WorldWideScience

Sample records for heat treating apparatus

  1. Heat exchange apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.C.; McDaniels, J.D.; Gertsch, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention relates to heat exchangers used for transferring heat from the gas cooled core of a nuclear reactor to a secondary medium during standby and emergency conditions. The construction of the heat exchanger described is such that there is a minimum of welds exposed to the reactor coolant, the parasitic heat loss during normal operation of the reactor is minimized and the welds and heat transfer tubes are easily inspectable. (UK)

  2. Heat recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, I.

    1987-01-01

    Heat transfer is a living science and technical advances are constantly being made. However, in many cases, progress is limited by the equipment that is available on the market, rather than by knowledge of the heat transfer process. A case in point is the design of economizers: in such equipment a small quantity of water (with a relatively good heat transfer coefficient) is heated by a large quantity of low-pressure gas (with an inherently low heat transfer coefficient). As a first step in design finned tubing is used to lessen the discrepancy in coefficients. From this point, it becomes apparent that the equipment consists of a small number of tubes (to maintain good velocity on the water side) of considerable length (to provide sufficient area). In the process industries the base pressure, though low, may be in the region of 0.5 bar, and there is no convenient flue in which to place the heat recovery coil. It is therefore contained in a flat-sided enclosure, which is ill-fitted to pressure containment and is therefore reinforced with a plethora of structural sections. Such inelegant construction is quite common in North America; in Europe, cylindrical containments of vast size have been supplied for the same purposes. The real shortcoming is a successful marriage of different disciplines to produce reliable and efficient heat transfer equipment suitably contained

  3. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  4. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  5. Apparatus for manufacturing heating gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R

    1899-12-09

    Treating bituminous fuel, peat, or shale, is described for the production of a non-condensible heating gas by a three-stage but continuous process comprising: (1) a preliminary distillation operation under external heating, (2) a further distillation operation under the action of direct internal heating, (3) a combustion and gasification operation on the distilled hot fuel under the action of air or steam and air.

  6. Apparatus for treating bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-11-24

    A method is given of transforming finely crushed bituminous shale, for instance of maximum particle size of about 5 mm, into balls, nodules, or similar shapes, in which the shale to be treated is passed in the form of lumps through a rotary drum. The finely crushed shale with a higher content of moisture is brought into contact with finely crushed shale of a lower content of moisture, and thereby serves as kernel material during the formation of the nodules or similar shapes.

  7. Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  8. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  9. Apparatus with moderating material for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  10. Heated junction thermocouple level measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.; Burger, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level sensing apparatus senses the level of liquid surrounding the apparatus. A plurality of axially spaced sensors are enclosed in a separator tube. The separator tube tends to collapse the level of a two-phase fluid within the separator tube into essentially a liquid phase and a gaseous phase where the collapsed level bears a relationship to the coolant inventory outside the separator tube. The level of the liquid phase is sensed by level sensing apparatus. The separator tube contains inlet-outlet ports near the top and bottom thereof to equalize the liquid level inside and outside the separator tube when the level fluctuates or the water within the separator tube flashes to steam. Each sensor is comprised of a heater, a heated thermocouple junction and an unheated thermocouple junction within an elongated heat conductive housing. The heated portion of housing is enclosed in a splash guard with inlet-outlet ports near the top and bottom to equalize the liquid level inside and outside the splash guardand to eliminate the spurious indications of liquid level change which may arise if water droplets contact the housing in the region of the heater. To prevent steam bubbles entrained in a two-phase fluid cross flow from entering the lateral inlet-outlet ports of the separator tube, the separator tube is enclosed in support tube which may in turn be enclosed in an otherwise unused control element assembly shroud. The lateral inlet-outlet ports of separator tube are axially offset from lateral inlet-outlet ports of support tube at least where support tube is subjected to cross flow. The shroud is open on the bottom and has lateral inlet-outlet ports to facilitate liquid level fluctuations to equalize inside and outside shroud

  11. APPARATUS FOR ELECTRON BEAM HEATING CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W.H.; Reece, J.B.

    1962-09-18

    An improved electron beam welding or melting apparatus is designed which utilizes a high voltage rectifier operating below its temperature saturation region to decrease variations in electron beam current which normally result from the gas generated in such apparatus. (AEC)

  12. Apparatus and method for treating waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the packaging of waste material in a vessel, comprising: a vessel entry station having inlet and outlet doors; a filling station downstream of the vessel entry station and having a filling position to which vessels are transferred from the entry station through the outlet door, the filling station having filling means for introducing radioactive waste into the vessel; a mixing station having a mixing position to which a vessel is transferred from the filling position; a capping station having a capping position to which a vessel is transferred from the mixing position; and means for effecting transfer of a vessel through the apparatus. Radiation shielding is provided. (U.K.)

  13. Design of neutral particle incident heating apparatus for large scale helical apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Fusion Science, construction of the large scale helical apparatus has been progressed favorably, and constructions of the heating apparatus as well as of electron resonance apparatus were begun in their orders under predetermined manner since 1994 fiscal year. And, on 1995 fiscal year, construction of neutral particle incident heating apparatus, leading heat apparatus, was begun under 3 years planning. The plasma heating study system adopted the study results developed in this institute through the large scale hydrogen negative ion source and also adopted thereafter development on nuclear fusion study by modifying the original specification set at the beginning of the research plan before 7 years. As a result, system design was changed from initial 125 KeV to 180 KeV in the beam energy and to execute 15 MW incidence using two sets beam lines, to begin its manufacturing. Here is described on its new design with reason of its modifications. (G.K.)

  14. Apparatus to simulate nuclear heating in advanced fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrona, B.J.; Galvin, T.M.; Johanson, E.

    1976-10-01

    A direct-electrical-heating apparatus has been built to simulate in-reactor temperature gradients and heating conditions in both the mixed nitrides and carbides of uranium and plutonium. The apparatus has the capability for the investigation and direct observation of fuel-behavior phenomena that should significantly enlarge the data base on mixed carbides and nitrides at temperatures near and above their melting points. In addition to heating UC, results of prooftests showed that the apparatus has the capability to heat graphite, 30 vol % ZrC in graphite, B 4 C control-rod pellets, and stainless steel

  15. Intensification of Evaporation and Condensation Processes in Heat Exchange Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Vasiliev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes proposed design solutions for an intensification of heat transfer in evaporation and condensation heat exchangers. Complex experimental research of heat and mass transfer processes in flat and round cross-section miniature heat pipes is carried out. Optimization, development, manufacturing and an experimental investigation of copper miniature heat pipes with sintered powder are executed. Investigation results of capillary-porous structure properties that are used in evaporation and condensation heat-exchange apparatus are presented.

  16. Apparatus for plasma surface treating and preparation of membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g., forming a membrane layer on a substrate surface) comprises a plasma generation section which is operable at least at substantially atmospheric pressure and is in communication via at least one plasma inlet (e.g., a nozzle) with an enclosed

  17. Apparatus for treating carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.P.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for treating carcinoma of the uterine cervix by judiciously applying radioactive material immediately adjacent the uterine cervix for an extended period of time empirically determined by the radiologist. The novel apparatus comprises three radioactively chargeable components including a central tubular tandem vaginally insertable longitudinally into the uterine cervix and two non-lineal tubular ovoidal assemblies longitudinally locatable at the cervix and positioned laterally between the respective vaginal walls and the uterine cervix. The ovoidal assemblies are conveniently removably and pivotably connected to the central tandem component externally of the vaginal along the sagittal plane through a novel adapter member whereby the radioactively chargeable ovoidal assemblies tend to remain within a laterally extending plane located substantially midway the transversely separated vasicovaginal and rectovaginal septa, even though the patient periodically shifts her reclining posture during the extended treatment by said vaginally protruding apparatus

  18. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  19. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  20. Production of molten UO2 pools by internal heating: apparatus and preliminary experimental heat transfer results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasanov, M.G.; Gunther, W.H.; Baker, L. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The capability for removal of heat from a pool of molten fuel under postaccident conditions is an important consideration in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor safety analysis. No experimental data for pool heat transfer from molten UO 2 under conditions simulating internal heat generation by fission product decay have been reported previously in the literature. An apparatus to provide such data was developed and used to investigate heat transfer from pools containing up to 7.5 kg of UO 2 ; the internal heat generation rates and pool depths attained cover most of the ranges of interest for postaccident heat removal analysis. It was also observed in these studies that the presence of simulated fission products corresponding to approximately 150,000 kW-day/kg burnup had no significant effect on the observed heat transfer

  1. Apparatus intended for measuring heat capacity and heat transfer down to mK range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebral, B.; Frossati, G.; Godfrin, H.; Schumacher, G.; Thoulouze, D.

    1978-01-01

    A cryogenic apparatus to perform heat capacity and heat transfer measurements in the range 1.5 mK-50 mK is described. Measurements are performed in an adiabatic demagnetization cell attached to a dilution refrigerator. Heat capacity measurements were effected on CMN-helium systems; the CMN specific heat was deduced above 1.6 mK when using liquid 3 He or a mixture 1.1% 3 He - 98.9% 4 He. A specific heat anomaly was observed with 4 He below 10 mK. It does not seen possible to interprete it by simple thermal equilibrium considerations. The superfluid 3 He heat capacity was also deduced from the results obtained with liquid 3 He under pressure. In heat transfer measurements at the interface CMN-mixture 3 He- 4 He, the temperature dependence of the thermal boundary resistance is in rather good agreement with other powder results. The measured resistances are larger than those predicted by the classical phonon process [fr

  2. Apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating and process for preparing membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g. forming a membrane layer on a substrate) which comprises a plasma generation section (2) which is in communication via at least one plasma inlet means (4) (e.g. a nozzle) with an enclosed plasma treating section (3)

  3. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-11-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method.

  4. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-01-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method. (paper)

  5. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial......Apparatus for treating raw water in a biofilter The present invention relates to an apparatus in which raw water is treated through microbial activity where microbial activity is controlled by nutrients and other parameters. Some of the nutrients controlling the microbial activity are trace...... elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...

  6. Development of ultrasonic heat transfer tube thickness measurement apparatus. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Katoh, Chiaki; Yanagihara, Takao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Suetugu, Hidehiko; Yano, Masaya [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes of the acid recovery evaporator in corrosion test, we have developed thickness measurement apparatus for heat transfer tubes by ultrasonic immersion method with high resolution. The ultrasonic prove in a heat transfer tube can be moved vertically and radially. The results obtained by this apparatus coincident well with those obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  7. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  8. Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Carl W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

  9. Development of an apparatus to measure thermophysical properties of wind tunnel heat transfer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, R. F.; Steinberg, I. H.

    1974-01-01

    The apparatus and technique for measuring the thermophysical properties of models used with the phase-change paint method for obtaining wind tunnel heat transfer data are described. The method allows rapid measurement of the combined properties in a transient manner similar to an actual wind tunnel test. An effective value of the thermophysical properties can be determined which accounts for changes in thermal properties with temperature or with depth into the model surface. The apparatus was successfully tested at various heating rates between 19,000 and 124,000 watts per square meter.

  10. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  11. Apparatus for treating the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for reaing carcinoma of the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity is described. An elongated tube has an inner end adapted to be placed in the pelvic cavity and an outer end adapted to extend through to the outside of the body. Radioactive material is placed at the inner end. An inner balloon above the radioactive material is inflated to hold a body of liquid shielding material such as mercury. A lower balloon portion beneath the inner balloon spaces areas to be treated such as the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity from the radioactive material. An upper balloon portion above the inner balloon keeps the intestines out of the pelvic cavity and away from the radioactive material. The apparatus is inserted into the pelvic cavity through an abdominal incision. When treating a woman for carcinoma in the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity the tube is moved through the vaginal passage from the inside outwardly. When treating a woman with a closed vaginal passage, as may result from surgery, or when treating a man, such as for carcinoma of the bladder, the tube will pass out of the body through a lower abdominal incision. Following treatment, all balloons are deflated so that the apparatus can be withdrawn through the vaginal passage or the lower abdominal incision, as the case may be. (auth)

  12. Cryogenic apparatus for study of near-field heat transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králík, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Pavel; Musilová, Věra; Srnka, Aleš; Zobač, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 5 (2011), 055106:1-5 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100650804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : cryogenics * heat measurement * heat radiation * micrometry * radiative transfer * thermistors Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2011

  13. [Mathematical apparatus of the circuit theory in modeling of heat transfer upon extreme heating of an organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical model of heat transfer in whole-body hyperthermia, developed earlier by the author, has been refined using the mathematical apparatus of the circuit theory. The model can be used to calculate the temperature of each organ, which can increase the efficacy and safety of the immersion-convection technique of whole-body hyperthermia.

  14. Method and apparatus for nuclear heating of oil-bearing formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alspaw, D.I.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for using heat generated by absorption of radiation from nuclear waste materials to reduce the viscosity of petroleum products contained within a subsurface earth formation. The nuclear waste material is positioned in a salt water formation underlying the subsurface earth formation so that the radiation emitted by the material heats the salt water formation. conduction and convection transfer the heat to the subsurface earth formation, raising the temperature and thereby reducing the viscosity of the petroleum products. To prevent radioactive contamination within the salt water formation, the nuclear waste material may be encapsulated in a material selected to absorb alpha and beta radiation

  15. Method and apparatus for treating an earth formation penetrated by a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, F.R.

    1965-06-29

    This is a method and apparatus for treating a formation to increase its productivity. A plug is placed into the well and a liquid explosive is placed in the well upon this plug. A second plug is placed in the well, thereby isolating the liquid explosive between the 2 slugs. Pressure is applied to the second plug, thereby forcing the 2 plugs and liquid explosive down the well. After the first plug reaches the formation to be treated, the liquid explosive will enter the formation. As the second plug reaches the first plug, the explosive is detonated, thereby fracturing the formation. The liquid explosive used is a sensitized nitromethane which can be detonated by high-velocity detonators, such as Primacord. (17 claims)

  16. Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  17. Apparatus for dynamic measurement of gases released from materials heated under programmed temperature-time control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, J.W.; Abernathey, R.M.

    1982-04-01

    This apparatus, a prototype of one being constructed for hotcell examination of irradiated nuclear materials, measures dynamic release rates and integrated volumes of individual gases from materials heated under controlled temperature-time programs. It consists of an inductively heated vacuum furnace connected to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A computerized control system with data acquisition provides scanning rates down to 1s and on-line tabular and graphic displays. Heating rates are up to 1300 0 C/min to a maximum temperature of 2000 0 C. The measurement range is about 10 -6 to 10 -2 torr-liter/s for H 2 , CH 4 , H 2 O, N 2 , and CO and 10 -8 to 10 -2 torr-liter/s for He, Kr, and Xe. Applications are described for measurements of Kr and Xe in mixed oxide fuel, various gases in UO 2 pellets, and He in 238 PuO 2 power and heat sources

  18. Apparatus for inspecting and repairing a pressurized-water reactor's steam generator heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, O.; Roettger, H.; Kasti, H.; Hagen, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Described is an apparatus provided for use with a pressurized-water reactor' steam generator having a manifold chamber enclosing the bottom side of a horizontal tube sheet having holes therethrough in which are mounted the tubes of a heat exchanger tube bundle. The manifold chamber has a manhole giving access to the tube's bottom side to permit internal inspection or repair of the tubes by registration of an end of a flexible guide conduit with the tube sheet holes and through which a flexible carrier can be guided for insertion via these holes in the tube sheet and through the tubes extending from the tube sheet's other side

  19. Effect of whole cottonseed, plus lanolin heat-treated whole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk protein content or yield was not affected by any of the treatments. ... The higher (P < 0.01) C18:2 content of milk fat on the HWCS Eeatment indicated that heat fteatment ... where heat-treated soybeans were compared with raw soy- beans ...

  20. Metallurgy and Heat Treating. Welding Module 7. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching a three-unit module in metallurgy and heat treating. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The basic principles of metallurgy and heat treatment and techniques for…

  1. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  2. Method and Apparatus for the Portable Identification of Material Thickness and Defects Using Spatially Controlled Heat Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and a portable apparatus for the nondestructive identification of defects in structures. The apparatus comprises a heat source and a thermal imager that move at a constant speed past a test surface of a structure. The thermal imager is off set at a predetermined distance from the heat source. The heat source induces a constant surface temperature. The imager follows the heat source and produces a video image of the thermal characteristics of the test surface. Material defects produce deviations from the constant surface temperature that move at the inverse of the constant speed. Thermal noise produces deviations that move at random speed. Computer averaging of the digitized thermal image data with respect to the constant speed minimizes noise and improves the signal of valid defects. The motion of thermographic equipment coupled with the high signal to noise ratio render it suitable for portable, on site analysis.

  3. Characterization and processing of heat treated aluminium matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doifode, Yogesh; Kulkarni, S. G.

    2018-05-01

    The present study is carried out to determine density and porosity of Aluminium bagasse ash reinforced composite produced by powder metallurgy method. Bagasse ash is used as reinforcement material having high silica and alumina contents and varied from 5 weight % to 40 weight%. The manufactured composite is heat treated, the main objective of heat treatment is to prepare the material structurally and physically fit for engineering application. The results showed that the density decreases with percentage increase in reinforcement of bagasse ash from 2.6618 gm/cm3 to 1.9830 gm/cm3 with the minimum value at 40 weight% bagasse ash without heat treatment whereas after heat treatment density of composite increases due filling up of voids and porous holes. Heat treatment processing is the key to this improvement, with the T6 heat treated composite to convene the reduced porosity of composite. Consequently aluminium metal matrix composite combines the strength of the reinforcement to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single material. It may observe that porosity in case of powder metallurgy samples showed more porosity portions compare to the casting samples. In order to achieve optimality in structure and properties of Bagasse ash-reinforcement heat treatment techniques have evolved. Generally, the ceramic reinforcements increase the density of the base alloy during fabrication of composites. However, the addition of lightweight reinforcements reduces the density of the hybrid composites. The results also showed that, the density varies from to with minimum value at 40 wt. % BA. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences among the means of each property of the composites at various levels of BA replacement .It was concluded that bagasse ash can be used as reinforcement and the produced composites have low density and heat treatment reduces porosity which could be used in automobile industry for

  4. Adsorption characteristics of heat-treated fullerene nano-whiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z-M [Energy Storage Materials Group, Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Kato, R; Hotta, K; Miyazawa, K [Fullerene Engineering Group, Advanced Nano Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)], E-mail: zm-wang@aist.go.jp

    2009-04-01

    Fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs) were synthesized by the liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method and the adsorption properties of their heat-treated samples were characterized. It was found that vacuum-annealed FNWs at a high temperature are of microporous materials and, especially, ultramicropores are highly developed in these materials. Porosities even remain in samples after heat treatment at a temperature higher than 2273 K. The presence of ultramicroporosity is indicative of the molecular sieving properties of the vacuum-annealed FNW materials, suggesting the possibilities of their application as new materials for gas separation and gas storage.

  5. Raman microprobe study of heat-treated pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottinet, D.; Couderc, P.; Saint Romain, J.L.; Dhamelincourt, P.

    1988-01-01

    A series of heat-treated pitches from the same coal-tar precursor is investigated by means of a Raman microprobe. Separated Raman spectra are obtained for the isotropic phase and the mesophase. The evolutions observed are characteristic of the structural rearrangement change in the two phases. They correlate well with the observations reported in literature and obtained by using different methods of structural investigations.

  6. Investigation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of a heat and mass transfer apparatus with 100-m3 volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenko, V.A.; Krikis, V.V.; Popov, K.I.; Sabinin, V.A.; Shiskin, Z.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the investigations of physical models of heat and mass exchange apparatus of different design cannot be fully utilized in the calculations of industrial apparatus with large unit power in consequence of the scale factor which depends on the hydrodynamic conditions in the apparatus. An investigation was made of a fermentor, using instruments designed for measuring parameters such as the gas content, specific volumetric surface of phase contact, the speed of the liquid phase and the gas phase. The fermentor was designed for the biosynthesis of lysine. Calculating the true mass transfer coefficients in liquid, their dependence on the reduced air speed was obtained. The change of the true mass transfer coefficient in the liquid while its speed is constant shows that the mass transfer ability of bubble air lift apparatus does not depend on the reduced speed of the liquid phase but is directly dependent on the degree of turbulence of the stream, which in its turn is a function of the reduced air speed. The obtained quantitative regularities make it possible with sufficient accuracy to carry out hydrodynamic and mass transfer calculations of industrial apparatus of analogous design whose operating parameters lie within the investigated limits

  7. Optical technique to measure distortion on heat treated parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Federico Mariano

    The use of aluminum for structural applications grows with the continual improvement of their physical properties. Through the various amounts of heat treatments that are available, aluminum can vary in properties for all different types of applications. The automotive industry has benefited the most from the use of aluminum and they continue to seek more uses. The heat treatments of these parts are very vital in providing the properties needed for their particular applications. Moreover understanding the effects of heat treatments that may cause distortion to a part is critical. Most of the work carried out in this field is a pre and post measurement after part has experienced its treatment. In this study, we carry out in-situ measurements of the distortions that a heat-treated part undergoes when subjected to temperatures near melting followed by a slow cooling. In order to confirm the experimental measurements we used HOTPOINT to simulate the experiment and compare results. This study will provide much needed insight to the complex occurrences that aluminum parts undergo during heat treatment.

  8. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  9. Process Design of Aluminum Tailor Heat Treated Blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kahrimanidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many industrials field, especially in the automotive sector, there is a trend toward lightweight constructions in order to reduce the weight and thereby the CO2 and NOx emissions of the products. An auspicious approach within this context is the substitution of conventional deep drawing steel by precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys. However, based on the low formability, the application for complex stamping parts is challenging. Therefore, at the Institute of Manufacturing Technology, an innovative technology to enhance the forming limit of these lightweight materials was invented. The key idea of the so-called Tailor Heat Treated Blanks (THTB is optimization of the mechanical properties by local heat treatment before the forming operation. An accurate description of material properties is crucial to predict the forming behavior of tailor heat treated blanks by simulation. Therefore, within in this research project, a holistic approach for the design of the THTB process in dependency of the main influencing parameters is presented and discussed in detail. The capability of the approach for the process development of complex forming operations is demonstrated by a comparison of local blank thickness of a tailgate with the corresponding results from simulation.

  10. Method and Apparatus for the Portable Identification Of Material Thickness And Defects Along Uneven Surfaces Using Spatially Controlled Heat Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas L. (Inventor); Jacobstein, A. Ronald (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing a material such as the water-wall tubes in boilers includes the use of a portable thermal line heater having radiation shields to control the amount of thermal radiation that reaches a thermal imager. A procedure corrects for variations in the initial temperature of the material being inspected. A method of calibrating the testing device to determine an equation relating thickness of the material to temperatures created by the thermal line heater uses empirical data derived from tests performed on test specimens for each material type, geometry, density, specific heat, speed at which the line heater is moved across the material and heat intensity.

  11. Heat sterilization of ash (Fraxinus spp.) firewood : heat-treating options, temperature monitoring and thermal verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Richard Bergman; T. Mace

    2010-01-01

    Because of the potential risk associated with moving emerald ash borer (EAB)-infested firewood, the interstate movement of all hardwood firewood in the USA is currently restricted under the Federal quarantine. Communities and firewood producers are now faced with decisions on how to treat their firewood for interstate commerce. The new US Federal regulations for heat...

  12. Erosion of heat-treated AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goretta, K.C. (Materials and Components Tech. Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Thompson, A.C. (Materials and Components Tech. Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Routbort, J.L. (Materials Science Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1993-03-15

    Solid-particle erosion was studied on AISI 4140 steel heat treated to have a Vickers hardness (Hv) of 288-650 kg mm[sup -2]. The experiments were conducted in vacuum with 143 [mu]m Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] abrasive impacting at 50-100 m s[sup -1] at an angle of 30 or 90 . Erosion rates were nearly independent of hardness for Hv[<=]365 kg mm[sup -2], but increased with hardness for Hv>365 kg mm[sup -2]. The improved erosion resistances of the softer alloys were attributed to increased ductilities. (orig.). Letter-to-the-editor

  13. Characterisation of chemically lithiated heat-treated electrolytic manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose, Wesley M.; Lehr, Joshua; Donne, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Manganese oxides are a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Here we examine the structural and morphological changes that occur upon reduction, and assess its impact on material performance. ► Upon reduction, MnO 2 transforms into LiMn 2 O 4 , which is subsequently reduced to Li 2 Mn 2 O 4 . ► Significant morphological changes occur, particularly to the material porosity. ► This transformation for MnO 2 has not been reported previously. -- Abstract: Heat treated manganese dioxide is partially lithiated using butyl-lithium to determine the changes in crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology upon reduction, as a means of simulating its discharge behaviour in a non-aqueous battery cathode. As reduction proceeds, and lithium ions are inserted into the heat treated electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) structure, the material undergoes a phase transition to LiMn 2 O 4 . This new phase is further reduced to Li 2 Mn 2 O 4 . Reduction initially results in a 56% decrease in the surface area of the material; however, at higher degrees of reduction a slight increase in this value is observed, as a consequence of the strain placed on the lattice through continued lithium insertion.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2016-05-01

    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Structural transformations of heat-treated bacterial iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hideki, E-mail: hideki-h@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); JST, CREST, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Fujii, Tatsuo [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Nakanishi, Koji [Office of Society-Academia Collaboration for Innovation, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Yogi, Chihiro [SR Center, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Peterlik, Herwig [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nakanishi, Makoto [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Takada, Jun [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); JST, CREST, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    A bacterial siliceous iron oxide microtubule (diameter: ca. 1 μm, 15Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}·8SiO{sub 2}·P{sub 2}O{sub 5}·30H{sub 2}O) produced by Leptothrix ochracea was heat treated in air and its structural transformation was investigated in detail by microscopy, diffractometry, and spectroscopy. Although the heat-treated bacterial iron oxide retained its original microtubular structure, its nanoscopic, middle-range, and local structures changed drastically. Upon heat treatment, nanosized pores were formed and their size changed depending on temperature. The Fe–O–Si linkages were gradually cleaved with increasing temperature, causing the progressive separation of Fe and Si ions into iron oxide and amorphous silicate phases, respectively. Concomitantly, global connectivity and local structure of FeO{sub 6} octahedra in the iron oxide nanoparticles systematically changed depending on temperature. These comprehensive investigations clearly revealed various structural changes of the bacterial iron oxide which is an important guideline for the future exploration of novel bio-inspired materials. - Highlights: • Structural transformation of a bacterial iron oxide microtubule was investigated. • Si–O–Fe was cleaved with increasing temperature to form α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/silicate composite. • Crystallization to 2Fh started at 500 °C to give α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} >700 °C. • FeO{sub 6} octahedra were highly distorted <500 °C. • Formation of face-sharing FeO{sub 6} was promoted >500 °C, releasing the local strain of FeO{sub 6}.

  16. Method and apparatus for treating liquid contaminated with radioactive particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirs, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus reduces the amount of radioactive solids resulting from the filtration of particulate contaminants from liquid in a nuclear reactor plant. A filtration system includes a pre-filter comprising a sheet filter medium through which the reactor liquid passes to remove relatively large particulate contaminants for storage or disposal. The reactor liquid is then passed through a bed of granular filter medium to accumulate substantially all the previously non-filtered contaminants and thereby provide a clarified liquid suitable for reuse in the reactor. Backwash liquid is flowed through the granular filter bed to remove and entrain the accumulated contaminants into a slurry which is received by a reservoir where the slurry is maintained quiescently to settle the contaminants. Removal of liquid from the reservoir concentrates the contaminants for storage or further processing, without the necessity of large quantities of filter aids that would increase the quantity of storage-requiring contaminated solids

  17. Technological and chemical properties of heat-treated Anatolian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... heat treatment temperature and time justifies these re- sults. Cellulose ..... properties of light-irradiated wood with heat treatment: Part 1. Effect ... Norway spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula pubescens) subjected to heat ...

  18. A beam-walking apparatus to assess behavioural impairments in MPTP-treated mice: pharmacological validation with R-(-)-deprenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Leann P; Perren, Marion J; Brackenborough, Kim T; Woodhams, Peter L; Vidgeon-Hart, Martin; Chapman, Helen; Pangalos, Menelas N; Upton, Neil; Virley, David J

    2007-08-15

    A beam-walking apparatus has been evaluated for its ability to detect motor impairments in mice acutely treated with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 30 mg/kg, s.c., single or double administration). Mice subjected to MPTP lesioning showed deficits in motor performance on the beam-walking task, for up to 6 days post-MPTP administration, as compared to saline-treated controls. In addition, MPTP-treated mice were detected to have a marked depletion in striatal dopamine levels and a concomitant reduction in substantia nigra (SN) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, at 7 days post-MPTP administration, indicative of dopaminergic neuronal loss. Pre-administration of the potent MAO-B inhibitor R-(-)-deprenyl at 3 or 10 mg/kg, 30 min, s.c, significantly inhibited the MPTP-induced reduction in SN TH-immunoreactivity, striatal dopamine depletions and impairments in mouse motor function. The data described in the present study provides further evidence that functional deficits following an acute MPTP dosing schedule in mice can be quantified and are related to nigro-striatal dopamine function.

  19. Improvements in or relating to a fluidizing process and apparatus for treating comminuted solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-02-15

    A fluidizing process of treating comminuted solid materials cyclically with different gaseous materials in different treatment zones, which comprises fluidizing comminuted solid material in contiguous treatment zones with different gaseous materials, and establishing unequal fluid-static heads in said zones to effect cyclic flow of said solid material through said zones which are in communication adjacent their respective top and bottom portions and permit the overflow of said solid material from one of said zones to another.

  20. Drying apparatus with catalytic combustion of the exhaust gases and with heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, E C

    1975-11-20

    The invention applies to a drying kiln whose charge is dried by a heating gas flow. In order to conserve energy, the thermal energy is transferred back from the catalytically oxydized exhaust gas flow to the heating gas flow. This is done by means of a heat exchanger which contains a heat transfer liquid whose pressure is set to make its boiling temperature the same as the maximum permissible heating gas temperature. The fuel supply to the heating gas burner is controlled by a temperature sensor across a control mechanism.

  1. Convective Heat Transfer Scaling of Ignition Delay and Burning Rate with Heat Flux and Stretch Rate in the Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    To better evaluate the buoyant contributions to the convective cooling (or heating) inherent in normal-gravity material flammability test methods, we derive a convective heat transfer correlation that can be used to account for the forced convective stretch effects on the net radiant heat flux for both ignition delay time and burning rate. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone heater to minimize buoyant effects while at the same time providing a forced stagnation flow on the sample, which ignites and burns as a ceiling fire. Ignition delay and burning rate data is correlated with incident heat flux and convective heat transfer and compared to results from other test methods and fuel geometries using similarity to determine the equivalent stretch rates and thus convective cooling (or heating) rates for those geometries. With this correlation methodology, buoyant effects inherent in normal gravity material flammability test methods can be estimated, to better apply the test results to low stretch environments relevant to spacecraft material selection.

  2. Surface properties of activated carbon treated by cold plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norikazu, Kurano [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroshi [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yajima, Tatsuhiko [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusoiji, Okabe 3690293 (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuo [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Sakura-Ku, Saitama 3388570 (Japan)]. E-mail: sugi@apc.saitama-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-12

    To modify the surface properties of activated carbon powders, we have applied the cold plasma treatment method. The cold plasma was used to be generated in the evacuated reactor vessel by 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation. In this paper, changes of surface properties such as distribution of acidic functional groups and roughness morphology were examined. By the cold plasma treatment, activated carbons with large specific surface area of ca. 2000 m{sup 2}/g or more could be prepared in a minute. The amount of every gaseous organic compound adsorbed on the unit gram of treated activated carbons was more increased that on the unit gram of untreated carbons. Especially, the adsorbed amount of carbon disulfide was remarkably increased even if it was compared by the amount per unit surface area. These results suggest that the surface property of the sample was modified by the plasma treatment. It became apparent by observing SEM photographs that dust and impure particles in macropores of activated carbons were far more reduced by the plasma treatment than by the conventional heating in an electric furnace under vacuum. In addition, a bubble-like surface morphology of the sample was observed by AEM measurement. The amount of acidic functional groups at the surface was determined by using the Boehm's titration method. Consequently, the increase of lactone groups and the decrease of carboxyl groups were also observed.

  3. The Wear Characteristics of Heat Treated Manganese Phosphate Coating Applied to AlSi D2 Steel with Oil Lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Alankaram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, in the area of material design conversion coatings play an important role in the applications where temperature, corrosion, oxidation and wear come in to play. Wear of metals occurs when relative motion between counter-surfaces takes place, leading to physical or chemical destruction of the original top layers. In this study, the tribological behaviour of heat treated Manganese phosphate coatings on AISI D2 steel with oil lubricant was investigated. The Surface morphology of manganese phosphate coatings was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX .The wear tests were performed in a pin on disk apparatus as per ASTM G-99 Standard. The wear resistance of the coated steel was evaluated through pin on disc test using a sliding velocity of 3.0m/s under Constant loads of 40 N and 100 N with in controlled condition of temperature and humidity. The Coefficient of friction and wear rate were evaluated. Wear pattern of Manganese phosphate coated pins with oil lubricant, Heat treated Manganese phosphate coated pins with oil lubricant were captured using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The results of the wear test established that the heat treated manganese phosphate coating with oil lubricant exhibited the lowest average coefficient of friction and the lowest wear loss up to 6583 m sliding distance under 40 N load and 3000 m sliding distance even under 100 N load respectively. The Wear volume and temperature rise in heat treated Manganese Phosphate coated pins with oil lubricant is lesser than the Manganese Phosphate coated pins with oil lubricant

  4. Elevated-temperature tensile properties of three heats of commercially heat-treated Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, M.K.; Booker, B.L.P.

    1980-03-01

    Three heats of commercially heat-treated alloy 718 were tensile tested over the temperature range from room temperature to 816 degree C and at nominal strain rates from 6.7 x 10 -6 to 6.7 x 10 -3 /s. We examined data for yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, total elongation, and reduction in area and also inspected tensile stress-strain behavior. Yield and ultimate tensile strengths for commercially heat-treated alloy 718 decrease very gradually with temperature from room temperature up to about 600 degree C for a strain rate of 6.7 x 10 -5 /s or to about 700 degree C for a strain rate of 6.7 x 10 -4 /s. Above these temperatures the strength drops off fairly rapidly. Reduction in area and total elongation data show minimum around 700 degree C, with each ductility measure falling to 10% or less at the minimum. This minimum is more pranced and occurs at lower temperatures as strain rate decreases. Up to about 600 degree C the ductility is typically around 30%. As the temperature reaches 816 degree C the ductility again increases to perhaps 60%. The uniform elongation (plastic strain at peak load) decreases only slightly with temperature to about 500 degree C then drops off rapidly and monotonically with temperature, reaching values less than 1% at 816 degree C. At the highest test temperatures the load maximum may result, not from necking of the specimen, but from overaging of the precipitation-hardened microstructure. Stress-strain curves showed serrated deformations in the temperature range from 316 to 649 degree C, although they occur only for the faster strain rates at the supper end of this temperature range. The serrations can be quite large, involving load drops of perhaps 40 to 80 MPa. The serrations typically begin within the first 2% of deformation and continue until fracture, although exceptions were noted. 16 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Frictional property of glass-like carbon heat-treated at 1000-3000 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazumasa; Sano, Takanori; Shindo, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Frictional coefficient 'f' was measured in the air and in water at glass-like carbon (GLC) surfaces heat-treated between 1000 and 3000 deg. C. GLCs heat-treated at higher temperature had smoother and more hydrophobic faces, and lower f. The f was smaller than 0.10 for GLCs heat-treated at and above 2000 deg. C, which indicates their applicability as a solid lubricant or a self-lubricating material. The f = 0.06 observed for GLC heat-treated at 3000 deg. C was nearly the same as that of pyrolytic graphite (PG). Slightly lower f's were obtained in water than in the air

  6. Protein denaturation and functional properties of Lenient Steam Injection heat treated whey protein concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan Ahrens; Kaufmann, Niels; Wiking, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was heat treated by use of the novel heat treatment method of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) to elucidate new functional properties in relation to heat-induced gelation of heat treated WPC. Denaturation was measured by both DSC and FPLC, and the results of the two...... methods were highly correlated. Temperatures of up to 90 °C were applicable using LSI, whereas only 68 °C could be reached by plate heat exchange before coagulation/fouling. Denaturation of whey proteins increased with increasing heat treatment temperature up to a degree of 30–35% denaturation at 90 °C...

  7. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity....

  8. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  9. Performance test of a vertically-directed electric-field cavity resonator made for the rapid gelation apparatus with microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Shigeru; Ogawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Atsushi.

    1996-06-01

    A cavity resonator with vertically-directed electric field was produced and attached to 'the rapid gelation apparatus with microwave heating' previously reported. Using the rapid gelation apparatus, drops of a simulated solution and of U-containing solutions for internal gelation were heated. The results indicated that the heating required for gelation of the U-containing solutions was possible. However, the electric field strength in the cavity resonator at that time was comparable to that causing the discharge due to the gaseous ammonia released from the heated drops. As a result, gel microspheres were not obtained in a stable state. The discussion suggests that the stable gelation would be realized by improving the cavity resonator shape and/or by modifying the power supply accompanied with using a power stabilizer. (author)

  10. Quality assurance: recommended guidelines for safe heating by capacitive-type heating technique to treat patients with metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Kondo, Motoharu; Imada, Hajime; Kuroda, Masahiro; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu; Saito, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Kagayaki; Ito, Koichi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Matsuki, Hidetoshi

    2013-05-01

    This article is a redissemination of the previous Japanese Quality Assurance Guide guidelines. Specific absorption rate and temperature distribution were investigated with respect to various aspects including metallic implant size and shape, insertion site, insertion direction, blood flow and heating power, and simulated results were compared with adverse reactions of patients treated by radio frequency capacitive-type heating. Recommended guidelines for safe heating methods for patients with metallic implants are presented based on our findings.

  11. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad Khiati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions: The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  12. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigate detailed structural changes of heat-treated wood due to weathering. ► Identify connection between physical structural changes and chemical degradation. ► Study effect of heat treatment conditions on weathering degradation process. - Abstract: Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  13. Magnetic properties of heat treated bacterial ferrihydrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaev, D.A.; Krasikov, A.A.; Dubrovskiy, A.A.; Popkov, S.I.; Stolyar, S.V.; Bayukov, O.A.; Iskhakov, R.S.; Ladygina, V.P.; Yaroslavtsev, R.N.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties of ferrihydrite nanoparticles, which are products of vital functions of Klebsiella oxitoca bacteria, have been studied. The initial powder containing the nanoparticles in an organic shell was subjected to low-temperature (T=160 °C) heat treatment for up to 240 h. The bacterial ferrihydrite particles exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior. Their characteristic blocking temperature increases from 26 to 80 K with the heat treatment. Analysis of the magnetization curves with regard to the magnetic moment distribution function and antiferromagnetic contribution shows that the low-temperature heat treatment enhances the average magnetic moment of a particle; i.e., the nanoparticles coarsen, probably due to their partial agglomeration during heat treatment. It was established that the blocking temperature nonlinearly depends on the particle volume. Therefore, a model was proposed that takes into account both the bulk and surface magnetic anisotropy. Using this model, the bulk and surface magnetic anisotropy constants K V ≈1.7×10 5 erg/cm 3 and K S ≈0.055 erg/cm 2 have been determined. The effect of the surface magnetic anisotropy of ferrihydrite nanoparticles on the observed magnetic hysteresis loops is discussed. - Highlights: • Ferrihydrite nanoparticles of biogenic origin are obtained. • Magnetic characterization reveals superparamagnetic behavior. • The blocking temperature increases upon the low-temperature (T=160 °C) heat treatment. • The blocking temperature nonlinearly depends on the particle volume. • The bulk and surface magnetic anisotropy constants have been determined.

  14. Apparatus and method for heat-run test on high-power PWM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to its bi-directional power flow capability, this is used in a ..... generation, and selection of controller parameters for the voltage and current loops is presented ..... For example, the total power consumed for heat-run test on converters at a.

  15. Effect of Microstructure on the Wear Behavior of Heat Treated SS-304 Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sliding wear characteristics of some heat treated SS-304 stainless steel against EN-8 steel in dry condition have been studied in the present experimental work. Samples of SS-304 stainless steel have been heated in a muffle furnace in desired temperature and allowed to dwell for two hours. The heated specimen are then cooled in different media namely inside the furnace, open air, cutting grade oil (grade 44) and water at room temperature to obtain different grades of heat treatment. Microstr...

  16. Performance of broiler chickens served heat-treated fluted pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty five day-old chicks of Anak 2000 were weighed and randomly distributed to five dietary treatments A, B, C, D and E which contained no FPLE (control), fluted pumpkin leaves (FPL) no heat treatment, FPL immersed in hot water (100°C) for 1, 3 and 5 min, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 3 ...

  17. Nanosize boride particles in heat-treated nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.R.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Grain boundary microconstituents in aged nickel-based superalloys were studied by transmission electron microscopy techniques. A nanosized M 5 B 3 boride phase, possibly formed by intergranular solute desegregation-induced precipitation, was positively identified. The presence of these intergranular nanoborides provides reasonable clarification of a previously reported reduction of grain boundary liquation temperature during the weld heat affected zone thermal cycle

  18. Custom-designed Laser-based Heating Apparatus for Triggered Release of Cisplatin from Thermosensitive Liposomes with Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yannan N; Weersink, Robert A; Foltz, Warren D; Zheng, Jinzi; Chaudary, Naz; Jaffray, David A; Allen, Christine

    2015-12-13

    Liposomes have been employed as drug delivery systems to target solid tumors through exploitation of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect resulting in significant reductions in systemic toxicity. Nonetheless, insufficient release of encapsulated drug from liposomes has limited their clinical efficacy. Temperature-sensitive liposomes have been engineered to provide site-specific release of drug in order to overcome the problem of limited tumor drug bioavailability. Our lab has designed and developed a heat-activated thermosensitive liposome formulation of cisplatin (CDDP), known as HTLC, to provide triggered release of CDDP at solid tumors. Heat-activated delivery in vivo was achieved in murine models using a custom-built laser-based heating apparatus that provides a conformal heating pattern at the tumor site as confirmed by MR thermometry (MRT). A fiber optic temperature monitoring device was used to measure the temperature in real-time during the entire heating period with online adjustment of heat delivery by alternating the laser power. Drug delivery was optimized under magnetic resonance (MR) image guidance by co-encapsulation of an MR contrast agent (i.e., gadoteridol) along with CDDP into the thermosensitive liposomes as a means to validate the heating protocol and to assess tumor accumulation. The heating protocol consisted of a preheating period of 5 min prior to administration of HTLC and 20 min heating post-injection. This heating protocol resulted in effective release of the encapsulated agents with the highest MR signal change observed in the heated tumor in comparison to the unheated tumor and muscle. This study demonstrated the successful application of the laser-based heating apparatus for preclinical thermosensitive liposome development and the importance of MR-guided validation of the heating protocol for optimization of drug delivery.

  19. Physical properties of heat-treated rattan waste binderless particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Maisarah; Ahmad, Zuraida; Halim, Zahurin; Maleque, Md Abd; Ismail, Hanafi; Sarifuddin, Norshahida

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of heat treatment on the properties of binderless particleboard (BPB) fabricated via hot-pressing process with pressing temperature, pressing time and pressing pressure of 180°C, 5 minutes and 1 MPa, respectively. The fabricated BPB with density in the range of 0.8-0.95g cm-3 was heated in a temperature-controlled laboratory chamber at 80°C, 120°C and 160°C for period of 2 and 8 hours before underwent physical observation, mass loss measurement and thickness swelling test. The samples had remarkable color changes, mainly with samples of treatment temperature of 160˚C, where the color differences were 9.5 and 20.3. This changed the fabricated BPB samples from yellowish brown to dark brown color when treatment conditions increased. Darker color indicates greater mass loss due to severity of chemical component in the powder. Dimensional stability of fabricated BPB was improved with higher treatment temperature as more cellulose cross-linked and hemicellulose degraded that removed the hygroscopicity behavior of powder. These results revealed that heat treatment helped in improving the BPB physical properties, particularly in dimensional stability of boards.

  20. PROCESSES OF HEAT-MASS-TRANSFER IN APPARATUS OF SOLAR ABSORBING REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideology of development of the solar refrigeration systems and systems of air-conditioning, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution, is presented in the article. The processes of joint heat-mass-transfer are considered in the direct and indirect types of evaporated coolers taking into account the phenomenon of re-condensation of aquatic steams at the low temperature evaporated cooling of environments. The pre-liminary analysis of possibilities of the solar systems is executed as it applies in relation to the tasks of cooling of envi-ronments and air-conditioning systems.

  1. EXTRACTION APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, A.E.; Brigham, H.R.

    1958-10-28

    An apparatus whereby relatlvely volatile solvents may be contacted with volatile or non-volatile material without certaln attendant hazards is described. A suitable apparatus for handling relatively volatlle liqulds may be constructed comprising a tank, and a closure covering the tank and adapted to be securely attached to an external suppont. The closure is provided with a rigidly mounted motor-driven agitator. This agitator is connected from the driving motor lnto the lnterlor of the tank through a gland adapted to be cooled witb inert gas thereby eliminating possible hazard due to frictional heat. The closure is arranged so that the tank may be removed from it without materially dlsturbing the closure which, as described, carrles the motor driven agitator and other parts.

  2. Heat treated tube for cladding nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddens, F.C.; White, D.W.; Harmon, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The zirconium alloy tube comprises a metallurgical gradient across the width of the tube wall wherein the tube has a more corrosion-resistant metallurgical condition at the outer circumference and a less corrosion-resistant metallurgical condition at the inner circumference. The metallurgical gradient can be generated by heating an outer circumferential portion of the tube to the high alpha or mixed alpha plus beta range while maintaining the inner surface at a lower temperature, followed by cooling of the tube. Preferably the tube is made of Zircaloy. (author)

  3. High Magnetic Field Processing - A Heat-Free Heat Treating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Manuel, Michele [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Murphy, Bart L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    -free', heat treating technology. Lower residual stresses in HTMP treated materials are anticipated since no thermal strains are involved in inducing the transformation of retained austenite to martensite in high alloy steel. (2) The simultaneous increase of 12% in yield strength and 22% in impact energy in a bainitic alloy using HTMP processing. This is a major breakthrough in materials processing for the next generation of structural materials since conventionally processed materials show a reduction in impact toughness with an increase in yield strength. HTMP is a new paradigm to beneficially increase both yield strength and impact energy absorption simultaneously. (3) HTMP processing refined both the martensite lath population and the carbide dispersion in a bainitic steel alloy during Gausstempering. The refinement was believed to be responsible for the simultaneous increase in strength and toughness. Hence, HTMP significantly impacts nucleation and growth phenomenon. (4) HTMP processing developed comparable ultimate tensile strength and twice the impact energy in a lower cost, lower alloy content ({approx}8% alloy content) steel, compared to highly alloyed, (31% alloy elements involving Ni, Co, and Mo) 250-grade margining steel. Future low-cost HTMP alloys appear viable that will exceed the structural performance of highly alloyed materials that are conventionally processed. This economic benefit will enable U.S. industry to reduce cost (better more competitive worldwide) while maintaining or exceeding current performance. (5) EMAT processed cast iron exhibits significantly higher hardness (by 51% for a 9T condition) than a no-field processed sample. (6) EMAT produced microstructures in cast iron resulted in an unique graphite nodule morphology, a modified pearlite content, and unique carbide types, that formed during solidification and cooling. (7) EMAT processed nanoparticle dispersions in Mg resulted in a very fine, unagglomerated distribution of the nanoparticles in

  4. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated...

  5. On the abrasion of heat-treated 2.8C21Cr1Mo white cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rubaie, Kassim S.; Preti, Orlando [Centro Universitario SOCIESC, Joinville (Brazil). Engenharia Mecanica; Pohl, Michael [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe

    2016-09-15

    The abrasion behaviour of heat-treated 2.8C21Cr1Mo cast iron was studied. The specimens were destabilised at two temperatures, 980 and 1050 C, for 4 h, air hardened, and then tempered at five temperatures, 220, 320, 400, 500, and 620 C, for 2 h followed by air cooling. Using a pin-on-plate abrasion apparatus, the specimens were abraded on four types of bonded abrasives (silicon carbide, corundum, flint, and glass). The effect of work hardening on the abrasion resistance was investigated. It was found that the increase in alloy hardness produced by heat treatment had little effect on the abrasion resistance against silicon carbide or corundum; the inverse was true against flint or glass. The as-hardened structure containing 40% retained austenite gave the best abrasion resistance, whereas the hardened and tempered at 620 C showed the worst. Both bulk hardness and matrix hardness before wear correlated poorly with the abrasion resistance. Therefore, a general model ''equivalent hardness'' was developed, in which the hardness of the abraded matrix was considered. With this model, the abrasion behaviour can be clearly analysed.

  6. Detection of flow mixing processes using transmission methods in high-duty heat exchanging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, V.

    1981-01-01

    The COBRA-IIIC program modified by MIT has been further improved for verifying the experimental studies described in the thesis. This work has been accompanied by a review and modification of the relevant analytical equations. A mathematical relationship has been set up for the cross-mixing phenomenon of shearing flow in narrowest cross-section between two heating rods, the relationship being taken into account in the sub-channel analysis. Despite the very complex and superposing processes of the problem studied, the results obtained by the improved sub-channel analysis program using the nearly derived cross-mixing approach are quantitatively well confirmed by comparison with experimental data. Applying the improved sub-channel analysis program to describing the author's two-phase flow experiments (air-water and water-steam) with rod bundle geometries to be found in the literature, the cross-mixing approach presented in the thesis is shown to be reliable (orig./GL) [de

  7. Using an on-line UV-C apparatus to treat harvested fruit for controlling postharvest decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Upchurch, B.; El Ghaouth, A.; Stevens, C.; Khan, V.; Droby, S.; Chalutz, E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus was designed to deliver low-dose UV-C light to the surface of fruit on a processing line and tested for its control of postharvest decay. It consisted of a row of UV-C emitting lamps mounted on a frame above a conveyer belt that transported the fruit. The dosage of the UV-C light delivered to the fruit surface was regulated by varying the speed of the conveyor belt. Postharvest decay after 28 days storage of 'Empire' apples was reduced 52% relative to the untreated checks when the fruit were conveyed at 6.2 m · min -1 (1.38 kJ · m -2 dose) under the UV-C apparatus. Factors affecting the practical application of UV-C irradiation of fruit for controlling postharvest decay are discussed

  8. Technological and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Composites Filled with Heat-treated Alder Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürşit Tufan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of heat-treated wood content on the water absorption, mechanical, and thermal properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs. The WPCs were produced from various loadings (30, 40, and 50 wt% of heat-treated and untreated alder wood flours (Alnus glutinosa L. using high-density polyethylene (HDPE with 3 wt% maleated polyethylene (MAPE coupling agent. All WPC formulations were compression molded into a hot press for 3 min at 170 ºC. The WPCs were evaluated using mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The mechanical property values of the WPC specimens decreased with increasing amounts of the heat-treated wood flour, except for the tensile modulus values. The heat treatment of alder wood slightly increased the thermal stability of the WPCs compared with the reference WPCs. The crystallization degree (Xc and the enthalpy of crystallization of the WPCs slightly decreased with increasing content of the heat-treated wood flour. However, all WPCs containing the heat-treated alder wood flour showed a higher crystallinity degree than that of the virgin HDPE.

  9. Heat treated 9 Cr-1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-08-21

    The invention relates to a composition and heat treatment for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The novel combination of composition and heat treatment produces a heat treated material containing both large primary titanium carbides and small secondary titanium carbides. The primary titanium carbides contribute to creep strength while the secondary titanium carbides act to maintain a higher level of chromium in the finished steel for increased oxidation resistance, and strengthen the steel by impeding the movement of dislocations through the crystal structure. The heat treated material provides improved performance at comparable cost to commonly used high-temperature steels such as ASTM P91 and ASTM P92, and requires heat treatment consisting solely of austenization, rapid cooling, tempering, and final cooling, avoiding the need for any hot-working in the austenite temperature range.

  10. An optical technique to measure distortion in heat-treated parts in-situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Federico; Nash, Phillip

    2005-05-01

    Improvements in the properties of aluminum alloys have made them more popular for structural applications. Using the different heat treatments that are available, aluminum alloys can have a wide variation in properties for different types of applications. The appropriate heat treatments of these alloys are vital in providing the properties needed for their particular applications. Moreover, understanding the effects of heat treatments that may cause distortion to a part is critical. Most of the work carried out in this field is in the form of pre- and post-treatment analysis of a part. In this study, in-situ measurements of the distortions that a heat-treated part undergoes when subjected to rapid heating to temperatures near melting followed by slow cooling were carried out. A numerical model was built to simulate the experiment and the results are compared. This study will provide much-needed insight into the complex occurrences that aluminum parts undergo during heat treatment.

  11. Microstructural response to heat affected zone cracking of prewelding heat-treated Inconel 939 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.A., E-mail: mgonzalez@comimsa.com.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Martinez, D.I., E-mail: dorairma@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Perez, A., E-mail: betinperez@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Guajardo, H., E-mail: hguajardo@frisa.com [FRISA Aerospace, S.A. de C.V., Valentin G. Rivero No. 200, Col. Los Trevino, C.P. 66150, Santa Caterina N.L. (Mexico); Garza, A., E-mail: agarza@comimsa.com [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V. (COMIMSA), Ciencia y Tecnologia No.790, Saltillo 400, C.P. 25295 Saltillo Coah. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    The microstructural response to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a nickel-based IN 939 superalloy after prewelding heat treatments (PWHT) was investigated. The PWHT specimens showed two different microstructures: 1) spherical ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates (357-442 nm), with blocky MC and discreet M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides dispersed within the coarse dendrites and in the interdendritic regions; and 2) ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates in 'ogdoadically' diced cube shapes and coarse MC carbides within the dendrites and in the interdendritic regions. After being tungsten inert gas welded (TIG) applying low heat input, welding speed and using a more ductile filler alloy, specimens with microstructures consisting of spherical {gamma} Prime precipitate particles and dispersed discreet MC carbides along the grain boundaries, displayed a considerably improved weldability due to a strong reduction of the intergranular HAZ cracking associated with the liquation microfissuring phenomena. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous microstructures of {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides of Ni base superalloys through preweld heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides reduce the intergranular HAZ liquation and microfissuring of Nickel base superalloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet blocky type MC carbides, capable to relax the stress generated during weld cooling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low welding heat input welding speeds and ductile filler alloys reduce the HAZ cracking susceptibility.

  12. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characteristics in Heat-Treated Aluminum Alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongBeom Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear ultrasonic technique has been known to be more sensitive to minute variation of elastic properties in material than the conventional linear ultrasonic method. In this study, the ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics in the heat-treated aluminum alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu have been evaluated. For this, the specimens were heat treated for various heating period up to 50 hours at three different heating temperatures: 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C. The ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics of each specimen were evaluated by measuring the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β from the amplitudes of fundamental and second harmonic frequency components in the transmitted ultrasonic wave. After the ultrasonic test, tensile strengths and elongations were obtained by the tensile test to compare with the parameter β. The heating time showing a peak in the parameter β was identical to that showing critical change in the tensile strength and elongation, and such peak appeared at the earlier heating time in the higher heating temperature. These results suggest that the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β can be used for monitoring the variations in elastic properties of aluminum alloys according to the heat treatment.

  13. The Impact of One Heat Treated Contact Element on the Coefficient of Static Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Todorović, , , , , ,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper includes theoretical considerations, the conducting of experimental tests, and the analysis of exposed test results related to determination of the coefficient of static friction of previously heat-treated contact pairs. One contact element is previously, before the procedure of determining the coefficient of static friction, heated at temperatures in the range of ambient temperature to 280°C and then cooled down to ambient temperature. The results of experimental tests of five different materials show that depending on the heat treatment of one contact element, there is a significant decrease in the coefficient of static friction. The authors of the paper consider that the reasons for the decreasing coefficient of static friction are related to oxide formation and changes in the surface layer of the contact element which is previously heat-treated.

  14. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  15. Enhancement of durability properties of heat-treated oil palm shell species lightweight concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Ming Kun; Yew, Ming Chian; Saw, Lip Huat; Ang, Bee Chin; Lee, Min Lee; Lim, Siong Kang; Lim, Jee Hock

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm shell (OPS) are non-hazardous waste materials and can be used as alternative coarse aggregates to substitute depleting conventional raw materials. A study on preparing the OPS species (dura and tenera) lightweight concrete (LWC) using with and without heat-treated OPS aggregate has been investigated. Two different species of OPS coarse aggregate are subjected to heat treatment at 65 and 130 °C with duration of 1 hour. The results reveal that the slump value of the OPSC increases significantly with an increase in temperature of heat treatment of the tenera OPS aggregates. It is found that the maximum achievable 28-days and 180-days compressive strength is 45.6 and 47.5 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) and water absorption tests were performance to signify the effects of heat-treated on OPS species LWC. The use of heat-treated OPS LWC induced the advantageous of reducing the permeability and capillary porosity as well as water absorption. Hence, the findings of this study are of primary importance as they revealed the heat treatment on OPS species LWC can be used as a new environmentally friendly method to enhance the durability of OPSLWC.

  16. Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Schwam; John F, Wallace; Quanyou Zhou

    2002-01-01

    An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters

  17. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  18. Method of Heat Treating Aluminum-Lithium Alloy to Improve Formability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn Kurgan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method is provided for heat treating aluminum-lithium alloys to improve their formability. The alloy is heated to a first temperature, maintained at the first temperature for a first time period, heated at the conclusion of the first time period to a second temperature, maintained at the second temperature for a second time period, actively cooled at the conclusion of the second time period to a third temperature, maintained at the third temperature for a third time period, and then passively cooled at the conclusion of the third time period to room temperature.

  19. Steel heat treating: mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of a problem arising in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Diaz Moreno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a mathematical model for the industrial heating and cooling processes of a steel workpiece representing the steering rack of an automobile. The goal of steel heat treating is to provide a hardened surface on critical parts of the workpiece while keeping the rest soft and ductile in order to reduce fatigue. The high hardness is due to the phase transformation of steel accompanying the rapid cooling. This work takes into account both heating-cooling stage and viscoplastic model. Once the general mathematical formulation is derived, we can perform some numerical simulations.

  20. Nutritional evaluation of heat treated sunflower meal on the performance of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Kausar, T.; Shah, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Pre-pressed and solvent extracted sunflower meal (SFM) was heated to 90 degree, 100 degree, 110 degree and 120 degree C. Lysine content of SFM decreased from 2.25 to 1.60%. The untreated and heat treated SFM was incorporated in broiler's ration. Maximum weight gain (1525g) and feed efficiency (2.24) were shown by the ration containing SFM heated to 90 degree, which was better than the control ration (weight gain 1454g, feed efficiency 2038). Processing of SFM at higher temperature (100 - 120 degree C) adversely affected weight gain (1388 - 1315g) and feed efficiency (2.46-251). (author)

  1. Fungistatic activity of heat-treated flaxseed determined by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Hall, C; Wolf-Hall, C

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the fungistatic activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. The radial growth of Penicilliumn chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from moldy noodles, as well as the mold count of fresh noodle enriched with heat treated flaxseed, were used to assess antifungal activity. A central composite design in the response surface methodology was used to predict the effect of heating temperature and time on antifungal activity of flaxseed flour (FF). Statistical analysis determined that the linear terms of both variables (that is, heating temperature and time) and the quadratic terms of the heating temperature had significant (P<0.05) effects on the radial growth of all 3 test fungi and the mold count log-cycle reduction of fresh noodle. The interactions between the temperature and time were significant for all dependent variables (P<0.05). Significant reductions in antifungal activities were found when FF was subjected to high temperatures, regardless of heating time. In contrast, prolonging the heating time did not substantially affect the antifungal activities of FF at low temperature. However, 60% of the antifungal activity was retained after FF was heated at 100 degrees C for 15 min, which suggests a potential use of FF as an antifungal additive in food products subjected to low to mild heat treatments.

  2. Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-08-03

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  3. Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4°C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for

  4. Dry sliding wear behavior of heat treated hybrid metal matrix composite using Taguchi techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, T.S.; Prasanna Kumar, M.; Basavarajappa, S.; Viswanatha, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZA-27 alloy is used as matrix material and reinforced with SiC and Gr particles. • Heat treatment was carried out for all specimen. • Dry sliding wear test was done on pin-on-disc apparatus by Taguchi technique. • ZA-27/9SiC–3Gr showed superior wear resistance over the base alloy. • Ceramic mixed mechanical layer on contact surface of composite was formed. - Abstract: Dry sliding wear behavior of zinc based alloy and composite reinforced with SiCp (9 wt%) and Gr (3 wt%) fabricated by stir casting method was investigated. Heat treatment (HT) and aging of the specimen were carried out, followed by water quenching. Wear behavior was evaluated using pin on disc apparatus. Taguchi technique was used to estimate the parameters affecting the wear significantly. The effect of HT was that it reduced the microcracks, residual stresses and improved the distribution of microconstituents. The influence of various parameters like applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance on wear behavior was investigated by means and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Further, correlation between the parameters was determined by multiple linear regression equation for each response. It was observed that the applied load significantly influenced the wear volume loss (WVL), followed by sliding speed implying that increase in either applied load or sliding speed increases the WVL. Whereas for composites, sliding distance showed a negative influence on wear indicating that increase in sliding distance reduces WVL due to the presence of reinforcements. The wear mechanism of the worn out specimen was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The analysis shows that the formation and retention of ceramic mixed mechanical layer (CMML) plays a major role in the dry sliding wear resistance

  5. High-Density Polyethylene and Heat-Treated Bamboo Fiber Composites: Nonisothermal Crystallization Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat-treated bamboo fibers (BFs on nonisothermal crystallization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry under nitrogen. The Avrami-Jeziorny model was used to fit the measured crystallization data of the HDPE/BF composites and to obtain the model parameters for the crystallization process. The heat flow curves of neat HDPE and HDPE/heat-treated BF composites showed similar trends. Their crystallization mostly occurred within a temperature range between 379 K and 399 K, where HDPE turned from the liquid phase into the crystalline phase. Values of the Avrami exponent (n were in the range of 2.8~3.38. Lamellae of neat HDPE and their composites grew in a three-dimensional manner, which increased with increased heat-treatment temperature and could be attributed to the improved ability of heterogeneous nucleation and crystallization completeness. The values of the modified kinetic rate constant (KJ first increased and then decreased with increased cooling rate because the supercooling was improved by the increased number of nucleating sites. Heat-treated BF and/or a coupling agent could act as a nucleator for the crystallization of HDPE.

  6. Understanding decay resistance, dimensional stability and strength changes in heat treated and acetylated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Rebecca E. Ibach; James McSweeny; Thomas Nilsson

    2009-01-01

    Reductions in hygroscopicity, increased dimensional stability and decay resistance of heat-treated wood depend on decomposition of a large portion of the hemicelluloses in the wood cell wall. In theory, these hemicelluloses are converted to small organic molecules, water and volatile furan-type intermediates that can polymerize in the cell wall. Reductions in...

  7. Method of treating organic material. [addition of formate, heating under pressure, and distilling the mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, H O.V.; Cederquist, K N

    1932-02-08

    A method is given of treating organic material such as wood, peat, shale, etc. It is characterized by the addition of formate to the material, before, during, or after heating it under pressure with alkalis, earth alkalis, et cetera, and by the mass thus produced undergoing dry distillation. The patent has three more claims.

  8. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  9. Two cases of Chest Heating Sensation treated by Hwangryunhaedok-tang Herbal-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwon-Il Cho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect of Hwangryunhaedok-tang Herbal-Acupuncture. Hwangryunhaedok-tang is used in all heating diseases. Chest Heating Sensation is a unique concept in Oriental Medicine. So we applied Hwangryunhaedok-tang Herbal-Acupuncture to treat the Chest Heating Sensation. We used DITI(Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging to estimate the temperatures of chest surface for the outcome assessment. We came to know that the chest surface temperatures were all reduced in both cases after Herbal-Acupuncture treatment. The reduced average temperature was 1.5℃ in case 1 and 0.9℃ in case 2. The above result indicates that Hwangryunhaedok-tang Herbal-Acupuncture treatment has an effect on Chest Heating Sensation, thus continuous Hwangryunhaedok-tang Herbal-Acupuncture study will be needed for more clinical applications.

  10. Preparation of Heat Treated Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoyinbo, A. O.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Rahmat, A.; Azmi, A. I.; Vizureanu, P.; Rahim, W. M. F. Wan Abd

    2018-06-01

    Photocatalysis using the semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO2) has proven to be a successful technology for waste water purification. The photocatalytic treatment is an alternative method for the removal of soluble organic compounds in waste water. In this research, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor. The sol was dried in the oven at 120°C after aging for 24 hours. The dried powder was then calcined at 400°C and 700°C with a heating rate of 10°C/min. The phase transformation of the heat treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of the heat treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation has been studied. At calcination temperature of 400°C, only anatase phase was observed, as the calcination temperature increases to 700°C, the rutile phase was present. The SEM images show the irregular shape of titanium dioxide particles and the agglomeration which tends to be more significant at calcined temperature of 700°C. Degradation of methyl orange by 5 mg heat treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles gives the highest percentage of degradation after irradiation by UV lamp for 4 hours.

  11. Heat-treated stainless steel felt as scalable anode material for bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Soeriyadi, Alexander H; Feng, Huajun; Prévoteau, Antonin; Patil, Sunil A; Gooding, J Justin; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-11-01

    This work reports a simple and scalable method to convert stainless steel (SS) felt into an effective anode for bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) by means of heat treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry elucidated that the heat treatment generated an iron oxide rich layer on the SS felt surface. The iron oxide layer dramatically enhanced the electroactive biofilm formation on SS felt surface in BESs. Consequently, the sustained current densities achieved on the treated electrodes (1 cm(2)) were around 1.5±0.13 mA/cm(2), which was seven times higher than the untreated electrodes (0.22±0.04 mA/cm(2)). To test the scalability of this material, the heat-treated SS felt was scaled up to 150 cm(2) and similar current density (1.5 mA/cm(2)) was achieved on the larger electrode. The low cost, straightforwardness of the treatment, high conductivity and high bioelectrocatalytic performance make heat-treated SS felt a scalable anodic material for BESs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Process of heat-treating fuels of a bituminous nature, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1927-11-25

    A process is described of heat treating any kind of material of a bituminous nature usable as fuel, like shale, mineral coal, peat, etc., whereby the fuel undergoes in a retort or the like a distillation for recovering from it the total amount or the greatest part of gaseous or vaporous distillation products. The warm distillation residue is burned, characterized by the retorts, containing the fuel going through, being wholly or partly surrounded by materials to be heated. These materials and the warm distillation residue resulting from the distillation during the burning are moved forward independently one of the other.

  13. Study of secondary recrystallization in grain-oriented steel treated under dynamical heat treatment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Stoyka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was made to investigate secondary recrystallization in grain-oriented steels annealed at short time temperature exposures with application of dynamical heating. The investigated GO steels for experiments were taken from one industrial line after final cold rolling reduction and subsequent box annealing. It was shown that application of short time heat treatment conditions could lead to complete abnormal grain growth in the investigated GO steel. The texture and microstructure obtained in the laboratory treated material is similar to that observed in the same GO steel taken after industrial final box-annealing. However, some “parasitic” grains were observed in the secondary recrystallized matrix of the laboratory treated GO steel. These “parasitic” grains possess the unwanted from magnetic properties point of view {111} orientation components.

  14. Splenic Trapping of Heat-Treated Erythrocytes in Leukaemia and Allied Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badrawi, H. S.; Razzak, M. A.; Guirgis, B. [Department of Medicine and Division of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    1971-02-15

    In a trial to find whether or not the enlarged spleen plays a role in the production of the form of anaemia commonly encountered in leukaemias and allied conditions, 44 patients suffering from these disease states were studied using {sup 51}Cr-labelled erythrocytes heated at 50 Degree-Sign C for 60 min. Cells altered in this manner have been shown by various workers to be selectively sequestered by the spleen. As a control, the test was performed on 24 normal subjects. In these normals, the disappearance half-time of radioactivity from the circulation (T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} amounted to 172 {+-} 69 min (mean {+-} 1 S.D.), the lowest limit being 74 min. Accordingly, patients with less than 74 min were considered to have an abnormally rapid disappearance of heat-treated erythrocytes from the circulation and consequently exaggerated splenic sequestration of these altered cells. Splenic trapping of heat-treated erythrocytes was most marked in acute leukaemia (four out of six patients). However, three had associated normoblastic hypoplasia of the sternal marrow. Corticosteroids induced a remission with reversion of both processes responsible for the anaemia in two out of the four patients. In chronic myeloid leukaemia, exaggerated splenic sequestration of altered cells was seen in four of the 15 cases examined. This condition was of extra-erythrocytic origin, since repetition of the test using normal donor heat-treated erythrocytes did not significantly alter the disappearance half-time. However, there was no correlation between the size of the spleen and its avidity for trapping the altered cells. Follow-up studies showed that therapy caused prolongation of the half-time of heat-treated erythrocytes, the effect being more apparent after corticosteroids than with X-rays or Endoxan, In Hodgkin's disease, increased red cell trapping was observed in two out of the seven patients studied. In contrast, five cases of chronic lymphatic leukaemia, six lymphosarcoma and

  15. Osteoinduction on acid and heat treated porous Ti metal samples in canine muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available Samples of porous Ti metal were subjected to different acid and heat treatments. Ectopic bone formation on specimens embedded in dog muscle was compared with the surface characteristics of the specimen. Treatment of the specimens by H2SO4/HCl and heating at 600 °C produced micrometer-scale roughness with surface layers composed of rutile phase of titanium dioxide. The acid- and heat-treated specimens induced ectopic bone formation within 6 months of implantation. A specimen treated using NaOH followed by HCl acid and then heat treatment produced nanometer-scale surface roughness with a surface layer composed of both rutile and anatase phases of titanium dioxide. These specimens also induced bone formation after 6 months of implantation. Both these specimens featured positive surface charge and good apatite-forming abilities in a simulated body fluid. The amount of the bone induced in the porous structure increased with apatite-forming ability and higher positive surface charge. Untreated porous Ti metal samples showed no bone formation even after 12 months. Specimens that were only heat treated featured a smooth surface composed of rutile. A mixed acid treatment produced specimens with micrometer-scale rough surfaces composed of titanium hydride. Both of them also showed no bone formation after 12 months. The specimens that showed no bone formation also featured almost zero surface charge and no apatite-forming ability. These results indicate that osteoinduction of these porous Ti metal samples is directly related to positive surface charge that facilitates formation of apatite on the metal surfaces in vitro.

  16. Acoustic emission of heat treated compared graphite iron under 873-1173 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ki Woo; Lee, Soo Chul [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byung Kun [Korea Polytechnic, Busan Campus, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    CGI is gaining popularity in applications that require either greater strength, or lower weight than cast iron. Recently, compacted graphite iron has been used for diesel engine blocks, turbo housings and exhaust manifolds. This paper were assessed acoustic emission characteristics according to the mechanical properties change of degraded CGI340 during 1-24 hours at 873-1173 K. In results of pencil lead fracture test, the dominant frequency and the velocity of base metal were 97 kHz and 5490 m/sec, respectively. The base metal in a tensile test was obtained relatively high dominant frequency. However, the heat treated materials, the longer the heat treatment time, the higher the heat treatment temperature, were obtained in the area of lower frequencies. This phenomenon appears by long-term use.

  17. Acoustic emission of heat treated compared graphite iron under 873-1173 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki Woo; Lee, Soo Chul; Ahn, Byung Kun

    2013-01-01

    CGI is gaining popularity in applications that require either greater strength, or lower weight than cast iron. Recently, compacted graphite iron has been used for diesel engine blocks, turbo housings and exhaust manifolds. This paper were assessed acoustic emission characteristics according to the mechanical properties change of degraded CGI340 during 1-24 hours at 873-1173 K. In results of pencil lead fracture test, the dominant frequency and the velocity of base metal were 97 kHz and 5490 m/sec, respectively. The base metal in a tensile test was obtained relatively high dominant frequency. However, the heat treated materials, the longer the heat treatment time, the higher the heat treatment temperature, were obtained in the area of lower frequencies. This phenomenon appears by long-term use.

  18. Raw and heat-treated culban ( Vicia peregrina ) seed as protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vicia peregrina seed was included in the diets at different levels, viz. 100, 200, 300 g heat-treated and 100, 200, 300 g raw seed in experimental diets designated A1, B1, C1, A2, B2 and C2, respectively. Growth parameters of the fish fed these diets were compared to fish receiving a fish meal and soyabean meal based ...

  19. Physicochemical Characterization of a Heat Treated Calcium Alginate Dry Film Prepared with Chicken Stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Germán D; Piccirilli, Gisela N; Ballerini, Griselda A; Frattini, Agustín; Busti, Pablo A; Verdini, Roxana A; Delorenzi, Néstor J

    2017-04-01

    Solid sodium alginate was dissolved into chicken stock in order to give a final alginate concentration of 0.9 percent (w/v). Calcium ions present in chicken stock were enough to induce ionic gelation. After drying, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness and mechanical properties of films obtained were determined. Calcium alginate-chicken stock films were heated at 130 °C for different times between 0 and 15 min. Mechanical and optical studies, differential scanning calorimetry, visual aspect and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to describe physicochemical properties of heat treated films. Heating developed a maroon ochre color and increased the brittleness (crispness) of the films related to the intensity of the treatment. Differential scanning thermometry and study on appearance of the films suggested that Maillard reactions may be responsible for the observed changes. Maillard reactions mainly occurred between reducing sugar monomers and free amino groups of gelatin peptides present in the chicken stock, and between alginate and gelatin peptides to a lesser extent. In addition, the plasticizing effect of fat added with chicken stock was also studied. These studies suggest a potential use of heat treated chicken stock films as a substitute of roasted chicken skin. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  1. Sorption phenomena of methanol on heat treated coal; Netsushori wo hodokoshita sekitan no methanol kyuchaku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Experiments were carried out to learn methanol sorption characteristics of heat-treated coal. When Taiheiyo coal is heat-treated at 125{degree}C, performed with a first methanol adsorption at 25{degree}C, and then desorption at 25{degree}C, a site with strong interaction with methanol and a site with relatively weak interaction are generated in test samples. A small amount of methanol remains in both sites. Then, when the methanol is desorbed at as low temperature as 70{degree}C, the methanol in the site with strong interaction remains as it has existed therein, but the methanol in the site with relatively weak interaction desorbs partially, hence the adsorption amount in a second adsorption at 25{degree}C increases. However, when desorption is performed at as high temperature as 125{degree}C, the methanol in the site with strong interaction also desorbs, resulting in increased adsorption heat in the second adsorption. The adsorption velocity drops, however. Existence of methanol in a site with strong interaction affects the adsorption velocity, but no effect is given by methanol in a site with weak interaction. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Influencing factors on as-cast and heat treated 400-18 ductile iron grade characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Riposan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As-cast and heat-treated 400-18 ductile iron (DI grade was obtained in different foundry conditions, as metallic charge, Mg-treatment alloy and inoculation. It was found that the Pearlitic Influence Factor (Px and Antinodulizing Complex Factor (K1 have an important influence on property of DI, depending on the Mn and P level, the metallurgical quality of iron melt, rare earth (RE and inoculation. It was also found that the influence of Mn is depended on the phosphorus and residual elements level in ductile iron. Less than 0.03%P and 0.2%Mn and Px2.0 determines presence of pearlite in as-cast structure, while ferrite structure is obtained after a short annealing heat treatment. Lower level of phosphorus (P1.2. Si has a significant influence on the mechanical properties of heat treated ductile irons: an important decreasing of elongation level and a moderate increasing of yield and tensile strength and their ratio in 150-170 HB typical hardness field. A typical final chemical composition for as-cast 400-18 ductile iron could include 3.5%-3.7%C, 2.4%-2.5%Si, max.0.18%Mn, max.0.025%P, max.0.01%S, 0.04%-0.05%Mgres. for Px<1.5 and K1<1.1. High purity pig iron, RE-bearing FeSiMg and powerful inoculant are also recommended.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of heat treated TiO2 nanotubes arrays obtained by anodic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, D. I.; García-Vergara, S. J.; Blanco, S.

    2017-12-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the anatase-rutile transformation of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes obtained on titanium foil by anodizing and subsequent heat treatment. The anodizing was carried out at 20V in an 1% v/v HF acid and ethylene glycol:water (50:50) electrolyte at room temperature. The anodized samples were initially pre-heat treated at 450°C for 4 hours to modify the amorphous structure of TiO2 nanotubes into anatase structure. Then, the samples were heated between 600 to 800°C for different times, in order to promote the transformation to rutile structure. The formation of TiO2 nanotubes is evident by SEM images. Notably, when the samples are treated at high temperature, the formation of rutile crystals starts to become evident at the nanotubes located on the originally grain boundaries of the titanium. Thus, the anatase - rutile transformation has a close relationship with the microstructure of the titanium, more exactly with grain boundaries.

  4. Light mirror reflection combined with heating/cooling curves as a method of studying phase transitions in transparent and opaque petroleum products: Apparatus and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, Yu.L.

    2007-01-01

    A portable low weight low cost apparatus 'Phasafot' and method for determining pour and cloud points of petroleum products, as well as precipitation and melting temperatures of paraffins in both transparent (diesel fuels), semi-transparent (lube oils) and opaque (crude oils) samples are described. The method consists in illuminating the surface of a sample with an oblique light beam and registering the intensity of specularly reflected light while heating/cooling the sample in the temperature range of its structural transitions. The mirror reflection of a light beam from an ideally smooth liquid surface falls in intensity when the surface becomes rough (dim) due to crystal formation. Simultaneous recording of the temperature ramp curve and the mirror reflection curve enables the determination of the beginning and end of crystallization of paraffins in both transparent and opaque petroleum products. Besides, their rheological properties can be accurately determined by rocking or tilting the instrument while monitoring the sample movement via its mirror reflection

  5. Raw and Heat-Treated Milk: From Public Health Risks to Nutritional Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Melini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have recently shown a preference for natural food products and ingredients and within that framework, their interest in consuming raw drinking milk has been highlighted, claiming nutritional, organoleptic and health benefits. However, a public debate has simultaneously emerged about the actual risks and benefits of direct human consumption of raw milk. This paper compares the microbiological, nutritional and sensory profile of raw and heat-treated milk, to evaluate the real risks and benefits of its consumption. In detail, it provides an updated overview of the main microbiological risks of raw milk consumption, especially related to the presence of pathogens and the main outputs of risk assessment models are reported. After introducing the key aspects of most commonly used milk heat-treatments, the paper also discusses the effects such technologies have on the microbiological, nutritional and sensory profile of milk. An insight into the scientific evidence behind the claimed protective effects of raw milk consumption in lactose-intolerant subjects and against the onset of asthma and allergy disorders in children is provided. The emergence of novel milk processing technologies, such as ohmic heating, microwave heating, high pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound and microfiltration is also presented as an alternative to common thermal treatments.

  6. Effect of Microstructure on the Wear Behavior of Heat Treated SS-304 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding wear characteristics of some heat treated SS-304 stainless steel against EN-8 steel in dry condition have been studied in the present experimental work. Samples of SS-304 stainless steel have been heated in a muffle furnace in desired temperature and allowed to dwell for two hours. The heated specimen are then cooled in different media namely inside the furnace, open air, cutting grade oil (grade 44 and water at room temperature to obtain different grades of heat treatment. Microstructures and corresponding micro hardness of the samples have been measured along with Feritscopic studies. Wear characteristics have been studied in a multi tribo-tester (Ducom in dry sliding condition against EN-8 steel roller. Speed, load on job and duration of test run have been considered as the experimental parameters. The wear of the samples have been obtained directly from ‘Winducom 2006’ software. Mass loss of the samples before and after operation has also been considered as the measure of wear in the present study. All the samples have been slid against EN-8 steel roller with fixed experimental parameters. The data have been plotted, compared and analyzed. Effect of microstructures as well as micro hardness on the wear behavior has been studied and concluded accordingly.

  7. Electrochemical corrosion response of a low carbon heat treated steel in a NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, W.R.; Peixoto, L.C.; Garcia, L.R.; Garcia, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Dual-phase (DP) steels are produced from a specific heat treatment procedure and have recently emerged as a potential class of engineering materials for a number of structural and automobile applications. Such steels have high strength-to-weight ratio and reasonable formability. The present study aims to investigate the effects of four different and conventional heat treatments (i.e., hot rolling, normalizing, annealing, and intercritical annealing) on the resulting microstructural patterns and on the electrochemical corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel plots were carried out on heat treated steel samples in a 0.5 M NaCl solution at 25 C with neutral pH. An equivalent circuit analysis was also used to provide quantitative support for the discussions. The normalizing and the annealing heat treatments have provided the highest and the lowest corrosion resistances, respectively. The intercritical annealing and as-received (hot rolled) low carbon steel samples have shown similar corrosion behavior. Although a deleterious effect on the corrosion resistance has been verified for DP steel due to the residual stress from the martensite formation, it combines good mechanical properties with intermediate electrochemical corrosion resistance. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Development of oxidised and heat-moisture treated potato starch film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Klein, Bruna; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Prentice-Hernández, Carlos; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium hypochlorite oxidation and a heat-moisture treatment of potato starch on the physicochemical, pasting and textural properties of potato starches in addition to the water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of potato starch films produced from these starches. The carbonyl contents, carboxyl contents, swelling power, solubility, pasting properties and gel texture of the native, oxidised and heat-moisture treated (HMT) starches were evaluated. The films made of native, oxidised and HMT starches were characterised by thickness, water solubility, colour, opacity, mechanical properties and WVP. The oxidised and HMT starches had lower viscosity and swelling power compared to the native starch. The films produced from oxidised potato starch had decreased solubility, elongation and WVP values in addition to increased tensile strength compared to the native starch films. The HMT starch increased the tensile strength and WVP of the starch films compared to the native starch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron spin resonance and its application to heat treated carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, Francisco Guilherme

    1993-01-01

    This work presents the basic characteristics of the electron spin resonance technique, also called paramagnetic resonance, being discussed its application to heat treated carbonaceous materials. In the low heat treatment temperature (HTT) range (below 700 deg C) the organic free radical are the predominant unpaired spin center, which play a key role in the process of carbonization and meso phase formation. At higher temperatures, it is possible to make correlations between the low H T T range and the high HTT range (above 130 deg C), where the predominant unpaired spin center are the free charge carriers (free electrons) of the graphite like crystallites of the material, which are formed by the carbonization process. (author)

  10. Effect of Cr Contents and Heat Treating on Reverted Austenite in Maraging Steel Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. W.; Lee, H. W.

    2018-05-01

    By conducting flux cored arc welding (FCAW) on maraging steels with Cr contents of 1.4 and 5.2 wt%, this study observed the effects of Cr content and heat treating on reverted austenite formation in welded maraging steel. Aging treatment was carried out at the temperatures of 450, 480 and 530 °C for 3 h in each condition. As the aging temperature increased, reverted austenite was formed along the interdendritic and intercellular grain boundaries, and the proportion of reverted austenite increased with increasing Cr addition. The aging process led to the segregation of Ti and Mo along the interdendritic and intercellular grain boundaries. Some of the welded specimens were subjected to solution heat treatment at 820 and 1250 °C for 1 h after welding, resulting in a decrease in reverted austenite fraction.

  11. Application of Quasi-Heat-Pulse Solutions for Luikov’s Equations of Heat and Moisture Transfer for Calibrating and Utilizing Thermal Properties Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago the Laplace transform solutions of Luikov’s differential equations were presented for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in porous hydroscopic orthotropic materials for the boundary condition of a gradual heat pulse applied to both surfaces of a flat slab. This paper presents calibration methods and data for the K-tester 637 (Lasercomp),...

  12. Microstructural Characterization Of Laser Heat Treated AISI 4140 Steel With Improved Fatigue Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh M.C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface heat treatment using laser radiation on the fatigue strength and corresponding microstructural evolution of AISI 4140 alloy steel was investigated in this research. The AISI 4140 alloy steel was radiated by a diode laser to give surface temperatures in the range between 600 and 800°C, and subsequently underwent vibration peening. The fatigue behavior of surface-treated specimens was examined using a giga-cycle ultrasonic fatigue test, and it was compared with that of non-treated and only-peened specimens. Fatigue fractured surfaces and microstructural evolution with respect to the laser treatment temperatures were investigated using an optical microscope. Hardness distribution was measured using Vickers micro-hardness. Higher laser temperature resulted in higher fatigue strength, attributed to the phase transformation.

  13. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    Intensive quenching (IQ) process is an alternative way of hardening (quenching) steel parts through the use of highly agitated water and then still air. It was developed by IQ Technologies, Inc. (IQT) of Akron, Ohio. While conventional quenching is usually performed in environmentally unfriendly oil or water/polymer solutions, the IQ process uses highly agitated environmentally friendly water or low concentration water/mineral salt solutions. The IQ method is characterized by extremely high cooling rates of steel parts. In contrast to conventional quenching, where parts cool down to the quenchant temperature and usually have tensile or neutral residual surface stresses at the end of quenching. The IQ process is interrupted when the part core is still hot and when there are maximum compressive stresses deep into the parts, thereby providing hard, ductile, better wear resistant parts. The project goal was to advance the patented IQ process from feasibility to commercialization in the heat-treating and forging industries to reduce significantly energy consumption and environmental impact, to increase productivity and to enhance economic competitiveness of these industries as well as Steel, Metal Casting and Mining industries. To introduce successfully the IQ technology in the U.S. metal working industry, the project team has completed the following work over the course of this project: A total of 33 manufacturers of steel products provided steel parts for IQ trails. IQT conducted IQ demonstrations for 34 different steel parts. Our customers tested intensively quenched parts in actual field conditions to evaluate the product service life and performance improvement. The data obtained from the field showed the following: Service life (number of holes punched) of cold-work punches (provided by EHT customer and made of S5 shock-resisting steel) was improved by two to eight times. Aluminum extrusion dies provided by GAM and made of hot work H-13 steel outperformed the

  14. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  15. Correlation between ultrasonic nonlinearity and elastic nonlinearity in heat-treated aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The nonlinear ultrasonic technique is a potential nondestructive method to evaluate material degradation, in which the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is usually measured. The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is defined by the elastic nonlinearity coefficients of the nonlinear Hooke’s equation. Therefore, even though the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is not equal to the elastic nonlinearity parameter, they have a close relationship. However, there has been no experimental verification of the relationship between the ultrasonic and elastic nonlinearity parameters. In this study, the relationship is experimentally verified for a heat-treated aluminum alloy. Specimens of the aluminum alloy were heat-treated at 300°C for different periods of time (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 h). The relative ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter of each specimen was then measured, and the elastic nonlinearity parameter was determined by fitting the stress-strain curve obtained from a tensile test to the 5th-order-polynomial nonlinear Hooke’s equation. The results showed that the variations in these parameters were in good agreement with each other.

  16. Development of heat treated Zr-2.5% Nb alloy tubes for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Jha, S.K.; Tonpe, S.

    2011-01-01

    Zr-2.5% Nb alloy is the candidate material for pressure tubes of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR), and are manufactured in cold working condition while heat treated pressure tubes are used in RBMK and FUGEN type of reactors. The diametral creep of these tubes is the life limiting factor. This paper presents the extensive work carried out for the optimization of process parameters to manufacture heat treated Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes. Extensive dilactometry study was carried out to establish the transus temperature for the alloy and the effect of soaking temperature and cooling rate on the microstructure was characterized. On the basis of the study, water quenching (at 883 deg C) in the a b region with 20-25% primary a phase was selected, further cold worked, aged and finally autoclaved. Mechanical properties of the finished tubes were found to be comparable to the cold worked route. Large number of full sized tubes of about 700 - 800 mm long was produced to establish the repeatability. (author)

  17. Effect of Laser Feeding on Heat Treated Aluminium Alloy Surface Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labisz K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the investigation results concerning microstructure as well as mechanical properties of the surface layer of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloy after heat treatment alloyed and/ or remelted with SiC ceramic powder using High Power Diode Laser (HPDL. For investigation of the achieved structure following methods were used: light and scanning electron microscopy with EDS microanalysis as well as mechanical properties using Rockwell hardness tester were measured. By mind of scanning electron microscopy, using secondary electron detection was it possible to determine the distribution of ceramic SiC powder phase occurred in the alloy after laser treatment. After the laser surface treatment carried out on the previously heat treated aluminium alloys, in the structure are observed changes concerning the distribution and morphology of the alloy phases as well as the added ceramic powder, these features influence the hardness of the obtained layers. In the structure, there were discovered three zones: the remelting zone (RZ the heat influence zone (HAZ and transition zone, with different structure and properties. In this paper also the laser treatment conditions: the laser power and ceramic powder feed rate were investigated. The surface laser structure changes in a manner, that there zones are revealed in the form of. This carried out investigations make it possible to develop, interesting technology, which could be very attractive for different branches of industry.

  18. Structural transformations of heat treated Co-less high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrica, D.; Tudor, A.; Rinaldi, A.; Soare, V.; Predescu, C.; Berbecaru, A.; Stoiciu, F.; Badilita, V.

    2018-03-01

    Co is considered to be one of the main ingredients in superalloys. Co is considered a critical element and its substitution is difficult due to its unique ability to form high temperature stable structures with high mechanical and corrosion/oxidation resistance. High entropy alloys (HEA) represent a relatively new concept in material design. HEA are characterised by a high number of alloying elements, in unusually high proportion. Due to their specific particularities, high entropy alloys tend to form predominant solid solution structures that develop potentially high chemical, physical and mechanical properties. Present paper is studying Co-less high entropy alloys with high potential in severe environment applications. The high entropy alloys based on Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni system were prepared by induction melting and casting under protective atmosphere. The as-cast specimens were heat treated at various temperatures to determine the structure and property behaviour. Samples taken before and after heat treatment were investigated for chemical, physical, structural and mechanical characteristics. Sigma phase composition and heat treatment parameters had major influence over the resulted alloy structure and properties.

  19. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION REACTIVE LYSINE IN HEAT-TREATED FOODS AND FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine is an essential amino acid, which is limited in foods of plant origin, especially in cereals. The heat-treatment of products containing proteins and reducing sugars results in formation of Maillard reactions during which the cross-linkages among epsilon amino groups (ε-NH2 and reducing sugars are created. Thus the protein-carbohydrate complex is formed. This complex contains an unreactive (unavailable lysine, which is bound to reducing sugars and is not available in body. Hereby, the nutritive value of feeds and foods decreases. When a standard analytical method for analyses of amino acids is used, in products containing protein-carbohydrate complexes, it is not possible to analyze the content of reactive (available and unreactive (unavailable lysine, but only the content of total lysine. Therefore, when the standard amino acid analysis is used, the content of lysine in heat-treated feeds and foods is overestimated. In order to avoid this, some methods for determination of reactive lysine were developed. Among the best known, the homoarginine and furosine methods are included. Using these methods, in evaluation of nutritive value of feeds and foods, is of great importance because they allow to determine the extent of proteins, which were damaged during the heat treatment and thus we obtain information on objective nutritional protein quality of the product.

  20. Apparatus and test method for characterizing the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, De-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials such as fabrics treated with phase change material microcapsules, a new apparatus was developed. The apparatus and the test method can measure the heat flux, temperature, and displacement signals during the dynamic contact and then quickly give an evaluation for the temperature regulating properties by simulating the dynamic heat transfer and temperature regulating process when the materials contact the body skin. A series of indices including the psychosensory intensity, regulating capability index, and relative regulating index were defined to characterize the temperature regulating properties. The measurement principle, the evaluation criteria and grading method, the experimental setup and the test results discussion, and the gage capability analysis of the apparatus are presented. The new apparatus provides a method for the objective measurement and evaluation of the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

  1. Modeling and data analysis of the NASA-WSTF frictional heating apparatus - Effects of test parameters on friction coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sheng-Hu; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Benz, Frank J.; Yuen, Walter W.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model is being developed jointly by the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) to analyze data generated from the WSTF frictional heating test facility. Analyses of the data generated in the first seconds of the frictional heating test are shown to be effective in determining the friction coefficient between the rubbing interfaces. Different friction coefficients for carobn steel and Monel K-500 are observed. The initial condition of the surface is shown to affect only the initial value of the friction coefficient but to have no significant influence on the average steady-state friction coefficient. Rotational speed and the formation of oxide film on the rotating surfaces are shown to have a significant effect on the friction coefficient.

  2. Inspection of heat transfer tubes after mock-up tests of miniaturized apparatus for the acid recovery evaporator. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Shozo; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Yanagihara, Takao; Doi, Masamitu; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2001-10-01

    The demonstration test for the acid recovery evaporator and the dissolver used in the major equipment of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), has been carried out. The mock-up miniature equipment has been employed to it. This test had been performed from April in 1998. The total time of demonstration test using the mock-up equipment is about two and half years, which corresponds to about 20,000 hours. After that, four of the seven heat transfer tubes used in the evaporator were drawn out and the corrosion level and the mechanical properties were evaluated for one of them. As a result, intergranular corrosion was recognized in the inner surface of the heat transfer tube and the corrosion depth at the grain boundary was statistically shown to be about one grain from the inner surface. Further, no change in mechanical properties was observed and growth of intergranular cracks in the inner surface of the specimen was found after flattering test. (author)

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treated B319 Alloy Diesel Cylinder Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S. K.; Apelian, D.; Meyer, P.; Massinon, D.; Morichon, J.

    2015-07-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of B319 alloy diesel cylinder heads were investigated in this study. Cylinder heads were heat treated to T5, T6, and T7 tempers using fluidized bed technology. Three different fluidized beds were used, each to solutionize, quench, and age the castings. For comparative purposes, castings were also aged using conventional forced-air circulation electric-resistance furnace. Effects of processing parameters such as temperature, time, and heating rate on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties namely tensile properties and hardness of B319 alloy castings were studied. The number density and size range of precipitates were measured. Results show that the T5 temper has no effect on eutectic phases such as Si- and Fe-rich intermetallic, and Al2Cu. On contrary, both T6 and T7 tempers result in spherodization of the eutectic Si and partial dissolution of the Al2Cu phase. Prolonged solution heat treatment for 8 hours in fluidized bed results in limited dissolution of the secondary eutectic Al2Cu phase. Aging (T6, T7, and T5) results in precipitation of Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Al2Cu phases in B319 alloy. The number density of precipitates in T6 temper is greater than in T7 and T5 tempers. The number density of precipitates is also affected by the duration of solution heat treatment. In general, long solution heat treatment (8 hours) results in greater precipitate density than short solution treatment (2 hours). The distribution of precipitates is inhomogeneous and varied across the dendritic structure. In general, precipitation rate of Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase is greater near the periphery of the dendrite as compared to the center. This is because Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 nucleates on Si particle, grain boundaries, and triple junction between recrystallized Al grains and Si particles. Similarly, heterogeneous sites such as grain boundaries and Al/Si interface also act as nucleating sites for the precipitation of Al2Cu phase. In general, the

  4. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  5. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  6. CONCENTRATION OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN RAW AND ULTRA HEAT TREATED COW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáčová Anetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential presence of toxic metals in food is being recognized as a priority by standards organizations and constitutes an analytical challenge. The toxic metal content of milk and dairy products is due to several factors: environmental conditions, the manufacturing process and the possible contamination during several steps of the manufacturing processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained at randomly from animal farms in around Nitra, western Slovakia region and ultra – heat treated cow milk (UHT with fat contents 1.5% commercially available from local market in Nitra. Samples of milk were analysed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. UHT milk showed higher levels of cadmium, nickel and iron. Higher levels of zinc, copper were detected in raw milk. Significant differences in the concentration of copper between raw and UHT cow milk were found.

  7. Acoustic Emission Methodology to Evaluate the Fracture Toughness in Heat Treated AISI D2 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Sajad; Fotouhi, Mohamad; Motasemi, Abed; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Sindi, Cevat Teymuri

    2012-10-01

    In this article, fracture toughness behavior of tool steel was investigated using Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring. Fracture toughness ( K IC) values of a specific tool steel was determined by applying various approaches based on conventional AE parameters, such as Acoustic Emission Cumulative Count (AECC), Acoustic Emission Energy Rate (AEER), and the combination of mechanical characteristics and AE information called sentry function. The critical fracture toughness values during crack propagation were achieved by means of relationship between the integral of the sentry function and cumulative fracture toughness (KICUM). Specimens were selected from AISI D2 cold-work tool steel and were heat treated at four different tempering conditions (300, 450, 525, and 575 °C). The results achieved through AE approaches were then compared with a methodology proposed by compact specimen testing according to ASTM standard E399. It was concluded that AE information was an efficient method to investigate fracture characteristics.

  8. Sliding wear and friction behavior of zirconium alloy with heat-treated Inconel718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H., E-mail: kimjhoon@cnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.M. [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.K.; Jeon, K.L. [Nuclear Fuel Technology Department, Korea Nuclear Fuel, 1047 Daedukdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    In water-cooled nuclear reactors, the sliding of fuel rod can lead to severe wear and it is an important issue to sustain the structural integrity of nuclear reactor. In the present study, sliding wear behavior of zirconium alloy in dry and water environment using Pin-On-Disk sliding wear tester was investigated. Wear resistance of zirconium alloy against heat-treated Inconel718 pin was examined at room temperature. Sliding wear tests were carried out at different sliding distance, axial load and sliding speed based on ASTM (G99-05). The results of these experiments were verified with specific wear rate and coefficient of friction. The micro-mechanisms responsible for wear in zirconium alloy were identified to be microcutting and microcracking in dry environment. Moreover, micropitting and delamination were observed in water environment.

  9. Characterization of Heat Treated Titanium-Based Implants by Nondestructive Eddy Current and Ultrasonic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ilven; Ekinci, Sinasi; Oktay, Enver

    2014-06-01

    This study presents nondestructive characterization of microstructure and mechanical properties of heat treated Ti, Ti-Cu, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium-based alloys and 17-4 PH stainless steel alloy for biomedical implant applications. Ti, Ti-Cu, and 17-4 PH stainless steel based implants were produced by powder metallurgy. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated as bulk wrought specimens. Effects of sintering temperature, aging, and grain size on mechanical properties were investigated by nondestructive and destructive tests comparatively. Ultrasonic velocity in specimens was measured by using pulse-echo and transmission methods. Electrical conductivity of specimens was determined by eddy current tests. Determination of Young's modulus and strength is important in biomedical implants. Young's modulus of specimens was calculated by using ultrasonic velocities. Calculated Young's modulus values were compared and correlated with experimental values.

  10. Test results for a heat-treated 4-cell 805 MHz superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Shapiro, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    Assessing superconducting technology for potential upgrades to existing proton accelerators as well as applications to future high-current machines necessitates developing expertise in the processing and handling of multicell cavities at useful frequencies. In order to address some of these technological issues, Los Alamos has purchased a 4-cell 805-MHz superconducting cavity from Siemens AG. The individual cavity cells were double-sided titanium heat-treated after equatorial welding, then the irises were welded to complete the cavity assembly. The resulting high RRR (residual resistance ratio) in the cells enables stable operation at higher cavity field levels than are possible with lower RRR material. Additionally, the high thermal conductivity of the material is conducive to rf and high peak power processing. The cavity was also cleaned at Los Alamos with high-pressure water rinsing. Results from the initial cavity tests, utilizing various processing techniques, are presented

  11. Apparatus for carbonization of bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupa, G

    1924-08-25

    Apparatus is described for carbonization of bituminous fuels and bituminous shale, in which the material to be carbonized slips continuously over sloping surfaces of a retort arranged in a zigzag and thereby it is exposed to a continuously increasing heating. The apparatus is characterized by the sloping surface being of a boxlike solid hearth with internal heating through which every hearth can be heated directly to a determined constant degree of heat.

  12. Effect of natural aging on the properties of heat-treated A356 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Paz, J.F.; Paray, F.; Gruzleski, J.E.; Emadi, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the heat treatment of aluminum alloys, there is usually a delay time between quenching and the final artificial aging. This delay is called natural aging or preaging at room temperature. This research was conducted in order to study the effect of various natural aging times (0, 6, 12 and 20 hours) on the properties of unmodified and strontium modified A356 aluminum alloys solution heat-treated 4 hours at 540 o C, water quenched and artificially aged 6 hours at 155 o C and 170 o C. The samples were tested for electrical conductivity, microhardness, and tensile properties. In the case of the samples artificially aged at 155 o C from the results it can be seen a decrease in the microhardness and yield strength with natural aging. Regarding the samples aged at 170 o C it is noticed that natural aging at 12 hours will result in the lowest electrical conductivity, yield strength and microhardness. However, there is evidence of recovery of those properties at 20 hours of natural aging. Regarding the elongation, natural aging seems to have a positive effect when artificial aging is carried out at 155 o C, but at 170 o C an optimum elongation is obtained only at 12 hours. (author)

  13. Mechanical stability of heat-treated nanoporous anodic alumina subjected to repetitive mechanical deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, A.; Videkov, V.; Tzaneva, B.; Mitov, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report studies on the mechanical response and deformation behavior of heat-treated nanoporous anodic alumina using a micro-balance test and experimental test equipment especially designed for this purpose. AAO samples were characterized mechanically by a three-point bending test using a micro-analytical balance. The deformation behavior was studied by repetitive mechanical bending of the AAO membranes using an electronically controlled system. The nanoporous AAO structures were prepared electrochemically from Al sheet substrates using a two-step anodizing technique in oxalic acid followed by heat treatment at 700 °C in air. The morphological study of the aluminum oxide layer after the mechanical tests and mechanical deformation was conducted using scanning electron and optical microscopy, respectively. The experimental results showed that the techniques proposed are simple and accurate; they could, therefore, be combined to constitute a method for mechanical stability assessment of nanostructured AAO films, which are important structural components in the design of MEMS devices and sensors.

  14. Water Absorption Properties of Heat-Treated Bamboo Fiber and High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanxing Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To modify water absorption properties of bamboo fiber (BF and high density polyethylene (HDPE composites, heat treatment of BFs was performed prior to compounding them with HDPE to form the composites. The moisture sorption property of the composites was measured and their diffusion coefficients (Dm were evaluated using a one-dimensional diffusion model. Moisture diffusion coefficient values of all composites were in the range of 0.115x10-8 to 1.267x10-8 cm2/s. The values of Dm decreased with increasing BF heat-treatment temperature, and increased with increasing BF loading level. The Dm value of 40 wt% bamboo fiber/HDPE composites with BFs treated with 100 oC was the greatest (i.e., 1.267x10-8cm2/s. Morphology analysis showed increased fiber-matrix interfacial bonding damage due to fiber swelling and shrinking from water uptaking and drying. The mechanism of water absorption of the composite, indicated a general Fickian diffusion process.

  15. Microstructure vs. Near-threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Heat-treated Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomila KONEČNÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Perferritic isothermal ductile iron (IDI® is an intermediate grade between the low-strength grades of austempered ductile iron (ADI and pearlitic ductile iron (DI recently developed by Zanardi Fonderie Italy. IDI is produced by heat-treating an unalloyed nodular cast iron. The specific matrix microstructure is called “Perferritic” and consists predominantly of ferrite and pearlite. Compared to the pearlitic grades of nodular ductile iron, IDI combines similar strength with higher toughness as a result of the isothermal heat treatment. In this contribution the fatigue crack growth resistance and Kath of IDI are investigated and correlated to mechanical properties and microstructural features. The threshold Ka was determined using the load shedding technique as per ASTM Standard E-647 using CT specimens extracted from a cast block. Tensile specimens were extracted from the broken CT halves and used to determine the static mechanical properties. A metallographic investigation was carried out to correlate structural features and mechanical properties.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1336

  16. Standard test method for measurement of roll wave optical distortion in heat-treated flat glass

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of the peak-to-valley depth and peak-to-peak distances of the out-of-plane deformation referred to as roll wave which occurs in flat, heat-treated architectural glass substrates processed in a heat processing continuous or oscillating conveyance oven. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This test method does not address other flatness issues like edge kink, ream, pocket distortion, bow, or other distortions outside of roll wave as defined in this test method. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. The freezing point of raw and heat treated sheep milk and its variation during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumíra Janštová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The freezing point of milk is an important indicator of the adulteration of the milk with water, but heat treatment may also affect its value. The aim of this study was determine freezing point of raw and heat treated sheep milk and its variation during lactation. The freezing point was determined in 42 bulk tank raw sheep milk samples and 42 pasteurized milk samples collected during lactation of sheep at one ecofarm in Moravian Walachia (Valašsko in the Czech Republic. The freezing point was determined in accordance with the standard ČSN 57 0538 using a thermistor cryoscope. The average freezing point of raw milk was -0.617 ± 0.052 °C, with a range from -0.560 to -0.875 °C. The freezing point was lower in the first months of lactation and increased at the end of lactation. The freezing point correlated (r = 0.8967 with the content of total non-fat solids. The average freezing point of sheep milk pasteurized at 65 °C for 30 min was -0.614 ± 0.053 °C, with a range from -0.564 to -0.702 °C. The median of freezing point differences between raw and pasteurized milk was 0.004 °C. Our study extends data about physico-chemical properties of sheep milk and registers for the first time specific changes in the freezing point value of sheep milk by heating.

  18. Development of producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point. Energy saving dewatering apparatus and 6A-Gas producing apparatus utilizing vaporization latent heat of butane and potential heat of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Jin; Okada, Hiroto; Taniue, Nobuo; Tanoue, Keiju; Yamada, Tatsuhiko; Maekawa, Hisami; Murakami, Keiji

    1988-02-10

    A producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point was developed. The dewatering was made during the period from the middle of May to the middle of October with high atmospheric humidity. The production capacity of the mixed gas is 3000 Nm/sup 3/ of 22% of butane and 78% of air per hour. The designed dew point is 18/sup 0/C or less under the pressure of 0.7 kg/cm/sup 2/G. The saturation temperature is 7.5/sup 0/C after the liquid butane is evacuated by a regulating valve. The air introduced into the dehumidifier through finned tubes is cooled to dewater based on those data. The partially vaporized butane is completely gasified by hot water in a vaporizer and mixed with the dewatered air by a venture mixer to produce the mixed butane-air. When the dewatering is incomplete, the spray nozzle must be just exchanged. The dew point of the produced gas was sufficiently below the designed value. The investment cost is low. The total operating cost is reduced by the remarkably decreased fuel cost though the power cost is increased. The noise level is low and the heat control is easy. (11 figs, 4 tabs, 1 photo)

  19. Thermal power measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal power measurements are important in nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel plants and other closed loop systems such as heat exchangers and chemical reactors. The main object of this invention is to determine the enthalpy of a fluid using only acoustically determined sound speed and correlating the speed with enthalpy. An enthalpy change is measured between two points in the fluid flow: the apparatus is described in detail. (U.K.)

  20. A study on alkaline heat treated Mg-Ca alloy for the control of the biocorrosion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, W; Cheng, Y; Zheng, Y F

    2009-09-01

    To reduce the biocorrosion rate by surface modification, Mg-Ca alloy (1.4wt.% Ca content) was soaked in three alkaline solutions (Na(2)HPO(4), Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3)) for 24h, respectively, and subsequently heat treated at 773K for 12h. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy results revealed that magnesium oxide layers with the thickness of about 13, 9 and 26microm were formed on the surfaces of Mg-Ca alloy after the above different alkaline heat treatments. Atomic force microscopy showed that the surfaces of Mg-Ca alloy samples became rough after three alkaline heat treatments. The in vitro corrosion tests in simulated body fluid indicated that the corrosion rates of Mg-Ca alloy were effectively decreased after alkaline heat treatments, with the following sequence: NaHCO(3) heatedheatedheated. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that none of the alkaline heat treated Mg-Ca alloy samples induced toxicity to L-929 cells during 7days culture.

  1. Training apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Training apparatus for use in contamination surveillance uses a mathematical model of a hypothetical contamination source (e.g. nuclear, bacteriological or chemical explosion or leak) to determine from input data defining the contamination source, the contamination level at any location within a defined exercise area. The contamination level to be displayed by the apparatus is corrected to real time from a real time clock or may be displayed in response to a time input from a keyboard. In a preferred embodiment the location is defined by entering UTM grid reference coordinates using the keyboard. The mathematical model used by a microprocessor of the apparatus for simulation of contamination levels in the event of a nuclear explosion is described. (author)

  2. Radioimmunoassay apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for performing a quantitative radioimmunoassay comprising: a substantially spherical bead for carrying an antibody and a gripper for gripping said bead, said gripper comprising an integrally formed unit having a single elongate handle portion and a plurality of resilient fingers arranged at the base of the handle so that when said bead is secured within said fingers, said bead may be freely rotated about any diametric axis of the bead. In particular the invention relates to an apparatus for a two site immunoradiometric assay for serum ferritin in human blood samples. (author)

  3. Encephalographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray apparatus is described for determining the size and location of brain tumours by tomography during pneumoencephalography. The apparatus comprises an image recording device arranged opposite an X-ray source and a frame mounted on a tiltable patient table and rotatable with respect to the table. A patient support is arranged in the frame and is rotatable with respect to the frame. Air injected into the patients' spinal column travels up into the brain and displaces some of the cerebral fluid. Tomographic X-ray exposures are made of the air bubble which moves around in the brain cavities as the patient is rotated. (U.K.)

  4. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  5. Radiotherapy apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.M.; Webb, H.P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to apparatus for applying intracavitary radiotherapy. In previously-known systems radioactive material is conveyed to a desired location within a patient by transporting a chain of balls pneumatically to and from an appropriately inserted applicator. According to this invention a ball chain for such a purpose comprises several radioactive balls separated by non-radioactive tracer balls of radiographically transparent material of lower density and surface hardness than the radioactive balls. The invention also extends to radiotherapy treatment apparatus comprising a storage, sorting and assembly system

  6. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashin, D.; Sternglass, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention provides radiography apparatus wherein the use of a flat, generally rectangular beam or a fan-shaped beam of radiation in combination with a collimator, scintillator and device for optically coupling a self-scanning array of photodiodes to the scintillator means will permit production of images or image data with high contrast sensitivity and detail. It is contemplated that the self-scanning array of photodiodes may contain from about 60 to 2048, and preferably about 256 to 2048, individual photodiode elements per inch of object width, thereby permitting maximum data collection to produce a complete image or complete collection of image data

  7. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  8. Method and apparatus for testing closed-end tubes in heat exchangers of nuclear reactors and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyd, G.; Bergbauer, A.; Paulsen, U.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a test stopper which is insertable into a tube closed at one end for testing the tightness of the tube with a fluid under pressure, the tube being in a heat exchanger of a nuclear reactor or the like. The test stopper includes a tubular outer jacket that is expandable outwardly to tightly seat the stopper in the tube. The stopper also has front and back end-face members joined to the ends of the outer jacket to define a closed space within the jacket. With the stopper inserted into the tube, the front end-face member and the closed end portion of the tube define a closed inner region of the tube. An inner tubular member, disposed within the outer jacket, partitions the closed space within the jacket into an annular outer chamber and a cylindrical inner chamber. A pressure-fluid supply selectively supplies fluid to the chambers. The outer jacket expands in response to fluid admitted to the annular chamber and the front end-face member has a through bore to admit fluid under pressure to the inner region of the tube. A method of testing of such a tube with a fluid under pressure includes inserting the test stopper into the tube and then expanding the outer jacket of the stopper to seat the stopper firmly in the tube. A fluid under pressure is directed through the stopper and into the closed region defined by the front end-face member of the stopper and the closed end portion of the tube. The pressure of the fluid introduced into this closed region is monitored for detecting a leak in the closed-end tube

  9. Hydrolysis of native and heat-treated starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthumporn, U; Shariffa, Y N; Karim, A A

    2012-03-01

    The effect of heat treatment below the gelatinization temperature on the susceptibility of corn, mung bean, sago, and potato starches towards granular starch hydrolysis (35°C) was investigated. Starches were hydrolyzed in granular state and after heat treatment (50°C for 30 min) by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme for 24 h. Hydrolyzed heat-treated starches showed a significant increase in the percentage of dextrose equivalent compared to native starches, respectively, with corn 53% to 56%, mung bean 36% to 47%, sago 15% to 26%, and potato 12% to 15%. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the presence of more porous granules and surface erosion in heat-treated starch compared to native starch. X-ray analysis showed no changes but with sharper peaks for all the starches, suggested that hydrolysis occurred on the amorphous region. The amylose content and swelling power of heat-treated starches was markedly altered after hydrolysis. Evidently, this enzyme was able to hydrolyze granular starches and heat treatment before hydrolysis significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis.

  10. Monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    An improved monitoring apparatus for use with process plants, such as nuclear reactors, is described. System failure in the acquisition of data from the plant, owing to stuck signals, is avoided by arranging input signals from transducers in the plant in a test pattern. (U.K.)

  11. Prehensile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel mock-up material treated by intercritical heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. C.; Lee, B. S.; Hong, J. H.; Lee, H. J.; Park, S. D.; Kim, K. B.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Oh, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructures of base metal and weld HAZ (Heat-Affected Zone) of a Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels treated by intercritical heat treatment were investigated to evaluate effects of intercritical heat treatment on mechanical properties. In order to clarify the effects of intercritical heat treatment, two types of specimen were prepared by CHT(Conventional Heat Treatment) and IHT(CHT+Intercritical Heat Treatment). Tensile test, charpy impact test and vickers hardness test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties. It is found that impact toughness and hardness were improved by intercritical heat treatment. Mean size of precipitates and effective grain were quantitatively analysed as microstructural factors. It is found that precipitate size was decreased and shape of precipitate was spherodized by intercritical heat treatment and grain size was also decreased. So, it is thought that these microstructural changes cause the improvement of mechanical properties by intercritical heat treatment. The simulated specimen using a Gleeble thermal simulator system was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of HAZ. It is well known that IRHAZ and SRHAZ have lower toughness than base metal. However, in the case of IHT, impact toughness of IRHAZ and SRHAZ were slightly higher than that of base metal. It is obvious that this improvement of fracture toughness in IRHAZ and SRHAZ region was closely related to the microstructural changes, such as spheroidization of precipitate and decreases of precipitate size and grain size

  13. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract promotes expression of heat shock protein and exerts antistress effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takahiro; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a functional material produced from asparagus stem. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ETAS on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and alleviation of stress. HeLa cells were treated with ETAS, and HSP70 mRNA and protein levels were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ETAS showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA at more than 0.125 mg/mL and the protein at more than 1.0 mg/mL. The antistress effect was evaluated in a murine sleep-deprivation model. A sleep-deprivation stress load resulted in elevation of blood corticosterone and lipid peroxide concentrations, while supplementation with ETAS at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was associated with significantly reduced levels of both stress markers, which were in the normal range. The HSP70 protein expression level in mice subjected to sleep-deprivation stress and supplemented with ETAS was significantly enhanced in stomach, liver, and kidney, compared to ETAS-untreated mice. A preliminary and small-sized human study was conducted among healthy volunteers consuming up to 150 mg/d of ETAS daily for 7 d. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly elevated at intakes of 100 or 150 mg/d, compared to their baseline levels. Since HSP70 is known to be a stress-related protein and its induction leads to cytoprotection, the present results suggest that ETAS might exert antistress effects under stressful conditions, resulting from enhancement of HSP70 expression. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Heat-treated mineral-yeast as a potent post-irradiation radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Megumi; Nyui, Minako; Ikota, Nobuo; Kagiya, Tsutomu V.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo radioprotection of C3H mice by i.p. administration of Zn-, Mn-, Cu-, or Se-containing heat-treated Saccharomyces serevisiae yeast sample was examined. The 30-day survival of the group treated 30 min before 7.5 Gy whole-body X-irradiation with mineral-containing yeast powders suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose was significantly higher than that of control group. When mineral-yeast was administered immediately after irradiation, the survival rate was even higher and Zn- or Cu-yeast showed the highest rate (more than 90%). Although treatment with simple yeast showed a high survival rate (73%), it was significantly lower than that obtained by the Zn-yeast treatment. The effects of Zn-yeast were studied further. When the interval between irradiation and administration was varied, the protective activity of Zn-yeast decreased gradually by increasing the interval but was still significantly high for the administration at 10 h post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor of Zn-yeast (100 mg/kg, i.p. administration immediately after irradiation) was about 1.2. When the suspension of Zn-yeast was fractionated by centrifugation, the insoluble fraction showed a potent effect, while the soluble fraction had only a moderate effect. In conclusion, mineral-yeast, especially Zn-yeast, provides remarkable post-irradiation protection against lethal whole body X-irradiation. The activity is mainly attributable to the insoluble fraction, whereas some soluble components might contribute to the additional protective activity. (author)

  15. Heat-treated hull flour does not affect iron bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Carvalho, Ariela Werneck de; Silva, Cassiano Oliveira da; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Natal, Dorina Isabel Gomes; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro

    2011-06-01

    In this study the chemical composition and iron bioavailability of hull and hull-less soybean flour from the new cultivar UFVTN 105AP was evaluated. The hemoglobin depletion-repletion method was used in Wistar rats. Soybean hull flour presented 37% more total dietary fiber and higher content of iron than hull-less soybean flour. The phytate:iron molar ratio, however, was 2-fold lower in the soybean hull flour in compared to the hull-less soybean flour. Animals fed soybean hull flour presented hemoglobin gains similar to those of the control diet group (p > 0.05). The Relative Biological Values of hull and hull-less soybean flour were 68.5% and 67.1%, respectively, compared to the control group. Heat-treated soybean hull flour (150 degrees C/30 minutes) showed high content of iron and low phytate, which favors the iron bioavailability. Thus, the soybean hull flour is a better source of dietary fiber and iron than hull-less soybean flour at comparable bioavailabilities.

  16. Fatigue of Beta Processed and Beta Heat-treated Titanium Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This publication reviews most of the available literature on the fatigue properties of β annealed Ti-6Al-4V and titanium alloys with similar microstructures. The focus is on β processed and β heat-treated alloys because β annealed Ti-6Al-4V has been selected for highly loaded and fatigue-critical structures, including the main wing-carry-through bulkheads and vertical tail stubs, of advanced high-performance military aircraft.   An important aspect of the review is a concise survey of fatigue life assessment methods and the required types of fatigue data. This survey provides the background to recommendations for further research, especially on the fatigue behaviour of β annealed Ti-6Al-4V under realistic fatigue load histories, including the essential topic of short/small fatigue crack growth. Such research is required for independent fatigue life assessments that conform to the aircraft manufacturer’s design requirements, and also for life reassessments that most probably will have to be made during...

  17. Residual stress distribution analysis of heat treated APS TBC using image based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Zhang, Xun; Chen, Ying; Carr, James; Jacques, Simon; Behnsen, Julia; di Michiel, Marco; Xiao, Ping; Cernik, Robert

    2017-08-01

    We carried out a residual stress distribution analysis in a APS TBC throughout the depth of the coatings. The samples were heat treated at 1150 °C for 190 h and the data analysis used image based modelling based on the real 3D images measured by Computed Tomography (CT). The stress distribution in several 2D slices from the 3D model is included in this paper as well as the stress distribution along several paths shown on the slices. Our analysis can explain the occurrence of the "jump" features near the interface between the top coat and the bond coat. These features in the residual stress distribution trend were measured (as a function of depth) by high-energy synchrotron XRD (as shown in our related research article entitled 'Understanding the Residual Stress Distribution through the Thickness of Atmosphere Plasma Sprayed (APS) Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by high energy Synchrotron XRD; Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Image Based Modelling') (Li et al., 2017) [1].

  18. Characterization of projected DWPF glasses heat treated to simulate canister centerline cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-05-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Eventually these canistered waste forms will be sent to a geologic repository for final disposal. In order to assure acceptability by the repository, the Department of Energy has defined requirements which DWPF canistered waste forms must meet. These requirements are the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The WAPS require DWPF to identify the crystalline phases expected to be present in the final glass product. Knowledge of the thermal history of the borosilicate glass during filling and cooldown of the canister is necessary to determine the amount and type of crystalline phases present in the final glass product. Glass samples of seven projected DWPF compositions were cooled following the same temperature profile as that of glass at the centerline of the full-scale DWPF canister. The glasses were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to identify the crystalline phases present The volume percents of each crystalline phase present were determined by quantitative x-ray diffraction. The Product Consistency Test (PCI) was used to determine the durability of the heat-treated glasses

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Heat-Treated AlSi10Mg Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cabrini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work is aimed at studying the effect of microstructural modifications induced by post-processing heat treatments on the corrosion behavior of silicon-aluminum alloys produced by means of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF. The manufacturing technique leads to microstructures characterized by the presence of melt pools, which are quite different compared to casting alloys. In this study, the behavior of an AlSi10Mg alloy was evaluated by means of intergranular corrosion tests according to ISO 11846 standard on heat-treated samples ranging from 200 to 500 °C as well as on untreated samples. We found that temperatures above 200 °C reduced microhardness of the alloy, and different corrosion morphologies occurred due to the modification of both size and distribution of silicon precipitates. Selective penetrating attacks occurred at melt pool borders. The intergranular corrosion phenomena were less intense for as-produced specimens without heat treatments compared to the heat-treated specimens at 200 and 300 °C. General corrosion morphologies were noticed for specimens heat treated at temperatures exceeding 400 °C.

  20. A diet based on high-heat-treated foods promotes risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlouez-Aragon, Inès; Saavedra, Giselle; Tessier, Frédéric J; Galinier, Anne; Ait-Ameur, Lamia; Lacoste, Florence; Niamba, Claude-Narcisse; Alt, Nadja; Somoza, Veronika; Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    The modern Western lifestyle is characterized by the consumption of high-heat-treated foods because of their characteristic taste and flavor. However, it has been shown that treating food at high temperatures can generate potentially harmful compounds that promote inflammation and cardiovascular disease in subjects with diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-heat-treated foods also pose a risk for healthy subjects. A randomized, crossover, diet-controlled intervention trial with 62 volunteers was designed to compare the potential metabolic effects of 2 diets, one that was based on mild steam cooking and another that was based on high-temperature cooking. These 2 diets differed mainly in their contents of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). MRPs were assessed in the diet and in subjects' feces, blood, and urine samples, with N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine as an indicator of MRPs. Biological indicators of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress were analyzed in subjects after 1 mo on each diet. In comparison with the steamed diet, 1 mo of consuming the high-heat-treated diet induced significantly lower insulin sensitivity and plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids and vitamins C and E [-17% (P markers associated with an enhanced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in healthy people. Replacing high-heat-treatment techniques by mild cooking techniques may help to positively modulate biomarkers associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Centrifuge apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartory, Walter K.; Eveleigh, John W.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a continuous flow blood separation centrifuge are provided. The hematocrit of the entrant whole blood is continuously maintained at an optimum constant value by the addition of plasma to the entrant blood. The hematocrit of the separated red cells is monitored to indicate the degree of separation taking place, thereby providing a basis for regulating the flow through the centrifuge.

  2. CASTING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  3. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for the inspection of pipe welds comprises a radiation source for transmitting radiation, say as X-rays, through a pipe weld and a detector in a box arranged diametrically opposite the source, with respect to the pipe, for detecting the transmitted radiation and providing electrical signals which are processed to produce an image of the weld. The source and detector are mounted on a frame which is rotatable about an inner frame clamped to the pipe. (author)

  4. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from raw and heat-treated yellow string beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś, Monika; Jakubczyk, Anna; Szymanowska, Urszula; Materska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, legume plants have been considered not only a source of valuable proteins necessary for the proper functioning and growth of the body but also a source of bioactive compounds such as bioactive peptides, that may be beneficial to human health and protect against negative change in food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the release of antioxidant peptides obtained by hydrolysis of the yellow string beans protein. The antioxidant properties of the hydrolysates were evaluated through free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS) and inhibition of iron activities (chelation of Fe2+). The results show that the heat treatment had influence on both increased peptides content and antioxidant activity after pepsin hydrolysis of string bean protein. The peptides content after protein hydrolysis derived from raw and heat treated beans were noted 2.10 and 2.50 mg·ml-1, respectively. The hydrolysates obtained from raw (PHR) and heat treated (PHT) beans showed better antioxidant properties than protein isolates (PIR and PIT). Moreover, the hydrolysates obtained from heat treated beans showed the higher ability to scavenge DPPH• (46.12%) and ABTS+• (92.32%) than obtained from raw beans (38.02% and 88.24%, correspondingly). The IC50 value for Fe2+ chelating ability for pepsin hydrolysates obtained from raw and heat treatment beans were noted 0.81 and 0.19 mg·ml-1, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the heat treatment string beans caused increase in the antioxidant activities of peptide-rich hydrolysates.

  5. Development of the white cast iron with niobium alloy, heat treating, to wear of the abrasive resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, Alessandro Fraga

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the heat treatment and abrasion tests results of a white cast iron with niobium alloy. The hardening heat treatment were made 950, 1000, 1050 e 110 deg C temperatures cooled by forced air. The tempering treatment were made at 450, 500 e 550 deg C temperatures. The heat treating alloy were compared, in the abrasive tests, with commercial alloys used as hardfacing by welding process in wear pieces. The abrasion tests was realized in pin on disk test. Additional tests were carried out for microstructural characterization to identify the different phases presents in the alloys. In a general way, the alloy studies showed the best wear rate for the heat treatments that results in higher hardness. It performance was superior than that of the commercial alloys. (author)

  6. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inflmmatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey: In vivo approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration reduced significantly (P < 0.05. The carrageenan induced mice paw edema model at 1, 3 and 6 h for 21.85%, 5.43% and 80.43%, respectively. Administration of heat-treated honey showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan and induced paw edema at 1 h (31.16%, 3 h (0.25% and 6 h (34.19%. The 50 mg/kg diclofenac exhibited percent reduction in paw volume 16.12%, 8.90% and 15.32% after 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, when compared with control animals. No toxicity was identified. Conclusions: Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the antiinflammatory activity.

  7. Analysing the Friction Stir Welded Joints of AA2219 Al-Cu Alloy in Different Heat-Treated-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, D.; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Kranthi kumar, B.; Mahapatra, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminium alloy AA2219 is widely used in light weight structural applications where the good corrosion resistance and specific weight required. The fabrication of this alloy using friction stir welding process is gaining interest towards finding the characteristics of the weld metal properties, since this process involved in the welded materials does not melt and recast. In the present investigation, friction stir welding process was used for different heat treated conditions of 2219-T87 and 2219-T62 aluminium alloys to find the influence of base metal on characteristics of the joints. The experimental output results exhibited that, mechanical properties, weld metal characteristics and joint failure locations are significantly affected by the different heat treatment conditions of the substrate. The joints tensile and yield strength of the 2219-T87 welds was higher than the 2219-T62 welds. Hardness distribution in the stir zone was significantly varied between two different heat treaded material conditions. The microstructural features of the 2219-T62 welds reveal the coarse grains formation in the thermo-mechanically affected zone and heat affected zone. The joint efficiency of the 2219- T82 welds is 59.87%, while that of 2219-T62 welds is 39.10%. In addition, the elongation of the joint also varied and the joints failure location characteristics are different for two different types heat treated condition joints.

  8. Retardation of heat exchanger surfaces mineral fouling by water-based diethylenetriamine pentaacetate-treated CNT nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, K.H.; Amiri, Ahmad; Kazi, S.N.; Bakar, M.A.; Chew, B.T.; Al-Shamma’a, A.; Shaw, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Decoration EDTA on MWCNT surface to retard the rate of fouling. • Preparation of DTPA-treated MWCNT/water nanofluid. • Evaluating the mitigation of DTPA-treated MWCNT-based water nanofluids. • Retarding of calcium carbonate crystals by MWCNT-DTPA additives. • The effect of additive on the rate of fouling. - Abstract: Mineral scale deposition on heat exchanging surfaces increases the thermal resistance and reduces the operating service life. The effect is usually intensified at higher temperatures due to the inverse temperature solubility characteristics of some minerals in the cooling water. Scale formation build up when dissolved salt crystallize from solution onto the heated surface, forming an adherent deposit. It is very important for heat transfer applications to cope with the fouling problems in industry. In this present study, a set of fouling experiments was conducted to evaluate the mitigation of calcium carbonate scaling by applying DTPA-treated MWCNT-based water nanofluids on heat exchanger surfaces. Investigation of additive DTPA-treated MWCNT-based water nanofluids (benign to the environment) on fouling rate of deposition was performed. 300 mg L −1 of artificially-hardened calcium carbonate solution was prepared as a fouling solution for deposit analysis. Assessment of the deposition of calcium carbonate on the heat exchanger surface with respect to the inhibition of crystal growth was conducted by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed that the formation of calcium carbonate crystals can be retarded significantly by adding MWCNT-DTPA additives as inhibition in the solution.

  9. Physics-based modeling of live wildland fuel ignition experiments in the Forced Ignition and Flame Spread Test apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Anand; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; S. McAllister; D. R. Weise

    2017-01-01

    A computational study was performed to improve our understanding of the ignition of live fuel in the forced ignition and flame spread test apparatus, a setup where the impact of the heating mode is investigated by subjecting the fuel to forced convection and radiation. An improvement was first made in the physics-based model WFDS where the fuel is treated as fixed...

  10. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A novel apparatus for radiographic examination purposes comprising an x-ray source emitting a flat beam is described. Detectors are arranged in the plane of the beam in order each to pick up part of the beam. To avoid the Compton effect, each detector has associated with it an auxiliary detector which only receives the rays emitted by the Compton effect. An electrical circuit forms a predetermined linear combination of the signals respectively picked up by each detector and the associated auxiliary detector, this in order to prevent the errors which are due to the Compton effect when the beam passes through the body being analyzed

  11. Hardness survey of cold-worked and heat-treated JBK-75 stainless steel alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.J.; Lucas, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The alloy JBK-75, an age-hardenable austenitic stainless steel, is similar to commercial A-286, but has certain chemistry modifications to improve weldability and hydrogen compatibility. The principal changes are an increase in nickel and a decrease in manganese with lower limits on carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and boron. In this study, the effects of solutionizing time and temperature, quench rate, cold working, and the effects of cold working on precipitation kinetics were examined. Findings show that the solutionizing temperature has a moderate effect on the as-quenched hardness, while times greater than that required for solutionizing do not significantly affect hardness. Quench rate was found to have a small effect on as-quenched hardness, however, hardness gradients did not develop in small bars. It was found that JBK-75 can be significantly strengthened by cold working. Cold working alone produced hardness increases from Rockwell-A 49 to R/sub A/ 68. A recovery-related hardness change was noted on heat treating at 300 and 400 0 C for both as-quenched and as-worked JBK-75. Significant age-hardening was observed at temperatures as low as 500 0 C for as-worked metal. Aging at 600 0 C resulted in maximum hardness in the 75 percent worked sample at about 6 hours (R/sub A/ 73.5) while the 50 percent worked sample was near maximum hardness (R/sub A 72.5) after seven days. THE 25 and 0 percent worked samples were considerably underaged after seven days. Similar type kinetic data were obtained for worked and nonworked metal at 650, 700, 800, 850, 900, 1000, and 1100 0 C for times from 10 minutes to 10,000 minutes (6.7 days). The overall purpose of the hardness survey was to better define the effects of cold work on the stress-relieving range, coherent precipitation range, incoherent precipitation range, recrystallization range, solutionizing range, and grain-growth range

  12. Heat-Treated TiO2 Plasma Spray Deposition for Bioactivity Improvement in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, titanium di-oxide (TiO2) coating has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition. Followed by plasma spraying, heat treatment of the sprayed sample has been carried out by isothermally holding it at 823 K (550 °C) for 2 h. Microstructural analysis shows the presence of porosity and unmelted particles on the as-sprayed surface, the area fraction of which reduces after heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the phase transformation from anatase (in precursor powder) to rutile (in as-sprayed coating and the same after heat treatment). There is an improvement in nano-hardness, "Young's modulus" and wear resistance in plasma-sprayed TiO2 coating (as-sprayed as well as post-heat-treated condition) as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V, though post-heat treatment offers a superior hardness, "young's modulus" and wear resistance as compared to as-sprayed coating. The corrosion behavior in "hank's solution" shows decrease in corrosion resistance after plasma spraying and post-heat treatment as compared to as-received substrate. A significant decrease in contact angle and improvement in bioactivity (in terms of apatite deposition) were observed in TiO2-coated surface as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V.

  13. Heat Source Characterization In A TREAT Fuel Particle Using Coupled Neutronics Binary Collision Monte-Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunert, Sebastian; Schwen, Daniel; Ghassemi, Pedram; Baker, Benjamin; Zabriskie, Adam; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Gleicher, Frederick; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a multi-physics, multi-scale approach to modeling the Transient Test Reactor (TREAT) currently prepared for restart at the Idaho National Laboratory. TREAT fuel is made up of microscopic fuel grains (r ˜ 20µm) dispersed in a graphite matrix. The novelty of this work is in coupling a binary collision Monte-Carlo (BCMC) model to the Finite Element based code Moose for solving a microsopic heat-conduction problem whose driving source is provided by the BCMC model tracking fission fragment energy deposition. This microscopic model is driven by a transient, engineering scale neutronics model coupled to an adiabatic heating model. The macroscopic model provides local power densities and neutron energy spectra to the microscpic model. Currently, no feedback from the microscopic to the macroscopic model is considered. TREAT transient 15 is used to exemplify the capabilities of the multi-physics, multi-scale model, and it is found that the average fuel grain temperature differs from the average graphite temperature by 80 K despite the low-power transient. The large temperature difference has strong implications on the Doppler feedback a potential LEU TREAT core would see, and it underpins the need for multi-physics, multi-scale modeling of a TREAT LEU core.

  14. Enhanced inhibition of Aspergillus niger on sedge (Lepironia articulata) treated with heat-cured lime oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matan, N; Matan, N; Ketsa, S

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to examine heat curing effect (30-100°C) on antifungal activities of lime oil and its components (limonene, p-cymene, β-pinene and α-pinene) at concentrations ranging from 100 to 300 μl ml(-1) against Aspergillus niger in microbiological medium and to optimize heat curing of lime oil for efficient mould control on sedge (Lepironia articulata). Broth dilution method was employed to determine lime oil minimum inhibitory concentration, which was at 90 μl ml(-1) with heat curing at 70°C. Limonene, a main component of lime oil, was an agent responsible for temperature dependencies of lime oil activities observed. Response surface methodology was used to construct the mathematical model describing a time period of zero mould growth on sedge as functions of heat curing temperature and lime oil concentration. Heat curing of 90 μl ml(-1) lime oil at 70°C extended a period of zero mould growth on sedge to 18 weeks under moist conditions. Heat curing at 70°C best enhanced antifungal activity of lime oil against A. niger both in medium and on sedge. Heat curing of lime oil has potential to be used to enhance the antifungal safety of sedge products. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Using heat-treated starch to modify the surface of biochar and improve the tensile properties of biochar-filled stryene-butadiene rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat-treated starch is a renewable material that can be used to modify the surface chemistry of small particles. In this work, heat-treated starch was used to coat hydrophilic biochar particles in order to make them more hydrophobic. Then when added as filler to hydrophobic styrene-butadiene rubber,...

  16. Structure, Properties, and In Vitro Behavior of Heat-Treated Calcium Sulfate Scaffolds Fabricated by 3D Printing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Asadi-Eydivand

    Full Text Available The ability of inkjet-based 3D printing (3DP to fabricate biocompatible ceramics has made it one of the most favorable techniques to generate bone tissue engineering (BTE scaffolds. Calcium sulfates exhibit various beneficial characteristics, and they can be used as a promising biomaterial in BTE. However, low mechanical performance caused by the brittle character of ceramic materials is the main weakness of 3DP calcium sulfate scaffolds. Moreover, the presence of certain organic matters in the starting powder and binder solution causes products to have high toxicity levels. A post-processing treatment is usually employed to improve the physical, chemical, and biological behaviors of the printed scaffolds. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the structural, mechanical, and physical characteristics of 3DP calcium sulfate prototypes were investigated. Different microscopy and spectroscopy methods were employed to characterize the printed prototypes. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the specimens was also evaluated before and after heat treatment. Results showed that the as-printed scaffolds and specimens heat treated at 300°C exhibited severe toxicity in vitro but had almost adequate strength. By contrast, the specimens heat treated in the 500°C-1000°C temperature range, although non-toxic, had insufficient mechanical strength, which was mainly attributed to the exit of the organic binder before 500°C and the absence of sufficient densification below 1000°C. The sintering process was accelerated at temperatures higher than 1000°C, resulting in higher compressive strength and less cytotoxicity. An anhydrous form of calcium sulfate was the only crystalline phase existing in the samples heated at 500°C-1150°C. The formation of calcium oxide caused by partial decomposition of calcium sulfate was observed in the specimens heat treated at temperatures higher than 1200°C. Although considerable improvements in cell viability of heat-treated

  17. Numerical model to predict microstructure of the heat treated of steel elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In work the presented numerical models of tool steel hardening processes take into account thermal phenomena and phase transformations. Numerical algorithm of thermal phenomena was based on the Finite Elements Methods of the heat transfer equations. In the model of phase transformations, in simulations heating process continuous heating (CHT was applied, whereas in cooling process continuous cooling (CCT of the steel at issue. The phase fraction transformed (austenite during heating and fractions during cooling of ferrite, pearlite or bainite are determined by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formulas. The nescent fraction of martensite is determined by Koistinen and Marburger formula or modified Koistinen and Marburger formula. In the simulations of hardening was subject the fang lathe of cone (axisymmetrical object made of tool steel.

  18. Heat response of mouse tumor cells treated with 5-thio-D-glucose and Rhodamine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, J.G.; Lyons, J.C.; Song, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cellular heat-sensitivity has been known to depend on intracellular energy. The authors studied the thermal response of cultured SCK mammary carcinoma cells in vitro, following glycolytic inhibition with 5-thio-D-glucose (TG) and mitochondrial inactivation with Rhodamine-123 (Rh). The cells in exponential growth phase in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with serum and antibiotics were exposed to medium containing Rh and/or TG, heated in a prewarmed water bath, and the clonogenic survivals of the heated cells were determined. Thermal cell killing by the 30 min. heating was increased, when 10 and 20 μg/ml Rh were present in the medium at temperatures above 42 0 and 40 0 C, respectively. The slope of the heat survival curve for 43 0 C heating became steeper in the presence of 10 and 20 μg/ml Rh, and the initial shoulder of the survival curve was unaltered at the dose of 10 μg/ml Rh, but disappeared at 20 μg/ml. A TG dose of 3 mg/ml, which is about 10 times that necessary to kill 90% of cells in 5 hrs. under hypoxic condition, was ineffective in altering any parameters of the heat survival curve of aerobic cells. The combined effect of TG and Rh on the thermal cell killing in aerobic condition did not exceed the effect of Rh alone. The above results indicate that the energy supply derived by mitochondria is an important determinant for the shape of heat survival curve of the proliferating and aerobic SCK tumor cells

  19. Comparing the energy required for fine grinding torrefied and fast heat treated pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokko, Lauri; Tolvanen, Henrik; Hämäläinen, Kai; Raiko, Risto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare torrefaction to partial pyrolysis conducted with a fast heat treatment process. Both torrefaction and the fast heat treatment tests were performed in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The study investigated the anhydrous weight losses, the fine grinding energy requirements, and the lower heating values of the samples produced with the two methods i.e. torrefaction and the fast heat treatment. The effect of particle size to these quantities was also investigated. The measurements demonstrated that the fine grinding energy requirement decreased rapidly as a function of anhydrous weight loss. The overall energy content remaining in the solid product decreased linearly as a function of anhydrous weight loss. The study shows that there is only little difference in the final products of the two processes when using particle sizes less than 4 mm. This means that it is possible to get similar products from the fast heat treatment process that takes only seconds compared to the slower torrefaction process that takes minutes. -- Highlights: ► Fine grinding energy requirement is dependent on anhydrous weight loss. ► A fast heat treatment process of only 10 s is possible for pine wood. ► A particle size of less than 4 mm is required for the fast process.

  20. Chemistry and heat-treatment effects on mechanical and microstructural properties of heat-treated, beta-extruded Ti--6A1--6V--2Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulitchny, M.G.; Rack, H.J.; Dawson, D.B.

    1979-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of beta-extruded Ti--6A1--6V--2Sn was examined after a variety of sub-transus heat treatments. The microstructural variations resulting from the range of heat treatments studied also were examined. A range of alloy chemistries, within commercial limits, was used to evaluate the effect of this variable on mechanical properties. The strength--toughness combinations obtained in beta-extruded Ti--6A1--6V--2Sn ranged from about 895 MPa and 82.5 MPa√m for duplex annealed material to 1200 MPa and 54.9 MPa√m for solution treated and peak aged material. Chemistry variations had less effect on mechanical properties than would have been the case with alpha--beta processing

  1. Thermoforming apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallsten, H.I.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for manufacturing articles is disclosed in which a preheated sheet of thermoplastic material is intermittently fed to present successive preheated portions of the sheet in a work station having a forming tool for forming articles in each successive sheet portion and a stamping tool for co-operating with the forming tool to stamp the formed articles from the sheet. The forming tool has a plurality of forming dies which are movable successively and cyclically into the work station for forming articles in respective successive sheet portions. After each forming operation the stamping tool is brought into engagement with a resilient counter-surface on the forming die to stamp from the sheet the articles formed by that die

  2. Radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    This patent application describes a radiographic apparatus including an array of radiation sensors, a source of radiation for projecting a beam through a body and means for moving one of said source and array relative to the body and for producing an electrical signal representative of the movement of the other of said source and array needed to bring the array into register with the beam. Drive means are arranged to move the other of said source and array in response to the electrical signal. In one embodiment, the source is rotated by an amount measured by a grating and associated electronics. The required movement of the array to maintain registration is calculated and transmitted to a driver. Alternatively, a laser may be mounted with the same and the array driven so that the laser beam continuously impinges on a photocell mounted with the array. (author)

  3. Heat Release Property and Fire Performance of the Nomex/Cotton Blend Fabric Treated with a Nonformaldehyde Organophosphorus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Q. Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blending Nomex® with cotton improves its affordability and serviceability. Because cotton is a highly flammable fiber, Nomex®/cotton blend fabrics containing more than 20% cotton require flame-retardant treatment. In this research, combination of a hydroxyl functional organophosphorus oligmer (HFPO and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA was used for flame retardant finishing of the 65/35 Nomex®/cotton blend woven fabric. The system contains HFPO as a flame retardant, BTCA as a bonding agent, and triethenolamine (TEA as a reactive additive used to enhance the performance of HFPO/BTCA. Addition of TEA improves the hydrolysis resistance of the HFPO/BTCA crosslinked polymeric network on the blend fabric. Additionally, TEA enhances HFPO’s flame retardant performance by reducing formation of calcium salts and also by providing synergistic nitrogen to the treated blend fabric. The Nomex®/cotton blend fabric treated with the HFPO/BTCA/TEA system shows high flame resistance and high laundering durability at a relatively low HFPO concentration of 8% (w/w. The heat release properties of the treated Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were measured using microscale combustion calorimetry. The functions of BTCA; HFPO and TEA on the Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were elucidated based on the heat release properties, char formation, and fire performance of the treated blend fabric.

  4. Nanostructures obtained from a mechanically alloyed and heat treated molybdenum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barriga Arceo, L.; Orozco, E.; Mendoza-Leon, H.; Palacios Gonzalez, E.; Leyte Guerrero, F.; Garibay Febles, V.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare molybdenum carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Molybdenum carbide was heated at 800 o C for 15 min in order to produce carbon nanotubes. Nanoparticles of about 50-140 nm in diameter and nanotubes with diameters of about 70-260 nm and 0.18-0.3 μm in length were obtained after heating at 800 o C, by means of this process

  5. Nanostructures obtained from a mechanically alloyed and heat treated molybdenum carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barriga Arceo, L. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico) and ESIQIE-UPALM, IPN Apdo Postal 118-395, C.P. 07051 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: luchell@yahoo.com; Orozco, E. [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apdo Postal 20-364, C.P. 01000 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: eorozco@fisica.unam.mx; Mendoza-Leon, H. [ESIQIE-UPALM, IPN Apdo Postal 118-395, C.P. 07051 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: luchell@yahoo.com; Palacios Gonzalez, E. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: epalacio@imp.mx; Leyte Guerrero, F. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: fleyte@imp.mx; Garibay Febles, V. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: vgaribay@imp.mx

    2007-05-31

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare molybdenum carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Molybdenum carbide was heated at 800 {sup o}C for 15 min in order to produce carbon nanotubes. Nanoparticles of about 50-140 nm in diameter and nanotubes with diameters of about 70-260 nm and 0.18-0.3 {mu}m in length were obtained after heating at 800 {sup o}C, by means of this process.

  6. Wide-angle X-ray scattering study of heat-treated PEEK and PEEK composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre; Gupta, Amitava

    1987-01-01

    Samples of poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) neat resin and APC-2 carbon fiber composite were subjected to various heat treatments, and the effect of quenching and annealing treatments was studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. It is found that high-temperature treatments may introduce disorder into neat resin and composite PEEK when followed by rapid cooling. The disorder is metastable and can revert to ordered state when the material is heated above its glass transition temperature and then cooled slowly. The disorder may result from residual thermal stresses.

  7. Adsorption and release of ofloxacin from acid- and heat-treated halloysite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Junping; Zheng, Yue; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-01-01

    Halloysite nanotube is an ideal vehicle of the controlled release of drugs. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of acid- and heat-treatments on the physicochemical properties, structure and morphology of halloysite by XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM. Afterwards, the adsorption and in vitro release properties of halloysite for cationic ofloxacin (OFL) were evaluated. The results indicate that HCl treatment has no influence on the crystal structure of halloysite, whereas it becomes amorphous after calcined at temperature higher than 500 °C. Both acid- and heat-treatments have no evident influence on the tubular structure of halloysite. OFL was adsorbed onto halloysite via electrostatic interaction between protonated OFL and negative halloysite surface, cation exchange as well as electrostatic interaction between the OFL-Al(3+) complexes and the negative halloysite surface. Acid-treatment facilitates the release of the adsorbed OFL compared with the natural halloysite in spite of a slight decrease of adsorption capacity. However, heat-treatment results in a sharp decrease of adsorption capacity for OFL owning to the OFL-promoted dissolution of aluminum and the disappearance of the porous structure. Although heat-treatment also facilitates release of the adsorbed OFL, the amount of OFL released is in fact less than the natural halloysite owing to the very low adsorption capacity. Thus, acid-activation is an effective protocol to improve the adsorption and release of halloysite for cationic drug molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermophysical properties of heat-treated U-7Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Tae Won; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jong Man; Lee, Kyu Hong; Kim, Sunghwan; Lee, Chong Tak; Yang, Jae Ho; Oh, Jang Soo; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of interaction layer (IL) on thermophysical properties of U-7Mo/Al dispersion fuel were examined. Microstructural analyses revealed that ILs were formed uniformly on U-Mo particles during heating of U-7Mo/Al samples. The IL volume fraction was measured by applying image analysis methods. The uranium loadings of the samples were calculated based on the measured meat densities at 298 K. The density of the IL was estimated by using the measured density and IL volume fraction. Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of the samples after the heat treatment were measured as a function of temperature and volume fractions of U-Mo and IL. The thermal conductivity of IL-formed U-7Mo/Al was derived by using the measured thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and density. The thermal conductivity obtained in the present study was lower than that predicted by the modified Hashin–Shtrikman model due to the theoretical model’s inability to consider the thermal resistance at interfaces between the meat constituents.

  9. Thermophysical properties of heat-treated U-7Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tae Won; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jong Man; Lee, Kyu Hong; Kim, Sunghwan; Lee, Chong Tak; Yang, Jae Ho; Oh, Jang Soo; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of interaction layer (IL) on thermophysical properties of U-7Mo/Al dispersion fuel were examined. Microstructural analyses revealed that ILs were formed uniformly on U-Mo particles during heating of U-7Mo/Al samples. The IL volume fraction was measured by applying image analysis methods. The uranium loadings of the samples were calculated based on the measured meat densities at 298 K. The density of the IL was estimated by using the measured density and IL volume fraction. Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of the samples after the heat treatment were measured as a function of temperature and volume fractions of U-Mo and IL. The thermal conductivity of IL-formed U-7Mo/Al was derived by using the measured thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and density. The thermal conductivity obtained in the present study was lower than that predicted by the modified Hashin-Shtrikman model due to the theoretical model's inability to consider the thermal resistance at interfaces between the meat constituents.

  10. Elastic and Strength Properties of Heat-Treated Beech and Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Borůvka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of heat treatment on the elastic and strength properties of two diffuse porous hardwoods, namely Fagus sylvatica and Betula pendula. Two degrees of the heat treatment were used at temperatures of 165 °C and 210 °C. The dynamic and static elasticity modulus, bending strength, impact toughness, hardness, and density were tested. It is already known that an increase in treatment temperature decreases the mechanical properties and, on the other hand, leads to a better shape and dimensional stability. Higher temperatures of the heat treatment correlated with lower elastic and strength properties. In the case of higher temperature treatments, the decline of tested properties was noticeable as a result of serious changes in the chemical composition of wood. It was confirmed that at higher temperature stages of treatment, there was a more pronounced decrease in beech properties compared to those of the birch, which was the most evident in their bending strength and hardness. Our research confirmed that there is no reason to consider birch wood to be of a lesser quality, although it is regarded by foresters as an inferior tree species. After the heat treatment, the wood properties are almost the same as in the case of beech wood.

  11. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of as-cast and heat-treated microstructures of Mg-Ce-Nd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, Joachim; Kozlov, Artem; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer; Easton, Mark A.; Zhu Suming; Gibson, Mark A.; Nie, Jian-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Alloys based on Mg-rare earth (RE) systems are of increasing technical interest in automotive powertrain applications due to their superior elevated temperature creep resistance. However, there is a deficiency in the literature of phase diagrams of multi-component RE systems that could assist alloy development and composition refinement for enhanced property optimization. The phase relationships in the Mg-rich corner of the Mg-Ce-Nd system have been investigated through the evaluation of selected compositions in the as-cast and heat-treated condition. Consistent thermodynamic CALPHAD-type assessments have also been generated for the Mg-Ce-Nd system. It is shown that this system reveals a significant degree of metastability under technologically significant solidification conditions (i.e. permanent-mould or high-pressure die casting). This is simulated in thermodynamic calculations by suppression of the RE 5 Mg 41 phase and reasonable agreement is found with the as-cast microstructures. After heat treatment these microstructures transform, depending on the alloy composition, into phase assemblies consistent with the calculated stable equilibrium phase diagram. It is the elucidation of such metastable phase formation and the subsequent transformation from the as-cast to the heat-treated state that is a particular strength of the thermodynamic approach and which makes it a powerful tool for alloy development.

  13. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries the most likely vehicle of a norovirus outbreak in Oslo, Norway, November 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einöder-Moreno, M; Lange, H; Grepp, M; Osborg, E; Vainio, K; Vold, L

    2016-10-01

    In November 2013, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of a gastroenteritis outbreak following two meetings held at a conference centre. Identical food and beverages were served during the meetings. We investigated in order to identify the vehicle of infection and implement control measures. Meeting participants completed an online questionnaire on consumption of foods and beverages. We asked symptomatic participants to provide a stool sample. We defined a case as diarrhoea and/or vomiting in a participant who became ill within 3 days after the meeting. We calculated attack rates (AR) and adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using binomial regression. We conducted environmental investigations. Overall, 147/168 (88%) participants responded, of which 74 (50%) met the case definition. All five stool samples provided were norovirus positive. No kitchen staff reported being sick. Risk of illness was higher in those who consumed raspberry mousse (aRR 3·4, 95% CI 1·4-8·2) and sliced fresh fruit (aRR 1·9, 95% CI 1·3-2·8). Seventy cases (95%) ate raspberry mousse. Frozen raspberries used for the mousse were imported and not heat-treated before consumption. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries were the most likely outbreak vehicle. Contamination by a food handler could not be excluded. We recommend heat-treatment of imported frozen berries before consumption.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of as-cast and heat-treated microstructures of Mg-Ce-Nd alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groebner, Joachim; Kozlov, Artem [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer, E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Easton, Mark A.; Zhu Suming [CAST CRC, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gibson, Mark A. [CAST CRC, CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Nie, Jian-Feng [CAST CRC, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    Alloys based on Mg-rare earth (RE) systems are of increasing technical interest in automotive powertrain applications due to their superior elevated temperature creep resistance. However, there is a deficiency in the literature of phase diagrams of multi-component RE systems that could assist alloy development and composition refinement for enhanced property optimization. The phase relationships in the Mg-rich corner of the Mg-Ce-Nd system have been investigated through the evaluation of selected compositions in the as-cast and heat-treated condition. Consistent thermodynamic CALPHAD-type assessments have also been generated for the Mg-Ce-Nd system. It is shown that this system reveals a significant degree of metastability under technologically significant solidification conditions (i.e. permanent-mould or high-pressure die casting). This is simulated in thermodynamic calculations by suppression of the RE{sub 5}Mg{sub 41} phase and reasonable agreement is found with the as-cast microstructures. After heat treatment these microstructures transform, depending on the alloy composition, into phase assemblies consistent with the calculated stable equilibrium phase diagram. It is the elucidation of such metastable phase formation and the subsequent transformation from the as-cast to the heat-treated state that is a particular strength of the thermodynamic approach and which makes it a powerful tool for alloy development.

  15. Magnetic force microscopy characterization of heat and current treated Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Ignacio; Iturriza, Nuria; Jose del Val, Juan; Grande, Hans; Pomposo, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Julian

    2010-01-01

    The domain structure of a magnetostrictive Fe 40 Ni 38 Mo 4 B 18 amorphous ribbon has been studied using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) at room temperature. First, the evolution of the magnetic domain patterns as a function of the annealing temperature has been investigated. In samples heat treated at 250 and 450 deg. C for 1 h, a transformation from 90 deg. to 180 deg. domain wall has been clearly observed, while the sample heat treated at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed a magnetic phase fixed by the crystalline anisotropy. Additionally, the evolution of the magnetic domain structure by applying a DC current was recorded by the MFM technique. For current annealed samples at 1 A for 1, 30 and 60 min, a transformation between different domain patterns has been observed. Finally, in samples treated by the current annealing method under simultaneous stress, an increase of the annealing time gives rise to a different magnetic structure arising from the development of transverse magnetic anisotropy.

  16. Metallurgical and Corrosion Characterization of POST Weld Heat Treated Duplex Stainless Steel (uns S31803) Joints by Friction Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif M., Mohammed; Shrikrishna, Kulkarni Anup; Sathiya, P.

    2016-02-01

    The present study focuses on the metallurgical and corrosion characterization of post weld heat treated duplex stainless steel joints. After friction welding, it was confirmed that there is an increase in ferrite content at weld interface due to dynamic recrystallization. This caused the weldments prone to pitting corrosion attack. Hence the post weld heat treatments were performed at three temperatures 1080∘C, 1150∘C and 1200∘C with 15min of aging time. This was followed by water and oil quenching. The volume fraction of ferrite to austenite ratio was balanced and highest pit nucleation resistance were achieved after PWHT at 1080∘C followed by water quench and at 1150∘C followed by oil quench. This had happened exactly at parameter set containing heating pressure (HP):40 heating time (HT):4 upsetting pressure (UP):80 upsetting time (UP):2 (experiment no. 5). Dual phase presence and absence of precipitates were conformed through TEM which follow Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship. PREN of ferrite was decreasing with increase in temperature and that of austenite increased. The equilibrium temperature for water quenching was around 1100∘C and that for oil quenching was around 1140∘C. The pit depths were found to be in the range of 100nm and width of 1.5-2μm.

  17. Purification apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortenson, C.W.

    1982-04-27

    An apparatus is provided for converting sea or other undrinkable waters to drinkable water without the use of driven or moving parts. Reliance upon gradient effects is made to effect the vaporization of, for example, sea water, followed by the condensation of the vapor to form distilled water. Gradient effects are achieved through the provision of differentials in the thermal conductivity, capillary activity, adsorptive, absorptive and/or pressure characteristics of particulate materials, or combinations of such physicals. For example, a column is packed with material graded as to its conductivity, the least thermally conductive material being nearest the cold or ambient water that is to be purified. In packing the column each successive layer of material has a greater thermal conductivity than the layer beneath it with the most conductive being at the top near the outlet arm of the column. The final outlet arm or tube is unheated or is at a temperature lower than that of the topmost conductive material so that vapor reaching the outlet tube gets condensed. This tube leads to a container kept in a cool place as, for example, buried in the ground, as, for instance, at the seashore deep enough to be cooled or to be surrounded by water, thus keeping the condensate cold. Pure water so collected is removed by such means as is desired. Other impure, volatile liquids may be similarly purified.

  18. Prototyping Energy Efficient Thermo-Magnetic & Induction Hardening for Heat Treat & Net Shape Forming Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquil Ahmad

    2012-08-03

    Within this project, Eaton undertook the task of bringing about significant impact with respect to sustainability. One of the major goals for the Department of Energy is to achieve energy savings with a corresponding reduction in carbon foot print. The use of a coupled induction heat treatment with high magnetic field heat treatment makes possible not only improved performance alloys, but with faster processing times and lower processing energy, as well. With this technology, substitution of lower cost alloys for more exotic alloys became a possibility; microstructure could be tailored for improved magnetic properties or wear resistance or mechanical performance, as needed. A prototype commercial unit has been developed to conduct processing of materials. Testing of this equipment has been conducted and results demonstrate the feasibility for industrial commercialization.

  19. An Experimental Investigation on Hardness and Microstructure of Heat Treated EN 9 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Palash; Kundu, Arnab; Mondal, Dhiraj

    2017-08-01

    In the modern engineering world, extensive research has led to the development of some special grades of steel, often suited for enhanced functions. EN 9 steel is one such grade, having major applications in power plants, automobile and aerospace industry. Different heat treatment processes are employed to achieve high hardness and high wear resistance, but machinability subsequently decreases. Existing literature is not sufficient to achieve a balance between hardness and machinability. The aim of this experimental work is to determine the hardness values and observe microstructural changes in EN9 steel, when it is subjected to annealing, normalizing and quenching. Finally, the effects of tempering after each of these heat treatments on hardness and microstructure have also been shown. It is seen that the tempering after normalizing the specimen achieved satisfactory results. The microstructure was also observed to be consisting of fine grains.

  20. Structural characterization of heat treated pitch by solid state /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfihi, H.; Tougne, P.; Legrand, A.P.; Couderc, P.; Saint-Romain, J.L.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine structural parameters (aromaticity factor, fractions of protonated and non-protonated aromatic carbons) of some pitches, and to follow their evolution as a function of the heat treatment duration. For such a determination, /sup 13/C-/sup 1/H cross polarization combined with magic angle spinning and dipolar dephasing (CP/MAS/DD) NMR was used. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Microstructural study and numerical simulation of phase decomposition of heat treated Co–Cu alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Mebed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of heat treatment on the phase decomposition and the grain size of Co–10 at% Cu alloy were studied. Few samples were aged in a furnace for either 3 or 5 h and then quenched in iced water. The materials and phase compositions were investigated using energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the samples contained Co, Cu, CuO, CoCu2O3, CoCuO2 phases in different proportions depending on the heat treatment regimes. The formation of dendrite Co phase rendered the spinodal decomposition while the oxidations prevent the initiation of the spinodal decomposition even for a deep long aging inside the miscibility gap. Since the Bragg reflections from different phases of Co–Cu alloy significantly overlap, the crystal structural parameters were refined with FULLPROF program. The shifts in the refined lattice constants (a, b and c, the space group and the grain size were found to be phase- and heat treatment-dependant. Two-dimensional computer simulations were conducted to study the phase decomposition of Co–Cu binary alloy systems. The excess free energy as well as the strain energy, without a priori knowledge of the shape or the position of the new phase, was precisely evaluated. The results indicate that the morphology and the shape of the microstructure agree with SEM observation.

  2. Phase assemblage study and cytocompatibility property of heat treated potassium magnesium phosphate-silicate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Kalmodia, Sushma; Nath, Shekhar; Singh, Dileep; Basu, Bikramjit

    2009-08-01

    This article reports the study on a new generation bioactive ceramic, based on MgKPO(4) (Magnesium Potassium Phosphate, abbreviated as MKP) for biomedical applications. A series of heat treatment experiments on the slip cast silica (SiO(2)) containing MKP ceramics were carried out at 900, 1,000 and 1,100 degrees C for 4 h in air. The density of the slip cast ceramic increases to 2.5 gm/cm(3) upon heat treatment at 900 degrees C. However, no significant change in density is measured upon heat treatment to higher temperature of 1,000 and 1,100 degrees C. On the basis of XRD results, the presence of K(2)MgSi(5)O(12) and dehydrated MgKPO(4) were confirmed and complementary information has also been obtained using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. In order to confirm the in vitro cytocompatibility property, the cell culture tests were carried out on selected samples and the results reveal good cell adhesion and spreading of L929 mouse fibroblast cells. MTT assay analysis with L929 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic behavior of MKP containing ceramics and the results are comparable with sintered HAp ceramics. It is expected that the newly developed MKP based materials could be a good substitute for hydroxyapatite (HAp or HA) based bioceramics.

  3. Time course of surface characteristics of alkali- and heat-treated titanium dental implants during vacuum storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Michimasa; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Miyaji, Fumiaki

    2017-08-01

    Current efforts to shorten the healing times of life-long dental implants and prevent their fouling by organic impurities have focused on using surface-modification treatments and alternative packaging, respectively. In this study, we investigated the time course of the surface characteristics, including the wettability, a protein-adsorption and apatite-formation abilities, of alkali- and heat-treated (AH-treated) Ti samples during storage in vacuum over a period of 52 weeks. The AH treatment resulted in the formation of a nanometer-scale needle-like rougher surface of the Ti samples. Although the water contact angle of the AH-treated Ti sample increased slightly, it remained as low as approximately 10° even after storage in vacuum for 52 weeks. There was no significant difference in the protein-adsorption and apatite-formation abilities of the AH-treated Ti sample before and after storage. Further, the AH-treated Ti sample exhibited greater protein-adsorption and apatite-formation abilities compared with the untreated one; regardless of the samples stored in vacuum or not. Apatite formed only on the AH-treated Ti surface. Therefore, subjecting Ti dental implants to the AH treatment and storing them in vacuum should help prevent their surfaces from getting contaminated. Further, it is expected that AH-treated Ti dental implants controllably aged during a shelf storage will exhibit high stability and bone-bonding bioactivity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1453-1460, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  5. Radioactive waste treatment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Chellis, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment apparatus is disclosed in which the waste is burned in a controlled combustion process, the ash residue from the combustion process is removed and buried, the gaseous effluent is treated in a scrubbing solution the pH of which is maintained constant by adding an alkaline compound to the solution while concurrently extracting a portion of the scrubbing solution, called the blowdown stream. The blowdown stream is fed to the incinerator where it is evaporated and the combustibles in the blowdown stream burned and the gaseous residue sent to the scrubbing solution. Gases left after the scrubbing process are treated to remove iodides and are filtered and passed into the atmosphere

  6. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  7. Characterization of residual stresses in heat treated Ti-6Al-4V forgings by machining induced distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To provide a solid base for improved material exploitation in dimensioning calculations it is necessary to determine the stress state in the part prior to service loading. In order to achieve higher material strength at elevated temperatures, the surface temperature gradient with respect to time has to be sufficiently high during heat treatment. This results in non-negligable residual stresses that can reduce the allowable load level upon which yielding occurs. For titanium alloys there are two common heat treatments, namely solution treatment and mill annealing. The latter one is the method of choice within the presented project. Mill annealing is utilized in order to significantly reduce the residual stresses in the parts without loosing much of the improved strength at elevated temperatures. Quantification of residual stresses is done by solving an inverse problem. From the measurement of distortion, induced by dividing the investigated part, the residual stress state can be calculated via analytical modeling or correlation with finite element models. To assure a minimum perturbation of the residual stress state during specimen production, dividing of the part is accomplished by electric discharge machining. The parts of interest are v-shaped prisms with a length of approximatly 450 mm and a thickness in the cross sectional area from about 20 mm to 45 mm. Figure 1(a shows the forged part and 1(b the dimensions of the cross section in millimeters as well as the material properties considered in the finite element model. The heat exchange between the part and the environment is modelled as heat transfer by convection superimposed with heat radiation. Since the parts are exposed to air during forging and heat treatment, the surface develops a strongly adhesive oxide layer, the so called alpha-case. After forging the parts are cooled in air and heat treated at a temperature of 720° C for a duration of 120 min. Subsequent air cooling and

  8. Method to treat a product infested with microorganisms with ionizing radiation and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.

    1977-01-01

    The method applies to the reduction of the number of germs in infected products by combined treatment of the microorganisms with ionizing radiation and raised temperatures. In this process, at least part of the energy lost in the irradiation unit (e.g. electron linear accelerator or X-ray unit), which is not converted into ionizing radiation is used to heat the product. The invention can be used in the field of food and animal food treatment, for the sterilisation of medical equipment, or for the pasteurisation of waste water and fertilizers. (VJ) [de

  9. Tribological Response of Heat Treated AISI 52100 Steels Against Steel and Ceramic Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türedi E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AISI 52100 bearing steels are commonly used in applications requiring high hardness and abrasion resistance. The bearing steels are working under dynamic loads in service conditions and their toughness properties become important. In order to provide the desired mechanical properties, various heat treatments (austenizing, quenching and tempering are usually applied. In this study, AISI 52100 bearing steel samples were austenized at 900°C for ½ h and water quenched to room temperature. Then tempering was carried out at 795°C, 400°C and 200°C for ½ h. In order to investigate the effect of heat treatment conditions on wear behavior, dry friction tests were performed according to ASTM G99-05 Standard with a ‘ball-on-disk’ type tribometer. The samples were tested against steel and ceramic counterparts using the parameters of 100 m distance and 30 N load and 0.063 m/s rotational speed. After wear test, the surface characterization was carried out using microscopy. Wear loss values were calculated using a novel optical method on both flat and counterpart specimens.

  10. Safe corrosion inhibitor for treating cooling water on heat power engineering plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Khasanova, D. I.; Mukhutdinova, E. R.; Safin, D. Kh.; Sharifullin, I. G.

    2017-08-01

    Heat power engineering (HPE) consumes significant volumes of water. There are, therefore, problems associated with corrosion, biological fouling, salt deposits, and sludge formation on functional surfaces of heat power equipment. One of the effective ways to solve these problems is the use of inhibitory protection. The development of new Russian import-substituting environmentally friendly inhibitors is very relevant. This work describes experimental results on the OPC-800 inhibitor (TU 2415-092-00206 457-2013), which was produced at Karpov Chemical Plant and designed to remove mineral deposits, scale, and biological fouling from the surfaces of water-rotation node systems on HPE objects. This reagent is successfully used as an effective corrosion inhibitor in the water recycling systems of Tatarstan petrochemical enterprises. To save fresh make-up water, the circulating system is operated in a no-blow mode, which is characterized by high evaporation and salt content coefficients. It was experimentally found that corrosion rate upon treatment of recycled water with the OPC-800 inhibitor is 0.08-0.10 mm/year. HPE mainly uses inhibitors based on oxyethylidene diphosphonic (OEDPA) and nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (NTMPA) acids. The comparative characteristic of inhibition efficiency for OPC-800 and OEDF-Zn-U2 is given. The results obtained indicate that OPC-800 can be used as an inhibitor for treatment of cooling water in HPE plants. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the features of water rotation of a thermal power plant.

  11. Characterisation of electrodeposited and heat-treated Ni-Mo-P coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Regis L.; Casciano, Paulo N.S.; Correia, Adriana N.; Lima-Neto, Pedro de, E-mail: pln@ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The electrodeposition, hardness and corrosion resistance properties of Ni-Mo-P coatings were investigated. Characterisations of the electrodeposited coatings were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. Corrosion tests were performed at room temperature in 10-1 mol dm-3 NaCl solutions and by potentiodynamic linear polarisation. Amorphous Ni-Mo-P coatings were successfully obtained by electrodeposition using direct current. The coating composition showed to be dependent on the bath composition, current density and bath temperature. Both P and Mo contents contribute for the hardness properties of the Ni-Mo-P coatings and the absence of cracks is a requirement to produce electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P coatings with good hardness properties. The hardness values increase with heat-treatment temperature due to the precipitation of Ni, Ni{sub 3}P and NiMo phases during the heat treatment. The corrosion resistance of the electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P amorphous coatings increases with P content in the layer. Among the electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P amorphous coatings, Ni{sub 78}Mo{sub 10}P{sub 12} presented the best hardness and corrosion-resistance properties. The results showed that the addition of P is beneficial for the hardness and corrosion resistance properties of the Ni-Mo-based coatings. (author)

  12. Study of the distribution of alloying elements between the phases of a heat treated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, N.; Greday, T.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of some low-alloy steels during industrial heat treatments is systematically studied. Firstly, the influence of the chemical analysis of the steel, the shape and size of carbides on the kinetics of the dissolution of these carbides at high temperature is pointed out in the case of steels with a relatively simple chemical analysis. Secondly, the effect of tempering treatments on the mechanical properties and characteristic parameters of the microstructure is studied in the case of three low-alloy steels. Bainitic microstructure appears to be the less disturbed one after a tempering treatment. Against, martensitic microstructures undergo an important softening and the mechanical properties of the pearlite lie as a very low level whatever their heat treatment. Peculiar conditions of tempering promotes a fine precipitation and its combined secondary hardening. These conditions are related to both chemical analysis and initial microstructure of the steel. Besides, some chemical identifications were performed in the scanning electron microscope on alloyed carbides precipitated in the steel during very long time tempering treatments

  13. Residual stress measurements by X-ray and neutron diffractions in heat-treated SiCw/A2014 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Takahisa; Fujita, Motoo; Tomota, Yo; Ono, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses due to various heat treatments in a 22 volume percent SiC whisker/A2014 metal matrix composite (MMC) were measured by using X-ray and neutron diffractions. Micro residual stresses generated from the differences in thermal expansion coefficients of the constituents and macro residual stresses associated with different cooling rates in the outer and inner regions of an MMC specimen must be distinguished in X-ray stress measurements. The conventional sin 2 ψ method under an assumption of plane stress condition has been found not to be applicable to the present MMC, because interactions among whiskers in the X-ray penetrating area yields σ 33 where the x 3 -axis is normal with respect to specimen's surface. An average value of σ 33 can be measured by X-ray diffraction technique, but does not seem enough to evaluate micro residual stresses. It is found that neutron diffraction is the most powerful method to measure micro residual stresses in the constituents. Elastic residual strains obtained by neutron diffraction in solution treated or T6 heat treated samples show good agreements with predictions calculated by using Eshelby inclusion theory coupled with the Mori-Tanaka mean field concept, indicating that the influence of stress relaxation is negligible. In addition, internal stresses relaxations during holding at room temperature, slow cooling from solution treatment temperature, or subzero cooling are discussed. (author)

  14. Properties of an irradiated heat-treated Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube removed from the NPD reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, C.K. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Coleman, C.E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Koike, M.H. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., O-Arai Engineering Centre, O-Arai (Japan); Causey, A.R.; Ells, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Sagat, S.; Urbanic, V.F.; Rodgers, D.K

    1997-07-01

    Some pressure tubes in reactors moderated by heavy water have been made from heat-treated (HT) Zr-2.5Nb. One such tube was removed from the NPD nuclear reactor after 20 years of operation. An extensive program was carried out jointly by AECL and PNC to evaluate the condition and properties of this pressure tube. The investigations include irradiation creep, tensile, corrosion, delayed hydride cracking (DHC), fatigue, and fracture properties. Results show that: (I) the in-reactor elongation rate is much lower and the transverse strain rates are slightly larger than in cold-worked (CW) Zr-2.5Nb tubes; (2) the tensile properties, hydrogen pickup, threshold stress intensity factor for DHC initiation, DHC velocity, and fatigue crack growth rates were similar to those of the CW Zr-2.5Nb material; (3) the fracture toughness of this tube, as measured by curved compact toughness specimens and burst tests, is slightly higher than the CW tubes. The results were also compared with other heat-treated Zr-2.5Nb materials irradiated in the Fugen reactor. The tube was in excellent condition when removed from the reactor and would have been satisfactory for further service. (author)

  15. Compressive strength measurements of hybrid dental composites treated with dry heat and light emitting diodes (LED post cure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Krisnawaty

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites are mostly used on large cavities as restorative dental materials, whether it is used directly or indirectly. The mechanical properties of composite resin shall increase if it is treated with post cure treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate compressive strength differences between dry heat and Light Emitting Diodes (LED treatment on the hybrid dental composite. A quasi-experimental was applied on this research with a total of 30 samples that were divided into two groups. Each sample was tested using LLOYD Universal Testing Machine with 1 mm/min speed to evaluate the compressive strength. The compressive strength results were marked when the sample was broken. The results of two groups were then analyzed using t-test statistical calculation. The results of this study show that post cure treatment on hybrid composite using LED light box (194.138 MPa was lower than dry heat treatment (227.339 MPa, which was also significantly different from statistical analysis. It can be concluded that compressive strength of LED light box was lower than dry heat post-cure treatment on the hybrid composite resin.

  16. Proteomic analysis of heat treated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. Hong Kong Green) using 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zhi Xiang; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An investigation of the microstructures of heat-treated zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangaru, N.V.

    1985-01-01

    A TEM/STEM investigation of the microstructure and microchemistry of commercial Zircaloy-4 samples subjected to three different final heat treatments in the laboratory has been conducted to understand the processing-microstructure-corrosion relationships in these alloys. Pronounced differences in the volume fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the intermetallic particles as well as in the α phase microstructure have been observed among the beta-quenched, as-received (stress-relieved) and alpha-annealed samples. The beta-quenched sample exhibits the most uniform microstructure consisting of acicular α phase with lath boundary Sn enrichment and fine intermetallic particle formation. The as-received sample has the most inhomogeneous microstructure made up of annealed and deformed α phase. The relevance of the observed microstructural features to the nodular corrosion susceptibility is discussed in the light of some existing models of modular corrosion. (orig.)

  18. Electrochemical reversibility of reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes heat treated at different carbonization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Sarmento Gonçalves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical response of ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple is discussed for a system that uses reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC three dimensional electrodes prepared at five different Heat Treatment Temperatures (HTT in the range of 700 °C to 1100 °C. Electrical resistivity, scanning electron microscopy and X ray Diffraction analyses were performed for all prepared samples. It was observed that the HTT increasing promotes an electrical conductivity increasing while the Bragg distance d002 decreases. The correlation between reversibility behavior of ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple and both surface morphology and chemical properties of the RVC electrodes demonstrated a strong dependence on the HTT used to prepare the RVC.

  19. Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treating and electron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Rørdam, Troels Peter; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the formation of Ge nanoclusters in silica glass thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). We studied the samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy after annealing. TEM investigation shows that the Ge nanoclusters...... at two areaswere formed by different mechanisms. The Ge nanoclusters formed in a single row along the interface of a silicon substrate and the silica glass film by annealing during high-temperature heat treatment. Ge nanoclusters did not initially form in the bulk of the film but could be subsequently...... formed by the electron-beam irradiation. The interface between the silicon substrate and the silica glass film was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The shift of the Raman peaks around 286.8 cm−1 and 495 cm−1 suggests that the interface is a Si1−xGex alloy film and that the composition x varies along...

  20. Characterization of Heat-treated Clay Minerals in the Context of Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, E. N.; Wang, Y.; Kruichak, J. N.; Mills, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Clay minerals are likely candidates to aid in nuclear waste isolation due to their low permeability, favorable swelling properties, and high cation sorption capacities. Establishing the thermal limit for clay minerals in a nuclear waste repository is a potentially important component of repository design, as flexibility of the heat load within the repository can have a major impact on the selection of repository design. For example, the thermal limit plays a critical role in the time that waste packages would need to cool before being transferred to the repository. Understanding the chemical and physical changes, if any, that occur in clay minerals at various temperatures above the current thermal limit (of 100 °C) can enable decision-makers with information critical to evaluating the potential trade-offs of increasing the thermal limit within the repository. Most critical is gaining understanding of how varying thermal conditions in the repository will impact radionuclide sorption and transport in clay materials either as engineered barriers or as disposal media. A variety of repository-relevant clay minerals (illite, mixed layer illite/smectite, and montmorillonite), were heated for a range of temperatures between 100-1000 °C. These samples were characterized to determine surface area, mineralogical alteration, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Our results show that for conditions up to 500 °C, no significant change occurs, so long as the clay mineral remains mineralogically intact. At temperatures above 500 °C, transformation of the layered silicates into silica phases leads to alteration that impacts important clay characteristics. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Nation Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND Number: SAND2015-6524 A

  1. Radioactive gas solidification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji; Yabu, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Handling of a solidification container from the completion for the solidifying processing to the storage of radioactive gases by a remote control equipment such as a manipulator requires a great cost and is difficult to realize. In a radioactive gas solidification device for injection and solidification in accumulated layers of sputtered metals by glow discharge, radiation shieldings are disposed surrounding the entire container, and cooling water is supplied to a cooling vessel formed between the container and the shielding materials. The shielding materials are divided into upper and lower shielding materials, so that solidification container can be taken out from the shielding materials. As a result, the solidification container after the solidification of radioactive gases can be handled with ease. Further, after-heat can be removed effectively from the ion injection electrode upon solidifying treatment upon storage, to attain a radioactive gas solidifying processing apparatus which is safe, economical and highly reliable. (N.H.)

  2. Induction melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  3. Development of heat treated Zr-2.5 Wt% Nb pressure tube and its microstructural characterization using electron microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2010-01-01

    Two phase Zr-2.5 wt % Nb alloy is widely used for manufacture of pressure tubes for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). These tubes are used in cold worked and stress relieved (CWSRs) condition and are manufactured by cold drawing or pilgering routes. The microstructure of the CWSR tube is characterized with presence of discontinuous β phase stringers sandwiched between elongated α-phase. Pressure tube undergoes dimensional changes and micro structural deterioration under the reactor operating conditions of temperature, pressure and neutron flux. This limits the life of the component and the availability of the power reactors. There is renewed interest in increasing the life of the pressure tube by bringing about a change in the microstructure of Zr-2.5 Nb material using various thermo mechanical processes during its manufacturing. Heat treatment of this two-phase alloy has been understood to uniquely stabilize the microstructure, which prevents degradation, under in-reactor service condition. This paper illustrates various heat treatment cycles carried out at intermediate cold working stage. Heat treatment involves solutionization of the Zr-2.5 wt % Nb tube from different temperatures followed by two types of quenching process viz, gas quenching and water quenching. The OIM-TEM studies were carried out for characterization of final tube. The technique confirmed the presence of β-phase relatively enriched in Nb content. The resulting SEM microstructures after ageing treatment at different soaking temperatures and time have been presented. Mechanical properties of heat treated pressure tubes, both at room temperature and elevated temperature have been compared with conventional CWSR pressure tube used in PHWRs. (author)

  4. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran Taj; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ellahi, Muhammad Yaqoob; Khalique, Anjum

    2017-08-24

    Antioxidant capacity of milk is largely due to vitamins A, E, carotenoids, zinc, selenium, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and enzyme systems. Cow milk has antioxidant capacity while the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk has been studied in a limited way. The information regarding the effect of pasteurization and boiling on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk is also scared. Cow and buffalo milk was exposed to two different heat treatments i.e. 65 °C for 30 min and boiling for 1 min. After heat treatments, milk samples were cooled down to 4 °C packaged in transparent 250 ml polyethylene PET bottles and stored at 4 °C for 6 days. Milk composition, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid, vitamin C, A, E, selenium, Zinc, fatty acid profile, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were studied in raw, pasteurized and boiled cow and buffalo milk at 0, 3 and 6 days of storage period. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (42.1, 41.3 and 40.7%) and buffalo (58.4, 57.6 and 56.5%) samples was found, respectively. Reducing power (RP) of raw cow and buffalo milk was 6.74 and 13.7 while pasteurization and boiling did not showed significant effect on RP of both cow and buffalo milk. DPPH activity of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (24.3, 23.8 and 23.6%) and buffalo (31.8, 31.5 and 30.4%) samples was noted, respectively. Storage period up to 3 days was non-significant while DPPH assay after 6 days of storage period indicated significant decline in antioxidant activity of milk samples. Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid (AALA) of buffalo and cow milk were recorded 11.7 and 17.4%, respectively. Pasteurization and boiling did not showed any impact on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk. The Loss of vitamin C in pasteurization (40 and 42%) and boiling (82 and 61%) of

  5. Parametric optimisation of heat treated recycling aluminium (AA6061) by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Lajis, M. A.; Yusuf, N. K.; Shamsudin, S.; Zhong, Z. W.

    2017-09-01

    Alternating typical primary aluminium production with recycling route should benefit various parties, including the environment since the need of high cost and massive energy consumption will be ruled out. At present, hot extrusion is preferred as the effective solid-state recycling process compared to the typical method of melting the swarf at high temperature. However, the ideal properties of extruded product can only be achieved through a controlled process used to alter the microstructure to impart properties which benefit the working life of a component, which also known as heat treatment process. To that extent, this work ought to investigate the effect of extrusion temperature and ageing time on the hardness of the recycled aluminium chips. By employing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for full factorial design with centre point, a total of 11 runs were carried out randomly. Three dissimilar extrusion temperatures were used to obtain gear-shape billet. Extruded billets were cut and ground before entering the treatment phase at three different ageing times. Ageing time was found as the influential factor to affect the material hardness, rather than the extrusion temperature. Sufficient ageing time allows the impurity atoms to interfere the dislocation phenomena and yield great hardness. Yet, the extrusion temperatures still act to assist the bonding activities via interparticle diffusion transport matter.

  6. Osteoblast Cell Response on the Ti6Al4V Alloy Heat-Treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Paulina Chávez-Díaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to examine the effect of the microstructural changes of the Ti6Al4V alloy, two heat treatments were carried out below (Ti6Al4V800 and above (Ti6Al4V1050 its β-phase transformation temperature. After each treatment, globular and lamellar microstructures were obtained. Saos-2 pre-osteoblast human osteosarcoma cells were seeded onto Ti6Al4V alloy disks and immersed in cell culture for 7 days. Electrochemical assays in situ were performed using OCP and EIS measurements. Impedance data show a passive behavior for the three Ti6Al4V alloys; additionally, enhanced impedance values were recorded for Ti6Al4V800 and Ti6Al4V1050 alloys. This passive behavior in culture medium is mostly due to the formation of TiO2 during their sterilization. Biocompatibility and cell adhesion were characterized using the SEM technique; Ti6Al4V as received and Ti6Al4V800 alloys exhibited polygonal and elongated morphology, whereas Ti6Al4V1050 alloy displayed a spherical morphology. Ti and O elements were identified by EDX analysis due to the TiO2 and signals of C, N and O, related to the formation of organic compounds from extracellular matrix. These results suggest that cell adhesion is more likely to occur on TiO2 formed in discrete α-phase regions (hcp depending on its microstructure (grains.

  7. Phase transformations and mechanical properties in heat treated superaustenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsoukis, T.; Redjaïmia, A.; Fourlaris, G.

    2013-01-01

    A microstructure–properties relationship study in two superaustenitic stainless steels (S31254 and S32654) was carried out, following exposure at elevated temperatures for various ageing times. Due to high temperature ageing, most stainless steel grades suffer the formation of various precipitates, directly affecting their properties. The full characterization of those precipitates and the correlation with the mechanical behavior of the steels is the primary aim of this study. Samples of the steel grades studied, were exposed to isothermal heat treatments within the temperature range of 650–950 °C, for ageing times varying between 0.5 h and 3000 h, followed by water quenching at room temperature. Microstructural examination indicated the formation of four different secondary phases, sigma phase (σ), chi phase (χ), Laves phase and β-Cr 2 N nitride, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction. The results obtained permitted the construction of the time–temperature–precipitation (TTP) plots. In addition, tensile and Vickers hardness testing were utilized and the modulus of toughness was calculated. The kinetics of the formation of various precipitates with increasing temperature and aging duration was also observed. It was found that various precipitates had a significant effect on all mechanical properties studied.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND EXPRESSION OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN OF COBALT-TREATED PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Capcarová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant status (TAS and expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 of porcine ovarian granulosa cells cultured in vitro after cobalt (Co administrations. Ovarian granulosa cells were incubated with cobalt sulphate administrations as follows: group E1 (0.09 mg.ml-1, group E2 (0.13 mg.ml-1, group E3 (0.17 mg.ml-1, group E4 (0.33 mg.ml-1, group E5 (0.5 mg.ml-1 and the control group without any additions for 18 h. Co administration developed stress reaction and promoted accumulation of Hsp70 what resulted in increasing activity of SOD. TAS of granulosa cells increased with higher doses of Co whereas low doses had no effect on this parameter. Trace elements can adversely affect animal female reproductive system and its functions, through either direct or indirect effects on oxidative stress induction.

  9. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  10. Apparatus for concentrating by dual temperature exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in an apparatus for isotope concentration by dual temperature exchange between feed and auxiliary fluids in a multistage system are described. The first fluid is a vaporizable liquid and the auxiliary fluid a gas, the apparatus having means for cascading the auxiliary fluid and the feed fluid in vapor and preferably also in liquid form. The apparatus also contains new combinations of means for improving the heating and/or cooling and/or humidifying and/or dehumidifying operations of the system. The reactants in the example given are hydrogen sulfide gas and liquid water

  11. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial behaviour evolution of non cooked pressed cheese paste while in refrigerated storage, made with red chilli powder, treated by heat or ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben El Hadj Mohamed, A.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of different physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of a Tunisian manufactured cheese made of non cooked pressed cheese paste with red chilli powder treated by heat, was measured while in refrigerated storage and compared to the one treated by ionization (author)

  12. Process of treating carbonaceous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-12-16

    A process is described of removing halogens or halogen compounds (or both) from the products which form when carbonaceous substances are treated thermally in the presence of halogens or halogen compounds, consisting of passing the reaction products at the same temperature with a substance able to fix halogens or acid halides through an apparatus included between the receiver and the heat exchanger, which contains, in a relatively restricted space, internal elements obliquely disposed in relation to the direction of the flow, stretched in this direction and constituted preferably of helicoidal passages.

  13. The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.S., E-mail: jeremy.robinson@ul.ie [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); Redington, W. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin{sup 2}ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A, 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling.

  14. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  15. Nuclear propulsion apparatus with alternate reactor segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, T.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion apparatus comprising: (a) means for compressing incoming air; (b) nuclear fission reactor means for heating said air; (c) means for expanding a portion of the heated air to drive said compressing means; (d) said nuclear fission reactor means being divided into a plurality of radially extending segments; (e) means for directing a portion of the compressed air for heating through alternate segments of said reactor means and another portion of the compressed air for heating through the remaining segments of said reactor means; and (f) means for further expanding the heated air from said drive means and the remaining heated air from said reactor means through nozzle means to effect reactive thrust on said apparatus. 12 claims

  16. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  17. Structural, mechanical and light yield characterisation of heat treated LYSO:Ce single crystals for medical imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengucci, P; Auffray, E; Barucca, G; Cecchi, C; Chipaux, R; Cousson, A; Davì, F; Di Vara, N; Rinaldi, D; Santecchia, E

    2015-01-01

    Five single crystals of cerium-doped lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) grown by the Czochralski method were submitted to structural characterisation by X-ray (XRD) and neutron (ND) diffraction, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS). The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), the Young Modulus (YM) and the Light Yield (LY) of the samples were also measured in order to correlate the mechanical and the optical behaviour of the crystals with the characteristics of their microstructure. Two of the samples analysed were also heat treated at 300 °C for 10 h to evidence possible variations induced by the temperature in the optical and mechanical response of the crystals. Results showed that the mean compositional variations evidenced by the structural analyses do not affect the mechanical and optical behaviour of the samples. On the contrary, the thermal treatment could induce the formation of coherent spherical particles (size 10 to 15 nm), not unifo...

  18. STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR MULTI CRITERIA OPTIMIZATION OF CUTTING PARAMETERS OF TURNING ON HEAT TREATED BERYLLIUM COPPER ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. DEVAKI DEVI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In machining operations, achieving desired performance features of the machined product, is really a challenging job. Because, these quality features are highly correlated and are expected to be influenced directly or indirectly by the direct effect of process parameters or their interactive effects. This paper presents effective method and to determine optimal machining parameters in a turning operation on heat treated Beryllium copper alloy to minimize the surface roughness, cutting forces and work tool interface temperature along with the maximization of metal removal rate. The scope of this work is extended to Multi Objective Optimization. Response Surface Methodology is opted for preparing the design matrix, generating ANOVA, and optimization. A powerful model would be obtained with high accuracy to analyse the effect of each parameter on the output. The input parameters considered in this work are cutting speed, feed, depth of cut, work material (Annealed and Hardened and tool material (CBN and HSS.

  19. Biohydrogen production from desugared molasses (DM) using thermophilic mixed cultures immobilized on heat treated anaerobic sludge granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongjan, Prawit; O-Thong, Sompong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production from desugared molasses (DM) was investigated in both batch and continuous reactors using thermophilic mixed cultures enriched from digested manure by load shock (loading with DM concentration of 50.1 g-sugar/L) to suppress methanogens. H2 gas, free of methane, was produced......) and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum with a relative abundance of 36%, 27%, and 10% of total microorganisms, respectively. This study shows that hydrogen production could be efficiently facilitated by using anaerobic granules as a carrier, where microbes from mixed culture enriched in the DM batch cultivation....... The enriched hydrogen producing mixed culture achieved from the 16.7 g-sugars/L DM batch cultivation was immobilized on heat treated anaerobic sludge granules in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor, operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h fed with 16.7 g...

  20. Mechanical Properties Analysis of 4340 Steel Specimen Heat Treated in Oven and Quenching in Three Different Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Rachid; Barka, Noureddine; Brousseau, Jean

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a statistical approach to analyze the mechanical properties of a standard test specimen, of cylindrical geometry and in steel 4340, with a diameter of 6 mm, heat-treated and quenched in three different fluids. Samples were evaluated in standard tensile test to access their characteristic quantities: hardness, modulus of elasticity, yield strength, tensile strength and ultimate deformation. The proposed approach is gradually being built (a) by a presentation of the experimental device, (b) a presentation of the experimental plan and the results of the mechanical tests, (c) anova analysis of variance and a representation of the output responses using the RSM response surface method, and (d) an analysis of the results and discussion. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach leads to a precise and reliable model capable of predicting the variation of mechanical properties, depending on the tempering temperature, the tempering time and the cooling capacity of the quenching medium.

  1. Detection of gastrointestinal blood loss with 99mTc-labeled, heat-treated red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Atkins, H.L.; Goldman, A.G.; Sacker, D.F.; Harold, W.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    Studies in dogs showed that heat-treated 99mTc-labeled red blood cells (HT/RBC) afford a highly sensitive means of detecting gastrointetinal bleeding as low as 0.12 ml/min., which could not be seen with unheated 99mTc-RBC, 99mTc-sulfur colloid, or 99mTc-DTPA. In addition, as the right upper quadrant and epigastrium remained free of activity, only one fifth to one tenth of the dose of 99mTc was needed. The safety of HT/RBC in humans has been documented, and the experiments in dogs suggest that it may have advantages over other agents in detecting gastrointestinal bleeding

  2. Detection of gastrointestinal blood loss with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled, heat-treated red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Atkins, H.L.; Goldman, A.G.; Sacker, D.F.; Harold, W.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    Studies in dogs showed that heat-treated /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells (HT/RBC) afford a highly sensitive means of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding as low as 0.12 ml/min, which could not be seen with unheated /sup 99m/Tc-RBC, /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid, or /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. In addition, as the right upper quadrant and epigastrium remained free of activity, only one fifth to one tenth of the dose of /sup 99m/Tc was needed. The safety of HT/RBC in humans has been documented, and the experiments in dogs suggest that it may have advantages over other agents in detecting gastrointestinal bleeding

  3. Gamma tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Span, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a gamma tomography apparatus for medical diagnosis. The apparatus comprises a gamma scintillation camera head and a suspension system for supporting and positioning the camera head with respect for the patient. Both total body scanning and single photon emission tomography can be carried out with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  4. ROLLER FILTRATION APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter and liquid from a m...

  5. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  6. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  7. Structural, mechanical and light yield characterisation of heat treated LYSO:Ce single crystals for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengucci, P., E-mail: p.mengucci@univpm.it [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); André, G. [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Auffray, E. [Department PH-CMX CERN, Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Barucca, G. [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Cecchi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Chipaux, R. [CEA DSM/IRFU/SEDI, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Cousson, A. [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Davì, F. [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Di Vara, N. [Department PH-CMX CERN, Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rinaldi, D.; Santecchia, E. [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-06-11

    Five single crystals of cerium-doped lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) grown by the Czochralski method were submitted to structural characterisation by X-ray (XRD) and neutron (ND) diffraction, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS). The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), the Young Modulus (YM) and the Light Yield (LY) of the samples were also measured in order to correlate the mechanical and the optical behaviour of the crystals with the characteristics of their microstructure. Two of the samples analysed were also heat treated at 300 °C for 10 h to evidence possible variations induced by the temperature in the optical and mechanical response of the crystals. Results showed that the mean compositional variations evidenced by the structural analyses do not affect the mechanical and optical behaviour of the samples. On the contrary, the thermal treatment could induce the formation of coherent spherical particles (size 10 to 15 nm), not uniformly distributed inside the sample, that strongly reduce the UTS and YM values, but it does not affect the optical response of the crystal. This latter result was attributed to the low value of the heating temperature (300 °C) that is not sufficiently high to induce annealing of the oxygen vacancies traps that are responsible of the deterioration of the scintillation properties of the LYSO:Ce crystals. This study was carried out in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC)

  8. Comparative Studies on Microstructure, Mechanical and Pitting Corrosion of Post Weld Heat Treated IN718 Superalloy GTA and EB Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkush; Mohammed, Raffi; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to weld Inconel 718 nickel-base superalloy (IN718 alloy) using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and electron beam welding (EBW) processes. Both the weldments were subjected to post-weld heat treatment condition as follows -980°C / 20 min followed by direct aging condition (DA) as 720°C/8 h/FC followed by 620°C/8 h/AC. The GTA and EB welds of IN718 alloy were compared in two conditions as-received and 980STA conditions. Welds were characterized to observe mechanical properties, pitting corrosion resistance by correlating with observed microstructures. The rate of higher cooling ranges, the fusion zone of EBW exhibited discrete and relative finer lave phases whereas the higher niobium existed laves with coarser structure were observed in GTAW. The significant dissolution of laves were observed at 980STA of EBW. Due to these effects, the EBW of IN718 alloy showed the higher mechanical properties than GTAW. The electrochemical potentiostatic etch test was carried out in 3.5wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to study the pitting corrosion behaviour of the welds. Results of the present investigation established that mechanical properties and pitting corrosion behaviour are significantly better in post weld heat treated condition. The comparative studies showed that the better combination of mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance were obtained in 980STA condition of EBW than GTAW.

  9. Plastic waste disposal apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kito, S

    1972-05-01

    A test plant plastic incinerator was constructed by the Takuma Boiler Manufacturing Co. for Sekisui Chemical Industries, and the use of a continuous feed spreader was found to be most effective for prevention of black smoke, and the use of a venturi scrubber proved to be effective for elimination of hydrogen chloride gas. The incinerator was designed for combustion of polyvinyl chloride exclusively, but it is also applicable for combustion of other plastics. When burning polyethylene, polypropylene, or polystyrene, (those plastics which do not produce toxic gases), the incinerator requires no scrubber for the combustion gas. The system may or may not have a pretreatment apparatus. For an incinerator with a pretreatment system, the flow chart comprises a pit, a supply crane, a vibration feeder, a metal eliminator, a rotation shredder, a continuous screw feeder with a quantitative supply hopper, a pretreatment chamber (300 C dry distillation), a quantitative supply hopper, and the incinerator. The incinerator is a flat non-grid type combustion chamber with an oil burner and many air nozzles. From the incinerator, ashes are sent by an ash conveyor to an ash bunker. The combustion gas goes to the boiler, and the water supplied the boiler water pump creates steam. The heat from the gas is sent back to the pretreatment system through a heat exchanger. The gas then goes to a venturi scrubber and goes out from a stack.

  10. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  11. Process and apparatus for cracking petroleum, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-04-25

    Process for catalytic cracking of petroleum and similar material at normal pressure, characterized by the oil vaporized in a vaporizer being treated in a first catalyst-chamber and in a separator attached to it, light constituents being separated, and then its being run into a second apparatus-group (vaporizer, catalyst-chamber, and separator), further groups following in series, whereby the catalyst works in a separate catalyst apparatus with ever-increasing activity time on the always lesser but always more difficult to crack material, so that in the whole apparatus a methodical cracking process is effected.

  12. Cold Heat Storage Characteristics of O/W-type Latent Heat Emulsion Including Continuum Phase of Water Treated with a Freezing Point Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.

  13. Apparatus for making molten silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  14. Influence of heat treated microstructures on the dynamic deformation characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yong Seok; Lee, Yong Shin; Woo, Sung Choong; Kim, Tae Won

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of heat treated microstructures, namely, equiaxed, bimodal and lamella types of Ti-6Al-4V alloy on the dynamic deformation characteristics. Four different heat treatment conditions were employed for the development of the microstructures. Static tensile and compressive deformation tests were preliminarily performed with hydraulic test equipment. Dynamic deformation tests at a high level of strain rate, 2700 s"-"1 ∼ 6400 s"-"1, together with high velocity impact tests were, respectively, conducted on the specimens through a compressive Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a high pressure gas gun system. The dependence of flow stress on the strain rate associated with the corresponding microstructure was examined. The microstructural factors on the dynamic fracture characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The static compressive tests showed that the flow stress was greatest in the lamella microstructure and decreased in the order of lamella, bimodal and equiaxed microstructures, whereas the ductility was largest in the bimodal microstructure and smallest in the lamellar microstructure. In dynamic compressive tests, a similar dependency of the flow stress on microstructures was observed: highest in the lamellar microstructure and lowest in the equiaxed microstructure. The ductility, such as strain at maximum stress or at failure, was highest in the equiaxed microstructure and lowest in the lamellar structure. In addition, the ductility for individual microstructure decreased as the strain rate increased. Every microstructure exhibited ductile fracture surfaces, and it seems that a large shear crack on the lateral surface in the specimen was the main factor inducing the final failure. The result of high velocity impact test exhibited that the resistance to fracture of equiaxed microstructure with superior dynamic toughness was much higher than that of lamella microstructure with inferior dynamic toughness. The

  15. Influence of heat treated microstructures on the dynamic deformation characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yong Seok; Lee, Yong Shin [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sung Choong; Kim, Tae Won [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    We investigated the influence of heat treated microstructures, namely, equiaxed, bimodal and lamella types of Ti-6Al-4V alloy on the dynamic deformation characteristics. Four different heat treatment conditions were employed for the development of the microstructures. Static tensile and compressive deformation tests were preliminarily performed with hydraulic test equipment. Dynamic deformation tests at a high level of strain rate, 2700 s{sup -1} ∼ 6400 s{sup -1}, together with high velocity impact tests were, respectively, conducted on the specimens through a compressive Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a high pressure gas gun system. The dependence of flow stress on the strain rate associated with the corresponding microstructure was examined. The microstructural factors on the dynamic fracture characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The static compressive tests showed that the flow stress was greatest in the lamella microstructure and decreased in the order of lamella, bimodal and equiaxed microstructures, whereas the ductility was largest in the bimodal microstructure and smallest in the lamellar microstructure. In dynamic compressive tests, a similar dependency of the flow stress on microstructures was observed: highest in the lamellar microstructure and lowest in the equiaxed microstructure. The ductility, such as strain at maximum stress or at failure, was highest in the equiaxed microstructure and lowest in the lamellar structure. In addition, the ductility for individual microstructure decreased as the strain rate increased. Every microstructure exhibited ductile fracture surfaces, and it seems that a large shear crack on the lateral surface in the specimen was the main factor inducing the final failure. The result of high velocity impact test exhibited that the resistance to fracture of equiaxed microstructure with superior dynamic toughness was much higher than that of lamella microstructure with inferior dynamic toughness

  16. Vickers Microhardness and Hyperfine Magnetic Field Variations of Heat Treated Amorphous Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} Alloy Ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral-Prieto, A., E-mail: acpr@nuclear.inin.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Department of Chemistry (Mexico); Garcia-Santibanez, F.; Lopez, A.; Lopez-Castanares, R.; Olea Cardoso, O. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, El Cerrillo Piedras Blancas, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico)

    2005-02-15

    Amorphous Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} alloy ribbons were heat treated between 296 and 763 K, using heating rates between 1 and 4.5 K/min. Whereas one ribbon partially crystallized at T{sub x} = 722 K, the other one partially crystallized at T{sub x} = 763 K. The partially crystallized ribbon at 722 K, heat treated using a triangular form for the heating and cooling rates, was substantially less fragile than the partially crystallized at 763 K where a tooth saw form for the heating and cooling rates was used. Vickers microhardness and hyperfine magnetic field values behaved almost concomitantly between 296 and 673 K. The Moessbauer spectral line widths of the heat-treated ribbons decreased continuously from 296 to 500 K, suggesting stress relief in this temperature range where the Vickers microhardness did not increase. At 523 K the line width decreased further but the microhardness increased substantially. After 523 K the line width behave in an oscillating form as well as the microhardness, indicating other structural changes in addition to the stress relief. Finally, positron lifetime data showed that both inner part and surface of Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} alloy ribbons were affected distinctly. Variations on the surface may be the cause of some of the high Vickers microhardness values measured in the amorphous state.

  17. Emergency cooling apparatus for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described which has the core surrounded by coolant and an inert cover gas all sealed within a container, an emergency cooling apparatus employing a detector that will detect cover gas or coolant, particularly liquid sodium, leaking from the container of the reactor, to release a heat exchange material that is inert to the coolant, which heat exchange material is cooled during operation of the reactor. The heat exchange material may be liquid niitrogen or a combination of spheres and liquid nitrogen, for example, and is introduced so as to contact the coolant that has leaked from the container quickly so as to rapidly cool the coolant to prevent or extinguish combustion. (Official Gazette)

  18. Promotion of Pt-Ru/C catalysts driven by heat treated induced surface segregation for methanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yuchen; Liu Chenwei; Chang Weijung; Wang Kuanwen

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thermal treatments on the Pt-Ru/C induce different extents of surface segregation. → O 2 treatment results in obvious Ru segregation and formation of RuO 2 . → Catalysts treated in H 2 have the excellent CO de-poisoning ability. → N 2 treatment suppresses the surface Pt depletion and hence promotes the MOR. - Abstract: Carbon supported Pt-Ru/C (1:1) alloy catalysts supplied by E-TEK are widely used for fuel cell research. Heat treatments in various atmospheres are conducted for the promotion of the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the investigation of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the catalysts. The alloy structures, surface compositions, surface species, and electro-catalytic activities of the alloy catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. The as-received Pt-Ru/C catalysts have a Ru rich in the inner core and Pt rich on the outer shell structure. Thermal treatments on the catalysts induce Ru surface segregation in different extents and thereby lead to their alteration of the alloying degrees. O 2 treatment results in obvious Ru segregation and formation of RuO 2 . Catalysts treated in H 2 have the highest I f /I b value in the CV scans among all samples, indicating the catalysts have the excellent CO de-poisoning ability as evidenced by anodic CO stripping experiments. N 2 treatment may serve as an adjustment process for the surface composition and structure of the catalysts, which can suppress the surface Pt depletion (∼60% Pt on the surface), make the components stable and hence promote the MOR significantly.

  19. Promotion of Pt-Ru/C catalysts driven by heat treated induced surface segregation for methanol oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Yuchen; Liu Chenwei; Chang Weijung [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wang Kuanwen, E-mail: kuanwen.wang@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-12

    Research highlights: > Thermal treatments on the Pt-Ru/C induce different extents of surface segregation. > O{sub 2} treatment results in obvious Ru segregation and formation of RuO{sub 2}. > Catalysts treated in H{sub 2} have the excellent CO de-poisoning ability. > N{sub 2} treatment suppresses the surface Pt depletion and hence promotes the MOR. - Abstract: Carbon supported Pt-Ru/C (1:1) alloy catalysts supplied by E-TEK are widely used for fuel cell research. Heat treatments in various atmospheres are conducted for the promotion of the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the investigation of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the catalysts. The alloy structures, surface compositions, surface species, and electro-catalytic activities of the alloy catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. The as-received Pt-Ru/C catalysts have a Ru rich in the inner core and Pt rich on the outer shell structure. Thermal treatments on the catalysts induce Ru surface segregation in different extents and thereby lead to their alteration of the alloying degrees. O{sub 2} treatment results in obvious Ru segregation and formation of RuO{sub 2}. Catalysts treated in H{sub 2} have the highest I{sub f}/I{sub b} value in the CV scans among all samples, indicating the catalysts have the excellent CO de-poisoning ability as evidenced by anodic CO stripping experiments. N{sub 2} treatment may serve as an adjustment process for the surface composition and structure of the catalysts, which can suppress the surface Pt depletion ({approx}60% Pt on the surface), make the components stable and hence promote the MOR significantly.

  20. Microstructural Changes During Plastic Deformation and Corrosion Properties of Biomedical Co-20Cr-15W-10Ni Alloy Heat-Treated at 873 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Kosuke; Ueda, Kyosuke; Nakai, Masaaki; Nakano, Takayoshi; Narushima, Takayuki

    2018-06-01

    Microstructural changes were observed during the plastic deformation of ASTM F90 Co-20Cr-15W-10Ni (mass pct) alloy heat-treated at 873 K (600 °C) for 14.4 ks, and analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction and in situ X-ray diffraction techniques. The obtained results revealed that the area fraction of the ɛ-phase ( f ɛ ) in the as-received alloy was higher than that in the heat-treated alloy in the low-to-middle strain region (≤ 50 pct), whereas the f ɛ of the heat-treated alloy was higher than that of the as-received alloy at the fracture point. During plastic deformation, the ɛ-phase was preferentially formed at the twin boundaries of the heat-treated alloy rather than at the grain boundaries. According to the transmission electron microscopy observations, the thin ɛ-phase layer formed due to the alloy heat treatment acted as the origin of deformation twinning, which decreased the stress concentration at the grain boundaries. The results of anodic polarization testing showed that neither the heat treatment at 873 K (600 °C) nor plastic deformation affected the alloy corrosion properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study proving that the formation of a thin ɛ-phase layer during the low-temperature heat treatment of the studied alloy represents an effective method for the enhancement of the alloy ductility without sacrificing its strength and corrosion properties.

  1. Microstructural Changes During Plastic Deformation and Corrosion Properties of Biomedical Co-20Cr-15W-10Ni Alloy Heat-Treated at 873 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Kosuke; Ueda, Kyosuke; Nakai, Masaaki; Nakano, Takayoshi; Narushima, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    Microstructural changes were observed during the plastic deformation of ASTM F90 Co-20Cr-15W-10Ni (mass pct) alloy heat-treated at 873 K (600 °C) for 14.4 ks, and analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction and in situ X-ray diffraction techniques. The obtained results revealed that the area fraction of the ɛ-phase (f ɛ ) in the as-received alloy was higher than that in the heat-treated alloy in the low-to-middle strain region (≤ 50 pct), whereas the f ɛ of the heat-treated alloy was higher than that of the as-received alloy at the fracture point. During plastic deformation, the ɛ-phase was preferentially formed at the twin boundaries of the heat-treated alloy rather than at the grain boundaries. According to the transmission electron microscopy observations, the thin ɛ-phase layer formed due to the alloy heat treatment acted as the origin of deformation twinning, which decreased the stress concentration at the grain boundaries. The results of anodic polarization testing showed that neither the heat treatment at 873 K (600 °C) nor plastic deformation affected the alloy corrosion properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study proving that the formation of a thin ɛ-phase layer during the low-temperature heat treatment of the studied alloy represents an effective method for the enhancement of the alloy ductility without sacrificing its strength and corrosion properties.

  2. Effect of Morphological Differences on the Cold Formability of an Isothermally Heat-Treated Advanced High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißensteiner, Irmgard; Suppan, Clemens; Hebesberger, Thomas; Winkelhofer, Florian; Clemens, Helmut; Maier-Kiener, Verena

    2018-04-01

    Steel sheets of Fe-0.2C-2Mn-0.2Si-0.03Ti-0.003B (m%) for the automotive industry were isothermally heat-treated, comprising austenitizing and subsequent isothermal annealing at temperatures between 300°C and 500°C. As a consequence, microstructures ranging from granular bainite over lower bainite to auto-tempered and untempered martensite were obtained. In tensile, hole expansion and bending tests, the performances in different forming conditions were compared and the changes of microstructure and texture were studied by complementary electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses. Samples with granular bainitic microstructures exhibited high total elongations but lower hole expansion ratios; in subsequent EBSD and texture analyses, evidence for inhomogeneous deformation was found. In contrast, the lath-like bainitic/martensitic microstructure showed higher strength and lower elongation to fracture. This results in a reduced bendability, but also in a high tolerance against damage induced by the shearing of edges, and, thus, allows homogeneous deformation to higher strains in the hole expansion test.

  3. Structure and properties of heat-treated Ti-(40-4X)%Nb-X%Mo alloys with IE (SME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcia Almeida; Matlakhova, Lioudmila Aleksandrovna; Matlakhov, Anatoliy Nikolaevich; Paes Junior, Herval Ramos; Goncharenko, Boris Andreevich

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the inelastic effects (IE) are related with reversible martensitic transformation, in this work, was analyzed the structure and properties of heat treated Ti-(40-4x)%Nb-x%Mo alloys, where the contents of niobium and molybdenum are between 24-40%Nb and 0-4%Mo (% weight). The structural and phase analysis were done through optical microscopy and X-rays diffraction. The properties measured in this study were electrical resistivity and density. The Ti-40%Nb alloy shows a structure consisting of the β phase and αα’’ martensite with a minor participation of the α’ and ω. The alloys with 1 to 4%Mo have similar structures consisting of the β phase and traces of the α’’ phase. Thus, was observed greater capacity of Mo as a β stabilizer. The increase in Mo content in the composition of the alloys causes an increase in electrical resistivity of these. The samples may have undergone change in volume, caused by phase transformation, what possibly caused the difference between the density values calculated (theoretical) and experimental. (author)

  4. Construction apparatus for thermochemical hydrogen production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, S.; Nakajima, H.; Higashi, S.; Onuki, K.; Akino, S.S.N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan). Nuclear Heat Utilization Engineering Lab

    2001-06-01

    Studies have been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) on hydrogen production through thermochemical processes such as water-splitting. These studies are classified with iodine-sulphur cycle studies using heat from high temperature gas-cooled reactors. An experimental apparatus was constructed with fluorine resin, glass and quartz. It can produce hydrogen at a rate of 50 litres per hour. Electricity provides the heat required for the operation. The closed chemical process requires special control techniques. The process flow diagram for the apparatus was designed based on the results of previous studies including one where hydrogen production was successfully achieved at a rate of one liter per hour for 48 hours. Experimental operations under atmospheric pressure will be carried out for the next four years to develop the process. The data will be used in the next research and development programs aimed at designing a bench-scale apparatus. 7 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  5. Modeling the recovery of heat-treated Bacillus licheniformis Ad978 and Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores at suboptimal temperature and pH using growth limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunet, C; Mtimet, N; Mathot, A-G; Postollec, F; Leguerinel, I; Sohier, D; Couvert, O; Carlin, F; Coroller, L

    2015-01-01

    The apparent heat resistance of spores of Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Bacillus licheniformis was measured and expressed as the time to first decimal reduction (δ value) at a given recovery temperature and pH. Spores of B. weihenstephanensis were produced at 30°C and 12°C, and spores of B. licheniformis were produced at 45°C and 20°C. B. weihenstephanensis spores were then heat treated at 85°C, 90°C, and 95°C, and B. licheniformis spores were heat treated at 95°C, 100°C, and 105°C. Heat-treated spores were grown on nutrient agar at a range of temperatures (4°C to 40°C for B. weihenstephanensis and 15°C to 60°C for B. licheniformis) or a range of pHs (between pH 4.5 and pH 9.5 for both strains). The recovery temperature had a slight effect on the apparent heat resistance, except very near recovery boundaries. In contrast, a decrease in the recovery pH had a progressive impact on apparent heat resistance. A model describing the heat resistance and the ability to recover according to the sporulation temperature, temperature of treatment, and recovery temperature and pH was proposed. This model derived from secondary mathematical models for growth prediction. Previously published cardinal temperature and pH values were used as input parameters. The fitting of the model with apparent heat resistance data obtained for a wide range of spore treatment and recovery conditions was highly satisfactory. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  7. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  8. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  9. Development and characterization of high collapse boron alloys heat treated pipes for oil wells; Tubos de aco TiB para aplicacao em revestimento de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Fabio A.; Silva, Ronaldo; Chad, Luis [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba SP (Brazil); Fritz, Marcelo C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia do Produto

    2008-07-01

    The utilization of OCTG (Oil Country Tubular Goods) pipes will increase with the discovery of new oil wells in ultra deep waters. This study aims to evaluate the mechanical and microstructural performance of welded and heat treated pipes through quenching and tempering using a steel project based in titanium/boron for casing pipes. The objective of this development is to present a set of techniques used during the manufacturing of heated treated ERW pipes boron allowing, discussing mechanical and metallurgical aspects of the steel project, coil conformation, heat treatment and test procedures. The results are within the limits set by the API 5CT standard. It was found that the pipes obtained good geometry and uniformity of mechanical properties, showing that this product can be applied safely and reliability as wells' casing. (author)

  10. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  11. Pipework inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrigglesworth, K.J.; Knowles, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The patent concerns a pipework inspection apparatus, which is capable of negotiating bends in pipework. The apparatus comprises a TV camera system, which contains an optical section and an electronics section, which are connected by a flexible coupling. The system can be pulled or pushed along the bore of the pipework. (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear core baffling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, F.W. Jr.; Silverblatt, B.L.; Knight, C.B.; Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for baffling the flow of reactor coolant fluid into and about the core of a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus includes a plurality of longitudinally aligned baffle plates with mating surfaces that allow longitudinal growth with temperature increases while alleviating both leakage through the aligned plates and stresses on the components supporting the plates

  13. Fractionation and rectification apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, A

    1932-05-25

    Fractionation and rectifying apparatus with a distillation vessel and a stirring tube, drainage tubes leading from its coils to a central collecting tube, the drainage tubes being somewhat parallel and attached to the outer half of the stirring tube and partly on the inner half of the central collecting tube, whereby distillation and rectification can be effected in a single apparatus.

  14. High-Flow, Heated, Humidified Air Via Nasal Cannula Treats CPAP-Intolerant Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephen; Huston, Stephanie; Campbell, Kristen; Halbower, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective but challenging for children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). High-flow air via open nasal cannula (HFNC) as treatment in children remains controversial. We report the efficacy of HFNC in children with OSA and CPAP intolerance, a titration protocol, and a discussion of potential mechanisms. Methods: Patients aged 1 to 18 years with OSA (defined by obstructive apnea-hypopnea index [OAHI] greater than 1 event/h) and CPAP intolerance were enrolled. Routine polysomnography data obtained during 1 night wearing HFNC was compared with diagnostic data by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Ten school-age subjects (representing all patients attempting HFNC at our institution to date) with varied medical conditions, moderate to severe OSA, and CPAP intolerance wore HFNC from 10 to 50 L/min of room air with oxygen supplementation if needed (room air alone for 6 of the 10). HFNC reduced median OAHI from 11.1 events/h (interquartile range 8.7–18.8 events/h) to 2.1 events/h (1.7–2.2 events/h; P = .002); increased oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) mean from 91.3% (89.6% to 93.5%) to 94.9% (92.4% to 96.0%; P Hawkins S, Huston S, Campbell K, Halbower A. High-flow, heated, humidified air via nasal cannula treats CPAP-intolerant children with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(8):981–989. PMID:28728621

  15. Antigenic profile of heat-killed versus thimerosal-treated Leishmania major using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a parasitic protozoan of trypanosomatidae family which causes a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral forms. In endemic areas, field trials of different preparations of Leishmania total antigen were tested as leishmaniasis vaccine. Two preparations of killed Leishmania major were produced In Iran, which were heat-killed vaccine called autoclaved L. major (ALM and thimerosal-treated freeze-thawed vaccine called killed L. major (KLM. In this study, the protein content of both ALM and KLM were compared with that of freshly harvested intact L. major promastigotes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Materials and Methods: L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from pre-infected Balb/c mice was isolated with modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN medium and then subcultured in liquid RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS 20% for mass production. Two preparations of KLM and ALM were produced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran, under WHO/TDR supervision. Electrophoresis was performed by SDS-PAGE method and the gel was stained by Coomassie brilliant blue dye. The resultant unit bands were compared using standard molecular proteins. Results: Electrophoresis of the two preparations produced many bands from 10 kDa to 100 kDa. KLM bands were much like those of freshly harvested intact L. major. Conclusion: It is concluded that although there are similar bands in the three forms of Leishmania antigens, there are some variations which might be considered for identification and purification of protective immunogens in a total crude antigen, and detection of their stability is essential for the production and marketing of a putative vaccine.

  16. A RSM-based predictive model to characterize heat treating parameters of D2 steel using combined Barkhausen noise and hysteresis loop methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrobaee, Saeed; Hejazi, Taha-Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A statistical relationship between NDE inputs and heat treating outputs was provided. • Predicting austenitizing/tempering temperatures at unknown heat treating conditions. • An optimization model that achieves minimum error in prediction was developed. • Applying two simultaneous magnetic NDE methods led to better measuring reliability. - Abstract: Austenitizing and tempering temperatures are the effective characteristics in heat treating process of AISI D2 tool steel. Therefore, controlling them enables the heat treatment process to be designed more accurately which results in more balanced mechanical properties. The aim of this work is to develop a multiresponse predictive model that enables finding these characteristics based on nondestructive tests by a set of parameters of the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique and hysteresis loop method. To produce various microstructural changes, identical specimens from the AISI D2 steel sheet were austenitized in the range 1025–1130 °C, for 30 min, oil-quenched and finally tempered at various temperatures between 200 °C and 650 °C. A set of nondestructive data have been gathered based on general factorial design of experiments and used for training and testing the multiple response surface model. Finally, an optimization model has been proposed to achieve minimal error prediction. Results revealed that applying Barkhausen and hysteresis loop methods, simultaneously, coupling to the multiresponse model, has a potential to be used as a reliable and accurate nondestructive tool for predicting austenitizing and tempering temperatures (which, in turn, led to characterizing the microstructural changes) of the parts with unknown heat treating conditions.

  17. A RSM-based predictive model to characterize heat treating parameters of D2 steel using combined Barkhausen noise and hysteresis loop methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahrobaee, Saeed, E-mail: kahrobaee@sadjad.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Sadjad University of Technology, P.O. Box 91881-48848, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Taha-Hossein [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Sadjad University of Technology, P.O. Box 91881-48848, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A statistical relationship between NDE inputs and heat treating outputs was provided. • Predicting austenitizing/tempering temperatures at unknown heat treating conditions. • An optimization model that achieves minimum error in prediction was developed. • Applying two simultaneous magnetic NDE methods led to better measuring reliability. - Abstract: Austenitizing and tempering temperatures are the effective characteristics in heat treating process of AISI D2 tool steel. Therefore, controlling them enables the heat treatment process to be designed more accurately which results in more balanced mechanical properties. The aim of this work is to develop a multiresponse predictive model that enables finding these characteristics based on nondestructive tests by a set of parameters of the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique and hysteresis loop method. To produce various microstructural changes, identical specimens from the AISI D2 steel sheet were austenitized in the range 1025–1130 °C, for 30 min, oil-quenched and finally tempered at various temperatures between 200 °C and 650 °C. A set of nondestructive data have been gathered based on general factorial design of experiments and used for training and testing the multiple response surface model. Finally, an optimization model has been proposed to achieve minimal error prediction. Results revealed that applying Barkhausen and hysteresis loop methods, simultaneously, coupling to the multiresponse model, has a potential to be used as a reliable and accurate nondestructive tool for predicting austenitizing and tempering temperatures (which, in turn, led to characterizing the microstructural changes) of the parts with unknown heat treating conditions.

  18. Active magnetic regenerator method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregoria, Anthony J.; Zimm, Carl B.; Janda, Dennis J.; Lubasz, Richard A.; Jastrab, Alexander G.; Johnson, Joseph W.; Ludeman, Evan M.

    1993-01-01

    In an active magnetic regenerator apparatus having a regenerator bed of material exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect, flow of heat transfer fluid through the bed is unbalanced, so that more fluid flows through the bed from the hot side of the bed to the cold side than from the cold side to the hot side. The excess heat transfer fluid is diverted back to the hot side of the bed. The diverted fluid may be passed through a heat exchanger to draw heat from a fluid to be cooled. The apparatus may be operated at cryogenic temperatures, and the heat transfer fluid may be helium gas and the fluid to be cooled may be hydrogen gas, which is liquified by the device. The apparatus can be formed in multiple stages to allow a greater span of cooling temperatures than a single stage, and each stage may be comprised of two bed parts. Where two bed parts are employed in each stage, a portion of the fluid passing from the hot side to the cold side of a first bed part which does not have a magnetic field applied thereto is diverted back to the cold side of the other bed part in the stage, where it is passed through to the hot side. The remainder of the fluid from the cold side of the bed part of the first stage is passed to the hot side of the bed part of the second stage.

  19. Differential effect of gamma-irradiated and heat-treated lymphocytes on T cell activation, and interleukin-2 and interleukin-3 release in the human mixed lymphocyte reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loertscher, R.; Abbud-Filho, M.; Leichtman, A.B.; Ythier, A.A.; Williams, J.M.; Carpenter, C.B.; Strom, T.B.

    1987-01-01

    Heat-inactivated (45 degrees C/1 hr) lymphocytes selectively activate suppressor T cells in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), while no significant proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation can be detected. It is not well understood why hyperthermic treatment abolishes the stimulatory capacity of lymphocytes since HLA-DR molecules remain detectable immediately following heat exposure. In order to further characterize the requirements for Ts activation we studied the effects of hyperthermic treatment on cellular protein and DNA synthesis and cell surface protein expression in proliferating T and B cells; interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, and IL-3 release following allogeneic stimulation with heat treated cells (HMLR); and IL-2 receptor expression as an indicator of T cell activation in the HMLR. Hyperthermic treatment reduced cellular protein synthesis as estimated by 14 C-leucine uptake to about 15%, and DNA synthesis ( 3 H-thymidine incorporation) to about 5% of untreated control cells. In contrast to y-irradiated cells, viability of heated cells rapidly declined within the first 24 hr. Hyperthermic treatment doubled binding of mouse immunoglobulin paralleled by an increased expression of IL-2 and transferrin receptors, while expression of HLA-DR and 4F2 proteins appeared unchanged. Stimulation with heated cells triggered the release of IL-1- and an IL-3-like bioactivity but did not induce IL-2 synthesis and/or release, thus explaining the lack of proliferation in the HMLR. Addition of exogenous IL-2 but not IL-1 restored HMLR proliferation. A comparison of allostimulation with y-irradiated and heat-treated cells revealed that significantly fewer T cells were induced to express IL-2 receptors at day 3 (14% vs. 8%, P less than 0.001) and at day 6 (42% vs. 21%, P less than 0.05) with heat-inactivated stimulators

  20. Apparatus for surface treatment of U-Pu carbide fuel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Susumu; Arai, Yasuo; Handa, Muneo; Ohmichi, Toshihiko; Shiozawa, Ken-ichi.

    1979-05-01

    Apparatus has been constructed for treating the surface of U-Pu carbide fuel samples for EPMA. The treatment is to clean off oxide layer on the surface, then coat with an electric-conductive material. The apparatus, safe in handling plutonium, operates as follows. (1) To avoid oxidation of the analyzing surface by oxygen and water in the air, series of cleaning and coating, i.e. ion-etching and ion-coating or ion-etching and vacuum-evaporation is done at the same time in an inert gas atmosphere. (2) Ion-etching is possible on samples embedded in non-electric-conductive and low heat-conductive resin. (3) Since the temperature rise in (2) is negligible, there is no deterioration of the samples. (author)

  1. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  2. Mirror plasma apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma

  3. Conduit grinding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.; Korytkowski, Alfred S.

    1991-01-01

    A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

  4. [Design and application of a cake-shaping apparatus for drug-separated moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ai-Jun; Lu, Xiao-Dong

    2008-08-01

    Acupuncturist makes herbal cakes with traditional manual way, with such disadvantages as slow in making, varying in thickness and size of the cake. When the patients are treated with medical cake-separated moxibustion, they will be unevenly affected by the heat and the patient easily suffers from burning. These hinder clinically wide application of cake-separated moxibustion. With practice of many years, the authors design and make a kind of manual cake-shaping apparatus which can rapidly and conveniently make uniform medical cake, with simple technique, ingenious structure and normal material.

  5. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to a multiplexer slip ring means for receiving output from the detectors and enabling interfeed to the image reconstruction station. (U.K.)

  6. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are presented of a tomographic scanning apparatus, its rotational assembly, and the control and circuit elements, with particular reference to the amplifier and multiplexing circuits enabling detector signal calibration. (U.K.)

  7. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal, and particularly to the design of the gas-pressurized ionization detection system. (U.K.)

  8. Scintillation counting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the accurate measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters and in particular for the liquid scintillation counting of both soft beta radiation and gamma radiation. Full constructional and operating details are given. (UK)

  9. Imaging Apparatus And Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manohar, Srirang; van Leeuwen, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A thermoacoustic imaging apparatus comprises an electromagnetic radiation source configured to irradiate a sample area and an acoustic signal detection probe arrangement for detecting acoustic signals. A radiation responsive acoustic signal generator is added outside the sample area. The detection

  10. IMAGING APPARATUS AND METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manohar, Srirang; van Leeuwen, A.G.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A thermoacoustic imaging apparatus comprises an electromagnetic radiation source configured to irradiate a sample area and an acoustic signal detection probe arrangement for detecting acoustic signals. A radiation responsive acoustic signal generator is added outside the sample area. The detection

  11. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  12. Light shielding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard Dean; Thom, Robert Anthony

    2017-10-10

    A light shielding apparatus for blocking light from reaching an electronic device, the light shielding apparatus including left and right support assemblies, a cross member, and an opaque shroud. The support assemblies each include primary support structure, a mounting element for removably connecting the apparatus to the electronic device, and a support member depending from the primary support structure for retaining the apparatus in an upright orientation. The cross member couples the left and right support assemblies together and spaces them apart according to the size and shape of the electronic device. The shroud may be removably and adjustably connectable to the left and right support assemblies and configured to take a cylindrical dome shape so as to form a central space covered from above. The opaque shroud prevents light from entering the central space and contacting sensitive elements of the electronic device.

  13. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the adjustable fan beam and its collimator system, together with the facility for taking a conventional x-radiograph without moving the patient. (U.K.)

  14. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  15. Biosorption of the metal-complex dye Acid Black 172 by live and heat-treated biomass of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1: Kinetics and sorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Bing [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Li, Gang [Department of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology, 325006 Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Sheng [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Crowley, David E., E-mail: crowley@ucr.edu [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Zhao, Yu-Hua, E-mail: yhzhao225@zju.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum amount of Acid Black 172 sorption was about 2.98 mmol/g biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amine groups played a major role in the biosorption of Acid Black 172. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reasons of increased dye sorption by heat-treated biomass were proposed. - Abstract: The ability of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 to adsorb Acid Black 172 was studied to determine the kinetics and mechanisms involved in biosorption of the dye. Kinetic data for adsorption fit a pseudo-second-order model. Increased initial dye concentration could significantly enhance the amount of dye adsorbed by heat-treated biomass in which the maximum amount of dye adsorbed was as high as 2.98 mmol/g biomass, whereas it had no significant influence on dye sorption by live biomass. As treated temperature increased, the biomass showed gradual increase of dye sorption ability. Experiments using potentiometric titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that amine groups (NH{sub 2}) played a prominent role in biosorption of Acid Black 172. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that heat treatment of the biomass increased the permeability of the cell walls and denatured the intracellular proteins. The results of biosorption experiments by different cell components confirmed that intracellular proteins contributed to the increased biosorption of Acid Black 172 by heat-treated biomass. The data suggest that biomass produced by this strain may have application for removal of metal-complex dyes from wastewater streams generated from the dye products industry.

  16. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  17. Radiation imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a radiation imaging apparatus. It relates more particularly to apparatus of this general type which employs stationary X-ray source and detector arrays capable of acquiring multiple ultrafast scans per second to facilitate the dynamic study of moving human organs such as the beating heart. While the invention has many applications, it has particular utility in connection with computerized tomographic (CT) scanners. (Auth.)

  18. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  19. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  20. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  1. Change in the color of heat-treated, vacuum-packed broccoli stems and florets during storage: effects of process conditions and modeling by an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pero, Milad; Askari, Gholamreza; Skåra, Torstein; Skipnes, Dagbjørn; Kiani, Hossein

    2018-02-08

    Vacuum-packed broccoli stems and florets were subjected to heat treatment (60-99 °C) for various time intervals. The activity of peroxidase was measured after processing. Thermally processed samples were then stored at 4 °C for 35 days, and the color of the samples was measured every 7 days. Effects of parameters (heating temperature and duration, storage time) on the color of broccoli were modeled and simulated by an artificial neural network (ANN). Simulations confirmed that stems were predicted to be more prone to changes than florets. More color loss was observed with longer processing or storage combinations. The simulations also confirmed that higher temperatures during heat processing could retard color changes during storage. For stems treated at 80 °C for short durations, color loss was more predominant than both 65 and 99 °C, probably due to the incomplete inactivation of enzymes besides more tissue damage, with increased enzyme access to the substrate. The greenness of both stems and florets during storage can be better preserved at higher temperatures (99 °C) and short times. The simulation results revealed that the ANN method could be used as an effective tool for predicting and analyzing the color values of heat-treated broccoli. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on heat resistance and recovery of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores treated in HTST conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla Santos, M H; Torres Zarzo, J

    1997-03-03

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores was studied. EDTA was added to heating substrates and recovery media in order to establish which stage of the heat treatment registered the greatest EDTA activity. The heating substrates assayed were phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and white asparagus purée, at natural pH (5.8) and acidified with citric acid and glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) to pH 5.5, 5.0 and 4.5. Recovery of survivors was carried out in MPA3679A medium in various conditions of acidification with citric and GDL (250 and 500 ppm), at pH 7.5 6.5 and 6.0. The results show greater activity of EDTA on spores when it was applied in recovery of heat injured spores, than during heating. The strongest influence of EDTA during heating was found in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), with the effect being most evident at 121 and 126 degrees C, and in asparagus purée, at 121 degrees C and pH 5.8 rather than acidified. In recovery, the inhibiting activity of EDTA was more evident in spores subjected to more severe heat treatment, either by increasing the exposure time or by raising the temperature to 130 or 135 degrees C. The pH level of the recovery medium also affected the antimicrobial activity of EDTA, which had a greater inhibiting effect at pH 7.5 than at lower pH levels (6.5, 6.0).

  3. Increased expression of heat shock protein 70 and heat shock factor 1 in chronic dermal ulcer tissues treated with laser-aided therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-da; Luo, Cheng-qun; Xie, Hui-qing; Nie, Xin-min; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Wang, Shao-hua; Xu, Yi; Pokharel, Pashupati Babu; Xu, Dan

    2008-07-20

    Chronic dermal ulcers are also referred to as refractory ulcers. This study was conducted to elucidate the therapeutic effect of laser on chronic dermal ulcers and the induced expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in wound tissues. Sixty patients with 84 chronic dermal ulcers were randomly divided into traditional therapy and laser therapy groups. Laser treatment was performed in addition to traditional therapy in the laser therapy group. The treatment efficacy was evaluated after three weeks. Five tissue sections of healing wounds were randomly collected along with five normal skin sections as controls. HSP70-positive cells from HSP70 immunohistochemical staining were counted and the gray scale of positive cells was measured for statistical analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of HSF1 and HSP70. The cure rate of the wounds and the total efficacy in the laser therapy group were significantly higher than those in the traditional therapy group (P ulcers plays a facilitating role in healing due to the mechanism of laser-activated endogenous heat shock protection in cells in wound surfaces.

  4. A Microstructural Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded 7075 Aluminum Rolled Plate Heat Treated to the Semi-Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Azadi Chegeni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two rolled plates of 7075 aluminum alloy were used as starting material. The plates were welded using a simultaneous double-sided friction stir welding (FSW process. One way of obtaining feedstock materials for Semi-solid processing or thixoforming is via deformation routes followed by partial melting in the semi-solid state. As both the base plate materials and the friction weld area have undergone extensive deformation specimens were subjected to a post welding heat-treatment in the semi-solid range at a temperature of 628 °C, for 3 min in order to observe the induced microstructural changes. A comparison between the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welded plates was performed before and after the heat-treatment in the Base Metal (BM, the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, the Thermomechanically Affected Zone (TMAZ and the Nugget Zone (NZ using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM and Vickers hardness tests. The results revealed that an extremely fine-grained structure, obtained in the NZ after FSW, resulted in a rise of hardness from the BM to the NZ. Furthermore, post welding heat-treatment in the semi-solid state gave rise to a consistent morphology throughout the material which was similar to microstructures obtained by the thixoforming process. Moreover, a drop of hardness was observed after heat treatment in all regions as compared to that in the welded microstructure.

  5. Why Was Silcrete Heat-Treated in the Middle Stone Age? An Early Transformative Technology in the Context of Raw Material Use at Mertenhof Rock Shelter, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    Full Text Available People heat treated silcrete during the Middle Stone Age (MSA in southern Africa but the spatial and temporal variability of this practice remains poorly documented. This paucity of data in turn makes it difficult to interrogate the motive factors underlying the application of this technique. In this paper we present data on heat treatment of silcrete through the Howiesons Poort and post-Howiesons Poort of the rock shelter site Mertenhof, located in the Western Cape of South Africa. In contrast to other sites where heat treatment has been documented, distance to rock source at Mertenhof can be reasonably well estimated, and the site is known to contain high proportions of a diversity of fine grained rocks including silcrete, hornfels and chert at various points through the sequence. Our results suggest the prevalence of heat treatment is variable through the sequence but that it is largely unaffected by the relative abundance of silcrete prevalence. Instead there is a strong inverse correlation between frequency of heat treatment in silcrete and prevalence of chert in the assemblage, and a generally positive correlation with the proportion of locally available rock. While it is difficult to separate individual factors we suggest that, at Mertenhof at least, heat treatment may have been used to improve the fracture properties of silcrete at times when other finer grained rocks were less readily available. As such, heat treatment appears to have been a component of the MSA behavioural repertoire that was flexibly deployed in ways sensitive to other elements of technological organisation.

  6. Epigallocatechin Gallate-Modified Gelatin Sponges Treated by Vacuum Heating as a Novel Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Li, Peiqi; Huang, Anqi; Sasayama, Satoshi; Hara, Eiki; Uemura, Naoya; Ueda, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Masanori; Arita, Kenji; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Baba, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Tomonari

    2018-04-11

    Chemical modification of gelatin using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) promotes bone formation in vivo. However, further improvements are required to increase the mechanical strength and bone-forming ability of fabricated EGCG-modified gelatin sponges (EGCG-GS) for practical applications in regenerative therapy. In the present study, we investigated whether vacuum heating-induced dehydrothermal cross-linking of EGCG-GS enhances bone formation in critical-sized rat calvarial defects. The bone-forming ability of vacuum-heated EGCG-GS (vhEGCG-GS) and other sponges was evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histological staining. The degradation of sponges was assessed using protein assays, and cell morphology and proliferation were verified by scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining using osteoblastic UMR106 cells in vitro. Four weeks after the implantation of sponges, greater bone formation was detected for vhEGCG-GS than for EGCG-GS or vacuum-heated gelatin sponges (dehydrothermal cross-linked sponges without EGCG). In vitro experiments revealed that the relatively low degradability of vhEGCG-GS supports cell attachment, proliferation, and cell-cell communication on the matrix. These findings suggest that vacuum heating enhanced the bone forming ability of EGCG-GS, possibly via the dehydrothermal cross-linking of EGCG-GS, which provides a scaffold for cells, and by maintaining the pharmacological effect of EGCG.

  7. Analysis of micro-structure in raw and heat treated meat emulsions from multimodal X-ray microtomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Miklos, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a novel non-destructive X-ray technique for analyzing meat emulsions before and after heat treatment. The method is based on X-ray grating-interferometry where three complementary imaging modalities are obtained simultaneously measuring the absorption, refraction and scatterin...

  8. Numerical investigation of vessel heating using a copper vapor laser and a pulsed dye laser in treating vascular skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkareva, A. E.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Isaev, A. A.; Klyuchareva, S. V.

    2018-02-01

    A computer simulation technique was employed to study the selective heating of a tissue vessel using emission from a pulsed copper vapor laser and a pulsed dye laser. The depth and size of vessels that could be selectively and safely removed were determined for the lasers under examination.

  9. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  10. Molecular separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for separating a gaseous mixture of chemically identical but physically different molecules based on their polarities. The gaseous mixture of molecules is introduced in discrete quantities into the proximal end of a porous glass molecular sieve. The molecular sieve is exposed to microwaves to excite the molecules to a higher energy state from a lower energy state, those having a higher dipole moment being excited more than those with a lower energy state. The temperature of the sieve kept cold by a flow of liquid nitrogen through a cooling jacket so that the heat generated by the molecules colliding with the material is transferred away from the material. The molecules thus alternate between a higher energy state and a lower one, with the portion of molecules having the higher dipole moment favored over the others. The former portion can then be extracted separately from the distal end of the molecular sieve. 2 figs

  11. Dual source heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  12. A RSM-based predictive model to characterize heat treating parameters of D2 steel using combined Barkhausen noise and hysteresis loop methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrobaee, Saeed; Hejazi, Taha-Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Austenitizing and tempering temperatures are the effective characteristics in heat treating process of AISI D2 tool steel. Therefore, controlling them enables the heat treatment process to be designed more accurately which results in more balanced mechanical properties. The aim of this work is to develop a multiresponse predictive model that enables finding these characteristics based on nondestructive tests by a set of parameters of the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique and hysteresis loop method. To produce various microstructural changes, identical specimens from the AISI D2 steel sheet were austenitized in the range 1025-1130 °C, for 30 min, oil-quenched and finally tempered at various temperatures between 200 °C and 650 °C. A set of nondestructive data have been gathered based on general factorial design of experiments and used for training and testing the multiple response surface model. Finally, an optimization model has been proposed to achieve minimal error prediction. Results revealed that applying Barkhausen and hysteresis loop methods, simultaneously, coupling to the multiresponse model, has a potential to be used as a reliable and accurate nondestructive tool for predicting austenitizing and tempering temperatures (which, in turn, led to characterizing the microstructural changes) of the parts with unknown heat treating conditions.

  13. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  14. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  15. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.W.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Fassel, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus is described for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet

  16. Uranium dioxide calcining apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.; Peterson, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved continuous calcining apparatus for consistently and controllably producing from calcinable reactive solid compounds of uranium, such as ammonium diuranate, uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) having an oxygen to uranium ratio of less than 2.2. The apparatus comprises means at the outlet end of a calciner kiln for receiving hot UO 2 , means for cooling the UO 2 to a temperature of below 100 deg C and conveying the cooled UO 2 to storage or to subsequent UO 2 processing apparatus where it finally comes into contact with air, the means for receiving cooling and conveying being sealed to the outlet end of the calciner and being maintained full of UO 2 and so operable as to exclude atmospheric oxygen from coming into contact with any UO 2 which is at elevated temperatures where it would readily oxidize, without the use of extra hydrogen gas in said means. (author)

  17. FDG uptake in cold and heat treated MCF-7 cells, comparison with cell viability, apoptosis, and tumor marker changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, X.; Huang, G.; Liu, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives-To investigate the FDG uptake changes in cold and hyperthermia therapy and its correlation with cell viability, apoptosis and tumor marker changes. Methods: An in vitro cultured breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF- 7, was divided into 5 groups. Hyperthermia group: cell was treated in 43 degree centigrade 30 min. Hypothermia group: cell was treated in 0 degree centigrade 30 min. Hypo- and hyperthermia group: cell was treated in 0 degree centigrade 30 min and 43 degree centigrade 30 min. chemotherapy group: cell was treated with 21 microgram Cisplatin for 6 hours. And Control group: cell was untreated. The levels 18F-labelled FDG uptake, a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide viability assay, flow cytometry assay and tumor markers (CA153, CA125) were detected at 24 hour and 48 hour. Results: The change of 18F- FDG uptake (which came out at the 24h) is early than tumor marker (which came out at the 48h) under our study conditions. In treated MCF-7 cells, the levels of 18F-labelled FDG uptake were significantly lower than control group. The levels of 18F-FDG uptake depression were well correlated with cell viability and apoptosis data. Conclusion: FDG uptake is sensitive and well correlated with cell viability and apoptosis assay, and can be used for early response monitoring in hypo- and hyperthermia therapy. (author)

  18. Development of an experimental apparatus for boiling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.J.A. de.

    1984-04-01

    The nucleate boiling is the most interesting boiling regime for practical appliccations, including nuclear reactor engineering. such regime is characterized by very high heat transfer rates with only small surface superheating. An experimental apparatus is developed for studying parameters which affect nucleate boiling. The following parameters are analysed: pressure, fluid velocity and the fluid temperature at the test section entrance. The performance of experimental apparatus is analysed by results and by problems raised by the oeration of setup. (Author) [pt

  19. Electroplating method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, R.B.; Smith, W.E.L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm

  20. Electroplating method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Robert B.; Smith, William E. L.

    1978-06-20

    An apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm.

  1. Chemical state analysis of heat-treated 6, 13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene investigated by XPS valence band spectra, XANES spectra and first-principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, Maiko; Natsume, Yutaka; Kikuma, Jun; Setoyama, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) valence band spectra reflect the chemical bonding states. To take this advantage, we tried to interpret experimental spectra by the occupied density of states (DOS) based on first principles calculation. In this work, we discussed XPS and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra of 6, 13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-Pen), which is well known as an organic semiconductor. We studied chemical structure change of TIPS-Pen caused by heat-treatment at 300degC under nitrogen and under the air. It has been suggested that the structural change of pentacene skeleton by Diels-Alder type reaction occurs in both cases. In addition, the sample heat-treated under the air showed desorption of the isopropyl group and increase of oxygen concentration. (author)

  2. Adsorption of benzene and toluene from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon and its acid and heat treated forms: influence of surface chemistry on adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, N; Setyadhi, L; Wibowo, D; Setiawan, J; Ismadji, S

    2007-07-19

    The influence of surface chemistry and solution pH on the adsorption of benzene and toluene on activated carbon and its acid and heat treated forms were studied. A commercial coal-based activated carbon F-400 was chosen as carbon parent. The carbon samples were obtained by modification of F-400 by means of chemical treatment with HNO3 and thermal treatment under nitrogen flow. The treatment with nitric acid caused the introduction of a significant number of oxygenated acidic surface groups onto the carbon surface, while the heat treatment increases the basicity of carbon. The pore characteristics were not significantly changed after these modifications. The dispersive interactions are the most important factor in this adsorption process. Activated carbon with low oxygenated acidic surface groups (F-400Tox) has the best adsorption capacity.

  3. Electron spin resonance and its application to heat treated carbonaceous materials; A ressonancia de spin eletronico e sua aplicacao aos materiais carbonosos tratados termicamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerich, Francisco Guilherme [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Carbonosos e Plasma Termico

    1994-12-31

    This work presents the basic characteristics of the electron spin resonance technique, also called paramagnetic resonance, being discussed its application to heat treated carbonaceous materials. In the low heat treatment temperature (HTT) range (below 700 deg C) the organic free radical are the predominant unpaired spin center, which play a key role in the process of carbonization and meso phase formation. At higher temperatures, it is possible to make correlations between the low H T T range and the high HTT range (above 130 deg C), where the predominant unpaired spin center are the free charge carriers (free electrons) of the graphite like crystallites of the material, which are formed by the carbonization process. (author) 10 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Dry sliding wear behaviour of heat treated iron based powder metallurgy steels with 0.3% Graphite + 2% Ni additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekeli, S.; Gueral, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of various heat treatments on the microstructure and dry sliding wear behaviour of iron based powder metallurgy (PM) steels, atomized iron powder was mixed with 0.3% graphite + 2% Ni. The mixed powders were cold pressed at 700 MPa and sintered at 1200 deg. C for 30 min under pure Ar gas atmosphere. One of the sintered specimens was quenched from 890 deg. C and then tempered at 200 deg. C for 1 h. The other sintered specimens were annealed at different intercritical heat treatment temperatures of 728 and 790 deg. C and water quenched. Through this intercritical annealing heat treatment, the specimens with various ferrite + martensite volume fractions were produced. Wear tests were carried out on the quenched + tempered and intercritically annealed specimens under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disk type machine at constant load and speed and the results were compared in terms of microstructure, hardness and wear strength. It was seen that hardness and wear strength in intercritically annealed specimens were higher than that of quenched + tempered specimen

  5. Granular model, percolation-resistivity, ESR and elastic modulus of carbonaceous materials application to the babassu endocarp heat treated up to 22000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    A microscopic model (granular model) is presented to study heat treated carbons. A granular structure is defined in the carbon matrix, composed of turbostratic graphite-like microcrystallites, cross-linkings and micropores. A general expression is developed to calculate the volume fraction X of the conducting phase of the granular structure as a function of structural parameters obtained from X-ray diffraction small angle X-ray scattering. The granular model and the percolation theory are used to explain the electrical resistivity behaviour with the heat treatment temperature (HTT), where X is the fundamental parameter. An electron spin resonance (ESR) study of the low and high HTT ranges is presented, including the transition range (700-1300 0 C). The elucitation of the spin center nature in this range and the liking with the two adjacent ranges has been pursued. An expression to calculate the elastic modulus (Young's modulus), based on the microscopic granular model with the fundamental participation of the cross-linkings, is derived to account for the behavior of the modulus with the HTT. The granular model with the expression of X, the percolation-resistivity theory, the ESR study, and the expression of the elastic modulus are applied to the babassu endocarp carbon heat treated up to 2200 0 C. This material can be classified as a tipical non-graphitic carbon, being useful to search the validity of the model and the proposed expressions. It is observed that the theoretical expressions describe with reasonable accuracy the respective experimental behaviours. The measurements of physical and chemical parameters of the babassu endocarp treated up to 2200 0 C area also included. (author) [pt

  6. Development of SMM wave laser scattering apparatus for the measurements of waves and turbulences in the tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Hamada, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Ikeda, M.; Nakamura, M.

    1980-01-01

    The SMM wave laser scattering apparatus has been developed for the measurement of the waves and turbulences in the plasma. This apparatus will help greatly to clarify the physics of RF heating of the tokamak plasma. The present status of main parts of the apparatus, the SMM wave laser and the Schottky barrier diode mixer for the heterodyne receiver, are described. (author)

  7. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ‘heat-treated milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA NDA Panel was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘pasteurised milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food (NF) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Pasteurised or ultra-high-temp......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA NDA Panel was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘pasteurised milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food (NF) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Pasteurised or ultra......-high-temperature-treated milk is used for the fermentation process with B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. After fermentation the product is heat treated for one hour at 75 °C to ensure the absence of viable B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. The Panel considers the information provided on the identity and characterisation of B...

  9. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the means of adjusting the apparent gain of the signal processing means for receiving output signals from the detectors, to compensate for drift in the gain characteristics, including means for passing a reference signal. (U.K.)

  10. Positioning and locking apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  11. Electrolysis apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure in which electrolysis is combined with radiolysis to improve the reaction yield is proposed for the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water. An apparatus for this procedure is disclosed. High-energy electric pulses are applied between the anode and kathode of an electrolytical cell in such a way that short-wave electromagnetic radiation is generated at the same time

  12. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  13. Apparatus for decomposing shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislain, M

    1865-06-20

    The apparatus is designed to fulfill the three following conditions: (1) complete extraction of the mineral oil, by avoiding partial decomposition; (2) purification of the said oil from products formed in the decomposition of the shale; (3) breaking down of the said oil into more products of different density. The separation of the heavy and bituminous products is claimed.

  14. Building scientific apparatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, John H; Davis, Christopher C; Coplan, Michael A; Greer, Sandra C

    2009-01-01

    ... specification of the components of apparatus, many new to this edition. Data on the properties of materials and components used by manufacturers are included. Mechanical, optical, and electronic construction techniques carried out in the laboratory, as well as those let out to specialized shops, are also described. Step-by-step instruc...

  15. Wear Behavior of Plasma Spray Deposited and Post Heat-Treated Hydroxyapatite (HA)-Based Composite Coating on Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2018-04-01

    The present study concerns a detailed evaluation of wear resistance property of plasma spray deposited composite hydroxyapatite (HA)-based (HA-50 wt pct TiO2 and HA-10 wt pct ZrO2) bioactive coatings developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate and studying the effect of heat treatment on it. Heat treatment of plasma spray deposited samples has been carried out at 650 °C for 2 hours (for HA-50 wt pct TiO2 coating) and at 750 °C for 2 hours (for HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coating). There is significant deterioration in wear resistance for HA-50 wt pctTiO2 coating and a marginal deterioration in wear resistance for HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coating in as-sprayed state (as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V) which is, however, improved after heat treatment. The coefficient of friction is marginally increased for both HA-50 wt pct TiO2 and HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coatings in as-sprayed condition as compared to Ti-6Al-4V substrate. However, coefficient of friction is decreased for both HA-50 wt pct TiO2 and HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coatings after heat-treated condition as compared to Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The maximum improvement in wear resistance property is, however, observed for HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 sample after heat treatment. The mechanism of wear has been investigated.

  16. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); FT Innovations BV, Braamsluiper 1, 5831 PW Boxmeer (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); LayerWise NV, Kapeldreef 60, Leuven (Belgium); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 PB 2450, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Department of Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-30

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  17. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  18. Apparatus for concentrating by dual temperature exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    The dual temperature exchange apparatus, with a dual temperature stage having a hot processing tower and a cold processing tower, is provided with means for transferring heat from the hot processed gas to both liquid and gas being delivered to the hot processing tower. The heat exchange system provides means for effecting direct contact between the hot processed gas and the cold processed liquid being delivered to the hot tower, means for establishing a circulation of the resulting heated processed liquid, and means including an indirect contact exchanger for transferring heat from said circulation to condition the gas being supplied to the hot processing tower. The reactants in the example given are hydrogen sulfide gas and liquid water

  19. Trace metals content (contaminants) as initial indicator in the quality of heat treated palm oil whole extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fauzi, Noor Akhmazillah bt [Chemical and Bioprocess Department, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Sarmidi, Mohd Roji [Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of different sterilization time on the trace metals concentration of palm oil whole extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. The kernels were then stripped from the sterilized fruits to get the pulp and later the pulp was pressed using small scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuge at 4000 rpm for 20 minutes. The palm oil whole extract were then collected and trace metals analysis was conducted using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result showed that the highest yield was obtained at 40 minutes of sterilization with 19.9 {+-} 0.21 % (w/w). There was no significant different (p < 0.5) in total trace metals content between the degrees of the heat treatment. Na+ was found as the highest trace metals content in the extract with mean concentration ranging from 1.05 {+-} 0.03 ppm to 2.36 {+-} 0.01 ppm. 40 minutes of heating time was predicted to have good oil quality due to higher content in trace metals that inhibit the lipase enzyme activity.

  20. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of differently heat-treated binder jet printed samples from gas- and water-atomized alloy 625 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafaei, Amir; Toman, Jakub; Stevens, Erica L.; Hughes, Eamonn T.; Krimer, Yuval L.; Chmielus, Markus

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of powders resulting from different atomization methods on properties of binder jet printed and heat-treated samples. Air-melted gas atomized (GA) and water atomized (WA) nickel-based alloy 625 powders were used to binder jet print samples for a detailed comparative study on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties. GA printed samples achieved higher sintering density (99.2%) than WA samples (95.0%) due to differences in powder morphology and chemistry. Grain sizes of GA and WA samples at their highest density were 89 ± 21 μm and 88 ± 26 μm, respectively. Mechanical tests were conducted on optimally sintered samples and sintered plus aged samples; aging further improved microstructure and mechanical properties. This study shows that microstructural evolution (densification, and carbide, oxide and intermetallic phase formation) is very different for GA and WA binder jet printed and heat-treated samples. This difference in microstructural evolution results in different mechanical properties with the superior sintered and aged GA specimen reaching a hardness of 327 ± 7 HV_0_._1, yield strength of 394 ± 15 MPa, and ultimate tensile strength of 718 ± 14 MPa which are higher than cast alloy 625 values.

  1. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  2. Elucidating of the microstructure of ZrO2 ceramics with additions of 1200 deg. C heat treated ultrafine MgO powders: Aging at 1420 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito-Chaparro, J.A.; Reyes-Rojas, A.; Bocanegra-Bernal, M.H.; Aguilar-Elguezabal, A.; Echeberria, J.

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure and phase transformations in the pressureless sintered composite ZrO 2 with additions of 3.11 wt% high purity and ultrafine MgO powder (9.25 mol% Mg-PSZ) heat treated at 1200 deg. C were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction, before and after of eutectoid aging treatment at 1420 deg. C during 4 h. The phases in the as-sintered ceramics were t, c, and m, and was not evident under the experimental conditions of this work, the formation of typical disk-like shape tetragonal precipitates aligned at right angles, meanwhile the microstructure resulting in aged samples was majority monoclinic stable phase showing a banded structure which appear to be twin related. When is used MgO previously heat treated as stabilizer of ZrO 2 , strong differences in SEM microstructures compared to the shown by other investigators in very similar compositions have been found

  3. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  4. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  5. Microstructural and mechanical properties characterization of heat treated and overaged cast A354 alloy with various SDAS at room and elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceschini, Lorella; Morri, Alessandro [Department of Industrial Engineering (DIN), Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Industrial Research Centre for Advanced Mechanics and Materials (CIRI-MAM) Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Toschi, Stefania, E-mail: stefania.toschi3@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Engineering (DIN), Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Johansson, Sten [Department of Management & Engineering, Division of Engineering Materials, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Seifeddine, Salem [Department of Materials and Manufacturing, School of Engineering – Jönköping University (Sweden)

    2015-11-11

    The aim of the present study was to carry out a microstructural and mechanical characterization of the A354 (Al–Si–Cu–Mg) cast aluminum alloy. The effect of microstructure on the tensile behavior was evaluated by testing samples with different Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing, (SDAS) values (20–25 μm and 50–70 μm for fine and coarse microstructure, respectively), which were produced through controlled casting conditions. The tensile behavior of the alloy was evaluated both at room and elevated temperature (200 °C), in the heat treated and overaged (exposure at 210 °C for 41 h, after heat treatment) conditions. Optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used for microstructural investigations. Experimental data confirmed the significant role of microstructural coarseness on the tensile behavior of A354 alloy. Ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure strongly increased with the decrease of SDAS. Moreover, solidification rate influenced other microstructural features, such as the eutectic silicon morphology as well as the size of the intermetallic phases, which in turn also influenced elongation to failure. Coarsening of the strengthening precipitates was induced by overaging, as observed by STEM analyses, thus leading to a strong reduction of the tensile strength of the alloy, regardless of SDAS. Tensile properties of the alloy sensibly decrease at elevated temperature (200 °C) in all the investigated heat treatment conditions.

  6. Discovering a Reliable Heat-Shock Factor-1 Inhibitor to Treat Human Cancers: Potential Opportunity for Phytochemists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Velayutham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat-shock factor-1 (HSF-1 is an important transcription factor that regulates pathogenesis of many human diseases through its extensive transcriptional regulation. Especially, it shows pleiotropic effects in human cancer, and hence it has recently received increased attention of cancer researchers. After myriad investigations on HSF-1, the field has advanced to the phase where there is consensus that finding a potent and selective pharmacological inhibitor for this transcription factor will be a major break-through in the treatment of various human cancers. Presently, all reported inhibitors have their limitations, made evident at different stages of clinical trials. This brief account summarizes the advances with tested natural products as HSF-1 inhibitors and highlights the necessity of phytochemistry in this endeavor of discovering a potent pharmacological HSF-1 inhibitor.

  7. Fireproofing and heat insulating performance improvement of EG/ATH modified intumescent flame retardant coating treated under Co-60 radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuehong; Luan, Weiling; Jiang, Tao

    2017-12-01

    New intumescent flame retardant (IFR) coatings with different fire retardants were prepared in this paper. Expandable graphite (EG) and Aluminium hydroxide (ATH) were respectively added into the conventional IFR coating system, which included ammonium polyphosphate (APP) / pentaerythritol (PER) / melamine (MEL). The fireproofing time and heat insulating properties of the additives acted as fire retardants were investigated via thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and fire resistance test of homemade big panel test. The morphology of the char layer structure was achieved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highlight of the paper was that the coating samples were pretreated under Co-60 radiation. The influence of radiation on the fire resistance time and char layer height was investigated. The results showed that the prepared IFR coatings can be used in Co-60 radiation for more than 90 min when encountering fire. It would be a reference for radiation shielding in nuclear environment.

  8. Microstructures and mechanical properties of heat-treated Al–5.0Cu–0.5Fe squeeze cast alloys with different Mn/Fe ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weiwen; Lin, Bo; Fan, Jianlei; Zhang, Datong; Li, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    The Al–5.0 wt% Cu–0.5 wt% Fe alloys with different Mn/Fe ratio were prepared by squeeze casting. Various test techniques, including tensile test, image analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the microstructures and mechanical properties of the alloys in T5 heat-treated condition. The results show that the β-Fe (Al 7 Cu 2 Fe) is stable and its needle-like morphology is maintained after T5 heat treatment. However, the Chinese script Al m Fe, α-Fe or Al 6 (FeMn) partially transform to a new Chinese script Cu-rich α(CuFe) (Al 7 Cu 2 Fe or Al 7 Cu 2 (FeMn)), which is harmful to the mechanical properties of the alloys due to the decrease of the Cu content in α(Al) matrix. The optimal Mn/Fe ratio is determined by the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallics, volume fraction of θ′ and T (Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 ), size of α(Al) dendrite and porosity. Excessive Mn/Fe ratio will deteriorate the mechanical properties of the alloys due to the increase of the total amount of porosity and the Fe-rich intermetallics. When the Mn/Fe ratio is 1.6 and 1.2 for the applied pressure of 0 MPa and 75 MPa, respectively, the needle-like β-Fe phase is completely converted to the Chinese script Fe-rich intermetallics. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the T5 heat-treated alloy with the Mn/Fe ratio of 1.2 and applied pressure of 75 MPa reach 395 MPa, 335 MPa and 14%, respectively

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to include the effect of a magnetic object in a subject under investigation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) apparatus is operable at more than one radio frequency (RF) frequency. The apparatus allows normal practice as far as obtaining an NMR response or image from a given nuclear species is concerned, but, in addition, interrogates the nuclear spin system at a frequency which is different from the resonance frequency normally used for the given nuclear species, as determined from the applied magnetic field. The magnetic field close to a magnetised or magnetisable object is modified and the given nuclear species gives a response at the different frequency. Thus detection of a signal at the frequency indicates the presence of the chosen nuclei close to the magnetised or magnetisable object. Applications include validation of an object detection or automatic shape inspection system in the presence of magnetic impurities, and the detection of magnetic particles which affect measurement of liquid flow in a pipe. (author)

  10. Ion implantation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forneris, J.L.; Hicks, W.W.; Keller, J.H.; McKenna, C.M.; Siermarco, J.A.; Mueller, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    The invention relates to ion bombardment or implantation apparatus. It comprises an apparatus for bombarding a target with a beam of ions, including an arrangement for measuring the ion beam current and controlling the surface potential of the target. This comprises a Faraday cage formed, at least in part, by the target and by walls adjacent to, and electrically insulated from, the target and surrounding the beam. There is at least one electron source for supplying electrons to the interior of the Faraday cage and means within the cage for blocking direct rectilinear radiation from the source to the target. The target current is measured and combined with the wall currents to provide a measurement of the ion beam current. The quantity of electrons supplied to the interior of the cage can be varied to control the target current and thereby the target surface potential. (U.K.)

  11. Improvements in measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, W.

    1976-01-01

    Measuring apparatus is described that is suitable for gauging the wall profiles of downwardly extending channels in nuclear reactors, but which is equally applicable to channels such as pipe bores and conduits in other types of plant. The apparatus comprises a probe carrying a measuring transducer giving an electrical output. The probe support may be moved stepwise along the channel along a track between end members. An electrical conductor is provided for transmitting the electrical output of the transducer to an indicator located remote from the probe. The probe support may consist of a cable attached at one end to a winding drum, and incorporating an electrical conductor connected to the transducer. Channel engaging means are provided on the probe that permits free upward movement of the probe when the latter is suspended by the cable and moves into gripping engagement with the channel wall when the tension in the cable is relaxed. (U.K.)

  12. Wave disc engine apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  13. Medical radiological apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    With the apparatus described, images can be obtained by rotation scanning and the image formation from a three dimensional image matrix is converted into an overall picture. Detectors for both X-ray radiation and γ radiation are present and these consist of a row of detector elements, from each of which a separate read-out can be obtained. Therefore both X-ray and γ ray images emitted from the examined object can be obtained. (Th.P.)

  14. Multicusp plasma containment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpaecher, R.

    1980-01-01

    It has been discovered that plasma containment by a chamber having multi-pole magnetic cusp reflecting walls in combination with electronic injection for electrostatic containment provides the means for generating magnetic field free quiescent plasmas for practical application in ion-pumps, electronic switches, and the like. 1250 ''alnico v'' magnets 1/2 '' X 1/2 '' X 1 1/2 '' provide containment in one embodiment. Electromagnets embodying toroidal funneling extend the principle to fusion apparatus

  15. Apparatus for obtaining radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for making x-ray pictures by imagewise exposing a cloud chamber containing a high atomic number gas mixed with a condensate vapor is described. The gas is under sufficiently high pressure to assure substantially complete absorption of the incident x-rays. Optical means are provided so that visible x-ray tracks are viewed from a direction aligned with the tracks

  16. Dosimeter charging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, F.A.; Moorman, Ch.J.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for charging a dosimeter which has a capacitor connected between first and second electrodes and a movable electrode in a chamber electrically connected to the first electrode. The movable electrode deflects varying amounts depending upon the charge present on said capacitor. The charger apparatus includes first and second charger electrodes couplable to the first and second dosimeter electrodes. To charge the dosimeter, it is urged downwardly into a charging socket on the charger apparatus. The second dosimeter electrode, which is the dosimeter housing, is electrically coupled to the second charger electrode through a conductive ring which is urged upwardly by a spring. As the dosimeter is urged into the socket, the ring moves downwardly, in contact with the second charger electrode. As the dosimeter is further urged downwardly, the first dosimeter electrode and first charger electrode contact one another, and an insulator post carrying the first and second charger electrodes is urged downwardly. Downward movement of the post effects the application of a charging potential between the first and second charger electrodes. After the charging potential has been applied, the dosimeter is moved further into the charging socket against the force of a relatively heavy biasing spring until the dosimeter reaches a mechanical stop in the charging socket

  17. Magnetic inductive heating of organs of mouse models treated by copolymer coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hong Nam; Giang Pham, Thi Ha; Nguyen, Dac Tu; Thong Phan, Quoc; Thu Huong Le, Thi; Thu Ha, Phuong; Do, Hung Manh; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Biodistribution studies provide basic information to design and perform various applications of superparamagnetic iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (SPIOs) in biomedicine such as drug delivery, MRI as well as hyperthermia. Recently, several quantitative measurements as well as new imaging methods have been used to characterize the SPIOs distribution in organs and in tissues of animal model. In this report we used the fabricated iron oxide nanoparticles coated with two block copolymers of polystyrene-co-polyacrylic acid (St-co-PAA) and polylactic acid-co-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG). The biodistributions were investigated ex-vivo for several organs of both healthy and Sarcoma transplanted Swiss mice. The SPIOs concentrations were verified mainly by magnetic inductive heating (MIH) measurement with a combination with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicated the density detected highest in liver and lowest in kidney. The SPIOs concentration increased significantly up to 24 h after the injection. The observations by our two methods not only are in agreement with each other but also consistent with the tendency reported by other techniques. Discussion will also concern injection strategy for various aspects of hyperthermia applications. Invited talk at 8th Int. Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (Ha Long City, Vietnam, 8-12 November 2016).

  18. Intergranular Corrosion Behavior of 304LN Stainless Steel Heat Treated at 623 K (350 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raghuvir; Kumar, Mukesh; Ghosh, Mainak; Das, Gautam; Singh, P. K.; Chattoraj, I.

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature sensitization of 304LN stainless steel from the two pipes, differing slightly in chemical composition, has been investigated; specimens were aged at 623 K (350 °C) for 20,000 hours and evaluated for intergranular corrosion and degree of sensitization. The base and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the 304LN-1 appear resistant to sensitization, while 304LN-2 revealed a "dual" type microstructure at the transverse section and HAZ. The microstructure at 5.0-mm distance from the fusion line indicates qualitatively less sensitization as compared to that at 2.0 mm. The 304LN-2 base alloy shows overall lower degree of sensitization values as compared to the 304LN-1. A similar trend of degree of sensitization was observed in the HAZ where it was higher in the 304LN-1 as compared to the 304LN-2. The weld zone of both the stainless steels suffered from cracking during ASTM A262 practice E, while the parent metals and HAZs did not show such fissures. A mottled image within the ferrite lamella showed spinodal decomposition. The practice E test and transmission electron microscopy results indicate that the interdendritic regions may suffer from failure due to carbide precipitation and due to the evolution of brittle phase from spinodal decomposition.

  19. Corrosion Behaviour of Heat - Treated Al-6063/ SiCp Composites Immersed in 5 wt% NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth ALANEME

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of SiC volume percent and temper conditions (namely, as-cast, solutionized, and artificial age hardening at 180°C and 195°C on the corrosion behaviour of Al (6063 composites and its monolithic alloy immersed in 5wt% NaCl solution has been investigated. Al (6063 - SiC particulate composites containing 6, 12 and 15 volume percent SiC were produced by premixing the SiC particles with borax additive and then adopting two step stir casting. Mass loss and corrosion rate measurements were utilized as criteria for evaluating the corrosion behaviour of the composites. The results show that the corrosion susceptibility of the Al (6063 - SiCp composites was higher than that of the monolithic alloy, and for most cases the corrosion rate of the composites increased with increase in volume percent of SiC. However, it was discovered that the nature of the passive films formed on the composites was sufficiently stable to reduce significantly the corrosion rate of the composites after 13days of immersion. This trend was observed to be consistent for all heat-treatment conditions utilized.

  20. Research And Practice: Quantification Of Raw And Heat-Treated Cow Milk in Sheep Milk, Cheese And Bryndza By ELISA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Zeleňáková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the reliability of commercial ELISA tests (RC-bovino within raw and heat treated cow milk detection in sheep milk and cheese in order to obtain a high-quality, reliable and economically beneficial method suitable for routine application in practice. These tests were subsequently used for quantification of cow milk in commercial "Bryndza". Raw sheep milk, cow milk and heat-treated cow milk (pasteurisation at 72 °C for 15 sec or at 85 °C for 3 sec were mixed in precisely defined proportions (0 - 100% cow milk in sheep milk. The milk mixtures were sampled to detect adulteration and subsequently cheese was made. By ELISA tests was possible to determine these amounts of raw cow milk in sheep milk: 0.5% (0.2%, 5 % (4.81%, 50% (42.08% and 75% (56.52%. The pasteurized samples in different combinations gave lower optical density responses than those prepared from raw milk (by approximately 60%. In context with the above mentioned, the relationship between the real and detected amount of cow milk (% in different production stages (milk, cheese using a regression analysis was examined. However, a lower reliability of the detection was indicated by R2 values, which ranged from 0.4058 (cheese to 0.5175 (milk. In practice this means that although individual percentage (% of cow milk in the sample can be detected, but in the unknown sample it can not be clearly confirm whether the cow milk was raw or heat-treated. In this context, the results can be inaccurate and may not correspond to the real situation. Within monitoring phase of this research, 9 samples of bryndza were analysed with the results of detected cow milk ranged from 11.56% to 14.3%. The obtained results confirm that the appropriate selection of ELISA tests can become an important factor in the setting of analytical capabilities for the detection of milk and cheese adulteration.

  1. Classical fluids of negative heat capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, P.T. [Southampton Univ., (United Kingdom). Faculty of Mathematical Studies; Woodard, R.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that new parameters X can be defined such that the heat capacity C{sub X} {equivalent_to} T({partial_derivative}S/{partial_derivative}T)X is negative, even when the canonical ensemble (i.e. at fixed T = ({partial_derivative}U/{partial_derivative}S) and Y {ne} X) is stable. As examples we treat black body radiation and general gas systems with nonsingular {kappa}{sub T}. For the case of a simple ideal gas we even exhibit an apparatus which enforces a constraint X(p,V) = const. that makes C{sub X} < 0. Since it is possible to invent constraints for which canonically stable systems have negative heat capacity we speculate that it may also be possible to infer the statistical mechanics of canonically unstable systems - for which even the traditional heat capacities are negative - by imposing constraints that stabilize the associated, inoncanonical ensembles.

  2. Classical fluids of negative heat capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, P.T. (Southampton Univ., (United Kingdom). Faculty of Mathematical Studies); Woodard, R.P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that new parameters X can be defined such that the heat capacity C{sub X} {equivalent to} T({partial derivative}S/{partial derivative}T)X is negative, even when the canonical ensemble (i.e. at fixed T = ({partial derivative}U/{partial derivative}S) and Y {ne} X) is stable. As examples we treat black body radiation and general gas systems with nonsingular {kappa}{sub T}. For the case of a simple ideal gas we even exhibit an apparatus which enforces a constraint X(p,V) = const. that makes C{sub X} < 0. Since it is possible to invent constraints for which canonically stable systems have negative heat capacity we speculate that it may also be possible to infer the statistical mechanics of canonically unstable systems - for which even the traditional heat capacities are negative - by imposing constraints that stabilize the associated, inoncanonical ensembles.

  3. C-fiber-related EEG-oscillations induced by laser radiant heat stimulation of capsaicin-treated skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnick, Claudia; Hauck, Michael; Casey, Kenneth L; Engel, Andreas K; Lorenz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Nociceptive input reaches the brain via two different types of nerve fibers, moderately fast A-delta and slowly conducting C-fibers, respectively. To explore their distinct roles in normal and inflammatory pain we used laser stimulation of normal and capsaicin treated skin at proximal and distal arm sites in combination with time frequency transformation of electroencephalography (EEG) data. Comparison of phase-locked (evoked) and non-phase-locked (total) EEG to laser stimuli revealed three significant pain-related oscillatory responses. First, an evoked response in the delta-theta band, mediated by A-fibers, was reduced by topical capsaicin treatment. Second, a decrease of total power in the alpha-to-gamma band reflected both an A- and C-nociceptor-mediated response with only the latter being reduced by capsaicin treatment. Finally, an enhancement of total power in the upper beta band was mediated exclusively by C-nociceptors and appeared strongly augmented by capsaicin treatment. These findings suggest that phase-locking of brain activity to stimulus onset is a critical feature of A-delta nociceptive input, allowing rapid orientation to salient and potentially threatening events. In contrast, the subsequent C-nociceptive input exhibits clearly less phase coupling to the stimulus. It may primarily signal the tissue status allowing more long-term behavioral adaptations during ongoing inflammatory events that accompany tissue damage. PMID:21197293

  4. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  5. Vascular homeostasis regulators, Edn1 and Agpt2, are upregulated as a protective effect of heat-treated zinc yeast in irradiated murine bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Megumi; Imadome, Kaori; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Anzai, Kazunori; Ikota, Nobuo; Imai, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the in vivo radioprotection activity by Zn-containing, heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (Zn-yeast). Zn-yeast suspension was administered into C3H/He mice immediately after whole body irradiation (WBI) at 7.5 Gy. Bone marrow was extracted from the mice 6 hours after irradiation and analyzed on a microarray. Expression changes in the candidate responsive genes differentially expressed in treated mice were re-examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The bone marrow was also examined pathologically at 6 h, 3, 7, and 14 days postirradiation. Thirty-six genes, including Edn1 and Agpt2, were identified as candidate responsive genes in irradiated mouse bone marrow treated with Zn-yeast by showing a greater than three-fold change compared with control (no irradiation and no Zn-yeast) mice. The expressions of Cdkn1a, Bax, and Ccng, which are well known as radioresponsive genes, were upregulated in WBI mice and Zn-yeast treated WBI mice. Pathological examination showed the newly formed microvessels lined with endothelial cells, and small round hematopoietic cells around vessels in bone marrow matrix of mice administered with Zn-yeast after WBI, while whole-body irradiated mice developed fatty bone marrow within 2 weeks after irradiation. This study identified a possible mechanism for the postirradiation protection conferred by Zn-yeast. The protective effect of Zn-yeast against WBI is related to maintaining the bone marrow microenvironment, including targeting endothelial cells and cytokine release. (author)

  6. Microstructural characteristics of spray formed and heat treated Al–(Y, La)–Ni–Co system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.C.; Surreddi, K.B.; Scudino, S.; Schowalter, M.; Uhlenwinkel, V.; Schulz, A.; Eckert, J.; Rosenauer, A.; Zoch, H.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Al–(La, Y)–Ni–Co based alloys are spray formed to thickness 10–12 mm. •XRD and DSC confirms the presence of large fraction of amorphous phase. •Optical, SEM and TEM studies corroborated the observations made. Mechanism of microstructural evolution brought out. •Heat treatment of spray deposited materials showed increased hardness which decreased at high temperature annealing. •La containing system showed better thermal stability than that without La. -- Abstract: Recent studies on the synthesis of bulk Al–RE (Rare Earth)-TM (Transition Metal) based materials, from melt spun ribbons and gas atomized powders, have shown that partially amorphous or nano-crystalline structures lead to a high specific strength. In the present study, therefore, spray atomization and deposition process has been used to produce plates of Al 85 Y 8 Ni 5 Co 2 (deposit D1) and Al 83 Y 5 La 5 Ni 5 Co 2 (deposit D2) systems so as to synthesize bulk deposit of nano-crystalline and/or partially amorphous materials in a single step. The rapid solidification and high undercooling of droplets during atomization and the chilling effect on undercooled liquid upon deposition give rise to the above microstructural features. The microstructural features of deposits as well as overspray powders were studied using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscope. The alloys invariably showed a large fraction of nano-crystalline structure and amorphous features, characterized by featureless regions at optical resolution, along with distribution of primary equilibrium phases. The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the deposits showed similar crystallization features as observed during crystallization of fully amorphous melt spun ribbons of respective compositions. The transmission electron microscopy of deposit D1 showed the presence of 50–100 nm size fcc-Al precipitates in an amorphous matrix decorated with 5–20 nm fcc-Al crystallites. The

  7. C-fiber-related EEG-oscillations induced by laser radiant heat stimulation of capsaicin-treated skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Domnick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Domnick1, Michael Hauck1,2,3, Kenneth L Casey3, Andreas K Engel1, Jürgen Lorenz1,3,41Department of Neurophysiology and Pathophysiology; 2Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Faculty of Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Nociceptive input reaches the brain via two different types of nerve fibers, moderately fast A-delta and slowly conducting C-fibers, respectively. To explore their distinct roles in normal and inflammatory pain we used laser stimulation of normal and capsaicin treated skin at proximal and distal arm sites in combination with time frequency transformation of electroencephalography (EEG data. Comparison of phase-locked (evoked and non-phase-locked (total EEG to laser stimuli revealed three significant pain-related oscillatory responses. First, an evoked response in the delta-theta band, mediated by A-fibers, was reduced by topical capsaicin treatment. Second, a decrease of total power in the alpha-to-gamma band reflected both an A- and C-nociceptor-mediated response with only the latter being reduced by capsaicin treatment. Finally, an enhancement of total power in the upper beta band was mediated exclusively by C-nociceptors and appeared strongly augmented by capsaicin treatment. These findings suggest that phase-locking of brain activity to stimulus onset is a critical feature of A-delta nociceptive input, allowing rapid orientation to salient and potentially threatening events. In contrast, the subsequent C-nociceptive input exhibits clearly less phase coupling to the stimulus. It may primarily signal the tissue status allowing more long-term behavioral adaptations during ongoing inflammatory events that accompany tissue damage.Keywords: C-fibers, oscillations, EEG, laser, capsaicin, inflammatory pain

  8. A study on the delayed hydride cracking mechanism in cold worked Zr-2.5Nb, heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and zircaloy-2 pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang Sik

    1992-02-15

    Cold worked Zr-2.5Nb, heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes were hydrided to the hydrogen concentration of 68 ppm, 49 ppm and 242-411 ppm, respectively, and compact tension specimens were machined from the hydrided materials. The crack growth rate by delayed hydride cracking was measured by potential drop method at various temperatures on the above mentioned three types of specimens. The activation energy obtained were 43 KJ/mol for cold worked Zr-2.5Nb and 37 KJ/mol for heat treated Zr-2.5Nb, which were in good agreements with that of Coleman (1977), while they were lower than the activation energy of 65.5 KJ/mol obtained by Simpson-puls (1979) and 71.5 KJ/mol by Ambler (1984). The DHC growth rate in Zircaloy-2 were about one fifth of that of Zr-2.5Nb, which is due to the texture and material strength effects. Striations which indicate stepwise DHC growth were observed at fracture surface by scanning electron microscope and unsymmetric crack tunnellings were also observed, which seems to be due to the difference in hydrogen diffusion rate caused by the difference in stress fields between inner and outer surface. The comparison of test results with the DHC growth rate calculated by Simpson-puls model showed good agreement at high temperatures, whereas at the lower temperatures the crack growth rates were 2.5 times higher than the calculated values.

  9. A study on the delayed hydride cracking mechanism in cold worked Zr-2.5Nb, heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and zircaloy-2 pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Sik

    1992-02-01

    Cold worked Zr-2.5Nb, heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes were hydrided to the hydrogen concentration of 68 ppm, 49 ppm and 242-411 ppm, respectively, and compact tension specimens were machined from the hydrided materials. The crack growth rate by delayed hydride cracking was measured by potential drop method at various temperatures on the above mentioned three types of specimens. The activation energy obtained were 43 KJ/mol for cold worked Zr-2.5Nb and 37 KJ/mol for heat treated Zr-2.5Nb, which were in good agreements with that of Coleman (1977), while they were lower than the activation energy of 65.5 KJ/mol obtained by Simpson-puls (1979) and 71.5 KJ/mol by Ambler (1984). The DHC growth rate in Zircaloy-2 were about one fifth of that of Zr-2.5Nb, which is due to the texture and material strength effects. Striations which indicate stepwise DHC growth were observed at fracture surface by scanning electron microscope and unsymmetric crack tunnellings were also observed, which seems to be due to the difference in hydrogen diffusion rate caused by the difference in stress fields between inner and outer surface. The comparison of test results with the DHC growth rate calculated by Simpson-puls model showed good agreement at high temperatures, whereas at the lower temperatures the crack growth rates were 2.5 times higher than the calculated values

  10. Literature review and experimental investigation of heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, W. O.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Viskanta, R.; Winter, E. R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Tests on heat pipes determine operational limits, external boundary conditions, noncondensable gas effects, startup behavior, and geometric configurations. Experiment consists of design, construction, and testing of an apparatus for measuring wick properties, conventional heat pipes and coplanar heat pipes.

  11. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  12. Informationization nuclear apparatus communication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tiqi; Fang Zongliang; Wen Qilin

    2006-01-01

    The paper explains the request of communication ability in nuclear technique application area. Based on the actuality of nuclear apparatus communication ability, and mainly combining with the development of communication technique, the authors analyzes the application trend of communication technique applying in nuclear apparatus, for the apparatus and system needing communication ability, they need selecting suitable communication means to make them accomplish the task immediately and effectively. (authors)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehnholm, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an electron spin resonance enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (ESREMRI) apparatus able to generate a primary magnetic field during periods of nuclear spin transition excitation and magnetic resonance signal detection. This allows the generation of ESREMRI images of a subject. A primary magnetic field of a second and higher value generated during periods of nuclear spin transition excitation and magnetic resonance signal detection can be used to generate conventional MR images of a subject. The ESREMRI and native MR images so generated may be combined, (or superimposed). (author)

  14. Improvements in radiological apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in radiological apparatus are described which allow better unilateral access to the patient. A base mounts ring supports for rotation about an axis and a table for supporting a subject is fitted to the ring support. An X-ray tube and receptor are held on opposite ends of a two-limbed carriage and radiation axis. The carriage is mounted on a sliding arm carried on the ring support and extending parallel to the rotational axis of the support. The carriage also pivots on the arm about an axis perpendicular to the rotational axis and to the radiation axis. (author)

  15. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, M.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized tomographic scanning apparatus suitable for diagnosis and for improving target identification in stereotactic neurosurgery is described. It consists of a base, a source of penetrating energy, a detector which produces scanning signals and detector positioning means. A frame with top and bottom arms secures the detector and source to the top and bottom arms respectively. A drive mechanism rotates the frame about an axis along which the frame may also be moved. Finally, the detector may be moved relative to the bottom arm in a direction contrary to the rotation of the frame. (U.K.)

  16. Control rod testing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunt, R.R.; Ashman, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    A control rod testing apparatus is described comprising: a first guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod; a second guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod. The first and second guide means are supported at axially spaced locations with the openings coaxial; and a substantially cylindrical subassembly having a vertical cylindrical opening therethrough. The subassembly is trapped coaxial with and between the first and second guide means, and the subassembly radially floats with respect to the first and second guide means

  17. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Herring, J Stephen [Idaho Falls, ID; Grandy, Jon D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  18. The ATHENA Antihydrogen Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Amoretti, M; Bonomi, G; Bouchta, A; Bowe, P; Carraro, C; Charlton, M; Collier, M; Doser, Michael; Filippini, V; Fine, K S; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Glauser, A; Grögler, D; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hayano, R S; Higaki, H; Holzscheiter, Michael H; Joffrain, W; Jørgensen, L V; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, Rolf; Cesar, C L; Lindelöf, D; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, D; Manuzio, G; Marchesotti, M; Montagna, P; Pruys, H S; Regenfus, C; Riedler, P; Rochet, J; Rotondi, A; Rouleau, G; Testera, G; Van der Werf, D P; Variola, A; Watson, T L; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y

    2004-01-01

    The ATHENA apparatus that recently produced and detected the first cold antihydrogen atoms is described. Its main features, which are described herein, are: an external positron accumulator, making it possible to accumulate large numbers of positrons; a separate antiproton catching trap, optimizing the catching, colling and handling of antiprotons: a unique high resolution antihydrogen annihilation detector, allowing a clear determination that antihydrogen has been produced; an open, modular design making variations in the experimental approach possible and a "nested" Penning trap situated in a cryogenic, 3T magnetic field environment used for the mixing of the antiprotons and positrons.

  19. Isotope diagnostics apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a measuring probe for an isotope diagnostics apparatus to determine the distribution of radioactive substances in a body by measuring the radiation emanating from this body by means of a multiplicity of measuring probes directed simultaneously towards areas of measuring surfae and carried in guidances of a holding block. The measuring results of the individual probes are recorded separately, thus allowing the possibility of being evaluated separately, too. Measuring probes of this kind are used in multi-channel measuring objects and are useful particularly for determining the regional cerebral blood flow. (orig./ORU) [de

  20. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  1. Remote docking apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, T.H.; Sumpman, W.C.; Wilhelm, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The remote docking apparatus comprises a support plate with locking devices mounted thereon. The locking devices are capable of being inserted into tubular members for suspending the support plate therefrom. A vertical member is attached to the support plate with an attachment mechanism attached to the vertical member. A remote access manipulator is capable of being attached to the attachment mechanism so that the vertical member can position the remote access manipulator so that the remote access manipulator can be initially attached to the tubular members in a well defined manner

  2. Microstructures and mechanical properties of heat-treated Al–5.0Cu–0.5Fe squeeze cast alloys with different Mn/Fe ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwen, E-mail: mewzhang@scut.edu.cn; Lin, Bo; Fan, Jianlei; Zhang, Datong; Li, Yuanyuan

    2013-12-20

    The Al–5.0 wt% Cu–0.5 wt% Fe alloys with different Mn/Fe ratio were prepared by squeeze casting. Various test techniques, including tensile test, image analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the microstructures and mechanical properties of the alloys in T5 heat-treated condition. The results show that the β-Fe (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}Fe) is stable and its needle-like morphology is maintained after T5 heat treatment. However, the Chinese script Al{sub m}Fe, α-Fe or Al{sub 6}(FeMn) partially transform to a new Chinese script Cu-rich α(CuFe) (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}Fe or Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}(FeMn)), which is harmful to the mechanical properties of the alloys due to the decrease of the Cu content in α(Al) matrix. The optimal Mn/Fe ratio is determined by the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallics, volume fraction of θ′ and T (Al{sub 20}Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}), size of α(Al) dendrite and porosity. Excessive Mn/Fe ratio will deteriorate the mechanical properties of the alloys due to the increase of the total amount of porosity and the Fe-rich intermetallics. When the Mn/Fe ratio is 1.6 and 1.2 for the applied pressure of 0 MPa and 75 MPa, respectively, the needle-like β-Fe phase is completely converted to the Chinese script Fe-rich intermetallics. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the T5 heat-treated alloy with the Mn/Fe ratio of 1.2 and applied pressure of 75 MPa reach 395 MPa, 335 MPa and 14%, respectively.

  3. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  4. Process and apparatus for distilling bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrier, J A

    1922-03-27

    This process of distillation of bituminous minerals and particularly bituminous limestone is characterized by the fact that the minerals are introduced into the retort where they stand only the temperature necessary to distill the water and lighter oils that they contain and then are drawn out into the hearth and serve for heating the retort. The apparatus is characterized by the fact that the retort has a screw conveyor, placed in the flue of the hearth, supplied with a chamber for evacuation below this hearth.

  5. Chinese herbal Pulian ointment in treating psoriasis vulgaris of blood-heat syndrome: a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nuo; Zhao, Wenbin; Xing, Jianmin; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Guangzhong; Zhang, Yunbi; Li, Yuanwen; Liu, Wali; Shi, Fei; Bai, Yanping

    2017-05-15

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal Pulian ointment in treating psoriasis vulgaris of blood-heat syndrome. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Participants with psoriasis vulgaris of blood-heat syndrome were blinded and randomized to receive Pulian ointment or placebo ointment twice daily for 4 weeks, with follow-up 8 weeks after treatment. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores, severity of each symptom and area of skin lesion and quality of life were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks. Adverse events were recorded during the study. SAS 9.4 software and SPSS 17.0 software was applied for data analysis. A total of 300 participants with psoriasis vulgaris of blood-heat syndrome were assessed for eligibility, and 294 were randomly assigned to the Pulian ointment and placebo group from six study centers. Full analysis set (FAS): after 4 weeks of treatment, there were significant differences between groups in PASI score and the separate score of skin lesion area, favoring Pulian ointment group (P  0.05). Per protocol set (PPS): There was no statistically significant difference in PASI score and separate score of each symptom and area of skin lesion between two groups (P > 0.05). Quality of life measured by Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) improved after treatment in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). After being followed up for 8 weeks, the total relapse rates of the Pulian Ointment group and placebo group were 5.88 and 8.45%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05). No adverse event was observed in both groups throughout the study. Pulian Ointment seems effective and well tolerated in improving the

  6. Isotope separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.I.

    1983-01-01

    This application discloses a method for and an apparatus in which isotopes of an element in a compared are separated from each other while that compound, i.e., including a mixture of such isotopes, flows along a predetermined path. The apparatus includes a flow tube having a beginning and an end. The mixture of isotopes is introduced into the flow tube at a first introduction point between the beginning and the end thereof to flow the mixture toward the end thereof. A laser irradiates the flow tube dissociating compounds of a preselected one of said isotopes thereby converting the mixture in an isotopically selective manner. The dissociation products are removed from the tube at a first removal point between the first introduction point and the end. The dissociation product removed at the the first removal point are reconverted back into the comound thereby providing a first stage enriched compound. This first stage enriched compound is reintroduced into the flow tube at a second introduction point between the beginning thereof and the first introduction point. Further product is removed from the flow tube at a second removal point between the second introduction point and the first introduction point. The second introduction point is chosen so that the isotope composition of the first stage enriched compound is approximately the same as that of the compound in the flow tube

  7. Apparatus for fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To support a telescope mast such that no deforming load is applied to it even during massive vibration, it is held fixed at the time of fuel replacement to permit satisfactory remote control operation by automatic operation. Structure: The body of the fuel replacement apparatus is provided with telescope mast fixing means comprising a slide base supported for reciprocal movement with respect to a telescope mast, an operating arm pivoted at the slide base, a wrist member mounted on the free end of the operating arm and an engagement member for restricting the slide base and operating arm at the time of loading and unloading the fuel. When loading and unloading the fuel, the slide base and operating arm are restrained by the engagement member to reliably restrict the vibration of the telescope mast. When the fuel replacement apparatus is moved, the means provided on the operating arm is smoothly displaced to follow the swing (vibration) of the telescope mast to prevent the deforming load from being applied to the support portion or other areas. The wrist member supports the telescope mast such that it can be rotated while restraining movement in the axial direction, and it is provided with revolution drive means for rotating the telescope mast under remote control. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Radiographic scanner apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The preferred embodiment of this invention includes a hardware system, or processing means, which operates faster than software. Moreover the computer needed is less expensive and smaller. Radiographic scanner apparatus is described for measuring the intensity of radiation after passage through a planar region and for reconstructing a representation of the attenuation of radiation by the medium. There is a source which can be rotated, and detectors, the output from which forms a data line. The detectors are disposed opposite the planar region from the source to produce a succession of data lines corresponding to the succession of angular orientations of the source. There is a convolver means for convolving each of these data lines, with a filter function, and a means of processing the convolved data lines to create the representation of the radiation attenuation in the planar region. There is also apparatus to generate a succession of data lines indicating radiation attenuation along a determinable path with convolver means. (U.K.)

  9. Apparatus for gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the present standard is to fix the rules for the construction of gamma radiography instrumentation without prejudice to the present regulations. These apparatus have to be fitted with only sealed sources conformable to the experimental standard M 61-002. The present standard agrees with the international standard ISO 3999 of 1977 dealing with the same subject. Nevertheless, it is different on the three main following points: it does not accept the same limits of absorbed dose rates in the air calculated on the external surface of projectors; it precribes tightness, bending, crushing and tensile tests for some components of the gamma radiography it prescribes tests of endurance and resistance to breaking for the locking systems of the gamma radiography apparatus. The present standard also specifies the following points: symbols and indications to put on projectors and on the source-holder; identification of the source contained in the projector; and, accompanying documents. The regulation references are given in annexe [fr

  10. Fuel exchanging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko; Sato, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a centripetal device, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of a telescope mast, on a mast fixing device mounted on a body of fuel exchanging apparatus so that the telescope mast may be secured quickly returning to a predetermined initial position. Structure: When the body of fuel exchanging apparatus is stopped at a predetermined position, a tension spring, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of the telescope mast, causes a lug to be forced by means of a push rod to position a sliding base plate to its original position. At the same time, a device of similar structure causes an operating arm to be positioned to the original position, and a lock pin urged by a cylinder is inserted into a through hole in the sliding base plate and operating arm so that the telescope mast may be fixed and retained. (Hanada, M.)

  11. Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

    CERN Document Server

    SAE Aerospace Standards. London

    2012-01-01

    Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

  12. Apparatus and method for generating high density pulses of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Oettinger, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for the production of high density pulses of electrons using a laser energized emitter. Caesium atoms from a low pressure vapour atmosphere are absorbed on and migrate from a metallic target rapidly heated by a laser to a high temperature. Due to this heating time being short compared with the residence time of the caesium atoms adsorbed on the target surface, copious electrons are emitted which form a high current density pulse. (U.K.)

  13. Modified thermogravimetric apparatus to measure magnetic susceptibility on-line during annealing of metastable ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, G.; Constantini, A.; Branda, F.; Ausanio, G.; Hison, C.; Iannotti, V.; Luponio, C.; Lanotte, L.

    2004-01-01

    The insertion of proper coils to generate a magnetic field, with controlled gradient, in a standard thermogravimetric apparatus is shown to be a valid solution to measure on-line, upon heat treatment, the magnetic susceptibility in ribbon shaped samples of a metastable ferromagnetic material. The method is very useful to individuate the annealing conditions that optimise soft or hard magnetic properties without using separate apparatuses for heat treatment, control of the structural phase transition and characterization of magnetic susceptibility

  14. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by

  15. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robb M [Albuquerque, NM; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Polosky, Marc A [Albuquerque, NM; Hoke, Darren A [Albuquerque, NM; Vernon, George E [Rio Rancho, NM

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  16. Micromechanics-based modeling of stress–strain and fracture behavior of heat-treated boron steels for hot stamping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srithananan, P.; Kaewtatip, P.; Uthaisangsuk, V., E-mail: vitoon.uth@kmutt.ac.th

    2016-06-14

    In the automotive industry, hot stamped parts with tailored properties have shown advantageous safety performance. Such components are produced by applying different heat treatment conditions after forming for different zones in order to obtain various combinations of hard and soft microstructures. In this work, pure martensitic, pure bainitic, and three martensitic/bainitic phase microstructures were initially generated from the boron steel grade 22MnB5 by a two-step quenching procedure in which different holding times in the bainitic temperature range were varied. Increased phase fraction of bainite due to longer holding time led to decreased yield and tensile strength; however, elongation and resulting energy absorbability became significantly higher. To describe mechanical properties and failure behavior of hot stamped parts containing multiphase microstructures, influences of microstructure characteristics should be considered on the micro-scale. Using modeling, 2-D representative volume elements (RVE) were generated from observed real microstructures and flow curves of the individual single phases were defined, taking into account a dislocation theory based model and local chemical compositions. Then, effective stress–strain curves of the heat-treated boron steels were calculated by using the isostrain and non-isostrain methods and compared with tensile test results. Regarding fracture behavior, damage curves of fully martensitic and bainitic structures were determined by means of tensile tests of different notched samples and a hybrid digital image correlation (DIC)–finite element (FE) approach. 2-D RVE simulations of a martensite/bainite mixture were carried out under various states of stress, in which the obtained damage curves were individually applied for each phase. The predicted damage curve from RVE simulations for two-phase boron steel fairly agreed with experimental fracture strains. Moreover, correspondingly normalized Lode angle could be

  17. Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats' milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo

    2015-04-01

    There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Automatic emissive probe apparatus for accurate plasma and vacuum space potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianquan, LI; Wenqi, LU; Jun, XU; Fei, GAO; Younian, WANG

    2018-02-01

    We have developed an automatic emissive probe apparatus based on the improved inflection point method of the emissive probe for accurate measurements of both plasma potential and vacuum space potential. The apparatus consists of a computer controlled data acquisition card, a working circuit composed by a biasing unit and a heating unit, as well as an emissive probe. With the set parameters of the probe scanning bias, the probe heating current and the fitting range, the apparatus can automatically execute the improved inflection point method and give the measured result. The validity of the automatic emissive probe apparatus is demonstrated in a test measurement of vacuum potential distribution between two parallel plates, showing an excellent accuracy of 0.1 V. Plasma potential was also measured, exhibiting high efficiency and convenient use of the apparatus for space potential measurements.

  19. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod

  20. Multichannel Thomson scattering apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretz, N.; Dimock, D.; Foote, V.; Johnson, D.; Long, D.; Tolnas, E.

    1977-07-01

    A Thomson scattering apparatus for measuring the electron temperature and density along a 90 cm diameter of the PLT plasma has been built. A wide angle objective images the 3 mm x 900 mm ruby laser beam onto an image dissector which rearranges the 300 : 1 image to 20 : 1 forming the input slit of a spectrometer. The stigmatic spectrometer provides 20 wavelength elements of approximately 70 A each. A micro-channel-plate image intensifier optically coupled to a cooled SIT tube provides detection with single frame linearity and 1000 : 1 dynamic range. Spatial profiles of N/sub e/ and T/sub e/ in the range 10 13 - 10 14 cm -3 and 0.05 - 3 keV have an accuracy of 30 √10 13 /N/sub e/ (cm -3 ) percent per 1.2 cm element

  1. Apparatus for stereotactic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koslow, M.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for stereotactic surgery consisting of a probe and a computerized tomographic scanning system is described. The scanning system comprises a display and means for reconstructing cross-sectional images on the display using data from partial circumferential scans of source and detectors. It operates on the data with an algorithm that provides the difference between the local values of the linear attenuation coefficient and average of these values within a circle centered at each reconstruction point. The scanning system includes a means of maintaining the frames of reference of the probe and scanning system rigid with respect to one another. The position of the probe, which may be a cryogenic probe, with respect to the actual anatomical structure of the body, particularly a human head, may thus be viewed by the surgeon. (author)

  2. Radiation imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation imaging apparatus especially suited for use in a computerized tomographic (CT) scanner is specified. It employs a fixed array of discrete X-ray sources, each being a cold cathode diode having an impedance in excess of about 100 ohms and an adjacent fixed array of closely packed radiation detectors to produce images of rapidly moving body organs such as the beating heart. The X-ray source is pulsed by a 120 to 130 kv pulse of 150 to 160 ns duration, derived from an unregulated DC source, of output voltage 15 to 30 kv. Each X-ray source may comprise a cold cathode pulse or may be constituted by a pair of annular cathodes having radially extending anodes therebetween. (author)

  3. Radiation measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A colorimeter in which a light source, a collimating lens and a band pass filter are supported by a housing that is movable with respect to a stationary beam dividing assembly in a direction at least substantially transverse to the optical axis of the light from the source. The assembly separates the incoming collimated and filtered light into a sample beam and a reference beam which are directed back toward the housing in directions parallel to the optical axis. The movement of the housing toward or away from the sample produces an increase or decrease in the intensity of the light illuminating the sample and a corresponding decrease or increase in the intensity of the light at the reference detector. The arrangement is such that the apparatus may be readily adjusted to obtain accurate colorimeter readings even for samples having abnormally high or low density characteristics

  4. Radiation shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullagh, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure pertains to a clamping apparatus having a stud capturing portion and a stud facing portion bolted together so as to compressively support a radiation-proof sheet material, such as lead sheeting, there-in-between. The interior wall covering material, such as panelling or wall board, is secured to the external surface of the stud facing portion. No nails are required to support the radiation-proof sheeting material, thereby minimizing accidental leakage due to harmful radiation passing through openings inadvertently disposed in the radiation-proof sheeting in the conventional nail securing supporting thereof. A pair of radiation-proof tracks capture the free ends of the stud capturing portion and the stud facing portion

  5. Capacitive gauging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for gauging physical dimensions of solid or tubular bodies (e.g. a nuclear fuel pellet) comprises a capacitive transducer having electrodes forming diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors and means for connecting the pairs, preferably sequentially, in an arm of a four arm electrical network. For circumferential scanning of a solid body along its length, the body is moved along a path of travel through head assembly including the transducer by means of plungers with the axis of the body being coincident with the axis of the transducer. As the body moves through the transducer the diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors scan the surface to result in a surface profile of the body. For scanning the bore of a pipe or tube the transducer is inserted as a probe and moved along the bore of the pipe or tube, means being provided for maintaining the probe coaxial with the pipe or tube. (author)

  6. Nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Teruhiro.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus which can make a disorderly magnetic field due to shell current as small as possible, thereby enhancing efficiency. Structure: On each divided end of each shell is integrally projected an auxiliary shell which has thick greater than the other portion of shell. These auxiliary shells are made of a material of high electric conductivity, and the shape of the auxiliary shells may properly be selected so that electric resistance of the auxiliary shell at the divided end of the shell to the shell current may be made smaller than the electric resistance of intermediate of the shell to the shell current. With this, the shell current is concentrated on the auxiliary shell at the divided end of the shell to form an adjacent reciprocating current between it and the shell current opposite the auxiliary shell, thus reducing the disorderly magnetic field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  8. Foil changing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crist, C.E.; Ives, H.C.; Leifeste, G.T.; Miller, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    A self-contained foil changer apparatus for replenishing foil material across the path of a high energy particle beam is described comprising: a cylindrical hermetically sealed housing comprising an end plate having an aperture defining a beam passageway therethrough; foil supply means disposed inside the housing for storing a foil web and supporting a portion of the web across the beam passageway to form a plane perpendicular to the beam path; a barrel assembly disposed inside the housing; web control means extending through the housing and operably connected to the foil supply means for selectively advancing the foil web to replenish a portion across the beam passageway; and barrel control means extending through the housing and operably connected to the barrel assembly for selectively moving the barrel to and from the advanced and retracted positions

  9. Spine immobilization apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  10. Apparatus for proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors. 10 claims, 7 drawing figures

  11. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Chun Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP, and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance (ICR of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature.

  12. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Chun; Chien, Yi-Chi; Wu, Tung-Lin; Hung, Ke-Chang; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP), and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance (ICR) of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature. PMID:28772726

  13. The Effect of Artificial Aging on The Bond Strength of Heat-activated Acrylic Resin to Surface-treated Nickel-chromium-beryllium Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Zinelis, Spiros; Al Taweel, Sara M; Nagy, William W

    2016-01-01

    The debonding load of heat-activated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin material to a nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) alloy conditioned by three different surface treatments and utilizing two different commercial bonding systems was investigated. Denture resin (Lucitone-199) was bonded to Ni-Cr-Be alloy specimens treated with Metal Primer II, the Rocatec system with opaquer and the Rocatec system without opaquer. Denture base resin specimens bonded to non-treated sandblasted Ni-Cr-Be alloy were used as controls. Twenty samples for each treatment condition (80 specimens) were tested. The 80 specimens were divided into two categories, thermocycled and non-thermocycled, containing four groups of ten specimens each. The non-thermocycled specimens were tested after 48 hours' storage in room temperature water. The thermocycled specimens were tested after 2,000 cycles in 4°C and 55°C water baths. The debonding load was calculated in Newtons (N), and collected data were subjected by non parametric test Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance on Ranks and Dunn's post hoc test at the α = 0.05. The Metal Primer II and Rocatec system without opaquer groups produced significantly higher bond strengths (119.9 and 67.6 N), respectively, than did the sandblasted and Rocatec system with opaquer groups, where the bond strengths were 2.6 N and 0 N, respectively. The Metal Primer II was significantly different from all other groups (P<0.05). The bond strengths of all groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05) after thermocycling. Although thermocycling had a detrimental effect on the debonding load of all surface treatments tested, the Metal Primer II system provided higher values among all bonding systems tested, before and after thermocycling.

  14. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit

    2014-09-18

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  15. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit; Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  16. Some elevated temperature tensile and strain-controlled fatigue properties for a 9%Cr1Mo steel heat treated to simulate thick section material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, S.J.; Jacques, S.

    Current interest has been expressed in the usage of thick section 9%Cr1%Mo steel, particularly for UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) steam generator tubeplates. This paper presents the results of some preliminary mechanical property test work on a single cast of the steel, heat treated to simulate heavy ruling sections encompassing thicknesses likely to be met in the CDFR context. The microstructures of the simulated thick section material were found to remain predominantly as tempered martensite even at the slowest transformation cooling rates used (50 deg. C/h). The effect of microstructure is reflected in the elevated temperature proof stress, tensile strength and strain-controlled fatigue endurance which were found to be comparable with the properties established for thin section normalised and tempered 9%Cr1%Mo steel. These results are extremely encouraging and, taken in conjunction with the results from other simulation work on this material, further demonstrate the potential of thick section 9%Cr1%Mo steel. (author)

  17. Effect of Si on Fe-rich intermetallic formation and mechanical properties of heat-treated Al–Cu–Mn–Fe alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuliang; Zhang, Weiwen; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Datong; Wang, Zhi

    2018-04-01

    The effect of Si on Fe-rich intermetallics formation and mechanical properties of heat-treated squeeze cast Al-5.0Cu-0.6Mn-0.7Fe alloy was investigated. Our results show that increasing Si content promotes the formation of Al15(FeMn)3(SiCu)2 (${\\alpha}$-Fe), and varying the morphology of T (Al20Cu3Mn2) where the size decreases and the amount increases. The major reason is that Si promotes heterogeneous nucleation of the intermetallics leading to finer precipitates. Si addition significantly enhances ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the alloys. The strengthening effect is mainly owing to the dispersoid strengthening by increasing volume fraction of T phase and less harmful ${\\alpha}$-Fe with a compact structure, which make the cracks more difficult to initiate and propagation during tensile test. The squeeze cast Al-5.0Cu-0.6Mn-0.7Fe alloy with 1.1% Si shows significantly improved mechanical properties than the alloy without Si addition, which has tensile strength of 386 MPa, yield strength of 280 MPa and elongation of 8.6%.

  18. Selective splenic targeting of In-114m by heat-treated red blood cells for the treatment of lymphoid cell malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.L.; Jackson, N.C.; Jackson, H.; Smith, A.M.; Shukla, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Spleen targeted In-114m, using labelled autologous lymphocytes, has produced a significant antitumour effect in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (Sharma et al, Anti-Cancer Research 17, 1815-1822,1997). Heat treated red blood cells could be used as alternative vectors for splenic targeting of In-114m, making the technique easier, more universally applicable and furthermore, may reduce the myelosuppression seen with labelled lymphocytes. Red blood cells from HO3T rats were labelled with In-114m-oxine, incubated at 49.5 deg. C for 15 minutes and their distribution investigated in the spleen, liver and blood or recipient animals. The splenic uptake in the spleen at 24h was 64.08%, remained unchanged at 7 days, cleared slowly after that, clearly demonstrating the specificity of HTRBC to target In-114m to the spleen. The depletion of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured in two groups of HO3T rats following the administration of 1.6 and 3.2 MBq of In-114m-HTRBC respectively. Compared to the controls, ∼ 70% of lymphocytes were depleted in the treated animals within one week and remained unchanged for 6 weeks. Using a rat T-cell lymphocytic leukaemia model, with resemblance to the clinical disease, an anti-leukaemic effect of his method of treatment, was monitored. An average life span of the treated group (1.85 MBq of In-114m-HTRBC) was 17.1 days, compared to the 13.5 days for the untreated group. These results are similar to the ones reported by targeting In-114m with labelled lymphocytes. In summary, the project has shown that In-114m-HTRBC can be used to deposit the radioactivity, selectively in the spleen, which in turn, depletes the peripheral blood lymphocytes and produces an anti-leukaemic effect in terms of enhanced life span. The bone marrow toxicity from In-114m therapy is under investigation and a pharmacokinetic study in selected cancer patients is planned following which, a clinical trial will be considered. (author)

  19. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  20. Submersible energy storage apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccartney, J.F.; Rowe, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A submersible energy storage apparatus for an electrical power source is provided which includes an electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly and a fuel cell. The electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly includes a hydrogen container and an oxygen container wherein each container has a gas outlet and is capable of containing feed water as well as hydrogen and oxygen gases respectively. An electrolysis cell is provided which has a hydrogen outlet, an oxygen outlet and a feed water inlet. The hydrogen outlet is located in the hydrogen container, the oxygen outlet is located in the oxygen container, and the feed water inlet is located in one of the containers. Each of the containers has an opening to the submersible environment so as to be pressure responsive thereto. A barrier device is provided in association with the opening in each container for isolating the feed water in the container from water in the submersible environment. The fuel cell is operatively connected to the hydrogen and oxygen containers, and the electrical power source is operatively connected to the electrolysis cell. With this arrangement the electrolysis cell is capable of utilizing power from the power source during low electrical energy demand, and the fuel cell is capable of utilizing the hydrogen and oxygen gases for generating electricity during high demand periods

  1. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  2. Nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Daizaburo; Yamada, Masao.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus in which a magnetic limiter is disposed within a vacuum vessel, said magnetic limiter being supported in such a manner so as to not to exert mechanical action upon said vacuum vessel, thereby minimizing a force applied to the vacuum vessel to easily manufacture the vacuum vessel. Structure: The magnetic limiter disposed within the vacuum vessel is connected to one end of a supporting post which extends through the wall of the vacuum vessel through a seal portion, the other end of the supporting post being secured to a structure such as a house outside the vacuum vessel. The seal portion comprises a bellows of high spring elasticity mounted on the vacuum vessel and a seal element comprised of an electric insulator such as ceramic for connecting the bellows to the supporting post, the supporting post extending through the wall of the vacuum vessel in vacuum-tight fashion, the force applied to the magnetic limiter exerting no influence upon the vacuum vessel. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  4. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  5. Radiographic examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetham, S.; Hogg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tube examination apparatus has a head actuated by fluid pressure, for centralising a radioactive source. Preferably the source is shielded during transport from its storage unit to the head. A body attached to a drive-wire has hollow shield-parts which define a radiation window therebetween, and closure shield-parts which have the source located therebetween and which are a sliding fit. A spring biases the closure shields towards a first position relative to the body in which the source is enclosed. When the body moves along a guide in the head, the closure shield engages an abutment surface which arrests the closure shields. Further movement of the body to engage an abutment surface causes relative movement between the shield parts to a second position relative to the body in which the source is exposed at the window. Retraction of the body along the guide allows the spring to restore the closure shield parts to the first position. (U.K.)

  6. Sample-taking apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanov, Y I; Ismailov, R A; Orazov, A

    1980-10-07

    The invention refers to the equipment for testing water-bearing levels in loose rocks. Its purpose is to simultaneously remove with the rock sample a separate fluid sample from the assigned interval. The sample-taking apparatus contains a core lifter which can be submerged into the casting string with housing and front endpiece in the form of a rod with a piston which covers the cavity of the core lifter, as well as mechanism for fixing and moving the endpiece within the core lifter cavity. The device differs from the known similar devices because the upper part of the housing of the core lifter is equipped with a filter and mobile casting which covers the filter. In this case the casing is connected to the endpiece rod and the endpiece is installed with the possibility of movement which is limited with fixing in the upper position and in the extreme upper position it divides the core lifter cavity into two parts, filter settling tank and core-receiving cavity.

  7. Medical radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described which relates to computer-assisted tomography. The apparatus provides for investigating a cross-section slice of a patient's body and includes a source of fan-shaped distribution of penetrating radiation and a means for locating the source, in relation to the patient's body so that the radiation is directed towards a slice of the body. The source can be rotated about the patient's body and radiation detected by a number of detectors situated in an arc around the body. The number, and thus the cost, of detectors can be reduced by putting the ring of detectors between the x-ray source and the patient's body. This presents a problem in that if the detectors are on the same side of the body as the source and if no steps are taken to the contrary, the detectors will interupt the radiation so that it does not pass through the patient's body. This invention overcomes that problem. (OT)

  8. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  9. Radiographic film cassette unloading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievenart, E.F.; Plessers, H.S.; Neujens, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for unloading cassettes, containing exposed radiographic films, has means for unfastening the cassettes, an inclined pathway for gravity feeding and rotating feed members (rollers or belts) to propel the films into the processor. (UK)

  10. INFLATE: INFlate Landing Apparatus Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryanov, V. V. K.; Da-Poian, V. D. P.

    2018-02-01

    Our project, named INFLATE (INFlatable Landing Apparatus Technology), aims at reducing space landing risks and constraints and so optimizing space missions (reducing cost, mass, and risk and in the same time improving performance).

  11. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method are described for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell

  12. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T. Kenneth

    1978-11-14

    Apparatus and method for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell.

  13. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs

  14. Apparatus for washing out halogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M; Hahn, J; Kroenig, W

    1941-03-26

    An apparatus is described for washing out of halogens and the like or liquid halogen compounds from the products, which are formed on pressure hydrogenation or splitting of carbon-containing material in the presence of halogens or halogen compounds, consisting of a washing apparatus installed between the reaction vessel and the hot separator, which is inclined in relatively small space for steam regulation and contains, with the steam, arranged baffles, especially spirals.

  15. Development of the white cast iron with niobium alloy, heat treating, to wear of the abrasive resistance; Desenvolvimento de uma liga de ferro fundido branco alto cromo com niobio, tratada termicamente, para resistencia ao desgaste abrasivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Alessandro Fraga

    1997-07-01

    This work presents the heat treatment and abrasion tests results of a white cast iron with niobium alloy. The hardening heat treatment were made 950, 1000, 1050 e 110 deg C temperatures cooled by forced air. The tempering treatment were made at 450, 500 e 550 deg C temperatures. The heat treating alloy were compared, in the abrasive tests, with commercial alloys used as hardfacing by welding process in wear pieces. The abrasion tests was realized in pin on disk test. Additional tests were carried out for microstructural characterization to identify the different phases presents in the alloys. In a general way, the alloy studies showed the best wear rate for the heat treatments that results in higher hardness. It performance was superior than that of the commercial alloys. (author)

  16. Apparatus for Removing Remaining Adhesives of Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, Tae Kuk; Hong, Dae Seok; Ji, Young Yong; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2010-01-01

    A Large amount of ventilation filter was used at radiation areas not only in nuclear power plants but also in nuclear facilities. These spent ventilation filters are generated as radioactive waste and composed of a steel frame, glass fiber media and aluminum separator. When treated, the spent filter is separated into filter media for air purification and frame. After separation, while the filter media is collected using steel drum for reducing internal exposure, the filter frame is treated further to remove adhesives for recycling the frame as many as possible in order to reduce waste and cost and improve working conditions. Usually, the adhesives are separated from the filter frame manually. As a result, a lot of time and labor is required. So, the objective of this study is to develop a motor-driven apparatus for removing adhesives efficiently

  17. pH dependence of catalytic activity for ORR of the non-PGM catalyst derived from heat-treated Fe–phenanthroline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocato, Shayna; Serov, Alexey; Atanassov, Plamen

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pH on the ORR efficiency of catalysts derived from heat-treated Fe–phenanthroline is analyzed using a rotating ring-disc electrode (RRDE). The activity of pyrolyzed Fe–phenanthroline catalysts was tested in electrolyte solutions with pHs ranging from 1 to 13.7. Fe–phenanthroline has a half-wave potential that remains steady at 0.7 V from pH 1 to pH 7 and linearly increases from pH 7 to the maximum 0.9 V at pH 13.7. The percent hydrogen peroxide detected on the ring was below 5% over all pHs at steady state potentials. The RRDE results were analyzed using Koutecky–Levich and charge/mass balance methods. The kinetic current (i k ) linearly decreases from pH 1 to pH 7 where it reaches a minimum and linearly increases from pH 7 to 13.7 indicating that the ORR reaction with OH − proceeds slower than with H + as the substrate. The number of electrons transferred decreases from 3.77 ± 0.09 (pH 1) to 2.38 ± 0.11 (pH 13.7) electrons according to the Koutecky–Levich analysis. The charge/mass balance analysis yielded the number of electrons transferred to be just under 4 electrons from pH 1 to pH 12, with a sharp decrease from pH 12 to pH 13.7. The results from the E 1/2 and Koutecky–Levich analysis, when taken together, indicate a mechanism shift taking place at pH 7 resulting from changes in the double-layer structure and the reaction mechanisms.

  18. Interactions between levels of heat-treated soybean meal and prilled fat on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Mirzaei, M; Jahani-Moghadam, M; Soltani, A; Mahjoubi, E; Patton, R A

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the interaction of RUP and fat levels on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves. Forty 3-d-old calves (20 females and 20 males) with a starting BW of 40.6 ± 2.8 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within sex treatments were: (1) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); (2) low RUP and high fat (LRUP-HF); (3) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); and high RUP and high fat (HRUP-HF). Low-RUP starter contained 21.5%, whereas high RUP starter contained 34.3% RUP as % of CP, whereas low fat starter contained 2.9% and high starter contained 5.8% crude fat based on DM. Isonitrogenous levels in the starter grain were maintained by replacing solvent soybean meal with heat treated soybean meal while fat levels were increased by the addition of prilled fatty acids. Calves were housed individually and had ad libitum access to water and calf starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age but remained in the study until d 70 for final measurements. Overall, there was no interaction between RUP and fat levels for measured variables. Starter intake tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for calves fed low fat starter during the postweaning period, although over the whole experiment and during the preweaning period, differences in starter intake were not different. Although there were no differences for most VFA concentrations, the molar proportion of butyrate tended ( RUP ( RUP starter. However, feeding a calf starter with over 3% fat appeared to decrease starter intake as growth progressed.

  19. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  20. JT-60 negative ion beam NBI apparatus. Present state of its construction and initial experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-02-01

    The NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) apparatus used for negative ion at first in the world, has an aim to actually prove heating and electric current drive with high density plasma at the JT-60 and to constitute physical and technical bases for selection and design of heating apparatus of ITER (International Thermal Nuclear Fusion Experimental Reactor). Construction of 500 KeV negative ion NBI apparatus for the JT-60 started to operate on 1993 was completed at March, 1996. On the way, at a preliminary test on forming and acceleration of the negative ion beam using a portion of this apparatus, 400 KeV and 13.5 A/D of the highest deuterium negative ion beam acceleration in the world was obtained successfully, which gave a bright forecasting of the plasma heating and electric current drive experiment using the negative ion NBI apparatus. After March, 1996, some plans to begin beam incident experiment at the JT-60 using the negative ion NBI apparatus and to execute the heating and electric current drive experiment at the JT-60 under intending increase of beam output are progressed. (G.K.)

  1. Apparatus and process for passivating an SRF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Wallace, John P

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus and process for the production of a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided. The apparatus comprises a first chamber positioned within a second chamber, an RF generator and vacuum pumping systems. The process comprises placing the niobium cavity in a first chamber of the apparatus; thermally treating the cavity by high temperature in the first chamber while maintaining high vacuum in the first and second chambers; and applying a passivating thin film layer to a surface of the cavity in the presence of a gaseous mixture and an RF field. Further a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients produced by the method of the invention is provided.

  2. An apparatus for a complimentary treatment of spasmodic torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, I; Weiss, T

    1988-07-01

    We have developed an apparatus for treating spasmodic torticollis that can be used at home both during intensive therapy and follow-up. The refractoriness of spasmodic torticollis requires patients to practice biofeedback training partly on a home basis. However, it is usually difficult for spasmodic torticollis patients to provide and handle electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training instruments. The present apparatus has 2 parts: first, a harness with a light source which is fixed on both shoulders; second, a photoreceptor, operant system for rewarding effect, and a digital recorder. The light is adjusted to strike the photoreceptor on the forehead when headposition is normal. Subjects are asked to keep the operant system--e.g. a radio--activated. They are trained in various postures as sitting, standing and walking. This apparatus provides a chance of home training to augment and maintain the effect during therapeutic sessions and the follow-up period.

  3. Apparatus and method for oxidation and stabilization of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; White, Terry L [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of plasma-derived gas containing at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at a selected temperature. The polymer may be directly exposed to the plasma, or alternatively, the plasma may be established in a separate volume from which the reactive species may be extracted and introduced into the vicinity of the polymer. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments.

  4. Apparatus and method for stabilization or oxidation of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M [Knoxville, TN

    2010-01-19

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere at a selected temperature; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of ozone-containing gas, which decomposes at the selected temperature yielding at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at the selected temperature. The ozone may be generated by a plasma discharge or by various chemical processes. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments as well as to make flame-retardant fabrics.

  5. Comparing studies for an optimization of steam-heated tube bundle heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, M.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of designing an apparatus are to be shown by the example of the steam-heated tube bundle heat exchanger, and optimizations are to be carried through by relevant examples. From the results of the optimization, a set of apparatus types is to be derived where the dimensions of the shell and the heat pipes as well as the length of the tube bundle are to be determined by as few data as possible. (orig./TK) [de

  6. Method and apparatus for waste destruction using supercritical water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldsen, Brent Lowell; Wu, Benjamin Chiau-pin

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved apparatus and method for initiating and sustaining an oxidation reaction. A hazardous waste, is introduced into a reaction zone within a pressurized containment vessel. An oxidizer, preferably hydrogen peroxide, is mixed with a carrier fluid, preferably water, and the mixture is heated until the fluid achieves supercritical conditions of temperature and pressure. The heating means comprise cartridge heaters placed in closed-end tubes extending into the center region of the pressure vessel along the reactor longitudinal axis. A cooling jacket surrounds the pressure vessel to remove excess heat at the walls. Heating and cooling the fluid mixture in this manner creates a limited reaction zone near the center of the pressure vessel by establishing a steady state density gradient in the fluid mixture which gradually forces the fluid to circulate internally. This circulation allows the fluid mixture to oscillate between supercritical and subcritical states as it is heated and cooled.

  7. Nuclear fuel handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.; Dupen, C.F.G.; Noyes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

  8. Apparatus for sectioning demountable semiconductor samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, B.L.; Wolf, A.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for use during polishing and sectioning operations of a ribbon sample is described. The sample holder includes a cylinder having an axially extending sample cavity terminated in a first funnel-shaped opening and a second slot-like opening. A spring-loaded pressure plunger is located adjacent the second opening of the sample cavity for frictional engagement of the sample cavity. A heat softenable molding medium is inserted in the funnel-shaped opening, to surround the sample. After polishing, the heater is energized to allow draining of the molding medium from the sample cavity. During manual polishing, the second end of the sample holder is inserted in a support ring which provides mechanical support as well as alignment of the sample holder during polishing. A gauge block for measuring the protrusion of a sample beyond the second wall of the holder is also disclosed.

  9. Method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, John William; Bonnell, Leo; Robinson, Earl T.

    2010-03-03

    A method and apparatus for reacting a hydrocarbon containing feed stream by steam methane reforming reactions to form a synthesis gas. The hydrocarbon containing feed is reacted within a reactor having stages in which the final stage from which a synthesis gas is discharged incorporates expensive high temperature materials such as oxide dispersed strengthened metals while upstream stages operate at a lower temperature allowing the use of more conventional high temperature alloys. Each of the reactor stages incorporate reactor elements having one or more separation zones to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing feed to support combustion of a fuel within adjacent combustion zones, thereby to generate heat to support the endothermic steam methane reforming reactions.

  10. Apparatus for diffusion-gap thermal desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew

    2017-09-26

    A thermal distillation apparatus including evaporation surfaces that are wetted with a solution, and from which at least some of the volatile solvent contained in the solution evaporates, condensers having an external surface in close proximity to, but not touching, a corresponding one of the one or more evaporation surfaces, and on which vapors of the solvent condense, releasing thermal energy that heats a flow of the solution moving upward within the condensers, spacers that prevent contact between the evaporating surfaces and the condensers, wherein spaces between the evaporating surfaces and the condensers are filled with a gaseous mixture composed of solvent vapor and one or more non-condensable gases, and except for diffusion of the solvent vapor relative to the non-condensable gases, the gaseous mixture is stationary.

  11. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  12. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  13. The Conservation Ideological State Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Margulies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.

  14. Apparatus for filtering radioactive fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischel, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for filtering radioactive particles from the cooling and/or auxiliary process water of a nuclear reactor, or nuclear fuel processing plant, or other installations wherein radioactive fluid systems are known to exist. The apparatus affords disposal of the captured particles in a manner which minimizes the exposure of operating personnel to radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to contain a removable filter cartridge assembly, a valve normally closing the lower end of the housing, an upwardly-open shipping cask located below the valve, and an elongated operating rod assembly projecting upwardly from the filter cartridge assembly and through the upper end of the housing to enable a workman to dismount the filter cartridge assembly from its housing and to lower the filter cartridge assembly through the valve and into the cask from a remote location above the housing. (U.S.)

  15. Nucleonic measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holben, B.C.; Bach, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A nucleonic measuring instrument is described wherein a housing contains a radiation source and has an aperture controlled by a shutter which is spring loaded to a closed position for confining and shielding the radiation and is movable by a motor to an open position for releasing the radiation, the motor being supplied with power through a heat sensitive element so that it is deenergized and the shutter closes in response to a predetermined high ambient temperature such as may be caused by a fire, and including an explosive blank cartridge positioned in relation to the shutter guide which explodes in response to a still higher ambient temperature, deforming the guide and thereby locking the shutter in the closed position. (auth)

  16. Apparatus for control of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  17. Apparatus for blending small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment

  18. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  19. Nuclear fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerkey, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    An automatic apparatus for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into a nuclear fuel element to be used in a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus consists of a vibratory bed capable of supporting corrugated trays containing rows of nuclear fuel pellets and arranged in alignment with the open ends of several nuclear fuel elements. A sweep mechanism is arranged above the trays and serves to sweep the rows of fuel pellets onto the vibratory bed and into the fuel element. A length detecting system, in conjunction with a pellet stopping mechanism, is also provided to assure that a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets are loaded into each fuel element

  20. XPS and ToF-SIMS analysis of natural rubies and sapphires heat-treated in a reducing (5 mol% H 2/Ar) atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiwawanich, S.; James, B. D.; Liesegang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Surface effects on Mong Hsu rubies and Kanchanaburi sapphires after heat treatment in a controlled reducing atmosphere (5 mol% H 2/Ar) have been investigated using advanced surface science techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Visual appearance of the gemstones is clearly affected by the heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. Kanchanaburi sapphires, in particular, exhibit Fe-containing precipitates after the heat treatment which have not been observed in previous studies under an inert atmosphere. Significant correlation between changes in visual appearance of the gemstones and variations in surface concentration of trace elements, especially Ti and Fe are observed. The XPS and ToF-SIMS results suggest that; (1) a reducing atmosphere affects the oxidation state of Fe; (2) dissociation of Fe-Ti interaction may occur during heat treatment.

  1. XPS and ToF-SIMS analysis of natural rubies and sapphires heat-treated in a reducing (5 mol% H{sub 2}/Ar) atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achiwawanich, S. [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); James, B.D. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Department of Chemistry, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Liesegang, J. [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: J.Liesegang@latrobe.edu.au

    2008-12-30

    Surface effects on Mong Hsu rubies and Kanchanaburi sapphires after heat treatment in a controlled reducing atmosphere (5 mol% H{sub 2}/Ar) have been investigated using advanced surface science techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Visual appearance of the gemstones is clearly affected by the heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. Kanchanaburi sapphires, in particular, exhibit Fe-containing precipitates after the heat treatment which have not been observed in previous studies under an inert atmosphere. Significant correlation between changes in visual appearance of the gemstones and variations in surface concentration of trace elements, especially Ti and Fe are observed. The XPS and ToF-SIMS results suggest that; (1) a reducing atmosphere affects the oxidation state of Fe; (2) dissociation of Fe-Ti interaction may occur during heat treatment.

  2. Relationship between the fluidity of heat-treated coals and molecular weight distributions of their solvent-soluble component; Netsushoritan no yobai kayo seibun no bunshiryo bunpu to ryudosei no kanren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science; Kato, K. [Nippon Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fukada, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to improve the coke manufacturing process, considerations were given on fluidity manifestation mechanism of heat-treated coals from molecular weight distributions of extracts of a solvent mixed with CS2-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS2-NMP). The heat treatment was performed in an autoclave under nitrogen atmosphere at a rate of 3{degree}C/min to settings of 200 to 550{degree}C. The resultant heat-treated coal was quenched, and then extracted by using the CS2-NMP mixed solvent. The fluidity was measured by using a Gieseler plastometer. Maximum extraction rate and the highest fluidity are in linear relationship, which suggests that the extracts govern the fluidity. Since heavy caking coal has no difference in the extraction rates due to heat treatment temperature, and its molecular weight distribution trend does not change, the extracted components which have existed primarily in the original coal govern the fluidity. In semi-caking coals, polymer molecular components are extracted in a large quantity at the softening starting temperature, but the quantity decreases as the temperature rises. However, low-molecular components present no quantitative change, while polymer molecular components decompose, decrease in molecular weight, get solubilized with rising temperature, and act as a binder to cause a flow. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. An apparatus for cattle-blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damdinsuerehn, S.; Gunaadzav, T.; Chueltehm, D.; Sajnkhueue, Zh.; Byambaa, S.; Moenkhtsehtsehg, N.; Dorzhnyambuu, B.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for cattle-blood irradiation in vitro by low intensity ultraviolet light (10-12 w/m 2 ) emitted by mercury-quartz lamp at the wavelength range of 254-280 nm has been constructed. For this purpose a simple connection circuit for shunting the source electrodes by effective resistance and switching on electrical network in series through capacitor is presented. Stabilized cattle blood for UV-irradiation is running through 5mm diameter quartz tubes at the distance of 15mm from UV-lamp. Irradiated in this way blood sample is administered intravenously or intramuscular in various way. Method of using this source in veterinary practice is developed. Results of the use of this method during the last 4-5 years demonstrate the efficiency of treating and preventing from desease could be above 80%. 1 fig. (B.Sh.)

  4. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat......Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...

  5. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...

  6. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  7. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  8. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  9. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  10. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  11. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  12. Support of nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarai, Tetsuo; Ito, Yutaka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To integrally form a bed for a body for supporting a vacuum container, coil and the like and a bed for a current transformer for supporting the current transformer prior to installation thereof on the floor thereby facilitating assembly and installation. Structure: To provide a base common to a current transformer bed and a body bed without direct installation thereof on the floor. Prior to installation of the current transformer bed and body bed, they are fastened to the base by means of bolts and welded integrally, and the thus formed base is fixed to the floor by means of anchor bolts. Since the current transformer bed and the body bed are formed integrally through the common base, apparatus may easily be carried in and disassembling and re-assembling of apparatus become unnecessary when installed. Further, since the positional relation of the current transformer bed and body bed does not depend on accuracy at the time of installation but depends on accuracy when apparatus manufactured, the toroidal type nuclear fusion apparatus of good accuracy may be obtained. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Method and apparatus for preventing agglomeration within fluid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodbridge, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for treating a fluid hydrocarbon fuel for retarding the agglomeration between particles thereof and for retarding the growth of bacteria and fungi therein. The process includes that steps of transporting a plurality of unit volumes of said fluid hydrocarbon fuel through an irradiating location and irradiating each unit of the plurality of unit volumes at the irradiating location with either neutron or gamma radiation. An apparatus for treating the fluid hydrocarbon fuels with the nuclear radiation also is provided. The apparatus includes a generally conical central irradiating cavity which is surrounded by a spiral outer irradiating cavity. The fluid hydrocarbon fuel is transported through the cavities while being irradiated by the nuclear radiation

  14. Apparatus for study of transient oxidation of Zircaloy-4 tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagat, S.; Iglesias, F.C.; Newell, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    Complex transient oxidation tests on Zircaloy-4 tubing were performed to provide data for validation of the computer code FROM2. This code was developed to calculate oxygen distribution through oxidized Zircaloy tubing. The test temperature histories consisted of ramp, hold and cool cycles. The heating and cooling rates were in the range of 1 to 100 K/s and the maximum temperature was 1875 K. The apparatus developed to perform these experiments is described. In principle, Joule heating is used to heat the specimen and the temperature is controlled by a computer in conjunction with temperature and SCR power controllers. Using this combination, fast heating and cooling rates were achieved without sacrificing the accuracy of temperature control

  15. Optoelectronic system and apparatus for connection to biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2018-03-06

    The present invention relates to a biological probe structure, as well as apparatuses, systems, and methods employing this structure. In particular embodiments, the structure includes a hermetically sealed unit configured to receive and transmit one or more optical signals. Furthermore, the structure can be implanted subcutaneously and interrogated externally. In this manner, a minimally invasive method can be employed to detect, treat, and/or assess the biological target. Additional methods and systems are also provided.

  16. Methanol oxidation reaction activity of microwave irradiated and heat-treated Pt/Co and Pt/Ni nano-electrocatalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, NR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic Pt nanoparticles were prepared by alloying Pt with the non-noble transition metals, Co and Ni, using a conventional heat-treatment (HT) method and microwaveirradiation (MW). The resulting samples were PteCo-Ht, PteNi-HT, PteCo, MW and Pt...

  17. Serological monitoring of previously treated lepromatous patients during a course of multiple immunotherapy treatments with heat-killed Mycobacterium leprae and BCG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, J. T.; Hirsch, D. S.; Fajardo, T. T.; Guido, L. S.; Klatser, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    Two-hundred and seventy lepromatous patients who had completed treatment received multiple treatments with heat-killed M. leprae and BCG and were monitored for changes in humoral responses to M. leprae-specific antigens. These patients were divided into four treatment groups: placebo (n = 69); BCG

  18. Effect of in vitro zinc supplementation on HSPs expression and Interleukin 10 production in heat treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transition Sahiwal and Karan Fries cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; Aarif, Ovais

    2016-02-01

    The changing climatic scenario with apprehended rise in global temperature is likely to affect the livestock adversely vis-à-vis production and reproduction. This has prompted more focus in addressing the unfavorable effects of thermal stress in livestock system. Presuming that the trace element zinc is indispensible for cellular antioxidant system and immune function, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of zinc treatment on heat stress alleviation and immune modulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of indigenous and crossbred transition cows. Twelve cows, six each of Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) in their second parity with confirmed pregnancy were selected for the experiment. The blood samples were collected at -21, 0 and +21 days in relation to expected date of calving. The experiment was carried out in vitro after isolating PBMC from whole blood. The 48h cultured PBMC were subjected to assorted levels of exposures viz. 37°C, 42°C to impose heat stress and 42°C+zinc to alleviate heat stress and modulate immunity. The PBMC viability was 86%, 69% and 78%, respectively. The mRNA expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 40, 70 and 90α) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production varied between the two breeds vis-à-vis days and levels of exposure. The mRNA expression of HSP40 and HSP70 was significantly (Pheat stressed PBMC caused a significant (Pheat stressed PBMC can ameliorate thermal stress and modulate immune response which can act as a model for reducing heat stress during the periparturient period in tropical livestock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical properties of heat treated and worn PVD, TiN, (Ti, Al)N, (Ti, Nb)N and Ti(C, N) coatings as measured by nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancoille, E.; Celis, J.P.; Roos, J.R. (Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium))

    1993-03-15

    Steered arc ion plated TiN, (Ti[sub 50], Al[sub 50])N, (Ti[sub 85], Nb[sub 15])N and Ti(C[sub 60], N[sub 40]) coatings were heat treated in an inert argon atmosphere at temperatures up to 900degC. The hardness, Young's modulus and plasticity of the coatings were measured with nanoindentation after heating. As the coatings were annealed at higher temperatures, the hardness decreased and the plasticity increased. X-ray diffraction of the coatings showed that this corresponds to a decrease in internal stress and a change of crystallographic texture. The nanohardness of the cutting edge of coated drills was also measured after these were used in AISI 4140 steel. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of a silicate layer located near the cutting edge of (Ti[sub 85], Nb[sub 15])N coated drills. Nanoindentation showed that the mechanical signature of the surface film further away from the cutting edge corresponded to a heat-treated coating covered with an oxide layer. (orig.).

  20. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.