudes and for homogeneously sheared grains at higher plastic strain amplitudes. The analysis shows that the Sachs model can account semi-quantitatively for experimentally measured cyclic...... stress-strain curves for copper. A similar approximative analysis of the Taylor model cannot account for the data. An interesting feature of the Sachs model is that, although it is assumed that the flow condition is entirely controlled by the PSBs. the predicted cyclic stress-strain curve displays...

  7. Fractures on curved surfaces: A classic problem solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-11-01

    Sheeting joints—large fractures parallel to a curved rock surface—are common in many locations on Earth, such as the iconic Half Dome in Yosemite National Park in California. Explaining how these fractures form has been a classic unsolved problem in geology. Martel solved the problem by reformulating the static equilibrium equations in a curvilinear reference frame. His analysis shows that compression along a curved surface can induce tension perpendicular to the surface, which can cause subsurface cracks to open. He found that the curvature of a rock surface plays a key role in the formation of fractures.

  8. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...

  9. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L; Kypreos, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  10. Fermionic fields on ZN-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadsky, M.; Radul, A.

    1988-01-01

    The line bundles of degree g-1 on Z N -curves corresponding to 1/N nonsingular characteristics are considered. The determinants of Dirac operators defined on these line bundles are evaluated in terms of branch points. The generalization of Thomae's formula for Z N -curves is derived. (orig.)

  11. A minicourse on moduli of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looijenga, E.

    2000-01-01

    These are notes that accompany a short course given at the School on Algebraic Geometry 1999 at the ICTP, Trieste. A major goal is to outline various approaches to moduli spaces of curves. In the last part I discuss the algebraic classes that naturally live on these spaces; these can be thought of as the characteristic classes for bundles of curves. (author)

  12. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal

  13. Symmetry Properties of Potentiometric Titration Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates how the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. Discusses the symmetry properties of several typical titration curves, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment. (Author/JM)

  14. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach is to d...

  15. Hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces ‘hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography’, in which a single high-security group supports fast genus-2-hyperelliptic-curve formulas for variable-base-point single-scalar multiplication (for example, Diffie–Hellman shared-secret computation) and at the same time supports fast

  16. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  17. Magnetic properties of heat treated bacterial ferrihydrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaev, D.A.; Krasikov, A.A.; Dubrovskiy, A.A.; Popkov, S.I.; Stolyar, S.V.; Bayukov, O.A.; Iskhakov, R.S.; Ladygina, V.P.; Yaroslavtsev, R.N.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties of ferrihydrite nanoparticles, which are products of vital functions of Klebsiella oxitoca bacteria, have been studied. The initial powder containing the nanoparticles in an organic shell was subjected to low-temperature (T=160 °C) heat treatment for up to 240 h. The bacterial ferrihydrite particles exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior. Their characteristic blocking temperature increases from 26 to 80 K with the heat treatment. Analysis of the magnetization curves with regard to the magnetic moment distribution function and antiferromagnetic contribution shows that the low-temperature heat treatment enhances the average magnetic moment of a particle; i.e., the nanoparticles coarsen, probably due to their partial agglomeration during heat treatment. It was established that the blocking temperature nonlinearly depends on the particle volume. Therefore, a model was proposed that takes into account both the bulk and surface magnetic anisotropy. Using this model, the bulk and surface magnetic anisotropy constants K V ≈1.7×10 5 erg/cm 3 and K S ≈0.055 erg/cm 2 have been determined. The effect of the surface magnetic anisotropy of ferrihydrite nanoparticles on the observed magnetic hysteresis loops is discussed. - Highlights: • Ferrihydrite nanoparticles of biogenic origin are obtained. • Magnetic characterization reveals superparamagnetic behavior. • The blocking temperature increases upon the low-temperature (T=160 °C) heat treatment. • The blocking temperature nonlinearly depends on the particle volume. • The bulk and surface magnetic anisotropy constants have been determined.

  18. The thermoluminescent curve as parameter to compare archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez R, I.R.; Ramirez C, G.A.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Mendoza A, D.; Martinez C, G.

    2006-01-01

    Most mineral materials, including the constituents of pottery, have the property of thermoluminescence (TL), where part of the energy from radioactive decay in the mineral is stored and later released as light upon strong heating. The intensity of emitted light as a function of temperature is the thermoluminescence glow curve. However, it is well-know the thermoluminescence glow curve form depends of several factors associates with the incident radiation and type of materials. Between the factors associated with the materials, it can be mentioned the quantity and type of crystalline phases, and quantity and type of impurities that they could be present in the material. That is to say, materials with different physicochemical characteristics will produce different thermoluminescence glow curve, although, they have been irradiated under the same conditions. In accordance with the above mentioned, it is possible to identified differences between pre hispanic ceramic belonging to a same site and other sites. In this work a discussion about advantages and disadvantages is presented. Some specific examples in ceramic artifacts belonging to the Matlatzinca and Teotihuacan cultures are included. (Author)

  19. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  20. LONG DURATION FLARE EMISSION: IMPULSIVE HEATING OR GRADUAL HEATING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    Flare emissions in X-ray and EUV wavelengths have previously been modeled as the plasma response to impulsive heating from magnetic reconnection. Some flares exhibit gradually evolving X-ray and EUV light curves, which are believed to result from superposition of an extended sequence of impulsive heating events occurring in different adjacent loops or even unresolved threads within each loop. In this paper, we apply this approach to a long duration two-ribbon flare SOL2011-09-13T22 observed by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly (AIA). We find that to reconcile with observed signatures of flare emission in multiple EUV wavelengths, each thread should be heated in two phases, an intense impulsive heating followed by a gradual, low-rate heating tail that is attenuated over 20–30 minutes. Each AIA resolved single loop may be composed of several such threads. The two-phase heating scenario is supported by modeling with both a zero-dimensional and a 1D hydrodynamic code. We discuss viable physical mechanisms for the two-phase heating in a post-reconnection thread.

  1. Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in air-heating collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattox, D. L.

    1979-06-01

    The present research effort was initiated for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of air heating solar collectors through identification and development of optimum design and operation criteria for solar absorber-to-air heat exchangers. Initially this effort took the form of a solar collector systems analysis to evaluate the impact of various techniques for enhancing the heat transfer between the absorber and air stream on overall thermal performance of the entire solar collector. This systems analysis resulted in the selection of solar collector designs providing ducted cooling air on the absorber shaded side as a base line. A transient heat transfer analysis of a complete solar air heating collector was used to demonstrate that an optimum absorber-to-air heat exchanger design could be provided with several interrupted fin configurations. Additional analyses were performed to establish that the maximum solar collector thermal performance to required pumping power was realized for a Reynolds number range of 1000 to 2000. This Reynolds number range was used to establish a theoretical design limit curve for maximum thermal performance versus required pumping power for all interrupted fin designs as published in the open literature. Heat and momentum transfer empirical relationships were defined for scaling the state-of-the-art high conductance fin designs identified from a compact configuration to the less compact designs needed for solar collectors.

  2. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  3. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  4. Eliminating line of sight in elliptic guides using gravitational curving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleno, Kaspar H.; Willendrup, Peter K.; Knudsen, Erik; Lefmann, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Eliminating fast neutrons (λ<0.5A) by removing direct line of sight between the source and the target sample is a well established technique. This can be done with little loss of transmission for a straight neutron guide by horizontal curving. With an elliptic guide shape, however, curving the guide would result in a breakdown of the geometrical focusing mechanism inherent to the elliptical shape, resulting in unwanted reflections and loss of transmission. We present a new and yet untried idea by curving a guide in such a way as to follow the ballistic curve of a neutron in the gravitational field, while still retaining the elliptic shape seen from the accelerated reference frame of the neutron. Analytical calculations and ray-tracing simulations show that this method is useful for cold neutrons at guide lengths in excess of 100 m. We will present some of the latest results for guide optimization relevant for instrument design at the ESS, in particular an off-backscattering spectrometer which utilizes the gravitational curving, for 6.66 A neutrons over a guide length of 300 m.

  5. Characterizing time series via complexity-entropy curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Jauregui, Max; Zunino, Luciano; Lenzi, Ervin K.

    2017-06-01

    The search for patterns in time series is a very common task when dealing with complex systems. This is usually accomplished by employing a complexity measure such as entropies and fractal dimensions. However, such measures usually only capture a single aspect of the system dynamics. Here, we propose a family of complexity measures for time series based on a generalization of the complexity-entropy causality plane. By replacing the Shannon entropy by a monoparametric entropy (Tsallis q entropy) and after considering the proper generalization of the statistical complexity (q complexity), we build up a parametric curve (the q -complexity-entropy curve) that is used for characterizing and classifying time series. Based on simple exact results and numerical simulations of stochastic processes, we show that these curves can distinguish among different long-range, short-range, and oscillating correlated behaviors. Also, we verify that simulated chaotic and stochastic time series can be distinguished based on whether these curves are open or closed. We further test this technique in experimental scenarios related to chaotic laser intensity, stock price, sunspot, and geomagnetic dynamics, confirming its usefulness. Finally, we prove that these curves enhance the automatic classification of time series with long-range correlations and interbeat intervals of healthy subjects and patients with heart disease.

  6. Learning curve for intracranial angioplasty and stenting in single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiankun; Li, Yongkun; Xu, Gelin; Sun, Wen; Xiong, Yunyun; Sun, Wenshan; Bao, Yuanfei; Huang, Xianjun; Zhang, Yao; Zhou, Lulu; Zhu, Wusheng; Liu, Xinfeng

    2014-01-01

    To identify the specific caseload to overcome learning curve effect based on data from consecutive patients treated with Intracranial Angioplasty and Stenting (IAS) in our center. The Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke and Intracranial Stenosis trial was prematurely terminated owing to the high rate of periprocedural complications in the endovascular arm. To date, there are no data available for determining the essential caseload sufficient to overcome the learning effect and perform IAS with an acceptable level of complications. Between March 2004 and May 2012, 188 consecutive patients with 194 lesions who underwent IAS were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome variables used to assess the learning curve were periprocedural complications (included transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, vessel rupture, cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome, and vessel perforation). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to illustrate the existence of learning curve effect on IAS. A risk-adjusted cumulative sum chart was performed to identify the specific caseload to overcome learning curve effect. The overall rate of 30-days periprocedural complications was 12.4% (24/194). After adjusting for case-mix, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that operator experience was an independent predictor for periprocedural complications. The learning curve of IAS to overcome complications in a risk-adjusted manner was 21 cases. Operator's level of experience significantly affected the outcome of IAS. Moreover, we observed that the amount of experience sufficient for performing IAS in our center was 21 cases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The hidden X-ray breaks in afterglow light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Horst, A. J. van der; Starling, R. L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared to the BeppoSAX, or pre-Swift era. Specifically, relatively few breaks, consistent with jet breaks, are observed in the X-ray light curves of these bursts. If these breaks are truly missing, it has serious consequences for the interpretation of GRB jet collimation and energy requirements, and the use of GRBs as standard candles.Here we address the issue of X-ray breaks which are possibly 'hidden' and hence the light curves are misinterpreted as being single power-laws. We show how a number of precedents, including GRB 990510 and GRB 060206, exist for such hidden breaks and how, even with the well sampled light curves of the Swift era, these breaks may be left misidentified. We do so by synthesising X-ray light curves and finding general trends via Monte Carlo analysis. Furthermore, in light of these simulations, we discuss how to best identify achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves via multi-wavelength analysis

  8. Seismic Fragility Curves of Industrial Buildings by Using Nonlinear Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nazri Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the steel fragility curves and performance curves of industrial buildings of different geometries. The fragility curves were obtained for different building geometries, and the performance curves were developed based on lateral load, which is affected by the geometry of the building. Three records of far-field ground motion were used for incremental dynamic analysis (IDA, and the design lateral loads for pushover analysis (POA. All designs were based on British Standard (BS 5950; however, Eurocode 8 was preferred for seismic consideration in the analysis because BS 5950 does not specify any seismic provision. The five levels of performance stated by FEMA-273, namely, operational phase, immediate occupancy, damage control, life safety, and collapse prevention (CP were used as main guidelines for evaluating structural performance. For POA, Model 2 had highest base shear, followed by Model 1 and Model 3, even though Model 2 has a smaller structure compared with Model 3. Meanwhile, the fragility curves showed that the probability of reaching or exceeding the CP level of Model 2 is the highest, followed by that of Models 1 and 3.

  9. Shaping the learning curve: epigenetic dynamics in neural plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohar Ziv Bronfman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A key characteristic of learning and neural plasticity is state-dependent acquisition dynamics reflected by the non-linear learning curve that links increase in learning with practice. Here we propose that the manner by which epigenetic states of individual cells change during learning contributes to the shape of the neural and behavioral learning curve. We base our suggestion on recent studies showing that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and RNA-mediated gene regulation are intimately involved in the establishment and maintenance of long-term neural plasticity, reflecting specific learning-histories and influencing future learning. Our model, which is the first to suggest a dynamic molecular account of the shape of the learning curve, leads to several testable predictions regarding the link between epigenetic dynamics at the promoter, gene-network and neural-network levels. This perspective opens up new avenues for therapeutic interventions in neurological pathologies.

  10. Use of universal functional optimisation for TL glow curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Linh, H.Q.

    1996-01-01

    The effective use of any TL instrument requires an efficient software package to be able to fulfil different tasks required by research and practical applications. One of the standard features of the package used at the NPI Prague is the application of the interactive modular system Universal Functional Optimisation (UFO) for glow curve deconvolution. The whole system has been tested on standard glow curves using different models of the TL process (a single peak described by the Podgorsak approximation, first order kinetics and/or general order kinetics). Calculated values of basic TL parameters (E and s) show a good agreement with the results obtained by other authors. The main advantage of the system is in its modularity that enables flexible changes in the TL model and mathematical procedures of the glow curve analysis. (author)

  11. Finite element method for radiation heat transfer in multi-dimensional graded index medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Zhang, L.; Tan, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In graded index medium, ray goes along a curved path determined by Fermat principle, and curved ray-tracing is very difficult and complex. To avoid the complicated and time-consuming computation of curved ray trajectories, a finite element method based on discrete ordinate equation is developed to solve the radiative transfer problem in a multi-dimensional semitransparent graded index medium. Two particular test problems of radiative transfer are taken as examples to verify this finite element method. The predicted dimensionless net radiative heat fluxes are determined by the proposed method and compared with the results obtained by finite volume method. The results show that the finite element method presented in this paper has a good accuracy in solving the multi-dimensional radiative transfer problem in semitransparent graded index medium

  12. Folding of non-Euclidean curved shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, Nakul; Evans, Arthur; Innes-Gold, Sarah; Marin, Luis; Cohen, Itai; Santangelo, Christian; Hayward, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Origami-based folding of 2D sheets has been of recent interest for a variety of applications ranging from deployable structures to self-folding robots. Though folding of planar sheets follows well-established principles, folding of curved shells involves an added level of complexity due to the inherent influence of curvature on mechanics. In this study, we use principles from differential geometry and thin shell mechanics to establish fundamental rules that govern folding of prototypical creased shells. In particular, we show how the normal curvature of a crease line controls whether the deformation is smooth or discontinuous, and investigate the influence of shell thickness and boundary conditions. We show that snap-folding of shells provides a route to rapid actuation on time-scales dictated by the speed of sound. The simple geometric design principles developed can be applied at any length-scale, offering potential for bio-inspired soft actuators for tunable optics, microfluidics, and robotics. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation through EFRI ODISSEI-1240441 with additional support to S.I.-G. through the UMass MRSEC DMR-0820506 REU program.

  13. Investigating the energy-environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzati, T.; Orsini, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Facolta di Economia, Universita di Pisa. Via Ridolfi 10, I-56124 PISA (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between absolute energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for 113 countries over the period 1971-2004. Energy has been scarcely explored in the Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) debate and is taken as the indicator of overall environmental pressure. The following aspects of this work are rather innovative. Firstly, in order to closely adhere to the EKC narratives, the indicator of environmental pressure (energy) is taken in absolute terms rather than per capita. Secondly, we look for consistency both between different econometric techniques (parametric and semi-parametric) and across different analytical levels (world, time series/cross-countries, and single countries). Finally, the dataset is large and not limited to developed countries. In our opinion, the estimates cannot support an energy-EKC hypothesis. For the world as a single unit, the relationship is positive monotone, with a lower (though still positive) elasticity after 1989. A glance at single country level does not reveal evidence of EKC. Cross-country analysis is slightly more open to interpretation; in any case, however, it shows that the potential benefits of GDP growth on natural environment, if any, did not show up in the considered time span. (author)

  14. Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouxenidis, D; Polymeris, G S; Tsirliganis, N C; Kitis, G

    2012-05-01

    This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the GLOw Curve ANalysis INtercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters.

  15. Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afouxenidis, D.; Polymeris, G. S.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Kitis, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the Glow Curve Analysis Intercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters. (authors)

  16. Interferometric measurement and numerical comparisons of supersonic heat transfer flows in microchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yuya; Chen, Lin; Okajima, Junnosuke; Iga, Yuka; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effective cooling design by super-/sub-sonic air flow in microchannels is proposed. • Microscale supersonic flows is successfully generated and examined. • Microchannel flow density field were visualized quantitatively by interferometer. • The bump design shows great potential of heat transfer enhancement in microscale. - Abstract: With the fast development of electronic systems and the ever-increasing demand of thermally “smart” design in space and aeronautic engineering, the heat transfer innovations and high heat flux challenges have become a hot topic for decades. This study is aimed at the effective cooling heat transfer design by super-/sub-sonic air flow in microscale channels for high heat flux devices. The design is based on the low temperature flows with supersonic expansion in microscale, which yields a compact and simple design. By careful microelectromechanical process, microscale straight and bumped channels (with simple arc curve) are fabricated and experimentally tested in this study. The microscale flow field and density distributions under new designs are visualized quantitatively by an advanced phase-shifting interferometer system, which results are then compared carefully with numerical simulations. In this study, large differences between the two designs in density distribution and temperature changes (around 50 K) are found. The high heat flux potential for supersonic microchannel flows is realized and discussion into detail. It is confirmed that the bump design contributes significantly to the heat transfer enhancement, which shows potential for future application in novel system designs.

  17. On the development of a grid-enhanced single-phase convective heat transfer correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Cheung, F.B.; Bajorek, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new single-phase convective heat transfer augmentation correlation has been developed using single phase steam cooling experimental data obtained from the Penn State/NRC Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) facility. Experimental data obtained from the RBHT single phase steam cooling tests have been evaluated and new findings identified. Previous rod bundle tests showed the importance of spacer grid on the local heat transfer, and that the augmentation in heat transfer downstream of a grid decays exponentially. The RBHT data also shows that the Reynolds number affects the rate at which this augmentation decays. The new correlation includes the strong dependence of heat transfer on both the Reynolds number and the grid blockage ratio. While the effects of both parameters were clearly evident in the RBHT experimental data, existing correlations do not account for the Reynolds number effect. The developed correlation incorporates Reynolds number in the decay curve of heat transfer. The newly developed correlation adequately accounts for the dependence of the heat transfer augmentation decay rate on the local flow Reynolds number. (author)

  18. Eddy current testing device for metallic tubes at least locally curved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, Marcel; Vienot, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    Steam generators, condensers and heat exchangers generally consist of metallic tube bundles, the tubes having a complex geometry. The invention concerns an Eddy current testing device for metallic tubes at least locally curved, operating by translation of a probe inside the tubes [fr

  19. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  20. Surveying the nuclear caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Siwed, A.; Peter, J.; Gulminelli, F.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Laforest, R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Rosato, E.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Bacri, O.; Borderie, B.; Dore, D.; Lukasik, J.; Ouatizerga, A.; Parlog, M.; Plagnol, E.; Rivet, M.F.; Squalli, M.; Tassan-Got, L.; Eudes, P.; Gourio, D.; Laville, J.L.; Metivier, V.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.

    1996-01-01

    The 4π array INDRA was used to detect nearly all charged products emitted in Ar + Ni collisions between 52 and 95 MeV/u. The charge, mass and excitation energy E * of the quasi-projectiles have been reconstructed event by event. Excitation energies up to 25 MeV per nucleon are reached. Apparent temperatures obtained from several double isotopic yield ratios Tr 0 show different dependences upon E * . T 0 6 Li 7 Li- 3 Heα yields the highest values, as well as the high energy slopes Ts of the kinetic spectra. Two statistical models, sequential evaporation and gas in complete equilibrium, taking into account side feeding and discrete excited states population, show that the data can be explained by a steady increase of the initial temperature with excitation energy without evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition. (authors)

  1. Parametric investigation on transient boiling heat transfer of metal rod cooled rapidly in water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi Young [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, Pukyong National University, 45, Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunwoo, E-mail: swkim@alaska.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P. O. Box 755905, Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation are examined. • Liquid subcooling affects remarkably the quenching phenomena. • Cr-coated surfaces for ATF might extend the quenching duration. • Solids with low heat capacity shorten the quenching duration. • Surface oxidation can affect strongly the film boiling heat transfer and MFB point. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation on transient pool boiling heat transfer were investigated experimentally using the vertical metal rod and quenching method. The change in rod temperature was measured with time during quenching, and the visualization of boiling around the test specimen was performed using the high-speed video camera. As the test materials, the zircaloy (Zry), stainless steel (SS), niobium (Nb), and copper (Cu) were tested. In addition, the chromium-coated niobium (Cr-Nb) and chromium-coated stainless steel (Cr-SS) were prepared for accident tolerant fuel (ATF) application. Low liquid subcooling and Cr-coating shifted the quenching curve to the right, which indicates a prolongation of quenching duration. On the other hand, the material with small heat capacity and surface oxidation caused the quenching curve to move to the left. To examine the influence of the material property and surface oxidation on the film boiling heat transfer performance and minimum film boiling (MFB) point in more detail, the wall temperature and heat flux were calculated from the present transient temperature profile using the inverse heat transfer analysis, and then the curves of wall temperature and heat flux in the film boiling regime were obtained. In the present experimental conditions, the effect of material property on the film boiling heat transfer performance and MFB point seemed to be minor. On the other hand, based on the experimental results of the Cu test specimen, the surface

  2. A versatile curve-fit model for linear to deeply concave rank abundance curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    A new, flexible curve-fit model for linear to concave rank abundance curves was conceptualized and validated using observational data. The model links the geometric-series model and log-series model and can also fit deeply concave rank abundance curves. The model is based ¿ in an unconventional way

  3. Linking pinch analysis and bridge analysis to save energy by heat-exchanger network retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhivers, Jean-Christophe; Moussavi, Alireza; Alva-Argaez, Alberto; Stuart, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flow rate of cascaded heat in exchangers is presented between composite curves. • Reducing energy consumption implies decreasing the flow rate of cascaded heat. • Removing cross-pinch transfers is not necessary to reduce energy consumption. • Bridge modifications are necessary to reduce energy consumption. • Bridge modifications are evaluated on the Heat Exchanger Load Diagram. - Abstract: Reduction of energy requirements in the process industries results in increased profitability and better environmental performance. Methods for heat exchanger network (HEN) retrofit are based on thermodynamic analysis and insights, numerical optimization, or combined approaches. Numerical optimization-based methods are highly complex and may not guarantee identification of the global optimum. Pinch analysis, which is an approach based on thermodynamic analysis and composite curves, is the most widely used in the industry. Its simplicity, the use of graphical tools, and the possibility for the user to interact at each step of the design process help identify solutions with consideration of practical feasibility. In the last few years, bridge analysis has been developed for HEN retrofit. It includes the following tools: (a) the definition of the necessary conditions to reduce energy consumption which are expressed in the bridge formulation, (b) a method for enumerating the bridges, (c) the representation of the flow rate of cascaded heat through each existing exchanger on the energy transfer diagram (ETD), and (4) the use of the Heat Exchanger Load Diagram (HELD) to identify a suitable HEN configuration corresponding to modifications. It has been shown that reducing energy consumption implies decreasing the flow rate of cascaded heat through the existing exchangers across the entire temperature range between the hot and cold utilities. The ETD shows all possibilities to reduce the flow rate of cascaded heat through a HEN. The objective of this paper is

  4. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  5. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  6. Heat transfer analysis of short helical borehole heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vertical ground heat exchanger with a helical shaped pipe is analyzed. ► The model considers the interaction between the ground and the environment. ► The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental values. ► The weather conditions considerably affect the fluid heat carrier temperature. ► The pitch between the turns does not affect the behaviour of the heat exchanger. -- Abstract: In this paper a numerical model to analyze the thermal behaviour of vertical ground heat exchangers with a helical shaped pipe is presented. This type of configuration can be a suitable alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers, especially when the heating and cooling loads of the building are very low. The model describes the heat transfer problem by means of a network of interconnected thermal resistances and capacitances. Moreover, as the investigated ground heat exchanger is usually installed in shallow depth, the model takes into account the interaction between the ground and the ambient environment which affects the fluid heat carrier temperature into the heat exchanger and, as a consequence, the energy efficiency of the heat pump. After a sensitivity analysis on the mesh parameters, the presented model is compared with experimental data and the simulation results show good agreement with the measurements. Finally, analyses to investigate the influence of the weather conditions, of the axial heat transfer and of the pitch between the turns of the helical pipe for two types of ground are carried out.

  7. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  8. Selection of Rational Heat Transfer Intensifiers in the Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the applicability of different types of heat transfer intensifiers in the heat exchange equipment. A review of the experimental and numerical works devoted to the intensification of the dimpled surface, surfaces with pins and internally ribbed surface were presented and data on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of these surfaces were given. We obtained variation of thermal-hydraulic efficiency criteria for 4 different objective functions and 15 options for the intensification of heat transfer. This makes it possible to evaluate the advantages of the various heat transfer intensifiers. These equations show influence of thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the heat transfer intensifiers (the values of the relative heat transfer and drag coefficients on the basic parameters of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger: the number and length of the tubes, the volume of the heat exchanger matrix, the coolant velocity in the heat exchanger matrix, coolant flow rate, power to pump coolant (or pressure drop, the amount of heat transferred, as well as the average logarithmic temperature difference. The paper gives an example to compare two promising heat transfer intensifiers in the tubes and shows that choosing the required efficiency criterion to search for optimal heat exchanger geometry is of importance. Analysis is performed to show that a dimpled surface will improve the effectiveness of the heat exchanger despite the relatively small value of the heat transfer intensification, while a significant increase in drag of other heat transfer enhancers negatively affects their thermalhydraulic efficiency. For example, when comparing the target functions of reducing the heat exchanger volume, the data suggest that application of dimpled surfaces in various fields of technology is possible. But there are also certain surfaces that can reduce the parameters of a heat exchanger. It is shown that further work development should be aimed at

  9. Study on the algorithm for Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation of NURBS curve and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-04-01

    In order to solve the problems of Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation method of NURBS Curve, Such as interpolation time bigger, calculation more complicated, and NURBS curve step error are not easy changed and so on. This paper proposed a study on the algorithm for Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation method of NURBS curve and simulation. We can use Newton-Rapson iterative that calculate (xi, yi, zi). Simulation results show that the proposed NURBS curve interpolator meet the high-speed and high-accuracy interpolation requirements of CNC systems. The interpolation of NURBS curve should be finished. The simulation results show that the algorithm is correct; it is consistent with a NURBS curve interpolation requirements.

  10. Modelling curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloninko K.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors research the issue of functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. Settlement of the problem, and its connection with important scientific and practical tasks. According to its nature, the market economy is unstable and is in constant movement. Economy has an effective instrument for explanation of changes in economic environment; this tool is called the modelling of economic processes. The modelling of economic processes depends first and foremost on the building of economic model which is the base for the formalization of economic process, that is, the building of mathematical model. The effective means for formalization of economic process is the creation of the model of hypothetic or imaginary economy. The building of demand model is significant for the market of goods and services. The problem includes the receiving (as the result of modelling definite functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand according to which one can determine their mathematical model. Another problem lies in obtaining majorant properties of curves of joint demand on the market of goods and services. Analysis of the latest researches and publications. Many domestic and foreign scientists dedicated their studies to the researches and building of the models of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. In spite of considerable work of the scientists, such problems as functional properties of the curves and their practical use in modelling. The purpose of the article is to describe functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand on the market of goods and services on the base of modelling of their building. Scientific novelty and practical value. The theoretical regulations (for functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand received as a result of the present research, that is convexity, give extra practical possibilities in a microeconomic

  11. Reflected Light Curves of Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.; Matthews, J.; Kuschnig, R.; Seager, S.

    The planned launches of ultra-precise photometric satellites such as MOST, COROT and MONS should provide the first opportunity to study the reflected light curves from extrasolar planets. To predict the capabilities of these missions, we have constructed a series of models of such light curves, improving upon the Monte Carlo simulations by Seager et al. (2000). These models include more realistic features such limb darkening of the star and broad band photometry. For specific models, the resulting planet light curves exhibit unique behavior with the variation of radius, inclination and presence or absence of clouds.

  12. Morse theory on timelike and causal curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, J.; Talbot, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the set of timelike curves in a globally hyperbolic space-time manifold can be given the structure of a Hilbert manifold under a suitable definition of 'timelike.' The causal curves are the topological closure of this manifold. The Lorentzian energy (corresponding to Milnor's energy, except that the Lorentzian inner product is used) is shown to be a Morse function for the space of causal curves. A fixed end point index theorem is obtained in which a lower bound for the index of the Hessian of the Lorentzian energy is given in terms of the sum of the orders of the conjugate points between the end points. (author)

  13. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...... to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted...

  14. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Lemming, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted on the Nordic power exchange

  15. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  16. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    . The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  17. Passive solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, K

    1981-11-10

    The present work treats the possibilities for heating according to the passive solar heating method. Problems of 'spatial organization in an energy-saving society' are distinguished from among other social problems. The final delimination of the actual problems under investigation consists of the use of passive solar heating and especially the 'consequences of such solar heating exploitation upon the form and structures' of planning and construction. In the concluding chapter an applied example shows how this method can be used in designing an urban area and what are its limitations. The results indicate the possibilities and difficulties in attempting to transfer this ideal and general method into models and directives for form and structure from which examples of the actual possibilities in practical planning can be given.

  18. Radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...

  19. Heat and spin interconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji

    2017-01-01

    Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)

  20. Effect of the interaction among traps on the shape of thermoluminescence glow curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcazzo, J.; Santiago, M.; Spano, F.; Lester, M.; Ortega, F.; Molina, P.; Caselli, E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the interaction among traps on the structure of thermoluminescence glow curves has been investigated by generating numerically simulated glow curves for a wide range of trap parameters. The results reported in this paper provide useful insights which assist in the analysis of experimental glow curves. The most important result shows that it is incorrect to assume beforehand that each peak is related to a specific trapping state. The validity of the quasiequilibrium approximation is briefly discussed