WorldWideScience

Sample records for heat utilization system

  1. Fuel cell heat utilization system; Nenryo denchi netsuriyo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Omura, T. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-04

    In the conventional fuel cell heat utilization system, the waste heat is recovered to be utilized by either the waste heat recovery heat exchanger or the waste heat recovery steam. In the employment of the waste heat recovery heat exchanger system, however, the utility value is decreased when the temperature of the waste heat is lowered. Contrarily, in the employment of the waste heat recovery steam system, the supplementary water requirement is increased corresponding to the amount of waste heat recovery steam, resulting in the cost increase for water treatment. This invention solves the problem. In the invented fuel cell heat utilization system, a pressurized water from the steam separator is introduced into the second circuit to utilize directly the heat in the heat utilization system without employing the heat exchanger. If a blowdown valve is installed between the second circuit heat utilization system and the steam separator, the heat loss due to the blowdown can be reduced, since the low temperature water is blown down after being utilized in the heat utilization system. 4 figs.

  2. Operation strategy analysis of a geothermal step utilization heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guozhong; Li, Feng; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng; Li, Qianru; Zhu, Han

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal energy has been successfully applied in many district heating systems. In order to promote better use of geothermal energy, it is important to analyze the operation strategy of geothermal heating system. This study proposes a comprehensive and systematic operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system (GSUHS). Calculation models of radiator heating system (RHS), radiant floor heating system (RFHS), heat pump (HP), gas boiler (GB), plate heat exchanger (PHE) and pump are first established. Then the operation strategy of the GSUHS is analyzed with the aim to substantially reduce the conventional energy consumption of the whole system. Finally, the energy efficiency and geothermal tail water temperature are analyzed. With the operation strategy in this study, the geothermal energy provides the main heating amount for the system. The heating seasonal performance factor is 15.93. Compared with coal-fired heating, 75.1% of the standard coal equivalent can be saved. The results provide scientific guidance for the application of an operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system. -- Highlights: ► We establish calculation models for the geothermal step utilization heating system. ► We adopt minimal conventional energy consumption to determine the operation strategy. ► The geothermal energy dominates the heating quantity of the whole system. ► The utilization efficiency of the geothermal energy is high. ► The results provide guidance to conduct operation strategy for scientific operation.

  3. Evaluation of Excess Heat Utilization in District Heating Systems by Implementing Levelized Cost of Excess Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Doračić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available District heating plays a key role in achieving high primary energy savings and the reduction of the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This was recently recognized by the European Commission, which emphasizes the importance of these systems, especially when integrated with renewable energy sources, like solar, biomass, geothermal, etc. On the other hand, high amounts of heat are currently being wasted in the industry sector, which causes low energy efficiency of these processes. This excess heat can be utilized and transported to the final customer by a distribution network. The main goal of this research was to calculate the potential for excess heat utilization in district heating systems by implementing the levelized cost of excess heat method. Additionally, this paper proves the economic and environmental benefits of switching from individual heating solutions to a district heating system. This was done by using the QGIS software. The variation of different relevant parameters was taken into account in the sensitivity analysis. Therefore, the final result was the determination of the maximum potential distance of the excess heat source from the demand, for different available heat supplies, costs of pipes, and excess heat prices.

  4. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  5. Overview of HTGR heat utilization system development at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Shiozawa, S.; Ogawa, M.; Akino, N.; Shimizu, S.; Hada, K.; Inagaki, Y.; Onuki, K.; Takeda, T.; Nishihara, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has conducted research and development of nuclear heat utilization systems of a High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), which are capable to meet a large amount of energy demand without significant CO 2 emission to relax the global warming issue. The High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) with thermal output of 30 MW and outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg C, the first HTGR in Japan, is under construction on the JAERI site, and its first criticality is scheduled for mid-1998. After the reactor performance and safety demonstration tests for several years, a hydrogen production system will be connected to the HTTR. A demonstration program on hydrogen production started in January 1997, in JAERI, as a study consigned by the Science and Technology Agency. A hydrogen production system connected to the HTTR is designed to be able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas, using nuclear heat of 10 MW from the HTTR. The safety principle and standard are investigated for the HTTR hydrogen production system. In order to confirm safety, controllability and performance of key components in the HTTR hydrogen production system, an out-of-pile test facility on the scale of approximately 1/30 of the HTTR hydrogen production system is installed. It is equipped with an electric heater as a heat source instead of the HTTR. The out-of-pile test will be performed for four years after 2001. The HTTR hydrogen production system will be demonstratively operated after 2005 at its earliest plan. Other basic studies on the hydrogen production system using thermochemical water splitting, an iodine sulphur (IS) process, and technology of distant heat transport with microencapsulated phase change material have been carried out for more effective and various uses of nuclear heat. (author)

  6. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie [Palo Alto, CA; Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri

    2009-08-18

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  7. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  8. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  9. Improving the performance of district heating systems by utilization of local heat boosters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falcone, A.; Dominkovic, D. F.; Pedersen, A. S.

    was to evaluate the possibilities to lower the forward temperature of the heat supply in order to reduce the heat losses of the system. Booster heat pumps are introduced to increase the water temperature close to the final users. A Matlab model was developed to simulate the state of the case study DH network...... was set to minimize the system heat losses. * Corresponding author 0303-1 1 This goal was achieved by lowering the forward temperature to 40°C and relying on the installed heat pumps to boost the water temperature to the admissible value needed for the domestic hot water preparation. Depending......District Heating (DH) plays an important role into the Danish energy green transition towards the future sustainable energy systems. The new, 4 th generation district heating network, the so called Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH), tends to lower the supply temperature of the heat down to 40...

  10. Performance of ultra low temperature district heating systems with utility plant and booster heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The optimal integration of booster heat pumps in ultra low temperature district heating (ULTDH) was investigated and compared to the performance of low temperature district heating. Two possible heat production technologies for the DH networks were analysed, namely extraction combined heat...... temperature and the heat consumption profile. For reference conditions, the optimal return of ULTDH varies between 21 °C and 27 °C. When using a central HP to supply the DH system, the resulting coefficient of system performance (COSP) was in the range of 3.9 (-) to 4.7 (-) for equipment with realistic...... component efficiencies and effectiveness, when including the relevant parameters such as DH system pressure and heat losses. By using ULTDH with booster HPs, performance improvements of 12% for the reference calculations case were found, if the system was supplied by central HPs. Opposite results were found...

  11. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  12. Safety study on nuclear heat utilization system - accident delineation and assessment on nuclear steelmaking pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Mizuno, M.; Tsuruoka, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents accident delineation and assessment on a nuclear steelmaking pilot plant as an example of nuclear heat utilization systems. The reactor thermal energy from VHTR is transported to externally located chemical process plant employing helium-heated steam reformer by an intermediate heat transport loop. This paper on the nuclear steelmaking pilot plant will describe (1) system transients under accident conditions, (2) impact of explosion and fire on the nuclear reactor and the public and (3) radiation exposure on the public. The results presented in this paper will contribute considerably to understanding safety features of nuclear heat utilization system that employs the intermediate heat transport loop and the helium-heated steam reformer

  13. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  14. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewkowicz, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to `foster the exchange of scientific and technical information`, and `encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world`. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  15. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewkowicz, I.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to 'foster the exchange of scientific and technical information', and 'encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world'. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  16. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system. Joint research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2003-09-01

    Research of hydrogen energy has been performed in order to spread use of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in all of countries. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-either (DME) has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced by steam reforming hydrogen generation system by the use of nuclear heat. Therefore, the system would be one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. In the present study, we focused on the production of hydrogen and DME. Economic evaluation was estimated for hydrogen and DME production in commercial and nuclear heat utilization plant. At first, heat and mass balance of each process in commercial plant of hydrogen production was estimated and commercial prices of each process were derived. Then, price was estimated when nuclear heat was used instead of required heat of commercial plant. Results showed that the production prices produced by nuclear heat were cheaper by 10% for hydrogen and 3% for DME. With the consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release, utilization of nuclear heat would be more effective. (author)

  17. Increased system benefit from cogeneration due to cooperation between district heating utility and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danestig, M.; Henning, D. [Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoping Institute of Technology, Linkoping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    District heating and steam supply in the town Oernskoeldsvik in northern Sweden is in focus for this study. Low temperature waste heat from pulp manufacturing in the Donisjoe mill is now utilised for district heating production in heat pumps, which dominate district heating supply. Based on this traditional cooperation between the local district heating utility and the pulp industry, the parties discuss a partial outsourcing of the industrial steam supply to the utility, which may enable beneficial system solutions for both actors. The local utility must find a new location for a heating plant because a railway line is being built at the heat pump site. Planning for a new combined heat and power production (CHP) plant has started but its location is uncertain. If the plant can be situated close to the mill it can, besides district heating, produce steam, which can be supplied to adjacent industries. The municipality and its local utility are also considering investing in a waste incineration plant. But is waste incineration suitable for Ornskoeldsvik and how would it interact with cogeneration. Alternative cases have been evaluated with the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which minimises the cost for satisfying district heating and steam demand. The most profitable solution is to invest in a CHP plant and a waste incineration plant. Considering carbon dioxide emissions, the results from applying a local or a global perspective are remarkably different. In the latter case, generated electricity is assumed to replace power from coal condensing plants elsewhere in the North-European power grid. Therefore, minimum global CO{sub 2} emissions are achieved through maximal electricity production in a CHP plant. From this viewpoint, waste incineration should not be introduced because it would obstruct cogeneration. The study is carried out within the program Sustainable municipality run by the Swedish Energy Agency. (orig.)

  18. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in a two story office building at a utilities company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World, is described. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled water. Performance to date has equaled or exceeded design criteria.

  19. Device with Complex System for Heat Utilization and Reduction of Hazardous Air Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kascheeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concern heat utilization and reduction of hazardous emissions occurring in residential buildings and accompanying operation of a great number of industrial enterprises in particular heat and power objects, and firstly, heat-generating units of small power located in densely populated residential areas without centralized heat supply.The investigation target is to reduce cost of heat produced by independent system of building heat supply, reduction of air pollution  due to hazardous gas emissions and reduction of heat pollution of the environment as a result of building ventilation system operation, ventilation of their internal and external sewerage network and higher reliability of their operation.The target is achieved because the device with complex system for heat utilization and reduction of hazardous air emissions has additionally an assembly tank for mixing flue gases, ventilation emissions and atmospheric air, heat pump. Evaporation zone of the pump is a condensator of the gas mixture and its condensate zone contains a heat supply line for a heat consumer. The line is equipped with assembling  and distributing collectors, pipeline connecting the heat supply line with the system of direct and return delivery water from a boiler house, a separator for division of liquid and gaseous mixture phases, neutralizing devices for separate reduction of concentrations of hazardous and odorous substances being released in gaseous and liquid portions of the mixture, a pipeline for periodic supply of air with higher concentration of hazardous and odorous substances in the boiler furnace. The supplied air is obtained as a result of its passing through gas filters at their regeneration when their exchange capacity is exhausted.

  20. Hybrid compression/absorption type heat utilization system (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimata, T.; Susami, S.; Ogawa, Y. [Research and Development Dept., EBARA Corp., Kanagawa pref. (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This research is intended to develop a 'hybrid compression/absorption type heat utilization system' by combining an absorption process with a compression process in one circulation cycle. This system can produce chilling heat for ice thermal storage by utilizing low-temperature waste heat (lower than 100 C) which is impossible to treat with a conventional absorption chiller. It means that this system will be able to solve the problem of a timing mismatch between waste heat and heat demand. The working fluid used in this proposed system should be suitable for producing ice, be safe, and not damage the ozone layer. In this project, new working fluids were searched as substitutes for the existing H{sub 2}O/LiBr or NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O. The interim results of this project in 1997, a testing unit using NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O was built for demonstration of the system and evaluation of its characteristics, and R134a/E181 was found to be one of the good working fluid for this system. The COP (ratio of energy of ice produced to electric power provided) of this system using R134a/E181 is expected to achieve 5.5 by computer simulation. The testing unit with this working fluid was built recently and prepared for the tests to confirm the result of the simulation. (orig.)

  1. Study on Heat Utilization in an Attached Sunspace in a House with a Central Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical simulations, the heating load reduction effect of an attached sunspace in winter was determined, and the effective heat utilization method and sunspace design were explored. In this paper, we studied the heating load reduction effect using heat from the sunspace and temperature fluctuation of each room at the time of heat use from the sunspace (sending air from the sunspace to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC machine room and taking the air to the adjacent rooms. In the case of the all-day HVAC system, it was confirmed that a larger capacity of sunspace and not sending air from the sunspace to the adjacent room demonstrated a better heating-load reduction effect. Compared with Model Iw (a house with a window on the exterior of the sunspace opened to external air, Model I (a house with an attached sunspace on the second floor could save approximately 41% of the total energy. Model II (a house with the attached sunspace both on the first and second floors could save approximately 84% of the total energy. Sending heat from the sunspace to the adjacent room led to temperature increases in the adjacent rooms. However, if the construction plan is to have the sunspace only on the second floor, the house should be carefully designed, for example, by placing a living room on the second floor.

  2. Operational Performance Characterization of a Heat Pump System Utilizing Recycled Water as Heat Sink and Heat Source in a Cool and Dry Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piljae Im

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater leaving from homes and businesses contains abundant low-grade energy, which can be utilized through heat pump technology to heat and cool buildings. Although the energy in the wastewater has been successfully utilized to condition buildings in other countries, it is barely utilized in the United States, until recently. In 2013, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science at Denver, the United States implemented a unique heat pump system that utilizes recycled wastewater from a municipal water system to cool and heat its 13,000 m2 new addition. This recycled water heat pump (RWHP system uses seven 105 kW (cooling capacity modular water-to-water heat pumps (WWHPs. Each WWHP uses R-410A refrigerant, has two compressors, and can independently provide either 52 °C hot water (HW or 7 °C chilled water (CHW to the building. This paper presents performance characterization results of this RWHP system based on the measured data from December 2014 through August 2015. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was also calculated and compared with that of a baseline Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system which meets the minimum energy efficiencies that are allowed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013. The performance analysis results indicate that recycled water temperatures were favorable for effective operation of heat pumps. As a result, on an annual basis, the RWHP system avoided 50% of source energy consumption (resulting from reduction in natural gas consumption although electricity consumption was increased slightly, reduced CO2 emissions by 41%, and saved 34% in energy costs as compared with the baseline system.

  3. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2004-09-01

    Utilization and production of hydrogen has been studied in order to spread utilization of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in the world. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-ether (DME). has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced from natural gas by steam reforming. Therefore, the system would become one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. Following the study in 2002, we performed economic evaluation of the hydrogen and DME production by nuclear heat utilization plant where heat generated by HTGR is completely consumed for the production. The results show that hydrogen price produced by nuclear was about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by increase in recovery rate of high purity hydrogen with increased in PSA process. Price of DME in indirect method produced by nuclear heat was also about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by producing high purity hydrogen in the DME producing process. As for the DME, since price of DME produced near oil land in petroleum exporting countries is cheaper than production in Japan, production of DME by nuclear heat in Japan has disadvantage economically in this time. Trial study to estimate DME price produced by direct method was performed. From the present estimation, utilization of nuclear heat for the production of hydrogen would be more effective with coupled consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release. (author)

  4. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  5. Optimization of a dual-fuel heating system utilizing an EMS a maintain persistence of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, J.S.; Wolpert, S.B.; Martin, G.

    1993-01-01

    An older small office building was subjected to a program substituting gas for electric heat to reduce energy cost and improve comfort for approximately one year and was permanently instituted, with the installation of an energy management system (EMS) the following year. This paper will present a description of the facility, its usage patterns, and the measures taken to introduce the fuel-switching program. The impacts on energy usage and cost as well as comfort will also be reported. This program was initiated by a preliminary audit of the facility conducted by the service contractor in conjunction with the area gas wholesaler. During the audit it was observed that the heating set points for the gas-fired equipment was kept fairly low. This was the result of the desire to keep the cooling set point low and the use of auto-changeover thermostats. The result of this was that the system utilized the gas heat to come up to 68-70 degrees with the majority of the zones then relying on their electric heat to bring temperatures into the 73-75 degrees range. In addition to impacting energy costs, this approach generated numerous comfort complaints. As a further electric penalty, the low cooling set point resulted in a heavy reliance on electric heat (reheat) all summer. The basis of the proposed strategy was to reduce the heavy usage of electric heat by making the building comfortable through reliance more heavily on gas heat. This was tested by raising the heating set points for the RTUS. The success of this approach, along with the comfort considerations and the desire for further savings, led to the installation of an EMS. This allowed further refinements of the control strategy, which are briefly described. When completed, the fuel-switching led to an increase in annual gas costs of 125% with a corresponding decrease in electric cost of nearly 30% for an annual utility cost savings of over 19%

  6. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    This final report describes in detail the solar energy system installed in a new two-story office building at the Reedy Creek Utilities Company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World at Lake Buena Vista, Florida. The solar components were partly funded by the Department of Energy under Contract EX-76-C-01-2401, and the technical management was by NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The collector is a modular cylindrical concentrator type with an area of 3.840 square feet. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled. Design, construction, operation, cost, maintenance, and performance are described in depth. Detailed drawings are included.

  7. Minimizing temperature instability of heat recovery hot water system utilizing optimized thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suamir, I. N.; Sukadana, I. B. P.; Arsana, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    One energy-saving technology that starts gaining attractive for hotel industry application in Indonesia is the utilization of waste heat of a central air conditioning system to heat water for domestic hot water supply system. Implementing the technology for such application at a hotel was found that hot water capacity generated from the heat recovery system could satisfy domestic hot water demand of the hotel. The gas boilers installed in order to back up the system have never been used. The hot water supply, however, was found to be instable with hot water supply temperature fluctuated ranging from 45 °C to 62 °C. The temperature fluctuations reaches 17 °C, which is considered instable and can reduce hot water usage comfort level. This research is aimed to optimize the thermal energy storage in order to minimize the temperature instability of heat recovery hot water supply system. The research is a case study approach based on cooling and hot water demands of a hotel in Jakarta-Indonesia that has applied water cooled chillers with heat recovery systems. The hotel operation with 329 guest rooms and 8 function rooms showed that hot water production in the heat recovery system completed with 5 m3 thermal energy storage (TES) could not hold the hot water supply temperature constantly. The variations of the cooling demand and hot water demands day by day were identified. It was found that there was significant mismatched of available time (hours) between cooling demand which is directly correlated to the hot water production from the heat recovery system and hot water usage. The available TES system could not store heat rejected from the condenser of the chiller during cooling demand peak time between 14.00 and 18.00 hours. The extra heat from the heat recovery system consequently increases the temperature of hot water up to 62 °C. It is about 12 K above 50 °C the requirement hot water temperature of the hotel. In contrast, the TES could not deliver proper

  8. On the development of an innovative gas-fired heating appliance based on a zeolite-water adsorption heat pump; system description and seasonal gas utilization efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawoud, Belal

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to introduce an innovative hybrid heating appliance incorporating a gas condensing boiler and a zeolite-water adsorption heat pump. The condensing boiler is applied to drive the zeolite-water heat pump for the heating base-load and to assist the heat pump in the so called “mixed operation” mode, in which both the heat pump and the condensing boiler are working in series to cover medium heating demands. Peak heating demands are covered by the condensing boiler in the so called “direct heating” mode. The three operation modes of the hybrid heating appliance have been technically described. In addition, the laboratory test conditions for estimating the seasonal heating performance according to the German Guideline VDI 4650-2 have been introduced. For both heating systems 35/28 °C and 55/45 °C, which represent the typical operating conditions of floor and high temperature radiating heating systems in Europe, seasonal heating gas utilization efficiencies of 1.34 and 1.26 have been measured, respectively with a ground heat source. In two field test installations in one-family houses in Germany, the introduced heating appliance showed 27% more seasonal gas utilization efficiency for heating and domestic hot water production, which is equivalent to a CO 2 -emission reduction of 20% compared to the gas condensing boiler technology

  9. Thermal distillation system utilizing biomass energy burned in stove by means of heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermal distillation system utilizing a part of the thermal energy of biomass burned in a stove during cooking is proposed. The thermal energy is transported from the stove to the distiller by means of a heat pipe. The distiller is a vertical multiple-effect diffusion distiller, in which a number of parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks are set vertically with narrow gaps of air. A pilot experimental apparatus was constructed and tested with a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers to investigate primarily whether a heat pipe can transport thermal energy adequately from the stove to the distiller. It was found that the temperatures of the heated plate and the first partition of the distiller reached to about 100 °C and 90 °C, respectively, at steady state, showing that the heat pipe works sufficiently. The distilled water obtained was about 0.75 and 1.35 kg during the first 2 h of burning from a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers, respectively.

  10. Study on a heat recovery system for the thermal power plant utilizing air cooling island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Fu, Lin; Sun, Fangtian; Zhang, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    A new heat recovery system for CHP (combined heat and power) systems named HRU (heat recovery unit) is presented, which could recover the low grade heat of exhausted steam from the turbine at the thermal power plant directly. Heat recovery of exhausted steam is often accomplished by recovering the heat of cooling water in current systems. Therefore, two processes of heat transfer is needed at least. However, exhausted steam could be condensed in the evaporator of HRU directly, which reduce one process of heat transfer. A special evaporator is designed condense the exhausted steam directly. Simulated results are compared to experiments, which could include the calculation of heat transfer coefficients of different parts of HRU. It is found that about 25Mw of exhausted steam is recovered by this system. HRU could be promising for conventional CHP systems, which could increase the total energy efficiency obviously and enlarge the heating capacity of a built CHP system. - Highlights: • A new heat recovery system for thermal power plant is presented. • A mathematical model including heat transfer coefficients calculation is given. • This heat recovery system is experimented at a thermal power plant. • Performances of this system under different working conditions are simulated

  11. Development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, T.; Ito, M.; Katsube, I.; Shibuya, E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of municipal solid waste. The systematic classification and design guideline are proposed in consideration of the characteristics of solid waste processing system. The conceptual design of thermoelectric power generation system is carried out for a typical middle scale incinerator system (200 ton/day) by the local model. Totally the recovered electricity is 926.5 kWe by 445 units (569,600 couples). In order to achieve detailed design, one dimensional steady state model taking account of temperature dependency of the heat transfer performance and thermoelectric properties is developed. Moreover, small scale on-site experiment on 60 W class module installed in the real incinerator is carried out to extract various levels of technological problems. In parallel with the system development, high temperature thermoelectric elements such as Mn-Si and so on are developed aiming the optimization of ternary compound and high performance due to controlled fine-grain boundary effect. The manganese silicide made by shrinking-rate controlled sintering method performs 5 (μW/cm K2) in power factor at 800 K. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    The primary focus of this CRP was to perform detailed investigation of the high temperature industrial processes that are attainable through incorporation of an HTGR, and for their possible demonstration in the HTTR. The HTGR has the capability to achieve a core outlet temperature approaching 1,000 deg. C in a safe and effective manner. These attributes, coupled with the offer by JAERI to utilize the HTTR, resulted in the initiation of this CRP by the IAEA. High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) utilizes a 30 MW(th) HTGR comprised of 30 fuel columns of hexagonal pin-in-pin graphite block type fuel elements. The fuel consists of UO 2 TRISO coated particles with an enrichment of ∼ 6% wt. Relative to the demonstration of high temperature heat applications, the HTTR will be capable of producing 10 MW(th) of heat at 950 deg. C. However, the thermal power for these applications has the potential to be increased up to 30 MW(th) in the future, which may be required for demonstration of gas turbine system components. The HTTR reached initial criticality in November 1998. Initial operational plans includes a series of rise to power tests followed by tests to demonstrate the safety and operational characteristics of the HTTR. In addition to completion of the HTTR demonstration tests, it was recommended that the R and D be performed within the HTTR project. JAERI is encouraged to publicize the results of the HTTR tests and 'lessons learned' from their experiences including potential capabilities of the HTGR for heat applications. The next priority application was determined to be the generation of electricity through the use of the gas turbine. Application of the Brayton Cycle utilizing high temperature helium from a modular HTGR was chosen for development because of its projected benefits as an economic and efficient means for the production of electricity. Evaluation of the remaining high temperature heat utilization applications chosen for investigation resulted

  13. Some considerations on the utilization of thermal drainage for greenhouse heating by means of indirect heat exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yujiro; Aoki, Kiyoshi; Okano, Toshiaki

    1976-01-01

    The cost of maintaining the desirable temperature in winter is the principal element in the production of vegetables by greenhouse culture. Therefore very low heating cost and profitable operation are possible if the warm water from a condenser in a power plant is available as the heat source for greenhouse heating. In order to investigate the possibility of utilizing warm water discharge as the heat source for greenhouse heating, experiment was carried out with a miniature greenhouse equipped with the indirect heat exchanger with PVC pipes. The results obtained are summarized as follows. Under the conditions of the warm water discharge of 25 deg C and outside air temperature of -5 deg C, the average temperature and relative humidity in the greenhouse were about 10 deg C and 80%, respectively. From the experimentally obtained relationship between the heat transfer coefficient on the PVC pipe surfaces and the velocity of air passing through the pipes, the heat transfer coefficient at 8 m/sec air velocity was three times as much as that at 2 m/sec. From the theoretically obtained formula for calculating the number of pipes required for a greenhouse, it was determined that 72 PVC pipes of 10 cm diameter and 23 m long were required for a 23 x 25 m greenhouse to maintain 12 deg C inside under the before-described conditions. (Kako, I.)

  14. Efficiency of Passive Utilization of Ground “Cold” in Adaptive Geothermal Heat Pump Heating and Cooling Systems (AGHCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with estimating a potential and efficiency of utilization of passive ground “cold” for cooling buildings in climatic conditions of Moscow (Russia. The article presents results of numerical analysis to assess the efficiency of reducing peak cooling loads of the building equipped with AGHCS, through the utilization of natural cold of wells for passive cooling and cold storage in summer at night (off-peak time with its subsequent consumption in the day time, both in passive mode, and with heat pumps. The conclusions of the article set out the basic principles of passive cooling in the design of AGHCS.

  15. Progress and safety aspects in process heat utilization from nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1995-01-01

    Report about the Status and the Progress in the Various Programs and Projects in the Federal Republic of Germany in Process Heat Utilization from the High Temperature Reactor and on Recent Changes of the Atomic Law in the Federal Republic of Germany with Big Influence on the Safety of Nuclear Energy Technology. (author)

  16. Utilization of process energy from supermarket refrigeration systems. Coupling of cooling and heating; Prozessenergienutzung von Supermarktkaelteanlagen. Kaelte-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, Alexander [TEKO Gesellschaft fuer Kaeltetechnik mbH, Altenstadt (Germany). Technologie und Kommunikation

    2010-03-15

    The efficiency is defined as the relation between utility and expenditure. Thus, it is obvious for the specialist of refrigeration to tackle with the expenditure (energy consumption) since the utilization conventionally is defined as the produced/need cooling performance of a refrigeration plant. If refrigeration plants are regarded according to their function (withdrawal of heat from a refrigeration chamber and delivery to the environment), the heating system is the producer of the requirement for cooling in 'the winter' (heating season). Thus, the refrigeration plant perhaps already has a marvellous efficiency, and the separate heating system too - however in interaction. The broad view moves into the focus. The possible approaches and effects are described in the contribution under consideration using the example of a Discount supermarket with a sales area of 800 square meters and a requirement of cooling of more than 30 kW.

  17. STUDY ON DISCHARGE HEAT UTILIZATION OF 250 MWe PCMSR TURBINE SYSTEM FOR DESALINATION USING MODIFIED MED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor is one type of Advanced Nuclear Reactors. The PCMSR has benefit charasteristics of very efficient fuel use, high safety charecteristic as well as high thermodinamics efficiency. This is due to its breeding capability, inherently safe characteristic and totally passive safety system. The PCMSR design consists of three module, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. Analysis in performed by parametric calculation of the turbine system to calculate the turbine system efficiency and the hat available for desalination. After that the mass and energi balance of desalination process are calculated to calculate the amount of distillate produced and the amount of feed sea water needed. The turbine module is designed to be operated at maximum temperature cycle of 1373 K (1200 0C and minimum temperature cycle of 333 K (60 0K. The parametric calculation shows that the optimum turbine pressure ratio is 4.3 that gives the conversion efficiency of 56 % for 4 stages turbine and 4 stages compressor and equiped with recuperator. In this optimum condition, the 250 MWe PCMSR turbine system produces 196 MWth of waste heat with the temperature of cooling fluid in the range from 327 K (54 0C to 368 K (92 0C. This waste heat can be utilized for desalination. By using MMED desalination system, this waste heat can be used to produce fresh water (distillate from sea water feed. The amount of the destillate produced is 48663 ton per day by using 15 distillation effects. The performance ratio value is 2.8727 kg/MJ by using 15 distillation effects. Keywords: PCMSR, discharged heat, MMED desalination   PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor merupakan salah satu tipe dari Reaktor Nuklir Maju. PCMSR memiliki keuntungan berupa penggunaan bahan bakar yang sangat efisisien, sifat keselamatan tinggi dan sekaligus efisiensi termodinamika yang tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kemampuan pembiakan bahan bakar, sifat

  18. Preliminary design of steam reformer in out-pile demonstration test facility for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yosiyuki; Hata, Kazuhiko; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Yamada, Seiya

    1996-11-01

    One of the key objectives of HTTR is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization system. Prior to connecting a heat utilization system to HTTR, an out-pile demonstration test is indispensable for the development of experimental apparatuses, operational control and safety technology, and verification of the analysis code of safety assessment. For the first heat utilization system of HTTR, design of the hydrogen production system by steam reforming is going on. We have proposed the out-pile demonstration test plan of the heat utilization system and conducted preliminary design of the test facility. In this report, design of the steam reformer, which is the principal component of the test facility, is described. In the course of the design, two types of reformers are considered. The one reformer contains three reactor tubes and the other contains one reactor tube to reduce the construction cost of the test facility. We have selected the steam reformer operational conditions and structural specifications by analyzing the steam reforming characteristics and component structural strength for each type of reformer. (author)

  19. Heat transmission systems for heating and potable water. New requirements and problem solutions for hygiene, safety and improved heat utilization. Waermeuebertragungssysteme fuer Heizung und Trinkwasser. Neue Anforderungen und Problemloesungen bezueglich Hygiene, Sicherheit und besserer Waermenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, R

    1989-10-01

    In the past, additional demands were made on heat transmission systems regarding hygienic requirements in potable water heating plant for hospitals, hotels, sanatoriums and old-age homes, safety requirements to protect the potable water from the penetration of hazardous substances and requirements for improved heat utilization through return flow cooling and condensate cooling in the district heating. Where potable water heaters are concerned, safety radiators for heat transfer which comply with the requirements of DIN 1988 Part 2 and Part 4, as well as water heaters with permanent disinfection which are legionnaires' disease-proof, are now available for use in hospitals, old age homes and sanatoriums. For the district heating sector, improved range systems with low concentration in the hot water sector as well as condensate heat utilizing systems have been further developed in the steam heating sector. (orig.).

  20. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  1. Optimization of operating parameters of ground source heat pump system for space heating and cooling by Taguchi method and utility concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasakthivel, T.; Murugesan, K.; Thomas, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technology is suitable for both heating and cooling. • Important parameters that affect the GSHP performance has been listed. • Parameters of GSHP system has been optimized for heating and cooling mode. • Taguchi technique and utility concept are developed for GSHP optimization. - Abstract: Use of ground source energy for space heating applications through Ground Source Heat pump (GSHP) has been established as an efficient thermodynamic process. The electricity input to the GSHP can be reduced by increasing the COP of the system. However, the COP of a GSHP system will be different for heating and cooling mode operations. Hence in order to reduce the electricity input to the GSHP, an optimum value of COP has to be determined when GSHP is operated in both heating and cooling modes. In the present research, a methodology is proposed to optimize the operating parameters of a GSHP system which will operate on both heating and cooling modes. Condenser inlet temperature, condenser outlet temperature, dryness fraction at evaporator inlet and evaporator outlet temperature are considered as the influencing parameters of the heat pump. Optimization of these parameters for only heating or only cooling mode operation is achieved by employing Taguchi method for three level variations of the above parameters using an L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array. Higher the better concept has been used to get a higher COP. A computer program in FORTAN has been developed to carry out the computations and the results have been analyzed for the optimum conditions using Signal-to-Noise (SN) ratio and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) method. Based on this analysis, the maximum COP for only heating and only cooling operation are obtained as 4.25 and 3.32 respectively. By making use of the utility concept both the higher values of COP obtained for heating and cooling modes are optimized to get a single optimum COP for heating and cooling modes. A single

  2. Evaluation of Technical and Utility Programmatic Challenges With Residential Forced-Air Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Vadnal, Hillary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, Shawn [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kalensky, Dave [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented ETPs.

  3. A Multi-Approach Evaluation System (MA-ES) of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) used in waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Yu, Guopeng; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The MA-ES provides comprehensive valuations on ORC used for waste heat utilization. • The MA-ES covers energetic, exergetic and economic evaluations of typical ORCs. • The MA-ES is a general assessing method without restriction to specific ORC condition. • Two ORC cases of ICE waste-heat-recovery are exemplified applying the MA-ES. - Abstract: A Multi-Approach Evaluation System (MA-ES) is established in this paper providing comprehensive evaluations on Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) used for waste heat utilization. The MA-ES covers three main aspects of typical ORC performance: basic evaluations of energy distribution and system efficiency based on the 1st law of thermodynamics; evaluations of exergy distribution and exergy efficiency based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics; economic evaluations based on calculations of equipment capacity, investment and cost recovery. The MA-ES is reasonably organized aiming at providing a general method of ORC performance assessment, without restrictions to system configurations, operation modes, applications, working fluid types, equipment conditions, process parameters and so on. Two ORC cases of internal combustion engines’ (ICEs) waste-heat-recovery are exemplified to illustrate the applications of the evaluation system. The results clearly revealed the performance comparisons among ORC configurations and working fluids referred. The comparisons will provide credible guidance for ORC design, equipment selection and system construction

  4. Design and functionality of a segmented heat-storage prototype utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate in a solar heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englmair, Gerald; Moser, Christoph; Furbo, Simon

    2018-01-01

    acetate trihydrate composites to conserve the latent heat of fusion for long-term heat storage. A control strategy directed heat from a solar collector array to either the PCM storage or a water buffer storage. Several PCM units had to be charged in parallel when the solar collector output peaked at 16 k......A solar heating system with 22.4m2 of solar collectors, a heat storage prototype consisting of four 200 kg phase-change material (PCM) storage units, and a 735 L water tank was designed to improve solar heat supply in single-family houses. The PCM storage utilized stable supercooling of sodium......W. A single unit was charged with 27.4 kWh of heat within four hours on a sunny day, and the PCM temperature increased from 20 °C to 80 °C. The sensible heat from a single PCM unit was transferred to the water tank starting with about 32 kW of thermal power after it had fully melted at 80 °C. A mechanical...

  5. Optimization of waste heat utilization in cold end system of thermal power station based on neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zenghui

    2018-04-01

    At present, the flue gas waste heat utilization projects of coal-fired boilers are often limited by low temperature corrosion problems and conventional PID control. The flue gas temperature cannot be reduced to the best efficiency temperature of wet desulphurization, resulting in the failure of heat recovery to be the maximum. Therefore, this paper analyzes, researches and solves the remaining problems of the cold end system of thermal power station, so as to provide solutions and theoretical support for energy saving and emission reduction and upgrading and the improvement of the comprehensive efficiency of the units.

  6. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  7. Design of helium-gas supplying facility of out-of-pile demonstration test for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-09-01

    One of the objectives of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature heat utilization. Prior to connect a heat utilization system to the HTTR, a series of out-of-pile demonstration test is indispensable to improve components` performance, to demonstrate operation, control and safety technologies and to verify analysis codes for design and safety evaluation. After critical review and discussion on the out-of-pile demonstration test, a test facility have been designed. In this report, a helium-gas supplying facility simulated the HTTR system was described in detail, which supplies High-temperature helium-gas of 900degC to a steam reforming facility mocking-up the HTTR heat utilization system. Components of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) were selected to reuse in the helium-gas supplying facility in order to decrease construction cost. Structures and specifications of new components such as a high-temperature heater and a preheater were decided after evaluation of thermal and hydraulic performance and strength. (author)

  8. FY 1986 report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. R and D of total systems (Surveys on heat sources and heat-utilization systems); 1986 nendo super heat pump energy shuseki system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system no kenkyu (netsugen netsu riyokei no chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The heat source systems and heat utilization systems are surveyed and studied for the super heat pump energy accumulation systems, in order to clarify effective application and application types of these systems in the domestic and industrial energy areas. These works include surveys on literature, both domestic and foreign, surveys on actual situations of the related facilities and plants and on-the-spot hearing, and numerical simulation to establish the basic data for some items. The FY 1986 program includes the literature surveys on heat source and heat utilization systems and on-the-spot hearing for the domestic energy areas, reviews of heat demand variation patterns, and studies on methodology for applying the data to the areas not investigated so far. For the industrial areas to which super heat pumps are potentially applicable, the chemical, refining, food manufacturing and plastic manufacturing/processing industries are selected, to study problems related to system structures and conditions of the heat pump systems in these areas. (NEDO)

  9. Utilizing thermal building mass for storage in district heating systems: Combined building level simulations and system level optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, D. F.; Gianniou, P.; Münster, M.

    2018-01-01

    on the energy supply of district heating. Results showed that longer preheating time increased the possible duration of cut-off events. System optimization showed that the thermal mass for storage was used as intra-day storage. Flexible load accounted for 5.5%–7.7% of the total district heating demand...

  10. The study on the role of very high temperature reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Sigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Sato, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ueno, Seiichi

    1986-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results being made in the study on the role of Very High Temperature Reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy system, which is aimed at zero emission. In the former part of the report, the modeling of the reference energy system, main characteristics of energy technologies, and scenario indicators as well as system behavioral objectives for optimization are explained. In the latter part, analytical results such as the time-period variation of overall energy utilization efficiency, energy supply/demand structure in long-terms, energy contribution and economic competition of new energy technologies, environmental effluents released through verious energy activities, impacts to and from national economy, and some sensitivity analyses, are reviewed. (author)

  11. Industrial waste heat utilization for low temperature district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hao; Xia, Jianjun; Zhu, Kan; Su, Yingbo; Jiang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of low grade waste heat are discharged into the environment, mostly via water evaporation, during industrial processes. Putting this industrial waste heat to productive use can reduce fossil fuel usage as well as CO 2 emissions and water dissipation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic approach to the integrated and efficient utilization of low-grade industrial waste heat. Recovering industrial waste heat for use in district heating (DH) can increase the efficiency of the industrial sector and the DH system, in a cost-efficient way defined by the index of investment vs. carbon reduction (ICR). Furthermore, low temperature DH network greatly benefits the recovery rate of industrial waste heat. Based on data analysis and in-situ investigations, this paper discusses the potential for the implementation of such an approach in northern China, where conventional heat sources for DH are insufficient. The universal design approach to industrial-waste-heat based DH is proposed. Through a demonstration project, this approach is introduced in detail. This study finds three advantages to this approach: (1) improvement of the thermal energy efficiency of industrial factories; (2) more cost-efficient than the traditional heating mode; and (3) CO 2 and pollutant emission reduction as well as water conservation. -- Highlights: •We review situation of industrial waste heat recovery with a global perspective. •We present a way to analyze the potential to utilize industrial waste heat for DH. •Northern China has huge potential for using low-grade industrial waste heat for DH. •A demonstration project is introduced using the universal approach we propose. •It proves huge benefits for factories, heat-supply companies and the society

  12. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar heat power generation); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyonetsu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Research was made on solar heat power generation following last fiscal year, as a part of solar energy utilization technologies. In this fiscal year, in particular, research was made on the following: selection of suitable sites for solar heat power plants in Japan, estimation of expected power supply, positioning of a solar heat power system among future power systems, operation policy of solar heat power systems, survey on suitable sites for the 1,000kW pilot power plant, operation characteristics of the small test plant, design of the 1,000kW pilot power plant, test methods and facilities for every element equipment of solar heat power systems, an environmental test method for mostly solar collectors, and the profitability of solar heat power systems. Optimum operation temperature levels were nearly 350 degrees C for distributed systems and nearly 400 degrees C for centralized ones. The distributed system is profitable in a unit capacity range less than 5-10MWe, while the centralized system is profitable in a range over 10MWe. Under some assumptions, the power cost of solar heat power systems was estimated to be 20-30yen/kWH. (NEDO)

  13. Low-potencial Earth thermalEnergy Utilization in Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sidorová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground in the first approx. 100 m is well suited for supply and storage of thermal energy. The climatic temperature change over the seasons is reduced to a steady temperature at 10-20 m. With further depth, the temperatures increase according to the geothermal gradient (average 3 °C for each 100 m of depth.Ground-source or geothermal heat pumps are a highly efficient, renewable energy technology for the space heating and cooling. This technology relies on the fact that, at a depth, the Earth has a relatively constant temperature, higher than that of air in winter and cooler than the air in summer. A geothermal heat pump (GHP can transfer heat stored in the Earth into a building during the winter, and transfer heat out of the building during the summer. Special geologic conditions, such as hot springs, are not needed for a successful application of GHP.

  14. Solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  15. Improved solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  16. Utilization of waste heat from a HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine in a tri-generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarabchi, N.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The waste heat from exhaust gases and cooling water of Homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) are utilized to drive an ammonia-water cogeneration cycle (AWCC) and some heating processes, respectively. The AWCC is a combination of the Rankine cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle. Considering the chemical kinetic calculations, a single zone combustion model is developed to simulate the natural gas fueled HCCI engine. Also, the performance of AWCC is simulated using the Engineering Equation Solver software (EES). Through combining these two codes, a detailed thermodynamic analysis is performed for the proposed tri-generation system and the effects of some main parameters on the performances of both the AWCC and the tri-generation system are investigated in detail. The cycle performance is then optimized for the fuel energy saving ratio (FESR). The enhancement in the FESR could be up to 28.56%. Under optimized condition, the second law efficiency of proposed system is 5.19% higher than that of the HCCI engine while the reduction in CO 2 emission is 4.067% as compared with the conventional separate thermodynamic systems. Moreover, the results indicate that the engine, in the tri-generation system and the absorber, in the bottoming cycle has the most contribution in exergy destruction. - Highlights: • A new thermodynamic tri-generation system is proposed for waste heat recovery of HCCI engine. • A single zone combustion model is developed to simulate the natural gas fueled HCCI engine. • The proposed tri-generation cycle is analyzed from the view points of both first and second laws of thermodynamics. • In the considered cycle, enhancements of 28.56% in fuel energy saving ratio and 5.19% in exergy efficiency are achieved

  17. Coupled simulation of a system for the utilization of exhaust heat and cooling of the interior of commercial vehicles; Gekoppelte Simulation eines Abgaswaermenutzungs- und Fahrzeugkuehlsystems im Nutzfahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambros, Peter; Fezer, Axel; Kapitel, Julian [TheSys GmbH, Kirchentellinsfurt (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Based on a simulation software called GT-Suite by Gamma Technology, a one-dimensional model of a waste-heat recovery system with utility vehicle boundary conditions was developed. Using this model, it is possible to simulate stationary operating points of this type WHR. A Clausius-Rankine cycle is used in the power-heat cogeneration. The Clausius-Rankine cycle is linked to the exhaust system by two boilers. The first boiler is installed in the main exhaust steam, the second boiler is implemented in the exhaust gas recirculation. Besides the waste-heat recovery system, the integrated cooling system of the vehicle is also modeled. (orig.)

  18. Outline of operation and control system and analytical investigation of transient behavior of an out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hada, Kazuhiko; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro.

    1997-10-01

    The hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas is to be constructed to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization systems with the HTTR. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test system is planned to investigate the system characteristics, to develop high-temperature components such as a reformer, a high-temperature isolation valve and so on, and to verify operation and control technologies and safety technology at accidents. This paper presents outline of operation and control systems and analytical review of transient behavior of the out-of-pile hydrogen production system. Main function of the operation and control systems is made not to give disturbance to the HTTR at transient state under start-up and stop operations. The operation modes are separated into two ones, namely normal and accident operation modes, and operation sequences are made for each operation mode. The normal operation sequence includes start-up, steady operation and stop of the out-of-pile system. The accident one deals with accident conditions at which supply of feed gas is stopped and helium gas is cooled passively by the steam generator. Transient behavior of the out-of-pile system was analyzed numerically according as the operation sequences. As the results, it was confirmed that the designed operation and control systems are adequate to the out-of-pile system. (author)

  19. Public assimilation and international utilization of heat and electricity from ISER-PIUS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    ISER-PIUS is envisaged as one of the LWR based ultra-safe reactors to be used extensively in the next century. But in the course, the public assimilation effort leading to the public acceptance is much more important than the independent development of a part of plant; reactor. Obviously, safty of waste management needs to be elaborated concomitantly besides the inherently safe nature of the reactor core as a part of the ISER-PIUS system itself. In any of the alternative options, public assimilation is a measure for penetrating the system into the society. It is a prerequisite for all of them, that the safety of daily operations and the safe way of waste disposal are to be ensured. As to the safety of the nuclear core, it is essential to increase the safety margin in the nuclear core making use of almost as passive safe system as possible. This means minimization of human factors of designers, fabricators, operators and maintenance personnels and of active mechanical elements as well. The safety of waste disposal rests again more on the human factors that must enter each consecutive operation of the management. Strategy of storing spent fuel with intact clad for a century or so can allow us to reuse it as fuel because FP ash will have decayed so low as to allow the residual fuel and newly born fuel (plutonium) to be usable again. ISER is a standard nuclear energy system to be used worldwide with the backing of its inherent-safety nature. (Nogami, K.)

  20. EXPERIENCE OF UTILIZATION OF CAPACITY BANKS AND SCHEMES OF FREQUENCY REGULATION IN MUNICIPAL CENTRALIZED HEATING SYSTEM OF CHISINAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHERNEI M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper provides a brief summary of the district heating system of the municipality Chisinau, including heat power sources, heat distribution network, production and consumption development over the past two decades and other data. Also, the priority investment projects realized by JSC "Termocom" are being presented. The company had implemented an automated monitoring system for the heat power production, transportation and distribution. For many years, the company used bellows pipes with polyurethane insulation, ball valves and plate heat exchangers. 14 out of 21 district heating boiler stations were upgraded 10 were completely automated having as a result no further need in full-time duty personnel there. The experience gained in the implementation of capacity banks and frequency inverters, summarizing the benefits and achieved results, is also presented in the current paper. It is to be underlined that in 2011 the company achieved decrease in electricity consumption by about 30% in comparison with 2005.

  1. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  2. The study on the role of very high temperature reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ueno, Seiichi.

    1987-11-01

    The objectives of the systems analysis study on ''The Role of High Temperature Nuclear Heat in Future Energy Systems'' under the cooperative research program between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are to analyze the effect and the impact of introduction of high temperature nuclear heat in Japanese long-term energy systems aiming at zero environmental emissions from view points of energy supply/demand, economy progress, and environmental protection, and to show the potentials of involved technologies and to extract the associated problems necessary for research and developments. This report describes the results being obtained in these three years from 1985. The present status of our energy system are explained at first, then, our findings concerning on analytical approach, method for analysis, view points to the future, scenario state space, reference energy systems, evolving technologies in it, and results analyzed are described. (author)

  3. Waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phi Wah Tooi

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO 2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  4. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  5. Power generation efficiency of an SOFC-PEFC combined system with time shift utilization of SOFC exhaust heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Shin' ya [Power Engineering Lab., Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 0908507 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    A microgrid, with little environmental impact, is developed by introducing a combined SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) and PEFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system. Although the SOFC requires a higher operation temperature compared to the PEFC, the power generation efficiency of the SOFC is higher. However, if high temperature exhaust heat may be used effectively, a system with higher total power generation efficiency can be built. Therefore, this paper investigates the operation of a SOFC-PEFC combined system, with time shift operation of reformed gas, into a microgrid with 30 houses in Sapporo, Japan. The SOFC is designed to correspond to base load operation, and the exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for production of reformed gas. This reformed gas is used for the production of electricity for the PEFC, corresponding to fluctuation load of the next day. Accordingly, the reformed gas is used with a time shift operation. In this paper, the relation between operation method, power generation efficiency, and amount of heat storage of the SOFC-PEFC combined system to the difference in power load pattern was investigated. The average power generation efficiency of the system can be maintained at nearly 48% on a representative day in February (winter season) and August (summer season). (author)

  6. Parametric and exergetic analysis of waste heat recovery system based on thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle utilizing R123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Zhao, Jian; Tian, Hua; Liang, Xingyu; Wei, Haiqiao

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the combined TEG-ORC (thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle) used in exhaust heat recovery of ICE (internal combustion engine) theoretically. A theoretical model is proposed to calculate the optimal parameters of the bottoming cycle based on thermodynamic theory when net output power and volumetric expansion ratio are selected as objective functions, which affect system performance and size. The effects of relative TEG flow direction, TEG scale, highest temperature, condensation temperature, evaporator pressure and efficiency of IHE (internal heat exchanger) on system performance are investigated. R123 is chosen among the fluids whose decomposition temperature exceeds 600 K to avoid fluid resolving and resulting in wet stroke when expansion process ends. The thermodynamic irreversibility that occurs in evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed at target working areas. The results indicate a significant increase of system performance when TEG and IHE are combined with ORC bottoming cycle. It is also suggested that TEG-ORC system is suitable to recovering waste heat from engines, because TEG can extend the temperature range of heat source and thereby improve the security and fuel economy of engines. -- Highlights: ► Development of a TEG-ORC system using R123 as working fluid for WHR of engines. ► Performance of the developed cycle was investigated theoretically. ► Optimization of configurations and parameters can be obtained. ► Irreversibility in the evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed. ► Optimal net power and indicated efficiency is 27 kW and 45.7%, respectively.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. Performance of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from an ice rink with an energy storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyumcu, Muhammed Enes; Tutumlu, Hakan; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical model of the system, and a computational program were developed. • Transient behavior of the water in the buried energy storage tank was simulated. • Effects of various system parameters on the system performance were investigated. • Long period performance of the system was analyzed and obtained periodic condition. • Optimum ice rink size is determined for a semi-Olympic size swimming pool heating. - Abstract: This study deals with determining the long period performance of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste heat energy that is rejected from a chiller unit of ice rink and subsequently stored in an underground thermal energy storage (TES) tank. The system consists of an ice rink, a swimming pool, a spherical underground TES tank, a chiller and a heat pump. The ice rink and the swimming pool are both enclosed and located in Gaziantep, Turkey. An analytical model was developed to obtain the performance of the system using Duhamel’s superposition and similarity transformation techniques. A computational model written in MATLAB program based on the transient heat transfer is used to obtain the annual variation of the ice rink and the swimming pool energy requirements, the water temperature in the TES tank, COP, and optimum ice rink size depending on the different ground, TES tank, chiller, and heat pump characteristics. The results obtained from the analysis indicate that 6–7 years’ operational time span is necessary to obtain the annual periodic operation condition. In addition, an ice rink with a size of 475 m"2 gives the optimum performance of the system with a semi-Olympic size swimming pool (625 m"2).

  9. ECOLO-HOUSE in the snowy town. Study of the ventilating function what the heat collecting system of the air duct utilizing attic has; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Kison kaoku no yaneura wo riyoshita duct shunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H; Hirosawa, K [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Described in this paper is an air duct heat collecting system, forming a link in the chain of natural energy utilization, in an attic of a house actually in presence. When a sirocco fan (blowing air from an indoor induction duct into the room) at the base of the highblocked floor is turned, air is sucked through an air intake under the eaves into a heat collecting duct (constructed utilizing the tilt roof and rafter). Heat from the roof warmed by sunshine is absorbed by air in the heat collecting duct and is fed to the highblocked floor structure through a heat collecting room and the induction duct. This system functions quite effectively as a ventilating device. Dew condensation on the walls and floor and musty smell have been eliminated. This system is good enough as a heater even on chilly days in early spring when there is sunshine. In the time zone with the sun shining, the system collects 4{times}10{sup 4}kJ per day, exhibiting a heat collecting efficiency of 4%. The heat collecting duct was analyzed for thermal environment, and the heat flux of the collected heat was determined as Qk(W/m{sup 2}=0.1{times}I-1.3{Theta}d-{Theta}a). In this equation, I is the quantity of insolation (W/m{sup 2}), {Theta}d is the temperature in the heat collecting duct, and {Theta}a is the free air temperature. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Ideal Point Design and Operation of CO2-Based Transcritical Rankine Cycle (CTRC System Based on High Utilization of Engine’s Waste Heats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted a study specially to systematically analyze combined recovery of exhaust gas and engine coolant and related influence mechanism, including a detailed theoretical study and an assistant experimental study. In this research, CO2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC was used for fully combining the wastes heats. The main objective of theoretical research was to search an ‘ideal point’ of the recovery system and related influence mechanism, which was defined as operating condition of complete recovery of two waste heats. The theoretical methodology of this study could also provide a design reference for effective combined recovery of two or multiple waste heats in other fields. Based on a kW-class preheated CTRC prototype that was designed by the ‘ideal point’ method, an experimental study was conducted to verify combined utilization degree of two engine waste heats by the CTRC system. The operating results showed that the prototype can gain 44.4–49.8 kW and 22.7–26.7 kW heat absorption from exhaust gas and engine coolant, respectively. To direct practical operation, an experimental optimization work on the operating process was conducted for complete recovery of engine coolant exactly, which avoided deficient or excessive recovery.

  11. Study on heat collector of the solar system utilizing outdoor air. Experimental results in cases of cold and warm regions; Gaiki donyushiki solar system no shunetsubu ni kansuru kenkyu. Kanreichi to ondanchi ni okeru shunetsu jikken to kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, S; Ebara, Y [OM Solar Association, Shizuoka (Japan); Wada, H [Wada Building Constructors Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment on heat collection was made in the heat collector of a solar system utilizing outdoor air in cold and warm regions. In this system, outdoor air is heated by the air circulation layer on the roof exposed to solar radiation. The heated air is supplied to the object space for heating and ventilation. In the experiment in a cold region, the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted by putting a baffle plate in the air duct according to the experiment of a glass heat collector. The heat collecting air layer on only the iron roof may leak or freeze in the region subject to coldness or heavy snowfall. Therefore, preheat forms the space of a garret, and the preheat temperature comparatively becomes low. The data in which the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted using only a glass heat collector is required corresponding to the regional situation. In the experiment in a warm region, an experiment was made inclusive of the preheat for which outdoor air is absorbed at the eaves. As a result, the heat collection characteristics of preheat were improved. Moreover, a heat collection temperature of about 60{degree}C was obtained on the heat collection surface including the preheat. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Design and engineering of a gas-engine driven heat pump heating station including heat distribution system and utilization of waste heat from an ice rink for the residential area Dorsten - Maria Lindenhof. Planung eines Gasmotor-Waermepumpenheizwerkes mit angeschlossenem Waermeverteilungsnetz und Abwaermenutzung einer Eisenbahn fuer das zentralstaedtische Gebiet 'Maria-Lindenhof' in Dorsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huelsemann, R.

    1984-05-01

    A gas-engine driven heat pump heating station including the required heat destribution system and utilization of waste heat from an ice rink to be realized in the residential area Dorsten - Maria Lindenhof. The total heat capacity was to be reached in two stages, corresponding to the progress of the building and housing structure in this specific area: First stage of construction 5,6 MW, final stage of construction 7,6 MW. With regard to the final stage of construction only a relatively small part of the buildings is provided with heating systems designed for supply and return temperatures of 90/70/sup 0/C respectively. The old people's home built in 1980 was already equipped with low temperature heating systems and all buildings still to be built shall be provided with low-temperature systems. As far as old heating systems are concerned, the required measures must be taken to reduce the temperature in the return lines.

  13. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  14. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  15. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Device for district heating with utilization of waste heat from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korek, J.

    1976-01-01

    In order to utilize the waste heat developing in power plants - especially in nuclear power plants - the author suggests to lead the waste heat of the coolers for oil (which the bearings are lubricated with), hydrogen (which serves for the stator rotor-cooling), and the stator cooling water to the circulating district heating water and to arrange these heat exchangers one behind another or parallel to each other in the water circuit of the district heating system. The oil cooler of the engine transformer is also connected with the circulation of the district heating water. The runback water of the district heating network could thus be heated from approx. 40 0 C up to 65 0 C. (UA) [de

  17. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  18. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Heat transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  20. Heating networks and domestic central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamler, W; Wasilewski, W

    1976-08-01

    This is a comprehensive survey of the 26 contributions from 8 European countries submitted to the 3rd International District Heating Conference in Warsaw held on the subject 'Heating Networks and Domestic Central Heating Systems'. The contributions are grouped according to 8 groups of subjects: (1) heat carriers and their parameters; (2) system of heating networks; (3) calculation and optimization of heating networks; (4) construction of heating networks; (5) operation control and automation; (6) operational problems; (7) corrosion problems; and (8) methods of heat accounting.

  1. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  2. Heat Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Ball Metal's design of ducting and controls for series of roof top heat exchangers was inspired by Tech Briefs. Heat exchangers are installed on eight press and coating lines used to decorate sheet metal. The heat recovery system provides an estimated energy savings of more than $250,000 per year.

  3. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  4. New waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fangtian; Fu Lin; Zhang Shigang; Sun Jian

    2012-01-01

    A new waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle (DHAC) was developed to increase the heating capacity of combined heat and power (CHP) through waste heat recovery, and enhance heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network through decreasing return water temperature by new type absorption heat exchanger (AHE). The DHAC system and a conventional district heating system based on CHP (CDH) were analyzed in terms of both thermodynamics and economics. Compared to CDH, the DHAC increased heating capacity by 31% and increased heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network by 75%. The results showed that the exergetic efficiency of DHAC was 10.41% higher and the product exergy monetary cost was 36.6¥/GJ less than a CHD. DHAC is an effective way to increase thermal utilization factor of CHP, and to reduce district heating cost. - Highlights: ► Absorption heat pumps are used to recover waste heat in CHP. ► Absorption heat exchanger can reduce exergy loss in the heat transfer process. ► New waste heat heating system (DHAC) can increase heating capacity of CHP by 31%. ► DHAC can enhance heat transmission capacity of the primary pipe network by 75%. ► DHAC system has the higher exergetic efficiency and the better economic benefit.

  5. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2/sup 0/F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60/sup 0/F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability.

  6. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2 0 F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60 0 F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability

  7. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar heat power generation); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyonetsu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1974 research result on solar heat power generation. The following are promising as solar heat power plant sites in Japan: Large-scale sites such as the foot of volcanos, riverbed, railway site and road, medium-scale sites such as isolated island, saltpan site and industrial park, and small-scale sites such as factory site, factory roof floor, housing complex, warehouse and school. Based on the primary concept design of both curved reflector type and tower type 1,000kW class solar heat power plants, various requirements were clarified roughly. It was clarified that food, fiber and non-ferrous metal factories can cover 80-90% of their thermal energy requirements with high- temperature solar heat, while factories related to food and fiber can cover even nearly 100% of their electric power requirements with solar heat. Study was also made on specifications of a solar simulator as common use facility necessary for characteristic evaluation of equipment and materials for solar heat power generation systems. (NEDO)

  8. 2-component heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  9. Automation of heating system with heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdin, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Because of high prices of energy, we are upgrading our heating systems with newer, more fuel efficient heating devices. Each new device has its own control system, which operates independently from other devices in a heating system. With a relatively low investment costs in automation, we can group devices in one central control system and increase the energy efficiency of a heating system. In this project, we show how to connect an oil furnace, a sanitary heat pump, solar panels and a heat p...

  10. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  11. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  13. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  14. Utilization of waste heat from aluminium electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Radovan; Gavlas, Stanislav; Lenhard, Richard; Malcho, Milan; Sedlak, Veroslav; Teie, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    During the aluminium production, 50% of the supplied energy is consumed by the chemical process, and 50% of the supplied energy is lost in form of heat. Heat losses are necessary to maintain a frozen side ledge to protect the side walls, so extra heat has to be wasted. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the process, it is necessary to significantly lower the heat losses dissipated by the furnace's external surface. Goodtech Recovery Technology (GRT) has developed a technology based on the use of heat pipes for utilization energy from the waste heat produced in the electrolytic process. Construction of condenser plays important role for efficient operation of energy systems. The condensation part of the heat pipe is situated on top of the heating zone. The thermal oil is used as cooling medium in the condenser. This paper analyses the effect of different operation condition of thermal oil to thermal performance. From the collected results it is obvious that the larger mass flow and higher temperature cause better thermal performance and lower pressure drop.

  15. Heat utilization for light industries through ISER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kingo

    1987-01-01

    The inherently safe feature of ISER seems to make it easier to get public assimilation for urban siting or siting adjacent to industrial complexes. In this sense, energies from ISER should not be limited only to electric power generation. The present report reviews the current status of energy demand in industries and discusses the possibility of multi-purpose use of ISER. It is very important to consider the nuclear energy as a substitution for the primary energy (oil, coal, etc.). In multiple application of a nuclear power plant, high pressure and high temperature stram can be used for plants, and low pressure and low temperature steam can be used for district heating-cooling and so on. Bleeding steam (at low pressure) from the turbine can be supplied to desalination plants. For agriculture, waste heat from steam can be effectively used. Multi-purpose nuclear power utilization projects are currently under way or planned in various countries in the world, including Sweden, the Soviet Union and France. There are a lot of difficult problems, however, for the economical multi-purpose use of nuclear power. There are too many variety of industries in limited districts, and it is very difficult to cope with various kinds of energy demand. Energy demand of each plant is relatively small. Reliable supply is indispensable. Energy cost should be cheaper than or at least the same as that for existing fossile fuel plants. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  17. Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization in Vehicle Bio-Methane Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Current vehicle bio-methane plants have drawbacks associated with high energy consumption and low recovery levels of waste heat produced during the gasification process. In this paper, we have optimized the performance of heat exchange networks using pinch analysis and through the introduction of heat pump integration technology. Optimal results for the heat exchange network of a bio-gas system producing 10,000 cubic meters have been calculated using a pinch point temperature of 50 °C, a minimum heating utility load of 234.02 kW and a minimum cooling utility load of 201.25 kW. These optimal parameters are predicted to result in energy savings of 116.08 kW (19.75%, whilst the introduction of new heat pump integration technology would afford further energy savings of 95.55 kW (16.25%. The combined energy saving value of 211.63 kW corresponds to a total energy saving of 36%, with economic analysis revealing that these reforms would give annual savings of 103,300 USD. The installation costs required to introduce these process modifications are predicted to require an initial investment of 423,200 USD, which would take 4.1 years to reach payout time based on predicted annual energy savings.

  18. Heat Exchangers for Utilization of the Heat of High-Temperature Geothermal Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    The basic component of two-circuit geothermal systems is the heat exchanger. When used in geothermal power systems, conventional shell-and-tube and plate heat exchangers cause problems related to the cleaning of the latter from salt-deposition and corrosion products. Their lifetime does not exceed, as a rule, 1 year. To utilize the heat of high-temperature geothermal brines, a heat exchanger of the "tube-in-tube" type is proposed. A heat exchanger of this design has been operated for several years in Ternair geothermal steam field; in this heat exchanger, the thermal potential of the saline thermal water is transferred to the fresh water of the secondary circuit of the heating system for apartment houses. The reduction in the weight and size characteristics of the heat exchangers is a topical problem that can be solved with the help of heat transfer enhancers. To enhance the heat transfer process in the heat exchanger, longitudinal ribbing of the heat exchange surface is proposed. The increase in the heat exchange surface from the heat carrier side by ribbing results in an increase in the amount of the heat transferred from the heating agent. The heat exchanger is easy to manufacture and is assembled out of components comprised of two concentrically positioned tubes of a definite length, 3-6 m, serially connected with each other. The method for calculation of the impact of the number and the size of the longitudinal ribs on the heat transfer in the well heat exchanger is presented and a criterion for the selection of the optimal number and design parameters of the ribs is formulated. To prevent the corrosion and salt deposition in the heat exchanger, the use of an effective OEDFK (oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid) agent is proposed. This agent has a long-lasting corrosion-inhibiting and antiscaling effect, which is explained by the formation of a strongly adhesive chelate layer difficult to wash off the surface. The passivating OEDFK layer is restored by periodical

  19. Automatic heating control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittle, A.J.

    1989-11-15

    A heating control system for buildings comprises at least one heater incorporating heat storage means, a first sensor for detecting temperature within the building, means for setting a demand temperature, a second sensor for detecting outside temperature, a timer, and means for determining the switch on time of the heat storage means on the basis of the demand temperature and the internal and external temperatures. The system may additionally base the switch on time of the storage heater(s) on the heating and cooling rates of the building (as determined from the sensed temperatures); or on the anticipated daytime temperature (determined from the sensed night time temperature). (author).

  20. Energy cascading in large district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    District heat transfer is the most economical utilization of the waste heat of power plants. Optimum utilization and heat transfer over large distances are possible because of a new energy distribution system, the ''energy cascading system,'' in which heat is transferred to several consumer regions at different temperature ranges. It is made more profitable by the use of heat pumps. The optimum flow-line temperature is 368 0 K, and the optimum return-line temperature is 288 0 K, resulting in an approximately 50% reduction of electric power loss at the power plant

  1. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  2. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Development of system of advanced heat process type (chemical refrigeration and cold storage system using solar heat); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Advanced heat process gata system no kaihatsu (taiyonetsu reito reizo no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for chemical refrigeration and cold storage system using solar heat. The study on refrigeration materials are aimed at development of new hydrogen-occluding alloys which show good hydrogenation equilibrium characteristics and reactivity at temperature required for stand-alone refrigeration systems aided by solar heat, and still new hydrogen-occluding alloys operable at refrigeration temperature for lower-temperature systems. For the refrigeration materials capable of producing low-temperature heat of -10{degree}C at a regeneration temperature of 140{degree}C produced by solar heat, a La-Ni-Mn-Al alloy is selected for high-temperature use and a La-Y-Ni-Mn alloy for low-temperature use. The study on technology for refrigeration modules develops high-efficiency heat exchangers for refrigeration and regeneration, compatible with the hydrogen-occluding alloys. It also develops air-and water-cooling techniques for hydrogen-occluding alloys, where air is used as the heat source. The test apparatus is designed, installed and operated, to attain a low temperature of -10{degree}C or lower with a heat source of 140{degree}C and air heat source of 28{degree}C. 7 figs.

  3. Calculating the marginal costs of a district-heating utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, Joergen; Henning, Dag

    2004-01-01

    District heating plays an important role in the Swedish heat-market. At the same time, the price of district heating varies considerably among different district-heating utilities. A case study is performed here in which a Swedish utility is analysed using three different methods for calculating the marginal costs of heat supply: a manual spreadsheet method, an optimising linear-programming model, and a least-cost dispatch simulation model. Calculated marginal-costs, obtained with the three methods, turn out to be similar. The calculated marginal-costs are also compared to the actual heat tariff in use by the utility. Using prices based on marginal costs should be able to bring about an efficient resource-allocation. It is found that the fixed rate the utility uses today should be replaced by a time-of-use rate, which would give a more accurate signal for customers to change their heat consumptions. (Author)

  4. Demonstration test on the heat pump system, thermally utilizing the domestic waste water. Result of the collecting test on an air conditioning system, Hokkaido Electric Power Gymnasium, Tomari; Seikatsu haisui netsuriyo heat pump system jissho shiken. Tomari Hokuden taiikukan reidanbo system no sainetsu shiken kekka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, T; Yamada, K; Watanabe, K [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-06-14

    A heat pump system utilizing the domestic waste water was introduced into a gymnasium owned by Hokkaido Electric Power to elucidate the applicability of domestic waste water as a thermal source of heat pump in the cold region. The gymnasium is a two-storied concrete building with the floor space of 2292m{sup 2}. Ground water at temperatures from 10 to 20{degree}C is utilized for the water supply. Made to flow together as waste water, the dirty water and daily exhaust water are discharged at the rate of 100t/day into a river after passing through the septic tank. Higher by 5 to 15{degree}C than the atmospheric temperature, the discharging temperature is kept higher than 10{degree}C even during the very cold period. The domestic waste water is almost neutral in pH, and normal in both SS and BOD. The heat pump was utilized for two stages, i.e., thermal collection and temperature heightening. The capacity of a sewage storage tank tank was made to be 170m{sup 3} to meet the thermal load of 139000kcal/h in the gymnasium. The temperature of 15{degree}C could be kept during the air heating trial. The system is about 2 in coefficient of performance. The K-value of heat exchanger decreased by about 30% after seven months of operation. Upon its overhauling, its K-value recovered to 2.37, so that it must be overhauled once a year. 5 refs., 15 figs. 4 tabs.

  5. FY 1995 report on the results of the investigational study on the technology development for the commercialization of solar systems for industrial use, etc. - Investigational study on the solar system. Investigational study on a solar heat utilization system; 1995 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This survey clarifies the present situation of the solar heat utilization technology mostly for industrial use, makes a concrete concept of solar heat utilization clear, and extracts items of the technology development and evaluates sociality, economical efficiency, etc. It aims at working out a program for the future technology development. The following proposals were made: 1) technology development program; 2) simulation soft development program; 3) experimental field of the solar heat utilization technology. In 1), concepts of technology development are 'medical use boiling pasteurization,' 'temperature increase in the metal surface treatment process,' 'water purification using photo-catalyst,' 'distributed small power system,' and 'waste water treatment using bio-technology.' In 2), cost reduction is needed for commercialization/merchandising of technology, and therefore, the development of simulation software is studied. In 3), as the experimental field from commercial/residential use system to industrial use system, an large-scale and systematical experimental field is proposed where all that can be substituted for by solar energy among the energies required for the urban function are used. By this, the solar heat utilization system gets accustomed to the people, increases the reliability, and clearly leads to the course to the next stage of the R and D. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1995 report on the results of the investigational study on the technology development for the commercialization of solar systems for industrial use, etc. - Investigational study on the solar system. Investigational study on a solar heat utilization system; 1995 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This survey clarifies the present situation of the solar heat utilization technology mostly for industrial use, makes a concrete concept of solar heat utilization clear, and extracts items of the technology development and evaluates sociality, economical efficiency, etc. It aims at working out a program for the future technology development. The following proposals were made: 1) technology development program; 2) simulation soft development program; 3) experimental field of the solar heat utilization technology. In 1), concepts of technology development are 'medical use boiling pasteurization,' 'temperature increase in the metal surface treatment process,' 'water purification using photo-catalyst,' 'distributed small power system,' and 'waste water treatment using bio-technology.' In 2), cost reduction is needed for commercialization/merchandising of technology, and therefore, the development of simulation software is studied. In 3), as the experimental field from commercial/residential use system to industrial use system, an large-scale and systematical experimental field is proposed where all that can be substituted for by solar energy among the energies required for the urban function are used. By this, the solar heat utilization system gets accustomed to the people, increases the reliability, and clearly leads to the course to the next stage of the R and D. (NEDO)

  7. Standard monitoring system for domestic heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, C.P.J.M.; Oostendorp, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the years to come many domestic heat pump systems are to be installed in the Netherlands. The Dutch agency for energy and environment, NOVEM, and the association of energy utility companies, EnergieNed, give high priority to the monitoring of heat pump systems. The results of the projects,

  8. Reactor waste heat utilization and district heating reactors. Nuclear district heating in Sweden - Regional reject heat utilization schemes and small heat-only reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.; Larsson, Y.; Margen, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the current status of district heating in Sweden. In future, district heating schemes will become increasingly interesting as a means of utilizing heat from nuclear reactors. Present recommendations in Sweden are that large reactors should not be located closer than about 20 km from large population centres. Reject heat from such reactors is cheap at source. To minimize the cost of long distance hot water transmission large heat rates must be transmitted. Only areas with large populations can meet this requirement. The three areas of main interest are Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg housing close to 0.5 million; Greater Stockholm housing 1 to 1.5 million and Greater Gothenburg housing about 0.5 million people. There is an active proposal that the Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg region would be served by a third nuclear unit at Barsebaeck, located about 20 km from Malmoe/Lund and supplying 950 MW of base load heat. Preliminary proposals for Stockholm involve a 2000 MW heat supply; proposals for Gothenburg are more tentative. The paper describes progress on these proposals and their technology. It also outlines technology under development to increase the economic range of large scale heat transport and to make distribution economic even for low heat-density family housing estates. Regions apart from the few major urban areas mentioned above require the adoption of a different approach. To this end the development of a small, simple low-temperature reactor for heat-only production suitable for urban location has been started in Sweden in close contact with Finland. Some results of the work in progress are presented, with emphasis on the safety requirements. An outline is given in the paper as to how problems of regional heat planning and institutional and legislative issues are being approached

  9. Energetic-environmental-economic assessment of the biogas system with three utilization pathways: Combined heat and power, biomethane and fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Xiangping; Shang, Dawei; Bao, Di; Zhang, Suojiang; Zheng, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A typical biogas system with three utilization pathways, i.e., biogas upgrading, biogas combined heat and power (CHP), biogas solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were designed. It was assessed from the viewpoint of energy, environment and economy by using energy efficiency, green degree and net present value index respectively. The assessment considered the trade-off relationships among these indexes, which is more comprehensive than previous systematic evaluation work only included single or two of the pathway(s) by using one or two of the index(es). Assessment results indicated that biogas upgrading pathway has the highest systematic energy efficiency (46.5%) and shortest payback period (8.9year) with the green degree production is the lowest (9.29gd/day). While for biogas SOFC pathway, although the green degree production is the highest (21.77gd/day), the payback period is longer (14.5year) and the energy efficiency is 13.6% lower than the biogas upgrading pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonlinear Aspects of Heat Pump Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Najman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts to answer the question: How much can we believe that the coefficient of performance provided by the manufacturer is correct, when a heat pump is required to face the real load coming from changes of temperature? The paper summarizes some basics of heat pump theory and describes the results of numerical models.

  11. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Heat-storage subsystems); 1977 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu. Chikunetsu sub system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at surveys and researches on materials for heat-storage systems for solar thermal power generation systems and solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply; analysis of current status of heat-storage subsystems and extraction of problems involved therein; and sorting out the research themes. Surveyed are the tower type light-collecting systems under development for solar thermal power generation systems, heat-storage subsystems with flat- and curved-surface type light-collecting systems; heat-storage systems being developed by the Electrotechnical Laboratory; heat-storage materials for solar thermal power generation techniques; regenerative heat exchangers; thermodynamic considerations for heat storage and molten salt techniques; and relationship between heat storage material properties and containers. Problems involved in each item are also extracted. The heat-storage subsystems for solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply are now being under development, some being already commercialized, and the classification of and surveys on the related techniques are conducted. At the same time, problems involved in the heat-storage subsystems, being developed for residential buildings, condominiums and large-size buildings, are also extracted. The research themes for the heat-storage subsystems for solar air conditioning and hot water supply systems are sorted out, and case studies are conducted, based on the discussions on, e.g., thermal properties of heat-storage materials, behavior and heat transfer characteristics of latent heat type heat-storage materials, and corrosion of the heat-storage materials. (NEDO)

  12. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  13. Utilization of heat of finely divided solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-11-05

    A method pr preconditioning subdivided solids subjected to a high-temperature treatment in a high-temperature treating zone, comprises transferring a portion of the sensible heat of hot, subdivided, treated solids withdrawn from said treating zone, at a relatively high temperature level to said subdivided solids to be preconditioned, transferring another portion of said sensible heat at a relatively low temperature level to a material vaporizable at said low temperature level to generate a fluidizing medium and fluidizing said subdivided withdrawn solids by means of said fluidizing medium to improve the heat-transfer characteristics of said withdrawn solids.

  14. Nuclear reactor auxiliary heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Pierce, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    An auxiliary heat removal system to remove residual heat from gas-cooled nuclear reactors is described. The reactor coolant is expanded through a turbine, cooled in a heat exchanger and compressed by a compressor before reentering the reactor coolant. The turbine powers both the compressor and the pump which pumps a second fluid through the heat exchanger to cool the reactor coolant. A pneumatic starter is utilized to start the turbine, thereby making the auxiliary heat removal system independent of external power sources

  15. Utilization of low-temperature heat sources for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from marine diesel engines, industries and refrigeration plants to biomass, geothermal and solar heat sources. There is a great potential for enhancing the utilization of these heat sources by novel...

  16. HTTR demonstration test plan for industrial utilization of nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, Xing L.; Kubo, Shinji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting research and development with a central focus on the utilization of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the first High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, towards the realization of industrial use of nuclear heat. Several studies have made on the integration of the HTTR with thermochemical iodine-sulfur process and steam methane reforming hydrogen production plant (H 2 plant) as well as helium gas turbine power conversion system. In addition, safety standards for coupling a H 2 plant to a nuclear facility has been investigated. Based on the past design information, the present study identified test items to be validated in the HTTR demonstration test to accomplish a formulation of safety requirement and design consideration for coupling a H 2 plant to a nuclear facility as well as confirmation of overall performance of helium gas turbine system. In addition, plant concepts for the heat utilization system to be connected with the HTTR are investigated. (author)

  17. Experimental investigation on an integrated thermal management system with heat pipe heat exchanger for electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Huiming; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guiying; Qin, Fei; Tian, Changqing; Yan, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    An integrated thermal management system combining a heat pipe battery cooling/preheating system with the heat pump air conditioning system is presented to fulfill the comprehensive energy utilization for electric vehicles. A test bench with battery heat pipe heat exchanger and heat pump air conditioning for a regular five-chair electric car is set up to research the performance of this integrated system under different working conditions. The investigation results show that as the system is d...

  18. Compressed air production with waste heat utilization in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, E.

    1984-06-01

    The centralized power-heat coupling (PHC) technique using block heating power stations, is presented. Compressed air production in PHC technique with internal combustion engine drive achieves a high degree of primary energy utilization. Cost savings of 50% are reached compared to conventional production. The simultaneous utilization of compressed air and heat is especially interesting. A speed regulated drive via an internal combustion motor gives a further saving of 10% to 20% compared to intermittent operation. The high fuel utilization efficiency ( 80%) leads to a pay off after two years for operation times of 3000 hr.

  19. Solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is based on a previous, related, one which was quantitative in character and relied on 500 telephone interviews with house-owners. The aim of this, following, report was to carry out a more deep-going, qualitative analysis focussed on persons who already own a solar heating system (purchased during 1992) or were/are considering having one installed. Aspects studied were the attitudes, behaviour and plans of these two groups with regard to solar heating systems. Some of the key questions asked concerned general attitudes to energy supply, advantages and disadvantages of using solar heating systems, related decision-making factors, installation problems, positive and negative expectations, evaluation of the information situation, suggestions related to information systems regarding themes etc., dissemination of information, sources of advice and information, economical considerations, satisfaction with the currently-owned system which would lead to the installation of another one in connection with the purchase of a new house. The results of this investigation directed at Danish house-owners are presented and discussed, and proposals for following activities within the marketing situation are given. It is concluded that the basic attitude in both groups strongly supports environmental protection, renewable energy sources and is influenced by considerations of prestige and independence. Constraint factors are confusion about environmental factors, insecurity in relation to the effect of established supplementary energy supply and suspicion with regard to the integrity of information received. (AB)

  20. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...... as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...

  1. Utilization of waste heat from nuclear power plants in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of nuclear power will result in the relative and absolute increase in the amount of waste heat which can be used in agriculture for heating greenhouses, open spaces, for fish breeding in heated water, for growing edible mushrooms, growing algae, for frost protection of orchards, air conditioning of buildings for breeding livestock and poultry, and for other purposes. In addition of the positive effect of waste heat, the danger increases of disease, weeds and pests. Pilot plant installations should be build in Czechoslovakia for testing the development of waste heat utilization. (Ha)

  2. Heat transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    A heat transport system of small size which can be operated in any orientation consists of a coolant loop containing a vaporizable liquid as working fluid and includes in series a vaporizer, a condenser and two one-way valves and a pressurizer connected to the loop between the two valves. The pressurizer may be divided into two chambers by a flexible diaphragm, an inert gas in one chamber acts as a pneumatic spring for the system. This system is suitable for use in a nuclear-powered artificial heart

  3. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more wide-spread than the higher temperature resources used for electricity generation. The major areas of direct utilization are: heating of swimming pools and for balneology; space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture applications (greenhouse heating and crop drying); aquaculture applications; industrial processing; and geothermal heat pumps. Direct utilization projects are reported in 72 countries with an installed capacity of 28,268 MWt and annual energy use of 273,372 TJ (75,943 GWh) reported in 2005. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent trends are to combined geothermal heat and power projects in order to maximize the use of the resource and improve the economics of the project. With the recent increases in fossil fuel prices, it is estimated that direct utilizations will more than double in the next 10 years.

  4. Thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from a chiller unit of an ice rink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyumcu Muhammed Enes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system in which the waste energy rejected from the chiller unit of an ice rink is used as an energy source. The system consists of a swimming pool and an ice rink coupled by a chiller unit. The swimming pool and the ice rink both indoor types and were constructed in city of Gaziantep, Turkey. The thermal energy requirement for each section is determined by thermal analysis of each component of the system. Effects of different design parameters such as ceiling insulation thickness, ceiling emissivity, Carnot efficiency factor and size of the ice rink on the thermal energy requirements and coefficient of performance of the chiller unit are investigated. As a result of analyses of the system, the minimum ice rink area is determined in order to meet annual total heat energy demand of the olympic-sized swimming pool.

  5. Process heat utilization from HTGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Work performed by the Special Research Unit 163 to supplement industrial development projects in the subject field was devoted to specific problems. The major goal was to analyse available industrial developments for potential improvements in terms of process design and engineering in line with the latest know-how, in order to enhance the economic efficiency of available techniques and methods. So research into coal gasification by nuclear processes concentrated on the potentials of a method allowing significantly higher gasification temperatures due to the use of a so-called high-temperature heat pump operating on the basis of the gas turbine principle. Exergetic analyses were made for the processes using nuclear heat in order to optimise their energy consumption. Major steps in these processes are gas purification and gas separation. Especially for the latter step, novel techniques were studied and tested on lab scale, results being used for development towards technical scale application. One novel technique is a method for separating hydrogen from methane and carbon monoxide by means of a gas turbine process step, another research task resulted in a novel absorption technique in the liquid phase. Further, alternative solutions were studied which, other than the conventional gasification processes, comprise electrochemical and other chemical process steps. The important research topic concerned with the kinetics of coal gasification was made part of a special research program on the level of fundamental research. (orig./GL) [de

  6. Optimization of heat transfer utilizing graph based evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryden, Kenneth M.; Ashlock, Daniel A.; McCorkle, Douglas S.; Urban, Gregory L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the use of graph based evolutionary algorithms (GBEAs) for optimization of heat transfer in a complex system. The specific case examined in this paper is the optimization of heat transfer in a biomass cookstove utilizing three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics to generate the fitness function. In this stove hot combustion gases are used to heat a cooking surface. The goal is to provide an even spatial temperature distribution on the cooking surface by redirecting the flow of combustion gases with baffles. The variables in the optimization are the position and size of the baffles, which are described by integer values. GBEAs are a novel type of EA in which a topology or geography is imposed on an evolving population of solutions. The choice of graph controls the rate at which solutions can spread within the population, impacting the diversity of solutions and convergence rate of the EAs. In this study, the choice of graph in the GBEAs changes the number of mating events required for convergence by a factor of approximately 2.25 and the diversity of the population by a factor of 2. These results confirm that by tuning the graph and parameters in GBEAs, computational time can be significantly reduced

  7. Current status of and problems in ice heat storage systems contributing to improving load rate. Air conditioning system utilizing ice heat storage and building frame storage (Takenaka Corporation); Fukaritsu kaizen ni kokensuru kori chikunetsu system no genjo to kadai. Kori chikunetsu to kutai chikunetsu wo riyoshita kucho system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Yoshitake, Y. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Development was made on a new air conditioning system, `building frame heat storage air conditioning system`, which combines an ice heat storage system with a building frame heat storage. With the building frame heat storage system, a damper is installed on an indoor device to blow cold air from the air conditioner onto slabs on the upper floor during nighttime power generating period. Heat is stored in beams, pillars and walls, and the shell absorbs and dissipates heat during daytime. Since general office buildings consume primary energy at 22.8% for heat source and 26.9% for transportation, which is greater, a natural coolant circulation type air conditioning system was developed as an air conditioning system for the secondary side. This made the building frame heat regeneration possible for the first time. With regard to heat storage quantity and heat dissipation quantity, the quantity of heat which can be stored during nighttime (10 hours) and dissipated during air conditioning using period in daytime (10 hours) is 80% of the stored heat quantity. This system was installed in a building in Kobe City. As a result of the measurement, it was found that indoor heat load reduction rate as a result of using the building frame heat storage was 24% or more in summer and 80% or more in winter. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Possibilities of utilizing solar systems for heating the hot service water in Košice build-up areas KVP and Ťahanovce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A production of „HSW“ in block of flats areas by solar collectors means a real alternative to the traditional way of heating by fossil fuels (coal, gas. With this method, it’s possible to save ca. 50 % of energy from the net of the central service of the heat, what can reduce the production of pollutants in the locality, or it can enable to increase the quantity of customers without claims for the restructuralization of the central source. Because Slovakia is the producer of quality solar collectors it’s suitable to use them just for this reason, which could be projected into the price reduction of relatively expensive present systems. On the other side, when using the flat roofs on the block of flats, other useful places are hot occupied and the heating source is nearby the place of it sconsumption. In this case, a collaboration of the solar system and the Central Service of Heat is especially suitable in time with a shortage of the solar radiation.

  9. Optimization criteria for low temperature waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranebitter, F.

    1977-01-01

    A special case in this field is the utilization of very low temperature waste heat. The temperature level under consideration in this paper is in the range between the body temperature of human beings and their environment. The waste heat from power generation and industrial processes is also considered. Thermal energy conversion will be mainly accomplished by heat cycles where discharged waste heat is reverse proportional to the upper cycle temperature. Limiting this upper cycle temperature by technological reasons the optimization of the heat cycle will depend on the nature of the cycle itself and specially on the temperature selected for the heat discharge. The waste heat discharge is typical for the different kinds of heat cycles and the paper presents the four most important of them. Feasible heat transfer methods and their economic evaluations are discussed and the distillation processes will be the basis for further considerations. The waste heat utilization for distillation purposes could be realized by three different cycles, the open cycle, the closed cycle and the multy cycle. Resulting problems as deaeration of large water streams and removal of the dissolved gases and their solutions are also discussed. (M.S.)

  10. Thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from a chiller unit of an ice rink

    OpenAIRE

    Kuyumcu Muhammed Enes; Yumrutaş Recep

    2017-01-01

    This study deals with the thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system in which the waste energy rejected from the chiller unit of an ice rink is used as an energy source. The system consists of a swimming pool and an ice rink coupled by a chiller unit. The swimming pool and the ice rink both indoor types and were constructed in city of Gaziantep, Turkey. The thermal energy requirement for each section is determined by thermal analysis of each component of the system. Effec...

  11. A central solar-industrial waste heat heating system with large scale borehole thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Xu, L.; Torrens, I.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new research of seasonal thermal storage is introduced. This study aims to maximize the utilization of renewable energy source and industrial waste heat (IWH) for urban district heating systems in both heating and non-heating seasons through the use of large-scale seasonal thermal

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  13. Containment heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.E.; Barbanti, G.; Gou, P.F.; Rao, A.S.; Hsu, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined pressure within the nuclear reactor pressure vessel; means for reducing a pressure of steam in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a value less than the predetermined pressure in the event of a nuclear accident, the means including a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel, the means further including steam heat dissipating means such dissipating means including a suppression pool; a supply of water in the suppression pool, there being a headspace in the suppression pool above the water supply; a substantial amount of air in the head space; means for feeding pressurized steam from the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a location under a surface of the supply of water, the supply of water being effective to absorb heat sufficient to reduce steam pressure below the predetermined pressure; and a check valve for communicating the headspace with the containment, the check valve being oriented to vent air in the headspace to the containment when a pressure in the headspace exceeds a pressure in the containment by a predetermined pressure differential

  14. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  15. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  16. Potential for increased wind-generated electricity utilization using heat pumps in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale wind power and increased electric heat pumps were evaluated. • A deterministic model of wind power and electricity demand was developed. • Sub-models for space heating and domestic hot water demand were developed. • Increased use of heat pumps can improve the viability of large-scale wind power. • Larger wind power capacity can meet a target utilization rate with more heat pumps. - Abstract: The U.S. has substantial wind power potential, but given wind’s intermittent availability and misalignment with electricity demand profiles, large-scale deployment of wind turbines could result in high electricity costs due to energy storage requirements or low utilization rates. While fuel switching and heat pumps have been proposed as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reduction strategies at the building scale, this paper shows that heat pump adoption could have additional system-wide benefits by increasing the utilization of wind-generated electricity. A model was developed to evaluate the effects of coupling large-scale wind power installations in New York State with increased use of electric heat pumps to meet a portion of space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands in New York City. The analysis showed significant increases in wind-generated electricity utilization with increased use of heat pumps, allowing for higher installed capacity of wind power. One scenario indicates that 78.5% annual wind-generated electricity utilization can be achieved with 3 GW of installed wind power capacity generated electricity equal to 20% of existing NYC annual electricity demand; if 20% of space heating and DHW demands are provided by heat pumps, the 78.5% utilization rate can be achieved with an increase of total wind power capacity to 5 GW. Therefore, this integrated supply–demand approach could provide additional system-wide emissions reductions

  17. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  18. Low temperature industrial waste heat utilization in the area 'Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal-Worms'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunold, K.; Krebs, A.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study is the elaboration of reliable facts whether and under which conditions low temperature industrial waste heat systems can be economically utilized for heating purposes. The source of the waste heat are power- and industrial plants. In order to obtain reliable results, investigations have been carried out in the area Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal and Worms. These investigations showed a number of application possibilities for heat pumps and it became moreover evident that there is a high variaiton of the heat requirement due to social components and the different type of building structures of the consumers. The economic results showed that the application of this heating system can under certain conditions supplement resp. replace other heating systems. (orig.) [de

  19. Method for utilizing decay heat from radioactive nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busey, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Management of radioactive heat-producing waste material while safely utilizing the heat thereof is accomplished by encapsulating the wastes after a cooling period, transporting the capsules to a facility including a plurality of vertically disposed storage tubes, lowering the capsules as they arrive at the facility into the storage tubes, cooling the storage tubes by circulating a gas thereover, employing the so heated gas to obtain an economically beneficial result, and continually adding waste capsules to the facility as they arrive thereat over a substantial period of time

  20. Waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-12-19

    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuit into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.

  1. A comparison of the heat and mechanical energy of a heat-pump wind turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A.; Arslan, S.; Yildiz, E.; Atik, K. [University of Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery

    2000-07-01

    While a variety of applications of wind energy have been studied in Turkey, no significant efforts have been made to utilize heat pumps for heat generation. The use of heat pumps in wind energy systems is worth considering because of the high efficiency of heat production. In this study, a directly coupled wind turbine-heat pump system was designed, constructed, and tested. Measurements determined the mechanical energy of the rotors of the wind turbine and the heat energy generated by the heat pump driven by the rotor shaft. Based on the comparisons between the power generated by the heat pump and the power of the Savonius rotors, it was found that the heat energy gained by the heat pump was four times greater than the mechanical energy obtained from the turbine. It was suggested that heat pumps could be efficiently used in wind energy systems. (Author)

  2. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  3. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  4. CRBRP decay heat removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottel, R.E.; Louison, R.; Boardman, C.E.; Kiley, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Decay Heat Removal Systems for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are designed to adequately remove sensible and decay heat from the reactor following normal shutdown, operational occurrences, and postulated accidents on both a short term and a long term basis. The Decay Heat Removal Systems are composed of the Main Heat Transport System, the Main Condenser and Feedwater System, the Steam Generator Auxiliary Heat Removal System (SGAHRS), and the Direct Heat Removal Service (DHRS). The overall design of the CRBRP Decay Heat Removal Systems and the operation under normal and off-normal conditions is examined. The redundancies of the system design, such as the four decay heat removal paths, the emergency diesel power supplies, and the auxiliary feedwater pumps, and the diversities of the design such as forced circulation/natural circulation and AC Power/DC Power are presented. In addition to overall design and system capabilities, the detailed designs for the Protected Air Cooled Condensers (PACC) and the Air Blast Heat Exchangers (ABHX) are presented

  5. Optimal assignment of multiple utilities in heat exchange networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, A.I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Existing numerical geometry-based techniques, developed by [A.I.A. Salama, Numerical techniques for determining heat energy targets in pinch analysis, Computers and Chemical Engineering 29 (2005) 1861-1866; A.I.A. Salama, Determination of the optimal heat energy targets in heat pinch analysis using a geometry-based approach, Computers and Chemical Engineering 30 (2006) 758-764], have been extended to optimally assign multiple utilities in heat exchange network (HEN). These techniques utilize the horizontal shift between the cold composite curve (CC) and the stationary hot CC to determine the HEN optimal energy targets, grand composite curve (GCC), and the complement grand composite curve (CGCC). The proposed numerical technique developed in this paper is direct and simultaneously determines the optimal heat-energy targets and optimally assigns multiple utilities as compared with an existing technique based on sequential assignment of multiple utilities. The technique starts by arranging in an ascending order the HEN stream and target temperatures, and the resulting set is labelled T. Furthermore, the temperature sets where multiple utilities are introduced are arranged in an ascending order and are labelled T ic and T ih for the cold and hot sides, respectively. The graphical presentation of the results is facilitated by the insertion at each multiple-utility temperature a perturbed temperature equals the insertion temperature minus a small perturbation. Furthermore, using the heat exchanger network (HEN) minimum temperature-differential approach (ΔT min ) and stream heat-capacity flow rates, the presentation is facilitated by using the conventional temperature shift of the HEN CCs. The set of temperature-shifted stream and target temperatures and perturbed temperatures in the overlap range between the CCs is labelled T ol . Using T ol , a simple formula employing enthalpy-flow differences between the hot composite curve CC h and the cold composite curve CC c is

  6. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    the benefits of using mixtures compared to pure fluids as working fluids in organic Rankine cycles. In order to do so, thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out, first on an overall cycle level, and next on component level including detailed modelling of heat exchangers, pumps and expanders involving...... project collaborators with expertise in these areas. In addition to this, novel innovative cycle layouts are developed with the aim of increasing the economic feasibility of utilizing low temperature heat. As an example, this can be achieved by implementing separators in the power cycle to create optimal...

  7. Optimization of heat supply systems employing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Decision making on the further development of heat supply systems requires optimization of the parameters. In particular, meeting the demands of peak load ranges is of importance. The heat supply coefficient α and the annual utilization of peak load equipment τ FS have been chosen as the characteristic quantities to describe them. The heat price at the consumer, C V , offers as the optimization criterion. The transport distance, temperature spread of the heating water, and different curves of annual variation of heat consumption on heat supply coefficient and heat price at the consumer. A comparison between heat supply by nuclear power plants and nuclear heating stations verifies the advantage of combined heat and power generation even with longer heat transport distances as compared with local heat supply by nuclear district heating stations based on the criterion of minimum employment of peak load boilers. (author)

  8. Combustion and heat transfer monitoring in large utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, L.I.; Cortes, C.; Arauzo, I.; Valero, A. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Center of Power Plant Efficiency Research

    2001-05-01

    The optimization and control of complex energy systems can presently take advantage of highly sophisticated engineering techniques, such as CFD calculations and correlation algorithms based on artificial intelligence concepts. However, the most advanced numerical prediction still relies on strong simplifications of the exact transport equations. Likewise, the output of a neural network is actually based on a long record of observed past responses. Therefore, the implementation of modern diagnosis tools generally requires a great amount of experimental data, in order to achieve an adequate validation of the method. Consequently, a sort of paradox results, since the validation data cannot be less accurate or complete than the predictions sought. To remedy this situation, there are several alternatives. In contrast to laboratory work or well-instrumented pilot plants, the information obtained in the full scale installation offers the advantages of realism and low cost. This paper presents the case-study of a large, pulverized-coal fired utility boiler, discussing both the evaluation of customary measurements and the adoption of supplementary instruments. The generic outcome is that it is possible to significantly improve the knowledge on combustion and heat transfer performance within a reasonable cost. Based on the experience and results, a general methodology is outlined to cope with this kind of analysis.

  9. Combustion and heat transfer monitoring in large utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignacio Diez, L.; Cortes, C.; Arauzo, I.; Valero, A. [Zaragoza Univ., Centro de Investigacion del rendimiento de Centrales Electricas (CIRCE) (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    As a result of the quick and vast development of instrumentation and software capabilities, the optimization and control of complex energy systems can presently take advantage of highly sophisticated engineering techniques, such as CFD calculations and correlation algorithms based on artificial intelligence concepts. However, the most advanced numerical prediction still relies on strong simplifications of the exact transport equations. Likewise, the output of a neural network, or any other refined data-processing device, is actually based in a long record of observed past responses. Therefore, the implementation of modern diagnosis tools generally requires a great amount of experimental data, in order to achieve an adequate validation of the method. Consequently, a sort of paradox results, since the validation data cannot be less accurate or complete than the predictions sought. To remedy this situation, there are several alternatives. In opposition to laboratory work or well-instrumented pilot plants, the information obtained in the full scale installation offers the advantages of realism and low cost. This paper presents the case-study of a large, pulverized-coal fired utility boiler, discussing both the evaluation of customary measurements and the adoption of supplementary instruments. The generic outcome is that it is possible to significantly improve the knowledge on combustion and heat transfer performance within a reasonable cost. Based on the experience and results, a general methodology is outlined to cope with this kind of analysis. (author)

  10. Utility of spoken dialog systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the evolution of poken dialog system research in the developed world, and show that the utility of speech is based on user factors and application factors (among others). After adjusting the factors for the developing world context, and plotting...

  11. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-12-01

    The project deals with the development and testing of a simple system for utilization of the summer excess heat from small solar air heating systems for preheating of fresh air. The principle of the system is to lead the heated air down around a domestic hot water tank letting the surface of the tank act as heat exchanger between the air and the water. In order to increase the heat transfer, coefficient fins into the air stream were mounted on the tank. A complete system with 3 m{sup 2} solar air collector, ductworks and a 85 litre storage were set up and extensively monitored. The air stream through the system was created by a fan connected directly to one or two PV-panels leading to a solar radiation dependent flow rate without the use of any other control. Based on monitoring results the system was characterized and a TRNSYS model of the system was developed and calibrated/validated. The monitoring and the simulations with the TRNSYS model revealed several interesting things about the system. The monitoring revealed that the system is capable of bringing the temperature of the water in the storage above 60 deg. C at warm days with clear sky conditions. The storage is very stratified, which is beneficial as usable hot water temperatures rather quickly are obtained. The performance was highly dependent on the airflow rate through the system. It can be concluded that the investigated system will have a performance in the order of 500 kWh during the winter, spring and autumn months and around 250 kWh during the four summer months - or in total a yearly performance of 750 kWh/m{sup 2}. A small traditional solar heating system for preheating of domestic hot water would have a higher performance during the four summer months, but no performance during the rest of the year if the system is installed in a summer house, which only is occupied during the summer. The parametric analysis further indicates that it is possible to further optimise the system when the thermal

  12. Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Srivastava, A.; Rao, I.S.; Majumdar, M.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2μS/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are

  13. Radon in houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn and its daughters in three solar energy houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation are reported. Theoretical calculations of the radon contribution from the stone magazines seem to be in good agreement with the measured values. The survey indicated that this method for heat accumulation could give a significant increase in the indoor radon concentration if the radium concentration of the stone material is high. The theoretical considerations suggest that a radium concentration of 1 pCi/g of the stone material could give an increment of the radon concentration in the indoor air of about 1 pCi/l. during the heating season in a house with air volume of 250 m 3 and a 10 5 -kg stone magazine. (author)

  14. Study of an innovative ejector heat pump-boosted district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yuanchao; Kang, Lisha; Lv, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    An Ejector heat pump-boosted District Heating (EDH) system is proposed to improve the heating capacity of existing district heating systems with Combined Heat and Power (CHP). In the EDH, two ejector heat pumps are installed: a primary heat pump (HP 1 ) at the heating station and a secondary heat pump (HP 2 ) at the heating substation. With the EDH, the low-grade waste heat from circulating cooling water in the CHP is recycled and the temperature difference between the water supply and the return of the primary heating network is increased. A thermodynamic model was provided. An experimental study was carried out for both HP 1 and HP 2 to verify the predicting performance. The results show that the COP of HP 1 can reach 1.5–1.9, and the return water temperature of the primary heating network could be decreased to 35 °C with HP 2 . A typical case study for the EDH was analyzed. -- Highlights: • An ejector heat pump-boosted district heating (EDH) is proposed. • The 1st ejector heat pump in EDH recycles heat from cooling water of the CHP. • The 2nd ejector heat pump in EDH boosts the thermal energy utilization of the primary heating network. • Modeling and experimental studies are presented

  15. Floor heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U

    1984-02-01

    The question of whether PPC- and VPE-floor heating pipes can endure damage when incompletely imbedded in the floor finish is investigated in an experimental setup. An expansion of the pipe, caused by a temperature increase from 20/sup 0/C to 50/sup 0/C was measured and considered too small to deduce the degree of danger from the damage.

  16. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  17. Business Opportunity Prospectus for Utilities in Solar Water Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Alliance Group

    1999-06-30

    Faced with deregulation and increasingly aggressive competition, utilities are looking for new products and services to increase revenues, improve customer loyalty and retention, and establish barriers to market erosion. With open access now a reality, and retail wheeling just around the corner, business expansion via new products and services is now the central goal for most utilities in the United States. It may seem surprising that solar thermal energy as applied to heating domestic hot water - an idea that has been around for a long time - offers what utilities and their residential customers want most in a new product/service. This document not only explains how and why, it shows how to get into the business and succeed on a commercial scale.

  18. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. ECOLO-HOUSE in the heavy snow-fall region. Study of the ventilating function that the heat collecting system of the air duct utilizing attic has; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Kison kaoku no yaneura wo riyoshita duct shunetsu system kanki kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H; Hirosawa, K [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports a duct heat collecting system installed in the ECOLO-HOUSE for snow countries. This system is an air heat collecting system of the outside air introducing type utilizing as a solar heat collector the single pitch roof often seen in snow countries. Outside air is introduced from below eaves into a heat collecting duct made by nailing plywoods onto rafters from the attic side to collect heat on the roof. Operating a sirocco fan connected to the induction duct located on the high-floor foundation sucks outside air from an air intake opening under the eaves into the heat collecting duct. Air which has absorbed heat on the roof and been warmed in the heat collecting duct by insolation goes into a heat collecting chamber. The air is sent into the high-floor foundation through the induction duct laid from the heat collecting chamber. Air is exchanged 8.7 times by the fan when it is operated all day continuously. Condensation in the fuel chamber floor and walls during the rainy season has disappeared, and so has odor at the same time. As a result of the humidity measurement, a location into which warm air is sent has difference in humidity as great as 15% from a location where no warm air is sent. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Heat pipe heat exchangers in heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stulc, P; Vasiliev, L L; Kiseljev, V G; Matvejev, Ju N

    1985-01-01

    The results of combined research and development activities of the National Research Institute for Machine Design, Prague, C.S.S.R. and the Institute for Heat and Mass Transfer, Minsk, U.S.S.R. concerning intensification heat pipes used in heat pipe heat exchangers are presented. This sort of research has been occasioned by increased interest in heat power economy trying to utilise waste heat produced by various technological processes. The developed heat pipes are deployed in construction of air-air, gas-air or gas-gas heat recovery exchangers in the field of air-engineering and air-conditioning. (author).

  1. Absorption technology for solar and waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, G.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption heat pumps, first developed in the 19th century, have received renewed and growing attention in the past two decades. With the increasing cost of oil and electricity, the particular features of this heat-powered cycle have made it attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered air conditioning, gas-fired domestic cooling and waste-heat-powered temperature boosters are some of the applications on which intensive research and development has been conducted. This paper describes the operation of absorption systems and discusses several practical applications. It surveys recent advances in absorption technology, including the selection of working fluids, cycle improvements and multi-staging, and fundamentals of the combined heat and mass transfer in absorption processes. (author)

  2. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  3. Performance and availability of seawater distiller with heat pipe utilizing low grade waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Dae; Chung, Kyung Yul [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tanaka, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Exhaust gas from a small portable electric generator is simply exhausted to the surroundings because the capacity and quality of the waste heat of this gas is generally not sufficient to recover and utilize. We have proposed a seawater distiller utilizing the thermal energy of waste gas from an electric generator. The distiller recovers heat from the waste gas by means of a heat pipe and uses it effectively through a multiple effect diffusion type structure. We constructed an experimental apparatus with a vertical single effect still having a 4 stroke 50cc generator engine and found that the experimental results for distillate productivity show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The results show that the distiller can recover 52W of waste heat from the gas at 171.deg.C, and {approx}85%, of the recovered heat can be utilized for distillation to produce 70g/h of fresh water. This is equivalent to a productivity of 500g/h in the case of a 10 effect still. Therefore, the proposed distiller should be useful in remote areas where electricity and water grids are inadequate.

  4. Ways to achieve optimum utilization of waste gas heat in cement kiln plants with cyclone preheaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbiss, E

    1986-02-01

    Kiln exit gases and the exhaust gases from clinker coolers often cannot be fully utilized in drying plants. In such cases a part of the heat content of the gases should be utilized for water heating. In addition, it is possible to utilize the waste gas heat in conventional steam boilers, with which, depending on design, it is possible to generate electricity at a rate of between 10-30 kWh/t (net output). A new and promising method of utilization of waste gas heat is provided by precalcining systems with bypass, in which up to 100% of the kiln exit gases can be economically bypassed and be utilized in a steam boiler, without requiring any cooling. A development project, already started, gives information on the operational behaviour of such a plant and on the maximum energy recoverable. Alternatively, the bypass gases may, after partial cooling with air or preheater exit gas, be dedusted and then utilized in a grinding/drying plant. Furthermore, they can be used in the cement grinding process for the drying of wet granulated blastfurnace slag or other materials. For this it is not necessary to dedust the bypass gases.

  5. Performance of Space Heating in a Modern Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we study the performance of a number of heat supply technologies. The background of the study is the changes in the Danish energy systems over the last three decades which have caused integration of large shares of combined heat and power (CHP), renewable fuels and wind power....... These changes mean that there is a significant integration of electricity and heat supply in the system and that several technologies may be beneficial. In particular, heat pumps are under consideration and are often considered to be renewable energy. We study how to distribute fuel and emissions to the heat...... supply. We find that heat supply is low-efficient seen from an exergy viewpoint, between 1% and 26% utilization. As exergy is a quantification of primary energy, we conclude that far better utilization of primary energy is possible. We also find that combined heat and power and domestic heat pumps...

  6. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.; Minor, Eric N.

    2017-11-14

    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.

  7. Efficiency of utilization of heat of moisture from exhaust gases of heat HRSG of CCGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the technology of utilizing the heat of exhaust gas moisture from heat recovery steam gases (HRSG of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT. Particular attention focused on the influence of the excess air factor on the trapping of the moisture of the exhaust gases, as in the HRSG of the CCGT its value varies over a wider range than in the steam boilers of the TPP. For the research, has been developed a mathematical model that allows to determine the volumes of combustion products and the amount of water vapor produced according to a given composition of the burned gas and determine the amount of moisture that will be obtained as a result of condensation at a given temperature of the flue gases at the outlet of the condensation heat exchanger (CHE. To calculate the efficiency of the HRSG taking into account the heat of condensation of moisture in the CHE an equation is derived.

  8. Optimal Placement of A Heat Pump in An Integrated Power and Heat Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyapovskiy, Sergey; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    With the present trend towards Smart Grids and Smart Energy Systems it is important to look for the opportunities for integrated development between different energy sectors, such as electricity, heating, gas and transportation. This paper investigates the problem of optimal placement of a heat...... pump – a component that links electric and heating utilities together. The system used to demonstrate the integrated planning approach has two neighboring 10kV feeders and several distribution substations with loads that require central heating from the heat pump. The optimal location is found...

  9. The relationship among CPU utilization, temperature, and thermal power for waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Anna M.; Sherbeck, Jon; Phelan, Patrick; Varsamopoulos, Georgios; Gupta, Sandeep K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work graphs a triad relationship among CPU utilization, temperature and power. • Using a custom-built cold plate, we were able capture CPU-generated high quality heat. • The work undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil to directly cool CPUs. • We found that it is possible to use CPU waste energy to power an absorption chiller. - Abstract: This work addresses significant datacenter issues of growth in numbers of computer servers and subsequent electricity expenditure by proposing, analyzing and testing a unique idea of recycling the highest quality waste heat generated by datacenter servers. The aim was to provide a renewable and sustainable energy source for use in cooling the datacenter. The work incorporates novel approaches in waste heat usage, graphing CPU temperature, power and utilization simultaneously, and a mineral oil experimental design and implementation. The work presented investigates and illustrates the quantity and quality of heat that can be captured from a variably tasked liquid-cooled microprocessor on a datacenter server blade. It undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil. The trials examine the feasibility of using the thermal energy from a CPU to drive a cooling process. Results indicate that 123 servers encapsulated in mineral oil can power a 10-ton chiller with a design point of 50.2 kW th . Compared with water-cooling experiments, the mineral oil experiment mitigated the temperature drop between the heat source and discharge line by up to 81%. In addition, due to this reduction in temperature drop, the heat quality in the oil discharge line was up to 12.3 °C higher on average than for water-cooled experiments. Furthermore, mineral oil cooling holds the potential to eliminate the 50% cooling expenditure which initially motivated this project

  10. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D [Vernon, CT; Biederman, Bruce P [West Hartford, CT; Brasz, Joost J [Fayetteville, NY

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  11. City/industry/utility partnership leads to innovative combined heat and power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J. [Savage and Associates, Quesnel, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a combined heat and power (CHP) project that was launched in Quesnel, British Columbia. The CHP is being developed in phases in which new components will enter the system, providing added benefits. Hot oil from a sawmill bioenergy system will be used to heat lumber kilns, generate electricity at an Organic Rankine Cycle co-generation plant, and heat water for a District Energy Loop (DEL) to heat up to 22 existing buildings in the city as well as sawmill and planer buildings. The DEL piping would comprise a 5 kilometre loop. The energy would come from recovered sawmill space heating, recovered stack energy, and additional biomass energy. All of the district heating and 41 per cent of the power would be from heat recovered from the existing industrial operation. This bio-economy vision ultimately involves incorporating a biogas digester into the system to process food, regional organic waste, and pulp mill residuals, relying on bio-solids and heat from the mill. The fertilizer from the digester would then be used in a biomass plantation, which would provide materials to industry for many products, including bio-refining. This project evolved in response to concerns about the ecological effects and long-term economics of aggressive utilization of forest biomass. 15 figs.

  12. Efficiency of utilization of heat of moisture from exhaust gases of heat HRSG of CCGT

    OpenAIRE

    Galashov Nikolay; Tsibulskiy Svyatoslav; Mel’nikov Denis; Kiselev Alexandr; Gabdullina Al’bina

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the technology of utilizing the heat of exhaust gas moisture from heat recovery steam gases (HRSG) of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT). Particular attention focused on the influence of the excess air factor on the trapping of the moisture of the exhaust gases, as in the HRSG of the CCGT its value varies over a wider range than in the steam boilers of the TPP. For the research, has been developed a mathematical model that allows to determine the volumes of combustion produ...

  13. Geothermal heat-pump systems of heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    The data on the multilayer operation of the objects, located in the climatic conditions of the central area of Russia and equipped with the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply are presented. The results of the analytical studies on evaluating the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply integration efficiency into the structure of the energy supply system, prevailing in the country, are presented [ru

  14. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1998-12-08

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  15. The thermoelectric generators use for waste heat utilization from cement plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztekler Karol

    2017-01-01

    Production often entails the formation of by-product which is waste heat. One of the equipment processing heat into electricity is a thermoelectric generator. Its operation is based on the principle of thermoelectric phenomenon, which is known as a Seebeck phenomenon. The simplicity of thermoelectric phenomena allows its use in various industries, in which the main waste product is in the form of heat with the temperature of several hundred degrees. The study analyses the possibility of the thermoelectric systems use for the waste heat utilization resulting in the cement production at the cement plant. The location and design of the thermoelectric system that could be implemented in cement plant is chosen. The analysis has been prepared in the IPSEpro software.

  16. Targeting the maximum heat recovery for systems with heat losses and heat gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah; Lee, Carmen Kar Mun; Lee, Kim Yau; Abd Manan, Zainuddin; Fraser, Duncan M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Illustration of heat gains and losses from process streams. - Highlights: • Maximising energy savings through heat losses or gains. • Identifying location where insulation can be avoided. • Heuristics to maximise heat losses or gains. • Targeting heat losses or gains using the extended STEP technique and HEAT diagram. - Abstract: Process Integration using the Pinch Analysis technique has been widely used as a tool for the optimal design of heat exchanger networks (HENs). The Composite Curves and the Stream Temperature versus Enthalpy Plot (STEP) are among the graphical tools used to target the maximum heat recovery for a HEN. However, these tools assume that heat losses and heat gains are negligible. This work presents an approach that considers heat losses and heat gains during the establishment of the minimum utility targets. The STEP method, which is plotted based on the individual, as opposed to the composite streams, has been extended to consider the effect of heat losses and heat gains during stream matching. Several rules to guide the proper location of pipe insulation, and the appropriate procedure for stream shifting have been introduced in order to minimise the heat losses and maximise the heat gains. Application of the method on two case studies shows that considering heat losses and heat gains yield more realistic utility targets and help reduce both the insulation capital cost and utility cost of a HEN

  17. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    that three configurations are particular advantageous, whereas the two remaining configurations result in system performance close to or below what may be expected from an electric heater. One of the three advantageous configurations is required to be positioned at the location of the heat demand, whereas...... the two remaining can be located at positions with availability of high temperature sources by utilising the DH network to distribute the heat. A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of HPs operated with natural working fluids, which may be the only feasible choice...... representation allows infeasible production. Using MIP or NLP optimisation, the number of operation hours and the total production of heat from HPs are significantly increased, as the HPs may be used to shave the load patterns of CHP units in significantly constrained energy systems. A MIP energy system model...

  18. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  19. Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Barnes, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest

  20. Performance variations of river water source heat pump system according to heat exchanger capacity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Ryong; Baik, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of unused energy is important because it can afford to offer a chance to increase energy efficiency of a heat pump system. One of the promising unused energy sources is river water. It can be used as a heat source in both heating and cooling effectively with its superior features as a secondary working fluids. In this study, the performance of a 5HP heat pump system using river water as a heat source is investigated by both experiment and simulation. According to system simulation results, performance improvement of condenser seems more effective than that of evaporator for better COPH. The serial connection is also preferred among several methods to improve plate type heat exchanger performance. The experimental results show that the hot water of 50∼60 .deg. C can be acquired from water heat source of 5∼9 .deg. C with COPH of 2.7∼3.5

  1. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume II. Options for capturing the waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Options for utilizing the heated SRP effluent are investigated. The temperature and availability characteristics of the heated effluent are analyzed. Technical options for energy recovery are discussed. A number of thermodynamic cycles that could generate electrical power using the energy in the heated SRP effluent are described. Conceptual designs for SRP application of two attractive options are presented. Other direct uses for the heated effluent, as heat sources for agriculture and aquaculture options are discussed

  2. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  3. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 7. Examination on design and control of the system partially recovering exhaust heat of heat pump; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 7. Bubuntekina hainetsu kaishu wo koryoshita baai no sekkei seigyoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The capacity and performance of the existing system that recovers the overall heating and cooling exhaust heat completely into a seasonal storage tank and the system that discharges the exhaust heat slightly to the outside and recovers it partially were compared and investigated. The system uses a central single-duct discharge system as an air-conditioning system. A heat pump and a flat-plate solar collector installed on the roof of a building are used as the heat source. The seasonal storage tank in the ground just under the building is a cylindrical water tank of 5 m deep with the concrete used as body. The upper surface of a storage tank is heat-insulated by a stylo-platform of 200 mm, and the lower side surface by a stylo-platform of 100 mm. Calculation when the difference in temperature used in a seasonal storage tank is set to 35{degree}C and 25{degree}C was performed for the system that has two control methods. The overall exhaust heat recovery system is almost the same in energy performance as the partial exhaust heat recovery system. The partial exhaust heat recovery system is more advantageous on the economic side. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  5. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B

    2011-04-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve. © 2011 American Physical Society

  6. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2010-01-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve.

  7. Soil warming for utilization and dissipation of waste heat from power generation in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWalle, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Penn State research project, which studies the soil warming by circulation of heated power plant discharge water through a buried pipe network. Waste heat can be utilized by soil warming for increased crop growth in open fields with proper selection of crops and cropping systems. Dissipation of waste heat from a buried pipe network can be predicted using either of two steady-state conduction equations tested. Accurate predictions are dependent upon estimates of the pipe outer-surface temperatures, soil surface temperatures in heated soil and soil thermal conductivity. The effect of economic optimization on soil-warming land area requirements for a 1500 MWe power plant in Pennsylvania is presented. (M.S.)

  8. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupang, B.M.

    1980-06-01

    This paper will discuss the integration of SPS power in electric utility power systems. Specifically treated will be the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power and the impacts on the electric utility system from utilizing SPS power to serve part of the system load.

  9. TNS superconducting ohmic-heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Fuja, R.; Kim, S.H.; Kustom, R.L.; Praeg, W.F.; Thompson, K.; Turner, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) system is the selected design for the General Atomics Co./Argonne National Laboratory TNS tokamak design studies. The key features of the OH system design are: (1) parallel coil connection, (2) better utilization of flux core by embedding support cylinder of the toroidal-field coil within the OH inner radius, (3) independent trim coils for correcting the stray fields, (4) low-loss high-current cryostable cable design and (5) OH coil cycling circuit using a reversing bridge. Detailed designs are presented

  10. A feasible system integrating combined heating and power system with ground-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, HongQiang; Kang, ShuShuo; Yu, Zhun; Cai, Bo; Zhang, GuoQiang

    2014-01-01

    A system integrating CHP (combined heating and power) subsystem based on natural gas and GSHP (ground-source heat pump subsystem) in series is proposed. By help of simulation software-Aspen Plus, the energy performance of a typical CHP and GSHP-S (S refers to ‘in series’) system was analyzed. The results show that the system can make a better use of waste heat in flue gas from CHP (combined heating and power subsystem). The total system energy efficiency is 123% and the COP (coefficient of performance) of GSHP (ground-source heat pump) subsystem is 5.3. A referenced CHP and GSHP-P (P refers to ‘in parallel’) system is used for comparison; its total system energy efficiency and COP of GSHP subsystem are 118.6% and 3.5 respectively. Compared with CHP and GSHP-P system with different operating parameters, the CHP and GSHP-S system can increase total system energy efficiency by 0.8–34.7%, with related output ratio of heat to power (R) from 1.9 to 18.3. Furthermore, the COP of GSHP subsystem can be increased between the range 3.6 and 6, which is much higher than that in conventional CHP and GSHP-P system. This study will be helpful for other efficient GSHP systems integrating if there is waste heat or other heat resources with low temperature. - Highlights: • CHP system based on natural gas and ground source heat pump. • The new system can make a better utilization of waste heat in flue gas by a special way. • The proposed system can realize energy saving potential from 0.8 to 34.7%. • The coefficient of performance of ground source heat pump subsystem is significantly improved from 3.5 to 3.6–6. • Warm water temperature and percentage of flue gas used to reheat are key parameters

  11. Heat exchanges in coarsening systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corberi, Federico [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Università di Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Gonnella, Giuseppe; Piscitelli, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the thermal properties of ageing systems where statistically independent degrees of freedom with greatly separated time scales are expected to coexist. Focusing on the prototypical case of quenched ferromagnets, where fast and slow modes can be respectively associated with fluctuations in the bulk of the coarsening domains and in their interfaces, we perform a set of numerical experiments specifically designed to compute the heat exchanges between different degrees of freedom. Our studies promote a scenario with fast modes acting as an equilibrium reservoir to which interfaces may release heat through a mechanism that allows fast and slow degrees to maintain their statistical properties independently.

  12. TPX heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungl, D.J.; Knutson, D.S.; Costello, J.; Stoenescu, S.; Yemin, L.

    1995-01-01

    TPX, while having primarily super-conducting coils that do not require water cooling, still has very significant water cooling requirements for the plasma heating systems, vacuum vessel, plasma facing components, diagnostics, and ancillary equipment. This is accentuated by the 1000-second pulse requirement. Two major design changes, which have significantly affected the TPX Heating and Cooling System, have been made since the conceptual design review in March of 1993. This paper will discuss these changes and review the current status of the conceptual design. The first change involves replacing the vacuum vessel neutron shielding configuration of lead/glass composite tile by a much simpler and more reliable borated water shield. The second change reduces the operating temperature of the vacuum vessel from 150 C to ≥50 C. With this temperature reduction, all in-vessel components and the vessel will be supplied by coolant at a common ≥50 C inlet temperature. In all, six different heating and cooling supply requirements (temperature, pressure, water quality) for the various TPX components must be met. This paper will detail these requirements and provide an overview of the Heating and Cooling System design while focusing on the ramifications of the TPX changes described above

  13. Experimental investigation on an integrated thermal management system with heat pipe heat exchanger for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Huiming; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guiying; Qin, Fei; Tian, Changqing; Yan, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated thermal management system is proposed for electric vehicle. • The parallel branch of battery chiller can supply additional cooling capacity. • Heat pipe performance on preheating mode is better than that on cooling mode. • Heat pipe heat exchanger is a feasible choice for battery thermal management. - Abstract: An integrated thermal management system combining a heat pipe battery cooling/preheating system with the heat pump air conditioning system is presented to fulfill the comprehensive energy utilization for electric vehicles. A test bench with battery heat pipe heat exchanger and heat pump air conditioning for a regular five-chair electric car is set up to research the performance of this integrated system under different working conditions. The investigation results show that as the system is designed to meet the basic cabinet cooling demand, the additional parallel branch of battery chiller is a good way to solve the battery group cooling problem, which can supply about 20% additional cooling capacity without input power increase. Its coefficient of performance for cabinet heating is around 1.34 at −20 °C out-car temperature and 20 °C in-car temperature. The specific heat of the battery group is tested about 1.24 kJ/kg °C. There exists a necessary temperature condition for the heat pipe heat exchanger to start action. The heat pipe heat transfer performance is around 0.87 W/°C on cooling mode and 1.11 W/°C on preheating mode. The gravity role makes the heat transfer performance of the heat pipe on preheating mode better than that on cooling mode.

  14. Advanced regenerative heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A.; Jasti, J. K.

    1982-02-01

    A regenerative heat recovery system was designed and fabricated to deliver 1500 scfm preheated air to a maximum temperature of 1600 F. Since this system is operating at 2000 F, the internal parts were designed to be fabricated with ceramic materials. This system is also designed to be adaptable to an internal metallic structure to operate in the range of 1100 to 1500 F. A test facility was designed and fabricated to test this system. The test facility is equipped to impose a pressure differential of up to 27 inches of water column in between preheated air and flue gas lines for checking possible leakage through the seals. The preliminary tests conducted on the advanced regenerative heat recovery system indicate the thermal effectiveness in the range of 60% to 70%. Bench scale studies were conducted on various ceramic and gasket materials to identify the proper material to be used in high temperature applications. A market survey was conducted to identify the application areas for this heat recovery system. A cost/benefit analysis showed a payback period of less than one and a half years.

  15. Method and equipment to utilize solar heat. [paraffin used as heat storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellein, H

    1976-09-16

    In this process, solar radiation is converted into heat by means of absorbers. The heat transferred to a liquid is led in forced circulation, first into a heat storage device and then into a water heater. The cooled-down liquid is rercirculated. The storage material used here is paraffin. A measuring and control device is provided to switch from periods with solar radiation to periods where only stored energy is consumed. This device consists of a photocell measuring the incoming sunlight and a temperarure sensor. The control system is put into operation by a combination of the two measured values. The heat accumulator consists of several elements connected in parallel. A control device makes sure that only one accumulator element at a time is part of the circuit. The absorbers, as usual, consists of the absorber plate proper and a cover plate.

  16. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  17. After-heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi; Mitani, Shinji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent contamination of suppression pool water and intrusion of corrosion products into a nuclear reactor. Constitution: Upon stop of an after-heat removing system, reactor water contained in pipelines is drained out to a radioactive wastes processing facility at the time the cooling operation mode has been completed. At the same time, water is injected from a pure water supply system to the after-heat removing system to discharge corrosion product and activated materials while cleaning the inside of the pipelines. Then, pure water is held in the pipelines and it is discharged again and replaced with pure water before entering the cooling mode operation. Thereafter, the cooling mode operation upon reactor shutdown is performed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Characterization of a solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump water heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Describing concept and operating principle of the PV/LHP heat pump water heating system. ► Developing a numerical model to evaluate the performance of the system. ► Experimental testing of the prototype system. ► Characterizing the system performance using parallel comparison between the modelling and experimental results. ► Investigating the impact of the operating conditions to the system’s performance. -- Abstract: This paper introduced the concept, potential application and benefits relating to a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for hot water generation. On this basis, the paper reported the process and results of characterizing the performance of such a system, which was undertaken through dedicated thermo-fluid and energy balance analyses, computer model development and operation, and experimental verification and modification. The fundamental heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic governing equations were applied to characterize the energy conversion and transfer processes occurring in each part and whole system layout; while the energy balance approach was utilized to enable inter-connection and resolution of the grouped equations. As a result, a dedicated computer model was developed and used to calculate the operational parameters, optimise the geometrical configurations and sizes, and recommend the appropriate operational condition relating to the system. Further, an experimental rig was constructed and utilized to acquire the relevant measurement data that thus enabled the parallel comparison between the simulation and experiment. It is concluded that the testing and modelling results are in good agreement, indicating that the model has the reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s performance. Under the given experimental conditions, the electrical, thermal and overall efficiency of the PV/LHP module were around 10%, 40% and 50% respectively; whilst the system’s overall performance

  19. Soil warming for utilization and dissipation of waste heat in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWalle, D.R.; Chapura, A.M. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using soil warming for utilization and dissipation of reject heat from power plants was demonstrated in a year-long test operation of a field prototype in Pennsylvania. A parallel network of 5-mm-diam polyethylene pipes was buried at a 0.3-m depth and with 0.6-m spacing in the soil covering a 15- x 60-m area to convey hot water simulating condenser cooling water from a power plant. Crop response to the heated soil varied: Snap beans and warm season forage crops such as sudangrass responded with increased yields, while cool season forage crops experienced decreased yields. Winter wheat yields were also increased, but winter barley was winter-killed due to delayed development of cold tolerance in the warm soil. Heat dissipation from the buried pipes was primarily by thermal conduction to the soil surface. Rates of heat loss from the buried pipes were most accurately predicted using an equation that included an explicit term for heat conduction below the pipes. Estimated soil warming land area necessary to dissipate all the reject heat from a 33% efficiency, 1500-MW electrical power plant based on minimum measured summer heat loss rates was 76 km 2 compared to the economic optimum of 18.2 km 2 determined as the least-cost system

  20. KSTAR RF heating system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, J. G.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, C. K. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    Design, high-voltage test, and installation of 6 MW ICRF heating system for KSTAR is completed. The antenna demonstrated satisfactory standoff at high voltages up to 41 kV for 300 sec. The result indicates good power handling capabilities of the antenna as high as 10 MW/m2. This power density is equivalent to RF power coupling of 6 MW into a 4 {omega}/m target plasma, and is typical of advanced tokamak heating scenarios. In addition, vacuum feed through, DC break, and liquid stub developed for 300 sec operation are installed, as well as a 2 MW, 30-60MHz transmitter. The transmitter successfully produced output powers of 600 kW continuously, 1.5{approx}1.8 MW for 300 sec, and 2 MW for 100 msec or shorter pulses. A realtime control system based on DSP and EPICS is developed, installed, and tested on the ICRF system. Initial results from feasibility study indicate that the present antenna and the transmission lines could allow load-resilient operation on KSTAR. Until the KSTAR tokamak start to produce plasmas in 2008, however, hands-on operational experiences are obtained from participating in ICRF heating experiments at ASDEX and DIII-D tokamaks arranged through international cooperation.

  1. Advanced ceramics for nuclear heat utilization and energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Deep; Purohit, R.D.; Sinha, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years concerns related to global warming and green house gas emissions have focused the attention towards lowering the carbon foot print of energy generation. In this scenario, nuclear energy is considered as one of the strongest options to take on the challenges. Further, the nuclear heat, originated from the fission of nuclear fuels may be utilized not only by conversion to electricity using conventional techniques, but also may be used for production of hydrogen by splitting water. In the endeavor of realizing sustainable energy generation technologies, ceramic materials find key role as critical components. This paper covers an overview of various ceramic materials which are potential candidates for energy and hydrogen generation devices. These include solid oxide fuel cells, thermoelectric oxides and sodium conducting beta-alumina for alkali metal thermoelectric converters (AMTEC). The materials, which are generally complex oxides often need to be synthesized using chemical methods for purity and compositional control. Further, ceramic materials offer advantages in terms of doping different cations to engineer defects and maneuver properties. Nonetheless, shaping of ceramics to complex components is a challenging task, due to which various techniques such as isopressing, tape-casting, extrusion, slurry coating, spray deposition etc. are employed. The paper also provides a highlight of fabrication techniques and demonstration of miniature devices which are at various stages of development. (author)

  2. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy....... The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand...

  3. Heat pumps in combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Heat pumps have previously been proposed as a way to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy in DH (district heating) networks by integrating, e.g., wind power. The paper identifies and compares five generic configurations of heat pumps in DH systems. The operational performance...... of the considered cases. When considering a case where the heat pump is located at a CHP (combined heat and power) plant, a configuration that increases the DH return temperature proposes the lowest operation cost, as low as 12 EUR MWh-1 for a 90 °C e 40 °C DH network. Considering the volumetric heating capacity......, a third configuration is superior in all cases. Finally, the three most promising heat pump configurations are integrated in a modified PQ-diagram of the CHP plant. Each show individual advantages, and for two, also disadvantages in order to achieve flexible operation....

  4. Compact seasonal PCM heat storage for solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark

    Space heating of buildings and preparation of domestic hot water accounts for a large part of the society’s energy consumption. Solar radiation is an abundant and renewable energy source which can be harvested by solar collectors and used to cover heating demands in the built environment....... The seasonal availability of solar energy does however not match with the heating demands in buildings which typically are large in winter periods when limited solar energy is available. Heat can be stored over a few days in water stores but continuous heat losses limits the storage periods. The possibility...... of storing heat from summer where solar energy is widely available to winter periods where the heating demands are large, allows for implementing more renewable energy in our energy system. The phase change material (PCM) sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) melts at 58 °C. The melting process requires...

  5. Advances in heat pump systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K.J.; Chou, S.K.; Yang, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pump systems offer economical alternatives of recovering heat from different sources for use in various industrial, commercial and residential applications. As the cost of energy continues to rise, it becomes imperative to save energy and improve overall energy efficiency. In this light, the heat pump becomes a key component in an energy recovery system with great potential for energy saving. Improving heat pump performance, reliability, and its environmental impact has been an ongoing concern. Recent progresses in heat pump systems have centred upon advanced cycle designs for both heat- and work-actuated systems, improved cycle components (including choice of working fluid), and exploiting utilisation in a wider range of applications. For the heat pump to be an economical proposition, continuous efforts need to be devoted to improving its performance and reliability while discovering novel applications. Some recent research efforts have markedly improved the energy efficiency of heat pump. For example, the incorporation of a heat-driven ejector to the heat pump has improved system efficiency by more than 20%. Additionally, the development of better compressor technology has the potential to reduce energy consumption of heat pump systems by as much as 80%. The evolution of new hybrid systems has also enabled the heat pump to perform efficiently with wider applications. For example, incorporating a desiccant to a heat pump cycle allowed better humidity and temperature controls with achievable COP as high as 6. This review paper provides an update on recent developments in heat pump systems, and is intended to be a 'one-stop' archive of known practical heat pump solutions. The paper, broadly divided into three main sections, begins with a review of the various methods of enhancing the performance of heat pumps. This is followed by a review of the major hybrid heat pump systems suitable for application with various heat sources. Lastly, the paper presents novel

  6. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  7. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  8. Overview of HTGR utilization system developments at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Shiozawa, S.; Inagaki, Y.

    1997-01-01

    JAERI has been constructing a 30-MWt HTGR, named HTTR, to develop technology and to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization. A hydrogen production system by natural gas steam reforming is to be the first heat utilization system of the HTTR since its technology matured in fossil-fired plant enables to couple with HTTR in the early 2000's and technical solutions demonstrated by the coupling will contribute to all other hydrogen production systems. The HTTR steam reforming system is designed to utilize the nuclear heat effectively and to achieve hydrogen productivity competitive to that of a fossil-fired plant with operability, controllability and safety acceptable enough to commercialization, and an arrangement of key components was already decided. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test is planned to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions. The out-of-pile system is an approximately 1/20-1/30 scale system of the HTTR steam reforming system and simulates key components downstream from an IHX

  9. Effects of the generator and evaporator temperature differences on a double absorption heat transformer—Different control strategies on utilizing heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hanzhi; Li, Huashan; Bu, Xianbiao; Wang, Lingbao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of the GETD on the DAHT system performance are analyzed. • Three different configurations are compared in detail. • Suggestions on the heat source control strategies are given. - Abstract: The combination of the absorption heat transformer with renewable energy systems, like solar thermal systems, is raising more and more concern. In those combined systems the strategies on utilizing heat sources can affect system thermodynamic performance significantly. Therefore, this study presents a detailed analysis on the effect of the heat source temperature and different heat source flow patterns on the performance of a double absorption heat transformer (DAHT). A detailed comparative study is carried out to clarify the impact of the generator and evaporator temperature differences (GETD) on the coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficient (ECOP), exergy destruction rates in the individual components and heat transfer areas needed for each component. The results show that the generator, condenser and absorber-evaporator are responsible for most of the exergy destruction rate in the DAHT system; the parallel-flow configuration (the generator temperature is equal to the evaporator temperature) performs better under the high gross temperature lift conditions; in the case of the counter-flow configuration (the generator temperature is relatively higher), better performance can be obtained in both the COP and ECOP under the proper heat source temperature (85 and 95 °C); the fair-flow configuration (higher temperature in the evaporator) is not recommended in this paper due to no advantages found in either thermodynamic performance or system size.

  10. Utility of High Temporal Resolution Observations for Heat Health Event Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palecki, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many heat health watch systems produce a binary on/off warning when conditions are predicted to exceed a given threshold during a day. Days with warnings and their mortality/morbidity statistics are analyzed relative to days not warned to determine the impacts of the event on human health, the effectiveness of warnings, and other statistics. The climate analyses of the heat waves or extreme temperature events are often performed with hourly or daily observations of air temperature, humidity, and other measured or derived variables, especially the maxima and minima of these data. However, since the beginning of the century, 5-minute observations are readily available for many weather and climate stations in the United States. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has been collecting 5-minute observations from the NOAA Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) stations since 2000, and from the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) stations since 2005. This presentation will demonstrate the efficacy of utilizing 5-minute environmental observations to characterize heat waves by counting the length of time conditions exceed extreme thresholds based on individual and multiple variables and on derived variables such as the heat index. The length and depth of recovery periods between daytime heating periods will also be examined. The length of time under extreme conditions will influence health outcomes for those directly exposed. Longer periods of dangerous conditions also could increase the chances for poor health outcomes for those only exposed intermittently through cumulative impacts.

  11. Heat pumps in urban space heating systems: Energy and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, M.; Impero Abenavoli, R.; Rome Univ. La Sapienza

    1991-01-01

    A statistical survey is conducted of air pollution in the city of Rome (Italy) due to conventional building space heating systems burning fossil fuels. The survey identifies the annual consumption of the different fuels and the relative amounts of the various pollutants released into the atmosphere by the heating plants, e.g., sulfur and nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, etc. Comparisons are then made between the ratios of urban heating plant air pollutants produced per tonne of fuel employed and those for ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) coal, oil and natural gas fired power plants, in order to demonstrate the better environmental performances of the utility operated energy plants. The building space heating system energy consumption and pollution data are then used in a cost benefit analysis favouring the retrofitting of conventional heating systems with heat pump systems to obtain substantial reductions in energy consumption, heating bills and urban air pollution. The use of readily available, competitively priced and low polluting (in comparison with fuel oil and coal) methane as the energy source for space heating purposes is recommended. The paper also notes the versatility of the heat pump systems in that they could also be used for summer air conditioning

  12. Combined system of solar heating and cooling using heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhidov, R.A.; Anarbaev, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    The heating and cooling systems of apartment buildings based on combined solar heat-pump equipment has been considered and the procedure of calculating its parameters has been worked out. A technical-economic analysis has been performed and compared with the boiler-setting version. (author)

  13. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  14. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Bing; Wang Songling; Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Selecting the optimal type of district heating (DH) system is of great importance because different heating systems have different levels of efficiency, which will impact the system economics, environment and energy use. In this study, seven DH systems were analysed and evaluated by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The dimensionless number-goodness was introduced into the calculation, the economics, environment and energy technology factors were considered synthetically, and the final goodness values were obtained. The results show that if only one of the economics, environment or energy technology factors are considered, different heating systems have different goodness values. When all three factors were taken into account, the final ranking of goodness values was: combined heating and power>gas-fired boiler>water-source heat pump>coal-fired boiler>ground-source heat pump>solar-energy heat pump>oil-fired boiler. The combined heating and power system is the best choice from all seven systems; the gas-fired boiler system is the best of the three boiler systems for heating purpose; and the water-source heat pump is the best of the three heat pump systems for heating and cooling.

  15. The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

  16. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Federal assistance program. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-96. It describes 90 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment and resources. Research activities are summarized on low-temperature resource assessment, geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, development of a webpage, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  17. Organic Rankine Cycle Analysis: Finding the Best Way to Utilize Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Chakroun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a type of power cyclethat uses organic substances such as hydrocarbons orrefrigerants as the working fluid. ORC technology is usedto generate electricity in waste heat recovery applications,because the available heat is not at a high enoughtemperature to operate with other types of cycles. Theoptimum amount of working fluid required for the cycle(i.e., optimum charge level was investigated. Three chargelevels (13, 15, and 18 lbm were tested, and their effect onefficiency and performance of the system was analyzed.The heat source for the fluid was waste steam from thePurdue Power Plant, which had an average temperatureof 120oC. Regular city tap water at a temperature of 15oCwas used as the heat sink. For each charge level, multipletests were performed by measuring the temperaturesand pressures at all state points in the cycle, in order tounderstand any overarching patterns within the data.An important parameter that was analyzed is the 2nd lawefficiency. This efficiency is a measure of the effectivenessof the energy utilization compared to that of an idealcase. The peak efficiency increased from 24% to 27% asthe charge in the system decreased. Therefore, movingforward, this research suggests that a lower charge levelin the system will increase efficiency. However, testingbelow 13 lbm might cause mechanical complications inthe equipment as there may not be enough fluid to flowaround; thus, a compromise had to be made.

  18. A thermoacoustic engine capable of utilizing multi-temperature heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Sun Daming; Liu Yu; Steiner, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Low-grade energy is widespread. However, it cannot be utilized with high thermal efficiency directly. Following the principle of thermal energy cascade utilization, a thermoacoustic engine (TE) with a new regenerator that can be driven by multiple heat sources at different temperature levels is proposed. Taking a regenerator that utilizes heat sources at two temperatures as an example, theoretical research has been conducted on a traveling-wave TE with the new regenerator to predict its performance. Experimental verification is also done to demonstrate the benefits of the new regenerator. Results indicate that a TE with the new regenerator utilizing additional heat at a lower temperature experiences an increase in pressure ratio, acoustic power, efficiency, and exergy efficiency with proper heat input at an appropriate temperature at the mid-heater. A regenerator that uses multi-temperature heat sources can provide a means of recovering lower grade heat.

  19. Experimental research of heat recuperators in ventilation systems on the basis of heat pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental studies of heat pipes and their thermo-technical characteristics (heat power, conductivity, heat transfer resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc.. The theoretical foundations and the experimental methods of the research of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum section АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (made of the alloy AD - 31 are explained. The paper includes the analysis of the thermo-technical characteristics of heat pipes as promising highly efficient heat transfer devices, which may be used as the basic elements of heat exchangers - heat recuperators for exhaust ventilation air, capable of providing energy-saving technologies in ventilation systems for housing and public utilities and for various branches of industry. The thermo-technical characteristics of heat pipes (HP as the basic elements of a decentralized supply-extract ventilation system (DSEVS and energy-saving technologies are analyzed. As shown in the test report of the ammonia horizontal HP made of the section АS-КRА 7,5-R1-120, this pipe ensures safe operation under various loads.

  20. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371572037; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, David; Manzella, Adelle; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123556856; Cloetingh, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069161836; van Wees, J.-D.

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  1. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers: A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, M.; Bruhn, D.; Manzella, A.; Calcagno, P.; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; Wees, J.D. van

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  2. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, Jon; Boxem, Thijs; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, D.F.; Manzella, Adele; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Wees, Jan Diederik

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  3. Experiments on novel solar heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiping; Cui Yong; Zhu Li; Han Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Solar heating and nocturnal radiant cooling techniques are united to produce a novel solar heating and cooling system. The radiant panel with both heating and cooling functions can be used as structural materials for the building envelope, which realizes true building integrated utilization of solar energy. Based on the natural circulation principle, the operation status can be changed automatically between the heating cycle and the cooling cycle. System performances under different climate conditions using different covers on the radiant panel are studied. The results show that the novel solar heating and cooling system has good performance of heating and cooling. For the no cover system, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 52% with the maximum efficiency of 73%, while at night, the cooling capacity is about 47 W/m 2 on a sunny day. On a cloudy day, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 47% with the maximum of 84%, while the cooling capacity is about 33 W/m 2 . As a polycarbonate (PC) panel or polyethylene film are used as covers, the maximum heat collecting efficiencies are 75% and 72% and the daily average heat collecting efficiencies are 61% and 58%, while the cooling capacities are 50 W/m 2 and 36 W/m 2 , respectively

  4. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  5. Solar-assisted heat pump system for cost-effective space heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J W; Kush, E A; Metz, P D

    1978-03-01

    The use of heat pumps for the utilization of solar energy is studied. Two requirements for a cost-effective system are identified: (1) a special heat pump whose coefficient of performance continues to rise with source temperature over the entire range appropriate for solar assist, and (2) a low-cost collection and storage subsystem able to supply solar energy to the heat pump efficiently at low temperatures. Programs leading to the development of these components are discussed. A solar assisted heat pump system using these components is simulated via a computer, and the results of the simulation are used as the basis for a cost comparison of the proposed system with other solar and conventional systems.

  6. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  7. Quantitative feasibility study of magnetocaloric energy conversion utilizing industrial waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuarnoz, D.; Kitanovski, A.; Gonin, C.; Borgeaud, Y.; Delessert, M.; Meinen, M.; Egolf, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model magnetic energy conversion machine for the use of industrial waste heat. ► Efficiencies and masses of the system are evaluated by a numerical model. ► Excellent potential of profitability is expected with large low-exergy heat sources. -- Abstract: The main objective of this theoretical study was to investigate under which conditions a magnetic energy conversion device (MECD) – utilizing industrial waste heat – is economically feasible. Furthermore, it was evaluated if magnetic energy conversion (MCE) has the potential of being a serious concurrent to already existing conventional energy conversion technologies. Up-today the availability of magnetocaloric materials with a high Curie temperature and a high magnetocaloric effect is rather limited. Therefore, this study was mainly focused on applications with heat sources of low to medium temperature levels. Magnetic energy conversion machines, containing permanent magnets, are numerically investigated for operation conditions with different temperature levels, defined by industrial waste heat sources and environmental heat sinks, different magnetic field intensities and different frequencies of operation (number of thermodynamic cycles per unit of time). Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations were performed in order to determine thermodynamic efficiencies and the exergy efficiencies as function of different operation conditions. From extracted data of our numerical results, approximate values of the total mass and total volume of magnetic energy conversion machines could be determined. These important results are presented dependent on the produced electric power. An economic feasibility study supplements the scientific study. It shows an excellent potential of profitability for certain machines. The most important result of this article is that the magnetic energy conversion technology can be economically and technically competitive to or even beat conventional energy

  8. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Investigational study on the cascade utilization of thermal energy (cold heat and hot heat) (feasibility study by the off-line system); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Netsu energy (reinetsu to onnetsu) no cascade riyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (off-line hoshiki ni yoru feasibility study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper studied a system to effectively use unused and low-grade thermal energy (cold heat and hot heat) in the Tokyo-Yokohama seaside area. For transportation of thermal energy, the batch transportation, that is, off-line system was discussed which uses insulated tank loaded barges and railroad freight trains. Thermal energy supply sources are 1) 0.3 million kW class thermal power plant, and 2) LNG storage base of 3 million ton/year class. Thermal energy users are Tokyo (Haneda) Airport D.H.C. (District Heating/Cooling Co.), MM 21 D.H.C. and Shin-Kawasaki D.H.C. The cold heat energy supplied to these three is about 1.5 million Mcal/daytimes300 days/year, and the hot heat energy supplied is about 1.33 million Mcal/daytimes150 days/year. Cold heat is obtained from seawater after the LNG vaporization, and hot heat from heat extracted from thermal turbine. Subcooled ice was selected for cold heat medium, and PCM-120A for hot heat medium. For batch transportation, an STL heat storage system is used which transports plastic capsules sealed with heat medium. Oil saving of 62,000 tons/year and CO2 reduction of about 53,000 tons/year can be expected. 85 figs., 98 tabs.

  9. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupang, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The integration of Satellite Power System (SPS) power in electric utility power systems is discussed. Specifically, the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power, and the impacts on the electric utility system from utilizing SPS power to serve part of the system load are treated. It is concluded that if RF beam control is an acceptable method for power control, and that the site distribution of SPS rectennas do not cause a very high local penetration (40 to 50%), SPS may be integrated into electric utility system with a few negative impacts. Increased regulating duty on the conventional generation, and a potential impact on system reliability for SPS penetration in excess of about 25% appear to be two areas of concern.

  10. Utilization of straw in district heating and CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaisen, L.

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark 64 straw-fired district heating plants and 6 decentral CHP plants have been built since 1980 which are completely or partly straw-fired. The annual straw consumption in the district heating plants is 275,000 tons and in the decentral plants about 200,000 tons. The size of the district heating plants amounts to 0.5 MW - 10 MW and that of the CHP plants to 7 MW - 67 MW heat flow rate. Either whole bales or cut/scarified straw is used for firing. Hesston bales of about 450 kg control the market. The Centre of Biomass Technology is an activity supported 100 % by the Danish Energy Agency with the purpose of increasing the use of straw and wood in the energy supply (orig.)

  11. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaetzle, W.J.; Brett, C.E.; Seppanen, M.S.

    1979-12-01

    The heat-pump-centered integrated community energy system (HP-ICES) supplies district heating and cooling using heat pumps and a thermal energy storage system which is provided by nature in underground porous formations filled with water, i.e., aquifers. The energy is transported by a two-pipe system, one for warm water and one for cool water, between the aquifers and the controlled environments. Each energy module contains the controlled environments, an aquifer, wells for access to the aquifer, the two pipe water distribution system and water source heat pumps. The heat pumps upgrade the energy in the distribution system for use in the controlled environments. Economically, the system shows improvement on both energy usage and capital costs. The system saves over 60% of the energy required for resistance heating; saves over 30% of the energy required for most air-source heat pumps and saves over 60% of the energy required for gas, coal, or oil heating, when comparing to energy input required at the power plant for heat pump usage. The proposed system has been analyzed as demonstration projects for a downtown portion of Louisville, Kentucky, and a section of Fort Rucker, Alabama. The downtown Louisville demonstration project is tied directly to major buildings while the Fort Rucker demonstration project is tied to a dispersed subdivision of homes. The Louisville project shows a payback of approximately 3 y, while Fort Rucker is approximately 30 y. The primary difference is that at Fort Rucker new heat pumps are charged to the system. In Louisville, either new construction requiring heating and cooling systems or existing chillers are utilized. (LCL)

  12. Monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellehauge, K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the monitoring of manufactured solar heating systems for domestic hot water combined with space heating and systems for domestic hot water only. Results from the monitoring of 5 marketed combined systems for domestic hot water and space heating are presented. The systems situated at one family houses at different sites in Denmark have been monitored from January/February 1992. For the detailed monitoring of manufactured systems only for domestic hot water a test facility for simultaneous monitoring of 5 solar heating systems has been established at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory. (au)

  13. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  14. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Shinde, Subhash L.

    2016-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) utilizes solar thermal energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP systems are facilitated as large, centralized power plants , such as power towers and trough systems, to take advantage of ec onomies of scale through dispatchable thermal energy storage, which is a principle advantage over other energy generation systems . Additionally, the combination of large solar concentration ratios with high solar conversion efficiencies provides a strong o pportunity of employment of specific power cycles such as the Brayton gas cycle that utilizes super critical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide (s CO 2 ) , compared to other sola r - fossil hybrid power plants. A comprehensive thermal - fluids examination is provided by this work of various heat transfer phenomena evident in CSP technologies. These include sub - systems and heat transfer fundamental phenomena evident within CSP systems , which include s receivers, heat transfer fluids (HTFs), thermal storage me dia and system designs , thermodynamic power block systems/components, as well as high - temperature materials. This work provides literature reviews, trade studies, and phenomenological comparisons of heat transfer media (HTM) and components and systems, all for promotion of high performance and efficient CSP systems. In addition, f urther investigations are also conducted that provide advanced heat transfer modeling approaches for gas - particle receiver systems , as well as performance/efficiency enhancement re commendations, particularly for solarized supercritical power systems .

  15. Environmental flows and life cycle assessment of associated petroleum gas utilization via combined heat and power plants and heat boilers at oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajović, Vuk; Kiss, Ferenc; Maravić, Nikola; Bera, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of associated petroleum gas flaring is discussed. • A modern trend of introducing cogeneration systems to the oil fields is presented. • Three alternative utilization options evaluated with life cycle assessment method. • Producing electricity and/or heat instead of flaring would reduce impacts. - Abstract: Flaring of associated petroleum gas is a major resource waste and causes considerable emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. New environmental regulations are forcing oil industry to implement innovative and sustainable technologies in order to compete in growing energy market. A modern trend of introducing energy-effective cogeneration systems to the oil fields by replacing flaring and existing heat generation technologies powered by associated petroleum gas is discussed through material flow analysis and environmental impact assessment. The environmental assessment is based on the consequential life cycle assessment method and mainly primary data compiled directly from measurements on Serbian oil-fields or company-supplied information. The obtained results confirm that the utilization of associated petroleum gas via combined heat and power plants and heat boilers can provide a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and resource depletion by displacing marginal production of heat and electricity. At the base case scenario, which assumes a 100% heat realization rate, the global warming potential of the combined heat and power plant and heat boiler scenarios were estimated at −4.94 and −0.54 kg CO_2_e_q Sm"−"3, whereas the cumulative fossil energy requirements of these scenarios were −48.7 and −2.1 MJ Sm"−"3, respectively. This is a significant reduction compared to the global warming potential (2.25 kg CO_2_e_q Sm"−"3) and cumulative fossil energy requirements (35.36 MJ Sm"−"3) of flaring. Nevertheless, sensitivity analyses have shown that life cycle assessment results are sensitive

  16. Analysis of economic and energy utilization aspects for waste heat aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.; Wilson, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    A waste heat aquaculture system using extensive culture techniques to produce fin and shellfish is currently under investigation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system uses nutrients in waste water streams to grow algae and zooplankton which are fed to fish and clams. A tilapia polyculture association and the freshwater clam Corbicula are the animals cultured in the system. The investigations were performed to determine the economic feasibility of the system and examine energy utilization in the system. A net energy analysis was performed to identify the energy saving potential for the system. This analysis includes all energy costs (both direct and indirect) associated with building and operating the system. The results of the economic study indicated that fish production costs of $0.55/kg ($0.25/lb) were possible. This cost, however, depends upon the fish production rate and food conversion efficiency and could rise to as much as $1.65/kg ($0.75/lb). Clam production costs were found to be in the neighborhood of $0.37/kg of clam meat ($1.24/bushel). The energy utilization study results indicated that, when all energy costs are included, fish from the aquaculture system may require only 35% of the net energy now required for fish products from the ocean. However, the energy requirements also depend on system parameters and could be as large as the energy required for ocean caught products. Clams can be produced in the aquaculture system using only about 25% of the net energy required by traditional means. The results of the analysis indicate that the system appears to be economically feasible. They also indicate that significant energy savings are possible if waste heat aquaculture products replace ocean caught products.

  17. Experimental study of the combined utilization of nuclear power heating plants for big towns and industrial complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, J.; Barabas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a comparison of nuclear power heating plants with an output corresponding to 1000MW(e) with plants of the same output using coal or oil. The economic aspects are compared, both as regards investment and operation costs. The comparison of the environmental aspects is performed on the atmospheric pollution from exhausts and gaseous emission and on the thermal pollutions in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Basic nuclear power plant schemes with two PWRs, each of 1500MW(th), are described. The plant supplies electric power and heat for factories and municipal heating systems (apartments, shops, and other auxiliary municipal facilities). At the same time the basic heat-flow diagram of a nuclear power heating plant is given, together with the relative losses. The study emphasizes the possible utilization of waste heat for heating glasshouses of 200m 2 . The problems of utilizing waste heat, and the needs of a big town and of industrial complexes in the vicinity of the nuclear power heating plant are also considered. (author)

  18. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  19. Tactical Utility of Tailored Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    create a procurement system to produce materiel at a cost low enough to make equipment disposable. Further cost savings may be realized by upgrading...replacement parts. With the advent of 3-d printing and digital manufacturing, a new part may be procured as easily as scanning a bar code and pressing...9/11 Commission Report “Imagination is not a gift usually associated with bureaucracies. It is therefore crucial to find a way of routinizing, even

  20. Green certificate system for heating - principal and practical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    2002-01-01

    A certificate system with an obligation to buying is a very relevant instrument in energy policy in order to stimulate the implementation of new renewable energy sources. This solution is widely supported; it is being institutionalized in many countries, especially in Europe and in the electricity sector, and the heating sector is soon to follow. This report discusses the broad lines of a possible green certificate system for the heating sector in Norway and concludes that it is might well be linked with a similar system for the electricity sector. For Norway, an isolated certificate system for the electricity sector would not be cost-effective. This is because this system would emphasize relatively expensive renewable electric energy rather than utilizing the large potential for replacing the electric heating of buildings with much cheaper renewable heat

  1. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  2. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  3. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by

  4. High performance passive solar heating system with heat pipe energy transfer and latent heat storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.A.L.; Galen, van E; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminar results are reported from a current project on the development of a high performance passive solar heating system. Two special components are introduced: a. A heat pipe as a thermal diode tube for the efficient transfer of collected solar heat from the absorber plate to behind an

  5. Utilization of Aluminum Waste with Hydrogen and Heat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakovskaya, O. A.; Meshkov, E. A.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnokov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    A concept of energy generation via hydrogen and heat production from aluminum containing wastes is proposed. The hydrogen obtained by oxidation reaction between aluminum waste and aqueous solutions can be supplied to fuel cells and/or infrared heaters for electricity or heat generation in the region of waste recycling. The heat released during the reaction also can be effectively used. The proposed method of aluminum waste recycling may represent a promising and cost-effective solution in cases when waste transportation to recycling plants involves significant financial losses (e.g. remote areas). Experiments with mechanically dispersed aluminum cans demonstrated that the reaction rate in alkaline solution is high enough for practical use of the oxidation process. In theexperiments aluminum oxidation proceeds without any additional aluminum activation.

  6. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  7. Solar heating systems for heating and hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnaith, G; Dittrich, K

    1980-07-01

    Deutsche Bundesbahn has shown an interest in solar heating systems, too. The items discussed include the useful radiation energy, design features of collectors, heat carrier media, safeguards and profitability studies. The system installed by Deutsche Bundesbahn in the social services building of the Munich-Laim railway workshop is described. In conclusion, the test results of the first few months of service are given. In order to obtain unambiguous results, it appears indispensable to arrange for an additional total trial period of not less than two years and to conduct tests also on further systems presently under construction.

  8. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results....

  9. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.

  10. Hybrid district heating system with heat supply from nuclear source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, Z.; Petrovsky, I.

    1987-01-01

    Several designs are described of heat supply from large remote power sources (e.g., WWER-1000 nuclear power plants with a 1000 MW turbine) to localities where mainly steam distribution networks have been built but only some or none networks for hot water distribution. The benefits of the designs stem from the fact that they do not require the conversion of the local steam distribution system to a hot water system. They are based on heat supply from the nuclear power plant to the consumer area in hot water of a temperature of 150 degC to 200 degC. Part of the hot water heat will be used for the production of low-pressure steam which will be compressed using heat pumps (steam compressors) to achieve the desired steam distribution network specifications. Water of lower temperature can be used in the hot water network. The hot water feeder forms an automatic pressure safety barrier in heat supply of heating or technological steam from a nuclear installation. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 9 refs

  11. Simulation of Hybrid Photovoltaic Solar Assisted Loop Heat Pipe/Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid photovoltaic solar assisted loop heat pipe/heat pump (PV-SALHP/HP water heater system has been developed and numerically studied. The system is the combination of loop heat pipe (LHP mode and heat pump (HP mode, and the two modes can be run separately or compositely according to the weather conditions. The performances of independent heat pump (HP mode and hybrid loop heat pipe/heat pump (LHP/HP mode were simulated and compared. Simulation results showed that on typical sunny days in spring or autumn, using LHP/HP mode could save 40.6% power consumption than HP mode. In addition, the optimal switchover from LHP mode to HP mode was analyzed in different weather conditions for energy saving and the all-year round operating performances of the system were also simulated. The simulation results showed that hybrid LHP/HP mode should be utilized to save electricity on sunny days from March to November and the system can rely on LHP mode alone without any power consumption in July and August. When solar radiation and ambient temperature are low in winter, HP mode should be used

  12. Distributed heat generation in a district heating system

    OpenAIRE

    Lennermo, Gunnar; Lauenberg, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    District heating (OH) systems need to be improved  regarding integration  of decentralised  heat generation. Micro production, prosumers and smart grids are terms becoming more and more common  in  connection  to  the  power  grid.  Concerning district  heating,  the  development  is slower, although improving. Today there are a number of such decentralised units for heat generation,  mainly  solar,  that have been partly evaluated.  Previous  studies  have shown  that there is a need to deve...

  13. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  14. High temperature nuclear process heat systems for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The development planning and status of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor as a source of industrial process heat is presented. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system offers a unique combination of the two that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound. Conceptual studies of several energy-intensive processes coupled to a nuclear heat source are presented

  15. Proposal for a district heat supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alefeld, G.

    1976-01-01

    A district heating scheme is proposed which makes it possible to use the waste heat from power stations for the supply of households and industry. The heat is stored by evaporation of ammonia salts or liquids with dissolved salts. Both substances are transported on existing rail- or waterways to heating stations near the consumers, and the heat recovered by reaction of the two components. Then the product of reaction is transported back to the power stations, and reactivated by heat again. Based on a cost estimation, it can be shown that the proposed heat transport with heat trains or ships, at distances up to 100 km, results in heat costs which are to-day already below that of heat from fuel oil. The investment required for the heat transport system is unusually low due to the use of transport ways which already exist. The district heating system is not only favourable in respect of the environment, but actually reduces its present strain, both at the consumer and at the power stations. The technical advantages of the suggested concept, especially the possibility of introducing it in stages, are discussed. The consequences for the national economy regarding the safety of supply and the trade balance, as well as for the public transport undertakings, are obvious, and therefore not included in the paper. (orig.) [de

  16. Large Efficient Intelligent Heating Relay Station System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. Z.; Wei, X. G.; Wu, M. Q.

    2017-12-01

    The design of large efficient intelligent heating relay station system aims at the improvement of the existing heating system in our country, such as low heating efficiency, waste of energy and serious pollution, and the control still depends on the artificial problem. In this design, we first improve the existing plate heat exchanger. Secondly, the ATM89C51 is used to control the whole system and realize the intelligent control. The detection part is using the PT100 temperature sensor, pressure sensor, turbine flowmeter, heating temperature, detection of user end liquid flow, hydraulic, and real-time feedback, feedback signal to the microcontroller through the heating for users to adjust, realize the whole system more efficient, intelligent and energy-saving.

  17. Heat pumps and heat exchangers in cow and pig houses in the Nordic countries. Utilization potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, S [Statens Jordbrugstekniske Forsoeg, Horsens, Denmark

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is made of how many heat pumps it may be possible to establish in animal buildings in the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, and Icelandic agriculture. This assessment is based on the present livestock structure. Furthermore information is given of the yearly oil conservation that theoretically can be obtained, provided heat pumps and heat exchangers are installed every where with a sufficient livestock basis. The largest energy conservation can be obtained by heat recovery in cow- and pig houses and by heat exchangers in production of piglets.

  18. Geothermal Direct-Heat Utilization Assistance - Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. W. Lund

    1999-01-01

    The Geo-Heat Center provided (1) direct-use technical assistance, (2) research, and (3) information dissemination on geothermal energy over an 8 1/2 year period. The center published a quarterly bulletin, developed a web site and maintained a technical library. Staff members made 145 oral presentations, published 170 technical papers, completed 28 applied research projects, and gave 108 tours of local geothermal installations to 500 persons

  19. Geothermal Direct-Heat Utilization Assistance - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. W. Lund

    1999-07-14

    The Geo-Heat Center provided (1) direct-use technical assistance, (2) research, and (3) information dissemination on geothermal energy over an 8 1/2 year period. The center published a quarterly bulletin, developed a web site and maintained a technical library. Staff members made 145 oral presentations, published 170 technical papers, completed 28 applied research projects, and gave 108 tours of local geothermal installations to 500 persons.

  20. A Systems Biology Approach to Heat Stress, Heat Injury and Heat Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    stroke [3, 11, 12], leading to severe encephalopathy , rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury...heart, kidney, and liver failure are increased by 40% in Service members with a history of heat stroke [5, 6]. Indeed, there is an urgent need for...other organs at high risk for injury, such as liver and kidney [24, 25]. 2.1 Utility of the computational model Molecular indicators of heat

  1. Experimental investigations on cylindrical latent heat storage units with sodium acetate trihydrate composites utilizing supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Kong, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Latent heat storage units utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) composites were tested in a laboratory. The stainless steel units were 1.5 m high cylinders with internal heat exchangers of tubes with fins. One unit was tested with 116 kg SAT with 6% extra water. Another...... in the thickened phase change material after melting. The heat content in the fully charged state and the heat released after solidification of the supercooled SAT mixtures at ambient temperature was higher for the unit with the thickened SAT mixture. The heat discharged after solidification of the supercooled SAT...

  2. Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

    The parabolic dish solar collector systems for converting sunlight to electrical power through a heat engine will, require a small heat engine of high performance long lifetime to be competitive with conventional power systems. The most promising engine candidates are Stirling, high temperature Brayton, and combined cycle. Engines available in the current market today do not meet these requirements. The development of Stirling and high temperature Brayton for automotive applications was studied which utilizes much of the technology developed in this automotive program for solar power engines. The technical status of the engine candidates is reviewed and the components that may additional development to meet solar thermal system requirements are identified.

  3. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant...

  4. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Control of the heating and cooling system needs to be able to maintain the indoor temperatures within the comfort range under the varying internal loads and external climates. To maintain a stable thermal environment, the control system needs to maintain the balance between the heat gain...

  5. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  6. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  7. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  8. Utilization of Additive Manufacturing for Aerospace Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    7. A notional part that was designed and built in an aluminum-silicon- magnesium alloy using the powder bed fusion process was able to achieve fine...source=bl&ots=YxEzhfglaB&sig=Wk4sfyR94gelw51 chj5Mb mOavus&hl=en&sa=X& ei =m HSxU4ucLZfMsQTivYCgAg&ved=OCEcQ6AEwCDgK#v=o nepage&q=making%20of%20a%20heat

  9. Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  10. LPV Identification of a Heat Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with incremental system identification of district heating systems to improve control performance. As long as various parameters, e.g. valve settings, are kept fixed, the dynamics of district heating systems can be approximated well by linear models; however, the dynamics change ....... The approach is tested on a laboratory setup emulating a district heating system, where local controllers regulate pumps connected to a common supply. Experiments show that cross-couplings in the system can indeed be identified in closed-loop operation....

  11. Specifying the auxiliary heating system on TFCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of heating systems for the TFCX-S (all superconducting coil) and TFCX-H (hybrid coil) options. Three systems were defined; preheating (electron), current drive, and bulk (ion) heating. Application of systems engineering techniques facilitated fruitful discussions of requirements and their impact on equipment between physicists and engineers. A low-cost, flexible combination of systems allows plasma experiments using all rf startup and current drive

  12. Utilization of the PCM latent heat for energy savings in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Trník, Anton; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    Increase of the energy consumption for buildings operation creates a great challenge for sustainable development issues. Thermal energy storage systems present promising way to achieve this goal. The latent heat storage systems with high density of thermal storage via utilization of phase change materials (PCMs) enable to improve thermal comfort of buildings and reduce daily temperature fluctuations of interior climate. The presented study is focused on the evaluation of the effect of PCM admixture on thermal performance of a cement-lime plaster. On the basis of the experimentally accessed properties of newly developed plasters, computational modeling is carried out in order to rate the acquired thermal improvement. The calculated results show that incorporation of 24 mass% of paraffinic wax based PCM decreased the energy demand of approx. 14.6%.

  13. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  14. Utilization of waste heat from electricity generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1977-06-01

    Historically the nuclear power station has been designed solely as an electricity producer. But in Canada today only 15 percent of our energy consumption is as electricity. The non-electrical needs today are supplied almost entirely by natural gas and oil. There is an incentive to see whether a nuclear station could supply energy for some of these non-electrical needs, thus freeing gas and oil for uses for which they may be more valuable and suitable, especially in transportation. A group located at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment undertook a series of studies to examine this problem. These studies were done in sufficient depth to provide technological and economic answers, and as a result several reports have been published on various topics. In this report, the findings from these studies are drawn together in an assessment of the potential in Canada for using waste heat. (author)

  15. System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

  16. FY 1986 Report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. Part 2. Development of elementary techniques; 1986 nendo super heat pump energy shuseki system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Yoso gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-04-01

    Summarized in detail herein are R and D results of the chemical heat storage techniques and plant simulation, for R and D of the super heat pump energy accumulation system. For R and D of the chemical heat storage techniques, the R and D efforts are directed to the researches on the fundamental reactions and continuous exothermic reactions involved for the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing the metathesis reactions); researches on the physical properties, heat storage systems, solid-phase reactions, liquid-phase reactors, corrosion of the materials, and so on for the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing ammonia complex); collection of the data related to media and structural materials, tests of the elementary equipment for the absorption and hydration reactions, and so on for the high temperature heat storage type (chemical heat storage utilizing hydration); researches on the media properties and system performance, tests of equipment, and so on for the high temperature heat storage type (heat storage/heating utilizing solvation); researches on the heat storage media, heat storage techniques, corrosion of the materials, systems, and so on for the low temperature heat storage type (utilizing the hydration reactions by mixing solutes); and researches on the media, corrosion and elementary equipment, optimization of the system, and so on for the low temperature heat storage type (clathrate low temperature heat storage systems). (NEDO)

  17. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  18. Heat transfer in heterogeneous propellant combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, M.Q.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that heat transfer plays an important role in several critical areas of heterogeneous, solid-propellant combustion systems. These areas include heat feedback to the propellant surface, heat transfer between burning aluminum droplets and their surroundings, heat transfer to internal insulation systems, and heat transfer to aft-end equipment. Gas conduction dominates heat feedback to the propellant surface in conventional ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite propellants, although particle radiative feedback also plays a significant role in combustion of metalized propellants. Particle radiation plays a dominant role in heat transfer to internal insulation, compared with that of convection. However, conduction by impingement of burning aluminum particles, which has not been extensively studied, may also be significant. Radiative heat loss plays an important role in determining the burning rate of molten aluminum particles due to a highly luminous, oxide particle-laden, detached flame envelope. Radiation by aluminum oxide smoke particles also plays a dominant role in heat transfer from the exhaust plume to aft-end equipment. Uncertainties in aluminum oxide particle-size distribution and optical properties still make it difficult to predict radiative plume heat transfer accurately from first principles

  19. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral....... The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis...

  20. Heat transport analysis in a district heating and snow melting system in Sapporo and Ishikari, Hokkaido applying waste heat from GTHTR300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Seiji; Kamiji, Yu; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan Xing; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Murata, Tetsuya; Mori, Michitsugu

    2015-01-01

    A district heating and snow melting system utilizing waste heat from Gas Turbine High temperature Gas Reactor of 300 MW_e (GTHTR300), a heat-electricity cogeneration design of high temperature gas-cooled reactor, was analyzed. Application areas are set in Sapporo and Ishikari, the heavy snowfall cities in Northern Japan. The heat transport analyses are carried out by modeling the components in the system; pipelines of the secondary water loops between GTHTR300s and heat demand district and heat exchangers to transport the heat from the secondary water loops to the tertiary loops in the district. Double pipe for the secondary loops are advantageous for less heat loss and smaller excavation area. On the other hand, these pipes has disadvantage of more electricity consumption for pumping. Most of the heat demand in the month of maximum requirement can be supplied by 2 GTHTR300s and delivered by 9 secondary loops and around 5000 heat exchangers. Closer location of GTHTR300 site to the heat demand district is largely advantageous economically. Less decrease of the distance from 40 km to 20 km made the heat loss half and cost of the heat transfer system 22% smaller. (author)

  1. High efficiency heat transport and power conversion system for cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Bourque, R.F.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Cascade ICF reactor features a flowing blanket of solid BeO and LiAlO 2 granules with very high temperature capability (up to approx. 2300 K). The authors present here the design of a high temperature granule transport and heat exchange system, and two options for high efficiency power conversion. The centrifugal-throw transport system uses the peripheral speed imparted to the granules by the rotating chamber to effect granule transport and requires no additional equipment. The heat exchanger design is a vacuum heat transfer concept utilizing gravity-induced flow of the granules over ceramic heat exchange surfaces. A reference Brayton power cycle is presented which achieves 55% net efficiency with 1300 K peak helium temperature. A modified Field steam cycle (a hybrid Rankine/Brayton cycle) is presented as an alternate which achieves 56% net efficiency

  2. Implementing Geothermal Plants in the Copenhagen District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Overvad; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Larsen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    of geothermal energy in Denmark as well as the Danish potential, which, in former investigations, has been found to be around 100.000 PJ annually, and the economical potential is less, about 15 PJ/year. Since a considerable amount of the Danish power supply is tied to weather and the demand for heating......The possibility of implementing geothermal heating in the Copenhagen district-heating system is assessed. This is done by building up general knowledge on the geological factors that influence the development of useable geothermal resources, factors concerning the exploration and utilization......, an increasing demand for flexibility has been raised. Implementing geothermal heating would improve the flexibility in the Eastern Danish power system. Based on this information, as well as, on the hourly values of the expected production and consumption in 2010 and 2020, a model of the Copenhagen power...

  3. Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can...... solar collector area of the system, was achieved. Active heating from the sand storage was not observed. The pay-back time for the system can be estimated to be similar to solar heated domestic hot water systems in general. A number of minor improvements on the system could be pointed out....

  4. Beyond Widgets -- Systems Incentive Programs for Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walter, Travis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Utility incentive programs remain one of the most significant means of deploying commercialized, but underutilized building technologies to scale. However, these programs have been largely limited to component-based products (e.g., lamps, RTUs). While some utilities do provide ‘custom’ incentive programs with whole building and system level technical assistance, these programs require deeper levels of analysis, resulting in higher program costs. This results in custom programs being restricted to utilities with greater resources, and are typically applied mainly to large or energy-intensive facilities, leaving much of the market without cost effective access and incentives for these solutions. In addition, with increasingly stringent energy codes, cost effective component-based solutions that achieve significant savings are dwindling. Building systems (e.g., integrated façade, HVAC and/or lighting solutions) can deliver higher savings that translate into large sector-wide savings if deployed at the scale of these programs. However, systems application poses a number of challenges – baseline energy use must be defined and measured; the metrics for energy and performance must be defined and tested against; in addition, system savings must be validated under well understood conditions. This paper presents a sample of findings of a project to develop validated utility incentive program packages for three specific integrated building systems, in collaboration with Xcel Energy (CO, MN), ComEd, and a consortium of California Public Owned Utilities (CA POUs) (Northern California Power Agency(NCPA) and the Southern California Public Power Authority(SCPPA)). Furthermore, these program packages consist of system specifications, system performance, M&V protocols, streamlined assessment methods, market assessment and implementation guidance.

  5. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Application surveys and performance studies were conducted to determine a solar heating and hot water configuration that could be used in a variety of applications, and to identify subsystem modules that could be utilized in a building block fashion to adapt hardware items to single and multi-family residential and commercial systems. Topics discussed include: subsystem development for the solar collectors, controls, other components, energy management module, and the heating system configuration test. Operational tests conducted at an Illinois farmhouse, and a YWCA in Spokane, Washington are discussed.

  6. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  7. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-97. It describes 174 contracts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  8. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  10. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  11. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic circuits of multifunctional solar systems of air drainage, heating (hot water supply and heating, cooling and air conditioning are developed on the basis of open absorption cycle with a direct absorbent regeneration. Basic decisions for new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus included in evaporative cooling system, are based on film interaction of flows of gas and liquid and in them, for the creation of nozzle, multi-channel structures from polymeric materials and porous ceramics are used. Preliminary analysis of multifunctional systems possibilities is implemented.

  12. Heat Transmission Coefficient Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a Heat Loss Measuring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2013-01-01

    Global energy efficiency can be obtained in two ordinary ways. One way is to improve the energy production and supply side, and the other way is, in general, to reduce the consumption of energy in society. This paper has focus on the latter and especially the consumption of energy for heating...... and cooling our houses. There is a huge energy-saving potential in this area for reducing both the global climate problems as well as economy challenges. Heating of buildings in Denmark accounts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consumption. For this reason, a reduction of heat losses from...... building envelopes are of great importance in order to reach the Bologna CO2 emission reduction targets. Upgrading of the energy performance of buildings is a topic of huge global interest these years. Not only heating in the temperate and arctic regions are important, but also air conditioning...

  13. Integrated design and optimization of technologies for utilizing low grade heat in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Dong-Hun; Binns, Michael; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of a modeling and design framework for the utilization of low grade heat. • Application of process simulator and optimization techniques for the design of technologies for heat recovery. • Systematic and holistic exploitation for the recovery of industrial low grade heat. • Demonstration of the applicability and benefit of integrated design and optimization framework through a case study. - Abstract: The utilization of low grade heat in process industries has significant potential for improving site-wide energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the techno-economic analysis of key technologies for energy recovery and re-use, namely: Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), boiler feed water heating, heat pumping and absorption refrigeration in the context of process integration. Process modeling and optimization in a holistic manner identifies the optimal integrated configuration of these technologies, with rigorous assessment of costs and technical feasibility of these technologies. For the systematic screening and evaluation of design options, detailed process simulator models are evaluated and optimization proceeds subject to design constraints for the particular economic scenarios where technology using low grade heat is introduced into the process site. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the proposed modeling and optimization framework can be useful and effective in practice, in terms of providing design guidelines and conceptual insights for the application of technologies using low grade heat. From the case study, the best options during winter are the ORC giving a 6.4% cost reduction for the ideal case with low grade heat available at a fixed temperature and boiler feed water heating giving a 2.5% cost reduction for the realistic case with low grade heat available at a range of temperatures. Similarly during summer boiler feed water heating was found to be the best option giving a 3.1% reduction of costs considering a

  14. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  15. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.; James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Duff, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    A radiometric isothermal heat flow calorimeter and preconditioner system that uses air instead of water as the heat exchange medium has been developed at Mound. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter is 42 inches high by 18 inches in diameter and the preconditioner is a 22 inch cube, making it extremely compact compared to existing units. The new system is ideally suited for transportable, stand-alone, or glovebox applications. Preliminary tests of the system have produced sample measurements with standard deviations less than 0.25% and sample errors less than 0.50%. These tests have shown that the dry heat exchanger system will yield acceptance data with an accuracy comparable to those of Mound water bath systems now in use. 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OFFSITE UTILITIES SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) offsite utilities system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  17. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  18. A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaojun; Che Defu

    2009-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia-water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component and thermodynamic analyses are conducted. The results show that the proposed combined cycle has good performance, with net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency of 33% and 48%, respectively, for a typical operating condition. The power output is equal to 1.25 MWh per kg of ammonia-water mixture. About 0.2 MW of electrical power for operating sea water pumps can be saved. Parametric analyses are performed for the proposed combined cycle to evaluate the effects of key factors on the performance of the proposed combined cycle through simulation calculations. Results show that a maximum net electrical efficiency can be obtained as the inlet pressure of ammonia turbine increases and the peak value increases as the ammonia mass fraction increases. Exergy efficiency goes up with the increased ammonia turbine inlet pressure. With the ammonia mass fraction increases, the net electrical efficiency increases, whereas exergy efficiency decreases. For increasing LNG turbine inlet pressure or heat source temperature, there is also a peak of net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency. With the increase of LNG gas turbine outlet pressure, exergy efficiency increases while net electrical efficiency drops

  19. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-01-01

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy

  20. Study of waste-heat recovery and utilization at the Farmington Municipal Power Plant. Final report, December 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, G.G.; Edgel, W.R.; Feldman, K.T. Jr.; Moss, E.J.

    1982-03-01

    An examination was made of the technical and economc feasibility of utilizing waste heat from the Farmington Municipal Power Plant. First, the production cycles of the natural-gas-fired plant were assessed to determine the quantity and quality of recoverable waste heat created by the plant during its operation. Possibilities for utilizing waste heat from the exhaust gases and the cooling water were then reviewed. Hot water systems that can be used to retrieve heat from hot flue gases were investigated; the heated water can then be used for space heating of nearby buildings. The potential use of waste heat to operate a refrigeration plant was also analyzed. The use of discharged cooling water for hydroelectric generation was studied, as well as its application for commercial agricultural and aquaculture enterprises.

  1. Utility systems operation: Optimisation-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco-Garcia, Patricia; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Arellano-Garcia, Harvey; Wozny, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Utility systems provide heat and power to industrial sites. The importance of operating these systems in an optimal way has increased significantly due to the unstable and in the long term rising prices of fossil fuels as well as the need for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an analysis of the problem for supporting operator decision making under conditions of variable steam demands from the production processes on an industrial site. An optimisation model has been developed, where besides for running the utility system, also the costs associated with starting-up the operating units have been modelled. The illustrative case study shows that accounting for the shut-downs and start-ups of utility operating units can bring significant cost savings. - Highlights: → Optimisation methodology for decision making on running utility systems. → Accounting for varying steam demands. → Optimal operating specifications when a demand change occurs. → Operating costs include start-up costs of boilers and other units. → Validated on a real-life case study. Up to 20% cost savings are possible.

  2. Optimal Control of Solar Heating System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2017-02-21

    Forced-circulation solar heating system has been widely used in process and domestic heating applications. Additional pumping power is required to circulate the water through the collectors to absorb the solar energy. The present study intends to develop a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) to obtain the minimum pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net heat energy gain Qnet (= Qs − Wp/ηe) was found to be the cost function for MPPT. The step-up-step-down controller was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.

  3. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  4. Basic study for development of nuclear heat application systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Fumizawa, Motoo; Hishida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-05-01

    We need to intensely investigate real possibilities of nuclear heat application systems which exploit high potential of nuclear energy as a promising candidate of the future energy resource in the world. In this report, special interest was placed on coal reforming systems because we thought a compact heat source of nuclear power with a very high energy density might compensate the environmental problem caused by burning a great amount of coal. First, we reviewed state-of-the-art technologies for coal reforming technology with a special attention on coal gasification technologies. Based on these basic data, we proposed several nuclear coal reforming systems and discussed advantages and disadvantages of the systems. We also explored a model with which we could analyze nuclear heat application systems all together. In addition, we investigated possibility and effects of nuclear heat utilization systems producing chemical materials from carbon dioxide in flue gas of fossil fuel power plant. As a result, we showed nuclear heat application systems were useful. (author).

  5. Exergy performance of different space heating systems: A theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    , the effects of floor covering resistance on the whole system performance were studied using two heat sources; a natural gas fired condensing boiler and an air-source heat pump. The heating systems were also compared in terms of auxiliary exergy use for pumps and fans. The low temperature floor heating system......Three space heating systems (floor heating with different floor covering resistances, radiator heating with different working temperatures, warm-air heating with and without heat recovery) were compared using a natural gas fired condensing boiler as the heat source. For the floor heating systems...... performed better than other systems in terms of exergy demand. The use of boiler as a heat source for a low-exergy floor heating system creates a mismatch in the exergy supply and demand. Although an air-source heat pump could be a better heat source, this depends on the origin of the electricity supplied...

  6. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity......The energy consumption in buildings accounts for a large part of the World’s CO2 emissions. Much energy is used for appliances, domestic hot water preparation and space heating. In solar heating systems, heat is captured by solar collectors when the sun is shining and used for heating purposes...

  7. District heating with SLOWPOKE energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System, a benign nuclear heat source designed to supply 10 thermal megawatts in the form of hot water for local heating systems in buildings and institutions, is at the forefront of these developments. A demonstration unit has been constructed in Canada and is currently undergoing an extensive test program. Because the nuclear heat source is small, operates at atmospheric pressure, and produces hot water below 100 degrees Celcius, intrinsic safety features will permit minimum operator attention and allow the heat source to be located close to the load and hence to people. In this way, a SLOWPOKE Energy System can be considered much like the oil- or coal-fired furnace it is designed to replace. The low capital investment requirements, coupled with a high degree of localization, even for the first unit, are seen as attractive features for the implementation of SLOWPOKE Energy Systems in many countries

  8. SIMS prototype system 1: Design data brochure. [solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The system, subsystem, and installation requirements are described. System operation and performance are discussed, and procedures for sizing the system to a specific site are presented.

  9. Some Problems of the Integration of Heat Pump Technology into a System of Combined Heat and Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Böszörményi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The closure of a part of the municipal combined heat and power (CHP plant of Košice city would result in the loss of 200 MW thermal output within a realtively short period of time. The long term development plan for the Košice district heating system concentrates on solving this problem. Taking into account the extremely high (90 % dependence of Slovakia on imported energy sources and the desirability of reducing the emission of pollutantst the alternative of supplying of 100 MW thermal output from geothermal sources is attractive. However the indices of economic efficiency for this alternative are unsatisfactory. Cogeneration of electricity and heat in a CHP plant, the most efficient way of supplying heat to Košice at the present time. If as planned, geothermal heat is fed directly into the district heating network the efficiency would be greatly reduced. An excellent solution of this problem would be a new conception, preferring the utilization of geothermal heat in support of a combined electricity and heat production process. The efficiency of geothermal energy utilization could be increased through a special heat pump. This paper deals with several aspects of the design of a heat pump to be integrated into the system of the CHP plant.

  10. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Kalina Cycle for the Utilization of Waste Heat in Brine Water for Indonesian Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin Nasruddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste heat in a power plant system—which would otherwise be released back to the environment—in order to produce additional power increases the efficiency of the system itself. The purpose of this study is to present an energy and exergy analysis of Kalina Cycle System (KCS 11, which is proposed to be utilized to generate additional electric power from the waste heat contained in geothermal brine water available in the Lahendong Geothermal power plant site in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. A modeling application on energy and exergy system is used to study the design of thermal system which uses KCS 11. To obtain the maximum power output and maximum efficiency, the system is optimized based on the mass fraction of working fluid (ammonia-water, as well as based on the turbine exhaust pressure. The result of the simulation is the optimum theoretical performance of KCS 11, which has the highest possible power output and efficiency. The energy flow diagram and exergy diagram (Grassman diagram was also presented for KCS 11 optimum system to give quantitative information regarding energy flow from the heat source to system components and the proportion of the exergy input dissipated in the various system components.

  11. Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics

    2004-07-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)

  12. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  13. Utilization of Keno system for criticality calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragni, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Several studies involving benchmarks have been performed with the KENO-IV code in order to utilize it in a more efficient way at IPEN-COPESP. The influence of different cross section libraries has been verifed. The Hansen-Roach library produced better results for fast systems, while GAMTEC-II code was more efficient for thermal systems. For reflectors it has been shown that the differential albedo and automatic reflection options are more appropriate for infinite and finite reflectors, respectively. A number of histories greater than 30.000 did not seem to improve the results. Plutonium systems should be treated with special care. (author) [pt

  14. Design of biomass district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallios, Ioannis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Papadakis, George

    2009-01-01

    The biomass exploitation takes advantage of the agricultural, forest, and manure residues and in extent, urban and industrial wastes, which under controlled burning conditions, can generate heat and electricity, with limited environmental impacts. Biomass can - significantly - contribute in the energy supplying system, if the engineers will adopt the necessary design changes to the traditional systems and become more familiar with the design details of the biomass heating systems. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology of the design of biomass district heating systems taking into consideration the optimum design of building structure and urban settlement around the plant. The essential energy parameters are presented for the size calculations of a biomass burning-district heating system, as well as for the environmental (i.e. Greenhouse Gas Emissions) and economic evaluation (i.e. selectivity and viability of the relevant investment). Emphasis has been placed upon the technical parameters of the biomass system, the economic details of the boiler, the heating distribution network, the heat exchanger and the Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  15. Analyzing variables for district heating collaborations between energy utilities and industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, P.; Svensson, I.L.; Trygg, L.

    2010-01-01

    One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is essential to nurture the business relationship. In summary, successful collaboration depends more on the individuals and organizations involved in the relationship between the two parties than on the technology used in the collaboration.

  16. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  17. Heat Driven Cooling in District Energy Systems; Vaermedriven Kyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydstrand, Magnus; Martin, Viktoria; Westermark, Mats [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2004-07-01

    high costs. However heat sinks are unavoidable from a system perspective and there are potential cost savings since a low-pressure steam turbines will not be required if heat driven cooling is implemented. The fuel utilization for some technologies (not necessarily the best technology) was evaluated in two different scenarios: 1) with electricity production from coal; and 2) with electricity production from natural gas. It is shown in the scenarios that the heat driven cooling technologies give lower fuel consumption as compared producing electricity as an intermediate product before cooling is produced. Further it should be noted that electricity is produced, not consumed, if heat is used directly for the production of cooling. We claim that cost effective solutions for district heat driven chillers and/or combined production of electricity and district cooling can be found in all climates with high enough density of heating and cooling demands. It was found that district heat driven chillers can be very energy efficient in warm and humid climates since desiccant systems are an effective way of handling latent cooling loads. In dry climates, with low latent loads, water distributed cooling has a large potential and absorption cooling will give high fuel utilization seen from a system perspective. In climates where water shortage is a problem it is possible that the temperature lift of the conventional absorption chiller has to be increased in order to be able to use dry cooling towers. The temperature lift can be increased by changing the chiller design or by using a different working pair. Heat driven cooling can be integrated into an energy system in different ways. In USA and Japan, district heating is not well developed. Instead small, distributed combined heat and power (CHP) plants with high exhaust temperatures are widespread. Cooling is often produced, in these regions, through absorption cooling (using heat from CHP) or compression chillers depending on

  18. What is the most energy efficient route for biogas utilization: Heat, electricity or transport?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakawati, Rawan; Smyth, Beatrice M.; McCullough, Geoffrey; De Rosa, Fabio; Rooney, David

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The paper developed an assessment tool for analyzing biogas utilization routes. •The LCA methodology was used to allow a uniform assessment of the biogas system. •“% energy efficiency” was used as the functional unit for assessment. •49 biogas-to-energy routes were assessed based on their final useful energy form. •The framework aids policy makers in the decision process for biogas exploitation. -- Abstract: Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used either directly or through various pathways (e.g. upgrading to bio-methane, use in a fuel cell or conversion to liquid fuels) for heat, electricity generation or mechanical energy for transport. However, although there are various options for biogas utilization, there is limited guidance in the literature on the selection of the optimum route, and comparison between studies is difficult due to the use of different analytical frameworks. The aim of this paper was to fill that knowledge gap and to develop a consistent framework for analysing biogas-to-energy exploitation routes. The paper evaluated 49 biogas-to-energy routes using a consistent life cycle analysis method focusing on energy efficiency as the chosen crtierion. Energy efficiencies varied between 8% and 54% for electricity generation; 16% and 83% for heat; 18% and 90% for electricity and heat; and 4% and 18% for transport. Direct use of biogas has the highest efficiencies, but the use of this fuel is typically limited to sites co-located with the anaerobic digestion facility, limiting available markets and applications. Liquid fuels have the advantage of versatility, but the results show consistently low efficiencies across all routes and applications. The energy efficiency of bio-methane routes competes well with biogas and comes with the advantage that it is more easily transported and used in a wide variety of applications. The results were also compared with fossil fuels and discussed in the context of national

  19. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongchao Zhao; Yanrui Zhang; Haojun Mi; Yimeng Zhou; Yong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The heat pump water heater (HPWH), as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available wat...

  20. Heat savings in buildings in a 100% renewable heat and power system in Denmark with different shares of district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Balyk, Olexandr

    2014-01-01

    levels of heat savings, which can be implemented by reducing heat transmission losses through building elements and by installing ventilation systems with heat recovery, in different future Danish heat and power system scenarios. Today almost 50% of heat demand in Denmark is covered by district heating......The paper examines implementation of heat saving measures in buildings in 2050, under the assumption that heat and power supply comes solely from renewable resources in Denmark.Balmorel – a linear optimisation model of heat and power sectors in Denmark is used for investigating economically viable....... A further expansion of district heating network in Denmark is assessed and penetration of heat savings is analysed in this context.If all heat saving measures, included in the model, are implemented, heat demand in Danish buildings in 2050 could be reduced by around 40%. Results show that it is cost...

  1. CAREM-25: Residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvia, Roberto P.; Coppari, Norberto R.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was the definition and consolidation of the residual heat removal system for the CAREM 25 reactor. The function of this system is cool down the primary circuit, removing the core decay heat from hot stand-by to cold shutdown and during refueling. In addition, this system heats the primary water from the cold shutdown condition to hot stand-by condition during the reactor start up previous to criticality. The system has been designed according to the requirements of the standards: ANSI/ANS 51.1 'Nuclear safety criteria for the design of stationary PWR plants'; ANSI/ANS 58.11 'Design criteria for safe shutdown following selected design basis events in light water reactors' and ANSI/ANS 58.9 'Single failure criteria for light water reactor safety-related fluid systems'. The suggested design fulfills the required functions and design criteria standards. (author)

  2. Advanced control for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP), also known as geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are proven advanced HVAC systems that utilize clean and renewable geothermal energy, as well as the massive thermal storage capacity of the ground, to provide space conditioning and water heating for both residential and commercial buildings. GSHPs have higher energy efficiencies than conventional HVAC systems. It is estimated, if GSHPs achieve a 10% market share in the US, in each year, 0.6 Quad Btu primary energy consumption can be saved and 36 million tons carbon emissions can be avoided (Liu et al. 2017). However, the current market share of GSHPs is less than 1%. The foremost barrier preventing wider adoption of GSHPs is their high installation costs. To enable wider adoption of GSHPs, the costeffectiveness of GSHP applications must be improved.

  3. Utility equipment systems: promising more for less

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This paper discusses current developments in utility equipment systems, a term applied to carrier vehicles, mostly evolved from well-known forms of construction or mining equipment modified to work with a variety of different front or back end attachments. One of the equipment ranges discussed is the Normet cassette system produced by the Orion corporation of Finland, which allows a basic chassis to be converted from a personnel carrier to an ANFO carrier within minutes. LHD vehicles which are being adapted to fulfil multipurpose roles, such as carrying roof supports, chocks and other heavy mining equipment underground are also discussed. 5 figs.

  4. Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

  5. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.

  6. Solar Powered Heat Control System for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Abin John; Jithin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It takes times for an air-conditioner to effectively start cooling the passenger compartment in the car. So the passenger of the car will feel the heat in the car extremely before the air-conditioner fully cooling the interior of the car. Excessive heat can also damage an automobile's interior as well as personal property kept in the passenger compartment. So, a system to reduce this excessive heat by pumping out hot air and allowing cooler ambient air to enter the car by mean...

  7. Integrated multiscale simulation of combined heat and power based district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peifeng; Nord, Natasa; Ertesvåg, Ivar Ståle; Ge, Zhihua; Yang, Zhiping; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of power plant, district heating network and heat users in detail and integrated. • Coupled calculation and analysis of the heat and pressure losses of the district heating network. • District heating is not preferable for very low heat load due to relatively high heat loss. • Lower design supply temperatures of the district heating network give higher system efficiency. - Abstract: Many studies have been carried out separately on combined heat and power and district heating. However, little work has been done considering the heat source, the district heating network and the heat users simultaneously, especially when it comes to the heating system with large-scale combined heat and power plant. For the purpose of energy conservation, it is very important to know well the system performance of the integrated heating system from the very primary fuel input to the terminal heat users. This paper set up a model of 300 MW electric power rated air-cooled combined heat and power plant using Ebsilon software, which was validated according to the design data from the turbine manufacturer. Then, the model of heating network and heat users were developed based on the fundamental theories of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Finally the combined heat and power based district heating system was obtained and the system performances within multiscale scope of the system were analyzed using the developed Ebsilon model. Topics with regard to the heat loss, the pressure drop, the pump power consumption and the supply temperatures of the district heating network were discussed. Besides, the operational issues of the integrated system were also researched. Several useful conclusions were drawn. It was found that a lower design primary supply temperature of the district heating network would give a higher seasonal energy efficiency of the integrated system throughout the whole heating season. Moreover, it was not always right to relate low design

  8. Unutilized energy utilizing systems. ; Power and levelling measures and unutilized energies. Miriyo energy katsuyo system. ; Denryoku fuka heijunka taisaku to miriyo energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuromoto, E. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-12

    This paper explains quantitatively performance of heat storage tanks contributing largely to levelling power loads, and promoting and spreading more effective use of unutilized energies. A model case was used to compare differences in effectiveness of unutilized energy utilization with and without use of heat storage tanks. The heat demand used was a value in a day with a peak room cooling demand, and a heat supply system using water heat source heat pumps that utilize sewage treated water was used to manufacture cold water. As a result, the effective utilization rate of unutilized energy was increased to about 1.3 times when heat storage tanks were used. Effectiveness of a heat storage tank comes from its capability that excess amount of cold water manufactured during nighttime when heat demand falls by utilizing sewage treated water is stored in the heat storage tank, and the stored cold water can be supplied being mixed with cold water manufactured during daytime when heat demand rises sharply in daytime. Because sewage treated water has its annual temperature difference stabilized at about 10[degree]C, a heat pump utilizing the sewage treated water can reduce power required to produce heat of 1 Gcal by about 40% during room heating and about 15% during room cooling over the heating tower type heat pump. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  10. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  11. Public utility Rosenheim enlarge the capacity of district heating by means of return temperatures. District heating transmission stations with cascade; Stadtwerke Rosenheim erweitern FW-Kapazitaet durch niedrigere Ruecklauftemperaturen. Fernwaermeuebergabestation mit Kaskade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehl, Goetz; Bielmeier, Reinhard; Neugebauer, Horst [Stadtwerke Rosenheim (Germany); Weinmann, Edwin [Planungsbuero Weinmann, Muenchen (Germany); Planungsbuero Weinmann, Wielenbach (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    In most cases heating systems, drinking water heaters and circulation heaters are connected in parallel. This arrangement often results in too high return temperatures. In order to keep down the return temperature all the year, the public utility Rosenheim developed a cascaded high-efficiency district heating transmission station in cooperation with two partners. Due to the series connection of the heat exchangers for the hot water circulation, the heating system and the drinking water heaters in continuous flow, not only permanently lower return temperatures are achieved, but also the consumption of the power of pumps is lowered as well as the hygiene requirements to drinking water is improved.

  12. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  13. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  14. Demand modelling for central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    Most researchers in the field of heat demand estimation have focussed on explaning the load for a given plant based on rather few measurements. This approach is simply the only one adaptable with the very limited data material and limited computer power. This way of dealing with the subject is here called the top-down approach, due to the fact that one tries to explain the load from the overall data. The results of such efforts are discussed in the report, leading to inspiration for own work. Also the significance of the findings to the causes for given heat loads are discussed and summarised. Contrary to the top-down approach applied in literature, a here-called bottom-up approach is applied in this work, describing the causes of a given partial load in detail and combining them to explain the total load for the system. Three partial load 'components' are discussed: 1) Space heating. 2) Hot-Water Consumption. 3) Heat losses in pipe networks. The report is aimed at giving an introduction to these subjects, but at the same time at collecting the previous work done by the author. Space heating is shortly discussed and loads are generated by an advanced simulation model. A hot water consumption model is presented and heat loads, generated by this model, utilised in the overall work. Heat loads due to heat losses in district heating a given a high priority in the current work. Hence a detailed presentation and overview of the subject is given to solar heating experts normally not dealing with district heating. Based on the 'partial' loads generated by the above-mentioned method, an overall load model is built in the computer simulation environment TRNSYS. The final tool is then employed for the generation of time series for heat demand, representing a district heating area. The results are compared to alternative methods for the generation of heat demand profiles. Results form this comparison will be presented. Computerised modelling of systems

  15. Upgrade of ICRF heating system on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gen; Zhao Yanpin; Mao Yuzhou

    2013-01-01

    ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency) heating is an essential heating and current drive tool on EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak). The high-power steady-state transmitters were designed as a part of research and development of ICRF heating system which aimed at output power of 1.5 MW for 1000 s in a frequency range of 25 to 70 MHz. There are 3 stage power amplifiers for each transmitter. Tube TH525A and TH535 were chosen for drive power amplifier (DPA) and final power amplifier (FPA), respectively. The power supply system of DPA and FPA were upgraded by using reliable PSM high voltage sources, whose response time is less than 5 μs. The ICRF system, which consists of 8 transmitters, will give out more than 10 MW total output power in the future. Four of them have been already fabricated, and another four are under construction. Three liquid stub tuners are used for impedance matching between antennas and transmitters, which can be only tuned shot to shot. There are two fast wave heating antennas which are assembled at I port and B port on EAST. Several projects are in progress including fast response impedance matching, distributed data acquisition and control system and so on for EAST ICRF heating system. (author)

  16. A key review of wastewater source heat pump (WWSHP) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepbasli, Arif; Biyik, Emrah; Ekren, Orhan; Gunerhan, Huseyin; Araz, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensively reviewing WWSHP systems for the first time. • Varying the COP values for heating of the reviewed systems between 1.77 and 10.63. • Ranging the COP values for cooling of the reviewed systems from 2.23 to 5.35. • Being the majority of the performance assessments on the energetic basis. - Abstract: Heat pumps (HPs) are part of the environmentally friendly technologies using renewable energy and have been utilized in the developed countries for years. Wastewater is seen as a renewable heat source for HPs. At the beginning of the 1980s, waste (sewage) water source heat pumps (WWSHPs) were widely applied in North European countries like Sweden and Norway and partially applied in China. In the past two decades, the WWSHP has become increasingly popular due to its advantages of relatively higher energy utilization efficiency and environmental protection. The present study comprehensively reviews WWSHP systems in terms of applications and performance assessments including energetic, exergetic, environmental and economic aspects for the first time to the best of the authors’ knowledge. In this context, a historical development of WWSHPs was briefly given first. Next, wastewater potential and its characteristics were presented while a WWSHP system was introduced. The previously conducted studies on WWSHPs were then reviewed and classified in a tabulated form. Finally, some concluding remarks were listed. The COP values of the reviewed studies ranged from 1.77 to 10.63 for heating and 2.23 to 5.35 for cooling based on the experimental and simulated values. The performance assessments are mostly made using energy analysis methods while the number of exergetic evaluations is very low and has not been comprehensively performed. It is expected that the comprehensive review here will be very beneficial to those dealing with the design, analysis, simulation and performance assessment of WWSHP systems

  17. After-heat removing system in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    The after-heat removing system of the present invention removes the after heat generated in a reactor core without using dynamic equipments such as pumps or blowers. There are disposed a first heat exchanger for heating a heat medium by the heat in a reactor container and a second heat exchanger situated above the first heat exchanger for spontaneously air-cooling the heat medium. Recycling pipeways connect the first and the second heat exchangers to form a recycling path for the heat medium. Then, since the second heat exchanger for spontaneously air-cooling the heat medium is disposed above the first heat exchanger and they are connected by the recycling pipeways, the heat medium can be circulated spontaneously. Accordingly, dynamic equipments such as pumps or blowers are no more necessary. As a result, the after-heat removing system of the FBR type reactor of excellent safety and reliability can be obtained. (I.S.)

  18. Nonstationary Heat Conduction in Atomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit K.

    Understanding heat at the atomistic level is an interesting exercises. It is fascinating to note how the vibration of atoms result into thermodynamic concept of heat. This thesis aims to bring insights into different constitutive laws of heat conduction. We also develop a framework in which the interaction of thermostats to the system can be studied and a well known Kapitza effect can be reduced. The thesis also explores stochastic and continuum methods to model the latent heat release in the first order transition of ideal silicon surfaces into dimers. We divide the thesis into three works which are connected to each other: 1. Fourier's law leads to a diffusive model of heat transfer in which a thermal signal propagates infinitely fast and the only material parameter is the thermal conductivity. In micro- and nano-scale systems, non-Fourier effects involving coupled diffusion and wavelike propagation of heat can become important. An extension of Fourier's law to account for such effects leads to a Jeffreys-type model for heat transfer with two relaxation times. In this thesis, we first propose a new Thermal Parameter Identification (TPI) method for obtaining the Jeffreys-type thermal parameters from molecular dynamics simulations. The TPI method makes use of a nonlinear regression-based approach for obtaining the coefficients in analytical expressions for cosine and sine-weighted averages of temperature and heat flux over the length of the system. The method is applied to argon nanobeams over a range of temperature and system sizes. The results for thermal conductivity are found to be in good agreement with standard Green-Kubo and direct method calculations. The TPI method is more efficient for systems with high diffusivity and has the advantage, that unlike the direct method, it is free from the influence of thermostats. In addition, the method provides the thermal relaxation times for argon. Using the determined parameters, the Jeffreys-type model is able to

  19. The application of ground source heat pumps to a subdivision-wide district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciavaglia, L.

    2005-01-01

    Design guidelines for economic ground source heat pumps (GSHP) in district energy systems were presented. The broad economics of using central GSHP in a community district energy system were examined. Design parameters needed to utilize GSHP in district energy system were outlined. The sensitivity of energy prices and the costs of major capital were reviewed. District heating load duration curves were outlined. It was suggested that varying GSHP capacity from 0 to 100 per cent of load was advisable. In addition, capacity should be balanced with gas boiler technology. The amortizing of capital within energy costs was recommended. It was suggested that the best scenario was a minimum of 50 per cent ground energy. Details of pipings and heat exchanger costs were presented, along with costs for gas boilers and gas costs for the district energy system. Charts of current costing and reduction of piping capital were included. It was concluded that GSHP can be a viable component of a district energy system, as a GSHP based district energy system can provide more stable energy prices than conventional fossil fuel systems. It was suggested that sizing of GSHP at, or near, 40 per cent of peak demand provided optimal conditions with respect to energy cost and use of earth energy. tabs., figs

  20. 14 CFR 25.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 25.1326....1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating system is installed, an indication system must be provided to indicate to the flight crew when that pitot heating system is not...

  1. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...

  2. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  3. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel, the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the water temperature variation in the heat storage, depending on the heat load and the heat storage volume. Heat load is calculated for three reference days, with average daily temperatures from -5 to 5°C. The primary energy savings are also calculated for those days in the case of using heat storage in district heating.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  4. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  5. One-Loop Operation of Primary Heat Transport System in MONJU During Heat Transport System Modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Tsushima, H.; Sakurai, N.; Jo, T.

    2006-01-01

    MONJU is a prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR). Modification work commenced in March 2005. Since June 2004, MONJU has changed to one-loop operation of the primary heat transport system (PHTS) with all of the secondary heat transport systems (SHTS) drained of sodium. The purposes of this change are to shorten the modification period and to reduce the cost incurred for circuit trace heating electrical consumption. Before changing condition, the following issues were investigated to show that this mode of operation was possible. The heat loss from the reactor vessel and the single primary loop must exceed the decay heat by an acceptable margin but the capacity of pre-heaters to keep the sodium within the primary vessel at about 200 deg. C must be maintained. With regard to the heat loss and the decay heat, the estimated heat loss in the primary system was in the range of 90-170 kW in one-loop operation, and the calculated decay heat was 21.2 kW. Although the heat input of the primary pump was considered, it was clear that circuit heat loss greatly exceeded the decay heat. As for pre-heaters, effective capacity was less than the heat loss. Therefore, the temperature of the reactor vessel room was raised to reduce the heat loss. One-loop operation of the PHTS was able to be executed by means of these measures. The cost of electrical consumption in the power plant has been reduced by one-loop operation of the PHTS and the modification period was shortened. (authors)

  6. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  7. Initiative for local district heating. New chances for municipal utilities. Boundary conditions for the heat market; Initiative Nahwaerme. Neue Chancen fuer Stadtwerke. Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Waermemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Michael [K.Group GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Nachhaltige Energieversorgung und Stadtentwicklung

    2009-06-15

    In the regulated market, municipal utilities are forced to find new fields of activity. The heat market offers good chances. For example, local district heating grids can be established, independent power generation can be encouraged, and new services can be offered which may increase customer loyalty. The district heating initiative of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Minister of the Environment was launched early in 2009 with the intention to offer valuable assistance to the municipal utilities. (orig.)

  8. House-internal heating systems; Husinterna vaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof; Wollerstrand, Janusz [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2005-07-01

    In this report the placement of the circulation-pump in of waterborne radiator systems, as well as their filling and deairation are investigated. The study was done by literature studies and interviews with consultants and companies active on the HVAC-market. It was concluded that different placements of the pump in relationship to the heat exchanger exist, and the arguments for the choice of placement are varying. The main explanation of the choice of placement is that it is based on experience/or by practical reasons. The most important factor influencing the placement of the pump found, was how the pump is situated in relation to the expansion-tank. To maintain pressure in the whole system the expansion-tank should be placed on the suction side of the pump without any intermediate pressure-dropping devices in between. This placement ensures overpressure in the whole radiator-system and reduces the risk of unwanted leak in of air. To avoid cavitation sufficient static pressure on the suction side of the pump is necessary. The pressure increases with the temperature, which must be taken into consideration if the pump is placed on the warm side of the heat-exchanger. From this point of view a placement in the return-pipe from the radiator-system is to be preferred. Before advices for HVAC-branch regarding placement of the circulation-pump in the heating systems can be implemented, it is of big importance to analyse and clearly specify the advantages and disadvantages of a certain placement of the pump. There is a need of directions to get house-internal systems to operate properly together with district heating system. This is especially important when older heating systems with burners and shunt valves are being connected. Filling and deairation of the radiator system is of great importance for the function of the system. A radiator-system with significant level of air remains is difficult to adjust and will not work properly. Air in the radiators leads to

  9. Household preferences of hybrid home heating systems – A choice experiment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokamo, Enni

    2016-01-01

    The residential heating sector presents considerable energy savings potential, as numerous heating solutions for reducing electricity consumption and utilizing renewable energy sources are available in the market. The aim of this paper is to examine determinants of household heating system choices and to use this information for policy planning purposes. This paper investigates residential homeowner attitudes regarding innovative hybrid home heating systems (HHHS) with choice experiment. Heating system scenarios are designed to represent the most relevant primary and supplementary heating alternatives currently available in Finland. The choice sets include six main heating alternatives (district heat, solid wood, wood pellet, electric storage heating, ground heat pump and exhaust air heat pump) that are described by five attributes (supplementary heating systems, investment costs, operating costs, comfort of use and environmental friendliness). The results imply that HHHSs generally appear to be accepted among households; however, several factors affect perceptions of these technologies. The results reveal differing household attitudes toward the main heating alternatives and show that such views are affected by socio-demographic characteristics (age, living environment, education, etc.). The results suggest that households view supplementary heating systems (especially solar-based) favorably. The other attributes studied also play a significant role in decision making. - Highlights: •Study of hybrid heating where supplementary and main heating systems are combined. •Choice experiment is applied to study the determinants of hybrid heating adoption. •Hybrid heating appears to be generally accepted among households. •Households exhibit differing attitudes toward hybrid heating. •Policy makers should not underestimate the potential of hybrid heating.

  10. Potentialities and type of integrating nuclear heating stations into district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munser, H.; Reetz, B.; Schmidt, G.

    1978-01-01

    Technical and economical potentialities of applying nuclear heating stations in district heating systems are discussed considering the conditions of the GDR. Special attention is paid to an optimum combination of nuclear heating stations with heat sources based on organic fuels. Optimum values of the contribution of nuclear heating stations to such combined systems and the economic power range of nuclear heating stations are estimated. Final considerations are concerned with the effect of siting and safety concepts of nuclear heating stations on the structure of the district heating system. (author)

  11. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  12. Preheating of manure utilizing heat exchanger and flue gas. Forvarmning af gylle ved varmeveksling med roeggas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.

    1987-07-15

    It has been shown that preheating of manures in biomass conversion plants to a temperature of 50-60 deg. C, before the anaerobic digestion takes place at a temperature of 35-45 deg. C, results in an increase of methane production. But the method normally involves an increase in energy consumption. The aim of the project was to develope methods of utilizing heat from flue gas emitted from the boiler connected to the plant, with the help of a heat exchanger. The heat thus recovered would be used to preheat the manure. The chosen method was to inject the flue gas directly into the manure mass, following this up with heat exchanging and condensing. In order to mix the flue gas thoroughly into the manure an ejector was used, this was driven by the manure flow. Results were satisfactory. (AB).

  13. Characteristics of Vacuum Freeze Drying with Utilization of Internal Cooling and Condenser Waste Heat for Sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze drying is an excellent drying method, but it is very energy-intensive because a relatively long drying time is required. This research investigates the utilization of condenser waste heat for sublimation as a way of accelerating the drying rate. In addition, it also investigates the effect of internal cooling combined with vacuum cooling in the pressure reduction process. Jelly fish tentacles were used as the specimen, with different configurations for condenser heat waste and internal cooling valve opening. The results show that heating with condenser heat waste can accelerate the drying rate up to 0.0035 kg/m2.s. In addition, pre-freezing by internal cooling prevents evaporation until the mass of the specimen is 0.47 g and promotes transition of the specimen into the solid phase.

  14. Encouragement of Enzyme Reaction Utilizing Heat Generation from Ferromagnetic Particles Subjected to an AC Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masashi; Aki, Atsushi; Mizuki, Toru; Maekawa, Toru; Usami, Ron; Morimoto, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of activating an enzyme utilizing heat generation from ferromagnetic particles under an ac magnetic field. We immobilize α-amylase on the surface of ferromagnetic particles and analyze its activity. We find that when α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids, that is, ferromagnetic particles, on which α-amylase molecules are immobilized, are subjected to an ac magnetic field, the particles generate heat and as a result, α-amylase on the particles is heated up and activated. We next prepare a solution, in which α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids and free, nonimmobilized chitinase are dispersed, and analyze their activities. We find that when the solution is subjected to an ac magnetic field, the activity of α-amylase immobilized on the particles increases, whereas that of free chitinase hardly changes; in other words, only α-amylase immobilized on the particles is selectively activated due to heat generation from the particles.

  15. Encouragement of Enzyme Reaction Utilizing Heat Generation from Ferromagnetic Particles Subjected to an AC Magnetic Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Suzuki

    Full Text Available We propose a method of activating an enzyme utilizing heat generation from ferromagnetic particles under an ac magnetic field. We immobilize α-amylase on the surface of ferromagnetic particles and analyze its activity. We find that when α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids, that is, ferromagnetic particles, on which α-amylase molecules are immobilized, are subjected to an ac magnetic field, the particles generate heat and as a result, α-amylase on the particles is heated up and activated. We next prepare a solution, in which α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids and free, nonimmobilized chitinase are dispersed, and analyze their activities. We find that when the solution is subjected to an ac magnetic field, the activity of α-amylase immobilized on the particles increases, whereas that of free chitinase hardly changes; in other words, only α-amylase immobilized on the particles is selectively activated due to heat generation from the particles.

  16. Systemic-Functional Approach to Utilities Supplys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay I. Komkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of the article consists in statement of management approach to development of utilities supply processes based on conflict situations decision – making search. It had appeared in the period of the transition from the planned and directive management to market development. Methods: the research methodology is based on the system analysis of full life cycle processes functioning, forecasting of complex systems development, mathematical modeling of processes of services supply and innovative and investment projects modeling as well as development of supplying services processes. Results: the results of the work are concentrated in the presentation of systemic-functional approach to managing the development of processes of municipal services, able to resolve conflict situations in this sphere. Conclusions and Relevance: the traditional management approach on the basis of elimination of "bottlenecks" and emergencies prevailing within planned and directive system at its transformation in the market conditions has led to accumulation of conflict situations and unsolvable problems. The offered systemic-functional approach based on forecasting of full life cycle of the modernized processes and the services providing systems allows to consider costs of modernization, prime cost and quality of the rendered services. 

  17. Feasibility of passive heat removal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a review of decay heat removal systems (DHRSs) used in liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Advantages and the disadvantages of these DHRSs, extent of their passivity and prospects for their use in advanced fast reactor projects are analyzed. Methods of extending the limitations on the employment of individual systems, allowing enhancement in their effectiveness as safety systems and assuring their total passivity are described. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs.

  18. A Steam Utility Network Model for the Evaluation of Heat Integration Retrofits – A Case Study of an Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Marton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real industrial example in which the steam utility network of a refinery is modelled in order to evaluate potential Heat Integration retrofits proposed for the site. A refinery, typically, has flexibility to optimize the operating strategy for the steam system depending on the operation of the main processes. This paper presents a few examples of Heat Integration retrofit measures from a case study of a large oil refinery. In order to evaluate expected changes in fuel and electricity imports to the refinery after implementation of the proposed retrofits, a steam system model has been developed. The steam system model has been tested and validated with steady state data from three different operating scenarios and can be used to evaluate how changes to steam balances at different pressure levels would affect overall steam balances, generation of shaft power in turbines, and the consumption of fuel gas.

  19. Experimental investigation and feasibility analysis on a capillary radiant heating system based on solar and air source heat pump dual heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.; Gu, Z.L.; Kang, W.B.; Liu, X.; Zhang, L.Y.; Jin, L.W.; Zhang, Q.L.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Vertical temperature gradient in Case 3, (b) PMV and PPD of the test room in Case 3, (c) operating time of SPCTS and ASHP systems in Case 3 and (d) the proportion of SPCTS operating time. - Highlights: • A capillary heating system based on solar and air source heat pump was developed. • Influence of supply water temperature on solar energy saving rate was investigated. • Heating performance and thermal comfort of capillary heating system were analyzed. • Low temperature heating with capillary is suitable for solar heating system. - Abstract: Due to sustainable development, solar energy has drawn much attention and been widely applied in buildings. However, the application of solar energy is limited because of its instability, intermittency and low energy density in winter. In order to use low density and instable solar energy source for heating and improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy, a solar phase change thermal storage (SPCTS) heating system using a radiant-capillary-terminal (RCT) to effectively match the low temperature hot water, a phase change thermal storage (PCTS) to store and continuously utilize the solar energy, and an air source heat pump (ASHP) as an alternate energy, was proposed and set up in this research. Series of experiments were conducted to obtain the relation between the solar radiation utilization rate and the heating supply temperatures, and to evaluate the performance of the RCT module and the indoor thermal environment of the system for its practical application in a residential building in the north-western City of Xi’an, China. The results show that energy saving of the solar heating system can be significantly improved by reducing the supplied water temperature, and the supplied water temperature of the RCT would be no more than 35 °C. The capillary radiation heating can adopt a lower water temperature and create a good thermal comfort environment as well. These results may lead to the

  20. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  1. Bivalent heating systems - Potential for savings through system optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, J.; Jenni, A.; Nussbaumer, T.

    2005-01-01

    This article tales a look at the potential for optimising bivalent heating installations for district heating systems fired with oil and wood. The influence of increases in the price of heating oil as compared to wood fuels is discussed. The authors comment that the proportion of expensive heating oil used in such installations is often too high. Price developments for both classes of fuel in 2005 are discussed. Factors influencing the proportions of oil and wood fuel used are listed and discussed, as is the mode of operation of the district heating systems, their extension and the consumers connected to them. The article provides information on the performance of 30 installations examined. Measures that can be taken to reduce the amount of heating oil used and to increase installation efficiency are presented and discussed

  2. 14 CFR 23.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 23.1326... Instruments: Installation § 23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating system... provided to indicate to the flight crew when that pitot heating system is not operating. The indication...

  3. Mushroom drying with solar assisted heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şevik, Seyfi; Aktaş, Mustafa; Doğan, Hikmet; Koçak, Saim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system. • Developing of a computer program for a drying system with different scenarios by using PLC. • Obtained less energy input with high coefficients of performance of system and more quality products. • Determination of mushroom drying properties such as moisture content, moisture ratio and drying ratio. - Abstract: In this study, a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system (SAHP) with flat plate collectors and a water source heat pump has been proposed. Mushroom drying was examined experimentally in the drying system. Solar energy (SE) system and heat pump (HP) system can be used separately or together. A computer program has been developed for the system. Drying air temperature, relative humidity, weight of product values, etc. were monitored and controlled with different scenarios by using PLC. This system is cheap, good quality and sustainable and it is modeled for good quality product and increased efficiency. Thus, products could be dried with less energy input and more controlled conditions. Mushrooms were dried at 45 °C and 55 °C drying air temperature and 310 kg/h mass flow rate. Mushrooms were dried from initial moisture content 13.24 g water/g dry matter (dry basis) to final moisture content 0.07 g water/g dry matter (dry basis). Mushrooms were dried by using HP system, SE system and SAHP system respectively at 250–220 min, at 270–165 min and at 230–190 min. The coefficients of performance of system (COP) are calculated in a range from 2.1 to 3.1 with respect to the results of experiments. The energy utilization ratios (EURs) were found to vary between 0.42 and 0.66. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) values were found to vary between 0.26 and 0.92 kg/kW h

  4. Present Status of HTGR Utilization System Development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    Efforts are to be continuously devoted to establish and upgrade HTGR technology in the world. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has conducted the R and D of HTGRs since the 1960's in Japan, focusing on mainly the construction of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) which is an HTGR with a maximum helium gas temperature of 950 o C at the reactor outlet and HTGR utilization systems. The HTTR achieved first criticality on November 10, 1998 and will restart from January in 2001. In the R and D program of HTGR utilization systems, JAERI has conducted hydrogen production systems with HTGR to demonstrate the applicability of nuclear heat for extensive energy demands besides the electric power generation. JAERI has developed a hydrogen production system by steam reforming process of natural gas using nuclear heat supplied from the HTTR. Prior to the demonstration test of HTTR hydrogen production system, a 1/30-scale out-of-pile test facility is under construction for safety review and detailed design of the system. The out-of-pile test facility will be started in 2001 and will be continued about 4 years. The hydrogen permeation and corrosion tests have been carried out since 1997. Check and review for the demonstration program in the HTTR hydrogen production system will be made in 2001. Then the HTTR hydrogen production system is scheduled to be constructed from 2003 and demonstratively operated from around 2006. In parallel with the R and D of the HTTR hydrogen production system, hydrogen production method by thermochemical water splitting, so-called IS process, has been studied in JAERI. The IS process is placed as one of future candidates of the heat utilization systems of the HTTR following the steam reforming system. Continuous and stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen for 48 hours was successfully achieved with a laboratory-scale apparatus mainly made of glass. Following this achievement, the study has been continued with a larger

  5. Utility oversight of Cask System Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.A.; Jordan, J.M.; Schwartz, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will present the electric utility industry's perspective on the status and scope of the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (DOE/OCRWM) transportation cask systems development activities, including the Cask Systems Development Program (CSDP) Initiative I transportation cask projects. This presentation is particularly timely because the CSDP Independent Management Review Group (IMRG), os which one of the authors is a member, completed an objective assessment of OCRWM's transportation cask system development activities and issued its first report in late August 1992. The perspective on these cask systems development activities that will be presented reflects conclusions based on (1) the industry's review of CSDP Preliminary and Draft Final Design Reports for the Initiative I cask projects, (2) the activities of one of the authors as a member of the IMRG, and (3) the positions that the industry has consistently taken on what it believes to be the appropriate scope and pace of the CSDP and its integration with other OCRWM activities. Background information on the OCRWM transportation cask systems development activities and the relevant industry activities will also be provided

  6. Dynamic behavior of district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, J.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a simulation model of a hot water system taking into account the time dependent phenomena which are important for the operational management of such a system. A state of the art literature review has shown that there is no such model considering all parts from the generation of the heat at the plant to its consumption in the connected buildings so far. First, an exhaustive list of all dynamic phenomena occurring in district heating systems has been drawn and analyzed. Considering this list, this thesis proposes that a model which satisfies the criteria listed above can be developed by superposing four sub-models which are a dynamic model of the heat generation plant, a steady state model of the hydraulic calculation of the distribution network, a dynamic model of the thermal behavior of the network and a dynamic model of the heat consumers. The development of the four sub-models starts from the fundamental conservation equations for fluid systems, i.e. the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The transformations of those general equations into simple calculation formulas show and justify the hypotheses made in the modeling process. The heat generation plant model itself is a set of sub-models: the models for steam boilers, hot water boilers and heat accumulators which take account of the dynamic evolution of the water temperature by a simple form of the energy conservation equation, as well as the steady state models for circulation pumps and pressurizers. Since the velocities in the network pipes are small, a consideration of steady states is adopted. A network model allowing to calculate the hydraulic variables in every point is adopted from the graph theory. The pressures and flow rates in the network are calculated at discrete time steps and they are considered to be constant for the duration between the time steps. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. Modelling of Thermal Behavior of Borehole Heat Exchangers of Geothermal Heat Pump Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gornov V.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of comparing the accuracy of the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, modeling non-steady thermal behavior of geothermal heat pump heating systems (GHCS and of the similar model “conventional” using finite difference methods for solving spatial non-steady problems of heat conductivity. The software package is based on the method of formulating mathematical models of thermal behavior of ground low-grade heat collection systems developed by INSOLAR group of companies. Equations of mathematical model of spatial non-steady thermal behavior of ground mass of low-grade heat collection system obtained by the developed method have been solved analytically that significantly reduced computing time spent by the software complex “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” for calculations. The method allows to turn aside difficulties associated with information uncertainty of mathematical models of the ground thermal behavior and approximation of external factors affecting the ground. Use of experimentally obtained information about the ground natural thermal behavior in the software package allows to partially take into account the whole complex of factors (such as availability of groundwater, their velocity and thermal behavior, structure and arrangement of ground layers, the Earth’s thermal background, precipitation, phase transformations of moisture in the pore space, and more, significantly influencing the formation of thermal behavior of the ground mass of a low-grade geothermal heat collection system. Numerical experiments presented in the article confirmed the high convergence of the results obtained through the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” with solutions obtained by conventional finite-difference methods.

  8. Thermoelectric System Absorbing Waste Heat from a Steel Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Meng, Xiangning; Zhu, Miaoyong; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-06-01

    China's iron and steel industry has made great progress in energy savings and emission reductions with the application of many waste heat recovery technologies. However, most of the medium and low temperature waste heat and radiant waste heat has not been effectively utilized. This paper proposes a thermoelectric system that generates electricity by absorbing the radiant heat from the surface of steel ladles in a steel plant. The thermoelectric behavior of modules in this system is analyzed by a numerical simulation method. The effects of external resistance and module structure on thermoelectric performance are also discussed in the temperature range of the wall surface of a steel ladle. The results show that the wall temperature has a significant influence on the thermoelectric behavior of the module, so its uniformity and stability should be considered in practical application. The ratio of the optimum external resistance to the internal resistance of the thermoelectric module is in the range of 1.6-2.0, which indicates the importance of external load optimization for a given thermoelectric system. In addition, the output power and the conversion efficiency of the module can be significantly improved by increasing the length of the thermoelectric legs and adopting a double-layer structure. Finally, through the optimization of external resistance and structure, the power output can reach 83-304 W/m2. This system is shown to be a promising approach for energy recovery.

  9. Optimal Control of Solar Heating System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Ton, Wei-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chun; Ko, Hua-Wei; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Yen, Rue-Her

    2017-01-01

    was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.

  10. Explosion-protected electric heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, H

    1984-02-01

    Different constructions of explosion-protected heating systems are described concerning the different types of protection, the service conditions, the installation and the surveillance devices. Interpretations and regulations derived from the VDE Standards are discussed and their relation to the European Standards EN 50014 ... 50020 is considered in a survey.

  11. A heat pipe solar collector system for winter heating in Zhengzhou city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat pipe solar collector system for winter heating is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The hourly heat collecting capacity, water temperature and contribution rate of solar collector system based on Zhengzhou city typical sunshine are calculated. The study reveals that the heat collecting capacity and water temperature increases initially and then decreases, and the solar collector system can provide from 40% to 78% heating load for a 200 m2 villa with in Zhengzhou city from November to March.

  12. Inverse Problem and Variation Method to Optimize Cascade Heat Exchange Network in Central Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yin; WEI Zhiyuan; ZHANG Yinping; WANG Xin

    2017-01-01

    Urban heating in northern China accounts for 40% of total building energy usage.In central heating systems,heat is often transfened from heat source to users by the heat network where several heat exchangers arc installed at heat source,substations and terminals respectively.For given overall heating capacity and heat source temperarure,increasing the terminal fluid temperature is an effective way to improve the thermal performance of such cascade heat exchange network for energy saving.In this paper,the mathematical optimization model of the cascade heat exchange network with three-stage heat exchangers in series is established.Aim at maximizing the cold fluid temperature for given hot fluid temperature and overall heating capacity,the optimal heat exchange area distribution and the medium fluids' flow rates are determined through inverse problem and variation method.The preliminary results show that the heat exchange areas should be distributed equally for each heat exchanger.It also indicates that in order to improve the thernmal performance of the whole system,more heat exchange areas should be allocated to the heat exchanger where flow rate difference between two fluids is relatively small.This work is important for guiding the optimization design of practical cascade heating systems.

  13. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger

    1990-01-01

    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  14. Swedish Homeowners' Attitude towards Water-Based Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L; Mahapatra, K [Mid Sweden Univ., Ecotechnology, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    In 2004 and 2007, we conducted questionnaire surveys of 1,500 randomly selected Swedish homeowners of detached houses to understand their attitude towards adopting an innovative heating system (IHS). The results showed that there was no substantial change in homeowners' attitude towards IHSs. More than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents' choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Installers were the most frequently consulted source of information on heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantages with respect to investment cost. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic. Keywords: Heat sector, socio-economic aspects, market implementation

  15. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  16. Combined heat and power solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    An Australian-designed photovoltaic (PV) power system that also supplies hot water is close to commercial release. PVs have been around for decades and solar concentrators have been efficiently heating water for nearly a century. The Australian National University, Department of Engineering - Centre for Sustainable Energy systems (CSES), has designed a domestic scale modular system that not only generates electricity but also provides concentrated thermal energy to heat water for a Solahart hot water system and is designed to be deployed into small to medium scale applications such as hospitals, schools and dwellings with an easily assembled galvanised steel frame. A market research was carried out and is envisaged that at least 7,500 units will be installed annually by the year 2005 and up to 25,000 units by 2008

  17. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    , various simulations of solar heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model...... gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated in this paper....

  18. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model used to calculate the boiler efficiency on a monthly basis was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions...

  19. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  20. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on development of wide-area energy utilization network system. Research on energy system design technology (Research on Eco-Energy City systematization); Eco ene toshi no system ka kenkyu 1999 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Efforts are being exerted to develop systems for effectively utilizing various kinds of waste heat in presence in cities and their neighborhood. In fiscal 1999, investigations were conducted into cases of low temperature waste heat utilization at 16 locations in Japan and into trends of heat utilization in five European countries, with a visit paid to European District Heating Association. There are 128 district heat supplying sites in service in Japan, of which 25 handles low temperature waste heat. As for their types of utilization, 12 are of the temperature difference energy utilization type while 13 are of the heat recovery type. When it comes to the system details, the importance of proper selection of structures and materials for heat accumulating systems and heat exchangers on the secondary side should be emphasized although it is the heat pump that assumes the key role. In Europe, indications are that district systems are developing into wide-area networks and that they are growing increasingly marketable. In the northern and eastern parts of Europe, 30-70% of demand for heat is met by district heating. Waste heat from power generation is the heat source, and this occupies 30-80% of the whole. Thanks to the introduction of the environmental tax, in addition, environments are now complete under which recoverable energy utilization will enjoy an advantageous position. (NEDO)

  1. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for transverse and longitudinal contiguous hull structure must: (a) Be shown by a heat load calculation to have...

  2. 14 CFR 125.206 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 125.206... Equipment Requirements § 125.206 Pitot heat indication systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... flight instrument pitot heating system unless the airplane is equipped with an operable pitot heat...

  3. 14 CFR 135.158 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 135.158... Equipment § 135.158 Pitot heat indication systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... instrument pitot heating system unless the airplane is also equipped with an operable pitot heat indication...

  4. Experimental validation of a dynamic waste heat recovery system model for control purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Kupper, F.; Rojer, C.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Scappin, F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Smits, Jeroen; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the identification and validation of a dynamic Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system model. Driven by upcoming CO2 emission targets and increasing fuel costs, engine exhaust gas heat utilization has recently attracted much attention to improve fuel efficiency, especially for

  5. Effects of heat stress on dynamic absorption process, tissue distribution and utilization efficiency of vitamin C in broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guohua; Chen Guosheng; Cai Huiyi

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat stress on ascorbic acid nutritional physiology of broilers with radioisotope technology. 3 H-Vc was fed to broilers and then the blood, liver, kidney, breast muscle, and excreta were sampled to determine the dynamic absorption process, the tissue distribution and the utilization efficiency of vitamin C. The results indicated that the absorption, metabolism and mobilization of supplemented vitamin C in broilers with heat stress was faster than that in broilers without heat stress. However, the utilization efficiency of supplemented vitamin C in broilers with heat stress was not higher than that of broilers without heat stress

  6. Efficiency of the heat pump cooperating with various heat sources in monovalent and bivalent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurpaska, S.; Latala, H. [Krakow Univ. of Agriculture, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering and Computer Science

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that tested the efficiency of compressor heat pumps cooperating with various types of lower heat sources such as horizontal ground heat exchangers, vertical exchangers and sources operating in the bivalent system. The system for receiving energy consisted of a traditional heating system and liquid-air exchangers. The study identified a strong relationship between the heating efficiency of the analysed systems and temperature inside the structure. The study showed that the bivalent system was fully capable of meeting a heat requirement of about 1 MJ -2.

  7. Membrane heat exchanger in HVAC energy recovery systems, systems energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, M. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Opus International Consultants (New Zealand); AL-Waked, R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU), P.O. Box 1614, AlKhobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Morrison, G. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Behnia, M. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The thermal performance of an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is experimentally investigated. The heat exchanger utilizes a 60gsm Kraft paper as the heat and moisture transfer surface for HVAC energy recovery. The heat exchanger sensible, latent and total effectiveness have been determined through temperature and moisture content measurements. The annual energy consumption of an air conditioner coupled with an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is also studied and compared with a conventional air conditioning cycle using in-house modified HPRate software. The heat exchanger effectiveness are used as thermal performance indicators and incorporated in the modified software. Energy analysis showed that an air conditioning system coupled with a membrane heat exchanger consumes less energy than a conventional air conditioning system in hot and humid climates where the latent load is high. It has been shown that in humid climate a saving of up to 8% in annual energy consumption can be achieved when membrane heat exchanger is used instead of a conventional HVAC system. (author)

  8. Economical utilization of hot water - an important precondition for an efficient utilization of waste heat in milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, E; Pflug, C

    1985-01-01

    Indispensable both in the field of hydroecological and energy policies is the economical utilization of hot water. Hydroecological process analyses in specialized dairy cattle plants have shown that the specific mean annual abstraction of hot water (50/sup 0/C) may be reduced to 14 l per cow and per day. The proportionate contribution of different operational sectors and methods to arrive at the standards are pointed out. Economizing dairy cattly plants reducing hot water consumption as indicated and reaching average milking outputs of >= 1 l per cow and per day may thus bridge the summer season by heat recovery processes producing a sufficient quantity of hot water and allowing a shutdown of all heating units. At present the majority of dairy cattle plants cannot yet dispense with supplementary water during the remaining months. The hot water consumption rate is highest at the end of shifts. In double-shifted dairy cattle plants the estimated maximum hourly consumption amounts to 12 per cent of the average daily consumption. (orig.).

  9. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  10. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-15

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  11. An optimisation framework for thermal energy storage integration in a residential heat pump heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaldi, R.; Kiprakis, A.; Friedrich, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated framework for the optimal design of low carbon heating systems. • Development of a synthetic heat demand model with occupancy profiles. • Linear model of a heat pump with thermal energy storage heating system. • Evaluation of domestic heating system from generally available input parameters. • The lower carbon heating system can be cost competitive with conventional systems. - Abstract: Domestic heating has a large share in the UK total energy consumption and significant contribution to the greenhouse gas emissions since it is mainly fulfilled by fossil fuels. Therefore, decarbonising the heating system is essential and an option to achieve this is by heating system electrification through heat pumps (HP) installation in combination with renewable power generation. A potential increase in performance and flexibility can be achieved by pairing HP with thermal energy storage (TES), which allows the shifting of heat demand to off peak periods or periods with surplus renewable electricity. We present a design and operational optimisation model which is able to assess the performance of HP–TES relative to conventional heating systems. The optimisation is performed on a synthetic heat demand model which requires only the annual heat demand, temperature and occupancy profiles. The results show that the equipment and operational cost of a HP system without TES are significantly higher than for a conventional system. However, the integration of TES and time-of-use tariffs reduce the operational cost of the HP systems and in combination with the Renewable Heating Incentive make the HP systems cost competitive with conventional systems. The presented demand model and optimisation procedure will enable the design of low carbon district heating systems which integrate the heating system with the variable renewable electricity supply.

  12. Multiple utilization of energy in buildings. Utilization of waste heat at the Blood Transfusion Service; Energie im Gebaeude mehrfach nutzen. Abwaermenutzung beim Blutspendedienst Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaigalat, Jens

    2012-11-01

    For the Blood Transfusion Service North the German Red Cross (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) utilizes the waste heat from production facilities and laboratories for heating offices. By doing this, the VRV technology for the realization of this solution was used.

  13. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifurrahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  14. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifurrahman; Usman, A. Gani; Rinjani, Rakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  15. Economic Model Predictive Control for Hot Water Based Heating Systems in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadelrahman, M. A. Ahmed; Zong, Yi; Li, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study to optimize the heating energy costs in a residential building with varying electricity price signals based on an Economic Model Predictive Controller (EMPC). The investigated heating system consists of an air source heat pump (ASHP) incorporated with a hot water tank...... as active Thermal Energy Storage (TES), where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the ASHP electricity consumption and the building heating consumption utilizing a heat dynamic model of the building. The results show that the proposed EMPC can save the energy cost by load...

  16. District heating and heat storage using the solution heat of an ammonia/water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Peier, W.; Mayor, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The article describes a model for the optimum use of the heat energy generated in a nuclear power station for district heating and heat storage taking account of the electricity and heat demand varying with time. (HR/AK) [de

  17. Techno-economic analysis and optimization of the heat recovery of utility boiler flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gang; Huang, Shengwei; Yang, Yongping; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four typical flue gas heat recovery schemes are quantitatively analyzed. • The analysis considers thermodynamic, heat transfer and hydrodynamics factors. • Techno-economic analysis and optimization design are carried out. • High-stage steam substitute scheme obtains better energy-saving effect. • Large heat transfer area and high flue gas resistances weaken overall performance. - Abstract: Coal-fired power plants in China consume nearly half of available coals, and the resulting CO 2 emissions cover over 40% of total national emissions. Therefore, reducing the energy expenditure of coal-fired power plants is of great significance to China’s energy security and greenhouse gas reduction programs. For coal-fired power plants, the temperature of a boiler’s exhaust gas reaches 120–150 °C or even higher. The thermal energy of boiler’s exhaust accounts for approximately 3–8% of the total energy of fuel input. Given these factors, we conducted a techno-economic analysis and optimization design of the heat recovery system using boiler exhaust gas. This research is conformed to the principles of thermodynamic, heat transfer, and hydrodynamics. Based on the data from an existing 1000 MW typical power generation unit in China, four typical flue gas heat recovery schemes are quantitatively analyzed from the thermodynamics perspective. The impacts of flue gas heat recovery on net work output and standard coal consumption rate of various schemes are performed. Furthermore, the transfer area of heat recovery exchanger and the draft fan work increment due to the flue gas pressure drop are analyzed. Finally, a techno-economic analysis of the heat recovery schemes is conducted, and some recommendations on optimization design parameters are proposed, with full consideration of various factors such as the decrease on fuel cost due to energy conservation as well as the investment cost of heat recovery retrofitting. The results revealed that, high

  18. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Runway Snow Melting Utilizing Heat Pipe Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengchen; Su, Xin; Ye, Qing; Fu, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    A full scale snow melting system with heat pipe technology is built in this work, which avoids the negative effects on concrete structure and environment caused by traditional deicing chemicals. The snow melting, ice-freezing performance and temperature distribution characteristics of heat pipe concrete runway were discussed by the outdoor experiments. The results show that the temperature of the concrete pavement is greatly improved with the heat pipe system. The environment temperature and embedded depth of heat pipe play a dominant role among the decision variables of the snow melting system. Heat pipe snow melting pavement melts the snow completely and avoids freezing at any time when the environment temperature is below freezing point, which is secure enough for planes take-off and landing. Besides, the exportation and recovery of geothermal energy indicate that this system can run for a long time. This paper will be useful for the design and application of the heat pipe used in the runway snow melting.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Runway Snow Melting Utilizing Heat Pipe Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A full scale snow melting system with heat pipe technology is built in this work, which avoids the negative effects on concrete structure and environment caused by traditional deicing chemicals. The snow melting, ice-freezing performance and temperature distribution characteristics of heat pipe concrete runway were discussed by the outdoor experiments. The results show that the temperature of the concrete pavement is greatly improved with the heat pipe system. The environment temperature and embedded depth of heat pipe play a dominant role among the decision variables of the snow melting system. Heat pipe snow melting pavement melts the snow completely and avoids freezing at any time when the environment temperature is below freezing point, which is secure enough for planes take-off and landing. Besides, the exportation and recovery of geothermal energy indicate that this system can run for a long time. This paper will be useful for the design and application of the heat pipe used in the runway snow melting.

  20. Gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system complying with multiple fuels (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagyu, Sumio; Maekawa, Koich; Sugawara, Koich; Hayashida, Masaru; Fujishima, Ichiro; Fukuyama, Yuji; Morikawa, Tomoyuki; Yamato, Tadao; Obata, Norio [Advanced Technology Lab., Kubota Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes recent results at Kubota to develop a gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system. Utilizing a gas mixture which consists of CO and H{sub 2} supplied from a broad area energy utilization network, the system produces four heat sources (263 K, 280 K, 318 K, and 353 K) for air-conditioning, hot water supply, and refrigeration in a single system. It also conforms to fuel systems that utilize methane and hydrogen. This multi-functional heat supply system is composed of an efficient gas engine (methanol gas engine) and a freon-free heat pump (heat-assisted Stirling heat pump). The heat-assisted Stirling heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power provided by engine exhaust heat. By proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the heat pump is supplied with the maximum share of the original energy fueling the engine. Developing the system will establish freon-free thermal utilization system technology that satisfies both wide heat demands and various fuel systems. (orig.)

  1. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  2. Optimal design and operating strategies for a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yingying; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Kornbluth, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    An economic linear programming model with a sliding time window was developed to assess designing and scheduling a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system consisting of biomass gasifier, internal combustion engine, heat recovery set, heat-only boiler, producer gas storage and thermal energy......, utility tariff structure and technical and finical performance of the system components. Engine partial load performance was taken into consideration. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate how the optimal BCHP configuration changes with varying demands and utility tariff rates....

  3. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  4. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  5. Ohmic Heating System for the TFTR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petree, F.; Cassel, R.

    1977-01-01

    The TFTR Ohmic Heating (OH) System will apply 140,000 volt impulses upon the OH coils to start the plasma. In order to reduce the voltage stress to ground on the OH coils to 12 kV without changing the magnetic field induced by the OH system in the plasma, six d-c current interrupters will be applied to six entry points in the OH coil system. And in order to impart a nearly rectangular shape to these impulses, the voltage determining elements will be nonlinear resistances placed in parallel with the interrupters. These nonlinear resistors, made of semiconducting material, are not normally used in repetitive or continuous duty, and their proper functioning is crucial to the reliable operation of the system. The system described herein, is being revised owing to the impact of revisions to the Toroidal Field Coil System, and to refinements to the OH System design

  6. Data gathering in support of phase O program for waste heat utilization from nuclear enrichment facilities, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The gathering of demographic, community development, and economic data for the region impacted by the Pikeville (Ohio) Nuclear Enrichment Facility is described. These data are to be used for establishing possible community uses, e.g., space heating, domestic water heating, and industrial uses, of waste heat from the facility. It was concluded that although the economic feasibility of such waste heat utilization remains to be proven, the community would cooperate in a feasibility demonstration program

  7. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    The current most important solar energy utilization fields are solar energy power generation (solar heat and photovoltaic power generation), and solar heat cooling and heating. A solar heat power system collects or stores solar thermal energy as energy source of power systems, and converts it to electric power through heat exchange systems. To establish such system, not only R and D on a collector, absorption capsule, storage unit and heat transfer unit, but also complete study on an optimum system configuration and environmental impact are necessary. A photovoltaic power system converts solar energy to electric power directly by photoelectric conversion device such solar cell. Except specific local uses, drastic cost reduction and improvement of a conversion efficiency (at present 12-15%) and life (several years) are necessary for solar cells. Although a lot of solar heat cooling and heating systems is in practical use in Japan, for its further diffusion an important research task is development of heat collector excellent in efficiency, cost, life and maintainability. (NEDO)

  8. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater (HPWH, as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available water source. In order to study the thermal performance of the water-source heat pump water heater (WSHPWH system, an experimental prototype using the cyclic heating mode was established. The heating performance of the water-source heat pump water heater system, which was affected by the difference between evaporator water fluxes, was investigated. The water temperature unfavorably exceeded 55 °C when the experimental prototype was used for heating; otherwise, the compressor discharge pressure was close to the maximum discharge temperature, which resulted in system instability. The evaporator water flux allowed this system to function satisfactorily. It is necessary to reduce the exergy loss of the condenser to improve the energy utilization of the system.

  9. Study on the simulation of heat pump heating and cooling systems to hospital building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Don; Han, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Du Sung; Um, Chul Jun

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, air source heat pump system is less efficient than conventional heat source facilities, because the air temperature in winter season is so low that COP of air source heat pump system drops below 3.0. Therefore, the study on the application of heat pump heating and cooling systems is crucial for the efficient popularization of heat pump. In this work, we present the dynamic analysis of energy consumption for the large hospital building by heat resistance-capacitance method. The system simulation of water storage air source heat pump is additionally performed by changing sizes and locations of the hospital building. The computed results show that energy cost of water storage air source heat pump is low, so it is more economical than absorption chiller and heater

  10. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  11. FY 1991 Report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. Part 2. Construction and operation of the prototype system (researches on elementary techniques and construction and operation of the pilot system); Super heat pump energy shuseki system no kenkyu kaihatsu 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. 2. System shisaku unten kenkyu (yoso gijutsu no kenkyu / pilot system no shisaku unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-05-01

    Summarized herein are R and D results of the researches on the chemical heat storage systems, plant simulation techniques and combined systems, and international technical exchanges, for R and D of the super heat pump energy accumulation system. For the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing ammonia complexes), the initial research targets are almost attained, as a result of the designs of a chemical heat storage unit having heat storage capacity of 1,000 kWh. For the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing hydration reactions), a 25 Mcal-scale pilot partial test unit is operated, to study applicability of the practical materials and other operation-related themes. For the low temperature heat storage type (utilizing hydration reactions by solute mixing), a pilot system is operated, to attain heat recovery of 75% or more, heat storage density of 30 kcal/kg or more, and output temperature of 7 degrees C. For the low temperature heat storage type (utilizing clathrates), the evaluation tests by a pilot plant produce heat recovery of 93.2% and heat storage density of 32.0 kcal/kg. In addition, the R and D efforts are directed to, e.g., researches on plant simulation techniques and combined systems. (NEDO)

  12. Heating systems with PLC and frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Salah; Abu-Mallouh, Riyad

    2008-01-01

    In this work, medium capacity controlled heating system is designed and constructed. The programming method of control of heating process is achieved by means of integrated programmable logic controller (PLC) and frequency inverter (FI). The PLC main function is to determine the required temperatures levels and the related time intervals of the heating hold time in the furnace. FI is used to control the dynamic change of temperature between various operating points. The designed system shows the capability for full control of temperature from zero to maximum for any required range of time in case of increasing or decreasing the temperature. All variables of the system will be changed gradually until reaching their needed working points. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of tempering temperature and tempering time on hardness and fatigue resistance of 0.4% carbon steel. It was found that increasing tempering temperature above 550 deg. C or tempering time decreases the hardness of the material. It was also found that there is a maximum number of cycles to which the specimen can survive what ever the applied load was

  13. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  14. Efficient heat recovery: Integrated circuit systems and heat pipes; Gezielte Waermerueckgewinnung: KV-Systeme und Waermerohr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaup, C. [Howatherm, Bruecken (Germany)

    1995-09-18

    Integrated circuit systems and heat pipes are both known to be low-efficiency systems, but this shortcoming can be eliminated by constructive measures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die beiden Verfahren - Kreislaufverbundsystem und das Waermerohr - sind als WRG-Systeme mit geringen Wirkungsgraden bekannt. Doch dieser Nachteil kann durch spezielle Konstruktionsmassnahmen eliminiert werden. (orig.)

  15. Report on an investigation into heat pumps in China in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo Chugoku ni okeru heat pump system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper surveyed the present status, the status of spread, and the technical development of the technology of heat pumps for residential and industrial uses in China. Main examples of installation of heat pumps are cited below: steam drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; sea water heat source turbo heat pumps in Qingdao; hot water drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; oil-fueled absorption type water cooling and heating appliances in Beijing; ice latent heat storage airconditioning systems using electrically-driven screw chiller in Beijing; temperature rising systems using electrically-driven heat pump of the solar energy utilization warm water swimming pool in Guangdong Province; cooling water supply using waste heat utilization absorption type refrigerator of the alcohol plant in Shandong Province; timber drying systems using electrically-driven heat pump, and marine product cultivation systems in Quangdong Province; distillation systems using steam turbine heat pump in Jiangxi Province. The demand for heat pumps is expected to be 20 million units under the 9th 5-year plan, and the development of equipment is thought to go toward promotion of energy conservation, low noise, multi-type or multi-functional air conditioning equipment, and computer use. 137 figs., 40 tabs.

  16. Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in utility boilers of oxy-coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yukun; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-coal and oxy-coal combustion in an industrial scale PF boiler were simulated in ANSYS FLUENT. • The O 2 concentration of 33 vol% in the oxy-coal combustion case matches the air-coal combustion case most closely. • The moisture in the flue gas has little impact on flame temperature, but positive impact on surface incident radiation. - Abstract: Oxy-coal combustion has different flue gas composition from the conventional air-coal combustion. The different composition further results in different properties, such as the absorption coefficient, emissivity, and density, which can directly affect the heat transfer in both radiation and convection zones of utility boilers. This paper numerically studied a utility boiler of oxy-coal combustion and compares with air-coal combustion in terms of flame profile and heat transferred through boiler side walls in order to understand the effects of different operating conditions on oxy-coal boiler retrofitting and design. Based on the results, it was found that around 33 vol% of effective O 2 concentration ([O 2 ] effective ) the highest flame temperature and total heat transferred through boiler side walls in the oxy-coal combustion case match to those in the air-coal combustion case most; therefore, the 33 vol% of [O 2 ] effective could result in the minimal change for the oxy-coal combustion retrofitting of the existing boiler. In addition, the increase of the moisture content in the flue gas has little impact on the flame temperature, but results in a higher surface incident radiation on boiler side walls. The area of heat exchangers in the boiler was also investigated regarding retrofitting. If boiler operates under a higher [O 2 ] effective , to rebalance the load of each heat exchanger in the boiler, the feed water temperature after economizer can be reduced or part of superheating surfaces can be moved into the radiation zone to replace part of the evaporators

  17. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T. [Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia, 2931-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sokhansanj, S. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Melin, S. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Delta Research Corporation, Delta, BC (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders. (author)

  18. Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2013-2014 Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon, Carlos [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States). Bulding America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction

    2017-07-12

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has completed a fourth year-long evaluation on residential hot water heating systems in a laboratory environment (east central Florida, hot-humid climate). This report contains a summary of research activities regarding the evaluation of two residential electric heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), a solar thermal system utilizing a polymer glazed absorber and a high efficiency natural gas system.

  19. Pumped Fluid Loop Heat Rejection and Recovery Systems for Thermal Control of the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana; Prina, Mauro; Ramirez, Brenda; Paris, Anthony; Novak, Keith; Pauken, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the heat rejection and heat recovery system for thermal control of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL mission will use mechanically pumped fluid loop based architecture for thermal control of the spacecraft and rover. The architecture is designed to harness waste heat from an Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermo-electric Generator (MMRTG) during Mars surface operations for thermal control during cold conditions and also reject heat during the cruise aspect of the mission. There are several test that are being conducted that will insure the safety of this concept. This architecture can be used during any future interplanetary missions utilizing radioisotope power systems for power generation.

  20. FFTF primary heat transport system heating, ventilating and air conditioning system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umek, A.M.; Hicks, D.F.; Schweiger, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    FFTF cools its primary/in-containment sodium equipment cells by means of a forced nitrogen cooling system which exchanges heat with a water-glycol system. The nitrogen cooling system is also used to maintain an inert gas atmosphere in the cells containing sodium equipment. Sodium Piping and Components have installed electrical resistance heaters to maintain a minimum sodium temperature and stainless steel jacketed mineral insulation to reduce heat loss. Design features and test results of a comprehensive redesign of the HVAC and insulation system required to support long-term nuclear operations are discussed

  1. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  2. Large-scale heat pumps in sustainable energy systems: System and project perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blarke Morten B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps (HP with existing combined heat and power (CHP plants, is critically sensitive to the operational mode of the HP vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance, mainly given by the temperature level of the heat source. When using ground source for low-temperature heat source, heat production costs increases by about 10%, while partial use of condensed flue gasses for low-temperature heat source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the analysis shows that when a large-scale HP is integrated with an existing CHP plant, the projected spot market situation in The Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool towards 2025, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-supply constrained power generation electricity, further reduces the operational hours of the CHP unit over time, while increasing the operational hours of the HP unit. In result, an HP unit at half the heat production capacity as the CHP unit in combination with a heat-only boiler represents as a possibly financially feasible alternative to CHP operation, rather than a supplement to CHP unit operation. While such revised operational strategy would have impacts on policies to promote co-generation, these results indicate that the integration of large-scale HP may jeopardize efforts to promote co-generation. Policy instruments should be designed to promote the integration of HP with lower than half of the heating capacity of the CHP unit. Also it is found, that CHP-HP plant designs should allow for the utilization of heat recovered from the CHP unit’s flue gasses for both concurrent (CHP unit and HP unit and independent operation (HP unit only. For independent operation, the recovered heat is required to be stored. .

  3. Impact of Next Generation District Heating Systems on Distribution Network Heat Losses: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Rezgui, Yacine

    2018-01-01

    District heating (DH) is a promising energy pathway to alleviate environmental negative impacts induced by fossil fuels. Improving the performance of DH systems is one of the major challenges facing its wide adoption. This paper discusses the heat losses of the next generation DH based on the constructed Simulink model. Results show that lower distribution temperature and advanced insulation technology greatly reduce network heat losses. Also, the network heat loss can be further minimized by a reduction of heat demand in buildings.

  4. Optimization of heat pump system in indoor swimming pool using particle swarm algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wen-Shing; Kung, Chung-Kuan [Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei (China)

    2008-09-15

    When it comes to indoor swimming pool facilities, a large amount of energy is required to heat up low-temperature outdoor air before it is being introduced indoors to maintain indoor humidity. Since water is evaporated from the pool surface, the exhausted air contains more water and specific enthalpy. In response to this indoor air, heat pump is generally used in heat recovery for indoor swimming pools. To reduce the cost in energy consumption, this paper utilizes particle swarm algorithm to optimize the design of heat pump system. The optimized parameters include continuous parameters and discrete parameters. The former consists of outdoor air mass flow and heat conductance of heat exchangers; the latter comprises compressor type and boiler type. In a case study, life cycle energy cost is considered as an objective function. In this regard, the optimized outdoor air flow and the optimized design for heating system can be deduced by using particle swarm algorithm. (author)

  5. Energy and exergy analysis of a double effect absorption refrigeration system based on different heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynakli, Omer; Saka, Kenan; Kaynakli, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis was performed on double effect series flow absorption refrigeration system. • The refrigeration system runs on various heat sources such as hot water, hot air and steam. • A comparative analysis was carried out on these heat sources in terms of exergy destruction and mass flow rate of heat source. • The effect of heat sources on the exergy destruction of high pressure generator was investigated. - Abstract: Absorption refrigeration systems are environmental friendly since they can utilize industrial waste heat and/or solar energy. In terms of heat source of the systems, researchers prefer one type heat source usually such as hot water or steam. Some studies can be free from environment. In this study, energy and exergy analysis is performed on a double effect series flow absorption refrigeration system with water/lithium bromide as working fluid pair. The refrigeration system runs on various heat sources such as hot water, hot air and steam via High Pressure Generator (HPG) because of hot water/steam and hot air are the most common available heat source for absorption applications but the first law of thermodynamics may not be sufficient analyze the absorption refrigeration system and to show the difference of utilize for different type heat source. On the other hand operation temperatures of the overall system and its components have a major effect on their performance and functionality. In this regard, a parametric study conducted here to investigate this effect on heat capacity and exergy destruction of the HPG, coefficient of performance (COP) of the system, and mass flow rate of heat sources. Also, a comparative analysis is carried out on several heat sources (e.g. hot water, hot air and steam) in terms of exergy destruction and mass flow rate of heat source. From the analyses it is observed that exergy destruction of the HPG increases at higher temperature of the heat sources, condenser and absorber, and lower

  6. Preliminary thermal sizing of intermediate heat exchanger for NHDD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan; Chang, Jongh Wa

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) system is a Very High Temperature gascooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled with hydrogen production systems. Intermediate heat exchanger transfers heat from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production system. This study presented the sensitivity analysis on a preliminary thermal sizing of the intermediate heat exchanger. Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) was selected for the thermal sizing because the printed circuit heat exchanger has the largest compactness among the heat exchanger types. The analysis was performed to estimate the effect of key parameters including the operating condition of the intermediate system, the geometrical factors of the PCHE, and the working fluid of the intermediate system.

  7. Theoretical evaluation on the impact of heat exchanger in Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xuemei; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established based on thermodynamic theory. • Four Cases about pressure loss and effectiveness of heat exchanger are investigated. • The impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive. • The impact of heat exchanger effectiveness in charge process on system is stronger. • Pressure loss in heat exchanger affects the change trends of system efficiency. - Abstract: Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) is a large-scale energy storage system based on gas turbine technology and thermal energy storage (TES). Electrical energy can be converted into internal energy of air and heat energy in TES during the charge process, while reverse energy conversion proceeds during discharge process. The performance of AA-CAES system requires further improvement in order to increase efficiency. In this paper, a multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established, and the influence of effectiveness and pressure loss in heat exchanger on energy conversion and utilization efficiency of AA-CAES system is analyzed theoretically based on the theory of thermodynamics. Four Cases about effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are investigated and compared with each other. It is found that effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are directly related to energy conversion and utilization in AA-CAES system. System efficiency changes with the variation of heat exchanger effectiveness and the impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive than that of internal energy of air. Pressure loss can cause the complexity of system efficiency change. With appropriate selection of the values of heat exchanger effectiveness for both charge and discharge processes, an AA-CAES system with a higher efficiency could be expected

  8. Study on Waste Heat Utilization Device of High-Temperature Freshwater in the Modern Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuaijun; Liu, Chentao; Zhou, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Based on using the waste heat recycling from high temperature freshwater in marine diesel engine to heat fuel oil tank, lubrication oil tank and settling tank and so on to achieve energy saving, improve fuel efficiency as the goal, study on waste heat utilization device of high-temperature freshwater in the modern marine diesel engine to make the combustion chamber effectively cooled by high-temperature freshwater and the inner liner freshwater temperature heat is effectively utilized and so on to improve the overall efficiency of the power plant of the ship and the diesel optimum working condition.

  9. Drying of bio fuel utilizing waste heat; Torkning av biobraenslen med spillvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Inge; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Many industries today have large sources of low grade heat (waste heat), however this energy is mainly lost with effluents to air and water. The aim of this study has been to investigate the technical and economical aspects of utilizing this low grade heat to dry biofuel. The project has been mainly focused towards the forest industry since they have both large amounts of biofuel and waste heat available. Drying of biofuel could generate added revenue (or reduced purchase costs) and through that also create larger incentives for further energy saving modifications to the main process. Due to the higher moisture content together with the risk of frozen bark in the winter time, additional fuels (such as oil) to combust bark in the existing boiler. This is mainly the case when mechanical dewatering is not available. Drying of bark results in an added energy value, which makes it possible to combust the bark without additional fuel. The primary energy demand, in the form of electricity and optional additional heating at load peaks, is low when waste heat is used for the drying process. In this way it is possible to increase the biofuel potential, since the primary energy input to the drying process is essentially lower then the increased energy value of the fuel. Drying also decreases the biological degradation of the fuel. Taking all the above into consideration, waste heat drying could result in a 25 % increase of the biofuel potential in the forest industry in Sweden, without additional cutting of wood. A survey has been done to state which commercial technologies are available for biofuel drying with waste heat. An inquiry was sent out to a number of suppliers and included a few different cases. Relations for approximating investment cost as well as electric power demand were created based on the answers from the inquiry. These relations have then been used in the economical evaluations made for a number of cases representing both sawmills and pulp and paper mills

  10. Thermal energy storage and utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The power output from a nuclear power plant or fossil fuel power plant operating under constant reactor (or furnace) and boiler conditions is varied by regulating the rate of turbine extraction steam and primary high pressure steam used to heat boiler feed water (BFW). During periods of low power demand, excess extraction steam is drawn off to heat excess quantities of boiler feed water. Such boiler feed water can be heated to the maximum extent possible and used to reheat interstage steam before being sent at slightly reduced temperature to the boilers. In this way, maximum use can be made of the thermal energy stored in the low vapor pressure organic material. Alternatively, or simultaneously, the stored hot LVP organic material can be used to raise intermediate pressure steam and this steam can be injected into the steam turbines between appropriate stages or into auxiliary turbines used solely for this purpose

  11. Small-Scale Pellet Heating Systems from Consumer Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, K; Gustavsson, L [Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden). Ecotechnology

    2006-07-15

    A questionnaire survey of 1,500 detached house owners was carried out in the autumn of 2004 to find out the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems in the Swedish residential sector. The results revealed that most of the respondents had no plans to install new heating systems as they were satisfied with their existing ones. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents' choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Therefore, internalizing external costs, such as environmental costs, might be effective in influencing house owners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Installers were the most important source of information on heating systems. Hence, it is important that they could inform the consumers comprehensively and accurately about different heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantage over district heating system with respect to investment cost and annual cost of heating. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic.

  12. Small-Scale Pellet Heating Systems from Consumer Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, K.; Gustavsson, L.

    2006-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of 1,500 detached house owners was carried out in the autumn of 2004 to find out the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems in the Swedish residential sector. The results revealed that most of the respondents had no plans to install new heating systems as they were satisfied with their existing ones. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents' choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Therefore, internalizing external costs, such as environmental costs, might be effective in influencing house owners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Installers were the most important source of information on heating systems. Hence, it is important that they could inform the consumers comprehensively and accurately about different heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantage over district heating system with respect to investment cost and annual cost of heating. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic

  13. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion......Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  14. Monju secondary heat transport system sodium leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Hiroi, Hiroshi; Usami, Shin; Iwata, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    On December 8, 1995, the sodium leakage from the secondary heat transport system (SHTS) occurred in the piping room of the reactor auxiliary building in Monju. The secondary sodium leaked through a temperature sensor, due to the breakaway of the tip of the well tube of the sensor installed near the outlet of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the C loop of SHTS. The reactor core remained cooled and thus, from the viewpoint of radiological hazards, the safety of the reactor was secured. There were no adverse effects for operating personnel or the surrounding environment. The cause of the well tube failure is considered to result from high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibrations. Delay in draining the sodium from the leaking loop increased the consequential effects from sodium combustion products. (author)

  15. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures, the...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems.......Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures......, the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...

  16. A study of a small nuclear power plant system for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Mitsuru; Sato, Kotaro; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Tsuji, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    We have studied nuclear power plant for district heating. Already some towns and villages in Hokkaido have requested small reactor for district heating. Using existing technology allows us to shorten development period and to keep a lid on development cost. We decided to develop new reactor based on 'MUTSU' reactor technology because 'MUTSU' had already proved its safety. And this reactor was boron free reactor. It allows plant system to reduce the chemical control system. And moderator temperature coefficient is deeply negative. It means to improve its operability and leads to dependability enhancement. We calculated burn-up calculation of erbium addition fuel. In the result, the core life became about 10 years. And we adapt the cassette type refueling during outagein in order to maintain nonproliferation. In the district heating system, a double heat exchanger system enables to response to load change in season. To obtain the acceptance of public, this system has a leak prevention system of radioactive materials to public. And road heating system of low grade heat utilization from turbine condenser leads to improve the heat utilization efficiency. We carried out performance evaluation test of district heating pipeline. Then the heat loss of pipeline is estimated at about 0.440degC/km. This result meets general condition, which is about 1degC/km. This small plant has passive safety system. It is natural cooling of containment vessel. In case of loss of coolant accident, decay heat can remove by natural convection air cooling after 6 hours. Decay heat within 6 hours can remove by evaporative heat transfer of pool on containment vessel. (author)

  17. Development of a utility conflict management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    A critical process for the timely development and delivery of highway construction projects is the early : identification and depiction of utility interests that may interfere with proposed highway facilities. The : effective management of such utili...

  18. Individual Heating systems vs. District Heating systems: What will consumers pay for convenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Taeyeon; Ma, Yongsun; Rhodes, Charles

    2015-01-01

    For Korea's two most popular apartment heating systems – Individual Heating (IH) and District Heating (DH), – user convenience rests heavily on location of the boiler, availability of hot water, administration of the system, and user control of indoor temperature. A double-bounded dichotomous choice method estimates consumer value for convenience, in a hypothetical market. Higher-income more-educated consumers in more expensive apartments prefer DH. Cost-conscious consumers, who use more electrical heating appliances and more actively adjust separate room temperatures, prefer IH. With willingness-to-pay (WTP) defined as the price ratio between IH and DH, 800 survey respondents indicate a WTP of 4.0% for DH over IH. IH users unfamiliar with DH expect little greater convenience (0.1% WTP), whereas the WTP for DH users runs to 7.9%, demonstrating consumer loyalty. Quantified estimates of consumer preference and convenience can inform design of a full-cost-plus pricing system with a price cap. Results here indirectly predict the effect of abolishing regulations that exclusively establish district heating zones. Strategies to foster the many external benefits of DH systems should stress not their lower cost, but convenience, comfort, and safety. Higher installation costs still hamper DH expansion, so policy-makers could set policies to lower cost barriers to entry. - Highlights: • District Heating (DH) and Individual Heating (IH) systems differ in user convenience. • Difference of convenience is evaluated by a double-bounded dichotomous choice method. • Consumers are willing to pay a 4.03–12.52% higher rate to use DH rather than IH. • Consumers with high living standards prefer DH to IH, and show high consumer loyalty. • Strategies to foster DH systems should stress DH convenience over its lower cost.

  19. Innovative system for delivery of low temperature district heating

    OpenAIRE

    Ianakiev, A; Cui, JM; Garbett, S; Filer, A

    2017-01-01

    An innovative low temperature district heating (LTDH) local network is developed in Nottingham, supported by the REMOURBAN project, part of the H2020 Smart City and Community Lighthouse scheme. It was proposed that a branch emanating from the return pipe of the existing district heating system in Nottingham would be created to use low temperature heating for the first time on such scale in the UK. The development is aimed to extract unused heat from existing district heating system and to mak...

  20. Experimental Investigation of A Heat Pipe-Assisted Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiari, Saeed; Mahdavi, Mahboobe; Qiu, Songgang

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, different operation modes of a latent heat thermal energy storage system assisted by a heat pipe network were studied experimentally. Rubitherm RT55 enclosed by a vertical cylindrical container was used as the Phase Change Material (PCM). The embedded heat pipe network consisting of a primary heat pipe and an array of four secondary heat pipes were employed to transfer heat to the PCM. The primary heat pipe transports heat from the heat source to the heat sink. The secondary heat pipes transfer the extra heat from the heat source to PCM during charging process or retrieve thermal energy from PCM during discharging process. The effects of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow rate and temperature on the thermal performance of the system were investigated for both charging and discharging processes. It was found that the HTF flow rate has a significant effect on the total charging time of the system. Increasing the HTF flow rate results in a remarkable increase in the system input thermal power. The results also showed that the discharging process is hardly affected by the HTF flow rate but HTF temperature plays an important role in both charging and discharging processes. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial supports by Temple University for the project.

  1. Experimental study on an innovative multifunction heat pipe type heat recovery two-stage sorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.X.; Wang, R.Z.; Wang, L.W.; Lu, Z.S.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative multifunction heat pipe type sorption refrigeration system is designed, in which a two-stage sorption thermodynamic cycle based on two heat recovery processes was employed to reduce the driving heat source temperature, and the composite sorbent of CaCl 2 and activated carbon was used to improve the mass and heat transfer performances. For this test unit, the heating, cooling and heat recovery processes between two reactive beds are performed by multifunction heat pipes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cycled characteristics of two-stage sorption refrigeration system with heat recovery processes. The two sub-cycles of a two-stage cycle have different sorption platforms though the adsorption and desorption temperatures are equivalent. The experimental results showed that the pressure evolutions of two beds are nearly equivalent during the first stage, and desorption pressure during the second stage is large higher than that in the first stage while the desorption temperatures are same during the two operation stages. In comparison with conventional two-stage cycle, the two-stage cycle with heat recovery processes can reduce the heating load for desorber and cooling load for adsorber, the coefficient of performance (COP) has been improved more than 23% when both cycles have the same regeneration temperature of 103 deg. C and the cooling water temperature of 30 deg. C. The advanced two-stage cycle provides an effective method for application of sorption refrigeration technology under the condition of low-grade temperature heat source or utilization of renewable energy

  2. Heat transfer augmentation of magnetohydrodynamics natural convection in L-shaped cavities utilizing nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourtiji Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer through an alumina-water nanofluid inside L-shaped cavities in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. The study has been carried out for a wide range of important parame­ters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, aspect ratio of the cavity and solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. The influence of the nanoparticle, buoyancy force and the magnetic field on the flow and temperature fields have been plotted and discussed. The results show that after a critical Rayleigh number depending on the aspect ratio, the heat transfer in the cavity rises abruptly due to some significant changes in flow field. It is also found that the heat transfer enhances in the presence of the nanoparticles and increases with solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. In addition, the performance of the nanofluid utilization is more effective at high Ray­leigh numbers. The influence of the magnetic field has been also studied and de­duced that it has a remarkable effect on the heat transfer and flow field in the cavity that as the Hartmann number increases the overall Nusselt number is significantly decreased specially at high Rayleigh numbers.

  3. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  4. A state-of-the-art review on hybrid heat pipe latent heat storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghavi, M.S.; Ong, K.S.; Mehrali, M.; Badruddin, I.A.; Metselaar, H.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    The main advantage of latent heat thermal energy storage systems is the capability to store a large quantity of thermal energy in an isothermal process by changing phase from solid to liquid, while the most important weakness of these systems is low thermal conductivity that leads to unsuitable charging/discharging rates. Heat pipes are used in many applications – as one of the most efficient heat exchanger devices – to amplify the charging/discharging processes rate and are used to transfer heat from a source to the storage or from the storage to a sink. This review presents and critically discusses previous investigations and analysis on the incorporation of heat pipe devices into latent heat thermal energy storage with heat pipe devices. This paper categorizes different applications and configurations such as low/high temperature solar, heat exchanger and cooling systems, analytical approaches and effective parameters on the performance of hybrid HP–LHTES systems.

  5. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems. Quarterly report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-06

    The General Electric Company is developing eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  6. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  7. Heat losses and thermal performance of commercial combined solar and pellet heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Frank; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris; Nordlander, Svante

    2004-01-01

    Various pellet heating systems are marketed in Sweden, some of them in combination with a solar heating system. Several types of pellet heating units are available and can be used for a combined system. This article compares four typical combined solar and pellet heating systems: System 1 and 2 two with a pellet stove, system 3 with a store integrated pellet burner and system 4 with a pellet boiler. The lower efficiency of pellet heaters compared to oil or gas heaters increases the primary en...

  8. District heating systems for small scale development areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, Rory e-mail: rory.mcdougall@online.no; Jensen, Bjoernulf

    2008-09-15

    Building projects are normally developed without considering integrated heating systems, especially where properties are for further sale. Due to focus on energy efficiency and environmental impact it is worth considering district heating systems, which include several energy carriers. The choice of energy carrier is assessed to optimize energy costs, account for environmental impact and obtain reliable heating supply, thus giving an energy flexible system for several buildings as opposed to individual heating systems in each building

  9. FFTF Heat Transport System (HTS) component and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.W.; Edwards, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The FFTF Heat Transport Systems and Components designs have been completed and successfully tested at isothermal conditions up to 427 0 C (800 0 F). General performance has been as predicted in the design analyses. Operational flexibility and reliability have been outstanding throughout the test program. The components and systems have been demonstrated ready to support reactor powered operation testing planned later in 1980

  10. The demand function for residential heat through district heating system and its consumption benefits in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seul-Ye; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The demand for residential heat (RH) through a district heating system (DHS) has been and will be expanded in Korea due to its better performance in energy efficiency and the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions than decentralized boilers. The purposes of this paper are two-fold. The first is to obtain the demand function for DHS-based RH in Korea and investigate the price and income elasticities of the demand employing the quarterly data covering the period 1988–2013. The short-run price and income elasticities are estimated as −0.700 and 0.918, respectively. Moreover, the long-run elasticities are −1.253 and 1.642, respectively. The second purpose is to measure the consumption benefits of DHS-based-RH employing the economic theory that they are the sum of the actual payment and consumer surplus for the consumption. Considering that the average price and estimated consumer surplus of the DHS-based RH use in 2013 are computed to be KRW 87,870 (USD 84.1) and KRW 62,764 (USD 60.1) per Gcal, the consumption benefits of the DHS-based RH are calculated to be KRW 150,634 (USD 144.2) per Gcal. This information can be beneficially utilized to conduct an economic feasibility study for a new DHS project related to RH supply. - Highlights: • Demand for residential heat (RH) from district heating system (DHS) is expanding. • We estimate the demand function for and consumption benefits of DHS-based RH. • Short-run price and income elasticities are −0.700 and 0.918, respectively. • Long-run price and income elasticities are −1.253 and 1.642, respectively. • Consumption benefits of DHS-based RH are KRW 150,634 (USD 144.2) per Gcal.

  11. Utilization of process heat from the HTR in the chemical and related industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.; Didas, U.; Ebeling, F.; Kreutzkamp, G.; Renner, H.

    1988-12-01

    The wide introduction of the HTRI as heat and energy sources would be beneficial when the HTRI operating parameters were more suitable for flexible adaptation to the wide possible field of applications and requirements of the potential customer. Here of importance are: Guaranteed reliable, easily adaptable as well as effective process heat provision; a small HTRI size, under 100 MW if possible, for economic process plant operation never negatively influenced by the operational behaviour of the individual HTRI; avoidance of a secondary heat transfer circulation system for economic reasons by an extremely clean primary helium at all times and under all circumstances; greater flexibility in the HTRI helium inlet and outlet temperatures. Initially at least a helium inlet temperature of 300deg C or better 350deg C. At 250deg C too much heat is often offered in the low-temperature range which can in the main be used for domestic heating and power export only. The processes technically and economically interesting which could be provided with heat from the HTRI cover the field of mineral oil technology. Their process temperatures are below 600deg C, a temperature range demanding conventional technology. Thus, for this purpose it is only necessary to: Test the heat exchangers to be designed new; find the most effective combined plant concept in each case; carry out the necessary safety examinations into the combined operation of the two plant sections - HTRI and process plant. In addition, the market for the process heat supply in mineral oil technology has a considerable potential. (orig./GL)

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF UNSTEADY HEAT TRANSFER OF PASSENGER CAR WITH HEATING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Biloshytskyi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. The existing mathematical models of unsteady heat processes in a passenger car do not fully reflect the thermal processes, occurring in the car wits a heating system. In addition, unsteady heat processes are often studied in steady regime, when the heat fluxes and the parameters of the thermal circuit are constant and do not depend on time. In connection with the emergence of more effective technical solutions to the life support system there is a need for creating a new mathematical...

  13. Application of Predictive Control in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsson, Olafur Petur; Madsen, Henrik; Søgaard, Henning Tangen

    1993-01-01

    In district heating systems, and in particular if the heat production cakes place at a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, a reasonable control strategy is to keep the supply temperature from the district heating plant as low as possible. However, the control is subject to some restrictions, for...

  14. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    -scale solar thermal, large heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat, and waste incineration. Where the energy density in the building stock is not high enough for DH to be economical, geothermal heat pumps can be recommended for individual heating systems, even though biomass consumption is higher......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.905 - Heating oil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heating oil systems. 3285.905... Installation Instructions § 3285.905 Heating oil systems. It is recommended that the installation instructions include the following information related to heating oil systems, when applicable: (a) Homes equipped with...

  16. Report on feasibility study of district energy-saving and waste heat utilization for City of Iwai; Iwai-shi chiiki sho energy hainetsu riyo kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As part of the (district energy-saving visions for City of Iwai), the feasibility study is implemented for citizen community facilities which utilize waste heat discharged from factories in the city. More concretely, those items studied include a heated pool, other community facilities and botanical garden of tropical plants which utilize waste heat of exhaust gas cooling water heated to around 70 degrees C by a desulfurization unit at a pulp factory. Case 1 includes the citizen community facilities (e.g., heated pool and bath facilities), and Case 2 includes a green house botanical garden, involving studies on facility scales, requirements of heat and recycling water, hot water supply, air conditioning, bath systems, and heating systems for green houses. It is estimated that the citizen community facilities have an energy saving effect of 640kL/y as fuel oil, which corresponds to saving of around 29 million yen/y, and CO2 abatement effect of 471t/y as carbon, and that the green house botanical garden has an energy saving effect of 669kL/y as fuel oil, which corresponds to saving of around 30 million yen/y, and CO2 abatement effect of 492t/y as carbon. (NEDO)

  17. Thermodynamic optimization opportunities for the recovery and utilization of residual energy and heat in China's iron and steel industry: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lingen; Yang, Bo; Shen, Xun; Xie, Zhihui; Sun, Fengrui

    2015-01-01

    Analyses and optimizations of material flows and energy flows in iron and steel industry in the world are introduced in this paper. It is found that the recovery and utilization of residual energy and heat (RUREH) plays an important role for energy saving and CO 2 emission reduction no matter what method is used. Although the energy cascade utilization principle is carried out, the efficiency of RUREH in China's iron and steel industry (CISI) is only about 30%–50%, while the international advanced level is higher than 90%, such as USA, Japan, Sweden, etc. An important reason for the low efficiency of RUREH in CISI is that someone ignores the thermodynamic optimization opportunities for the energy recovery or utilization equipment, such as electricity production via waste heat boiler, sintering ore sensible heat recovery, heat transfer through heat exchangers, etc. A case study of hot blast stove flue gas sensible heat recovery and utilization is presented to illustrate the viewpoint above. The results show that before the heat conductance distribution optimization, the system can realize energy saving 76.2 kgce/h, profit 68.9 yuan/h, and CO 2 emission reduction 187.2 kg/h. While after the heat conductance distribution optimization, the system can realize energy saving 88.8 kgce/h, profit 92.5 yuan/h, and CO 2 emission reduction 218.2 kg/h, which are, respectively, improved by 16.5%, 34.2% and 16.5% than those before optimization. Thermodynamic optimization from the single equipment to the whole system of RUREH is a vital part in the future energy conservation work in CISI. - Highlights: • Material flows and energy flows in iron and steel industry are introduced. • Recovery and utilization of residual energy and heat plays an important role. • A case study of hot blast stove flue gas sensible heat recovery is presented. • Thermodynamic optimization for the system is performed. • Energy saving, profit, and CO 2 emission reduction improvements

  18. Optimization of Solar Water Heating System under Time and Spatial Partition Heating in Rural Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of time and spatial partition heating to a solar water heating system. The heating effect and system performance were analyzed under the continuous and whole space heating and time and spatial partition heating using TRNSYS. The results were validated by comparing with the test results of the demonstration building. Compared to continuous and whole space heating, the use of time and spatial partition heating increases the solar fraction by 16.5%, reduces the auxiliary heating by 7390 MJ, and reduces the annual operation cost by 2010 RMB. Under time and spatial partition heating, optimization analyses were conducted for the two system capacity parameters of the solar collector area and tank volume and the one operation parameter of auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature. The results showed that a reasonable choice of the solar collector area can reduce the dynamic annual cost, the increased tank volume is advantageous to heat storage, and the auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature have greater influence on the indoor heating effect. The advanced opening of solar water heating system and the normal opening of passive air vents are recommended. Based on the comparison of the two modes, the time and spatial partition heating technology is a better choice for rural dwellings.

  19. Multilevel Flow Modeling of Domestic Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    the operation on fault analysis and control. A significant improvement of the MFM methodology has been recently proposed, where the “role” concept was introduced to enable the representation of structural entities and the conveyance of important information for building up knowledge bases, with the purpose...... i.e. supplying and transferring thermal energy, it is off interest to use MFM to investigate similarities and differences between different implementations. In this paper, three typical domestic European heating systems, which differ from each other in the number of temperature sensors and auxiliary...

  20. Heat flux from magmatic hydrothermal systems related to availability of fluid recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J.V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C.F.; Bloomberg, S.; Hernandez, P.A.; Mazot, A.; Viveiros, F.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Magmatic hydrothermal systems are of increasing interest as a renewable energy source. Surface heat flux indicates system resource potential, and can be inferred from soil CO2 flux measurements and fumarole gas chemistry. Here we compile and reanalyze results from previous CO2 flux surveys worldwide to compare heat flux from a variety of magma-hydrothermal areas. We infer that availability of water to recharge magmatic hydrothermal systems is correlated with heat flux. Recharge availability is in turn governed by permeability, structure, lithology, rainfall, topography, and perhaps unsurprisingly, proximity to a large supply of water such as the ocean. The relationship between recharge and heat flux interpreted by this study is consistent with recent numerical modeling that relates hydrothermal system heat output to rainfall catchment area. This result highlights the importance of recharge as a consideration when evaluating hydrothermal systems for electricity generation, and the utility of CO2 flux as a resource evaluation tool.

  1. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  2. Heat pumps as a way to Low or Zero Emission district heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiszczak Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In traditional district heating (DH system heat is generated from fossil fuel (FF combustion in heating only boilers (HOB or in combined heat and power (CHP plants. It results in greenhouse gases and other pollutants emission. The reduction of emission is one of the main target in EU climate policy. Among the alternative technologies in DH heat pumps (HP play a crucial role and enable to decrease or even eliminate emission to create a low or zero emission (LZE DH system. The emission reduction effect of integration the large scale HP units into DH systems can by defined by four groups of factors: the share of HP in the heat demand, the heat source for HP, the driving energy for HP and heat sink for HP. This paper illustrates the main options for large scale HP units application for LZE DH based on HP technology.

  3. Heat pump applications in utility centres for large industrial areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.B. de

    1999-01-01

    A grand design for industrial waste heat utilisation has been composed in Rijnmond Industrial Area, the largest (petrochemical) industrial area in The Netherlands. In combination with local CHP plants, an HP, MP and LP steam exchange system has been developed. The primary energy savings of this

  4. Diffuse Solar System Design and Utilization in Agriculture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse solar radiation is a component of total solar radiation that is good for low temperature grade heating. Since the portion of the scattered radiation from the sun, which consists of short and long waves, that reaches the earth is diffused, its utilization in Agriculture as this paper suggested, has multiple phase change ...

  5. Residual heat removal system diagnostic advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) Diagnostic Advisor which is an expert system designed to alert the operators to abnormal conditions that exits in the RHRS and offer advice about the cause of the abnormal conditions. The Advisor uses a combination of rule-based and model-based diagnostic techniques to perform its functions. This diagnostic approach leads to a deeper understanding of the RHRS by the Advisor and consequently makes it more robust to unexpected conditions. The main window of the interactive graphic display is a schematic diagram of the RHRS piping system. When a conclusion about a failed component can be reached, the operator can bring up windows that describe the failure mode of the component and a brief explanation about how the Advisor arrived at its conclusion

  6. The Utilisation of Solar System in Combined Heating System of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Jobbágy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper assessed the topicality and returns of solar system utilization to heating of water. Practical measurements were conducted after reconstruction of the family house. (in Nesvady, Slovak republic, on which the solar system were assembled. The system consists of the gas heater, solar panels, distributions and circulation pump. The solar system was assembled due to decreasing of operation costs and connected with conventional already used gas heating system by boiler Quantum (V = 115 L. The conventional system was used for 21 days to gather basic values for evaluation. At this point it was observed that 11.93 m3 of gas is needed to heat up 1 m3 of water. Used water in this case was heated from initial 16.14 °C to 52.04 °C of output temperature. Stand by regime of boiler was characterized by 0.012 m3.h-1 consumption of gas. The rest of the measurements represent the annual (from 03/2013 to 02/2014 operation process of boiler Tatramat VTS 200L (trivalent with 200 litres of volume (as a part of Thermosolar solar system. The solar collectors TS 300 are also part of the solar system. An input and output temperatures of heating water we observed along with water and gas consumption, intensity of solar radiation and actual weather conditions. The amount of heat produced by solar system was then calculated. Total investment on solar system were 2,187.7 € (1,475.7 € with subsidy. Therefore, return on investment for the construction of the solar system was set at 23 years even with subsidy.

  7. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown in Figure 1-1. Information specifically related to 9H production is presented for continuity in H program reporting, but lies outside the ATS program. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q98 through 3Q99. The most significant accomplishments are listed.

  8. Research status and evaluation system of heat source evaluation method for central heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutong; Qi, Junfeng; Cao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The central heating boiler room is a regional heat source heating center. It is also a kind of the urban environment pollution, it is an important section of building energy efficiency. This article through to the evaluation method of central heating boiler room and overviews of the researches during domestic and overseas, summarized the main influence factors affecting energy consumption of industrial boiler under the condition of stable operation. According to the principle of establishing evaluation index system. We can find that is great significance in energy saving and environmental protection for the content of the evaluation index system of the centralized heating system.

  9. Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Glass, David E.

    2006-01-01

    In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop integrated thermal protection systems and heat resistant structures for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled early. This presentation provides an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team chose an Apollo-type capsule as the reference vehicle for the work. They began with the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield, a C/SiC deployable decelerator and several ablators. They additionally developed a health monitoring system, high temperature structures testing, and the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.

  10. Development program on HTTR heat application systems at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, M.; Inagaki, Y.; Nishihara, T.; Shimizu, S.; Shiozawa, S.; Miyamoto, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which is a Japanese High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) with 30 MW thermal output at 950 deg. C of the coolant outlet temperature, was constructed at Oarai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The HTTR has attained the first criticality on November 1998. In JAERI, a hydrogen production system was selected as a heat utilization system of the HTTR. The development program on the HTTR hydrogen production system consists of two parts: one is to establish technologies connecting the hydrogen production system with the HTTR, the other is to establish technologies producing hydrogen from water by using nuclear heat. Finally, hydrogen can be produced from water by using nuclear heat supplied by the HTTR. In the hydrogen production system connected to the HTTR at first, JAERI selected a steam reforming process because its technology had matured. The HTTR hydrogen production system adopting the steam reforming process is being designed to produce hydrogen of about 3800 Nm 3 /hr by using nuclear heat (10MW, 905 deg. C) supplied from the HTTR. The safety principle and criteria are also being investigated for the HTTR hydrogen production system. A facility for an out-of-pile test prior to the demonstration test with the HTTR hydrogen production system is under manufacturing to carry out tests of safety, controllability and performance. The out-of-pile test facility simulates key components downstream an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 to 30. The tests will be started in 2001 and continued for 4 years or longer. In parallel to the tests, a hydrogen/tritium permeation test and a corrosion test of a catalyst tube of a steam reformer are being carried out to obtain data necessary for the design of the HTTR hydrogen production system. A kind of thermochemical method called IS process is under studying to produce hydrogen from water by

  11. Compact interior heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} mobile heat pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, Armin

    2003-07-01

    The natural refrigerant carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers new possibilities for design of flexible, efficient and environmentally safe mobile heat pumping systems. As high-efficient car engines with less waste heat are developed, extra heating of the passenger compartment is needed in the cold season. A reversible transcritical CO{sub 2} system with gliding temperature heat rejection can give high air delivery temperature which results in rapid heating of the passenger compartment and rapid defogging or defrosting of windows. When operated in cooling mode, the efficiency of transcritical CO{sub 2} systems is higher compared to common (HFC) air conditioning systems, at most dominant operating conditions. Several issues were identified for the design of compact interior heat exchangers for automotive reversible CO{sub 2} heat pumping systems. Among theses issues are: (1) Refrigerant flow distribution, (2) Heat exchanger fluid flow circuiting, (3) Air temperature uniformity downstream of the heat exchanger, (4) Minimization of temperature approach, (5) Windshield flash fogging due to retained water inside the heat exchanger, (6) Internal beat conduction in heating mode operation, and (7) Refrigerant side pressure drop In order to provide a basis for understanding these issues, the author developed a calculation model and set up a test facility and investigated different prototype heat exchangers experimentally.

  12. Geothermal source heat pump performance for a greenhouse heating system: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses play a significant function in the modern agriculture economy even if require great amount of energy for heating systems. An interesting solution to alleviate the energy costs and environmental problems may be represented by the use of geothermal energy. The aim of this paper, based on measured experimental data, such as the inside greenhouse temperature and the heat pump performance (input and output temperatures of the working fluid, electric consumption, was the evaluation of the suitability of low enthalpy geothermal heat sources for agricultural needs such as greenhouses heating. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Bari, where a greenhouse was arranged with a heating system connected to a ground-source heat pump (GSHP, which had to cover the thermal energy request. The experimental results of this survey highlight the capability of the geothermal heat source to ensue thermal conditions suitable for cultivation in greenhouses even if the compressor inside the heat pump have operated continuously in a fluctuating state without ever reaching the steady condition. Probably, to increase the performance of the heat pump and then its coefficient of performance within GSHP systems for heating greenhouses, it is important to analyse and maximise the power conductivity of the greenhouse heating system, before to design an expensive borehole ground exchanger. Nevertheless, according to the experimental data obtained, the GSHP systems are effective, efficient and environmental friendly and may be useful to supply the heating energy demand of greenhouses.

  13. Geothermal District Heating System City of Klamath Falls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J; Rafferty, Kevin

    1991-12-01

    The city of Klamath Falls became interested in the possibility of a establishing geothermal district heating system for downtown government buildings in January 1977. Since that time, the project has undergone some controversial and interesting developments that may be of educational value to other communities contemplating such a project. The purpose and content of this article is to identify the historical development of the project; including the design of the system, well owner objections to the project, aquifer testing, piping failure, and future expansion and marketing incentives. The shallow geothermal reservoir in Klamath falls extends for at least 6.8 miles in a northwest-southeast direction, as shown on Figure 1, with a width of about 2 miles. More than 550 thermal wells ranging in depth from about 10 to 2,000 ft, and obtaining or contacting water from 70 to 230oF, have been drilled into the reservoir. The system is not geologically homogeneous. Great variations in horizontal permeability and many vertical discontinuities exist because of stratigraphy and structure of the area. Basalt flows, eruptive centers, fluvial and lacustrine deposits, diatomite and pyroclastic materials alternate in the rock column. Normal faults with large throw (estimated up to 1,700 ft) are spaced less than 3,300 ft apart and appear to be the main avenue of vertical movement of hot fluids. In order to more effectively utilize this resource, the city of Klamath Falls decided in 1978 to apply for a federal grant (Program Opportunity Notice to cost share field experiment projects) to construct a geothermal district heating system that would deliver geothermal fluids to areas not located on the resource. In 1977, several Geo-Heat Center staff members visited Reykjavik, Iceland, to study the design of their geothermal district heating systems. This was in part the basis for the conceptual design and feasibility study (Lund, 1979) of a downtown commercial district. The main difference

  14. The importance of utility systems in today's biorefineries and a vision for tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeman, Tim; Verser, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Heat and power systems commonly found in today's corn processing facilities, sugar mills, and pulp and paper mills will be reviewed. We will also examine concepts for biorefineries of the future. We will show that energy ratio, defined as the ratio of renewable energy produced divided by the fossil energy input, can vary widely from near unity to values greater than 12. Renewable-based utility systems combined with low-fossil input agricultural systems lead to high-energy ratios.

  15. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    that a least‐cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy, Heating strategy, Heat savings, District heating, Smart energy......One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...

  16. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...... governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new...... buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating...

  17. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system

  18. Screw engine used as an expander in ORC for low-potential heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lukáš

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with a screw motor that is used as an expander in an ORC (Organic Rankin Cycle) system, whose organic working substance allows the transformation of low-potential heat (waste heat, solar and geothermal energy) into electrical energy. The article describes the specific properties of an organic substance and a screw motor that must be considered when designing and assembling a complete power unit. Screw machines are not commonly used as expansion devices, so it is necessary to perform an analysis that makes it possible to adapt the screw machine to the expansion process in terms of profiling and design.

  19. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...

  20. Thermodynamic optimization with a finite number of heat intercepts for cryogenic systems with parameters stepwise continuous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the thermodynamic optimization by the variation of the heat transfer rate in a finite number of points through insulation for the general case of one-dimensional heat transfer (flat plate, hollow cylinder and hollow sphere) in systems, consisting of different materials in series, whose thermal conductivity is a function of temperature and of the coordinate in the heat flux direction. Besides, some parameters or their first derivative are assumed stepwise continuous. For this purpose, the results of some researches by the author pertinent to the properties of entropy production rate in the one-dimensional heat transfer are utilized

  1. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  2. Energy-Recovery Pressure-Reducer in District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Borkowski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Already existing man-made infrastructures that create water flow and unused pressure are interesting energy sources to which micro-hydropower plants can be applied. Apart from water supply systems (WSSs, which are widely described in the literature, significant hydropower potential can also be found in district heating systems (DHSs. In this paper, a prototype, a so-called energy-recovery pressure-reducer (ERPR, utilized for a DHS, is presented. It consisted of a pump as a turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The latter was connected to the power grid through the power electronic unit (PEU. The variable-speed operation allowed one to modify the turbine characteristics to match the substation’s hydraulic conditions. The proposed ERPR device could be installed in series to the existing classic pressure reducing valve (PRV as an independent device that reduces costs and simplifies system installation. The test results of the prototype system located in a substation of Cracow’s DHS are presented. The steady-state curves and regulation characteristics show the prototype’s operating range and efficiency. In this study, the pressure-reducer impact on the electrical and hydraulic systems, and on the environment, were analyzed. The operation tests during the annual heating season revealed an average system’s efficiency of 49%.

  3. Mathematical model for calculation of the heat-hydraulic modes of heating points of heat-supplying systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-03-01

    The mathematical model and calculation method of the thermal-hydraulic modes of heat points, based on the theory of hydraulic circuits, being developed at the Melentiev Energy Systems Institute are presented. The redundant circuit of the heat point was developed, in which all possible connecting circuits (CC) of the heat engineering equipment and the places of possible installation of control valve were inserted. It allows simulating the operating modes both at central heat points (CHP) and individual heat points (IHP). The configuration of the desired circuit is carried out automatically by removing the unnecessary links. The following circuits connecting the heating systems (HS) are considered: the dependent circuit (direct and through mixing elevator) and independent one (through the heater). The following connecting circuits of the load of hot water supply (HWS) were considered: open CC (direct water pumping from pipelines of heat networks) and a closed CC with connecting the HWS heaters on single-level (serial and parallel) and two-level (sequential and combined) circuits. The following connecting circuits of the ventilation systems (VS) were also considered: dependent circuit and independent one through a common heat exchanger with HS load. In the heat points, water temperature regulators for the hot water supply and ventilation and flow regulators for the heating system, as well as to the inlet as a whole, are possible. According to the accepted decomposition, the model of the heat point is an integral part of the overall heat-hydraulic model of the heat-supplying system having intermediate control stages (CHP and IHP), which allows to consider the operating modes of the heat networks of different levels connected with each other through CHP as well as connected through IHP of consumers with various connecting circuits of local systems of heat consumption: heating, ventilation and hot water supply. The model is implemented in the Angara data

  4. Production of synthesis gas and methane via coal gasification utilizing nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Heek, K.H.; Juentgen, H.

    1982-01-01

    The steam gasificaton of coal requires a large amount of energy for endothermic gasification, as well as for production and heating of the steam and for electricity generation. In hydrogasification processes, heat is required primarily for the production of hydrogen and for preheating the reactants. Current developments in nuclear energy enable a gas cooled high temperature nuclear reactor (HTR) to be the energy source, the heat produced being withdrawn from the system by means of a helium loop. There is a prospect of converting coal, in optimal yield, into a commercial gas by employing the process heat from a gas-cooled HTR. The advantages of this process are: (1) conservation of coal reserves via more efficient gas production; (2) because of this coal conservation, there are lower emissions, especially of CO 2 , but also of dust, SO 2 , NO/sub x/, and other harmful substances; (3) process engineering advantages, such as omission of an oxygen plant and reduction in the number of gas scrubbers; (4) lower gas manufacturing costs compared to conventional processes. The main problems involved in using nuclear energy for the industrial gasification of coal are: (1) development of HTRs with helium outlet temperatures of at least 950 0 C; (2) heat transfer from the core of the reactor to the gas generator, methane reforming oven, or heater for the hydrogenation gas; (3) development of a suitable allothermal gas generator for the steam gasification; and (4) development of a helium-heated methane reforming oven and adaption of the hydrogasification process for operation in combination with the reactor. In summary, processes for gasifying coal that employ heat from an HTR have good economic and technical prospects of being realized in the future. However, time will be required for research and development before industrial application can take place. 23 figures, 4 tables. (DP)

  5. The Study of Expert System Utilization for the Accelerator Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi-Santosa; Slamet-Santosa; Subari-Santosa

    2000-01-01

    The utilization of expert system in the accelerator laboratory has been studied. The study covers the utilization of expert system in the setting up experiment (tuning parameter), controlling system, safety or warning system. The results study shows, that using the expert system in the accelerator would be easy to operate the accelerator for user and operator. Increasing the skill of expert system could be updated without logical mechanism modification. (author)

  6. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank is a......, the control strategy of intelligent solar heating systems is investigated and the yearly auxiliary energy use of the systems and the electricity price for supplying the consumers with domestic hot water and space heating are calculated....... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys......Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...

  7. RESEARCH OF HYDRODYNAMICS OF HEAT GENERATORS FOR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS AUTONOMOUS HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Derbasova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of mechanical heat source, allows direct conversion of mechanical energy of the wind flow into thermal energy due to friction forces in a highly viscous fluid. Obtained theoretical dependence for calculating the heat generated by converting mechanical energy into heat. For laminar flow of a highly viscous, fluid in the gap between the stationary and rotating disk heat source. Based on experimental studies to determine the average thickness of the boundary layer between the rotating and fixed disks. The dependences to identify key structural dimensions of mechanical heat sources for heating systems

  8. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume I. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of capturing energy ejected in hot water at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is presented. The cooling water, drawn from the river or a pond at the rate of 500,000 gallons per minute, is typically heated 80 0 F to about 150 0 F and is then allowed to cool in the atmosphere. The energy added to the water is equivalent to 20 million barrels of oil a year. This study reports that the reject heat can be used directly in an organic Rankine cycle system to evaporate fluids which drive electric generators. The output of one reactor can produce 45,000 kilowatts of electricity. Since the fuel is waste heat, an estimated 45% savings over conventional electric costs is possible over a thirty year period

  9. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF UNSTEADY HEAT TRANSFER OF PASSENGER CAR WITH HEATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Biloshytskyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The existing mathematical models of unsteady heat processes in a passenger car do not fully reflect the thermal processes, occurring in the car wits a heating system. In addition, unsteady heat processes are often studied in steady regime, when the heat fluxes and the parameters of the thermal circuit are constant and do not depend on time. In connection with the emergence of more effective technical solutions to the life support system there is a need for creating a new mathematical apparatus, which would allow taking into account these features and their influence on the course of unsteady heat processes throughout the travel time. The purpose of this work is to create a mathematical model of the heat regime of a passenger car with a heating system that takes into account the unsteady heat processes. Methodology. To achieve this task the author composed a system of differential equations, describing unsteady heat processes during the heating of a passenger car. For the solution of the composed system of equations, the author used the method of elementary balances. Findings. The paper presents the developed numerical algorithm and computer program for simulation of transitional heat processes in a locomotive traction passenger car, which allows taking into account the various constructive solutions of the life support system of passenger cars and to simulate unsteady heat processes at any stage of the trip. Originality. For the first time the author developed a mathematical model of heat processes in a car with a heating system, that unlike existing models, allows to investigate the unsteady heat engineering performance in the cabin of the car under different operating conditions and compare the work of various life support systems from the point of view their constructive solutions. Practical value. The work presented the developed mathematical model of the unsteady heat regime of the passenger car with a heating system to estimate

  10. Simulation and energy analysis of distributed electric heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Han, Shenchao; Yang, Yanchun; Liu, Mingyuan

    2018-02-01

    Distributed electric heating system assistssolar heating systemby using air-source heat pump. Air-source heat pump as auxiliary heat sourcecan make up the defects of the conventional solar thermal system can provide a 24 - hour high - efficiency work. It has certain practical value and practical significance to reduce emissions and promote building energy efficiency. Using Polysun software the system is simulated and compared with ordinary electric boiler heating system. The simulation results show that upon energy request, 5844.5kW energy is saved and 3135kg carbon - dioxide emissions are reduced and5844.5 kWhfuel and energy consumption is decreased with distributed electric heating system. Theeffect of conserving energy and reducing emissions using distributed electric heating systemis very obvious.

  11. Waste heat utilization in the thermal spa of Lavey-les-Bains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy looks at the possibilities for improved waste water utilization in the Lavey-les-Bains thermal spa, Switzerland. According to the regulations in force, the temperature of the waste water rejected into the Rhone river shall not exceed 30 o C, what is currently not the case. Also the operational cost shall be reduced and the waste water quality improved. The installations are presented. From the two geothermal wells, mineral water comes out at an average flow rate of 940 l/min and a temperature of 63 o C. Actual waste water data are reported. The measured thermal water consumption data, including seasonal variations, are analysed by computerized simulation and measures to reduce the consumed volume by the optimization of internal procedures are evaluated. Measures to reduce the quantity of the rejected free chlorine are discussed. Several possible adaptations of the existing space heating, domestic water heating and pools' heating are evaluated, including cost. In addition, extensions of the thermal spa center to recreational activities are discussed, as the construction of a tropical greenhouse is

  12. From heat integration targets toward implementation – A TSA (total site analysis)-based design approach for heat recovery systems in industrial clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Roman; Harvey, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The European process industry is facing major challenges to decrease production costs. One strategy to achieve this is by increasing energy efficiency. Single chemical processes are often well-integrated and the tools to target and design such measures are well developed. Site-wide heat integration based on total site analysis tools can be used to identify opportunities to further increase energy efficiency. However, the methodology has to be developed further in order to enable identification of practical heat integration measures in a systematic way. Designing site-wide heat recovery systems across an industrial cluster is complex and involves aspects apart from thermal process and utility flows. This work presents a method for designing a roadmap of heat integration investments based on total site analysis. The method is applied to a chemical cluster in Sweden. The results of the case study show that application of the proposed method can achieve up to 42% of the previously targeted hot utility savings of 129 MW. A roadmap of heat integration systems is suggested, ranging from less complex systems that achieve a minor share of the heat recovery potential to sophisticated, strongly interdependent systems demanding large investments and a high level of collaboration. - Highlights: • Methodology focused on the practical implementation of site-wide heat recovery. • Algorithm to determine a roadmap of heat integration investments. • Case study: 42% hot utility savings potential at a pay-back period of 3.9y.

  13. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Duic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Hybridisation of district heating systems can contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or through the share increase of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption while reducing negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In this work......, the performance of a hybrid district energy system for a small town in Croatia has been analysed. Mathematical model for process analysis and optimisation algorithm for optimal system configuration has been developed and described. The main goal of the system optimisation is to reduce heat production costs....... Several energy sources for heat production have been considered in 8 different simulation cases. Simulation results show that the heat production costs could be reduced with introduction of different energy systems into an existing district heating system. Renewable energy based district heating systems...

  14. Environmental issues and competitiveness of district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1991-01-01

    The advantages of district heating systems are evaluated in competition to individual heating for the Swiss markets. The preservation of the environmental quality on the national (clean air concept) and global scale (Toronto recommendation) is formulated as constraint of the energy system. The implications of these constraints for the economic competition of district heating is evaluated. The study estimates the evolution of energy demand in the heating markets and shortly describes the technical possibilities in satisfying demand by a set of conventional heating systems, systems using renewable energy sources, energy conservation measures and district heating systems based on conventional or nuclear energy sources. The main conclusion is that small capacity nuclear district heating systems, if acceptable, could enhance the flexibility of the Swiss energy system in respect to CO 2 control. (author) 3 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  15. Specific heat, polarization and heat conduction in microwave heating systems: A nonequilibrium thermodynamic point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergese, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A microwave (MW) field can induce in a dielectric material an oscillatory polarization. By this mechanism part of the energy carried by the waves is converted into chaotic agitation, and the material heats up. MW heating is a nonequilibrium phenomenon, while conventional heating can generally be considered as quasi-static. Excess (or nonthermal) effects of MWs with respect to conventional heating lie in this difference. Macroscopically, MW heating can be described in the framework of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics (NET). This approach indicates that in a dielectric material under MW heating the specific heat has a dynamic component linked to the variation of polarization with temperature, and that polarization and heat conduction are intertwined. In particular, linear NET provides a new phenomenological equation for heat conduction that is composed of the classic Fourier's law and an additional term due to polarization relaxation. This term quantitatively describes the excess effect of MWs on thermal conduction

  16. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Oestersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey. (author)

  17. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.833 Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. [Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29783, July 20, 1990...

  18. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Oestersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey. (author)

  19. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Ostersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey

  20. Demand side management in South Africa at industrial residence water heating systems using in line water heating methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The South African electrical utility, ESKOM, currently focuses its demand side management (DSM) initiatives on controlling electrical load between 18:00 and 20:00 each day, which is the utility's peak demand period. Funding is provided to energy service companies (ESCo's) to implement projects that can achieve load shifting out of this period. This paper describes how an improved in line water heating concept developed in previous studies was implemented into several real life industrial sanitary water heating systems to obtain the DSM load shift required by ESKOM. Measurements from a selection of these plants are provided to illustrate the significant load reductions that are being achieved during 18:00-20:00. The measured results also show that the peak load reduction is achieved without adversely affecting the availability of sufficient hot water to the persons using the showering and washing facilities served by the water heating system. A very good correlation also exists between these measured results and simulations that were done beforehand to predict the DSM potential of the project. The in line water heater concept provides an improved solution for DSM at sanitary water heating systems due to the stratified manner in which hot water is supplied to the tanks. This provides an improved hot water supply to users when compared to conventional in tank heating systems, even with load shifting being done. It also improves the storage efficiency of a plant, thereby allowing the available storage capacity of a plant to be utilized to its full extent for load shifting purposes