WorldWideScience

Sample records for heat transport loop

  1. One-Loop Operation of Primary Heat Transport System in MONJU During Heat Transport System Modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Tsushima, H.; Sakurai, N.; Jo, T.

    2006-01-01

    MONJU is a prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR). Modification work commenced in March 2005. Since June 2004, MONJU has changed to one-loop operation of the primary heat transport system (PHTS) with all of the secondary heat transport systems (SHTS) drained of sodium. The purposes of this change are to shorten the modification period and to reduce the cost incurred for circuit trace heating electrical consumption. Before changing condition, the following issues were investigated to show that this mode of operation was possible. The heat loss from the reactor vessel and the single primary loop must exceed the decay heat by an acceptable margin but the capacity of pre-heaters to keep the sodium within the primary vessel at about 200 deg. C must be maintained. With regard to the heat loss and the decay heat, the estimated heat loss in the primary system was in the range of 90-170 kW in one-loop operation, and the calculated decay heat was 21.2 kW. Although the heat input of the primary pump was considered, it was clear that circuit heat loss greatly exceeded the decay heat. As for pre-heaters, effective capacity was less than the heat loss. Therefore, the temperature of the reactor vessel room was raised to reduce the heat loss. One-loop operation of the PHTS was able to be executed by means of these measures. The cost of electrical consumption in the power plant has been reduced by one-loop operation of the PHTS and the modification period was shortened. (authors)

  2. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various

  3. Experimental study on the supercritical startup and heat transport capability of a neon-charged cryogenic loop heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuandong; Lin, Guiping; He, Jiang; Bai, Lizhan; Zhang, Hongxing; Miao, Jianyin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A neon-charged CLHP integrated with a G-M cryocooler was designed and investigated. • The CLHP can realize the supercritical startup with an auxiliary heat load of 1.5 W. • Maximum heat transport capability of the CLHP was 4.5 W over a distance of 0.6 m. • There existed an optimum auxiliary heat load to expedite the supercritical startup. • There existed an optimum charged pressure to reach the largest heat transfer limit. - Abstract: Neon-charged cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) can realize efficient cryogenic heat transport in the temperature range of 30–40 K, and promises great application potential in the thermal control of future space infrared exploration system. In this work, extensive experimental studies on the supercritical startup and heat transport capability of a neon-charged CLHP integrated with a G-M cryocooler were carried out, where the effects of the auxiliary heat load applied to the secondary evaporator and charged pressure of the working fluid were investigated. Experimental results showed that the CLHP could successfully realize the supercritical startup with an auxiliary heat load of 1.5 W, and there existed an optimum auxiliary heat load and charged pressure of the working fluid respectively, to achieve the maximum temperature drop rate of the primary evaporator during the supercritical startup. The CLHP could reach a maximum heat transport capability of 4.5 W over a distance of 0.6 m corresponding to the optimum charged pressure of the working fluid; however, the heat transport capability decreased with the increase of the auxiliary heat load. Furthermore, the inherent mechanisms responsible for the phenomena observed in the experiments were analyzed and discussed, to provide a better understanding from the theoretical view.

  4. Advanced Intermediate Heat Transport Loop Design Configurations for Hydrogen Production Using High Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh; Cliff Davis; Rober Barner; Paul Pickard

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the high-temperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic evaluations and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various

  5. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  6. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  7. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  8. Two-phase Heating in Flaring Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunming; Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze and model a C5.7 two-ribbon solar flare observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Hinode, and GOES on 2011 December 26. The flare is made of many loops formed and heated successively over one and half hours, and their footpoints are brightened in the UV 1600 Å before enhanced soft X-ray and EUV missions are observed in flare loops. Assuming that anchored at each brightened UV pixel is a half flaring loop, we identify more than 6700 half flaring loops, and infer the heating rate of each loop from the UV light curve at the footpoint. In each half loop, the heating rate consists of two phases: intense impulsive heating followed by a low-rate heating that is persistent for more than 20 minutes. Using these heating rates, we simulate the evolution of their coronal temperatures and densities with the model of the “enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops.” In the model, suppression of thermal conduction is also considered. This model successfully reproduces total soft X-ray and EUV light curves observed in 15 passbands by four instruments GOES, AIA, XRT, and EVE. In this flare, a total energy of 4.9 × 1030 erg is required to heat the corona, around 40% of this energy is in the slow-heating phase. About two-fifths of the total energy used to heat the corona is radiated by the coronal plasmas, and the other three fifth transported to the lower atmosphere by thermal conduction.

  9. Heat transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    A heat transport system of small size which can be operated in any orientation consists of a coolant loop containing a vaporizable liquid as working fluid and includes in series a vaporizer, a condenser and two one-way valves and a pressurizer connected to the loop between the two valves. The pressurizer may be divided into two chambers by a flexible diaphragm, an inert gas in one chamber acts as a pneumatic spring for the system. This system is suitable for use in a nuclear-powered artificial heart

  10. Closed loop solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-01-01

    The system used for the closed loop operation of the solar chemical heat pipe comprises a reformer, heated by the solar furnace, a methanator and a storage assembly containing a compressor and storage cylinders. (authors). 7 figs

  11. Neutron transport in irradiation loops (IRENE loop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarsam, Maher.

    1980-09-01

    This thesis is composed of two parts with different aspects. Part one is a technical description of the loop and its main ancillary facilities as well as of the safety and operational regulations. The measurement methods on the model of the ISIS reactor and on the loop in the OSIRIS reactor are described. Part two deals with the possibility of calculating the powers dissipated by each rod of the fuel cluster, using appropriate computer codes, not only in the reflector but also in the core and to suggest a method of calculation [fr

  12. Pumped two-phase heat transfer loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Fred

    1988-01-01

    A pumped loop two-phase heat transfer system, operating at a nearly constant temperature throughout, includes several independently operating grooved capillary heat exchanger plates supplied with working fluid through independent flow modulation valves connected to a liquid supply line, a vapor line for collecting vapor from the heat exchangers, a condenser between the vapor and the liquid lines, and a fluid circulating pump between the condenser and the heat exchangers.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Tarik; Ku, Jentung; Hoang, Triem T.; Cheung, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary focus of this study is to model steady-state performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP). The mathematical model is based on the steady-state energy balance equations at each component of the LHP. The heat exchange between each LHP component and the surrounding is taken into account. Both convection and radiation environments are modeled. The loop operating temperature is calculated as a function of the applied power at a given loop condition. Experimental validation of the model is attempted by using two different LHP designs. The mathematical model is tested at different sink temperatures and at different elevations of the loop. Tbc comparison of the calculations and experimental results showed very good agreement (within 3%). This method proved to be a useful tool in studying steady-state LHP performance characteristics.

  14. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  15. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  16. Cooling the intact loop of primary heat transport system using shut down cooling system after events such as LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icleanu, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the Shutdown Cooling System operation for CANDU 6 NPP in case of LOCA accident, using Flowmaster calculation code by delimiting models and setting calculation assumptions and input data for hydraulic analysis, and and assumptions for the calculation and input data for calculating thermal performance check heat exchangers that are part of this system. The Flowmaster V7.8 code provides system engineers with a powerful tool to investigate pressure surge, pressure drop, flow rate, temperature and system response times - removing the uncertainty from fluid flow systems. Flowmaster is a one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic calculation code for dimensioning, analyzing and verifying the pipeline systems operation. Each component of Flowmaster is a mathematical model for an equipment that is included in a facility. Selected components are connected via nodes in order to form a network, which constitutes a computerized model of the system. Analyzing the parameters of the cooling system for all cooling processes considered it was found that the values obtained for thermal-hydraulic parameters, as well as the duration up to reaching specified limits fall within the design values of the system. This document is made up of an abstract and the slides of the presentation

  17. HEATING OF FLARE LOOPS WITH OBSERVATIONALLY CONSTRAINED HEATING FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Jiong; Liu Wenjuan; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We analyze high-cadence high-resolution observations of a C3.2 flare obtained by AIA/SDO on 2010 August 1. The flare is a long-duration event with soft X-ray and EUV radiation lasting for over 4 hr. Analysis suggests that magnetic reconnection and formation of new loops continue for more than 2 hr. Furthermore, the UV 1600 Angstrom-Sign observations show that each of the individual pixels at the feet of flare loops is brightened instantaneously with a timescale of a few minutes, and decays over a much longer timescale of more than 30 minutes. We use these spatially resolved UV light curves during the rise phase to construct empirical heating functions for individual flare loops, and model heating of coronal plasmas in these loops. The total coronal radiation of these flare loops are compared with soft X-ray and EUV radiation fluxes measured by GOES and AIA. This study presents a method to observationally infer heating functions in numerous flare loops that are formed and heated sequentially by reconnection throughout the flare, and provides a very useful constraint to coronal heating models.

  18. Paleoclassical electron heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)

  19. Heat transport the cold way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A novel system for long-distance heat transport is being born in the 'Kernforschungsanlage Juelich' with the project being called 'Nukleare Fernenergie' (nuclear district energy). The project is also known as 'EVA/ADAM' [EVA = Einzelrohr-Versuchs-Anlage (single tube test facility); ADAM = Anlage mit Drei Adiabaten Methanisierungsreaktoren (plant provided with three adiabate methanising reactors)] and is based in principle on transport of energy in chemical bond within a closed loop. In the 60ies already this development was discussed both in the 'Kernforschungsanlage Juelich' and in the 'Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke' independent of each other. In 1975 these two organizations concluded a co-operation contract. (orig.) [de

  20. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  1. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  2. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitka Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980’s. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT.

  3. Overview of Loop Heat Pipe Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    1999-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHP's) are two-phase heat transfer devices that utilize the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid to transfer heat, and the capillary forces developed in the porous wicks to circulate the fluid. The LHP was first developed in the former Soviet Union in the early 1980s, about the same time that the capillary pumped loop (CPL) was developed in the United States. The LHP is known for its high pumping capability and robust operation mainly due to the use of fine-pored metal wicks and an integral evaporator/hydro-accumulator design. The LHP technology is rapidly gaining acceptance in aerospace community. It is the baseline design for thermal control of several spacecraft, including NASA's GLAS and Chemistry, ESA's ATLID, CNES' STENTOR, RKA's OBZOR, and several commercial satellites. Numerous LHP papers have been published since the mid-1980's. Most papers presented test results and discussions on certain specific aspects of the LHP operation. LHP's and CPL's show many similarities in their operating principles and performance characteristics. However, they also display significant differences in many aspects of their operation. Some of the LHP behaviors may seem strange or mysterious, even to experienced CPL practitioners. The main purpose of this paper is to present a systematic description of the operating principles and thermal-hydraulic behaviors of LHP'S. LHP operating principles will be given first, followed by a description of the thermal-hydraulics involved in LHP operation. Operating characteristics and important parameters affecting the LHP operation will then be described in detail. Peculiar behaviors of the LHP, including temperature hysteresis and temperature overshoot during start-up, will be explained. For simplicity, most discussions will focus upon LHP's with a single evaporator and a single condenser, but devices with multiple evaporators and condensers will also be discussed. Similarities and differences between LHP's and

  4. The radiation safety assessment of the heating loop of district heating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanzhong

    1993-01-01

    The district heating reactors are used to supply heating to the houses in cities. The concerned problems are whether the radioactive materials reach the heated houses through heating loop, and whether the safety of the dwellers can be ensured. In order to prevent radioactive materials getting into the heated houses, the district heating reactors have three loops, namely, primary loop, intermediate loop, and heating loop. In the paper, the measures of preventing radioactive materials getting into the heating loop are presented, and the possible sources of the radioactivity in the water of the intermediate loop and the heating loop are given. The regulatory aim limit of radioactive concentration in the water of the intermediate loop is put forward, which is 18.5 Bq/l. Assuming that specific radioactivity of the water of contaminated intermediate loop is up to 18.5 Bq/l, the maximum concentration of radionuclides in water of the heating loop is calculated for the normal operation and the accident of district heating reactor. The results show that the maximum possible concentration is 5.7 x 10 -3 Bq/l. The radiation safety assessment of the heating loop is made out. The conclusions are that the district heating reactors do not bring any harmful impact to the dwellers, and the safety of the dwellers can be safeguarded completely

  5. Heat transport and surface heat transfer with helium in rotating channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnapper, C.

    1978-06-01

    Heat transport and surface heat transfer with helium in rotating radially arranged channels were experimentally studied with regard to cooling of large turbogenerators with superconducting windings. Measurements with thermosiphon and thermosiphon loops of different channel diameters were performed, and results are presented. The thermodynamic state of the helium in a rotating thermosiphon and the mass flow rate in a thermosiphon loop is characterized by formulas. Heat transport by directed convection in thermosiphon loops is found to be more efficient 12 cm internal convection in thermosiphons. Steady state is reached sooner in thermosiphon loops than in thermosiphons, when heat load suddenly changes. In a very large centrifugal field single-phase heat transfer with natural and forced convection is described by similar formulas which are also applicable 10 thermosiphons in gravitation field or to heat transfer to non-rotating helium. (orig.) [de

  6. Theoretical investigation of the performance of a novel loop heat pipe solar water heating system for use in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xudong; Wang Zhangyuan; Tang Qi

    2010-01-01

    A novel loop heat pipe (LHP) solar water heating system for typical apartment buildings in Beijing was designed to enable effective collection of solar heat, distance transport, and efficient conversion of solar heat into hot water. Taking consideration of the heat balances occurring in various parts of the loop, such as the solar absorber, heat pipe loop, heat exchanger and storage tank, a computer model was developed to investigate the thermal performance of the system. With the specified system structure, the efficiency of the solar system was found to be a function of its operational characteristics - working temperature of the loop heat pipe, water flow rate across the heat exchanger, and external parameters, including ambient temperature, temperature of water across the exchanger and solar radiation. The relationship between the efficiency of the system and these parameters was established, analysed and discussed in detail. The study suggested that the loop heat pipe should be operated at around 72 deg. C and the water across the heat exchanger should be maintained at 5.1 l/min. Any variation in system structure, i.e., glazing cover and height difference between the absorber and heat exchanger, would lead to different system performance. The glazing covers could be made using either borosilicate or polycarbonate, but borosilicate is to be preferred as it performs better and achieves higher efficiency at higher temperature operation. The height difference between the absorber and heat exchanger in the design was 1.9 m which is an adequate distance causing no constraint to heat pipe heat transfer. These simulation results were validated with the primary testing results.

  7. Heat transfer in a one-dimensional mixed convection loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Joon; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Jong Man; Nam, Ho Yun

    1999-01-01

    Effects of non-uniform heating in the core and additional forced circulation during decay heat removal operation are studied with a simplified mixed convection loop. The heat transfer coefficient is calculated analytically and measured experimentally. The analytic solution obtained from a one-dimensional heat equation is found to agree well with the experimental results. The effects of the non-uniform heating and the forced circulation are discussed

  8. Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Radiators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop titanium Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) that can be used in low-mass space nuclear radiators, such as...

  9. Monju secondary heat transport system sodium leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Hiroi, Hiroshi; Usami, Shin; Iwata, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    On December 8, 1995, the sodium leakage from the secondary heat transport system (SHTS) occurred in the piping room of the reactor auxiliary building in Monju. The secondary sodium leaked through a temperature sensor, due to the breakaway of the tip of the well tube of the sensor installed near the outlet of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the C loop of SHTS. The reactor core remained cooled and thus, from the viewpoint of radiological hazards, the safety of the reactor was secured. There were no adverse effects for operating personnel or the surrounding environment. The cause of the well tube failure is considered to result from high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibrations. Delay in draining the sodium from the leaking loop increased the consequential effects from sodium combustion products. (author)

  10. Analytical Investigation of the Heat-Transfer Limits of a Novel Solar Loop-Heat Pipe Employing a Mini-Channel Evaporator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierno M. O. Diallo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of heat-transfer limits of a novel solar loop-heat pipe developed for space heating and domestic hot water use. In the loop-heat pipe, the condensate liquid returns to the evaporator via small specially designed holes, using a mini-channel evaporator. The study considered the commonly known heat-transfer limits of loop-heat pipes, namely, the viscous, sonic, entrainment, boiling and heat-transfer limits due to the two-phase pressure drop in the loop. The analysis considered the main factors that affect the limits in the mini-channel evaporator: the operating temperature, mini-channel aspect ratio, evaporator length, evaporator inclination angle, evaporator-to-condenser height difference and the dimension of the holes. It was found that the entrainment is the main governing limit of the system operation. With the specified loop design and operational conditions, the solar loop-heat pipe can achieve a heat-transport capacity of 725 W. The analytical model presented in this study can be used to optimise the heat-transfer capacity of the novel solar loop-heat pipe.

  11. Operational characteristics of miniature loop heat pipe with flat evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Dongxing; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jinguo [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2009-12-15

    Loop heat pipes are heat transfer devices whose operating principle is based on the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid, and which use the capillary pumping forces to ensure the fluid circulation. A series of tests have been carried out with a miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) with flat evaporator and fin-and-tube type condenser. The loop is made of pure copper with stainless mesh wick and methanol as the working fluid. Detailed study is conducted on the start-up reliability of the mLHP at high as well as low heat loads. During the testing of mLHP under step power cycles, the thermal response presented by the loop to achieve steady state is very short. At low heat loads, temperature oscillations are observed throughout the loop. The amplitudes and frequencies of these fluctuations are large at evaporator wall and evaporator inlet. It is expected that the extent and nature of the oscillations occurrence is dependent on the thermal and hydrodynamic conditions inside the compensation chamber. The thermal resistance of the mLHP lies between 0.29 and 3.2 C/W. The effects of different liquid charging ratios and the tilt angles to the start-up and the temperature oscillation are studied in detail. (orig.)

  12. Design of a pressurized water loop heated by electric resistances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, S.V.G.

    1981-01-01

    A pressurized water loop design is presented. Its operating pressure is 420 psi and we seek to simulate qualitatively some thermo-hydraulic phenomena of PWR reactors. The primary circuit simulator consists basically of two elements: 1)the test section housing 16 electric resistences dissipating a total power of 100 Kw; 2)the loop built of SCH40S 304L steel piping, consisting of the pump, a heat exchanger and the pressurizer. (Author) [pt

  13. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, Nick [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  14. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  15. Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics

    2004-07-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)

  16. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  17. Design aspects of commercial open-loop heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Open loop (or groundwater heat pump systems are the oldest of the ground-source systems. Common design variations include direct (groundwater used directly in the heat pump units), indirect (building loop isolated with a plate heat exchanger), and standing column (water produced and returned to the same well). Direct systems are typically limited to the smallest applications. Standing column systems are employed in hard rock geology sites where it is not possible to produce sufficient water for a conventional system. Due to its greater potential application, this paper reviews key design aspects of the indirect approach. The general design procedure is reviewed, identification of optimum groundwater flow, heat exchanger selection guidelines, well pump control, disposal options, well spacing, piping connections and related issues.

  18. Design Aspects of Commerical Open-Loop Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin

    2001-03-01

    Open loop (or groundwater heat pump systems are the oldest of the ground-source systems. Common design variations include direct (groundwater used directly in the heat pump units), indirect (building loop isolated with a plate heat exchanger), and standing column (water produced and returned to the same well). Direct systems are typically limited to the smallest applications. Standing column systems are employed in hard rock geology sites where it is not possible to produce sufficient water for a conventional system. Due to its greater potential application, this paper reviews key design aspects of the indirect approach. The general design procedure is reviewed, identification of optimum groundwater flow, heat exchanger selection guidelines, well pump control, disposal options, well spacing, piping connections and related issues.

  19. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  20. Parametric analysis of a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is designed for engine waste heat recovery. • The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger. • The influence of the HT loop condensation parameters on the LT loop is evaluated. • Pinch point locations determine the thermal parameters of the LT loop. - Abstract: This paper presents a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system consisting of a high temperature (HT) loop and a low temperature (LT) loop for engine waste heat recovery. The HT loop recovers the waste heat of the engine exhaust gas, and the LT loop recovers that of the jacket cooling water in addition to the residual heat of the HT loop. The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger, which means that the condenser of the HT loop is the evaporator of the LT loop as well. Cyclohexane, benzene and toluene are selected as the working fluids of the HT loop. Different condensation temperatures of the HT loop are set to maintain the condensation pressure slightly higher than the atmosphere pressure. R123, R236fa and R245fa are chosen for the LT loop. Parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the influence of the HT loop condensation temperature and the residual heat load on the LT loop. The simulation results reveal that under different condensation conditions of the HT loop, the pinch point of the LT loop appears at different locations, resulting in different evaporation temperatures and other thermal parameters. With cyclohexane for the HT loop and R245fa for the LT loop, the maximum net power output of the dual loop ORC system reaches 111.2 kW. Since the original power output of the engine is 996 kW, the additional power generated by the dual loop ORC system can increase the engine power by 11.2%.

  1. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL loop transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.H.; Chipley, K.K.; Nelms, H.A.; Crowley, W.K.; Just, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    An evaluation of the ORNL loop transport cask demonstrating its compliance with the regulations governing the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials is presented. A previous review of the cask is updated to demonstrate compliance with current regulations, to present current procedures, and to reflect the more recent technology

  2. Solar chemical heat pipe in a closed loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.

    1990-06-01

    The work on the solar CO 2 reforming of methane was completed. A computer program was developed for simulation of the whole process. The calculations agree reasonably well with the experimental results. The work was written up and submitted for publication in Solar Energy. A methanator was built and tested first with a CO/H 2 mixture from cylinders, and then with the products of the solar reformer. The loop was then closed by recirculating the products from the methanator into the solar reformer. Nine closed loop cycles were performed, so far, with the same original gas mixture. This is the first time that a closed loop solar chemical heat pipe was operated anywhere in the world. (author). 13 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  3. The economics of supplying the supplementary heat in a closed loop water source heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Bartkus, V.E.; Singh, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the details of a research and demonstration project that will be completed in August 1992 at a healthcare facility in northeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of the project is to compare the economics of several methods of supplying the supplementary heating in a facility served by a closed loop water source heat pump system. The systems being tested include a storage hot water tank with electric resistance heaters and three air source heat pumps that have the ability to supply the same heat during on-peak hours as well as off-peak hours. The paper compares the projected operating costs of the following: (1) Gas boiler supplying the supplementary heat. (2) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat which is generated and stored during off-peak hours using resistance heat on PP ampersand L's offpeak rate. (3) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat generated during off-peak hours using the air source heat pumps on PP ampersand L's off-peak rate. (4) Hot water generated by the air source heat pumps supplying the supplementary loop heating on PP ampersand L's general service and time-of-day electric rates. It is generally known in the HVAC industry that a closed loop water source heat pump system can provide one of the most efficient means of space conditioning to a building with high internal gains by transferring the excess heat available in one part of the building to another part of the building where it may be needed for heating. The following flow diagram depicts the relationship of the air source heat pumps with the storage tanks and the building closed water loop

  4. LOCA simulation tests in the RD-12 loop with multiple heat channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardron, K.H.; McGee, G.R.; Hawley, E.H.

    1985-11-01

    A series of tests has been performed in the RD-12 loop to study the bahaviour of a CANDU-type, primary heat transport system (PHTS) during the blowdown and injection phases of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Specifically, the tests were used to investigate flow stagnation and refilling of the core following a LOCA. RD-12 is a pressurized water loop with the basic geometry of a CANDU reactor PHTS, but at approximately 1/125 volume scale. The loop consists of U-tube steam generators, pumps, headers, feeders, and heated channels arranged in the symmetrical figure-of-eight configuration of the CANDU PHTS. In the LOCA simulation tests, the loop contained four horizontal heated channels, each containing a seven-element assembly of indirectly heated, fuel-rod simulators. The channels were nominally identical, and were arranged in parallel pairs between the headers in each half-circuit. Tests were carried out using various restricting orifices to represent pipe breaks of different sizes. The break sizes were specifically chosen such that stagnation conditions in the heated channels would be likely to occur. In some tests, the primary pumps were programmed to run down over a 100-s period to simulate a LOCA with simultaneous loss of pump power. Test results showed that, for certain break sizes, periods of low flow occurred in the channels in one half of the loop, leading to flow stratification and sheath temperature excursions. This report reviews the results of two of the tests, and discusses possible mechanisms that may have led to the low channel flow conditions observed in some cases. Plans for future experiments in the larger scale RD-14 facility are outlined. 5 refs

  5. Correlation to predict heat transfer of an oscillating loop heat pipe consisting of three interconnected columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Goekhan; Ozdemir, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, heat transfer in an oscillating loop heat pipe is investigated experimentally. The oscillation of the liquid columns at the evaporator and condenser sections of the heat pipe are driven by gravitational force and the phase lag between evaporation and condensation because the dimensions of the heat pipe are large enough to neglect the effect of capillary forces. The overall heat transfer coefficient based on the temperature difference between the evaporator and condenser surfaces is introduced by a correlation function of dimensionless numbers such as kinetic Reynolds number, c p ΔT/h fg and the geometric parameters

  6. Research of the heat exchanging processes running in the heating and hot water supply loops of the coil heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Геннадіївна Шитікова

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The fuel-energy complex research has made it possible to disclose a huge power-saving potential in the municipal heat-and-power engineering. Power-and-resource-saving units and systems are becoming extremely urgent because of the power engineering crisis expansion. The self-adjusting heat supply system from the individual heating points with the heat-accumulating units and coil heat exchangers for independent heating and water supply systems has been examined. Coil heat exchangers are used in municipal heating for heat transfer (e.g. geothermal waters for the independent mains of the heating and hot water supply systems. The heat engineering calculation of the heating and accumulating unit with the coil heat exchanger for independent heat supply systems from individual heater was performed and experimental data were received at the experimental industrial unit under the laboratory conditions. The peculiarities of the flows in the intertubular space, their influence on the heat exchange and temperatures of the first and intermediate mains have been shown. It is important to know the processes running inside the apparatus to be able to improve the technical characteristics of the three-loop coil heat exchanger. The task solution will make it possible to save the materials consumption for the three-loop coil heat exchangers in the future

  7. Bypass line assisted start-up of a loop heat pipe with a flat evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boo, Joon Hong; Jung, Eui Guk

    2009-01-01

    Loop heat pipes often experience start-up problems especially under low thermal loads. A bypass line was installed between the evaporator and the liquid reservoir to alleviate the difficulties associated with start-up of a loop heat pipe with flat evaporator. The evaporator and condenser had dimensions of 40 mm (W) by 50 mm (L). The wall and tube materials were stainless steel and the working fluid was methanol. Axial grooves were provided in the flat evaporator to serve as vapor passages. The inner diameters of liquid and vapor transport lines were 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively, and the length of the two lines was 0.5 m each. The thermal load range was up to 130 W for horizontal alignment with the condenser temperature of 10 .deg. C. The experimental results showed that the minimum thermal load for start-up was lowered by 37% when the bypass line was employed

  8. Heat transport analysis in a district heating and snow melting system in Sapporo and Ishikari, Hokkaido applying waste heat from GTHTR300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Seiji; Kamiji, Yu; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan Xing; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Murata, Tetsuya; Mori, Michitsugu

    2015-01-01

    A district heating and snow melting system utilizing waste heat from Gas Turbine High temperature Gas Reactor of 300 MW_e (GTHTR300), a heat-electricity cogeneration design of high temperature gas-cooled reactor, was analyzed. Application areas are set in Sapporo and Ishikari, the heavy snowfall cities in Northern Japan. The heat transport analyses are carried out by modeling the components in the system; pipelines of the secondary water loops between GTHTR300s and heat demand district and heat exchangers to transport the heat from the secondary water loops to the tertiary loops in the district. Double pipe for the secondary loops are advantageous for less heat loss and smaller excavation area. On the other hand, these pipes has disadvantage of more electricity consumption for pumping. Most of the heat demand in the month of maximum requirement can be supplied by 2 GTHTR300s and delivered by 9 secondary loops and around 5000 heat exchangers. Closer location of GTHTR300 site to the heat demand district is largely advantageous economically. Less decrease of the distance from 40 km to 20 km made the heat loss half and cost of the heat transfer system 22% smaller. (author)

  9. Concepts of self-acting circulation loops for downward heat transfer (reverse thermosiphons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobriansky, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific and technical knowledge related to general self-acting flow loops (thermosiphons and heat pipes) that transmit heat upwards and self-acting reverse flow loops that transmit heat downwards. This paper classifies the heat and mass transfer processes that take place in general flow loops and analyses the nomenclature applied in the literature. It also presents the principles of operation of sixteen reverse flow loops; four of the loops are powered by an external source of energy, while the remaining loops are self-acting. Of the self-acting loops, vapor was used for heat transfer in seven of them and liquid was used in the remaining ones. Based on the available research results, a list of the advantages and disadvantages of both types of loops is presented.

  10. Porous Foam Based Wick Structures for Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to identify cost efficient fabrication techniques for Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) construction, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Cryogenics and Fluids Branch collaborated with the U.S. Naval Academy s Aerospace Engineering Department in Spring 2012 to investigate the viability of carbon foam as a wick material within LHPs. The carbon foam was manufactured by ERG Aerospace and machined to geometric specifications at the U.S. Naval Academy s Materials, Mechanics and Structures Machine Shop. NASA GSFC s Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (developed under SBIR contract #NAS5-02112) was used as the validation LHP platform. In a horizontal orientation, the FLHP system demonstrated a heat flux of 75 Watts per square centimeter with deionized water as the working fluid. Also, no failed start-ups occurred during the 6 week performance testing period. The success of this study validated that foam can be used as a wick structure. Furthermore, given the COTS status of foam materials this study is one more step towards development of a low cost LHP.

  11. Simulation of Hybrid Photovoltaic Solar Assisted Loop Heat Pipe/Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid photovoltaic solar assisted loop heat pipe/heat pump (PV-SALHP/HP water heater system has been developed and numerically studied. The system is the combination of loop heat pipe (LHP mode and heat pump (HP mode, and the two modes can be run separately or compositely according to the weather conditions. The performances of independent heat pump (HP mode and hybrid loop heat pipe/heat pump (LHP/HP mode were simulated and compared. Simulation results showed that on typical sunny days in spring or autumn, using LHP/HP mode could save 40.6% power consumption than HP mode. In addition, the optimal switchover from LHP mode to HP mode was analyzed in different weather conditions for energy saving and the all-year round operating performances of the system were also simulated. The simulation results showed that hybrid LHP/HP mode should be utilized to save electricity on sunny days from March to November and the system can rely on LHP mode alone without any power consumption in July and August. When solar radiation and ambient temperature are low in winter, HP mode should be used

  12. Thermal Interface Evaluation of Heat Transfer from a Pumped Loop to Titanium-Water Thermosyphons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in the heat rejection system for lunar outpost fission surface power. Key to their use is heat transfer between a closed loop heat source and the heat pipe evaporators. This work describes laboratory testing of several interfaces that were evaluated for their thermal performance characteristics, in the temperature range of 350 to 400 K, utilizing a water closed loop heat source and multiple thermosyphon evaporator geometries. A gas gap calorimeter was used to measure heat flow at steady state. Thermocouples in the closed loop heat source and on the evaporator were used to measure thermal conductance. The interfaces were in two generic categories, those immersed in the water closed loop heat source and those clamped to the water closed loop heat source with differing thermal conductive agents. In general, immersed evaporators showed better overall performance than their clamped counterparts. Selected clamped evaporator geometries offered promise.

  13. Study of PTFE wick structure applied to loop heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shen-Chun; Gu, Tzu-Wei; Wang, Dawn; Chen, Yau-Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of sintered PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) particles as the wick material of loop heat pipe (LHP), taking advantage of PTFE's low thermal conductivity to reduce the heat leakage problem during LHP's operation. Different PTFE particle sizes were tried to find the one that resulted in the best wick; LHP performance tests were then conducted, and PTFE's potential for application to LHP was examined. Using PTFE particles ranging from 300–500 μm in size, the best wick properties were effective pore radius of 1.7 μm, porosity of 50%, and permeability of 6.2 × 10 −12  m 2 . LHP performance tests showed that, under typical electronic devices' operating temperature of 85 °C, the heat load reached 450 W, the thermal resistance was 0.145 °C/W, and the critical heat load (dryout heat load) reached 600 W. Compared to LHP with a nickel wick, LHP with a PTFE wick had a significantly lower operating temperature, indicating reduced heat leakage during operation, while having comparable performance; also, during the manufacturing process, a PTFE wick required lower sintering temperature, needed shorter sintering time, and had no need for hydrogen gas during sintering. The results of this study showed that, for high heat transfer capacity cooling devices, PTFE wicks possess great potential for applications to LHPs. - Highlights: • The performances of PTFE and nickel wicks in LHP are comparable for the first time. • PTFE wick allows for lower operating temperature and thus pressure in LHP system. • A wick requiring lower temperature and manufacturing cost and less time was made. • PTFE wick has potential to replace metal wick and enhance performance of LHP

  14. Characterization of a solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump water heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Describing concept and operating principle of the PV/LHP heat pump water heating system. ► Developing a numerical model to evaluate the performance of the system. ► Experimental testing of the prototype system. ► Characterizing the system performance using parallel comparison between the modelling and experimental results. ► Investigating the impact of the operating conditions to the system’s performance. -- Abstract: This paper introduced the concept, potential application and benefits relating to a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for hot water generation. On this basis, the paper reported the process and results of characterizing the performance of such a system, which was undertaken through dedicated thermo-fluid and energy balance analyses, computer model development and operation, and experimental verification and modification. The fundamental heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic governing equations were applied to characterize the energy conversion and transfer processes occurring in each part and whole system layout; while the energy balance approach was utilized to enable inter-connection and resolution of the grouped equations. As a result, a dedicated computer model was developed and used to calculate the operational parameters, optimise the geometrical configurations and sizes, and recommend the appropriate operational condition relating to the system. Further, an experimental rig was constructed and utilized to acquire the relevant measurement data that thus enabled the parallel comparison between the simulation and experiment. It is concluded that the testing and modelling results are in good agreement, indicating that the model has the reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s performance. Under the given experimental conditions, the electrical, thermal and overall efficiency of the PV/LHP module were around 10%, 40% and 50% respectively; whilst the system’s overall performance

  15. Temperature Oscillations in Loop Heat Pipes - A Revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2018-01-01

    Three types of temperature oscillation have been observed in the loop heat pipes. The first type is an ultra-high frequency temperature oscillation with a period on the order of seconds or less. This type of temperature oscillation is of little significance in spacecraft thermal control because the amplitude is in the noise level. The second type is a high frequency, low amplitude temperature oscillation with a period on the order of seconds to minutes and an amplitude on the order of one Kelvin. It is caused by the back-and-forth movement of the vapor front near the inlet or outlet of the condenser. The third type is a low frequency, high amplitude oscillation with a period on the order of hours and an amplitude on the order of tens of Kelvin. It is caused by the modulation of the net heat load into the evaporator by the attached large thermal mass which absorbs and releases energy alternately. Several papers on LHP temperature oscillation have been published. This paper presents a further study on the underlying physical processes during the LHP temperature oscillation, with an emphasis on the third type of temperature oscillation. Specifically, equations governing the thermal and hydraulic behaviors of LHP operation will be used to describe interactions among LHP components, heat source, and heat sink. The following sequence of events and their interrelationship will also be explored: 1) maxima and minima of reservoir and thermal mass temperatures; 2) the range of the vapor front movement inside the condenser; 3) rates of change of the reservoir and thermal mass temperatures; 4) the rate of heat absorption and heat release by the thermal mass and the rate of vapor front movement; and 5) inflection points of the reservoir and thermal mass temperatures.

  16. Pressure Profiles in a Loop Heat Pipe under Gravity Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    During the operation of a loop heat pipe (LHP), the viscous flow induces pressure drops in various elements of the loop. The total pressure drop is equal to the sum of pressure drops in vapor grooves, vapor line, condenser, liquid line and primary wick, and is sustained by menisci at liquid and vapor interfaces on the outer surface of the primary wick in the evaporator. The menisci will curve naturally so that the resulting capillary pressure matches the total pressure drop. In ground testing, an additional gravitational pressure head may be present and must be included in the total pressure drop when LHP components are placed in a non-planar configuration. Under gravity-neutral and anti-gravity conditions, the fluid circulation in the LHP is driven solely by the capillary force. With gravity assist, however, the flow circulation can be driven by the combination of capillary and gravitational forces, or by the gravitational force alone. For a gravity-assist LHP at a given elevation between the horizontal condenser and evaporator, there exists a threshold heat load below which the LHP operation is gravity driven and above which the LHP operation is capillary force and gravity co-driven. The gravitational pressure head can have profound effects on the LHP operation, and such effects depend on the elevation, evaporator heat load, and condenser sink temperature. This paper presents a theoretical study on LHP operations under gravity-neutral, anti-gravity, and gravity-assist modes using pressure diagrams to help understand the underlying physical processes. Effects of the condenser configuration on the gravitational pressure head and LHP operation are also discussed.

  17. Some in-reactor loop experiments on corrosion product transport and water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Allison, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the transport of activated corrosion products in the heat transport circuit of pressurized water-cooled nuclear reactors using an in-reactor loop showed that the concentration of particulate and dissolved corrosion products in the high-temperature water depends on such chemical parameters as pH and dissolved hydrogen concentration. Transients in these parameters, as well as in temperature, generally increase the concentration of suspended corrosion products. The maximum concentration of particles observed is much reduced when high-flow, high-temperature filtration is used. Filtration also reduces the steady-state concentration of particles. Dissolved corrosion products are mainly responsible for activity accumulation on surfaces. The data obtained from this study were used to estimate the rate constants for some of the transfer processes involved in the contamination of the primary heat transport circuit in water-cooled nuclear power reactors

  18. Study of a Loop Heat Pipe Using Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Thomas Conroy; A. A. El-Ganayni; David R. Riley; John M. Cimbala; Jack S. Brenizer, Jr.; Abel Po-Ya Chuang; Shane Hanna

    2001-01-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, has been identified with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design

  19. Micro-Columnated Loop Heat Pipe: The Future of Electronic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh

    The modern world is run by semiconductor-based electronic systems. Due to continuous improvements in semiconductor device fabrication, there is a clear trend in the market towards the development of electronic devices and components that not only deliver enhanced computing power, but are also more compact. Thermal management has emerged as the primary challenge in this scenario where heat flux dissipation of electronic chips is increasing exponentially, but conventional cooling solutions such as conduction and convection are no longer feasible. To keep device junction temperatures within the safe operating limit, there is an urgent requirement for ultra-high-conductivity thermal substrates that not only absorb and transport large heat fluxes, but can also provide localized cooling to thermal hotspots. This dissertation describes the design, modeling, and fabrication of a phase change-based, planar, ultra-thin, passive thermal transport system that is inspired by the concept of loop heat pipes and capillary pumped loops. Fabricated on silicon and Pyrex wafers using microfabrication techniques, the micro-columnated loop heat pipe (muCLHP) can be integrated directly with densely packed or multiply-stacked electronic substrates, to provide localized high-heat-flux thermal management. The muCLHP employs a dual-scale coherent porous silicon(CPS)-based micro-columnated wicking structure, where the primary CPS wick provides large capillary forces for fluid transport, while a secondary surface-wick maximizes the rate of thin-film evaporation. To overcome the wick thickness limitation encountered in conventional loop heat pipes, strategies based on MEMS surface micromachining techniques were developed to reduce parasitic heat flow from the evaporator to the compensation chamber of the device. Finite element analysis was used to confirm this reduction in a planar evaporator design, thus enabling the generation of a large motive temperature head for continuous device operation

  20. Sensitivity analysis on the performances of a closed-loop Ground Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) permit to achieve a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the margins for economic saving of this technology are strongly correlated to the long-term sustainability of the exploitation of the heat stored in the soil. The operation of a GSHP over its lifetime should be therefore modelled considering realistic conditions, and a thorough characterization of the physical properties of the soil is essential to avoid large errors of prediction. In this work, a BHE modelling procedure with the finite-element code FEFLOW is presented. Starting from the governing equations of the heat transport in the soil around a GSHP and inside the BHE, the most important parameters are individuated and the adopted program settings are explained. A sensitivity analysis is then carried on both the design parameters of the heat exchanger, in order to understand the margins of improvement of a careful design and installation, and the physical properties of the soil, with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty induced by their variability. The relative importance of each parameter is therefore assessed by comparing the statistical distributions of the fluid temperatures and estimating the energy consumption of the heat pump, and practical conclusions are from these results about the site characterization, the design and the installation of a BHE. References Casasso A., Sethi R., 2014 Efficiency of closed loop geothermal heat pumps: A sensitivity analysis, Renewable Energy 62 (2014), pp. 737-746 Chiasson A.C., Rees S.J., Spitler J.D., 2000, A preliminary assessment of the effects of groundwater flow on closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems, ASHRAE Transactions 106 (2000), pp. 380-393 Delaleux F., Py X., Olives R., Dominguez A., 2012, Enhancement of geothermal borehole heat exchangers performances by improvement of bentonite grouts conductivity, Applied Thermal Engineering 33-34, pp. 92-99 Diao N., Li Q., Fang Z., 2004, Heat transfer in

  1. Coupling of high temperature nuclear reactor with chemical plant by means of steam loop with heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeć Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature nuclear reactors (HTR can be used as an excellent, emission-free source of technological heat for various industrial applications. Their outlet helium temperature (700°-900°C allows not only for heat supply to all processes below 600°C (referred to as “steam class”, but also enables development of clean nuclear-assisted hydrogen production or coal liquefaction technologies with required temperatures up to 900°C (referred to as “chemical class”. This paper presents the results of analyses done for various configurations of the steam transport loop coupled with the high-temperature heat pump designed for “chemical class” applications. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the key issues are discussed in comparison with alternative solutions, trying to answer the question whether the system with the steam loop and the hightemperature heat pump is viable and economically justified.

  2. MODELING OF THE HEAT PUMP STATION ADJUSTABLE LOOP OF AN INTERMEDIATE HEAT-TRANSFER AGENT (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There are examined equations of dynamics and statics of an adjustable intermediate loop of heat pump carbon dioxide station in this paper. Heat pump station is a part of the combined heat supply system. Control of transferred thermal capacity from the source of low potential heat source is realized by means of changing the speed of circulation of a liquid in the loop and changing the area of a heat-transmitting surface, both in the evaporator, and in the intermediate heat exchanger depending on the operating parameter, for example, external air temperature and wind speed.

  3. Open-loop groundwater heat pumps development for large buildings. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Civita, Massimo Vincenzo [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Territorio, dell' Ambiente e delle Geotecnologie (DITAG), Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    A study of the feasibility of providing the heating and cooling needs of the new, large commercial building near Turin, Italy, by means of an open-loop indirect groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system is described. A finite element subsurface flow and transport simulator (FEFLOW) was used to investigate possible configurations of extraction and injection wells for five different scenarios. Modelling results confirmed the hydrogeological capacity of the site to provide the necessary amount of groundwater and associated energy with limited environmental impact. Injection of warmer (or cooler) water in the aquifer creates a thermal plume whose dimensions and geometry depend on the properties of the subsurface formations, particularly their thermal dispersivity values. The study suggests that there are several possible well configurations that could support the GWHP system without adversely affecting the aquifer. (author)

  4. Miniature Heat Transport System for Spacecraft Thermal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterbeck, Jay M.; Ku, Jentung (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHP) are efficient devices for heat transfer and use the basic principle of a closed evaporation-condensation cycle. The advantage of using a loop heat pipe over other conventional methods is that large quantities of heat can be transported through a small cross-sectional area over a considerable distance with no additional power input to the system. By using LHPs, it seems possible to meet the growing demand for high-power cooling devices. Although they are somewhat similar to conventional heat pipes, LHPs have a whole set of unique properties, such as low pressure drops and flexible lines between condenser and evaporator, that make them rather promising. LHPs are capable of providing a means of transporting heat over long distances with no input power other than the heat being transported because of the specially designed evaporator and the separation of liquid and vapor lines. For LHP design and fabrication, preliminary analysis on the basis of dimensionless criteria is necessary because of certain complicated phenomena that take place in the heat pipe. Modeling the performance of the LHP and miniaturizing its size are tasks and objectives of current research. In the course of h s work, the LHP and its components, including the evaporator (the most critical and complex part of the LHP), were modeled with the corresponding dimensionless groups also being investigated. Next, analysis of heat and mass transfer processes in the LHP, selection of the most weighted criteria from known dimensionless groups (thermal-fluid sciences), heat transfer rate limits, (heat pipe theory), and experimental ratios which are unique to a given heat pipe class are discussed. In the third part of the report, two-phase flow heat and mass transfer performances inside the LHP condenser are analyzed and calculated for Earth-normal gravity and microgravity conditions. On the basis of recent models and experimental databanks, an analysis for condensing two-phase flow regimes

  5. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Nemec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loop heat pipes (LHPs are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements’ influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT have been made.

  6. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made. PMID:24959622

  7. Analysis on the heat balance between CEFR and the primary loop system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shangbo; Yang Hongyi; Li Jing; Wang Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    The heat balance ability of reactor is very important to design and operation. Special heat balance analysis and calculation software shall be available. This article analyzes and calculates in details the heat source and cooling power of the main cooling system of the primary loop in China Experimental Faster Reactor (CEFR), and develops a calculation code. By using the steady state heat balance data of 26.5% Pn and 40% Pn in CEFR during power start-up, the heat balance ability of the primary loop is verified. The results show that the calculation model is reliable, and can provide technical support to building heat balance in CEFR operation. (authors)

  8. In-Space technology experiments program. A high efficiency thermal interface (using condensation heat transfer) between a 2-phase fluid loop and heatpipe radiator: Experiment definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.

  9. Theory of energy level and its application in water-loop heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qi Dong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel theory of saving energy and its application in water loop heat pump. • Reverse energy caused by units to water loop and its solution. • New method for determining the energy-saving range of water loop heat pump. • Capacity model of auxiliary heat source and its size for all building types. • Advice for reducing total energy consumption of water loop heat pump. - Abstract: It is a difficult problem to how to determine the reverse energy caused by units to water loop when a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) is in cooling and heating simultaneous mode, which not only has a great impact on energy-saving rate but also decides the use of auxiliary heat source in winter. This paper presents a theory of energy level to improve the research on WLHP system by using the relationship among building, circulating water and units. In this theory, the circulating water replaces building load as a new method to convert the reverse energy into energy change of circulating water and the equation of energy level also is built to determine the energy-saving range of WLHP system and report the capacity model of auxiliary heat source for all building types. An office building with different auxiliary powers is tested to analyze system operation characteristic and the effect of auxiliary heat source on unit and system and the results validate previous conclusions and suggest that an energy balance should be considered between units and auxiliary power to improve overall operation.

  10. Heating and dynamics of two flare loop systems observed by AIA and EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qiu, J., E-mail: yingli@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We investigate heating and evolution of flare loops in a C4.7 two-ribbon flare on 2011 February 13. From Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) imaging observations, we can identify two sets of loops. Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectroscopic observations reveal blueshifts at the feet of both sets of loops. The evolution and dynamics of the two sets are quite different. The first set of loops exhibits blueshifts for about 25 minutes followed by redshifts, while the second set shows stronger blueshifts, which are maintained for about one hour. The UV 1600 observation by AIA also shows that the feet of the second set of loops brighten twice. These suggest that continuous heating may be present in the second set of loops. We use spatially resolved UV light curves to infer heating rates in the few tens of individual loops comprising the two loop systems. With these heating rates, we then compute plasma evolution in these loops with the 'enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops' model. The results show that, for the first set of loops, the synthetic EUV light curves from the model compare favorably with the observed light curves in six AIA channels and eight EIS spectral lines, and the computed mean enthalpy flow velocities also agree with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS. For the second set of loops modeled with twice-heating, there are some discrepancies between modeled and observed EUV light curves in low-temperature bands, and the model does not fully produce the prolonged blueshift signatures as observed. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies.

  11. Particle and heat transport in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.

    1984-01-01

    A limitation to performances of tokamaks is heat transport through magnetic surfaces. Principles of ''classical'' or ''neoclassical'' transport -i.e. transport due to particle and heat fluxes due to Coulomb scattering of charged particle in a magnetic field- are exposed. It is shown that beside this classical effect, ''anomalous'' transport occurs; it is associated to the existence of fluctuating electric or magnetic fields which can appear in the plasma as a result of charge and current perturbations. Tearing modes and drift wave instabilities are taken as typical examples. Experimental features are presented which show that ions behave approximately in a classical way whereas electrons are strongly anomalous [fr

  12. Ion heat transport studies in JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantica, P; Angioni, C; Baiocchi, B

    2011-01-01

    Detailed experimental studies of ion heat transport have been carried out in JET exploiting the upgrade of active charge exchange spectroscopy and the availability of multi-frequency ion cyclotron resonance heating with 3He minority. The determination of ion temperature gradient (ITG) threshold a...

  13. Dynamic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Shen, Jingchun; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A transient model was developed to predict dynamic performance of new PV/LHP system. • The model accuracy was validated by experiment giving less than 9% in error. • The new system had basic and advanced performance coefficients of 5.51 and 8.71. • The new system had a COP 1.5–4 times that for conventional heat pump systems. • The new system had higher exergetic efficiency than PV and solar collector systems. - Abstract: Objective of the paper is to present an investigation into the dynamic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for potential use in space heating or hot water generation. The methods used include theoretical computer simulation, experimental verification, analysis and comparison. The fundamental equations governing the transient processes of solar transmission, heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic (PV) power generation were appropriately integrated to address the energy balances occurring in different parts of the system, e.g., glazing cover, PV cells, fin sheet, loop heat pipe, heat pump cycle and water tank. A dedicated computer model was developed to resolve the above grouping equations and consequently predict the system’s dynamic performance. An experimental rig was constructed and operated under the real weather conditions for over one week in Shanghai to evaluate the system living performance, which was undertaken by measurement of various operational parameters, e.g., solar radiation, photovoltaic power generation, temperatures and heat pump compressor consumption. On the basis of the first- (energetic) and second- (exergetic) thermodynamic laws, an overall evaluation approach was proposed and applied to conduct both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the PV/LHP module’s efficiency, which involved use of the basic thermal performance coefficient (COP th ) and the advanced performance coefficient (COP PV/T ) of such a system. Moreover, a simple comparison

  14. Loop Heat Pipe Manufacturing via DMLS for CubeSAT Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a low-cost Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) evaporator using a technique known as Direct Metal Laser Sintering...

  15. Loop Heat Pipe Manufacturing via DMLS for CubeSAT Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a low-cost Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) evaporator using a technique known as Direct Metal Laser Sintering...

  16. Ion cyclotron resonant heating 2 x 1700 loop antenna for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C.A.; Ferguson, S.W.; Molvik, A.W.; Barter, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanical design and improvements that have taken place on the loop type ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas that are located in the center cell region of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

  17. PLASMA SLOSHING IN PULSE-HEATED SOLAR AND STELLAR CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reale, F., E-mail: fabio.reale@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    There is evidence that coronal heating is highly intermittent, and flares are the high energy extreme. The properties of the heat pulses are difficult to constrain. Here, hydrodynamic loop modeling shows that several large amplitude oscillations (∼20% in density) are triggered in flare light curves if the duration of the heat pulse is shorter than the sound crossing time of the flaring loop. The reason for this is that the plasma does not have enough time to reach pressure equilibrium during heating, and traveling pressure fronts develop. The period is a few minutes for typical solar coronal loops, dictated by the sound crossing time in the decay phase. The long period and large amplitude make these oscillations different from typical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. This diagnostic can be applied both to observations of solar and stellar flares and to future observations of non-flaring loops at high resolution.

  18. Loop Heat Pipe Temperature Oscillation Induced by Gravity Assist and Reservoir Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Garrison, Matt; Patel, Deepak; Robinson, Frank; Ottenstein, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Laser Thermal Control System (LCTS) for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) to be installed on NASA's Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) consists of a constant conductance heat pipe and a loop heat pipe (LHP) with an associated radiator. During the recent thermal vacuum testing of the LTCS where the LHP condenser/radiator was placed in a vertical position above the evaporator and reservoir, it was found that the LHP reservoir control heater power requirement was much higher than the analytical model had predicted. Even with the control heater turned on continuously at its full power, the reservoir could not be maintained at its desired set point temperature. An investigation of the LHP behaviors found that the root cause of the problem was fluid flow and reservoir temperature oscillations, which led to persistent alternate forward and reversed flow along the liquid line and an imbalance between the vapor mass flow rate in the vapor line and liquid mass flow rate in the liquid line. The flow and temperature oscillations were caused by an interaction between gravity and reservoir heating, and were exacerbated by the large thermal mass of the instrument simulator which modulated the net heat load to the evaporator, and the vertical radiator/condenser which induced a variable gravitational pressure head. Furthermore, causes and effects of the contributing factors to flow and temperature oscillations intermingled.

  19. Theory of ion heat transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, Y.V.; Yurchenko, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments which have been carried out in several tokamaks to determine the ion thermal conductivity show that it is several times the value predicted by the neoclassical theory. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is proposed. When the finite width of a banana is taken into account, there are substantial increases in the heat fluxes which stem from the important contribution of superthermal ions to the transport. If the electron diffusive flux is zero, a systematic account of the ions with E>T leads to an ion heat flux with a finite banana width which is two to four times the neoclassical prediction. The effect of the anomalous nature of the electron flux on the ion heat transport is analyzed. An expression is derived for calculating the ion heat transport over the entire range of collision rates

  20. The thermal performance of a loop-type heat pipe for passively removing residual heat from spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Zhenqin; Gu, Hanyang; Wang, Minglu; Cheng, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of applying loop-type heat pipes for SFP is studied. • The heat transfer rate of the heat pipes was tested. • The heat transfer coefficient was between 200 and 490 W/m 2 /s. • The effect of the water temperature is dominant. • Three kinds of the filling ratio 27%, 21% and 14% are compared. - Abstract: Heat pipe is an efficient heat transfer device without electrically driven parts. Therefore large-scale loop type heat pipe systems have potential uses for passively removing heat from spent fuel pools and reactor cores under the accidental conditions to improve the safety of the nuclear power station. However, temperature difference between the hot water in the spent fuel pool and the ambient air which is the heat sink is small, in the range of 20–60 °C. To understand and predict the heat removal capacity of such a large scale loop type heat pipe in the situation similar to the accidental condition of the spent fuel pool (SFP) for the design purpose, a loop-type heat pipe with a very high and large evaporator has been fabricated and was tested using ammonia as the working fluid. The evaporator with inner diameter of 65 mm and length of 7.6 m is immersed in a hot water tube which simulate the spent fuel pool. The condenser of the loop-type heat pipe is cooled by the air. The tests were performed with the velocity of the hot water in the tube in the range of 0.7–2.1 × 10 −2 m/s, the hot water inlet temperature between 50 and 90 °C and the air velocity ranging from 0.5 m/s to 2.5 m/s. Three kinds of the ammonia volumetric filling ratio in the heat pipe were tested, i.e. 27%, 21% and 14%. It is found that the heat transfer rate was in the range of 1.5–14.9 kW, and the heat transfer coefficient of evaporator was between 200 and 490 W/m 2 /s. It is feasible to use the large scale loop type heat pipe to passively remove the residual heat from SFP. Furthermore, the effect of air velocity, air temperature, water flow rate and

  1. The thermal performance of a loop-type heat pipe for passively removing residual heat from spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zhenqin [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gu, Hanyang, E-mail: guhanyang@stu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Minglu [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng, Ye [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Feasibility of applying loop-type heat pipes for SFP is studied. • The heat transfer rate of the heat pipes was tested. • The heat transfer coefficient was between 200 and 490 W/m{sup 2}/s. • The effect of the water temperature is dominant. • Three kinds of the filling ratio 27%, 21% and 14% are compared. - Abstract: Heat pipe is an efficient heat transfer device without electrically driven parts. Therefore large-scale loop type heat pipe systems have potential uses for passively removing heat from spent fuel pools and reactor cores under the accidental conditions to improve the safety of the nuclear power station. However, temperature difference between the hot water in the spent fuel pool and the ambient air which is the heat sink is small, in the range of 20–60 °C. To understand and predict the heat removal capacity of such a large scale loop type heat pipe in the situation similar to the accidental condition of the spent fuel pool (SFP) for the design purpose, a loop-type heat pipe with a very high and large evaporator has been fabricated and was tested using ammonia as the working fluid. The evaporator with inner diameter of 65 mm and length of 7.6 m is immersed in a hot water tube which simulate the spent fuel pool. The condenser of the loop-type heat pipe is cooled by the air. The tests were performed with the velocity of the hot water in the tube in the range of 0.7–2.1 × 10{sup −2} m/s, the hot water inlet temperature between 50 and 90 °C and the air velocity ranging from 0.5 m/s to 2.5 m/s. Three kinds of the ammonia volumetric filling ratio in the heat pipe were tested, i.e. 27%, 21% and 14%. It is found that the heat transfer rate was in the range of 1.5–14.9 kW, and the heat transfer coefficient of evaporator was between 200 and 490 W/m{sup 2}/s. It is feasible to use the large scale loop type heat pipe to passively remove the residual heat from SFP. Furthermore, the effect of air velocity, air temperature, water flow

  2. MODELING OF THE HEAT PUMP STATION CONTROLABLE LOOP OF AN INTERMEDIATE HEAT-TRANSFER AGENT (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is studied the model of the heat pump station controllable loop of an intermediate heat-transfer agent for the use in wineries. There are demonstrated transients after the disturbing action of the temperature on the input of cooling jacket of the fermentation stirred tank. There are compared different control laws of the object.

  3. Progress in understanding heat transport at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P.; Garbet, X.; Angioni, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports recent progress in understanding heat transport mechanisms either in conventional or advanced tokamak scenarios in JET. A key experimental tool has been the use of perturbative transport techniques, both by ICH power modulation and by edge cold pulses. The availability of such results has allowed careful comparison with theoretical modelling using 1D empirical or physics based transport models, 3D fluid turbulence simulations or gyrokinetic stability analysis. In conventional L- and H-mode plasmas the issue of temperature profile stiffness has been addressed. JET results are consistent with the concept of a critical inverse temperature gradient length above which transport is enhanced by the onset of turbulence. A threshold value R/L Te ∼5 has been found for the onset of stiff electron transport, while the level of electron stiffness appears to vary strongly with plasma parameters, in particular with the ratio of electron and ion heating: electrons become stiffer when ions are strongly heated, resulting in larger R/L Ti values. This behaviour has also been found theoretically, although quantitatively weaker than in experiments. In plasmas characterized by Internal Transport Barriers (ITB), the properties of heat transport inside the ITB layer and the ITB formation mechanisms have been investigated. The plasma current profile is found to play a major role in ITB formation. The effect of negative magnetic shear on electron and ion stabilization is demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically using turbulence codes. The role of rational magnetic surfaces in ITB triggering is well assessed experimentally, but still lacks a convincing theoretical explanation. Attempts to trigger an ITB by externally induced magnetic reconnection using saddle coils have shown that MHD islands in general do not produce a sufficient variation of ExB flow shear to lead to ITB formation. First results of perturbative transport in ITBs show that the ITB is a narrow

  4. Experimental analysis and FEM simulation of loop heat charged with diamond nanofluid for desktop PC cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnasegaran, P; Yusoff, M Z; Abdullah, M Z

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of diamond nanofluid on heat transfer characteristics in a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP). In this study, diamond nanoparticles in water with particle mass concentration ranged from 0% to 3% is considered as the operational fluid within the LHP. The experiments are carried out by manufacturing the LHP, in which the setup consists of a water tank with pump, a flat evaporator, condenser installed with two pieces of fans, two transportation lines (vapor and liquid lines), copper pipe sections for attachment of the thermocouples and power supply. The uniqueness of the current experimental setup is the vapor line of LHP which is made of transparent plastic tube to visualize the fluid flow patterns. The experimental results are verified by Finite Element (FE) simulation using a three-dimensional (3D) model based on the heat transfer by conduction where the LHP as a whole is modeled by assuming it as a conducting medium without taking into account the events occurring inside the LHP. The LHP performance is evaluated in terms of transient temperature distribution and total thermal resistance (R t ). The experimental and simulation results are found in good agreement. (paper)

  5. SWIFT BAT Loop Heat Pipe Thermal System Characteristics and Ground/Flight Operation Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    The SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array has a total power dissipation of 208 W. To meet the stringent temperature gradient and thermal stability requirements in the normal operational mode, and heater power budget in both the normal operational and safehold modes, the Detector Array is thermally well coupled to eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) embedded in the Detector Array Plate (DAP), and two loop heat pipes (LHPs) transport heat fiom the CCHPs to a radiator. The CCHPs have ammonia as the working fluid and the LHPs have propylene as the working fluid. Precision heater controllers, which have adjustable set points in flight, are used to control the LHP compensation chamber and Detector Array XA1 ASIC temperatures. The radiator has the AZ-Tek AZW-LA-II low-alpha white paint as the thermal coating and is located on the anti-sun side of the spacecraft. This paper presents the characteristics, ground operation and flight operation procedures of the LHP thermal system.

  6. SCALING LAWS AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES FOR SOLAR AND STELLAR CORONAL LOOPS WITH NON-UNIFORM HEATING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, P. C. H.

    2010-01-01

    The bulk of solar coronal radiative loss consists of soft X-ray emission from quasi-static loops at the cores of active regions. In order to develop diagnostics for determining the heating mechanism of these loops from observations by coronal imaging instruments, I have developed analytical solutions for the temperature structure and scaling laws of loop strands for a set of temperature- and pressure-dependent heating functions that encompass heating concentrated at the footpoints, uniform heating, and heating concentrated at the loop apex. Key results are that the temperature profile depends only weakly on the heating distribution-not sufficiently to be of significant diagnostic value-and that the scaling laws survive for this wide range of heating distributions, but with the constant of proportionality in the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling law (P 0 L ∼ T 3 max ) depending on the specific heating function. Furthermore, quasi-static solutions do not exist for an excessive concentration of heating near the loop footpoints, a result in agreement with recent numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that a generalization of the results to a set of solutions for strands with a functionally prescribed variable diameter leads to only relatively small correction factors in the scaling laws and temperature profiles for constant diameter loop strands. A quintet of leading theoretical coronal heating mechanisms is shown to be captured by the formalism of this paper, and the differences in thermal structure between them may be verified through observations. Preliminary results from full numerical simulations demonstrate that, despite the simplifying assumptions, the analytical solutions from this paper are accurate and stable.

  7. Design of Test Loops for Forced Convection Heat Transfer Studies at Supercritical State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouch, Masih N.

    Worldwide research is being conducted to improve the efficiency of nuclear power plants by using supercritical water (SCW) as the working fluid. One such SCW reactor considered for future development is the CANDU-Supercritical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR). For safe and accurate design of the CANDU-SCWR, a detailed knowledge of forced-convection heat transfer in SCW is required. For this purpose, two supercritical fluid loops, i.e. a SCW loop and an R-134a loop are developed at Carleton University. The SCW loop is designed to operate at pressures as high as 28 MPa, temperatures up to 600 °C and mass fluxes of up to 3000 kg/m2s. The R-134a loop is designed to operate at pressures as high as 6 MPa, temperatures up to 140 °C and mass fluxes in the range of 500-6000 kg/m2s. The test loops designs allow for up to 300 kW of heating power to be imparted to the fluid. Both test loops are of the closed-loop design, where flow circulation is achieved by a centrifugal pump in the SCW loop and three parallel-connected gear pumps in the R-134a loop, respectively. The test loops are pressurized using a high-pressure nitrogen cylinder and accumulator assembly, which allows independent control of the pressure, while simultaneously dampening pump induced pressure fluctuations. Heat exchangers located upstream of the pumps control the fluid temperature in the test loops. Strategically located measuring instrumentation provides information on the flow rate, pressure and temperature in the test loops. The test loops have been designed to accommodate a variety of test-section geometries, ranging from a straight circular tube to a seven-rod bundle, achieving heat fluxes up to 2.5 MW/m2 depending on the test-section geometry. The design of both test loops allows for easy reconfiguration of the test-section orientation relative to the gravitational direction. All the test sections are of the directly-heated design, where electric current passing through the pressure retaining walls of the

  8. Cascade: a review of heat transport and plant design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, K.A.; McDowell, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop for Cascade, a centrifugal-action solid-breeder reaction chamber, has been investigated and results are presented. The Cascade concept, a double-cone-shaped reaction chamber, rotates along its horizontal axis. Solid Li 2 O or other lithium-ceramic granules are injected tangentially through each end of the chamber. The granules cascade axially from the smaller radii at the ends to the larger radius at the center, where they are ejected into a stationary granule catcher. Heat and tritium are then removed from the granules and the granules are reinjected into the chamber. A 50% dense Li 2 O granule throughput of 2.8 m 3 /s is transferred from the reaction chamber to the steam generators via continuous bucket elevators. The granules then fall by gravity through 4 vertical steam generators. The entire transport system is maintained at the same vacuum conditions present inside the reaction chamber

  9. Transport in Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bitte, M.L.; Bourdelle, C.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Redi, M.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Wilson, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The NSTX spherical torus (ST) provides a unique platform to investigate magnetic confinement in auxiliary-heated plasmas at low aspect ratio. Auxiliary power is routinely coupled to ohmically heated plasmas by deuterium neutral-beam injection (NBI) and by high-harmonic fast waves (HHFW) launch. While theory predicts both techniques to preferentially heat electrons, experiment reveals the electron temperature is greater than the ion temperature during HHFW, but the electron temperature is less than the ion temperature during NBI. In the following we present the experimental data and the results of transport analyses

  10. Thermal performance of a small-scale loop heat pipe for terrestrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Won Bok; Boo, Joon Hong

    2004-01-01

    A small-scale loop heat pipe with polypropylene wick was fabricated and tested for its thermal performance. The container and tubing of the system was made of stainless steel and several working fluids were used to see the difference in performance including methanol, ethanol, acetone, R134a, and water. The heating area was 35 mm x 35 mm and there were nine axial grooves in the evaporator to provide a vapor passage. The pore size of the polypropylene wick inside the evaporator was varied from 0.5 m to 25 m. The size of condenser was 40 mm (W) x 50 mm (L) in which ten coolant paths were provided. The inner diameter of liquid and vapor transport lines were 2.0 mm and 4.0 mm, respectively and the length of which were 0.5 m. The PP wick LHP was operated with methanol, acetone, and ethanol normally. R134a was not compatible with PP wick and water was unsuitable within operating limit of 100 .deg. C. The minimum thermal load of 10 W (0.8 W/cm 2 ) and maximum thermal load of 80 W (6.5 W/cm 2 ) were achieved using methanol as working fluid with the condenser temperature of 20 .deg. C with horizontal position

  11. Anti-Gravity Loop-shaped heat pipe with graded pore-size wick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yong; Zhou Rui; Lu Longsheng; Xie Zichun

    2012-01-01

    An Anti-Gravity Loop-Shaped Heat Pipe (AGLSHP) with a Continuous Graded Pore-Size Wick (CGPSW) was developed for the cooling of electronic devices at the anti-gravity orientation on the ground. At this orientation, heat is transferred toward the direction of the gravitational field. The AGLSHP consists of an evaporator, a condenser, a vapor line and a liquid line. The CGPSW is formed by sintered copper powders and it is filled inside the evaporator and the liquid line. The corresponding test system was developed to investigate the start-up characteristics and heat transfer performance of the AGLSHP at the anti-gravity orientation. The experimental result shows that, the AGLSHP has the capability to start-up reliably without any temperature overshoot or oscillation at the test heat loads. And the AGLSHP is able to keep the temperature of the evaporator below 105 °C and the overall thermal resistance below 0.24 °C/W at the heat load of 100 W. It is also found that the ideal heat load range of the AGLSHP at the anti-gravity orientation is from 30 W to 90 W. In this power range the overall thermal resistance stabilizes at about 0.15 °C/W, and the maximum temperature of the evaporator is lower than 84 °C at the heat load of 90 W. - Highlights: ► We present a loop-shaped heat pipe for the anti-gravity application on the ground. ► We present the continuous graded pore-size wick and its fabrication process. ► We test the start-up and heat transfer performance of this loop-shaped heat pipe. ► This loop-shaped heat pipe starts up reliably and has satisfying heat transfer capability.

  12. The adjoint space in heat transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The mathematical concept of adjoint operators is applied to the heat transport equation and an adjoint equation is defined with a detector function as source term. The physical meaning of the solutions for the latter equation is outlined together with an application in the field of perturbation analysis. (author)

  13. ECRH and electron heat transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Dumont, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed during the ECRH experiments in tokamaks that the shape of the electron temperature profile in stationary regimes is not very sensitive to the ECRH power deposition i.e. the temperature profile remains peaked at the center even though the ECRH power deposition is off-axis. Various models have been invoked for the interpretation of this profile resilience phenomenon: the inward heat pinch, the critical temperature gradient, the Self-Organized Criticality, etc. Except the pinch effect, all of these models need a specific form of the diffusivity in the heat transport equation. In this work, our approach is to solve a simplified time-dependent heat transport equation analytically in cylindrical geometry. The features of this analytical solution are analyzed, in particular the relationship between the temperature profile resilience and the Eigenmode of the physical system with respect to the heat transport phenomenon. Finally, applications of this analytical solution for the determination of the transport coefficient and the polarization of the EC waves are presented. It has been shown that the solution of the simplified transport equation in a finite cylinder is a Fourier-Bessel series. This series represents in fact a decomposition of the heat source in Eigenmode, which are characterized by the Bessel functions of order 0. The physical interpretation of the Eigenmodes is the following: when the heat source is given by a Bessel function of order 0, the temperature profile has exactly the same form as the source at every time. At the beginning of the power injection, the effectiveness of the temperature response is the same for each Eigenmode, and the response in temperature, having the same form as the source, is local. Conversely, in the later phase of the evolution, the effectiveness of the temperature response for each Eigenmode is different: the higher the order, the lower the effectiveness. In this case the response in temperature appears as

  14. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie [Palo Alto, CA; Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri

    2009-08-18

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  15. Comparative study of a novel liquid–vapour separator incorporated gravitational loop heat pipe against the conventional gravitational straight and loop heat pipes – Part I: Conceptual development and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Jingchun; He, Wei; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Xudong; Tan, Junyi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a liquid–vapour separator incorporated gravity-assisted loop heat pipe. • Comparative study of the thermal performance of three heat pipes were conducted. • A dedicated steady-state thermal model of three heat pipes were developed. • Optimum operational settings of the new loop heat pipe were recommended. • The new loop heat pipe could achieve a significantly enhanced heat transfer effect. - Abstract: Aim of the paper is to investigate the thermal performance of a novel liquid–vapour separator incorporated gravity-assisted loop heat pipe (GALHP) (T1), against a conventional GALHP (T2) and a gravitational straight heat pipe (T3), from the conceptual and theoretical aspects. This involved a dedicated conceptual formation, thermo-fluid analyses, and computer modelling and results discussion. The innovative feature of the new GALHP lies in the integration of a dedicated liquid–vapour separator on top of its evaporator section, which removes the potential entrainment between the heat pipe liquid and vapour flows and meanwhile, resolves the inherent ‘dry-out’ problem exhibited in the conventional GALHP. Based on this recognised novelty, a dedicated steady-state thermal model covering the mass continuity, energy conservation and Darcy equations was established. The model was operated at different sets of conditions, thus generating the temperature/pressure contours of the vapour and liquid flows at the evaporator section, the overall thermal resistance, the effective thermal conductivity, and the flow resistances across entire loop. Comparison among these results led to determination of the optimum operational settings of the new GALHP and assessment of the heat-transfer enhancement rate of the new GALHP against the conventional heat pipes. It was suggested that the overall thermal resistance of the three heat pipes (T1, T2, and T3) were 0.10 °C/W, 0.49 °C/W and 0.22 °C/W, while their effective thermal conductivities were

  16. Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives as Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Loop Experiments and Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Weaver, Samuel P [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    ORNL and subcontractor Cool Energy completed an investigation of higher-temperature, organic thermal fluids for solar thermal applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C showed that the material isomerized at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components such as the waste heat rejection exchanger may become coated or clogged and loop performance will decrease. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the increased temperatures of interest. Hence a decision was made not to test the ORNL fluid in the loop at Cool Energy Inc. Instead, Cool Energy tested and modeled power conversion from a moderate-temperature solar loop using coupled Stirling engines. Cool Energy analyzed data collected on third and fourth generation SolarHeart Stirling engines operating on a rooftop solar field with a lower temperature (Marlotherm) heat transfer fluid. The operating efficiencies of the Stirling engines were determined at multiple, typical solar conditions, based on data from actual cycle operation. Results highlighted the advantages of inherent thermal energy storage in the power conversion system.

  17. Thermal responses in a coronal loop maintained by wave heating mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2018-05-01

    A full 3-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is conducted to investigate the thermal responses of a coronal loop to the dynamic dissipation processes of MHD waves. When the foot points of the loop are randomly and continuously forced, the MHD waves become excited and propagate upward. Then, 1-MK temperature corona is produced naturally as the wave energy dissipates. The excited wave packets become non-linear just above the magnetic canopy, and the wave energy cascades into smaller spatial scales. Moreover, collisions between counter-propagating Alfvén wave packets increase the heating rate, resulting in impulsive temperature increases. Our model demonstrates that the heating events in the wave-heated loops can be nanoflare-like in the sense that they are spatially localized and temporally intermittent.

  18. CAN LARGE TIME DELAYS OBSERVED IN LIGHT CURVES OF CORONAL LOOPS BE EXPLAINED IN IMPULSIVE HEATING?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored

  19. Heat Transfer in Directional Water Transport Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Directional water transport fabrics can proactively transfer moisture from the body. They show great potential in making sportswear and summer clothing. While moisture transfer has been previously reported, heat transfer in directional water transport fabrics has been little reported in research literature. In this study, a directional water transport fabric was prepared using an electrospraying technique and its heat transfer properties under dry and wet states were evaluated, and compared with untreated control fabric and the one pre-treated with NaOH. All the fabric samples showed similar heat transfer features in the dry state, and the equilibrium temperature in the dry state was higher than for the wet state. Wetting considerably enhanced the thermal conductivity of the fabrics. Our studies indicate that directional water transport treatment assists in moving water toward one side of the fabric, but has little effect on thermal transfer performance. This study may be useful for development of “smart” textiles for various applications.

  20. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF CORONAL LOOP HEATING AND COOLING DRIVEN BY FOOTPOINT SHUFFLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Taylor, B. D. [LCP and FD, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Einaudi, G. [Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Ugarte-Urra, I. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F. [Advanced Heliophysics, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Velli, M., E-mail: rdahlbur@lcp.nrl.navy.mil [EPSS, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The evolution of a coronal loop is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are advected by random motions. As a consequence, the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is nonuniformly distributed so that only a fraction of the coronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales that, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of our simulated loop is multithermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Numerical simulations of coronal loops of 50,000 km length and axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 T are presented. To connect these simulations to observations, we use the computed number densities and temperatures to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode. These intensities are used to compute differential emission measure distributions using the Monte Carlo Markov Chain code, which are very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions. We conclude that coronal heating is found to be strongly intermittent in space and time, with only small portions of the coronal loop being heated: in fact, at any given time, most of the corona is cooling down.

  1. Simulation of the fusion materials irradiation test facility lithium and heat transport systems for abnormal events study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.F.; Elyashar, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    A digital computer model of Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility's heat transport system has been developed. The model utilizes a set of coupled differential equations to simulate the dynamic behavior of the primary and secondary heat transport loop systems. The model has been used to investigate the stability of the proposed control schemes for lithium temperature and flow rate and for an extensive study of equipment failures and malfunction analysis. It was determined that certain equipment failures and malfunctions in the primary loop require a response from the control system within less than one second of the occurrence of the failure. The effects of equipment failures in the secondary loop were found to be less dramatic than the equivalent failures in the primary loop. The failures in the secondary loop generally required control action in time frames of the order of minutes

  2. Experimental study on the supercritical startup of cryogenic loop heat pipes with redundancy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuandong; Lin, Guiping; Bai, Lizhan; Bu, Xueqin; Zhang, Hongxing; He, Jiang; Miao, Jianyin; Wen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A CLHP-based thermal control system with redundancy design was proposed. • Four possible working modes for the supercritical startup were defined. • Transport line with smaller diameter led to much longer supercritical startup time. • Auxiliary operation of secondary evaporator is necessary for the backup conversion. • Temperature oscillation was observed and investigated in the dual operation mode. - Abstract: Cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) is one of the key components in the future space infrared exploration system, which enables effective and efficient cryogenic heat transport over a long distance with a flexible thermal link. To realize reliable and long life operation, a CLHP-based thermal control system with redundancy design was proposed in this work, where two nitrogen-charged CLHPs were employed to provide cryocooling at 80–100 K. This study focused on the supercritical startup of the CLHPs with redundancy design, and an extensive experimental study under four possible working modes was conducted. Experimental results showed that with 2.5 W applied to the secondary evaporator, each CLHP could realize the supercritical startup successfully in the normal working mode; however, the required time differed a lot because the difference in the transport line diameter significantly affected the cryocooling capacity to the primary evaporator. In the backup conversion mode, instant switch of the two primary evaporators may cause an operation failure, and an auxiliary operation of the secondary evaporator in advance was necessary to make the primary liquid line filled with liquid. In the malfunction conversion mode, the simulated infrared detector had to be first shut down, but the time needed for the backup CLHP to realize the supercritical startup became obviously shorter than that in the normal working mode, because the primary evaporator of the backup CLHP was always in a cryogenic state. In the dual operation mode, the two CLHPs could

  3. The Heating of Solar Coronal Loops by Alfvén Wave Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A. [5001 Riverwood Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34231 (United States); Asgari-Targhi, M.; Voss, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we further develop a model for the heating of coronal loops by Alfvén wave turbulence (AWT). The Alfvén waves are assumed to be launched from a collection of kilogauss flux tubes in the photosphere at the two ends of the loop. Using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model for an active-region loop, we investigate how the waves from neighboring flux tubes interact in the chromosphere and corona. For a particular combination of model parameters we find that AWT can produce enough heat to maintain a peak temperature of about 2.5 MK, somewhat lower than the temperatures of 3–4 MK observed in the cores of active regions. The heating rates vary strongly in space and time, but the simulated heating events have durations less than 1 minute and are unlikely to reproduce the observed broad differential emission measure distributions of active regions. The simulated spectral line nonthermal widths are predicted to be about 27 km s{sup −1}, which is high compared to the observed values. Therefore, the present AWT model does not satisfy the observational constraints. An alternative “magnetic braiding” model is considered in which the coronal field lines are subject to slow random footpoint motions, but we find that such long-period motions produce much less heating than the shorter-period waves launched within the flux tubes. We discuss several possibilities for resolving the problem of producing sufficiently hot loops in active regions.

  4. Analysis of a convection loop for GFR post-LOCA decay heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.C.; Hejzlar, P.; Saha, P.

    2004-01-01

    A computer code (LOCA-COLA) has been developed at MIT for steady state analysis of convective heat transfer loops. In this work, it is used to investigate an external convection loop for decay heat removal of a post-LOCA gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR). The major finding is that natural circulation cooling of the GFR is feasible under certain circumstances. Both helium and CO 2 cooled system components are found to operate in the mixed convection regime, the effects of which are noticeable as heat transfer enhancement or degradation. It is found that CO 2 outdoes helium under identical natural circulation conditions. Decay heat removal is found to have a quadratic dependence on pressure in the laminar flow regime and linear dependence in the turbulent flow regime. Other parametric studies have been performed as well. In conclusion, convection cooling loops are a credible means for GFR decay heat removal and LOCA-COLA is an effective tool for steady state analysis of cooling loops. (authors)

  5. Switch-loop flexibility affects transport of large drugs by the promiscuous AcrB multidrug efflux transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-08-01

    Multidrug efflux transporters recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and transport. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to transport larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and transport for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å(2) are less well transported than other substrates. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Pumped Fluid Loop Heat Rejection and Recovery Systems for Thermal Control of the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana; Prina, Mauro; Ramirez, Brenda; Paris, Anthony; Novak, Keith; Pauken, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the heat rejection and heat recovery system for thermal control of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL mission will use mechanically pumped fluid loop based architecture for thermal control of the spacecraft and rover. The architecture is designed to harness waste heat from an Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermo-electric Generator (MMRTG) during Mars surface operations for thermal control during cold conditions and also reject heat during the cruise aspect of the mission. There are several test that are being conducted that will insure the safety of this concept. This architecture can be used during any future interplanetary missions utilizing radioisotope power systems for power generation.

  7. Integral representation of nonlinear heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Mima, K.; Haines, M.G.

    1985-07-01

    The electron distribution function in a plasma with steep temperature gradient is obtained from a Fokker-Planck equation by Green's function method. The formula describes the nonlocal effects on thermal transport over the range, λ e /L e /L → 0. As an example, the heat wave is analyzed numerically by the integral formula and it is found that the previous simulation results are well reproduced. (author)

  8. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

    2010-09-01

    This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: •Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. •Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. •Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. •Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. •Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. •Fabricate the Test Loop. •Perform the Tests. •Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will

  9. Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipes for the Cooling of Small Particle Detectors at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, H; Haug, F; Silva, P; Wu, J; Koettig, T

    2010-01-01

    The loop heat pipe (LHP) is among the most effective heat transfer elements. Its principle is based on a continuous evaporation/condensation process and its passive nature does not require any mechanical devices such as pumps to circulate the cooling agent. Instead a porous wick structure in the evaporator provides the capillary pumping forces to drive the fluid [1]. Cryogenic LHP are investigated as potential candidates for the cooling of future small-scale particle detectors and upgrades of...

  10. DETECTING NANOFLARE HEATING EVENTS IN SUBARCSECOND INTER-MOSS LOOPS USING Hi-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Moore, Ronald; Cirtain, Jonathan; Walsh, Robert W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; Kobayashi, Ken; DeForest, Craig; Kuzin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July 11 and captured roughly 345 s of high-spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Å channel. In this paper, we analyze a set of rapidly evolving loops that appear in an inter-moss region. We select six loops that both appear in and fade out of the Hi-C images during the short flight. From the Hi-C data, we determine the size and lifetimes of the loops and characterize whether these loops appear simultaneously along their length or first appear at one footpoint before appearing at the other. Using co-aligned, co-temporal data from multiple channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we determine the temperature and density of the loops. We find the loops consist of cool (∼10 5 K), dense (∼10 10 cm –3 ) plasma. Their required thermal energy and their observed evolution suggest they result from impulsive heating similar in magnitude to nanoflares. Comparisons with advanced numerical simulations indicate that such dense, cold and short-lived loops are a natural consequence of impulsive magnetic energy release by reconnection of braided magnetic field at low heights in the solar atmosphere.

  11. DETECTING NANOFLARE HEATING EVENTS IN SUBARCSECOND INTER-MOSS LOOPS USING Hi-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Moore, Ronald; Cirtain, Jonathan [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Walsh, Robert W. [University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); De Pontieu, Bart; Title, Alan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, 3251 Hanover St., Org. A0215, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); DeForest, Craig [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Kuzin, Sergey, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [P.N. Lebedev Physical institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prospekt 53 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July 11 and captured roughly 345 s of high-spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 A channel. In this paper, we analyze a set of rapidly evolving loops that appear in an inter-moss region. We select six loops that both appear in and fade out of the Hi-C images during the short flight. From the Hi-C data, we determine the size and lifetimes of the loops and characterize whether these loops appear simultaneously along their length or first appear at one footpoint before appearing at the other. Using co-aligned, co-temporal data from multiple channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we determine the temperature and density of the loops. We find the loops consist of cool ({approx}10{sup 5} K), dense ({approx}10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) plasma. Their required thermal energy and their observed evolution suggest they result from impulsive heating similar in magnitude to nanoflares. Comparisons with advanced numerical simulations indicate that such dense, cold and short-lived loops are a natural consequence of impulsive magnetic energy release by reconnection of braided magnetic field at low heights in the solar atmosphere.

  12. High-Temperature Structural Analysis Model of the Process Heat Exchanger for Helium Gas Loop (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Lee, Heong Yeon; Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Seong Duk; Park, Hong Yoon

    2010-01-01

    PHE (Process Heat Exchanger) is a key component required to transfer heat energy of 950 .deg. C generated in a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) to the chemical reaction that yields a large quantity of hydrogen. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute established the helium gas loop for the performance test of components, which are used in the VHTR, and they manufactured a PHE prototype to be tested in the loop. In this study, as part of the high temperature structural-integrity evaluation of the PHE prototype, which is scheduled to be tested in the helium gas loop, we carried out high-temperature structural-analysis modeling, thermal analysis, and thermal expansion analysis of the PHE prototype. The results obtained in this study will be used to design the performance test setup for the PHE prototype

  13. Water loop heat pump and its characteristics%水环热泵及其特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯润娣

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition and working principle of water loop beat pump, and describes its development condition at home and abroad. Through analyzing the characteristics of water loop heat pump, it points out the water loop heat pump is a kind of economic, energy saving and environment protection air-conditioning system, and has great application prospect.%阐述了水环热泵的定义及工作原理,介绍了水环热泵在国内外的发展概况,通过分析水环热泵的特点,指出其是一种经济、节能、环保的空调系统,有着广阔的应用前景。

  14. Switch loop flexibility affects substrate transport of the AcrB efflux pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Reinke T.; Travers, Timothy; Cha, Hi-jea; Phillips, Joshua L.

    2017-01-01

    The functionally important switch-loop of the trimeric multidrug transporter AcrB separates the access and deep drug binding pockets in every protomer. This loop, comprising 11 amino acid residues, has been shown to be crucial for substrate transport, as drugs have to travel past the loop to reach the deep binding pocket and from there are transported outside the cell via the connected AcrA and TolC channels. It contains four symmetrically arranged glycine residues suggesting that flexibility is a key feature for pump activity. Upon combinatorial substitution of these glycine residues to proline, functional and structural asymmetry was observed. Proline substitutions on the PC1 proximal side completely abolished transport and reduced backbone flexibility of the switch loop, which adopted a conformation restricting the pathway towards the deep binding pocket. Here, two phenylalanine residues located adjacent to the substitution sensitive glycine residues play a role in blocking the pathway upon rigidification of the loop, since the removal of the phenyl rings from the rigid loop restores drug transport activity.

  15. Heat Load Sharing in a Capillary Pumped Loop with Multiple Evaporators and Multiple Condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the heat load sharing function among multiple parallel evaporators in a capillary pumped loop (CPL). In the normal mode of operation, the evaporators cool the instruments by absorbing the waste heat. When an instruments is turned off, the attached evaporator can keep it warm by receiving heat from other evaporators serving the operating instruments. This is referred to as heat load sharing. A theoretical basis of heat load sharing is given first. The fact that the wicks in the powered evaporators will develop capillary pressure to force the generated vapor to flow to cold locations where the pressure is lower leads to the conclusion that heat load sharing is an inherent function of a CPL with multiple evaporators. Heat load sharing has been verified with many CPLs in ground tests. Experimental results of the Capillary Pumped Loop 3 (CAPL 3) Flight Experiment are presented in this paper. Factors that affect the amount of heat being shared are discussed. Some constraints of heat load sharing are also addressed.

  16. Measurements of loop antenna loading in RF heating experiments on the KT-5C tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Kan; Deng Bihe; Wen Yizhi; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Yu Wen; Yu Changxun

    1997-01-01

    A new method to measure the loop antenna loadings in the RF wave heating experiments (IBWH at reasonable RF power with relatively low frequency) on the KT-5C device is presented. The method is characterized by determining the RF current ratio only, so it eases the needs of instruments and simplifies the requirements for calibration and data processing in the experiments

  17. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Device and Module Reliability, Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled Heat Input to an Acceleration Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0108 SILICON CARBIDE (SiC) DEVICE AND MODULE RELIABILITY Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled...CARBIDE (SiC) DEVICE AND MODULE RELIABILITY Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled Heat Input to an Acceleration Field 5a...Shukla, K., “Thermo-fluid dynamics of Loop Heat Pipe Operation,” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer , Vol. 35, No. 8, 2008, pp

  18. Post shut-down decay heat removal from nuclear reactor core by natural convection loops in sodium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamani, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Sundararajan, T., E-mail: tsundar@iitm.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Prasad, B.V.S.S.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Parthasarathy, U.; Velusamy, K. [Nuclear Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Transient simulations are performed for a worst case scenario of station black-out. • Inter-wrapper flow between various sub-assemblies reduces peak core temperature. • Various natural convection paths limits fuel clad temperatures below critical level. - Abstract: The 500 MWe Indian pool type Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) has a passive core cooling system, known as the Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal System (SGDHRS) which aids to remove decay heat after shut down phase. Immediately after reactor shut down the fission products in the core continue to generate heat due to beta decay which exponentially decreases with time. In the event of a complete station blackout, the coolant pump system may not be available and the safety grade decay heat removal system transports the decay heat from the core and dissipates it safely to the atmosphere. Apart from SGDHRS, various natural convection loops in the sodium pool carry the heat away from the core and deposit it temporarily in the sodium pool. The buoyancy driven flow through the small inter-wrapper gaps (known as inter-wrapper flow) between fuel subassemblies plays an important role in carrying the decay heat from the sub-assemblies to the hot sodium pool, immediately after reactor shut down. This paper presents the transient prediction of flow and temperature evolution in the reactor subassemblies and the sodium pool, coupled with the safety grade decay heat removal system. It is shown that with a properly sized decay heat exchanger based on liquid sodium and air chimney stacks, the post shutdown decay heat can be safely dissipated to atmospheric air passively.

  19. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  20. Simulations of plasma heating caused by the coalescence of multiple current loops in a proton-boron fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruki, T.; Yousefi, H. R.; Sakai, J.-I.

    2010-01-01

    Two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of a dense plasma focus were performed to investigate a plasma heating process caused by the coalescence of multiple current loops in a proton-boron-electron plasma. Recently, it was reported that the electric field produced during the coalescence of two current loops in a proton-boron-electron plasma heats up all plasma species; proton-boron nuclear fusion may therefore be achievable using a dense plasma focus device. Based on this work, the coalescence process for four and eight current loops was investigated. It was found that the return current plays an important role in both the current pinch and the plasma heating. The coalescence of four current loops led to the breakup of the return current from the pinched plasma, resulting in plasma heating. For the coalescence of eight current loops, the plasma was confined by the pinch but the plasma heating was smaller than the two and four loop cases. Therefore the heating associated with current loop coalescence depends on the number of initial current loops. These results are useful for understanding the coalescence of multiple current loops in a proton-boron-electron plasma.

  1. Effect of External Pressure Drop on Loop Heat Pipe Operating Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentung, Ku; Ottenstein, Laura; Rogers, Paul; Cheung, Kwok; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of the pressure drop on the operating temperature in a loop heat pipe (LHP). Because the evaporator and the compensation chamber (CC) both contain two-phase fluid, a thermodynamic constraint exists between the temperature difference and the pressure drop for these two components. As the pressure drop increases, so will the temperature difference. The temperature difference in turn causes an increase of the heat leak from the evaporator to the CC, resulting in a higher CC temperature. Furthermore, the heat leak strongly depends on the vapor void fraction inside the evaporator core. Tests were conducted by installing a valve on the vapor line so as to vary the pressure drop, and by charging the LHP with various amounts of fluid. Test results verify that the LHP operating temperature increases with an increasing differential pressure, and the temperature increase is a strong function of the fluid inventory in the loop.

  2. Investigating the Response of Loop Plasma to Nanoflare Heating Using RADYN Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, V.; Testa, P.; Allred, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Gošić, Milan; Reale, Fabio

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of 1D hydrodynamic simulations of coronal loops that are subject to nanoflares, caused by either in situ thermal heating or nonthermal electron (NTE) beams. The synthesized intensity and Doppler shifts can be directly compared with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations of rapid variability in the transition region (TR) of coronal loops, associated with transient coronal heating. We find that NTEs with high enough low-energy cutoff ({E}{{C}}) deposit energy in the lower TR and chromosphere, causing blueshifts (up to ∼20 km s‑1) in the IRIS Si IV lines, which thermal conduction cannot reproduce. The {E}{{C}} threshold value for the blueshifts depends on the total energy of the events (≈5 keV for 1024 erg, up to 15 keV for 1025 erg). The observed footpoint emission intensity and flows, combined with the simulations, can provide constraints on both the energy of the heating event and {E}{{C}}. The response of the loop plasma to nanoflares depends crucially on the electron density: significant Si IV intensity enhancements and flows are observed only for initially low-density loops (<109 cm‑3). This provides a possible explanation of the relative scarcity of observations of significant moss variability. While the TR response to single heating episodes can be clearly observed, the predicted coronal emission (AIA 94 Å) for single strands is below current detectability and can only be observed when several strands are heated closely in time. Finally, we show that the analysis of the IRIS Mg II chromospheric lines can help further constrain the properties of the heating mechanisms.

  3. First-principles simulations of heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puligheddu, Marcello; Gygi, Francois; Galli, Giulia

    2017-11-01

    Advances in understanding heat transport in solids were recently reported by both experiment and theory. However an efficient and predictive quantum simulation framework to investigate thermal properties of solids, with the same complexity as classical simulations, has not yet been developed. Here we present a method to compute the thermal conductivity of solids by performing ab initio molecular dynamics at close to equilibrium conditions, which only requires calculations of first-principles trajectories and atomic forces, thus avoiding direct computation of heat currents and energy densities. In addition the method requires much shorter sequential simulation times than ordinary molecular dynamics techniques, making it applicable within density functional theory. We discuss results for a representative oxide, MgO, at different temperatures and for ordered and nanostructured morphologies, showing the performance of the method in different conditions.

  4. TOUGH, Unsaturated Groundwater Transport and Heat Transport Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.A.; Cooper, C.; Osnes, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A successor to the TOUGH program, TOUGH2 offers added capabilities and user features, including the flexibility to handle different fluid mixtures (water, water with tracer; water, CO 2 ; water, air; water, air with vapour pressure lowering, and water, hydrogen), facilities for processing of geometric data (computational grids), and an internal version control system to ensure referenceability of code applications. TOUGH (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat) is a multi-dimensional numerical model for simulating the coupled transport of water, vapor, air, and heat in porous and fractured media. The program provides options for specifying injection or withdrawal of heat and fluids. Although primarily designed for studies of high-level nuclear waste isolation in partially saturated geological media, it should also be useful for a wider range of problems in heat and moisture transfer, and in the drying of porous materials. For example, geothermal reservoir simulation problems can be handled simply by setting the air mass function equal to zero on input. The TOUGH simulator was developed for problems involving strongly heat-driven flow. To describe these phenomena a multi-phase approach to fluid and heat flow is used, which fully accounts for the movement of gaseous and liquid phases, their transport of latent transitions between liquid and vapor. TOUGH takes account of fluid flow in both liquid and gaseous phases occurring under pressure, viscous, and gravity forces according to Darcy's law. Interference between the phases is represented by means of relative permeability functions. The code handles binary, but not Knudsen, diffusion in the gas phase and capillary and phase absorption effects for the liquid phase. Heat transport occurs by means of conduction with thermal conductivity dependent on water saturation, convection, and binary diffusion, which includes both sensible and latent heat. 2 - Method of solution: All

  5. Heating and cooling with ground-loop heat pumps; Heizen und Kuehlen mit erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, Th.; Dott, R. [Institut Energie am Bau, Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, A. [Huber Energietechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-08-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of the SFOE-project 'Heating and cooling with ground coupled heat pumps' in which the benefits and costs of a heat pump heating and cooling system with a borehole heat exchanger were examined. In particular the dimensioning of the hydraulic system, control concept and user behaviour are dealt with. The results of the simulations of thermal building behaviour with MATLAB/SIMULINK, CARNOT, and EWS are discussed. The results of parameter studies carried out, including varying shading, cooling characteristic curves, temperature differences in the heat exchanger and the dead time between heating and cooling mode are discussed. These showed that a simple system with heat pump and borehole heat exchanger for heating or preparation of domestic hot water as well as for passive cooling proved to be the best choice.

  6. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance for the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, Robert; Vandezande, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with on-orbit ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  7. Water from abandoned mines as a heat source: practical experiences of open- and closed-loop strategies, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, D; Athresh, A; Al-Habaibeh, A; Burnside, N

    2017-01-01

    Pilot heat pump systems have been installed at two former collieries in Yorkshire/Derbyshire, England, to extract heat from mine water. The installations represent three fundamental configurations of heat exchanger. At Caphouse Colliery, mine water is pumped through a heat exchanger coupled to a heat pump and then discharged to waste (an open-loop heat exchange system). The system performs with high thermal efficiency, but the drawbacks are: (1) it can only be operated when mine water is bein...

  8. Coronal Heating: Testing Models of Coronal Heating by Forward-Modeling the AIA Emission of the Ansample of Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanushenko, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    We present a systemic exploration of the properties of coronal heating, by forward-modeling the emission of the ensemble of 1D quasi-steady loops. This approximations were used in many theoretical models of the coronal heating. The latter is described in many such models in the form of power laws, relating heat flux through the photosphere or volumetric heating to the strength of the magnetic field and length of a given field line. We perform a large search in the parameter space of these power laws, amongst other variables, and compare the resulting emission of the active region to that observed by AIA. We use a recently developed magnetic field model which uses shapes of coronal loops to guide the magnetic model; the result closely resembles observed structures by design. We take advantage of this, by comparing, in individual sub-regions of the active region, the emission of the active region and its synthetic model. This study allows us to rule out many theoretical models and formulate predictions for the heating models to come.

  9. Mechanism of Transport Modulation by an Extracellular Loop in an Archaeal Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter (EAAT) Homolog*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary transporters in the excitatory amino acid transporter family terminate glutamatergic synaptic transmission by catalyzing Na+-dependent removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Recent structural studies of the aspartate-specific archaeal homolog, GltPh, suggest that transport is achieved by a rigid body, piston-like movement of the transport domain, which houses the substrate-binding site, between the extracellular and cytoplasmic sides of the membrane. This transport domain is connected to an immobile scaffold by three loops, one of which, the 3–4 loop (3L4), undergoes substrate-sensitive conformational change. Proteolytic cleavage of the 3L4 was found to abolish transport activity indicating an essential function for this loop in the transport mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that despite the presence of fully cleaved 3L4, GltPh is still able to sample conformations relevant for transport. Optimized reconstitution conditions reveal that fully cleaved GltPh retains some transport activity. Analysis of the kinetics and temperature dependence of transport accompanied by direct measurements of substrate binding reveal that this decreased transport activity is not due to alteration of the substrate binding characteristics but is caused by the significantly reduced turnover rate. By measuring solute counterflow activity and cross-link formation rates, we demonstrate that cleaving 3L4 severely and specifically compromises one or more steps contributing to the movement of the substrate-loaded transport domain between the outward- and inward-facing conformational states, sparing the equivalent step(s) during the movement of the empty transport domain. These results reveal a hitherto unknown role for the 3L4 in modulating an essential step in the transport process. PMID:24155238

  10. Design and analysis of heat exchanger networks for integrated Ca-looping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Yolanda; Lisbona, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Romeo, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat integration is essential to minimize energy penalties in calcium looping cycles. • A design and analysis of four heat exchanger networks is stated. • New design with higher power, lower costs and lower destroyed exergy than base case. - Abstract: One of the main challenges of carbon capture and storage technologies deals with the energy penalty associated with CO 2 separation and compression processes. Thus, heat integration plays an essential role in the improvement of these systems’ efficiencies. CO 2 capture systems based on Ca-looping process present a great potential for residual heat integration with a new supercritical power plant. The pinch methodology is applied in this study to define the minimum energy requirements of the process and to design four configurations for the required heat exchanger network. The Second Law of Thermodynamics represents a powerful tool for reducing the energy demand since identifying the exergy losses of the system serves to allocate inefficiencies. In parallel, an economic analysis is required to asses the cost reduction achieved by each configuration. This work presents a combination of pinch methodology with economic and exergetic analyses to select the more appropriate configuration of heat exchanger network. The lower costs and minor destroyed exergy obtained for the best proposed network result in a of 0.91% global energy efficiency increase

  11. Heat transport in an anharmonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shiladitya; Mukherjee, Krishnendu

    2018-04-01

    We study transport of heat in an ordered, anharmonic crystal in the form of slab geometry in three dimensions. Apart from attaching baths of Langevin type to two extreme surfaces, we also attach baths of same type to the intermediate surfaces of the slab. Since the crystal is uninsulated, it exchanges energy with the intermediate heat baths. We find that both Fourier’s law of heat conduction and the Newton’s law of cooling hold to leading order in anharmonic coupling. The leading behavior of the temperature profile is exponentially falling from high to low temperature surface of the slab. As the anharmonicity increases, profiles fall more below the harmonic one in the log plot. In the thermodynamic limit thermal conductivity remains independent of the environment temperature and its leading order anharmonic contribution is linearly proportional to the temperature change between the two extreme surfaces of the slab. A fast crossover from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) behavior of the thermal conductivity is observed in the system.

  12. Poloidal profiles and transport during turbulent heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascheroni, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    The current penetration stage of a turbulently heated tokamak is modeled. The basic formulae are written in slab geometry since the dominant anomalous transport has a characteristic frequency much larger than the bounce frequency. Thus, the basic framework is provided by the Maxwell and fluid equations, with classical and anomalous transport. Quasi-neutrality is used. It is shown that the anomalous collision frequency dominates the anomalous viscosity and thermal conductivity, and that the convective wave transport can be neglected. For these numerical estimates, the leading term in the quasi-linear series is used. During the current penetration stage the distribution function for the particles will depart from a single Maxwellian type. Hence, the first objective was to numerically compare calculated poloidal magnetic field profiles with measured, published poloidal profiles. The poloidal magnetic field has been calculated using a code which handles the anomalous collision frequency self-consistently. The agreement is good, and it is concluded that the current penetration stage can be satisfactorily described by this model

  13. Heat pipes et two-phase loops for spacecraft applications. ESA programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supper, W [European Space Agency / ESTEC. Thermal control and life support division (France)

    1997-12-31

    This document is a series of transparencies presenting the current and future applications of heat pipes in spacecraft and the activities in the field of capillary pumped two-phase loops: thermal tests, high-efficiency low pressure drop condensers, theoretical understanding of evaporator function, optimization of liquid and vapor flows, trade-off between low and high conductivity wicks, development of high capillary capacity wicks etc.. (J.S.)

  14. Heat pipes et two-phase loops for spacecraft applications. ESA programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supper, W. [European Space Agency / ESTEC. Thermal control and life support division (France)

    1996-12-31

    This document is a series of transparencies presenting the current and future applications of heat pipes in spacecraft and the activities in the field of capillary pumped two-phase loops: thermal tests, high-efficiency low pressure drop condensers, theoretical understanding of evaporator function, optimization of liquid and vapor flows, trade-off between low and high conductivity wicks, development of high capillary capacity wicks etc.. (J.S.)

  15. Thermodynamic evaluation of chemical looping combustion for combined cooling heating and power production driven by coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Junming; Hong, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Zefeng; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An ex-situ coal gasification chemical looping combustion integrated with CCHP process has been presented. • This novel process maintains a maximum energy efficiency of 60.34%. • The fossil energy saving ratio of this process is optimize to be 27.20%. - Abstract: This study carries out an investigation concerning on the benefits of ex-situ coal gasification chemical looping combustion integrated with combined cooling, heating and power generation (CCHP-CLC) by means of thermodynamic evaluation. The coal gasification syngas is introduced into chemical looping combustion for inherent separation of CO_2 without extra energy consumed. The combustion flue gases from both air reactor and fuel reactor are sequentially fed into gas turbines for electricity production, a heat recovery vapor generator unit for further electricity generation with driving a LiBr-H_2O absorption chiller for cooling production in summer and finally a heat exchanger for daily heat water production. A preliminary parameter analysis helps to obtain the optimum operating condition, as steam-to-coal ratio (S/C) of 0.05, oxygen-to-coal ratio (O/C) of 0.75, and operating pressure of chemical looping combustion process of 5 bar. The overall energy efficiency of the CCHP-CLC process is calculated equal to 58.20% in summer compared with that of 60.34% in winter. Importantly, by utilization of such process, the reduction potential of fossil fuel (coal) consumption has been demonstrated to be 23.36% in summer and 27.20% in winter.

  16. Diagnostics of electron-heated solar flare models. III - Effects of tapered loop geometry and preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. G.; Li, Peng; Mariska, John T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of hydrodynamic numerical simulations of nonthermal electron-heated solar flare atmospheres and their corresponding soft X-ray Ca XIX emission-line profiles, under the conditions of tapered flare loop geometry and/or a preheated atmosphere, is presented. The degree of tapering is parameterized by the magnetic mirror ratio, while the preheated atmosphere is parameterized by the initial upper chromospheric pressure. In a tapered flare loop, it is found that the upward motion of evaporated material is faster compared with the case where the flare loop is uniform. This is due to the diverging nozzle seen by the upflowing material. In the case where the flare atmosphere is preheated and the flare geometry is uniform, the response of the atmosphere to the electron collisional heating is slow. The upward velocity of the hydrodynamic gas is reduced due not only to the large coronal column depth, but also to the increased inertia of the overlying material. It is concluded that the only possible electron-heated scenario in which the predicted Ca XIX line profiles agree with the BCS observations is when the impulsive flare starts in a preheated dense corona.

  17. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  18. Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

    2005-09-01

    The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes with Multiple Capillary Pumps and Multiple Condensers. Part 1; Stead State Stimulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Triem T.; OConnell, Tamara; Ku, Jentung

    2004-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) have proven themselves as reliable and robust heat transport devices for spacecraft thermal control systems. So far, the LHPs in earth-orbit satellites perform very well as expected. Conventional LHPs usually consist of a single capillary pump for heat acquisition and a single condenser for heat rejection. Multiple pump/multiple condenser LHPs have shown to function very well in ground testing. Nevertheless, the test results of a dual pump/condenser LHP also revealed that the dual LHP behaved in a complicated manner due to the interaction between the pumps and condensers. Thus it is redundant to say that more research is needed before they are ready for 0-g deployment. One research area that perhaps compels immediate attention is the analytical modeling of LHPs, particularly the transient phenomena. Modeling a single pump/single condenser LHP is difficult enough. Only a handful of computer codes are available for both steady state and transient simulations of conventional LHPs. No previous effort was made to develop an analytical model (or even a complete theory) to predict the operational behavior of the multiple pump/multiple condenser LHP systems. The current research project offered a basic theory of the multiple pump/multiple condenser LHP operation. From it, a computer code was developed to predict the LHP saturation temperature in accordance with the system operating and environmental conditions.

  20. Thermodynamic and experimental study on heat transfer mechanism of miniature loop heat pipe with water-copper nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-wu; Wan, Zhen-ping; Tang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    A miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) is a promising device for heat dissipation of electronic products. Experimental study of heat transfer performance of an mLHP employing Cu-water nanofluid as working fluid was conducted. It is found that, when input power is above 25 W, the temperature differences between the evaporator wall and vapor of nanofluid, Te - Tv, and the total heat resistance of mLHP using nanofluid are always lower than those of mLHP using de-ionized water. The values of Te - Tv and total heat resistance of mLHP using nanofluid with concentration 1.5 wt. % are the lowest, while when the input power is 25 W, the values of Te - Tv and total heat resistance of mLHP using de-ionized water are even lower than those of mLHP using nanofluid with concentration 2.0 wt. %. At larger input power, the dominant interaction is collision between small bubbles and nanoparticles which can facilitate heat transfer. While at lower input power, nanoparticles adhere to the surface of large bubble. This does not benefit boiling heat transfer. For mLHP using nanofluid with larger concentration, for example 2.0%, the heat transfer may even be worse compared with using de-ionized water at lower input power. The special structure of the mLHP in this study, two separated chambers in the evaporator, produces an extra pressure difference and contributes to the heat transfer performance of the mLHP.

  1. Pulse Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor: Heat transfer loop and balance-of-plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, M.W.; Blink, J.A.; Curlander, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop and balance-of-plant design for the Pulse Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor has been investigated and the results are presented. The Pulse Star reaction vessel, a perforated steel bell jar about11 m in diameter, is immersed in Li 17 Pb 83 coolant, which flows through the perforations and forms a 1.5-m-thick plenum of droplets around a 8-m-diameter inner chamber. The bell jar and associated pumps, piping, and steam generators are contained within a 17-m-diameter pool of Li 17 Pb 83 coolant to minimize structural requirements and occupied space, resulting in reduced cost. Four parallel heat transfer loops, each with a flow rate of 5.5 m 3 /s, are necessary to transfer 3300 MWt of power. Liquid metal is pumped to the top of the pool, where it flows downward through eight vertical steam generators. Double-walled tubes are used in the steam generators to assure tritium containment without intermediate heat transfer loops. Each pump is a mixed flow type and has a required NPSH of 3.4 m, a speed of 278 rpm, and an impeller diameter of 1.2 m. The steam generator design was optimized by finding the most cost-effective combination of heat exchanger area and pumping power. The design minimizes the total cost (heat exchanger area plus pumping) for the plant lifetime. The power required for the pumps is 36 MWe. Each resulting steam generator is 12 m high and 1.6 m in diameter, with 2360 tubes. The steam generators and pumps fit easily in the pool between the reactor chamber and the pool wall

  2. Heating mechanisms for intermittent loops in active region cores from AIA/SDO EUV observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Jess, D. B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Nigro, G. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro Nazionale Interuniversitario Struttura della Materia, Unita di Cosenza, I-87030 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    We investigate intensity variations and energy deposition in five coronal loops in active region cores. These were selected for their strong variability in the AIA/SDO 94 Å intensity channel. We isolate the hot Fe XVIII and Fe XXI components of the 94 Å and 131 Å by modeling and subtracting the 'warm' contributions to the emission. HMI/SDO data allow us to focus on 'inter-moss' regions in the loops. The detailed evolution of the inter-moss intensity time series reveals loops that are impulsively heated in a mode compatible with a nanoflare storm, with a spike in the hot 131 Å signals leading and the other five EUV emission channels following in progressive cooling order. A sharp increase in electron temperature tends to follow closely after the hot 131 Å signal confirming the impulsive nature of the process. A cooler process of growing emission measure follows more slowly. The Fourier power spectra of the hot 131 Å signals, when averaged over the five loops, present three scaling regimes with break frequencies near 0.1 min{sup –1} and 0.7 min{sup –1}. The low frequency regime corresponds to 1/f noise; the intermediate indicates a persistent scaling process and the high frequencies show white noise. Very similar results are found for the energy dissipation in a 2D 'hybrid' shell model of loop magneto-turbulence, based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics, that is compatible with nanoflare statistics. We suggest that such turbulent dissipation is the energy source for our loops.

  3. Aircraft Thermal Management Using Loop Heat Pipes: Experimental Simulation of High Acceleration Environments Using the Centrifuge Table Test Bed (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleming, Andrew J; Leland, Quinn H; Yerkes, Kirk L; Elston, Levi J; Thomas, Scott K

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the design of an experiment that will examine the effects of elevated acceleration environments on a high-temperature, titanium-water loop heat pipe for actuator cooling...

  4. A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-09-05

    The present study focuses on the thermoelectric generator (TEG) using loop heat pipe (LHP) and design match for maximum-power generation. The TEG uses loop heat pipe, a passive cooling device, to dissipate heat without consuming power and free of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free. The TEG design match for maximum-power generation, called “near maximum-power point operation (nMPPO)”, is studied to eliminate the MPPT (maximum-power point tracking controller). nMPPO is simply a system design which properly matches the output voltage of TEG with the battery. It is experimentally shown that TEG using design match for maximum-power generation (nMPPO) performs better than TEG with MPPT.

  5. Thermal performance of horizontal closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittidech, S.; Pipatpaiboon, N.; Thongdaeng, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the thermal performance of various horizontal closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe systems with check valves (HCLOHPs/CVs). Numerous test systems were constructed using copper capillary tubes with assorted inner diameters, evaporator lengths, and check valves. The test systems were evaluated under normal operating conditions using ethanol, R123, and distilled water as working fluids. The system's evaporator sections were heated by hot water from a hot bath, and the heat was removed from the condenser sections by cold water from a cool bath. The adiabatic sections were well insulated with foam insulators. The heat-transfer performance of the various systems was evaluated in terms of the rate of heat transferred to the cold water at the condenser. The results showed that the heat-transfer performance of an HCLOHP/CV system could be improved by decreasing the evaporator length. The highest performance of all tested systems was obtained when the maximum number of system check valves was 2. The maximum heat flux occurred with a 2 mm inner diameter tube, and R123 was determined to be the most suitable working fluid

  6. A pumped, two-phase flow heat transport system for orbiting instrument payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowle, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    A pumped two-phase (heat absorption/heat rejection) thermal transport system for orbiting instrument payloads is investigated. The thermofluid characteristics necessary for the system design are discussed. A preliminary design with a series arrangement of four instrument heat stations and six radiators in a single loop is described in detail, and the total mass is estimated to be 134 kg, with the radiators, instrument heat stations, and fluid reservoir accounting for approximately 86, 24, and 12 kg, respectively. The evaluation of preliminary test results shows that the system has potential advantages; however, further research is necessary in the areas of one-g and zero-g heat transfer coefficients/fluid regimes, fluid by-pass temperature control, and reliability of small pumps.

  7. Acoustic characterization of a CANDU primary heat transport pump at the blade-passing frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzentkowski, G.; Zbroja, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the acoustics of a single-stage, double-volute CANDU heat transport pump based on a full-scale experimental investigation. We estimate the strength of source variables (acoustic pressure and velocity) and establish the pump characteristics as an acoustic source at the blade-passing frequency. We conduct this analysis by first assessing the resonance effects in the test loop, and then decomposing the measured signal into the components associated with pump action and loop acoustics with the use of a simple pump model. The pump model is based on a linear superposition of pressure wave transmission and excitation. The results of this analysis indicate that the pump source variables are nearly free of acoustic resonance effects in the test loop. The source pressure and velocity are each estimated at approximately 10 kPa (zero-to-peak). The results also indicate that the pump may act as both a pressure and a velocity source. At the loop resonance, the pump acoustic behavior is exclusively governed by the pressure term. This observation leads to the conclusion that the maximum amplification of pressure pulsations in a reactor heat transport system may be predicted by modeling the pump as a pressure source. (orig.)

  8. Steady state and transient heat transfer on molten salt natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudariyawar, Jayaraj Y.; Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Satyamurthy, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, heat transfer characteristics of Molten Salt Natural Circulation Loop (MSNCL) are studied using 3D CFD simulations. Molten Nitrate salt, NaNO_3+KNO_3 (60:40 ratio by weight), is used as a fluid in MSNCL. In the MSNCL, in heater section, flow is developing and also mixed convection flow regime exists. The local Nusselt number variation in heater is calculated from computed data and is compared with that from Boelter correlation. Steady state heat transfer characteristics are obtained using CFD simulations. Transient heat transfer characteristics in the oscillatory flow formed in MSNCL with horizontal heater configuration are also studied and are found to be different as compared to vertical heater configuration. (author)

  9. Heat in the Barents Sea: transport, storage, and surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Smedsrud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A column model is set up for the Barents Sea to explore sensitivity of surface fluxes and heat storage from varying ocean heat transport. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force the simulations. Results show that by using updated ocean transports of heat and freshwater the vertical mean hydrographic seasonal cycle can be reproduced fairly well.

    Our results indicate that the ~70 TW of heat transported to the Barents Sea by ocean currents is lost in the southern Barents Sea as latent, sensible, and long wave radiation, each contributing 23–39 TW to the total heat loss. Solar radiation adds 26 TW in the south, as there is no significant ice production.

    The northern Barents Sea receives little ocean heat transport. This leads to a mixed layer at the freezing point during winter and significant ice production. There is little net surface heat loss annually in the north. The balance is achieved by a heat loss through long wave radiation all year, removing most of the summer solar heating.

    During the last decade the Barents Sea has experienced an atmospheric warming and an increased ocean heat transport. The Barents Sea responds to such large changes by adjusting temperature and heat loss. Decreasing the ocean heat transport below 50 TW starts a transition towards Arctic conditions. The heat loss in the Barents Sea depend on the effective area for cooling, and an increased heat transport leads to a spreading of warm water further north.

  10. An Approximate Solution for Predicting the Heat Extraction and Preventing Heat Loss from a Closed-Loop Geothermal Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisheng Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximate solutions are found for a mathematical model developed to predict the heat extraction from a closed-loop geothermal system which consists of two vertical wells (one for injection and the other for production and one horizontal well which connects the two vertical wells. Based on the feature of slow heat conduction in rock formation, the fluid flow in the well is divided into three stages, that is, in the injection, horizontal, and production wells. The output temperature of each stage is regarded as the input of the next stage. The results from the present model are compared with those obtained from numerical simulator TOUGH2 and show first-order agreement with a temperature difference less than 4°C for the case where the fluid circulated for 2.74 years. In the end, a parametric study shows that (1 the injection rate plays dominant role in affecting the output performance, (2 higher injection temperature produces larger output temperature but decreases the total heat extracted given a specific time, (3 the output performance of geothermal reservoir is insensitive to fluid viscosity, and (4 there exists a critical point that indicates if the fluid releases heat into or absorbs heat from the surrounding formation.

  11. An ultra-thin miniature loop heat pipe cooler for mobile electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guohui; Li, Ji; Lv, Lucang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1.2 mm thick miniature loop heat pipe was developed. • The mLHP can manage a wide range of heat loads at natural convection. • A minimum mLHP thermal resistance of 0.111 °C/W was achieved at 11 W. • The proposed mLHP is a promising solution for cooling mobile electronics. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) employing a 1.2 mm thick flat evaporator and a vapor line, liquid line and condenser with a 1.0 mm thickness. The mLHP employs an internal wick structure fabricated of sintered fine copper mesh, comprised of a primary wick structure in the evaporator to provide the driving force for circulating the working fluid, and a secondary wick inside the liquid line to promote the flow of condensed working fluid back to the evaporator. All tests were conducted under air natural convection at an ambient temperature of 24 ± 1 °C. The proposed mLHP demonstrated stable start-up behavior at a low heat load of 2 W in the horizontal orientation with an evaporator temperature of 43.9 °C and efficiently dissipates a maximum heat load of 12 W without dry-out occurring. A minimum mLHP thermal resistance of 0.111 °C/W was achieved at a heat load of 11 W in a gravity favorable operation mode, at which the evaporator temperature was about 97.2 °C. In addition, an analytical analysis was conducted, and the devised equation could be used to evaluate the performance of the mLHP.

  12. Transport of 7Be in a lithium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, H.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Bechtold, R.A.; Brehm, W.F.

    1982-07-01

    Beryllium-7 will be produced in the lithium target of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility by the interaction of the deuteron beam with lithium by the two reactions 7 Li(d,2n) 7 Be and 6 Li(d,n) 7 Be. Recent estimates have shown that an equilibrium concentration of 45,000 curies of 7 Be will be present in FMIT lithium. Although this inventory of 7 Be corresponds to only 0.042 wt ppM in FMIT lithium, the radiation fields created can impose special design and maintenance requirements on the facility. A development program has been started at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to investigate the transport of 7 Be in liquid lithium. Results obtained thus far indicated preferential deposition of 7 Be not only in the cold leg but also in the higher temperature region in a nonisothermal lithium system with a temperature gradient similar to that expected in FMIT. The results showed that 7 Be can diffuse into AISI 304 stainless steel (304) at FMIT operating temperatures; the diffusion coefficient of 7 Be in 304 was also calculated

  13. Condenser design optimization and operation characteristics of a novel miniature loop heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhenping; Wang Xiaowu; Tang Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel miniature LHP (mLHP) system was presented. ► Optimal design of condenser was considered. ► The heat transfer performance was investigated experimentally. - Abstract: Loop heat pipe (LHP) is a promising means for electronics cooling since LHP is a exceptionally efficient heat transfer device. In this paper, a novel miniature LHP (mLHP) system is presented and optimal design of condenser is considered seeing that evaporators have been able to handle very high-heat fluxes with low-heat transfer resistances since most of the previous researchers focused on the evaporator of mLHP. The arrayed pins were designed and machined out on the bottom of condenser to enhance condensation heat transfer. The parameters of the arrayed pins, including layout, cross-section shape and area, were optimized by finite element analysis. Tests were carried out on the mLHP with a CPU thermal simulator using forced air convection condenser cooling to validate the optimization. The operation characteristics of the mLHP with optimal design parameters of condenser were investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that the mLHP can reject head load 200 W while maintaining the cooled object temperatures below 100 °C, and for a variable power applied to the evaporator, the system presents reliable startups and continuous operation.

  14. Very High Temperature Test of Alloy617 Compact Heat Exchanger in Helium Experimental Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Park, Byung-Ha; Kim, Eung-Seon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) is a key-challenged high temperature component which determines the efficiency and the economy of VHTR system. Heat generated in the VHTR fuel block is transferred from the VHTR to the intermediate loop through IHX. In the present, the shell-helical tube heat exchanger is generally used as IHX of the helium cooled reactor. Recently, a Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) is one of the candidates for the IHX in a VHTR because its operation temperature and pressure are larger than any other compact heat exchanger types. These test results show that there is no problem in operation of HELP at the very high temperature experimental condition and the alloy617 compact heat exchanger can be operated in the very high temperature condition above 850℃. In the future, the high temperature structural analysis will be studied to estimate the thermal stress during transient and thermal shock condition. The conditions and evaluation standard for the alloy 617 diffusion bonding will be minutely studied to fabricate the large-scale PCHE for the high temperature condition.

  15. Solar thermoelectric cooling using closed loop heat exchangers with macro channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Raghied M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we describe the design, analysis and experimental study of an advanced coolant air conditioning system which cools or warms airflow using thermoelectric (TE) devices powered by solar cells. Both faces of the TE devices are directly connected to closed-loop highly efficient channels plates with macro scale channels and liquid-to-air heat exchangers. The hot side of the system consists of a pump that moves a coolant through the hot face of the TE modules, a radiator that drives heat away into the air, and a fan that transfer the heat over the radiator by forced convection. The cold side of the system consists also of a pump that moves coolant through the cold face of the TE modules, a radiator that drives cold away into the air, and a fan that blows cold air off the radiator. The system was integrated with solar panels, tested and its thermal performance was assessed. The experimental results verify the possibility of heating or cooling air using TE modules with a relatively high coefficient of performance (COP). The system was able to cool a closed space of 30 m3 by 14 °C below ambient within 90 min. The maximum COP of the whole system was 0.72 when the TE modules were running at 11.2 Å and 12 V. This improvement in the system COP over the air cooled heat sink is due to the improvement of the system heat exchange by means of channels plates.

  16. Possible role of oceanic heat transport in early Eocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, L. C.; Walker, J. C.; Moore, T. C. Jr

    1995-01-01

    Increased oceanic heat transport has often been cited as a means of maintaining warm high-latitude surface temperatures in many intervals of the geologic past, including the early Eocene. Although the excess amount of oceanic heat transport required by warm high latitude sea surface temperatures can be calculated empirically, determining how additional oceanic heat transport would take place has yet to be accomplished. That the mechanisms of enhanced poleward oceanic heat transport remain undefined in paleoclimate reconstructions is an important point that is often overlooked. Using early Eocene climate as an example, we consider various ways to produce enhanced poleward heat transport and latitudinal energy redistribution of the sign and magnitude required by interpreted early Eocene conditions. Our interpolation of early Eocene paleotemperature data indicate that an approximately 30% increase in poleward heat transport would be required to maintain Eocene high-latitude temperatures. This increased heat transport appears difficult to accomplish by any means of ocean circulation if we use present ocean circulation characteristics to evaluate early Eocene rates. Either oceanic processes were very different from those of the present to produce the early Eocene climate conditions or oceanic heat transport was not the primary cause of that climate. We believe that atmospheric processes, with contributions from other factors, such as clouds, were the most likely primary cause of early Eocene climate.

  17. Modification of heating system on HeaTiNG-02 test section of beta test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagino; Dedy Haryanto; Riswan Djambiar; Edy Sumarno

    2013-01-01

    Modifications have been carried out on the heating test section heating-02 on the integration strand Beta Test (UUB). The activities carried out to overcome the obstacles that arise in the test section when used. Constraint that often arises is the fall of the heating source super chantal when it reaches a certain temperature. To mitigate the super chantal is initially converted into a horizontal vertical position. Change from vertical to horizontal position on super chantal aims to stabilize the position of super chantal, so it needs to be modified in the heating system. Modification activities include manufacturing, installation and testing of super chantal and refractory stone as super chantal support. Manufacturing refractory stone formation and assembly into the heater in accordance with design modifications that have been done in electromechanical workshop obtained using some machine tools. Testing results of fabrication has been done by providing voltage 110 volts until it reaches operating temperature 400°C. Test results obtained super chantal stable position when it reaches operating temperature, and heater of heating-02 test section feasible to be used for experiments. (author)

  18. Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor: heat transfer loop and balance of plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, M.W.; Murray, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop and balance of plant design for the Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor has been investigated and results are presented. The Pulse*Star reaction vessel, a perforated steel bell jar approximately 11 m in diameter, is immersed in Li 17 Pb 83 coolant which flows through the perforations and forms a 1.5 m thick plenum of droplets around an 8 m diameter inner chamber. The reactor and associated pumps, piping, and steam generators are contained within a 17 m diameter pool of Li 17 Pb 83 coolant to minimize structural requirements and occupied space, resulting in reduced cost. Four parallel heat transfer loops with flow rates of 5.5 m 3 /s each are necessary to transfer 3300 MWt of power. The steam generator design was optimized by finding the most cost-effective combination of heat exchanger area and pumping power. Power balance calculations based on an improved electrical conversion efficiency revealed a net electrical output of 1260 MWe to the bus bar and a resulting net efficiency of 39%. Suggested balance-of-plant layouts are also presented

  19. A Hydrodynamic Model of Alfvénic Wave Heating in a Coronal Loop and Its Chromospheric Footpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, Jeffrey W.; Russell, Alexander J. B.; Tarr, Lucas A.; Leake, James E.

    2018-02-01

    Alfvénic waves have been proposed as an important energy transport mechanism in coronal loops, capable of delivering energy to both the corona and chromosphere and giving rise to many observed features of flaring and quiescent regions. In previous work, we established that resistive dissipation of waves (ambipolar diffusion) can drive strong chromospheric heating and evaporation, capable of producing flaring signatures. However, that model was based on a simplified assumption that the waves propagate instantly to the chromosphere, an assumption that the current work removes. Via a ray-tracing method, we have implemented traveling waves in a field-aligned hydrodynamic simulation that dissipate locally as they propagate along the field line. We compare this method to and validate against the magnetohydrodynamics code Lare3D. We then examine the importance of travel times to the dynamics of the loop evolution, finding that (1) the ionization level of the plasma plays a critical role in determining the location and rate at which waves dissipate; (2) long duration waves effectively bore a hole into the chromosphere, allowing subsequent waves to penetrate deeper than previously expected, unlike an electron beam whose energy deposition rises in height as evaporation reduces the mean-free paths of the electrons; and (3) the dissipation of these waves drives a pressure front that propagates to deeper depths, unlike energy deposition by an electron beam.

  20. Source effects on impurity and heat transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.B.

    1980-12-01

    A recently developed generalization of neoclassical theory is extended here to study heat flux contributions to impurity transport, as well as the heat fluxes themselves. The theory accounts for the first four source moments, with external drags, which has been studied previously with either fewer moments or restricted to a collisional plasma. Conditions are established for which a momentum source may be used to modify the particle and heat transport. In the course of this work, the particle and heat transport is evaluated for a two species plasma with arbitrary plasma geometry, beta, and collisionality

  1. Computational simulation of flow and heat transfer in single-phase natural circulation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Larissa Cunha

    2017-01-01

    Passive decay heat removal systems based on natural circulation are essential assets for the new Gen III+ nuclear power reactors and nuclear spent fuel pools. The aim of the present work is to study both laminar and turbulent flow and heat transfer in single-phase natural circulation systems through computational fluid dynamics simulations. The working fluid is considered to be incompressible with constant properties. In the way, the Boussinesq Natural Convection Hypothesis was applied. The model chosen for the turbulence closure problem was the k -- εThe commercial computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX 15.0 was used to obtain the numerical solution of the governing equations. Two single-phase natural circulation circuits were studied, a 2D toroidal loop and a 3D rectangular loop, both with the same boundary conditions of: prescribed heat flux at the heater and fixed wall temperature at the cooler. The validation and verification was performed with the numerical data provided by DESRAYAUD et al. [1] and the experimental data provided by MISALE et al. [2] and KUMAR et al. [3]. An excellent agreement between the Reynolds number (Re) and the modified Grashof number (Gr_m), independently of Prandtl Pr number was observed. However, the convergence interval was observed to be variable with Pr, thus indicating that Pr is a stability governing parameter for natural circulation. Multiple steady states was obtained for Pr = 0,7. Finally, the effect of inclination was studied for the 3D circuit, both in-plane and out-of-plane inclinations were verified for the steady state laminar regime. As a conclusion, the Re for the out-of-plane inclination was in perfect agreement with the correlation found for the zero inclination system, while for the in-plane inclined system the results differ from that of the corresponding vertical loop. (author)

  2. Upgrading primary heat transport pump seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, T.; Metcalfe, R.; Rhodes, D.; McInnes, D.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the operating environment at the Bruce-A Nuclear Generating Station created the need for an upgraded Primary Heat Transport Pump (PHTP) seal. In particular, the requirement for low pressure running during more frequent start-ups exposed a weakness of the CAN2 seal and reduced its reliability. The primary concern at Bruce-A was the rotation of the CAN2 No. 2 stators in their holders. The introduction of low pressure running exacerbated this problem, giving rapid wear of the stator back face, overheating, and thermocracking. In addition, the resulting increase in friction between the stator and its holder increased stationary-side hysteresis and thereby changed the seal characteristic to the point where interseal pressure oscillations became prevalent. The resultant increased hysteresis also led to hard rubbing of the seal faces during temperature transients. An upgraded seal was required for improved reliability to avoid forced outages and to reduce maintenance costs. This paper describes this upgraded 'replacement seal' and its performance history. In spite of the 'teething' problems detailed in this paper, there have been no forced outages due to the replacement seal, and in the words of a seal maintenance worker at Bruce-A, 'it allows me to go home and sleep at night instead of worrying about seal failures.' (author)

  3. Mathematical modelling for magnetite (crude removal from primary heat transfer loop by ion-exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Nawaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research focuses to develop mathematical model for the removal of iron (magnetite by ion-exchange resin from primary heat transfer loop of process industries. This mathematical model is based on operating capacities (that’s provide more effective design as compared to loading capacity from static laboratory tests. Results showed non-steady state distribution of external Fe2+ and limitations imposed on operating conditions, these conditions includes; loading and elution cycle time, flow rate, concentration of both loading and removal, volume of resin required. Number of generalized assumptions was made under shortcut modeling techniques to overcome the gap of theoretical and actual process design.

  4. Intense radiative heat transport across a nano-scale gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Ghafari, Amin; Bogy, David B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the radiative heat transport in layered structures. The analysis is based on our prior description of the spectrum of thermally excited waves in systems with a heat flux. The developed method correctly predicts results for all known special cases for both large and closing gaps. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of our approach to the calculation of the radiative heat transport coefficient across various layered structures.

  5. Heat and Mass Transport in Heat Pipe Wick Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Iverson, B. D.; Davis, T. W.; Garimella, S V; North, M. T.; Kang, S.

    2007-01-01

    Anovel experimental approach is developed for characterizing the performance of heat pipe wick structures. This approach simulates the actual operation of wick structures in a heat pipe. Open, partially submerged, sintered copper wicks of varying pore size are studied under the partially saturated conditions found in normal heat pipe operation. A vertical wick orientation, where the capillary lift is in opposition to gravity, is selected to test the wicks under the most demanding conditions. ...

  6. Heat pipes and two-phase loops with capillary pumping; Caloducs et boucles diphasiques a pompage capillaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop on heat pipes and two-phase capillary pumping loops was organized by the French society of thermal engineers. The 11 papers presented during this workshop deal with the study of thermal performances of heat pipes and on their applications in power electronics (cooling of components), and their use in satellites, aircrafts and trains. (J.S.)

  7. Heat pipes and two-phase loops with capillary pumping; Caloducs et boucles diphasiques a pompage capillaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on heat pipes and two-phase capillary pumping loops was organized by the French society of thermal engineers. The 11 papers presented during this workshop deal with the study of thermal performances of heat pipes and on their applications in power electronics (cooling of components), and their use in satellites, aircrafts and trains. (J.S.)

  8. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  9. Evaluation of a loss of residual heat removal event during mid-loop operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Hho Jung

    1996-01-01

    The potential for the RELAP5/MOD3.2 was assessed for the loss-of -RHR event during the mid-loop operation and the predictability of major thermal-hydraulic phenomena was also evaluated for the long term transient. The analysis results of the typical two cases(cold leg opening case and pressurizer opening case) were compared with experimental data which was conducted at ROSA-IV/LSTF in Japan. As a result, it was shown that the code was capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulic transport process with appropriate time step during the reduced inventory operation with the loss-of-RHR system

  10. Application of a novel calcium looping process for production of heat and carbon dioxide enrichment of greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Shah, Kalpit; Doroodchi, Elham; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The greenhouse calcium looping process was developed by ASPEN Plus simulator. • In this process, the carbonation reaction provides required heat during night time. • The calcination reaction provides required carbon dioxide during day time. • This novel process saves up to 72% energy compared to the fossil fuel burners. • The process thermodynamically attributes to zero emission of carbon dioxide. - Abstract: Greenhouses typically employ conventional burner systems to suffice heat and carbon dioxide required for plant growth. The energy requirement and carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burner are generally high. As an alternative, this paper describes a novel greenhouse calcium looping process which is expected to decrease the energy requirements and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The conceptual design of greenhouse calcium looping process is carried out in the ASPEN Plus v 7.3 simulator. In a greenhouse calcium looping process, the calcination reaction is considered to take place during day time in order to provide the required optimum carbon dioxide between 1000 and 2000 ppm, while the carbonation reaction is occurred during night time to provide required heat. The process simulations carried out in ASPEN indicates that greenhouse calcium looping process theoretically attributes to zero emission of carbon dioxide. Moreover, in a scenario modelling study compared to the conventional natural gas burner system, the heat duty requirements in the greenhouse calcium looping process were found to reduce by as high as 72%

  11. EUV FLICKERING OF SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS: A NEW DIAGNOSTIC OF CORONAL HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajfirouze, E.; Reale, F.; Peres, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 (Italy); Testa, P., E-mail: reale@astropa.unipa.it [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    A previous work of ours found the best agreement between EUV light curves observed in an active region core (with evidence of super-hot plasma) and those predicted from a model with a random combination of many pulse-heated strands with a power-law energy distribution. We extend that work by including spatially resolved strand modeling and by studying the evolution of emission along the loops in the EUV 94 Å and 335 Å channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using the best parameters of the previous work as the input of the present one, we find that the amplitude of the random fluctuations driven by the random heat pulses increases from the bottom to the top of the loop in the 94 Å channel and from the top to the bottom in the 335 Å channel. This prediction is confirmed by the observation of a set of aligned neighboring pixels along a bright arc of an active region core. Maps of pixel fluctuations may therefore provide easy diagnostics of nanoflaring regions.

  12. Experimental study on operating parameters of miniature loop heat pipe with flat evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangfeng; Huo Jiepeng; Zhang Xianfeng; Lin Zirong

    2012-01-01

    Miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with flat evaporator has been proved that it has the capability to fulfill the demand for the thermal management of high-power electronic system. To employ MLHP into practical application and obtain the best operating parameters, a copper-water MLHP with flat evaporator of 8 mm thick was fabricated and tested in the condition of different condenser locations and operating orientations. The results show that the condenser located close to the evaporator outlet and adverse orientation have positive impact on the operating temperature of the loop, but negative impact on the cooling capability of condenser. For better understanding of their effect on the heat transfer characteristics of MLHP, the start-up behaviors, thermal performance and the operating regimes are explored in detail. - Highlights: ► A copper-water MLHP with flat evaporator of only 8 mm thick was fabricated. ► The MLHP can be applied to electronic cooling. ► The effect of condenser locations was investigated for the first time. ► The experimental results were discussed and analyzed comprehensively. ► Some practical solutions for disadvantages of LHP operation were provided.

  13. Experimental study on the thermal performance of a small-scale loop heat pipe with polypropylene wick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boo, Joon Hong; Chung, Won Bok

    2005-01-01

    A small-scale Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) with polypropylene wick was fabricated and tested for investigation of its thermal performance. The container and tubing of the system were made of stainless steel and several working fluids were tested including methanol, ethanol, and acetone. The heating area was 35 mm x 35 mm and nine axial grooves were provided in the evaporator to provide vapor passages. The pore size of the polypropylene wick inside the evaporator was varied from 0.5 μm to 25 μm. The inner diameter of liquid and vapor transport lines were 2.0 mm and 4.0 mm, respectively and the length of which were 0.5 mm. The size of condenser was 40 mm (W) x 50 mm (L) in which ten coolant paths were provided. Start-up characteristics as well as steady-state performance was analyzed and discussed. The minimum thermal load of 10 W (0.8W/cam 2 ) and maximum thermal load of 80 W (6.5 W/cm 2 ) were achieved using methanol as working fluid with the condenser temperature of 20 deg. C with horizontal position

  14. Numerical simulations and analyses of temperature control loop heat pipe for space CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingliang; Yang, Tao; Li, Chunlin

    2016-10-01

    As one of the key units of space CCD camera, the temperature range and stability of CCD components affect the image's indexes. Reasonable thermal design and robust thermal control devices are needed. One kind of temperature control loop heat pipe (TCLHP) is designed, which highly meets the thermal control requirements of CCD components. In order to study the dynamic behaviors of heat and mass transfer of TCLHP, particularly in the orbital flight case, a transient numerical model is developed by using the well-established empirical correlations for flow models within three dimensional thermal modeling. The temperature control principle and details of mathematical model are presented. The model is used to study operating state, flow and heat characteristics based upon the analyses of variations of temperature, pressure and quality under different operating modes and external heat flux variations. The results indicate that TCLHP can satisfy the thermal control requirements of CCD components well, and always ensure good temperature stability and uniformity. By comparison between flight data and simulated results, it is found that the model is to be accurate to within 1°C. The model can be better used for predicting and understanding the transient performance of TCLHP.

  15. An axial heat transfer analytical model for capillary-pumped loop vapor line temperature distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.-W.; Lin, W.-K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to study the capillary-pumped loop (CPL) vapor line temperature distributions. A simple axial heat transfer method is developed to predict the vapor line temperature from evaporator outlet to condenser inlet. CPL is a high efficiency two-phase heat transfer device. Since it does not need any other mechanical force such as pump, furthermore, it might be used to do the thermal management of high power electronic component such as spacecraft, notebook and computer servers. It is a cyclic circulation pumped by capillary force, and this force is generated from the fine porous structure in evaporator. A novel semi-arc porous evaporator to CPL in 1U server is designed on the ground with a horizontal position and scale down the whole device to the miniature size. From the experimental results, the CPL could remove heat 90 W in steady-state and keep the heat source temperature about 70 deg. C. Finally, a good agreement between the simulation and experimental values has been achieved. Comparing with experiment and simulation results, the deviation values of the distributions of the condenser inlet temperature are less than 8%

  16. Low-noise cooling system for PC on the base of loop heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastukhov, Vladimir G.; Maydanik, Yury F.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of current importance connected with a wide use of personal computers (PC) and a rapid growth of their performance is a decrease in the noise level created at the operation of cooling system fans. One of the possible ways of solving this problem may be the creation of passive or semi-passive systems on the base of loop heat pipes (LHPs) in which the heat sink is an external radiator cooled by natural and/or forced air convection. The paper presents the results of development and tests of several variants of such systems, which are capable of sustaining an operating temperature of 72-78 deg. C on the heat source thermal interface which dissipates 100 W at an ambient temperature of 22 deg. C. It is also shown that the use of additional means of active cooling in combination with LHPs allows to increase the value of dissipated heat up to 180 W and to decrease the system thermal resistance down to 0.29 deg. C/W

  17. Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer Loop Using MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yongjae; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoodong; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The MARS has been developed adopting two major modules: RELAP5/MOD3 (USA) for one-dimensional (1D) two-fluid model for two-phase flows and COBRA-TF code for a three-dimensional (3D), two-fluid, and three-field model. In addition to the MARS code, TRACE (USA) is a modernized thermal-hydraulics code designed to consolidate and extend the capabilities of NRC's 3 legacy safety code: TRAC-P, TRAC-B and RELAP. CATHARE (French) is also thermal-hydraulic system analysis code for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) safety. There are several researches on comparing experimental data with simulation results by the MARS code. Kang et al. conducted natural convection heat transfer experiments of liquid gallium loop, and the experimental data were compared to MARS simulations. Bang et al. examined the capability of the MARS code to predict condensation heat transfer experiments with a vertical tube containing a non-condensable gas. Moreover, Lee et al. adopted MELCOR, which is one of the severe accident analysis codes, to evaluate several strategies for the severe accident mitigation. The objective of this study is to conduct the preliminary numerical analysis for the experimental loop at HYU using the MARS code, especially in order to provide relevant information on upcoming experiments for the undergraduate students. In this study, the preliminary numerical analysis for the convective heat transfer loop was carried out using the MARS Code. The major findings from the numerical simulations can be summarized as follows. In the calculations of the outlet and surface temperatures, the several limitations were suggested for the upcoming single-phase flow experiments. The comparison work for the HTCs shows validity for the prepared input model. This input could give useful information on the experiments. Furthermore, the undergraduate students in department of nuclear engineering, who are going to be taken part in the experiments, could prepare the program with the input, and will

  18. Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer Loop Using MARS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongjae; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoodong; Kim, Sung Joong

    2014-01-01

    The MARS has been developed adopting two major modules: RELAP5/MOD3 (USA) for one-dimensional (1D) two-fluid model for two-phase flows and COBRA-TF code for a three-dimensional (3D), two-fluid, and three-field model. In addition to the MARS code, TRACE (USA) is a modernized thermal-hydraulics code designed to consolidate and extend the capabilities of NRC's 3 legacy safety code: TRAC-P, TRAC-B and RELAP. CATHARE (French) is also thermal-hydraulic system analysis code for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) safety. There are several researches on comparing experimental data with simulation results by the MARS code. Kang et al. conducted natural convection heat transfer experiments of liquid gallium loop, and the experimental data were compared to MARS simulations. Bang et al. examined the capability of the MARS code to predict condensation heat transfer experiments with a vertical tube containing a non-condensable gas. Moreover, Lee et al. adopted MELCOR, which is one of the severe accident analysis codes, to evaluate several strategies for the severe accident mitigation. The objective of this study is to conduct the preliminary numerical analysis for the experimental loop at HYU using the MARS code, especially in order to provide relevant information on upcoming experiments for the undergraduate students. In this study, the preliminary numerical analysis for the convective heat transfer loop was carried out using the MARS Code. The major findings from the numerical simulations can be summarized as follows. In the calculations of the outlet and surface temperatures, the several limitations were suggested for the upcoming single-phase flow experiments. The comparison work for the HTCs shows validity for the prepared input model. This input could give useful information on the experiments. Furthermore, the undergraduate students in department of nuclear engineering, who are going to be taken part in the experiments, could prepare the program with the input, and will

  19. Characterization of Site for Installing Open Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. W.; Park, Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Yi, M. J.; Cha, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to understand hydrogeological properties of site where open loop ground source heat pump system will be installed and operated. Groundwater level and water temperature were hourly measured at the well developed for usage of open loop ground source heat pump system from 11 October 2013 to 8 January 2014. Groundwater was sampled in January and August 2013 and its chemical and isotopic compositions were analyzed. The bedrock of study area is the Jurassic granodiorite that mainly consists of quartz (27.9 to 46.8%), plagioclase (26.0 to 45.5%), and alkali feldspar (9.5 to 18.7%). The groundwater level ranged from 68.30 to 68.94 m (above mean sea level). Recharge rate was estimated using modified watertable fluctuation method and the recharge ratios was 9.1%. The water temperature ranged from 14.8 to 15.0oC. The vertical Increase rates of water temperature were 1.91 to 1.94/100 m. The water temperature showed the significant seasonal variation above 50 m depth, but had constant value below 50 m depth. Therefore, heat energy of the groundwater can be used securely in open loop ground source heat pump system. Electrical conductivity ranged from 120 to 320 µS/cm in dry season and from 133 to 310 µS/cm in wet season. The electrical conductivity gradually decreased with depth. In particular, electrical conductivity in approximately 30 m depth decreased dramatically (287 to 249 µS/cm) in wet season. The groundwater was Ca-HCO3 type. The concentrations of dissolved components did not show the vertically significant variations from 0 to 250 m depth. The δ18O and δD ranged from -9.5 to -9.4‰ and from -69 to -68‰. This work is supported by the New and Renewable Energy of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel dual-loop organic Rankine cycle for engine waste heat and LNG cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Taehong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dual ORC system is designed for engine waste heat and LNG cold. • Exhaust gas and jacket cooling water are considered as heat sources. • LNG and boil-off gas are considered as heat sinks. • ORC loops are optimized to produce the maximum net work output. - Abstract: The marine sector produces a large portion of total air pollution, so the emissions of the engines used must be improved. This can be achieved using a new eco-friendly engine and waste-heat recovery system. A dual-fuel (DF) engine has been introduced for LNG carriers that is eco-friendly and has high thermal efficiency since it uses natural gas as fuel. The thermal efficiency could be further improved with the organic Rankine cycle (ORC). A novel dual-loop ORC system was designed for DF engines. The upper ORC loop recovers waste heat from the exhaust gas, and the bottom ORC loop recovers waste heat from the jacket cooling water and LNG cold. Both ORC loops were optimized to produce the maximum net work output. The optimum simple dual-loop ORC with n-pentane and R125 as working fluids produces an additional power output of 729.1 kW, which is 4.15% of the original engine output. Further system improvement studies were conducted using a recuperator and preheater, and the feasibility of using boil-off gas as a heat sink was analyzed. Optimization of the system configuration revealed that the preheater and recuperator with n-pentane and R125 as working fluids increase the maximum net work output by 906.4 kW, which is 5.17% of the original engine output.

  1. SEAWAT-based simulation of axisymmetric heat transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, Alexander; Louwyck, Andy; Vlamynck, Nele

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of heat transport has its applications in geothermal exploitation of aquifers and the analysis of temperature dependent chemical reactions. Under homogeneous conditions and in the absence of a regional hydraulic gradient, groundwater flow and heat transport from or to a well exhibit radial symmetry, and governing equations are reduced by one dimension (1D) which increases computational efficiency importantly. Solute transport codes can simulate heat transport and input parameters may be modified such that the Cartesian geometry can handle radial flow. In this article, SEAWAT is evaluated as simulator for heat transport under radial flow conditions. The 1971, 1D analytical solution of Gelhar and Collins is used to compare axisymmetric transport with retardation (i.e., as a result of thermal equilibrium between fluid and solid) and a large diffusion (conduction). It is shown that an axisymmetric simulation compares well with a fully three dimensional (3D) simulation of an aquifer thermal energy storage systems. The influence of grid discretization, solver parameters, and advection solution is illustrated. Because of the high diffusion to simulate conduction, convergence criterion for heat transport must be set much smaller (10(-10) ) than for solute transport (10(-6) ). Grid discretization should be considered carefully, in particular the subdivision of the screen interval. On the other hand, different methods to calculate the pumping or injection rate distribution over different nodes of a multilayer well lead to small differences only. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Conceptual design of heat transport systems and components of PFBR-NSSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.; Kale, R.D.; Rao, A.S.L.K.; Mitra, T.K.; Selvaraj, A.; Sethi, V.K.; Sundaramoorthy, T.R.; Balasubramaniyan, V.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    1996-01-01

    The production of electrical power from sodium cooled fast reactors in the present power scenario in India demands emphasis on plant economics consistent with safety. Number of heat transport systems/components and the design of principal heat transport components viz sodium pumps, IHX and steam generators play significant role in the plant capital cost and capacity factor. The paper discusses the basis of selection of 2 primary pumps, 4 IHX, 2 secondary loops, 2 secondary pumps and 8 steam generators for the 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), which is now in design stage. The principal design features of primary pump, IHX and steam generator have been selected based on design simplicity, ease of manufacture and utilization of established designs. The paper also describes the conceptual design of above mentioned three components. (author). 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis of a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system for CNG engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Zhang, Hongguang; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Enhua; Meng, Fanxiao; Liu, Hongda; Wang, Jingfu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system is adopted to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and intercooler heat rejection of a six-cylinder CNG (compressed natural gas) engine. The thermodynamic, heat transfer, and optimization models for the dual loop ORC system are established. On the basis of the waste heat characteristics of the CNG engine over the whole operating range, a GA (genetic algorithm) is used to solve the Pareto solution for the thermodynamic and heat transfer performances to maximize net power output and minimize heat transfer area. Combined with optimization results, the optimal parameter regions of the dual loop ORC system are determined under various operating conditions. Then, the variation in the heat transfer area with the operating conditions of the CNG engine is analyzed. The results show that the optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT (high temperature) cycle are mainly influenced by the operating conditions of the CNG engine. The optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT cycle over the whole operating range are within 2.5–2.9 MPa and 0.43–12.35 K, respectively. The optimal condensation temperature of the HT cycle, evaporation and condensation temperatures of the LT (low temperature) cycle, and exhaust temperature at the outlet of evaporator 1 are kept nearly constant under various operating conditions of the CNG engine. The thermal efficiency of the dual loop ORC system is within the range of 8.79%–10.17%. The dual loop ORC system achieves the maximum net power output of 23.62 kW under the engine rated condition. In addition, the operating conditions of the CNG engine and the operating parameters of the dual loop ORC system significantly influence the heat transfer areas for each heat exchanger. - Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is adopted to recover the waste heat of a CNG engine. • Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis are

  4. Study and Optimization of Design Parameters in Water Loop Heat Pump Systems for Office Buildings in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Fernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water loop heat pump (WLHP air conditioning systems use heat pumps connected to a common water circuit to fulfill the energy demands of different thermal zones in a building. In this study, the energy consumption was analyzed for the air conditioning of an office building in the typical climate of four important cities of the Iberian Peninsula. The energy consumption of one water loop heat pump system was compared with a conventional water system. Two design parameters, the range in the control temperatures and the water loop thermal storage size, were tested. Energy redistribution is an important advantage of the WLHP system, but significant savings came from high efficiency parameters in the heat pumps and minor air flow rates in the cooling tower. The low thermal level in the water loop makes this technology appropriate to combine with renewable sources. Using natural gas as the thermal energy source, a mean decrease in CO2 emissions of 8.1% was reached. Simulations showed that the installation of big thermal storage tanks generated small energy savings. Besides, the total annual consumption in buildings with high internal loads can be reduced by keeping the water loop as cool as possible.

  5. EFFECT OF A RADIATION COOLING AND HEATING FUNCTION ON STANDING LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS IN CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Moon, Y.-J., E-mail: sanjaykumar@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-10

    Standing long-period (with periods longer than several minutes) oscillations in large, hot (with a temperature higher than 3 MK) coronal loops have been observed as the quasi-periodic modulation of the EUV and microwave intensity emission and the Doppler shift of coronal emission lines, and they have been interpreted as standing slow magnetoacoustic (longitudinal) oscillations. Quasi-periodic pulsations of shorter periods, detected in thermal and non-thermal emissions in solar flares could be produced by a similar mechanism. We present theoretical modeling of the standing slow magnetoacoustic mode, showing that this mode of oscillation is highly sensitive to peculiarities of the radiative cooling and heating function. We generalized the theoretical model of standing slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in a hot plasma, including the effects of the radiative losses and accounting for plasma heating. The heating mechanism is not specified and taken empirically to compensate the cooling by radiation and thermal conduction. It is shown that the evolution of the oscillations is described by a generalized Burgers equation. The numerical solution of an initial value problem for the evolutionary equation demonstrates that different dependences of the radiative cooling and plasma heating on the temperature lead to different regimes of the oscillations, including growing, quasi-stationary, and rapidly decaying. Our findings provide a theoretical foundation for probing the coronal heating function and may explain the observations of decayless long-period, quasi-periodic pulsations in flares. The hydrodynamic approach employed in this study should be considered with caution in the modeling of non-thermal emission associated with flares, because it misses potentially important non-hydrodynamic effects.

  6. Steady 3D Numerical Simulation of the Evaporator and Compensation Chamber of a Loop Heat Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nedayvozov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a steady three-dimensional numerical simulation of a flat evaporator and compensation chamber (CC of a loop heat pipe (LHP and describes a procedure of the thermal state calculation of the evaporator and the compensation chamber.The LHP is an efficient heat transfer device operating on the principle of evaporation-condensation cycle. It is successfully used in space technology and also to cool the heat-stressed components of electronic devices and computer equipment. The authors carried out a numerical study of the influence of the condensate pipeline length, immersed in water, on the thermal state of the evaporator and the compensation chamber.  The paper shows the influence of the mass forces field on the calculation results. Presents all the numerical studies carried out by the authors for a brass flat evaporator with a thermal load of 80 W. Water is used as a LHP heat-transfer fluid. Fields of temperature, pressure and velocity are presented for each design option.Based on the calculation results, the authors came to the following conclusions:Influence of the mass forces field for the LHP of this type is significant and leads to arising water vortex flow in the condensate pipeline and CC, thereby mixing and equalizing the water temperature in the CC and in the porous element, reducing the maximum temperature of the porous element;The increasing section length of the condensate pipeline in the CC leads to increasing velocity of the heat-transfer fluid in the CC and in the porous element, decreasing mixing zone of the condensate in the CC, and increasing temperature non-uniformity of the porous element.

  7. Open Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Having a Free-Piston for Wiping Condensed Working Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An open loop heat pipe radiator comprises a radiator tube and a free-piston. The radiator tube has a first end, a second end, and a tube wall, and the tube wall has an inner surface and an outer surface. The free-piston is enclosed within the radiator tube and is capable of movement within the radiator tube between the first and second ends. The free-piston defines a first space between the free-piston, the first end, and the tube wall, and further defines a second space between the free-piston, the second end, and the tube wall. A gaseous-state working fluid, which was evaporated to remove waste heat, alternately enters the first and second spaces, and the free-piston wipes condensed working fluid from the inner surface of the tube wall as the free-piston alternately moves between the first and second ends. The condensed working fluid is then pumped back to the heat source.

  8. Thermo-hydrodynamics of closed loop pulsating heat pipe: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachghare, Pramod R.; Mahalle, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The experimental result on the thermal performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) is presented. The CLPHP is made of copper capillary tubes, having inner and outer diameters of 2.0 mm and 3.6 mm respectively. The working fluids employed are water, ethanol, methanol and acetone also binary mixture (1:1 by volume) of water-ethanol, water-methanol and water-acetone. For all experimentations, filling ratio (FR) 50%, two-turns and vertical bottom heat mode position was maintained. The lengths of evaporator, condenser and adiabatic section are selected as 42 mm, 50 mm and 170 mm, respectively. The transparent adiabatic section is partially made of glass tube having length 80 mm, for flow visualization. The CFD analysis by VOF model in Star CCM+ simulation is carried out to validate the experimental results. The result shows that the thermal resistance decreases smoothly up to 40W heat input, thereafter reasonably steady. In comparison with all working fluids, water-acetone binary working fluid has shown the best thermal performance over other working fluids used in CLPHPs.

  9. Thermo-hydrodynamics of closed loop pulsating heat pipe: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachghare, Pramod R. [Government College of Engineering, Amravati (India); Mahalle, Ashish [Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India)

    2014-08-15

    The experimental result on the thermal performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) is presented. The CLPHP is made of copper capillary tubes, having inner and outer diameters of 2.0 mm and 3.6 mm respectively. The working fluids employed are water, ethanol, methanol and acetone also binary mixture (1:1 by volume) of water-ethanol, water-methanol and water-acetone. For all experimentations, filling ratio (FR) 50%, two-turns and vertical bottom heat mode position was maintained. The lengths of evaporator, condenser and adiabatic section are selected as 42 mm, 50 mm and 170 mm, respectively. The transparent adiabatic section is partially made of glass tube having length 80 mm, for flow visualization. The CFD analysis by VOF model in Star CCM+ simulation is carried out to validate the experimental results. The result shows that the thermal resistance decreases smoothly up to 40W heat input, thereafter reasonably steady. In comparison with all working fluids, water-acetone binary working fluid has shown the best thermal performance over other working fluids used in CLPHPs.

  10. Some factors affecting radiative heat transport in PWR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.N.

    1989-04-01

    This report discusses radiative heat transport in Pressurized Water Reactor cores, using simple models to illustrate basic features of the transport process. Heat transport by conduction and convection is ignored in order to focus attention on the restrictions on radiative heat transport imposed by the geometry of the heat emitting and absorbing structures. The importance of the spacing of the emitting and absorbing structures is emphasised. Steady state temperature distributions are found for models of cores which are uniformly heated by fission product decay. In all of the models, a steady state temperature distribution can only be obtained if the central core temperature is in excess of the melting point of UO 2 . It has recently been reported that the MIMAS computer code, which takes into account radiative heat transport, has been used to model the heat-up of the Three Mile Island-2 reactor core, and the computations indicate that the core could not have reached the melting point of UO 2 at any time or any place. We discuss this result in the light of the calculations presented in this paper. It appears that the predicted stabilisation of the core temperatures at ∼ 2200 0 C may be a consequence of the artificially large spacing between the radial rings employed in the MIMAS code, rather than a result of physical significance. (author)

  11. Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating 2 X 1700 loop antenna for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C.A.; Ferguson, S.W.; Molvik, A.W.; Barter, J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanical design and improvements that have taken place on the loop type ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas that are located in the center cell region of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). A computer code (JASON) was used to design getter-shielded antenna supports that will hold off very high voltages (83 kV, DC) over a small insulator distance (2.25 inches) in a vacuum of 10/sup -5/ Torr. The authors also added corona shields on the ceramic-to-metal joints of the matching network capacitors. The system now operates reliably with peak radio frequency (RF) voltages of 40 kV at 2-to-4- MHz frequency and power levels up to 200 kW. The authors have just installed a new loop antenna in the east part of the central cell where the slot antenna was located. This antenna uses two of the slot's internal coax lines and the external matching network. The feedthroughs designed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were replaced with two high-voltage RF feedthroughs designed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

  12. Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1989-01-01

    In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.

  13. DETERMINING HEATING RATES IN RECONNECTION FORMED FLARE LOOPS OF THE M8.0 FLARE ON 2005 MAY 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenjuan; Qiu Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Caspi, Amir [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We analyze and model an M8.0 flare on 2005 May 13 observed by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to determine the energy release rate from magnetic reconnection that forms and heats numerous flare loops. The flare exhibits two ribbons in UV 1600 A emission. Analysis shows that the UV light curve at each flaring pixel rises impulsively within a few minutes, and decays slowly with a timescale longer than 10 minutes. Since the lower atmosphere (the transition region and chromosphere) responds to energy deposit nearly instantaneously, the rapid UV brightening is thought to reflect the energy release process in the newly formed flare loop rooted at the footpoint. In this paper, we utilize the spatially resolved (down to 1'') UV light curves and the thick-target hard X-ray emission to construct heating functions of a few thousand flare loops anchored at the UV footpoints, and compute plasma evolution in these loops using the enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops model. The modeled coronal temperatures and densities of these flare loops are then used to calculate coronal radiation. The computed soft X-ray spectra and light curves compare favorably with those observed by RHESSI and by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X-ray Sensor. The time-dependent transition region differential emission measure for each loop during its decay phase is also computed with a simplified model and used to calculate the optically thin C IV line emission, which dominates the UV 1600 A bandpass during the flare. The computed C IV line emission decays at the same rate as observed. This study presents a method to constrain heating of reconnection-formed flare loops using all available observables independently, and provides insight into the physics of energy release and plasma heating during the flare. With this method, the lower limit of the total energy used to heat the flare loops in

  14. Output feedback control of heat transport mechanisms in parabolic distributed solar collectors

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2016-08-05

    This paper presents an output feedback control for distributed parabolic solar collectors. The controller aims at forcing the outlet temperature to track a desired reference in order to manage the produced heat despite the external disturbances. The proposed control strategy is derived using the distributed physical model of the system to avoid the loss of information due to model approximation schemes. The system dynamics are driven to follow reference dynamics defined by a transport equation with a constant velocity, which allows to control the transient behavior and the response time of the closed loop. The designed controller depends only on the accessible measured variables which makes it easy for real time implementation and useful for industrial plants. Simulation results show the efficiency of the reference tracking closed loop under different working conditions.

  15. Consequences of nonlinear heat transport laws on expected plasma profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    1987-03-01

    The expected variation of plasma pressure profiles against changes in power deposition is investigated by using a simple linear heat transport law as well as a quadratic one. Applying the quadratic transport law it can be shown that the stiffening of the resulting profiles is sufficient to understand the experimentally measured phenomenon of 'profile consistence' without further assumptions of nonlocal effects. (orig.) [de

  16. Heat and Moisture transport of socks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárková, P.; Glombíková, V.; Havelka, A.

    2017-10-01

    Investigating the liquid moisture transport and thermal properties is essential for understanding physiological comfort of clothes. This study reports on an experimental investigation of moisture management transport and thermal transport on the physiological comfort of commercially available socks. There are subjective evaluation and objective measurements. Subjective evaluation of the physiological comfort of socks is based on individual sensory perception of probands during and after physical exertion. Objective measurements were performed according to standardized methods using Moisture Management tester for measuring the humidity parameters and C-term TCi analyzer for thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity. The obtained values of liquid moisture transport and thermal properties were related to the material composition and structure of the tested socks. In summary, these results show that objective measurement corresponds with probands feelings.

  17. Numerical analysis on a four-stage looped thermoacoustic Stirling power generator for low temperature waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Qiu, Limin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Four-stage looped thermoacoustic power generator for waste heat is studied. • Coupling position is found to have remarkable effects on performance. • Better efficiency is available when coupled near the cold ends of the cores. • The influence of the regenerator position on the efficiency is weak. • Matching between the acoustic impedances of engine and alternator is important. - Abstract: Recent developments in thermoacoustic technologies have demonstrated that multi-stage looped thermoacoustic Stirling engine would be a promising option for harvesting waste heat. Previous studies on multi-stage looped thermoacoustic systems were mainly focused on heat-driven refrigeration or heat pumping, while much fewer work were done on power generations, especially those for recovering low temperature heat. In this work, a four-stage looped thermoacoustic Stirling power generator for generating electricity from low temperature waste heat at 300 °C is systematically studied. A numerical model is built and then validated on an experimental four-stage looped thermoacoustic Stirling engine. On the basis of the validated model, the effects of the coupling position for the linear alternators and the regenerator position on the acoustic characteristics and performances of the power generation system are numerically investigated. The distributions of the acoustic fields along the loop, including the pressure amplitude, volume flow rate, phase angle, specific acoustic impedance and acoustic power, are presented and analysed for three representative coupling modes. Superior efficiency is achieved when the linear alternators are coupled near the cold ends of the thermoacoustic cores on the resonators, while more electric power is generated at the hot ends. The worst performance is expected when the linear alternators are connected at the middle of the resonators. The underling mechanisms are further explained detailedly by analysing the characteristics of the

  18. Multi-Evaporator Miniature Loop Heat Pipe for Small Spacecraft Thermal Control. Part 1; New Technologies and Validation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Douglas, Donya; Hoang, Triem

    2010-01-01

    Under NASA s New Millennium Program Space Technology 8 (ST 8) Project, four experiments Thermal Loop, Dependable Microprocessor, SAILMAST, and UltraFlex - were conducted to advance the maturity of individual technologies from proof of concept to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment , i.e. from a technology readiness level (TRL) of 3 to a level of 6. This paper presents the new technologies and validation approach of the Thermal Loop experiment. The Thermal Loop is an advanced thermal control system consisting of a miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with multiple evaporators and multiple condensers designed for future small system applications requiring low mass, low power, and compactness. The MLHP retains all features of state-of-the-art loop heat pipes (LHPs) and offers additional advantages to enhance the functionality, performance, versatility, and reliability of the system. Details of the thermal loop concept, technical advances, benefits, objectives, level 1 requirements, and performance characteristics are described. Also included in the paper are descriptions of the test articles and mathematical modeling used for the technology validation. An MLHP breadboard was built and tested in the laboratory and thermal vacuum environments for TRL 4 and TRL 5 validations, and an MLHP proto-flight unit was built and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber for the TRL 6 validation. In addition, an analytical model was developed to simulate the steady state and transient behaviors of the MLHP during various validation tests. Capabilities and limitations of the analytical model are also addressed.

  19. High efficiency heat transport and power conversion system for cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Bourque, R.F.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Cascade ICF reactor features a flowing blanket of solid BeO and LiAlO 2 granules with very high temperature capability (up to approx. 2300 K). The authors present here the design of a high temperature granule transport and heat exchange system, and two options for high efficiency power conversion. The centrifugal-throw transport system uses the peripheral speed imparted to the granules by the rotating chamber to effect granule transport and requires no additional equipment. The heat exchanger design is a vacuum heat transfer concept utilizing gravity-induced flow of the granules over ceramic heat exchange surfaces. A reference Brayton power cycle is presented which achieves 55% net efficiency with 1300 K peak helium temperature. A modified Field steam cycle (a hybrid Rankine/Brayton cycle) is presented as an alternate which achieves 56% net efficiency

  20. A generalised correlation for the steady state flow in single-phase natural circulation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Bade, M.H.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2000-08-01

    To establish the heat transport capability of natural circulation loops, it is essential to know the flow rate. A generalized correlation for steady state flow valid for uniform and non-uniform diameter loops has been theoretically derived

  1. Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakkaraju, R.; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Oresta, P.; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to

  2. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  3. Long-distance heat transport by hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munser, H.; Reetz, B.

    1990-01-01

    From the analysis of the centralized heat supply in the GDR energy-economical and ecological indispensable developments of long-distance heat systems in conurbation are derived. The heat extraction from a nuclear power plant combined with long- distance hot-water transport over about 110 kilometres is investigated and presented as a possibility to perspective base load heat demands for the district around Dresden. By help of industrial-economic, hydraulic and thermic evaluations of first design variants of the transit system the acceptance of this ecologic and energetic preferred solution is proved and requirements for its realization are shown

  4. Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipes for the Cooling of Small Particle Detectors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, H; Silva, P; Wu, J; Koettig, T

    2010-01-01

    The loop heat pipe (LHP) is among the most effective heat transfer elements. Its principle is based on a continuous evaporation/condensation process and its passive nature does not require any mechanical devices such as pumps to circulate the cooling agent. Instead a porous wick structure in the evaporator provides the capillary pumping forces to drive the fluid [1]. Cryogenic LHP are investigated as potential candidates for the cooling of future small-scale particle detectors and upgrades of existing ones. A large spectrum of cryogenic temperatures can be covered by choosing appropriate working fluids. For high luminosity upgrades of existing experiments installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) (TOTEM) and planned ones (FP420) [2-3] being in the design phase, radiation-hard solutions are studied with noble gases as working fluids to limit the radiolysis effect on molecules detrimental to the functioning of the LHP. The installation compactness requirement of experiments such as the CAST frame-store CCD d...

  5. An intermediate heat exchanging-depressurizing loop for nuclear hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Soo [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); No, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon; Lee, Jeong Ik [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle should overcome many engineering challenges to commercialize and prove its feasibilities to compete other thermo-chemical cycles. Some critical issues such as structural material, harsh operating condition and high capital costs were considered obstacles to be actualized. Operating SI cycle at low-pressure is one of the solutions to actualize the cycle. The flash operation with over-azeotropic HI at low pressure does not require temperature and pressure as high as those in the existing methods as well as heating for separation. The operation in low pressure reduces corrosion problems and enables us to use flexible selection of structural material. We devised an intermediate heat exchanging-depressurizing loop to eliminate high operating pressure in the hydrogen side as well as a large pressure difference between the reactor side and the hydrogen side. Molten salts are adequate candidates as working fluids under the high-temperature condition with homogeneous phase during pressure changing process. Using molten salts, 2.20-4.65 MW of pumping work is required to change the pressure from 1 bar to 7 MPa. We selected BeF{sub 2}-containing salts as the possible candidates based on preliminary economic and thermal hydraulic consideration.

  6. Performance analysis of waste heat recovery with a dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for diesel engine under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Dong, Xiaorui; Zhang, Hongguang; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Enhua; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Guangyao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual loop ORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a diesel engine. • R245fa is used as working fluid for the dual loop ORC system. • Waste heat characteristic under engine various operating conditions is analyzed. • Performance of the combined system under various operating conditions is studied. • The waste heat from coolant and intake air has considerable potential for recovery. - Abstract: To take full advantage of the waste heat from a diesel engine, a set of dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system is designed to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and released heat from turbocharged air in the intercooler of a six-cylinder diesel engine. The dual loop ORC system consists of a high temperature loop ORC system and a low temperature loop ORC system. R245fa is selected as the working fluid for both loops. Through the engine test, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the performance of the dual loop ORC system for waste heat recovery is discussed based on the analysis of its waste heat characteristics under engine various operating conditions. Subsequently, the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system is presented, and the effective thermal efficiency and the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) are chosen to evaluate the operating performances of the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system. The results show that, the maximum waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE) of the dual loop ORC system can reach 5.4% under engine various operating conditions. At the engine rated condition, the dual loop ORC system achieves the largest net power output at 27.85 kW. Compared with the diesel engine, the thermal efficiency of the combined system can be increased by 13%. When the diesel engine is operating at the high load region, the BSFC can be reduced by a maximum 4%

  7. An experimental study towards the practical application of closed-loop flat-plate pulsating heat pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Gerben; Van Gerner, Henk Jan; Wits, Wessel W.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance of a flat-plate closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is experimentally obtained. The PHP is manufactured by means of CNC-milling and vacuum brazing of a stainless steel 316L bottom plate and lid. Each channel of the PHP has a 2×2 mm2 square cross section. In total 12

  8. Electron thermal energy transport research based on dynamical relationship between heat flux and temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notake, Takashi; Inagaki, Shigeru; Tamura, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    In the nuclear fusion plasmas, both of thermal energy and particle transport governed by turbulent flow are anomalously enhanced more than neoclassical levels. Thus, to clarify a relationship between the turbulent flow and the anomalous transports has been the most worthwhile work. There are experimental results that the turbulent flow induces various phenomena on transport processes such as non-linearity, transition, hysteresis, multi-branches and non-locality. We are approaching these complicated problems by analyzing not conventional power balance but these phenomena directly. They are recognized as dynamical trajectories in the flux and gradient space and must be a clue to comprehend a physical mechanism of arcane anomalous transport. Especially, to elucidate the mechanism for electron thermal energy transport is critical in the fusion plasma researches because the burning plasmas will be sustained by alpha-particle heating. In large helical device, the dynamical relationships between electron thermal energy fluxes and electron temperature gradients are investigated by using modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating and modern electron cyclotron emission diagnostic systems. Some trajectories such as hysteresis loop or line segments with steep slope which represent non-linear property are observed in the experiment. (author)

  9. Passive heat transport in advanced CANDU containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.; Mathew, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    A passive CANDU containment design has been proposed to provide the necessary heat removal following a postulated accident to maintain containment integrity. To study its feasibility and to optimize the design, multi-dimensional containment modelling may be required. This paper presents a comparison of two CFD codes, GOTHIC and PHOENICS, for multi-dimensional containment analysis and gives pressure transient predictions from a lumped-parameter and a three-dimensional GOTHIC model for a modified CANDU-3 containment. GOTHIC proved suitable for multidimensional post-accident containment analysis, as shown by the good agreement with pressure transient predictions from PHOENICS. GOTHIC is, therefore, recommended for passive CANDU containment modelling. (author)

  10. Experimental Study of Single Phase Flow in a Closed-Loop Cooling System with Integrated Mini-Channel Heat Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop cooling system with a mini-channel heat sink for thermal management of electronics is studied experimentally. The heat sink is designed with corrugated fins to improve its heat dissipation capability. The experiments are performed using variable coolant volumetric flow rates and input heating powers. The experimental results show a high and reliable thermal performance using the heat sink with corrugated fins. The heat transfer capability is improved up to 30 W/cm2 when the base temperature is kept at a stable and acceptable level. Besides the heat transfer capability enhancement, the capability of the system to transfer heat for a long distance is also studied and a fast thermal response time to reach steady state is observed once the input heating power or the volume flow rate are varied. Under different input heat source powers and volumetric flow rates, our results suggest potential applications of the designed mini-channel heat sink in cooling microelectronics.

  11. Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Stevens, Richard J A M; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-06-04

    Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much-enhanced natural convection. In this article, we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase Rayleigh-Bénard convection process in a cylindrical cell with a diameter equal to its height. We make no attempt to model other aspects of the boiling process such as bubble nucleation and detachment. The cell base and top are held at temperatures above and below the boiling point of the liquid, respectively. By keeping this difference constant, we study the effect of the liquid superheat in a Rayleigh number range that, in the absence of boiling, would be between 2 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(9). We find a considerable enhancement of the heat transfer and study its dependence on the number of bubbles, the degree of superheat of the hot cell bottom, and the Rayleigh number. The increased buoyancy provided by the bubbles leads to more energetic hot plumes detaching from the cell bottom, and the strength of the circulation in the cell is significantly increased. Our results are in general agreement with recent experiments on boiling Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  12. Generalized heat-transport equations: parabolic and hyperbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogolino, Patrizia; Kovács, Robert; Ván, Peter; Cimmelli, Vito Antonio

    2018-03-01

    We derive two different generalized heat-transport equations: the most general one, of the first order in time and second order in space, encompasses some well-known heat equations and describes the hyperbolic regime in the absence of nonlocal effects. Another, less general, of the second order in time and fourth order in space, is able to describe hyperbolic heat conduction also in the presence of nonlocal effects. We investigate the thermodynamic compatibility of both models by applying some generalizations of the classical Liu and Coleman-Noll procedures. In both cases, constitutive equations for the entropy and for the entropy flux are obtained. For the second model, we consider a heat-transport equation which includes nonlocal terms and study the resulting set of balance laws, proving that the corresponding thermal perturbations propagate with finite speed.

  13. An experimental study of the heat transfer performance of a rectangular two-phase natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.S.; Chen, Y.Y.; Tsai, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study is presented for the heat transfer performance of a rectangular, two-phase, natural-circulation loop with water-steam as the working fluid. Local temperature measurements of the core fluid and the wall were made, and the overall heat transfer coefficients of the evaporator, the condenser, and the loop system were obtained and correlated in terms of the fluid properties, heat flux conditions, and the liquid charge level. An overheat phenomenon at very low charge level was also observed. Result of a preliminary analysis shows that if the liquid charge level is below the fractional volume of the connecting tube between the condenser and the evaporator, an overheat phenomenon will occur

  14. Electron and ion heat transport with lower hybrid current drive and neutral beam injection heating in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeldner, F.X.; Pereverzev, G.V.; Bartiromo, R.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Leuterer, F.; Murmann, H.D.; Staebler, A.; Steuer, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    Transport code calculations were made for experiments with the combined operation of lower hybrid current drive and heating and of neutral beam injection heating on ASDEX. Peaking or flattening of the electron temperature profile are mainly explained by modifications of the MHD induced electron heat transport. They originate from current profile changes due to lower hybrid and neutral beam current drive and to contributions from the bootstrap current. Ion heat transport cannot be described by one single model for all heating scenarios. The ion heat conductivity is reduced during lower hybrid heated phases with respect to Ohmic and neutral beam heating. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  15. The heat and moisture transport properties of wet porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.X.; Fang, Z.H.; Yu, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    Existing methods for determining heat and moisture transport properties in porous media are briefly reviewed, and their merits and deficiencies are discussed. Emphasis is placed on research in developing new transient methods undertaken in China during the recent years. An attempt has been made to relate the coefficients in the heat and mass transfer equations with inherent properties of the liquid and matrix and then to predict these coefficients based on limited measurements

  16. Stable solutions of nonlocal electron heat transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Electron heat transport equations with a nonlocal heat flux are in general ill-posed and intrinsically unstable, as proved by the present authors [Phys. Fluids B 1, 2430 (1989)]. A straightforward numerical solution of these equations will therefore lead to absurd results. It is shown here that by imposing a minimal set of constraints on the problem it is possible to arrive at a globally stable, consistent, and energy conserving numerical solution

  17. Electron heat transport studies using transient phenomena in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacchia, A.; Angioni, C.; Manini, A.; Ryter, F.; Apostoliceanu, M.; Conway, G.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Kirov, K.K.; Leuterer, F.; Reich, M.; Sutttrop, W.; Cirant, S.; Mantica, P.; De Luca, F.; Weiland, J.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments in tokamaks suggest that a critical gradient length may cause the resilient behavior of T e profiles, in the absence of ITBs. This agrees in general with ITG/TEM turbulence physics. Experiments in ASDEX Upgrade using modulation techniques with ECH and/or cold pulses demonstrate the existence of a threshold in R/L Te when T e >T i and T e ≤T i . For T e >T i linear stability analyses indicate that electron heat transport is dominated by TEM modes. They agree in the value of the threshold (both T e and n e ) and for the electron heat transport increase above the threshold. The stabilization of TEM modes by collisions yielded by gyro-kinetic calculations, which suggests a transition from TEM to ITG dominated transport at high collisionality, is experimentally demonstrated by comparing heat pulse and steady-state diffusivities. For the T e ∼T i discharges above the threshold the resilience, normalized by T e 3/2 , is similar to that of the TEM dominated cases, despite very different conditions. The heat pinch predicted by fluid modeling of ITG/TEM turbulence is investigated by perturbative transport in off-axis ECH-heated discharges. (author)

  18. Electron heat transport in stochastic magnetic layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, M.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Capes, H.; Grosman, A.

    1999-06-01

    Progress in the theoretical understanding of the local behaviour of the temperature field in ergodic layer was done in the framework of quasi-linear approach but this quasi-linear theory was not complete since the resonant modes coupling (due to stochasticity) was neglected. The stochastic properties of the magnetic field in the ergodic zone are now taken into account by a non-linear coupling of the temperature modes. The three-dimension heat transfer modelling in the ergodic-divertor configuration is performed by quasi-linear (ERGOT1) and non-linear (ERGOT2) numerical codes. The formalism and theoretical basis of both codes are presented. The most important effect that can be simulated with non-linear code is the averaged temperature profile flattening that occurs in the ergodic zone and the barrier creation that appears near the separatrix during divertor operation. (A.C.)

  19. A study on heat transfer through the fin-wick structure mounted in the evaporator for a plate loop heat pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Hung; Sung, Byung Ho; Choi, Jee Hoon; Kim, Chul Ju; Yoo, Jung Hyung; Seo, Min Whan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the plate loop heat pipe system with an evaporator mounted with fin-wick structure to dissipate effectively the heat generated by the electronic components. The heat transfer formulation is modeled and predicted through thermal resistance analysis of the fin-wick structure in the evaporator. The experimental approach measures the thermal resistances and the operating characteristics. These results gathered in this investigation have been used to the objective of the information to improve the LHP system design so as to apply as the future cooling devices of the electronic components

  20. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance Time in the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter,David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, robert; Zande, Chris Vande

    2012-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR - Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post- Shuttle 6-year service life.

  1. Preliminary decay heat calculations for the fuel loaded irradiation loop device of the RMB multipurpose Brazilian reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campolina, Daniel; Costa, Antonio Carlos L. da; Andrade, Edison P., E-mail: campolina@cdtn.br, E-mail: aclp@cdtn.br, E-mail: epa@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SETRE/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    The structuring project of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is responsible for meeting the capacity to develop and test materials and nuclear fuel for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. An irradiation test device (Loop) capable of performing fuel test for power reactor rods is being conceived for RMB reflector. In this work preliminary neutronic calculations have been carried out in order to determine parameters to the cooling system of the Loop basic design. The heat released as a result of radioactive decay of fuel samples was calculated using ORIGEN-ARP and it resulted less than 200 W after 1 hour of irradiation interruption. (author)

  2. Simulation in transient regime of a heat pump with closed-loop and on-off control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, J.V.C. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; Parise, J.A.R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1995-05-01

    The present work introduces a mathematical model for a heat pump with a variable-speed compressor, driven by a d.c. servomotor, operating either in closed loop by a power law control action or by the traditional on-off basis. The resulting differential and algebraic equations are integrated in time for a specified period of simulation in both designs. The results show that the closed-loop system presents significant savings in energy consumption when compared with the on-off system, under the same environmental conditions. (author)

  3. Magnetic-field asymmetry of nonlinear thermoelectric and heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sun-Yong; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa; Lee, Minchul

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear transport coefficients do not obey, in general, reciprocity relations. We here discuss the magnetic-field asymmetries that arise in thermoelectric and heat transport of mesoscopic systems. Based on a scattering theory of weakly nonlinear transport, we analyze the leading-order symmetry parameters in terms of the screening potential response to either voltage or temperature shifts. We apply our general results to a quantum Hall antidot system. Interestingly, we find that certain symmetry parameters show a dependence on the measurement configuration. (paper)

  4. Transport properties and specific heat of UTe and USb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Shikama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Hotta, E.; Haga, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium monochalcogenides and monopnictides crystallize in the NaCl-type structure and exhibit ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order, respectively. These series reveal interesting properties such as Kondo behavior of UTe. However, such interesting properties are much sample dependent. We grew single crystals of USb and UTe with high purity using the Bridgman technique, and measured transport properties and specific heat. ((orig.))

  5. Ductile fracture behaviour of primary heat transport piping material ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Design of primary heat transport (PHT) piping of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) has to ensure implementation of leak-before-break con- cepts. In order to be able to do so, the ductile fracture characteristics of PHT piping material have to be quantified. In this paper, the fracture resistance of SA333, Grade.

  6. FFTF Heat Transport System (HTS) component and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.W.; Edwards, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The FFTF Heat Transport Systems and Components designs have been completed and successfully tested at isothermal conditions up to 427 0 C (800 0 F). General performance has been as predicted in the design analyses. Operational flexibility and reliability have been outstanding throughout the test program. The components and systems have been demonstrated ready to support reactor powered operation testing planned later in 1980

  7. Surface transport and stable trapping of particles and cells by an optical waveguide loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesø, Olav Gaute; Løvhaugen, Pål; Subramanian, Ananth Z; Wilkinson, James S; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh

    2012-09-21

    Waveguide trapping has emerged as a useful technique for parallel and planar transport of particles and biological cells and can be integrated with lab-on-a-chip applications. However, particles trapped on waveguides are continuously propelled forward along the surface of the waveguide. This limits the practical usability of the waveguide trapping technique with other functions (e.g. analysis, imaging) that require particles to be stationary during diagnosis. In this paper, an optical waveguide loop with an intentional gap at the centre is proposed to hold propelled particles and cells. The waveguide acts as a conveyor belt to transport and deliver the particles/cells towards the gap. At the gap, the diverging light fields hold the particles at a fixed position. The proposed waveguide design is numerically studied and experimentally implemented. The optical forces on the particle at the gap are calculated using the finite element method. Experimentally, the method is used to transport and trap micro-particles and red blood cells at the gap with varying separations. The waveguides are only 180 nm thick and thus could be integrated with other functions on the chip, e.g. microfluidics or optical detection, to make an on-chip system for single cell analysis and to study the interaction between cells.

  8. Latent heat transport and microlayer evaporation in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawurek, H.H.

    1977-08-01

    Part 1 of this work provides a broad overview and, where possible, a quantitative assessment of the complex physical processes which together constitute the mechanism of nucleate boiling heat transfer. It is shown that under a wide range of conditions the primary surface-to-liquid heat flows within an area of bubble influence are so redistributed as to manifest themselves predominantly as latent heat transport, that is, as vaporisation into attached bubbles. Part 2 deals in greater detail with one of the component processes of latent heat transport, namely microlayer evaporation. A literature review reveals the need for synchronised records of microlayer geometry versus time and of normal bubble growth and departure. An apparatus developed to provide such records is described. High-speed cine interference photography from beneath and through a transparent heating surface provided details of microlayer geometry and an image reflection system synchronised these records with the bubble profile views. Results are given for methanol and ethanol boiling at sub-atmospheric pressures and at various heat fluxes and bulk subcoolings. In all cases it is found that microlayers were of sub-micron thickness, that microlayer thinning was restricted to the inner layer edge (with the thickness elsewhere remaining constant or increasing with time) and that the contribution of this visible evaporation to the total vapour flow into bubbles was negligible. The observation of thickening towards the outer microlayer edge, however, demonstrates that a liquid replenishment flow occurred simultaneously with the evaporation process

  9. Effects of design variables predicted by a steady - state thermal performance analysis model of a loop heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Eui Guk; Boo, Joon Hong

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with a mathematical modeling for the steady-state temperature characteristics of an entire loop heat pipe. The lumped layer model was applied to each node for temperature analysis. The flat type evaporator and condenser in the model had planar dimensions of 40 mm (W) x 50 mm (L). The wick material was a sintered metal and the working fluid was methanol. The molecular kinetic theory was employed to model the phase change phenomena in the evaporator and the condenser. Liquid-vapor interface configuration was expressed by the thin film theories available in the literature. Effects of design factors of loop heat pipe on the thermal performance were investigated by the modeling proposed in this study

  10. Perturbative Heat Transport Experiments on TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguilor, S.; Castejon, F.; Luna, E. de la; Cappa, A.; Likin, K.; Fernandez, A.; Tj-II, T.

    2002-01-01

    Heat wave experiments are performed on TJ-II stellarator plasmas to estimate both heat diffusivity and power deposition profiles. High frequency ECRH modulation experiments are used to obtain the power deposition profiles, which is observed to be wider and duller than estimated by tracing techniques. The causes of this difference are discussed in the paper. Fourier analysis techniques are used to estimate the heat diffusivity in low frequency ECRH modulation experiments. This include the power deposition profile as a new ingredient. ECHR switch on/off experiments are exploited to obtain power deposition and heat diffusivities profile. Those quantities are compared with the obtained by modulation experiments and transport analysis, showing a good agreement. (Author) 18 refs

  11. Perturbative Heat Transport Experiments on TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguilor, S.; Castejon, F.; Luna, E. de la; Cappa, A.; Likin, K.; Fernandez, A.; Tj-II, T.

    2002-07-01

    Heat wave experiments are performed on TJ-II stellarator plasmas to estimate both heat diffusivity and power deposition profiles. High frequency ECRH modulation experiments are used to obtain the power deposition profiles, which is observed to be wider and duller than estimated by tracing techniques. The causes of this difference are discussed in the paper. Fourier analysis techniques are used to estimate the heat diffusivity in low frequency ECRH modulation experiments. This include the power deposition profile as a new ingredient. ECHR switch on/off experiments are exploited to obtain power deposition and heat diffusivities profile. Those quantities are compared with the obtained by modulation experiments and transport analysis, showing a good agreement. (Author) 18 refs.

  12. Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Tunçkal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple (Ananascomosus slices were dried with the aid of a heat pump assisted dryer (HPD. During this process, air velocity was kept constant at 1m/s, while air temperatures were changed as 37°C, 40°C and 43°C. The drying air was also circulated by using an axial fan in a closed cycle and fresh air was not allowed into the system. The drying rate and drying time were significantly influenced by drying temperature. It was observed that drying temperatures had significant effects on the drying rate and drying time. During the conduct of the study, pineapple slices were dried at 37, 40 and 43°C for 465, 360 and 290 min, respectively. The specific moisture extraction ratio (SMER values were observed to change as drying temperatures were changed. The drying rate curves indicated that the whole drying process occurred in the falling rate period. Seven well-known thin-layer models (Lewis, Henderson &Pabis, Logarithmic, Page, Midilli & Kucuk, Weibull and Aghbashlo et al. were employed to make a prediction about drying kinetics through nonlinear regression analysis. The Midilli & Kucuk and Aghbashlo et al. models were consistent with the experimental data. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to determine the moisture diffusivity coefficient ranging from 3.78×10–9 to 6.57×10-9  m2/s the each of the above mentioned temperatures. The dependence of effective diffusivity coefficient on temperature was defined by means a fan Arrhenius type equation. The activation energy of moisture diffusion was found to be 75.24kJ/mol.   Article History: Received: July 18th 2017; Received: October 27th 2017; Accepted: January 16th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tunçkal, C., Coşkun, S., Doymaz, I. and Ergun, E. (2018 Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 35-41. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.35-41

  13. Minding one's P's and Q's: From the one loop effective action in quantum field theory to classical transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju; Wirstam, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The one loop effective action in quantum field theory can be expressed as a quantum mechanical path integral over world lines, with internal symmetries represented by Grassmanian variables. In this paper, we develop a real time, many body, world line formalism for the one loop effective action. In particular, we study hot QCD and obtain the classical transport equations which, as Litim and Manuel have shown, reduce in the appropriate limit to the non-Abelian Boltzmann-Langevin equation first obtained by Boedeker. In the Vlasov limit, the classical kinetic equations are those that correspond to the hard thermal loop effective action. We also discuss the imaginary time world line formalism for a hot φ 4 theory, and elucidate its relation to classical transport theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. A simple Boltzmann transport equation for ballistic to diffusive transient heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, Jesse; Lundstrom, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Developing simplified, but accurate, theoretical approaches to treat heat transport on all length and time scales is needed to further enable scientific insight and technology innovation. Using a simplified form of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), originally developed for electron transport, we demonstrate how ballistic phonon effects and finite-velocity propagation are easily and naturally captured. We show how this approach compares well to the phonon BTE, and readily handles a full phonon dispersion and energy-dependent mean-free-path. This study of transient heat transport shows (i) how fundamental temperature jumps at the contacts depend simply on the ballistic thermal resistance, (ii) that phonon transport at early times approach the ballistic limit in samples of any length, and (iii) perceived reductions in heat conduction, when ballistic effects are present, originate from reductions in temperature gradient. Importantly, this framework can be recast exactly as the Cattaneo and hyperbolic heat equations, and we discuss how the key to capturing ballistic heat effects is to use the correct physical boundary conditions

  15. Electron heat transport in shaped TCV L-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenen, Y; Pochelon, A; Bottino, A; Coda, S; Ryter, F; Sauter, O; Behn, R; Goodman, T P; Henderson, M A; Karpushov, A; Porte, L; Zhuang, G

    2005-01-01

    Electron heat transport experiments are performed in L-mode discharges at various plasma triangularities, using radially localized electron cyclotron heating to vary independently both the electron temperature T e and the normalized electron temperature gradient R/L T e over a large range. Local gyro-fluid (GLF23) and global collisionless gyro-kinetic (LORB5) linear simulations show that, in the present experiments, trapped electron mode (TEM) is the most unstable mode. Experimentally, the electron heat diffusivity χ e is shown to decrease with increasing collisionality, and no dependence of χ e on R/L T e is observed at high R/L T e values. These two observations are consistent with the predictions of TEM simulations, which supports the fact that TEM plays a crucial role in electron heat transport. In addition, over the broad range of positive and negative triangularities investigated, the electron heat diffusivity is observed to decrease with decreasing plasma triangularity, leading to a strong increase of plasma confinement at negative triangularity

  16. Mobile heat accumulators for lorry or train transport?; Mobile Waermespeicher fuer den LKW- oder Zugtransport?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, Philipp

    2013-07-01

    Where heat grids cannot be laid for geographic reasons, mobile heat accumulators may be appropriate. The mobile heat accumulators are transported by lorry or train between the heat source and the heat sink. The waste heat can be decoupled from biogas plants, waste incineration plants or industrial sites. Existing road or rail networks can be used for transportation. Decisive factors to achieve low heat production costs are: free waste heat, large and continuous heat quantities as well as a short distance between the heat source and the heat sink. (orig.)

  17. Studies of heat transport to forced-flow He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Kashani, A.; Van Sciver, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of heat transport to forced-flow He II are reported. The work is pertinent to the transfer of He II in space. An analytical model has been developed that establishes a condition for two-phase flow to occur in the transfer line. This condition sets an allowable limit to the heat leak into the transfer line. Experimental measurements of pressure drop and flow meter performances indicate that turbulent He II can be analyzed in terms of classical pressure drop correlations

  18. Local and Nonlocal Parallel Heat Transport in General Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L.

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for the study of parallel transport in magnetized plasmas is presented. The method avoids numerical pollution issues of grid-based formulations and applies to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields with local or nonlocal parallel closures. In weakly chaotic fields, the method gives the fractal structure of the devil's staircase radial temperature profile. In fully chaotic fields, the temperature exhibits self-similar spatiotemporal evolution with a stretched-exponential scaling function for local closures and an algebraically decaying one for nonlocal closures. It is shown that, for both closures, the effective radial heat transport is incompatible with the quasilinear diffusion model.

  19. Heat Transport in Gapped Spin-Chain Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimshoni, E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text: We study the contribution of magnetic excitations to the heat transport in gapped spin-chain systems. These systems are characterized by a substantially enhanced heat conductivity, which can be traced back to the existence of weakly violated conservation laws. We focus particularly on the behavior of clean two-leg spin ladder compounds, where one-dimensional exotic spin excitations are coupled to three-dimensional phonons. We show that the contributions of the two types of heat carriers can not be easily disentangled. Depending on the ratios of spin gaps and the Debye energy, the heat conductivity can be either exponentially increasing or exponentially decreasing as a function of temperature (T). In addition, the magnetic contribution to the total heat conductivity may be either positive or negative. We discuss its T-dependence in various possible regimes, and note that in most regimes it is dominated by spin-phonon drag: the two types of heat carriers have almost the

  20. Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for Robust High Heat Flux Cooling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a hybrid cooling loop and cold plate technology for space systems thermal management. The proposed...

  1. Experimental and numerical thermohydraulic study of a supercritical helium loop in forced convection under pulsed heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagier, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Future fusion reactor devices such as ITER or JT-60SA will produce thermonuclear fusion reaction in plasmas at several millions of degrees. The confinement in the center of the chamber is achieved by very intense magnetic fields generated by superconducting magnets. These coils have to be cooled down to 4.4 K through a forced flow of supercritical helium. The cyclic behavior of the machines leads to pulsed thermal heat loads which will have to be handled by the refrigerator. The HELIOS experiment built in CEA Grenoble is a scaled down model of the helium distribution system of the tokamak JT-60SA composed of a saturated helium bath and a supercritical helium loop. The thesis work explores HELIOS capabilities for experimental and numerical investigations on three heat load smoothing strategies: the use of the saturated helium bath as an open thermal buffer, the rotation speed variation of the cold circulator and the bypassing of the heated section. The developed model describes well the physical evolutions of the helium loop (pressure, temperature, mass flow) submitted to heat loads observed during experiments. Advanced controls have been tested and validated to improve the stability of the refrigerator and to optimize the refrigeration power. (author) [fr

  2. Heat transfer modelling in the vertical tubes of a natural circulation passive containment loop with noncondensable gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Tachenko, I.; Sancho, J.; Escriva, A.; Verdu, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the key safety systems of the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) of General Electric is the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). This system is designed to behave as a heat sink without need of operator actions in case of a reactor accident. Such a function relies on setting up a natural circulation loop between drywell and wetwell. Along this loop heat is removed by condensing the steam coming from the drywell onto the inner surface of externally cooled vertical tubes. Therefore, a successful design of the condenser requires a good knowledge of the local heat transmission coefficients. In this paper a model of steam condensation into vertical tubes is presented. Based on a modified diffusion boundary layer approach for noncondensables, this model accounts for the effect of shear stress caused by the cocurrent steam-gas mixture on the liquid film thickness. An approximate method to calculate film thickness, avoiding iterative algorithms, has been proposed. At present, this model has been implemented in HTCPIPE code and its results are being checked in terms of local heat transfer coefficients against the experimental data available. A good agreement between measurements and predictions is being observed for tests at atmospheric pressure. Further development and validation of the model is needed to consider aspects such as mist formation, wavy flow and high pressure. (author)

  3. Heating and transport in TFTR D-T plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Scott, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The confinement and heating of supershot plasmas are significantly enhanced with tritium beam injection relative to deuterium injection in TFTR. The global energy confinement and local thermal transport are analyzed for deuterium and tritium fueled plasmas to quantify their dependence on the average mass of the hydrogenic ions. The radial profiles of the deuterium and tritium densities are determined from the DT fusion neutron emission profile

  4. Design to nullify activity movement in heat transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.; Barber, D.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which designers can reduce the adverse effects of system corrosion and the resultant activation of the corrosion products in heat transport systems. The presentation will cover: a) choice of materials; b) assessment of the need of components; c) control of system chemistry; d) factors considered in sizing HTS purification systems; i) control of activation and fission products; ii) decontamination. (author)

  5. Activity build-up on the circulation loops of boiling water reactors: Basics for modelling of transport and deposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covelli, B.; Alder, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    In the past 20 years the radiation field of nuclear power plant loops outside the core zone was the object of investigations in many countries. In this context test loops were built and basic research done. At our Institute PSI the installation of a LWR-contamination loop is planned for this year. This experimental loop has the purpose to investigate the complex phenomena of activity deposition from the primary fluid of reactor plants and to formulate analytical models. From the literature the following conclusions can be drawn: The principal correlations of the activity build-up outside the core are known. The plant specific single phenomena as corrosion, crud-transport, activation and deposit of cobalt in the oxide layer are complex and only partially understood. The operational experience of particular plants with low contaminated loops (BWR-recirculation loops) show that in principle the problem is manageable. The reduction of the activity build-up in older plants necessitates a combination of measures to modify the crud balance in the primary circuit. In parallel to the experimental work several simulation models in the form of computer programs were developed. These models have the common feature that they are based on mass balances, in which the exchange of materials and the sedimentation processes are described by global empirical transport coefficients. These models yield satisfactory results and allow parameter studies; the application however is restricted to the particular installation. All programs lack models that describe the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms on the surface of deposition layers. Analytical investigations on fouling of process equipment led to models that are also applicable to the activity build-up in reactor loops. Therefore it seems appropriate to combine the nuclear simulation models with the fundamental equations for deposition. 10 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Thermophysical and heat transfer properties of phase change material candidate for waste heat transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizawa, Akihide; Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Atsushi; Kamano, Hiroomi; Jozuka, Tetsuji; Senda, Takeshi; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2008-05-01

    A waste heat transportation system trans-heat (TH) system is quite attractive that uses the latent heat of a phase change material (PCM). The purpose of this paper is to study the thermophysical properties of various sugars and sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) as PCMs for a practical TH system and the heat transfer property between PCM selected and heat transfer oil, by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a heat storage tube. As a result, erythritol, with a large latent heat of 344 kJ/kg at melting point of 117°C, high decomposition point of 160°C and excellent chemical stability under repeated phase change cycles was found to be the best PCM among them for the practical TH system. In the heat release experiments between liquid erythritol and flowing cold oil, we observed foaming phenomena of encapsulated oil, in which oil droplet was coated by solidification of PCM.

  7. Heat transport modelling in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2009-02-01

    A model to estimate the heat transport in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch (RFP) is described. The model, based on experimental and theoretical results, divides the RFP electron heat diffusivity χe into three regions, one in the plasma core, where χe is assumed to be determined by the tearing modes, one located around the reversal radius, where χe is assumed not dependent on the magnetic fluctuations and one in the extreme edge, where high χe is assumed. The absolute values of the core and of the reversal χe are determined by simulating the electron temperature and the soft x-ray and by comparing the simulated signals with the experimental ones. The model is used to estimate the heat diffusivity and the energy confinement time during the flat top of standard plasmas, of deep F plasmas and of plasmas obtained with the intelligent shell.

  8. Climate in the Absence of Ocean Heat Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B. E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The energy transported by the oceans to mid- and high latitudes is small compared to the atmosphere, yet exerts an outsized influence on the climate. A key reason is the strong interaction between ocean heat transport (OHT) and sea ice extent. I quantify this by comparing a realistic control climate simulation with a slab ocean simulation in which OHT is disabled. Using the state-of-the-art CESM with a realistic present-day continental configuration, I show that the absence of OHT leads to a 23 K global cooling and massive expansion of sea ice to near 30º latitude in both hemisphere. The ice expansion is asymmetric, with greatest extent in the South Pacific and South Indian ocean basins. I discuss implications of this enormous and asymmetric climate change for atmospheric circulation, heat transport, and tropical precipitation. Parameter sensitivity studies show that the simulated climate is far more sensitive to small changes in ice surface albedo in the absence of OHT, with some perturbations sufficient to cause a runaway Snowball Earth glaciation. I conclude that the oceans are responsible for an enormous global warming by mitigating an otherwise very potent sea ice albedo feedback, but that the magnitude of this effect is still rather uncertain. I will also present some ideas on adapting the simple energy balance model to account for the enhanced sensitivity of sea ice to heating from the ocean.

  9. Turbulent transport regimes and the SOL heat flux width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks, and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. Simulation and theory results using reduced edge/SOL turbulence models have produced SOL widths and scalings in reasonable accord with experiments in many cases. In this work, we attempt to qualitatively and conceptually understand various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport in establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. Recent SOLT turbulence code results are employed to understand the roles of these considerations and to develop analytical scalings. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with older results reviewed in. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the heuristic drift mechanism is considered, together with implications for future experiments. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  10. Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, T.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended

  11. Comparison of temperature estimates from heat transport model and electrical resistivity tomography during a shallow heat injection and storage experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Thomas; Daoudi, Moubarak; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Robert, Tanguy; Caterina, David; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater resources are increasingly used around the world as geothermal systems. Understanding physical processes and quantification of parameters determining heat transport in porous media is therefore important. Geophysical methods may be useful in order to yield additional information with greater coverage than conventional wells. We report a heat transport study during a shallow heat injection and storage field test. Heated water (about 50°C) was injected for 6 days at the rate of 80 l...

  12. Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with spatially heterogeneous, temperature-dependent perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gregory T

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of bioheat transfer problems requires the evaluation of temporal and spatial distributions of temperature. This class of problems has been traditionally addressed using the Pennes bioheat equation. Transport of heat by conduction, and by temperature-dependent, spatially heterogeneous blood perfusion is modeled here using a transport lattice approach. Methods We represent heat transport processes by using a lattice that represents the Pennes bioheat equation in perfused tissues, and diffusion in nonperfused regions. The three layer skin model has a nonperfused viable epidermis, and deeper regions of dermis and subcutaneous tissue with perfusion that is constant or temperature-dependent. Two cases are considered: (1 surface contact heating and (2 spatially distributed heating. The model is relevant to the prediction of the transient and steady state temperature rise for different methods of power deposition within the skin. Accumulated thermal damage is estimated by using an Arrhenius type rate equation at locations where viable tissue temperature exceeds 42°C. Prediction of spatial temperature distributions is also illustrated with a two-dimensional model of skin created from a histological image. Results The transport lattice approach was validated by comparison with an analytical solution for a slab with homogeneous thermal properties and spatially distributed uniform sink held at constant temperatures at the ends. For typical transcutaneous blood gas sensing conditions the estimated damage is small, even with prolonged skin contact to a 45°C surface. Spatial heterogeneity in skin thermal properties leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution during a 10 GHz electromagnetic field exposure. A realistic two-dimensional model of the skin shows that tissue heterogeneity does not lead to a significant local temperature increase when heated by a hot wire tip. Conclusions The heat transport system model of the

  13. An experimental study on the performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with methanol as a working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Nourin, Farah Nazifa; Salsabil, Zaimaa; Yasmin, Nusrat; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Thermal control is an important topic for thermal management of small electrical and electronic devices. Closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) arises as the best solution for thermal control. The aim of this experimental study is to search a CLPHP of better thermal performance for cooling different electrical and electronic devices. In this experiment, methanol is used as working fluid. The effect of using methanol as a working fluid is studied on thermal performance in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. A copper capillary tube is used where the inner diameter is 2 mm,outer diameter is 2.5 mm and 250 mm long. The CLPHP has 8 loops where the evaporation section is 50 mm, adiabatic section is 120 mm and condensation section is 80 mm. The experiment is done using FR of 40%-70% with 10% of interval and angles of inclination 0° (vertical), 30°, 45°, 60° varying heat input. The results are compared on the basis of evaporator temperature, condenser temperature and their differences, thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, power input and pulsating time. The results demonstrate the effect of methanol in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. M ethanol shows better performance at 30° inclination with 40% FR.

  14. An experimental study on the performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with methanol as a working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Nourin, Farah Nazifa, E-mail: farahnazifanourin@gmail.com; Salsabil, Zaimaa; Yasmin, Nusrat, E-mail: nusratyasmin015@gmail.com [Military Institute of Science and Technology, Mirpur Cantonment, Dhaka -1216 (Bangladesh); Ali, Mohammad [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka -1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Thermal control is an important topic for thermal management of small electrical and electronic devices. Closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) arises as the best solution for thermal control. The aim of this experimental study is to search a CLPHP of better thermal performance for cooling different electrical and electronic devices. In this experiment, methanol is used as working fluid. The effect of using methanol as a working fluid is studied on thermal performance in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. A copper capillary tube is used where the inner diameter is 2 mm,outer diameter is 2.5 mm and 250 mm long. The CLPHP has 8 loops where the evaporation section is 50 mm, adiabatic section is 120 mm and condensation section is 80 mm. The experiment is done using FR of 40%-70% with 10% of interval and angles of inclination 0° (vertical), 30°, 45°, 60° varying heat input. The results are compared on the basis of evaporator temperature, condenser temperature and their differences, thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, power input and pulsating time. The results demonstrate the effect of methanol in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. M ethanol shows better performance at 30° inclination with 40% FR.

  15. An experimental study on the performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with methanol as a working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Nourin, Farah Nazifa; Salsabil, Zaimaa; Yasmin, Nusrat; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Thermal control is an important topic for thermal management of small electrical and electronic devices. Closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) arises as the best solution for thermal control. The aim of this experimental study is to search a CLPHP of better thermal performance for cooling different electrical and electronic devices. In this experiment, methanol is used as working fluid. The effect of using methanol as a working fluid is studied on thermal performance in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. A copper capillary tube is used where the inner diameter is 2mm,outer diameter is 2.5mm and 250mm long. The CLPHP has 8 loops where the evaporation section is 50mm, adiabatic section is 120mm and condensation section is 80mm. The experiment is done using FR of 40%-70% with 10% of interval and angles of inclination 0° (vertical), 30°, 45°, 60° varying heat input. The results are compared on the basis of evaporator temperature, condenser temperature and their differences, thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, power input and pulsating time. The results demonstrate the effect of methanol in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. M ethanol shows better performance at 30° inclination with 40% FR.

  16. Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2010-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

  17. In the Loop : A look at Manitoba's geothermal heat pump industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    This booklet outlines the position of Manitoba's heat pump market with the objective of promoting the widespread use of geothermal heat pumps in the province. It makes reference to the size of the market, customer satisfaction with heat pumps, and opinion of key players in the industry regarding the heat pump market. The information in this booklet is drawn on market research and lessons learned in Europe and the United States. In October 2001, a group of key stakeholders in Manitoba's heat pump market attended an industry working meeting to address the issues of market barriers, market enablers and market hot buttons. Market barriers include the high cost of geothermal heat pumps, lack of consumer awareness, lack of consistent standards, and public perception that heat pumps are not reliable. Market enablers include the low and stable operating costs of geothermal heat pumps, high level of comfort, high quality and reliability of geothermal heat pumps, and financial incentives under Manitoba Hydro's Power Smart Commercial Construction Program. Market hot buttons include lowering the cost of geothermal heat pumps, improving industry performance, increasing consumer awareness, and forming a Manitoba Geothermal Trade Association. Approximately 2,500 heat pump systems have been installed in Manitoba. In 2001, heat pump sales in Manitoba grew 40 per cent. 1 tab., 6 figs

  18. Three dimensional heat transport modeling in Vossoroca reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcie Polli, Bruna; Yoshioka Bernardo, Julio Werner; Hilgert, Stephan; Bleninger, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater reservoirs are used for many purposes as hydropower generation, water supply and irrigation. In Brazil, according to the National Energy Balance of 2013, hydropower energy corresponds to 70.1% of the Brazilian demand. Superficial waters (which include rivers, lakes and reservoirs) are the most used source for drinking water supply - 56% of the municipalities use superficial waters as a source of water. The last two years have shown that the Brazilian water and electricity supply is highly vulnerable and that improved management is urgently needed. The construction of reservoirs affects physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water body, e.g. stratification, temperature, residence time and turbulence reduction. Some water quality issues related to reservoirs are eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere and dissolved oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion. The understanding of the physical processes in the water body is fundamental to reservoir management. Lakes and reservoirs may present a seasonal behavior and stratify due to hydrological and meteorological conditions, and especially its vertical distribution may be related to water quality. Stratification can control heat and dissolved substances transport. It has been also reported the importance of horizontal temperature gradients, e.g. inflows and its density and processes of mass transfer from shallow to deeper regions of the reservoir, that also may impact water quality. Three dimensional modeling of the heat transport in lakes and reservoirs is an important tool to the understanding and management of these systems. It is possible to estimate periods of large vertical temperature gradients, inhibiting vertical transport and horizontal gradients, which could be responsible for horizontal transport of heat and substances (e.g. differential cooling or inflows). Vossoroca reservoir was constructed in 1949 by the impoundment of São João River and is located near to

  19. Thermal performance and heat transport in aquifer thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, W. T.; Doornenbal, P. J.; Drijver, B. C.; van Gaans, P. F. M.; Leusbrock, I.; Grotenhuis, J. T. C.; Rijnaarts, H. H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is used for seasonal storage of large quantities of thermal energy. Due to the increasing demand for sustainable energy, the number of ATES systems has increased rapidly, which has raised questions on the effect of ATES systems on their surroundings as well as their thermal performance. Furthermore, the increasing density of systems generates concern regarding thermal interference between the wells of one system and between neighboring systems. An assessment is made of (1) the thermal storage performance, and (2) the heat transport around the wells of an existing ATES system in the Netherlands. Reconstruction of flow rates and injection and extraction temperatures from hourly logs of operational data from 2005 to 2012 show that the average thermal recovery is 82 % for cold storage and 68 % for heat storage. Subsurface heat transport is monitored using distributed temperature sensing. Although the measurements reveal unequal distribution of flow rate over different parts of the well screen and preferential flow due to aquifer heterogeneity, sufficient well spacing has avoided thermal interference. However, oversizing of well spacing may limit the number of systems that can be realized in an area and lower the potential of ATES.

  20. Dynamic analysis of the dual-loop Organic Rankine Cycle for waste heat recovery of a natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuan; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Liu, Peng; Jing, Dongzhan; Li, Xiaoya

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of DORC under five typical engine working conditions is analyzed. • The control object of superheat degree in LT ORC can be much lower than that in HT ORC. • The DORC has excellent working condition adaptability. • Enlarging the HT cooling water mass flux can enhance the DORC power, but not obviously. - Abstract: Natural gas internal combustion engines for electric generating are important primary movers in distributed energy systems. However, more than half of the energy is wasted by exhaust, jacket water and so on. Therefore, it is very meaningful to recover the waste heat, especially the exhaust heat. The DORC (Double loop ORC) is regarded as a suitable way to recover exhaust heat and it can produce electric required by users all the year around. As the waste heat recovery system of the engine, it often works under different working conditions owing to the varying energy demand of users. However, there is few study on the part-load performance of the DORC under different working conditions. Consequently, the dynamic math model of the DORC for waste heat recovery of a natural gas engine with 1000 kW rated power is established by Simulink in this work. With the PID control of the system, the static performance and dynamic behavior of the DORC under five typical engine working conditions are simulated and analyzed. Besides, the effects of the mass flow rate of the HT (high temperature) cooling water which is the connection between the two loops on the DORC performance are researched as well. The results illustrate that the DORC can improve the efficiency of the combined system quite well from 100% to 60% engine working condition, showing good working condition adaptability. Besides, enlarging the mass flow rate of the HT cooling water can enhance the output power of the DORC system, but not very obviously.

  1. Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), {chi}{sub ||} , and the perpendicular, {chi}{sub Up-Tack }, conductivities ({chi}{sub ||} /{chi}{sub Up-Tack} may exceed 10{sup 10} in fusion plasmas); (ii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality; and (iii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green's function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geometry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island), weakly chaotic (Devil's staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local parallel closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.

  2. A solar combi-system based on a heat exchanger between the collector loop and space-heating loop (IEA task 26 generic system 2). A report of IEA SHC - task 26 solar combisystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellehauge, K.

    2002-12-01

    The most common Danish solar combi-system is theoretically investigated in the report. The principle in the system is that in a normal solar hot water system a heat exchanger is added to deliver solar energy from the collector loop directly to the space heating loop. In this way solar energy for space heating is not stored which is expected to decrease the performance. On the other hand the system is relatively inexpensive, which can compensate for a reduced performance. A TRNSYS model of the system is developed and sensitivity analyses of parameters are performed by simulation. The analyses show no major improvements of the system. Special emphasis has been put on investigating the control strategy and to investigate if the thermal mass of radiators of floor could act as buffer for the solar energy delivered to space heating and in this way improve the performance. The analyses show that this is possible and has advantages at larger collector areas. However the improvements are not as large as expected. An economic optimisation gives and optimum solar collector area of approximately 10 m 2 . However the optimum curve is quite flat for areas above 7 m 2 , and collector areas up to 15 m 2 are also feasible. The calculated performacnes have been the basis for comparisons with the other systems modelled in the task 26. The comparison shows that the performance is not among the best, but however probably not as bad as expected. Furthermore the inexpensive design compensates to some extent for the lower performance. Furthermore the material use of the system and the energy used to produce the materials has been estimated. The energy demand is in a range that gives energy pay back times of 1.9-2.5 years. (au)

  3. Intracellular loop 5 is important for the transport mechanism and molecular pharmacology of the human serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Saida; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) belongs to a family of transport proteins called the neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. The specialized members of this family transport different neurotransmitters across the cell membrane, thereby regulating signaling between neurons. Most of these transporters...

  4. Study on a neon cryogenic oscillating heat pipe with long heat transport distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Li, Yi; Wang, Qiuliang

    2017-12-01

    An experimental study is carried out to study the heat transfer characteristics of a cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (OHP) with long heat transport distance. The OHP is made up of a capillary tube with an inner diameter of 1.0 mm and an outer diameter of 2.0 mm. The working fluid is neon, and the length of the adiabatic section is 480 mm. Tests are performed with the different heat inputs, liquid filling ratios and condenser temperature. For the cryogenic OHP with a liquid filling ratio of 30.7% at the condenser temperature of 28 K, the effective thermal conductivity is 3466-30,854 W/m K, and the maximum transfer power is 35.60 W. With the increment of the heat input, the effective thermal conductivity of the cryogenic OHP increases at the liquid filling ratios of 30.7% and 38.5%, while it first increases and then decreases at the liquid filling ratios of 15.2% and 23.3%. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity increases with decreasing liquid filling ratio at the small heat input, and the maximum transfer power first increases and then decreases with increasing liquid filling ratio. Finally, it is found that the thermal performance of the cryogenic OHP can be improved by increasing the condenser temperature.

  5. Electron heat transport analysis of low-collisionality plasmas in the neoclassical-transport-optimized configuration of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Wakasa, Arimitsu

    2002-01-01

    Electron heat transport in low-collisionality LHD plasma is investigated in order to study the neoclassical transport optimization effect on thermal plasma transport with an optimization level typical of so-called ''advanced stellarators''. In the central region, a higher electron temperature is obtained in the optimized configuration, and transport analysis suggests the considerable effect of neoclassical transport on the electron heat transport assuming the ion-root level of radial electric field. The obtained experimental results support future reactor design in which the neoclassical and/or anomalous transports are reduced by magnetic field optimization in a non-axisymmetric configuration. (author)

  6. Heat transport inventory monitoring for CANDU-PHW reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.; Luxat, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A computer-based D 2 O coolant inventory monitoring system proposed for implementation on the digital computer controllers at Ontario Hydro's CANDU generating units is discussed. By monitoring process parameters and utilizing probabilistically-based decision algorithms, timely indication of any significant loss of D 2 O inventory will be provided to the operator. The monitoring is performed in a co-ordinated manner such that D 2 O losses from either the heat transport system or the inventory control system can be detected. (orig.)

  7. A simulation of heat transfer during billet transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaklic, A.; Glogovac, B. [Institute of Metals and Technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kolenko, T. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Natural Science and Technology; Zupancic, B. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Zak, B. T. [Terming d.o.o., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a simulation model for billet cooling during the billet's transport from the reheating furnace to the rolling mill. During the transport, the billet is exposed to radiation, convection and conduction. Due to the rectangular shape of the billet, the three-dimensional finite-difference model could be applied to calculate the heat conduction inside the billet. The billets are reheated in a gas-fired walking-beam furnace and are exposed to scaling. The model takes into account the effect of the thin oxide scale. We proved that the scale significantly affects the temperature distribution in the billet and should not be neglected. The model was verified by using a thermal camera. (author)

  8. Influence of working fluids on startup mechanism and thermal performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Vipul M.; Gaurav; Mehta, Hemantkumar B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Startup mechanism and thermal performance of a CLPHP is reported. • Influence of pure fluids, water-based binary fluids and surfactant solutions are investigated. • Startup heat flux is observed lower for acetone and higher for water compared to all other working fluids. • Thermal resistance is observed to decrease with increase in heat input irrespective of working fluids. • CLPHP is observed to perform better with acetone, water-acetone, water-45 PPM and water-60 PPM surfactant solutions. - Abstract: Development of efficient cooling system is a tricky and challenging task in the field of electronics. Pulsating heat pipe has a great prospect in the upcoming days for an effective cooling solution due to its excellent heat transfer characteristics. Experimental investigations are reported on a Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP). The influence of working fluids on startup mechanism and thermal performance of a CLPHP are carried out on 2 mm, nine turn copper capillary. Total eleven (11) working fluids are prepared and investigated. Deionized (DI) Water (H_2O), ethanol (C_2H_6O), methanol (CH_3OH) and acetone (C_3H_6O) are used as pure fluids. The water-based mixture (1:1) of acetone, methanol and ethanol are used as binary fluids. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS, NaC_1_2H_2_5SO_4) is used as a surfactant to prepare the water-based surfactant solutions of 30 PPM, 45 PPM, 60 PPM and 100 PPM. The filling ratio is kept as 50%. The vertical bottom heating position of a CLPHP is considered. Heat input is varied in the range of 10–110 W. Significant influence is observed for water-based binary fluids and surfactant solutions on startup mechanism and thermal performance of a CLPHP compared to DI water used as the pure working fluid.

  9. Formation of Large-scale Coronal Loops Interconnecting Two Active Regions through Gradual Magnetic Reconnection and an Associated Heating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guohui; Chen, Yao; Zhu, Chunming; Liu, Chang; Ge, Lili; Wang, Bing; Li, Chuanyang; Wang, Haimin

    2018-06-01

    Coronal loops interconnecting two active regions (ARs), called interconnecting loops (ILs), are prominent large-scale structures in the solar atmosphere. They carry a significant amount of magnetic flux and therefore are considered to be an important element of the solar dynamo process. Earlier observations showed that eruptions of ILs are an important source of CMEs. It is generally believed that ILs are formed through magnetic reconnection in the high corona (>150″–200″), and several scenarios have been proposed to explain their brightening in soft X-rays (SXRs). However, the detailed IL formation process has not been fully explored, and the associated energy release in the corona still remains unresolved. Here, we report the complete formation process of a set of ILs connecting two nearby ARs, with successive observations by STEREO-A on the far side of the Sun and by SDO and Hinode on the Earth side. We conclude that ILs are formed by gradual reconnection high in the corona, in line with earlier postulations. In addition, we show evidence that ILs brighten in SXRs and EUVs through heating at or close to the reconnection site in the corona (i.e., through the direct heating process of reconnection), a process that has been largely overlooked in earlier studies of ILs.

  10. Impact of mixing chemically heterogeneous groundwaters on the sustainability of an open-loop groundwater heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burté, L.; Farasin, J.; Cravotta, C., III; Gerard, M. F.; Cotiche Baranger, C.; Aquilina, L.; Le Borgne, T.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal systems using shallow aquifers are commonly used for heating and cooling. The sustainability of these systems can be severely impacted by the occurrence of clogging process. The geothermal loop operation (including pumping of groundwater, filtering and heat extraction through exchangers and cooled water injection) can lead to an unexpected biogeochemical reactivity and scaling formation that can ultimately lead to the shutdown of the geothermal doublet. Here, we report the results of investigations carried out on a shallow geothermal doublet (dynamic). Hydrochemical data collected at the pumping well showed that groundwater was chemically heterogeneous long the 11 meters well screen. While the aquifer was dominantly oxic, a localized inflow of anoxic water was detected and evaluated to produce about 40% of the total flow . The mixture of chemically heterogeneous water induced by pumping lead to the oxidation of reductive species and thus to the formation of biogenic precipitates responsible for clogging. The impact of pumping waters of different redox potential and chemical characteristics was quantified by numerical modeling using PHREEQC. These results shows that natural chemical heterogeneity can occur at a small scale in heterogeneous aquifers and highlight the importance of their characterization during the production well testing and the geothermal loop operation in order to take preventive measures to avoid clogging.

  11. Modelling of Temperature Profiles and Transport Scaling in Auxiliary Heated Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callen, J.D.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    time , the heating effectiveness η, and the energy offset W(0). Considering both the temperature profile responses and the global transport scaling, the constant heat pinch or excess temperature gradient model is found to best characterize the present JET data. Finally, new methods are proposed......The temperature profiles produced by various heating profiles are calculated from local heat transport models. The models take the heat flux to be the sum of heat diffusion and a non-diffusive heat flow, consistent with local measurements of heat transport. Two models are developed analytically...... in detail: (i) a heat pinch or excess temperature gradient model with constant coefficients; and (ii) a non-linear heat diffusion coefficient (χ) model. Both models predict weak (lesssim20%) temperature profile responses to physically relevant changes in the heat deposition profile – primarily because...

  12. Heat Transport in Graphene Ferromagnet-Insulator-Superconductor Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We study heat transport in a graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconducting junction. It is found that the thermal conductance of the graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor (FIS) junction is an oscillatory function of the barrier strength x in the thin-barrier limit. The gate potential U0 decreases the amplitude of thermal conductance oscillation. Both the amplitude and phase of the thermal conductance oscillation varies with the exchange energy Eh. The thermal conductance of a graphene FIS junction displays the usual exponential dependence on temperature, reflecting the s-wave symmetry of superconducting graphene.%@@ We study heat transport in a graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconducting junction.It is found that the thermal conductance of the graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor(FIS)junction is an oscillatory function of the barrier strength X in the thin-barrier limit.The gate potential Uo decreases the amplitude of thermal conductance oscillation.Both the amplitude and phase of the thermal conductance oscillation varies with the exchange energy Eh.The thermal conductance of a graphene FIS junction displays the usual exponential dependence on temperature, reflecting the s-wave symmetry of superconducting graphene.

  13. Policies and initiatives for carbon neutrality in nordic heating and transport systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Jakob Glarbo; Wu, Qiuwei; Ostergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the propagation of heat pumps while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding electric vehicles (EVs). It is found that conversion...... to heat pumps in the Nordic region rely on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality....

  14. Transition to ballistic regime for heat transport in helium II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciacca, Michele, E-mail: michele.sciacca@unipa.it [Dipartimento Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Sellitto, Antonio, E-mail: ant.sellitto@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Informatica ed Economia, Università della Basilicata, Campus Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Jou, David, E-mail: david.jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-07-04

    The size-dependent and flux-dependent effective thermal conductivity of narrow capillaries filled with superfluid helium is analyzed from a thermodynamic continuum perspective. The classical Landau evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of quiescent superfluid, or the Gorter–Mellinck regime of turbulent superfluids, is extended to describe the transition to ballistic regime in narrow channels wherein the radius R is comparable to (or smaller than) the phonon mean-free path ℓ in superfluid helium. To do so, we start from an extended equation for the heat flux incorporating non-local terms, and take into consideration a heat slip flow along the walls of the tube. This leads from an effective thermal conductivity proportional to R{sup 2} (Landau regime) to another one proportional to Rℓ (ballistic regime). We consider two kinds of flows: along cylindrical pipes and along two infinite parallel plates. - Highlights: • Heat transport in counterflow helium in the ballistic regime. • The one-fluid model based on the Extended Thermodynamics is used. • The transition from the Landau regime to the ballistic regime. • The transition from quantum turbulence to ballistic regime.

  15. Currents and fluctuations of quantum heat transport in harmonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motz, T; Ankerhold, J; Stockburger, J T

    2017-01-01

    Heat transport in open quantum systems is particularly susceptible to the modeling of system–reservoir interactions. It thus requires us to consistently treat the coupling between a quantum system and its environment. While perturbative approaches are successfully used in fields like quantum optics and quantum information, they reveal deficiencies—typically in the context of thermodynamics, when it is essential to respect additional criteria such as fluctuation-dissipation theorems. We use a non-perturbative approach for quantum dissipative dynamics based on a stochastic Liouville–von Neumann equation to provide a very general and extremely efficient formalism for heat currents and their correlations in open harmonic chains. Specific results are derived not only for first- but also for second-order moments, which requires us to account for both real and imaginary parts of bath–bath correlation functions. Spatiotemporal patterns are compared with weak coupling calculations. The regime of stronger system–reservoir couplings gives rise to an intimate interplay between reservoir fluctuations and heat transfer far from equilibrium. (paper)

  16. Fluid-flow pressure measurements and thermo-fluid characterization of a single loop two-phase passive heat transfer device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinca, A.; Mangini, D.; Mameli, M.; Fioriti, D.; Filippeschi, S.; Araneo, L.; Roth, N.; Marengo, M.

    2017-11-01

    A Novel Single Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (SLPHP), with an inner diameter of 2 mm, filled up with two working fluids (Ethanol and FC-72, Filling Ratio of 60%), is tested in Bottom Heated mode varying the heating power and the orientation. The static confinement diameter for Ethanol and FC-72, respectively 3.4 mm and 1.7mm, is above and slightly under the inner diameter of the tube. This is important for a better understanding of the working principle of the device very close to the limit between the Loop Thermosyphon and Pulsating Heat Pipe working modes. With respect to previous SLPHP experiments found in the literature, such device is designed with two transparent inserts mounted between the evaporator and the condenser allowing direct fluid flow visualization. Two highly accurate pressure transducers permit local pressure measurements just at the edges of one of the transparent inserts. Additionally, three heating elements are controlled independently, so as to vary the heating distribution at the evaporator. It is found that peculiar heating distributions promote the slug/plug flow motion in a preferential direction, increasing the device overall performance. Pressure measurements point out that the pressure drop between the evaporator and the condenser are related to the flow pattern. Furthermore, at high heat inputs, the flow regimes recorded for the two fluids are very similar, stressing that, when the dynamic effects start to play a major role in the system, the device classification between Loop Thermosyphon and Pulsating Heat Pipe is not that sharp anymore.

  17. Coupled heat transfer in high temperature transporting system with semitransparent/opaque material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Shenghua; Xia Xinjin

    2010-01-01

    The heat transfer model of the aerodynamic heating coupled with radiative cooling was developed. The thermal protect system includes the higher heat flux region with high temperature semitransparent material, the heat transporting channel and the lower heat flux region with metal. The control volume method was combined with the Monte Carlo method to calculate the coupled heat transfer of the transporting system, and the thermal equilibrium equation for the transporting channel was solved simultaneously. The effect of the aeroheating flux radio, the area ratio of radiative surfaces, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the heat transporting channel on the radiative surface temperature and the fluid temperature in the heat transporting channel were analyzed. The effect of radiation and conduction in the semitransparent material was discussed. The result shows that to increase the convective heat transfer coefficient in heat flux channel can enhance the heat transporting ability of the system, but the main parameter to effect on the temperature of the heat transporting system is the area ratio of radiative surfaces. (authors)

  18. Internal transport barrier and β limit in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreiko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    An Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) was found in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M (R 0 =53 cm, a l =22 cm - circular limiter configuration, B t ≤0.7T, I p ≤175 kA, ≤6.0·10 19 m -3 ). The barrier reveals itself as a formation of a steep gradient on electron temperature and density radial profiles. The regions with reduced diffusion and electron thermal diffusivity are in between r=0.5a and r=0.7a. The ITB appears more frequently in the shots with higher plasma current. At lower currents (I p N limit in the ohmically heated plasma are presented. Stored energy was measured using diamagnetic loops and compared with W calculated from kinetic data obtained by Thomson scattering and microwave interferometry. Measurements of the stored energy and of the β were performed in the ohmic H-mode before and after boronization and in the scenario with the fast Current Ramp-Down in the ohmic H-mode. Maximum value of β T of 2.0 % and β N of 2 were achieved. The β N limit achieved is 'soft' (nondisruptive) limit. The stored energy slowly decays after the Current Ramp-Down. No correlation was found between beta restriction and MHD phenomena. (author)

  19. Internal transport barrier and β limit in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreiko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    An Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) was found in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M (R 0 = 53 cm, a l = 22 cm - circular limiter configuration, B t ≤ 0.7 T, I p ≤ 175 kA, ≤ 6.0·10 19 m -3 ). The barrier reveals itself as a formation of a steep gradient on electron temperature and density radial profiles. The regions with reduced diffusion and electron thermal diffusivity are in between r = 0.5a and r = 0.7a. The ITB appears more frequently in the shots with higher plasma current. At lower currents (I p N limit in the ohmically heated plasma are presented. Stored energy was measured using diamagnetic loops and compared with W calculated from kinetic data obtained by Thomson scattering and microwave interferometry. Measurements of the stored energy and of the β were performed in the ohmic H-mode before and after boronization and in the scenario with the fast Current Ramp-Down in the ohmic H-mode. Maximum value of β T of 2.0% and β N of 2 were achieved. The β N limit achieved is 'soft' (non-disruptive) limit. The stored energy slowly decays after the Current Ramp-Down. No correlation was found between beta restriction and MHD phenomena. (author)

  20. PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE: EVIDENCE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wei [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Chen Qingrong; Petrosian, Vahe [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    Where particle acceleration and plasma heating take place in relation to magnetic reconnection is a fundamental question for solar flares. We report analysis of an M7.7 flare on 2012 July 19 observed by SDO/AIA and RHESSI. Bi-directional outflows in forms of plasmoid ejections and contracting cusp-shaped loops originate between an erupting flux rope and underlying flare loops at speeds of typically 200-300 km s{sup -1} up to 1050 km s{sup -1}. These outflows are associated with spatially separated double coronal X-ray sources with centroid separation decreasing with energy. The highest temperature is located near the nonthermal X-ray loop-top source well below the original heights of contracting cusps near the inferred reconnection site. These observations suggest that the primary loci of particle acceleration and plasma heating are in the reconnection outflow regions, rather than the reconnection site itself. In addition, there is an initial ascent of the X-ray and EUV loop-top source prior to its recently recognized descent, which we ascribe to the interplay among multiple processes including the upward development of reconnection and the downward contractions of reconnected loops. The impulsive phase onset is delayed by 10 minutes from the start of the descent, but coincides with the rapid speed increases of the upward plasmoids, the individual loop shrinkages, and the overall loop-top descent, suggestive of an intimate relation of the energy release rate and reconnection outflow speed.

  1. Heat and momentum transport of ion internal transport barrier plasmas on Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, K.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.

    2010-11-01

    The peaked ion-temperature profile with steep gradient so called ion internal transport barrier (ion ITB) was formed in the neutral beam heated plasmas on the Large Helical Device (LHD) and the high-ion-temperature regime of helical plasmas has been significantly extended. The ion thermal diffusivity in the ion ITB plasma decreases down to the neoclassical transport level. The heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) observed the smooth potential profile with negative radial electric field (ion root) in the core region where the ion thermal diffusivity decreases significantly. The large toroidal rotation was also observed in the ion ITB core and the transport of toroidal momentum was analyzed qualitatively. The decrease of momentum diffusivity with ion temperature increase was observed in the ion ITB core. The toroidal rotation driven by ion temperature gradient so called intrinsic rotation is also identified. (author)

  2. Thermal resistance of rotating closed-loop pulsating heat pipes: Effects of working fluids and internal diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kammuang-Lue Niti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the effects of working fluids and internal diameters on the thermal resistance of rotating closed-loop pul¬sating heat pipes (RCLPHP. The RCLPHP were made of a copper tube with internal diameters of 1.50 mm and 1.78 mm, bent into the shape of a flower petal, and arranged into a circle with 11 turns. The evaporator section was located at the outer end of the tube bundle. R123, ethanol, and water were filled as the working fluids. The RCLPHP was rotated at centrifugal accelerations 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 times of the gravitational acceleration considered at the connection between the evaporator and the condenser sections. The heat input was varied from 30 W to 50 W, and then to 100 W, 150 W, and 200 W. It can be concluded that when the latent heat of evaporation increases, the pressure difference between the evaporator and the condenser sections decreases, and the thermal resistance increases. Moreover, when the internal diameter increases, the driving force increases and the frictional force proportionally decreases, or the Karman number increases, and the thermal resistance decreases.

  3. Effect of using ethanol and methanol on thermal performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with different filling ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Salsabil, Zaimaa; Yasmin, Nusrat; Nourin, Farah Nazifa; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of a closed loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP) as the demand of smaller and effective heat transfer devices is increasing day by day. PHP is a two phase heat transfer device suited for heat transfer applications, especially suited for handling moderate to high heat fluxes in different applications. A copper made Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) of 250 mm length is used in this experimental work with 2 mm ID and 3 mm OD, closed end-to-end in 8 looped, evacuated and then partially filled with working fluids. The evaporation section is 50 mm, adiabatic section is 120 mm and condensation section is 80 mm. The performance characterization is done for two working fluids at Vertical (0°) orientations. The working fluids are Methanol and Ethanol and the filling ratios are 40%, 50%, 60% & 70% based on total volume, respectively. The results show that the influence of various parameters, the heat input flux, and different filling ratios on a heat transfer performance of CLPHP. Methanol shows better performance as working fluid in PHP than ethanol at present orientation for a wide range of heat inputs and can be used at high heat input conditions. Ethanol is better choice to be used in low heat input conditions.

  4. Photothermal heating in metal-embedded microtools for material transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Material transport is an important mechanism in microfluidics and drug delivery. The methods and solutions found in literature involve passively diffusing structures, microneedles and chemically fueled structures. In this work, we make use of optically actuated microtools with embedded metal layer...... as heating element for controlled loading and release. The new microtools take advantage of the photothermal-induced convection current to load and unload cargo. We also discuss some challenges encountered in realizing a self-contained polymerized microtool. Microfluidic mixing, fluid flow control...... and convection currents have been demonstrated both experimentally and numerically for static metal thin films or passively floating nanoparticles. Here we show an integration of aforementioned functionalities in an opticallyfabricated and actuated microtool. As proof of concept, we demonstrate loading...

  5. Development of CANDU 6 Primary Heat Transport System Modeling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyung-beom; Kim, Sung-min; Park, Joong-woo; Kim, Kwang-su; Ko, Dae-hack; Han, Bong-seob

    2007-01-01

    NUCIRC is a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code used for design and performance analyses of CANDU Heat Transport System. The code is used to build PHT model in Wolsong NPP and to calculate channel flow distribution. Wolsong NPP has to calculate channel flow distribution and quality of coolant at the ROH header after every outage by OPP (Operating Policy and Principal). PHT modeling work is time consuming which need a lot of operation experience and specialty. It is very difficult to build PHT model as plant operator in two weeks which is obligate for plant operation after every outage. That is why Wolsong NPP develop NUMODEL (NUcirc MODELing) with many-years experience and a know-how of using NUCIRC code. NUMODEL is computer program which is used to create PHT model based on utilizing NUCIRC code

  6. Periodic inspection for safety of CANDU heat transport piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellyin, F.

    1979-10-01

    Periodic inspection of heat transport and emergency core cooling piping systems is intended to maintain an adequate level of safety throughout the life of the plant, and to protect plant personnel and the public from the consequences of a failure and release of fission products. This report outlines a rational approach to the periodic inspection based on a fully probabilistic model. It demonstrates the methodology based on theoretical treatment and experimental data whereby the strength of a pressurized pipe or vessel containing a defect could be evaluated. It also shows how the extension of the defect at various lifetimes could be predicted. These relationships are prerequisite for the probabilistic formulation and analysis for the periodic inspection of piping systems

  7. Optimal wall spacing for heat transport in thermal convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, Olga [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The simulation of RB flow for Ra up to 1 x 10{sup 10} is computationally expensive in terms of computing power and hard disk storage. Thus, we gratefully acknowledge the computational resources supported by Leibniz-Rechenzentrum Munich. Compared to Γ=1 situation, a new physical picture of heat transport is identified here at Γ{sub opt} for any explored Ra. Therefore, a detailed comparison between Γ=1 and Γ=Γ{sub opt} is valuable for our further research, for example, their vertical temperature and velocity profiles. Additionally, we plan to compare the fluid with different Pr under geometrical confinement, which are computationally expensive for the situations of Pr<<1 and Pr>>1.

  8. Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Nicholas G.; Minnich, Austin J.

    2016-01-01

    Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials

  9. Heat transport modeling of the dot spectroscopy platform on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, W. A.; Jones, O. S.; Barrios, M. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Koning, J. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Hinkel, D. E.; Moody, J. D.; Suter, L. J.; Liedahl, D. A.; Lemos, N.; Eder, D. C.; Kauffman, R. L.; Landen, O. L.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.

    2018-04-01

    Electron heat transport within an inertial-fusion hohlraum plasma is difficult to model due to the complex interaction of kinetic plasma effects, magnetic fields, laser-plasma interactions, and microturbulence. Here, simulations using the radiation-hydrodynamic code, HYDRA, are compared to hohlraum plasma experiments which contain a Manganese-Cobalt tracer dot (Barrios et al 2016 Phys. Plasmas 23 056307). The dot is placed either on the capsule or on a film midway between the capsule and the laser-entrance hole. From spectroscopic measurements, electron temperature and position of the dot are inferred. Simulations are performed with ad hoc flux limiters of f = 0.15 and f = 0.03 (with electron heat flux, q, limited to fnT 3/2/m 1/2), and two more physical means of flux limitation: the magnetohydrodynamics and nonlocal packages. The nonlocal model agrees best with the temperature of the dot-on-film and dot-on-capsule. The hohlraum produced x-ray flux is over-predicted by roughly ˜11% for the f = 0.03 model and the remaining models by ˜16%. The simulated trajectories of the dot-on-capsule are slightly ahead of the experimental trajectory for all but the f = 0.03 model. The simulated dot-on-film position disagrees with the experimental measurement for all transport models. In the MHD simulation of the dot-on-film, the dot is strongly perturbative, though the simulation predicts a peak dot-on-film temperature 2-3 keV higher than the measurement. This suggests a deficiency in the MHD modeling possibly due to the neglect of the Righi-Leduc term or interpenetrating flows of multiple ion species which would reduce the strength of the self-generated fields.

  10. Improved HYLIFE-II heat transport system and steam power plant: Impact on performance and cost of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Lee, Ying T.

    1992-12-01

    The HYLIFE-II conceptual design has evolved and improved continually over the past four years to its present form. This paper describes the latest FY92 versions, Reference Case H1 (nominally 1 GWe net output) and the Enhanced Case HE (nominally 2 GWe net output), which take advantage of improvements in the tritium management system to eliminate the intermediate loop and the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX's). The improvements in the heat transport system and the steam power plant are described and the resulting cost reductions are evaluated. The new estimated cost of electricity (in 1990 dollars) is 6.6 cents/kWh for Reference Case H1 and 4.7 cents/kWh for the Enhanced Case

  11. Heat and momentum transport scalings in vertical convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, Olga

    2016-11-01

    For vertical convection, where a fluid is confined between two differently heated isothermal vertical walls, we investigate the heat and momentum transport, which are measured, respectively, by the Nusselt number Nu and the Reynolds number Re . For laminar vertical convection we derive analytically the dependence of Re and Nu on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr from our boundary layer equations and find two different scaling regimes: Nu Pr 1 / 4 Ra 1 / 4 , Re Pr - 1 / 2 Ra 1 / 2 for Pr > 1 . Direct numerical simulations for Ra from 105 to 1010 and Pr from 0.01 to 30 are in excellent ageement with our theoretical findings and show that the transition between the regimes takes place for Pr around 0.1. We summarize the results from and present new theoretical and numerical results for transitional and turbulent vertical convection. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.

  12. Heat Transport Enhancement of Turbulent Thermal Convection by Inserted Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke-Qing; Zhang, Lu

    2017-11-01

    We report an experimental study on the heat transport properties of turbulent Rayleigh Benard Convection (RBC) in a rectangular cell with two types of 3D-printed structures inserted inside. The first one splits the original rectangular cell into 60 identical sub cells whose aspect ratio is 1:1:10 (length, width, height). The second one splits the cell into 30 sub cells, each with a 1:2:10 aspect ratio and a baffle in the center. We find that for large Rayleigh numbers (Ra), the Nusselt numbers (Nu) of both structures increase compared with that of the empty rectangular cell. An enhancement in Nu as much as 20% is found for the second type of insertion at Rayleigh number 2 ×109 . Moreover, the Nu-Ra scaling shows a transition with both geometries. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement within a single sub unit indicates that the transition may be related to the laminar to turbulent transition in flow field. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) confirm the experimental results. Our results demonstrate the potential in using insertions to enhance passive heat transfer. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council (RGC) of HKSAR (Nos. CUHK404513 and CUHK14301115).

  13. Understanding of flux-limited behaviors of heat transport in nonlinear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yangyu, E-mail: yangyuhguo@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jou, David, E-mail: david.jou@uab.es [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Wang, Moran, E-mail: mrwang@tsinghua.edu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The classical Fourier's law of heat transport breaks down in highly nonequilibrium situations as in nanoscale heat transport, where nonlinear effects become important. The present work is aimed at exploring the flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models in terms of their theoretical foundations. Different saturation heat fluxes are obtained, whereas the same qualitative variation trend of heat flux versus exerted temperature gradient is got in diverse nonlinear models. The phonon hydrodynamic model is proposed to act as a standard to evaluate other heat flux limiters because of its more rigorous physical foundation. A deeper knowledge is thus achieved about the phenomenological generalized heat transport models. The present work provides deeper understanding and accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit. - Highlights: • Exploring flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models. • Proposing phonon hydrodynamic model as a standard to evaluate heat flux limiters. • Providing accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit.

  14. A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Tsai, Rung-Je; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free

  15. The impact of short-term heat storage on the ice-albedo feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashenski, C.; Wright, N.; Perovich, D. K.; Song, A.; Deeb, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    The partitioning of solar energy in the ice-ocean-atmosphere environment is a powerful control over Arctic sea ice mass balance. Ongoing transitions of the sea ice toward a younger, thinner state are enhancing absorption of solar energy and contributing to further declines in sea ice in a classic ice-albedo feedback. Here we investigate the solar energy balance over shorter timescales. In particular, we are concerned with short term delays in the transfer of absorbed solar energy to the ice caused by heat storage in the upper ocean. By delaying the realization of ice melt, and hence albedo decline, heat storage processes effectively retard the intra-season ice-albedo feedback. We seek to quantify the impact and variability of such intra-season storage delays on full season energy absorption. We use in-situ data collected from Arctic Observing Network (AON) sea ice sites, synthesized with the results of imagery processed from high resolution optical satellites, and basin-scale remote sensing products to approach the topic. AON buoys are used to monitor the storage and flux of heat, while satellite imagery allows us to quantify the evolution of surrounding ice conditions and predict the aggregate scale solar absorption. We use several test sites as illustrative cases and demonstrate that temporary heat storage can have substantial impacts on seasonal energy absorption and ice loss. A companion to this work is presented by N. Wright at this meeting.

  16. Climate in the absence of ocean heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B. E. J.

    2017-12-01

    The energy transported by the oceans to mid- and high latitudes is small compared to the atmosphere, yet exerts an outsized influence on climate. A key reason is the strong interaction between ocean heat transport (OHT) and sea ice extent. I quantify the absolute climatic impact of OHT using the state-of-the-art CESM simulations by comparing a realistic control climate against a slab ocean simulation in which OHT is disabled. The absence of OHT leads to a massive expansion of sea ice into the subtropics in both hemispheres, and a 24 K global cooling. Analysis of the transient simulation after setting the OHT to zero reveals a global cooling process fueled by a runaway sea ice albedo feedback. This process is eventually self-limiting in the cold climate due to a combination of subtropical cloud feedbacks and surface wind effects that are both connected to a massive spin-up of the atmospheric Hadley circulation. A parameter sensitivity study shows that the simulated climate is far more sensitive to small changes in ice surface albedo in the absence of OHT. I conclude that the oceans are responsible for an enormous global warming by mitigating an otherwise very potent sea ice albedo feedback, but that the magnitude of this effect is rather uncertain. These simulations provide a graphic illustration of how the intimate coupling between sea ice and ocean circulation governs the present-day climate, and by extension, highlight the importance of modeling ocean - sea ice interaction with high fidelity.

  17. Experimental investigation on thermal performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) using methanol and distilled water at different filling ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Swarna, Anindita Dhar; Ahmed, Syed Nasif Uddin; Perven, Sanjida; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating Heat Pipes, the new two-phase heat transfer devices, with no counter current flow between liquid and vapor have become a modern topic for research in the field of thermal management. This paper focuses on the performance of methanol and distilled water as working fluid in a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP). This performances are compared in terms of thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, and evaporator and condenser wall temperature with variable heat inputs. Methanol and Distilled water are selected for their lower surface tension, dynamic viscosity and sensible heat. A closed loop PHP made of copper with 2mm ID and 2.5mm OD having total 8 loops are supplied with power input varied from 10W to 60W. During the experiment the PHP is kept vertical, while the filling ratio (FR) is increased gradually from 40% to 70% with 10% increment. The optimum filling ratio for a minimum thermal resistance is found to be 60% and 40% for distilled water and methanol respectively and methanol is found to be the better working fluid compared to distilled water in terms of its lower thermal resistance and higher heat transfer coefficient.

  18. Contributions to the initial development of a microelectromechanical loop heat pipe, which is based on coherent porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytrynowicz, Debra G.

    The research project itself was the initiation of the development of a planar miniature loop heat pipe based on a capillary wick structure made of coherent porous silicon. Work on this project fell into four main categories, which were component fabrication, test system construction, characterization testing and test data collection, performance analysis and thermal modeling. Component fabrication involved the production of various components for the evaporator. When applicable, these components were to be produced by microelectronic and MEMS or microelectromechanical fabrication techniques. Required work involved analyses and, where necessary, modifications to the wafer processing sequence, the photo-electrochemical etching process, system and controlling computer program to make it more reliable, flexible and efficient. The development of more than one wick production process was also extremely necessary in the event of equipment failure. Work on developing this alternative also involved investigations into various details of the photo-electrochemical etching process itself. Test system construction involved the actual assembly of open and closed loop test systems. Characterization involved developing and administering a series of tests to evaluate the performance of the wicks and test systems. Although there were some indications that the devices were operating according to loop heat pipe theory, they were transient and unstable. Performance analysis involved the construction of a transparent evaporator, which enabled the visual observation of the phenomena, which occurred in the evaporator during operation. It also involved investigating the effect of the quartz wool secondary wick on the operation of the device. Observations made during the visualization study indicated that the capillary and boiling limits were being reached at extremely low values of input power. The work was performed in a collaborative effort between the Biomedical Nanotechnology Research

  19. Primary heat transfer loop design for the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, K.A.; McDowell, M.W.

    1984-05-01

    This study investigates a heat exchanger and balance of plant design to accompany the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber concept. The concept uses solid Li 2 O or other lithium-ceramic granules, held to the wall of a rotating reaction chamber by centrifugal action, as a tritium breeding blanket and first wall protection. The Li 2 O granules enter the chamber at 800 K and exit at 1200 K after absorbing the thermal energy produced by the fusion process

  20. One loop partition function of six dimensional conformal gravity using heat kernel on AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovreković, Iva [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-10-13

    We compute the heat kernel for the Laplacians of symmetric transverse traceless fields of arbitrary spin on the AdS background in even number of dimensions using the group theoretic approach introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2011)010 and apply it on the partition function of six dimensional conformal gravity. The obtained partition function consists of the Einstein gravity, conformal ghost and two modes that contain mass.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a dual loop heat recovery system with trilateral cycle applied to exhaust gases of internal combustion engine for propulsion of the 6800 TEU container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Chul; Kim, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    A dual loop waste heat recovery power generation system that comprises an upper trilateral cycle and a lower organic Rankine cycle, in which discharged exhaust gas heat is recovered and re-used for propulsion power, was theoretically applied to an internal combustion engine for propulsion in a 6800 TEU container ship. The thermodynamic properties of this exhaust gas heat recovery system, which vary depending on the boundary temperature between the upper and lower cycles, were also investigated. The results confirmed that this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system exhibited a maximum net output of 2069.8 kW, and a maximum system efficiency of 10.93% according to the first law of thermodynamics and a maximum system exergy efficiency of 58.77% according to the second law of thermodynamics. In this case, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the dual loop system were larger than those of the single loop trilateral cycle. Further, in the upper trilateral cycle, the volumetric expansion ratio of the turbine could be considerably reduced to an adequate level to be employed in the practical system. When this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system was applied to the main engine of the container ship, which was actually in operation, a 2.824% improvement in propulsion efficiency was confirmed in comparison to the case of a base engine. This improvement in propulsion efficiency resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the specific fuel oil consumption and specific CO 2 emissions of the main engine during actual operation. - Highlights: • WHRS was theoretically applied to exhaust gas of a main engine for ship propulsion. • A dual loop EG-WHRS using water and R1234yf as working fluids has been suggested. • Limitation of single loop trilateral cycle was improved by the dual loop system. • The propulsion efficiency of 2.824% was improved by the dual loop EG-WHRS. • This resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the SFOC and specific CO

  2. Optimizing the design of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, H.; Itoi, R.; Fujii, J. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Earth Resources Engineering; Uchida, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    In order to predict the long-term performance of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems, it is necessary to take into consideration well-to-well interference, especially in the presence of groundwater flow. A mass and heat transport model was developed to simulate the behavior of this type of system in the Akita Plain, northern Japan. The model was used to investigate different operational schemes and to maximize the heat extraction rate from the GCHP system. (author)

  3. Relationship between particle and heat transport in JT-60U plasmas with internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaga, H.; Higashijima, S.; Oyama, N.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between particle and heat transport in an internal transport barrier (ITB) has been systematically investigated in reversed shear (RS) and high β p ELMy H-mode plasmas in JT-60U. No helium and carbon accumulation inside the ITB is observed even with ion heat transport reduced to a neoclassical level. On the other hand, the heavy impurity argon is accumulated inside the ITB. The argon density profile estimated from the soft x-ray profile is more peaked, by a factor of 2-4 in the RS plasma and of 1.6 in the high β p mode plasma, than the electron density profile. The helium diffusivity (D He ) and the ion thermal diffusivity (χ i ) are at an anomalous level in the high β p mode plasma, where D He and χ i are higher by a factor of 5-10 than the neoclassical value. In the RS plasma, D He is reduced from the anomalous to the neoclassical level, together with χ i . The carbon and argon density profiles calculated using the transport coefficients reduced to the neoclassical level only in the ITB are more peaked than the measured profiles, even when χ i is reduced to the neoclassical level. Argon exhaust from the inside of the ITB is demonstrated by applying ECH in the high β p mode plasma, where both electron and argon density profiles become flatter. The reduction of the neoclassical inward velocity for argon due to the reduction of density gradient is consistent with the experimental observation. In the RS plasma, the density gradient is not decreased by ECH and argon is not exhausted. These results suggest the importance of density gradient control to suppress heavy impurity accumulation. (author)

  4. Relationship between particle and heat transport in JT-60U plasmas with internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaga, Hidenobu; Higashijima, S.; Oyama, N.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between particle and heat transport in an internal transport barrier (ITB) has been systematically investigated in reversed shear (RS) and high β p ELMy H-mode plasmas in JT-60U. No helium and carbon accumulation inside the ITB is observed even with ion heat transport reduced to a neoclassical level. On the other hand, the heavy impurity argon is accumulated inside the ITB. The argon density profile estimated from the soft x-ray profile is more peaked, by a factor of 2-4 in the RS plasma and of 1.6 in the high β p mode plasma, than the electron density profile. The helium diffusivity (D He ) and the ion thermal diffusivity (χ i ) are at an anomalous level in the high β p mode plasma, where D He and χ i are higher by a factor of 5-10 than the neoclassical value. In the RS plasma, D He is reduced from the anomalous to the neoclassical level, together with χ i . The carbon and argon density profiles calculated using the transport coefficients reduced to the neoclassical level only in the ITB are more peaked than the measured profiles, even when χ i is reduced to the neoclassical level. Argon exhaust from the inside of the ITB is demonstrated by applying ECH in the high β p mode plasma, where both electron and argon density profiles become flatter. The reduction of the neoclassical inward velocity for argon due to the reduction of density gradient is consistent with the experimental observation. In the RS plasma, the density gradient is not decreased by ECH and argon is not exhausted. These results suggest the importance of density control to suppress heavy impurity accumulation. (author)

  5. In vivo heating pattern of an implantable single loop applicator measured at S-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, A.; Roelofs, T.; Weaver, P.; Maturan, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the temperatures achieved by an implantable applicator buried in both normal and tumor tissue. The temperature distribution correlated with that measured in phantom material; high temperatures were achieved at the center of the coil, lower temperatures near the edges but within the coil, and much lower temperatures outside the coil. Sheathed in PTFE teflon the coil is compatible with tissue for long-term implantation. This device appeared well-suited for long-term invasive hyperthermia since it delivered a heat dose to a specific tumor volume while sparing the surrounding normal tissue and was found to be biocompatible with normal tissue

  6. Understanding the self-sustained oscillating two-phase flow motion in a closed loop pulsating heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinato, Giulia; Borhani, Navid; Thome, John R.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of efficient thermal management schemes, pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) represent a breakthrough solution for passive on-chip two-phase flow cooling of micro-electronics. Unfortunately, the unique coupling of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics and heat transfer, responsible for the self-sustained pulsating two-phase flow in such devices, presents many challenges to the understanding of the underlying physical phenomena which have so far eluded accurate prediction. In this experimental study, the novel time-strip image processing technique was used to investigate the thermo-flow dynamics of a single-turn channel CLPHP (closed loop pulsating heat pipe) charged with R245fa and tested under different operating conditions. The resulting frequency data confirmed the effect of flow pattern, and thus operating conditions, on the oscillating behavior. Dominant frequencies from 1.2 Hz for the oscillating regime to 0.6 Hz for the unidirectional flow circulation regime were measured, whilst wide spectral bands were observed for the unstable circulation regime. In order to analytically assess the observed trends in the spectral behavior, a spring-mass-damper system model was developed for the two-phase flow motion. As well as showing that system stiffness and mass have an effect on the two-phase flow dynamics, further insights into the flow pattern transition mechanism were also gained. - Highlights: • A novel synchronized thermal and visual investigation technique was applied to a CLPHP. • Thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors were analyzed by means of spectral analysis. • 3D frequency spectra for temperature and flow data show significant trends. • A spring-mass-damper system model was developed for the two-phase flow motion. • System stiffness and mass have an effect on the two-phase flow dynamics.

  7. Diffusive and convective transport modelling from analysis of ECRH-stimulated electron heat wave propagation. [ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erckmann, V; Gasparino, U; Giannone, L. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    ECRH power modulation experiments in toroidal devices offer the chance to analyze the electron heat transport more conclusively: the electron heat wave propagation can be observed by ECE (or SX) leading to radial profiles of electron temperature modulation amplitude and time delay (phase shift). Taking also the stationary power balance into account, the local electron heat transport can be modelled by a combination of diffusive and convective transport terms. This method is applied to ECRH discharges in the W7-AS stellarator (B=2.5T, R=2m, a[<=]18 cm) where the ECRH power deposition is highly localized. In W7-AS, the T[sub e] modulation profiles measured by a high resolution ECE system are the basis for the local transport analysis. As experimental errors limit the separation of diffusive and convective terms in the electron heat transport for central power deposition, also ECRH power modulation experiments with off-axis deposition and inward heat wave propagation were performed (with 70 GHz o-mode as well as with 140 GHz x-mode for increased absorption). Because collisional electron-ion coupling and radiative losses are only small, low density ECRH discharges are best candidates for estimating the electron heat flux from power balance. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Latent heat increases storage capacity. Heat transport by truck; Latente warmte vergroot opslagcapaciteit. Warmtetransport per vrachtauto is soms heel slim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, K.

    2012-11-15

    The project-group Biomass CHP (combined production of heat and power) organized a tour with a workshop in Dortmund, Germany, September 26, 2012, on storage and transport of heat and biogas. There are several projects in Germany involving road transport of heat by means of containers. A swimming pool in Dortmund already is using this option since 2008. Waste heat from a CHP-installation for landfill gas is collected from a waste dump [Dutch] De projectgroep Biomassa en WKK organiseerde 26 September een excursie met workshop in Dortmund over opslag en transport van warmte en biogas. Er zijn in Duitsland al meerdere projecten waarbij warmte per container over de weg wordt vervoerd. Een Dortmunds zwembad werkt hier al sinds 2008 mee. De restwarmte van een wkk op stortgas wordt opgehaald bij een afvalstortplaats.

  9. Enhanced heat transport in environmental systems using microencapsulated phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, D. P.; Mulligan, J. C.; Bryant, Y. G.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for enhanced heat transport and storage that uses a new two-component fluid mixture consisting of a microencapsulated phase change material (microPCM) for enhanced latent heat transport is outlined. SBIR investigations for NASA, USAF, SDIO, and NSF since 1983 have demonstrated the ability of the two-component microPCM coolants to provide enhancements in heat transport up to 40 times over that of the carrier fluid alone, enhancements of 50 to 100 percent in the heat transfer coefficient, practically isothermal operation when the coolant flow is circulated in an optimal manner, and significant reductions in pump work.

  10. A review on transportation of heat energy over long distance. Exploratory development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Q.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Luo, L.; Sauce, G. [LOCIE, Polytech' Savoie, Campus Scientifique, Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget-Du-Lac cedex (France)

    2009-08-15

    This paper presents a review on transportation of heat energy over long distance. For the transportation of high-temperature heat energy, the chemical catalytic reversible reaction is almost the only way available, and there are several reactions have been studied. For the relatively low-temperature heat energy, which exists widely as waste heat, there are mainly five researching aspects at present: chemical reversible reactions, phase change thermal energy storage and transportation, hydrogen-absorbing alloys, solid-gas adsorption and liquid-gas absorption. The basic principles and the characteristics of these methods are discussed. (author)

  11. Design capability of CANDU heat transport pump shafts against cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.N.; Sheikh, Z.B.; Padgett, A.

    1993-01-01

    During 1986 three different Light Water Reactors (LWR's) in the U.S. reported either a cracked or fractured shaft on one or more of their reactor coolant (RC) pumps. The RC pumps for all these stations were supplied by Byron Jackson (BJ) Pump Company. A majority of CANDU heat transport (HT) pumps (equivalent of RC pumps) are supplied by BJ Pump Company and are similar in design to RC pumps. Hence the failure of these RC pumps in the U.S. utilities caused concern regarding the relevance of these failures to the BJ supplied CANDU HT pumps (HTP). This paper presents the results of AECL assessment to establish the capability of the HT pump shaft against cracking. Two methods were used for assessment: (a) detailed comparative design review of the HTP and RCP shafts; (b) semi-empirical analysis of the HTP shafts. The results of the AECL assessment showed significant differences in detailed design, materials, assembly and fits of various components and the control of operating parameters between the HT and RC pumps. It was concluded that because of these differences the failures similar to RC pump shafts are not likely to appear in HT pump shafts. This conclusion is further reinforced by about 140,000 hours of operating history of the longest running HT pump of comparable size to RC Pumps, without failures

  12. Nuclear transport of heat shock proteins in stressed cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chughtai, Zahoor Saeed

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear import of proteins that are too large to passively enter the nucleus requires soluble factors, energy , and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Nuclear protein transport can be regulated, and different forms of stress affect nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. As such, import of proteins containing a classical NLS is inhibited in starving yeast cells. In contrast, the heat shock protein hsp70 Ssa4p concentrates in nuclei upon starvation. Nuclear concentration of Ssa4p in starving cells is reversible, and transfer of nutrient-depleted cells to fresh medium induces Ssa4p nuclear export. This export reaction represents an active process that is sensitive to oxidative stress. Upon starvation, the N-terminal domain of Ssa4p mediates Ssa4p nuclear accumulation, and a short hydrophobic sequence, termed Star (for starvation), is sufficient to localize the reporter proteins green fluorescent protein or β-gaIactosidase to nuclei. To determine whether nuclear accumulation of Star-β-galactosidase depends on a specific nuclear carrier, I have analyzed its distribution in mutant yeast strains that carry a deletion of a single β-importin gene. With this assay I have identified Nmd5p as a β-importin required to concentrate Star-β-galactosidase in nuclei of stationary phase cells. (author)

  13. Nuclear transport of heat shock proteins in stressed cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chughtai, Zahoor Saeed

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear import of proteins that are too large to passively enter the nucleus requires soluble factors, energy , and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Nuclear protein transport can be regulated, and different forms of stress affect nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. As such, import of proteins containing a classical NLS is inhibited in starving yeast cells. In contrast, the heat shock protein hsp70 Ssa4p concentrates in nuclei upon starvation. Nuclear concentration of Ssa4p in starving cells is reversible, and transfer of nutrient-depleted cells to fresh medium induces Ssa4p nuclear export. This export reaction represents an active process that is sensitive to oxidative stress. Upon starvation, the N-terminal domain of Ssa4p mediates Ssa4p nuclear accumulation, and a short hydrophobic sequence, termed Star (for starvation), is sufficient to localize the reporter proteins green fluorescent protein or {beta}-gaIactosidase to nuclei. To determine whether nuclear accumulation of Star-{beta}-galactosidase depends on a specific nuclear carrier, I have analyzed its distribution in mutant yeast strains that carry a deletion of a single {beta}-importin gene. With this assay I have identified Nmd5p as a {beta}-importin required to concentrate Star-{beta}-galactosidase in nuclei of stationary phase cells. (author)

  14. Strain dependence of the heat transport properties of graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmeline Yeo, Pei Shan; Loh, Kian Ping; Gan, Chee Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of accurate density-functional theory and a nonequilibrium Green’s function method, we calculate the ballistic thermal conductance characteristics of tensile-strained armchair (AGNR) and zigzag (ZGNR) edge graphene nanoribbons, with widths between 3 and 50 Å. The optimized lateral lattice constants for AGNRs of different widths display a three-family behavior when the ribbons are grouped according to N modulo 3, where N represents the number of carbon atoms across the width of the ribbon. Two lowest-frequency out-of-plane acoustic modes play a decisive role in increasing the thermal conductance of AGNR-N at low temperatures. At high temperatures the effect of tensile strain is to reduce the thermal conductance of AGNR-N and ZGNR-N. These results could be explained by the changes in force constants in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions with the application of strain. This fundamental atomistic understanding of the heat transport in graphene nanoribbons paves a way to effect changes in their thermal properties via strain at various temperatures. (paper)

  15. Fluctuation theory for transport properties in multicomponent mixtures: thermodiffusion and heat conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general statis...... of the heat conductivity coefficient for ideal gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general...

  16. Experimental investigation on performance of lithium-ion battery thermal management system using flat plate loop heat pipe for electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, Nandy; Ariantara, Bambang; Pamungkas, Rangga Aji

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) is studied in the thermal management system for electric vehicle. • Distilled water, alcohol, and acetone on thermal performances of FPLHP were tested. • The FPLHP can start up at fairly low heat load. • Temperature overshoot phenomena were observed during the start-up period. - Abstract: The development of electric vehicle batteries has resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this growth is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can cause serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight and compact size, and they do not require external power supply. This study examined experimentally a flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in the thermal management system of the lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol, and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gave the best performance that produces a thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50 °C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm"2.

  17. Non-standard model for electron heat transport for multidimensional hydrodynamic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolai, Ph.; Busquet, M.; Schurtz, G. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France)

    2000-07-01

    In simulations of laser-produced plasma, modeling of heat transport requires an artificial limitation of standard Spitzer-Haerm fluxes. To improve heat conduction processing, we have developed a multidimensional model which accounts for non-local features of heat transport and effects of self-generated magnetic fields. This consistent treatment of both mechanisms has been implemented in a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code. First results indicate good agreements between simulations and experimental data. (authors)

  18. Non-standard model for electron heat transport for multidimensional hydrodynamic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, Ph.; Busquet, M.; Schurtz, G.

    2000-01-01

    In simulations of laser-produced plasma, modeling of heat transport requires an artificial limitation of standard Spitzer-Haerm fluxes. To improve heat conduction processing, we have developed a multidimensional model which accounts for non-local features of heat transport and effects of self-generated magnetic fields. This consistent treatment of both mechanisms has been implemented in a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code. First results indicate good agreements between simulations and experimental data. (authors)

  19. Thermophilic P-loop transport ATPases : Enzyme function and energetics at high temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretz, Monika Gyöngyi

    2007-01-01

    Primary transport ATPases are divided into several superfamilies; amongst others including ATPases of the ABC transporter superfamily, the F-ATPase superfamily or the motor ATPases of the General Secretory (Sec) pathway. Motor proteins from these superfamilies show a low sequence similarity, except

  20. Results from transient transport experiments in Rijnhuizen tokamak project: Heat convection, transport barriers and 'non-local' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P.; Gorini, G.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Kloe, J. de; Lopez Cardozo, N.J.; Schilham, A.M.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of experimental transport studies performed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) using transient transport techniques in both Ohmic and ECH dominated plasmas is presented. Modulated Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) and oblique pellet injection (OPI) have been used to induce electron temperature (T e ) perturbations at different radial locations. These were used to probe the electron transport barriers observed near low order rational magnetic surfaces in ECH dominated steady-state RTP plasmas. Layers of inward electron heat convection in off-axis ECH plasmas were detected with modulated ECH. This suggests that RTP electron transport barriers consist of heat pinch layers rather than layers of low thermal diffusivity. In a different set of experiments, OPI triggered a transient rise of the core T e due to an increase of the T e gradient in the 1< q<2 region. These transient transport barriers were probed with modulated ECH and found to be due to a transient drop of the electron heat diffusivity, except for off-axis ECH plasmas, where a transient inward pinch is also observed. Transient transport studies in RTP could not solve this puzzling interplay between heat diffusion and convection in determining an electron transport barrier. They nevertheless provided challenging experimental evidence both for theoretical modelling and for future experiments. (author)

  1. Heat and damp transport in cavity bricks. Waerme- und Feuchtetransport in Hochlochziegeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, M

    1987-11-19

    The aim of this work is a systematic measurement of the structural effect of cavity bricks on the thermal insulation and thermal storage values depending on the material values of the bricks and the mortar. The arrangement and orientation of the hollow spaces and their dimensions should be varied. Brick shapes with socalled handle slots, which give more convenient handling, and with mortar pockets instead of mortar gaps, should be taken into account in the investigation. Special attention should be paid to the heat transport mechanism in the hollow spaces, where thermal conduction, thermal radiation and convection heat transport are superimposed on one another. The second main aim of the work is the calculation of the coupled heat and damp transport in hollow bricks. The heat and damp transport is described by a coupled system of differential equations, where the decisive transport coefficients should be shown as a function of the variables determining the transport processes. (orig./MM).

  2. Systems with a constant heat flux with applications to radiative heat transport across nanoscale gaps and layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.

    2018-06-01

    We extend the statistical analysis of equilibrium systems to systems with a constant heat flux. This extension leads to natural generalizations of Maxwell-Boltzmann's and Planck's equilibrium energy distributions to energy distributions of systems with a net heat flux. This development provides a long needed foundation for addressing problems of nanoscale heat transport by a systematic method based on a few fundamental principles. As an example, we consider the computation of the radiative heat flux between narrowly spaced half-spaces maintained at different temperatures.

  3. Relationship between particle and heat transport in JT-60U plasmas with internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaga, H.

    2002-01-01

    Relationship between particle and heat transport in an internal transport barrier (ITB) has been systematically investigated for the first time in reversed shear (RS) and high-β p ELMy H-mode (weak positive shear) plasmas of JT-60U for understanding of compatibility of improved energy confinement and effective particle control such as exhaust of helium ash and reduction in impurity contamination. In the RS plasma, no helium and carbon accumulation inside the ITB is observed even with highly improved energy confinement. In the high-β p plasma, both helium and carbon density profiles are flat. As the ion temperature profile changes from parabolic- to box-type, the helium diffusivity decreases by a factor of about 2 as well as the ion thermal diffusivity in the RS plasma. The measured soft X-ray profile is more peaked than that calculated by assuming the same n AR profile as the n e profile in the Ar injected RS plasma with the box-type profile, suggesting accumulation of Ar inside the ITB. Particle transport is improved with no change of ion temperature in the RS plasma, when density fluctuation is drastically reduced by a pellet injection. (author)

  4. Instrumentation and Control Systems for Sodium thermal hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (SELFA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeong Yeon; Kim, Hyung Mo; Cho, Youn Gil; Kim, Jong Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kang, Byeong Su; Jung, Min Hwan; Jeong, Ji Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A forced-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (FHX) is a part of decay heat removal system (DHRS) in Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR), which is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Sodium thermal hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (SELFA) is a test facility for verification and validation of the design code for a forced-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (FHX). In this paper, we have provided design and fabrication features for the instrumentation and control systems of SELFA. In general, the instrumentation systems and control systems are coupled for measurement and control of process variables. Instrumentation systems have been designed for investigating thermal-hydraulic characteristics of FHX and control systems have been designed to control the main components (e.g. electromagnetic pumps, heaters, valves etc.) required for test in SELFA. In this paper, we have provided configurations of instrumentation and control systems for Sodium thermal hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (SELFA). The instrumentation and control systems of SELFA have been implemented based on the expected operation ranges and lesson learned from operational experience of 'Sodium integral effect test loop for safety simulation and assessment-1' (STELLA-1)

  5. Behavior of copper corrosion products in water loops of heat-exchange units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarembo, V.I.; Kritskii, V.G.; Slobodov, A.A.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    This communication is dedicated to an examination of copper corrosion products (CP) in the conditions of real aqueous-chemical regime (ACR) parameters. The deposition of these CP in steam-generating zones (up to 85% of their total amount) stimulate local types of corrosion. The solubility in Cu CP (Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu(OH) 2 )-water (H 2 O)-gas (H 2 , O 2 )-conditioning additives (HCl, KOH) systems was determined by computer modeling according to the minimum Gibbs energy criterion on the basis of selected and matched thermodynamic constants for various chemical forms of copper under standard conditions. As a result of the authors' calculations they obtained the solubilities in water of CuO, Cu 2 O and Cu(OH) 2 when changing the dosage of active gases from 0 to 10 -2 mole/kg of water, of acid or equal to that of saturated vapor of pure water. Thus, they were able to monitor the behavior of copper CP in conditions modeling those of real ACR in operating heat exchange units, including in conditions deviating from the standard

  6. 平板型MLHP温度波动研究%Investigation of Temperature Oscillation in Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Flat Evaporator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖东兴; 刘伟; 刘志春; 杨金国

    2009-01-01

    环路热管(Loop Heat Pipe,LHP)是一种靠蒸发器的毛细芯产生毛细力驱动回路运行,利用工质相变来传递热量的高效传热装置.研制了一套平板式蒸发器、风冷式冷凝器的小型环路热管(MLHP),MLHP的毛细芯为500目不锈钢丝网,工质为丙酮,蒸发器、冷凝器以及所有管路均由紫铜制成.主要研究了平板型MLHP在不同热负荷条件下的温度波动特性,并重点研究了倾角以及充灌量等对MLHP系统温度波动的影响,且给出相应的合理解释.实验结果表明,平板式MLHP在2~3W/cm~2热流密度区间范围内容易发生温度波动.%Loop heat pipes are heat transfer devices based on the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid, and using capillary pumping forces to ensure the fluid circulation. A series of tests have been carried out with a miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with flat evaporator and a fin-and-tube type condenser. The loop was made of pure copper with stainless mesh wick and acetone was used as the working fluid. At low heat loads, temperature oscillations were observed throughout the loop. The characteristics of temperature oscillation of the flat MLHP at heat fluxes from 2W/cm~2 to 3W/cm~2were studied. The compensation chamber was considered as the most critical component of the MLHP and its hydrodynamic state dictated the extent and the characteristics of the temperature oscillations for the input heat load. The heat leaks from the evaporator to the compensation chamber, the heat loss to ambient and subcooled liquid temperature dictated the vapor condition inside the compensation chamber, and the rate of vapor growth or dissipation dictated the nature of the temperature oscillation. The effects of different liquid charging ratio and the tilt angle to the temperature oscillations were studied in detail.

  7. Advances in the optimisation of apparel heating products: A numerical approach to study heat transport through a blanket with an embedded smart heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, S.F.; Couto, S.; Campos, J.B.L.M.; Mayor, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    The optimisation of the performance of products with smart/active functionalities (e. g. in protective clothing, home textiles products, automotive seats, etc.) is still a challenge for manufacturers and developers. The aim of this study was to optimise the thermal performance of a heating product by a numerical approach, by analysing several opposing requirements and defining solutions for the identified limitations, before the construction of the first prototype. A transfer model was developed to investigate the transport of heat from the skin to the environment, across a heating blanket with an embedded smart heating system. Several parameters of the textile material and of the heating system were studied, in order to optimise the thermal performance of the heating blanket. Focus was put on the effects of thickness and thermal conductivity of each layer, and on parameters associated with the heating elements, e.g. position of the heating wires relative to the skin, distance between heating wires, applied heating power, and temperature range for operation of the heating system. Furthermore, several configurations of the blanket (and corresponding heating powers) were analysed in order to minimise the heat loss from the body to the environment, and the temperature distribution along the skin. The results show that, to ensure an optimal compromise between the thermal performance of the product and the temperature oscillation along its surface, the distance between the wires should be small (and not bigger than 50 mm), and each layer of the heating blanket should have a specific thermal resistance, based on the expected external conditions during use and the requirements of the heating system (i.e. requirements regarding energy consumption/efficiency and capacity to effectively regulate body exchanges with surrounding environment). The heating system should operate in an ON/OFF mode based on the body heating needs and within a temperature range specified based on

  8. A Two-Phase Cooling Loop for Fission Surface Power Waste Heat Transport, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current lunar-based Fission Surface Power (FSP) Systems that will support sustained surface outposts consist of a nuclear reactor with power converters, whose waste...

  9. Modelling of activity transport in primary heat transport (PHT) system of Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandeya, S.G.; Pujari, P.K.; Gandhi, H.C.; Venkateswaran, G.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Krishnarao, K.S.; Mathur, P.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Power plants (NPPs) are designed and built with the aim of minimising the occupational exposure to the operational and maintenance staff. Despite the use of prudently selected materials of construction with high corrosion resistance and adopting very stringent water chemistry controls during operation the build-up of activity in the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) systems of NPPs has been found to be unavoidable. The Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) are no exception to this. To enable advance planning of maintenance work and the decontamination schedules, it is necessary to perform the off-site calculations to predict the activity buildup in the PHT circuits of the NPPs. A computer code ANUCRUD is under development for predicting the corrosion product and activity transport behaviour in the PHT circuits of Indian PHWRs. The present paper briefly describes some of the salient features of the code ANUCRUD. As a first attempt, preliminary calculations for predicting corrosion product crud concentration buildup in the PHT circuit of the 220 MWe Indian PHWR have been carried out using the code. The findings of these studies are discussed in the paper. Finally, the further improvements proposed to be carried out in the code are also brought out in the paper. (author)

  10. Ballistic near-field heat transport in dense many-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Ivan; Biehs, Svend-Age; Messina, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Radiative heat transport mediated by near-field interactions is known to be superdiffusive in dilute, many-body systems. Here we use a generalized Landauer theory of radiative heat transfer in many-body planar systems to demonstrate a nonmonotonic transition from superdiffusive to ballistic transport in dense systems. We show that such a transition is associated to a change of the polarization of dominant modes. Our findings are complemented by a quantitative study of the relaxation dynamics of the system in the different regimes of heat transport. This result could have important consequences on thermal management at nanoscale of many-body systems.

  11. Effect of using acetone and distilled water on the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe (OLPHP) with different filling ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Afrose, Tonima; Tahmina, Halima Khatun; Rinky, Rumana Parvin; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is a new innovation in the modern era of miniaturizes thermal management system for its higher heating and cooling capacity. The objective of this experiment is to observe the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe using two fluids at different filling ratios. This OLPHP is a copper capillary tube of 2.5mm outer diameter and 2mm inner diameter. It consists of 8 loops where the evaporative section is 50mm, adiabatic section is 120mm and condensation section is 80mm. The experiment is conducted with distilled water and acetone at 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% filling ratios where 0° (vertical) is considered as definite angle of inclination. Distilled water and acetone are selected as working fluids considering their different latent heat of vaporization and surface tension. It is found that acetone shows lower thermal resistance than water at all heat inputs. Best performance of acetone is attained at 70% filling ratio. Water displays better heat transfer capability at 50% filling ratio.

  12. Minimization of transport and distribution cost for district heating study of particular cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, A.; Caizergues, R.; Moret Bailly, J.

    1977-01-01

    The transport and distribution of hot pressurized water involve different sets of criteria: transport networks, heat distribution networks, storages. The minimization of transport cost is studied together with the distribution of thermal energy. The same parameters are introduced into these programs. The same method is used for rate of flow calculations, but mathematical methods of pipe diameter calculation are different. Some transport and distribution networks are studied with the corresponding computed programs: 52 branches networks-27 terminations; 287 branches networks-148 terminations

  13. FEFLOW finite element modeling of flow, mass and heat transport in porous and fractured media

    CERN Document Server

    Diersch, Hans-Jörg G

    2013-01-01

    Placing advanced theoretical and numerical methods in the hands of modeling practitioners and scientists, this book explores the FEFLOW system for solving flow, mass and heat transport processes in porous and fractured media. Offers applications and exercises.

  14. Subcooled He II heat transport in the channel with abrupt contractions/enlargements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, R.; Iwamoto, A.; Hamaguchi, S.; Mito, T.

    2002-01-01

    Heat transport mechanisms for subcooled He II in the channel with abrupt contractions and/or enlargements have been investigated under steady state conditions. The channel, made of G-10, contains various contraction geometries to simulate the cooling channel of a superconducting magnet. In other words, contractions are periodically placed along the channel to simulate the spacers within the magnet winding. A copper block heater inputs the heat to the channel from one end, while the other end is open to the He II bath. Temperature profiles were measured with temperature sensors embedded in the channel as a function of heat input. Calculations were performed using a simple one-dimensional turbulent heat transport equation and with geometric factor consideration. The effects on heat transport mechanisms in He II caused by abrupt change of channel geometry and size are discussed

  15. Heat transport in the XXZ spin chain: from ballistic to diffusive regimes and dephasing enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Arenas, J J; Al-Assam, S; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the heat transport in an XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with homogeneous magnetic field, incoherently driven out of equilibrium by reservoirs at the boundaries. We focus on the effect of bulk dephasing (energy-dissipative) processes in different parameter regimes of the system. The non-equilibrium steady state of the chain is obtained by simulating its evolution under the corresponding Lindblad master equation, using the time evolving block decimation method. In the absence of dephasing, the heat transport is ballistic for weak interactions, while being diffusive in the strongly interacting regime, as evidenced by the heat current scaling with the system size. When bulk dephasing takes place in the system, diffusive transport is induced in the weakly interacting regime, with the heat current monotonically decreasing with the dephasing rate. In contrast, in the strongly interacting regime, the heat current can be significantly enhanced by dephasing for systems of small size. (paper)

  16. Circum-Antarctic Shoreward Heat Transport Derived From an Eddy- and Tide-Resolving Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew L.; Klocker, Andreas; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2018-01-01

    Almost all heat reaching the bases of Antarctica's ice shelves originates from warm Circumpolar Deep Water in the open Southern Ocean. This study quantifies the roles of mean and transient flows in transporting heat across almost the entire Antarctic continental slope and shelf using an ocean/sea ice model run at eddy- and tide-resolving (1/48°) horizontal resolution. Heat transfer by transient flows is approximately attributed to eddies and tides via a decomposition into time scales shorter than and longer than 1 day, respectively. It is shown that eddies transfer heat across the continental slope (ocean depths greater than 1,500 m), but tides produce a stronger shoreward heat flux across the shelf break (ocean depths between 500 m and 1,000 m). However, the tidal heat fluxes are approximately compensated by mean flows, leaving the eddy heat flux to balance the net shoreward heat transport. The eddy-driven cross-slope overturning circulation is too weak to account for the eddy heat flux. This suggests that isopycnal eddy stirring is the principal mechanism of shoreward heat transport around Antarctica, though likely modulated by tides and surface forcing.

  17. Experimental investigation on heat transport in gravel-sand materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maureschat, Gerald; Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    in sand-gravel material, the storage media is to be water satured. In this case, handling of such material on site is rather complex. The conduction is highly dependent on the thermal properties of the storage media and so is the overall thermal performance of a storage applying such media. For sandy...... out in a small size experiment. The experiment consists of a highly insulated box filled with two kinds of sand material crossed by a plastic heat pipe. Heat transfer is measured under dry and water satured conditions in a cross-section.The conclusions are clear. To obtain necessary heat conduction...

  18. A planar conducting micro-loop structure for transportation of magnetic beads: An approach towards rapid sensing and quantification of biological entities

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    tools for accurate and rapid cell sorting and counting. Effective manipulation of beads is a critical factor for the performance of LOC devices. In this paper we propose a planar conducting micro-loop structure to trap, manipulate and transport magnetic

  19. A new photovoltaic solar-assisted loop heat pipe/heat-pump system%新型光伏-太阳能环形热管/热泵复合系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙灿; 裴刚; 张涛; 季杰

    2014-01-01

    The photovoltaic solar assisted loop heat pipe system/heat-pump (PV-SALHP/HP) is the combination of solar assisted loop heat pipe system (SALHP) and solar assisted heat pipe (SAHP). A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) evaporator and condenser could be shared by two circling modes, and so is the working medium. The loop heat pipe mode will be utilized when solar radiation is strong and the temperature of working medium in PVT evaporator is higher than that in condenser. Correspondingly, the heat pump mode will be started when solar radiation is weak or the temperature difference of working medium in PVT evaporator and condenser cannot satisfy the condition of loop heat pipe mode. The loop heat pipe mode is passive and the heat pump mode is active, which means that the loop heat pipe mode does not consume work and the heat pump mode does. Therefore, the transformable mode of system could heavily reduce power consumption, raise the utilization ratio of solar energy, and promote energy saving. A PV-SAHP/LHP test rig is built. The instantaneous and daily performance of the loop heat pipe mode and heat pump mode is studied.%光伏-太阳能环形热管/热泵复合系统将太阳能环形热管循环模式和太阳能热泵循环模式有机结合,两者采用相同的工质,共用一个PVT蒸发器和冷凝器。当太阳辐照强度较强,工质在PVT蒸发器中的温度高于冷凝器中的温度时,可以利用环形热管模式制热;当太阳辐照强度较弱或工质在PVT蒸发器中与冷凝器中的温差无法满足环形热管模式运行时,可以利用热泵模式制热。两种模式既能够独立运行,又可以互相切换,确保热能的稳定供应,同时能够明显降低系统耗电量。搭建了光伏-太阳能环形热管/热泵复合系统实验平台,对复合系统在环形热管模式和热泵模式独立运行时的瞬时性能和全天性能进行了实验研究。

  20. Heating and active control of profiles and transport by IBW in the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanping; Wan Baonian; Li Jiangang

    2003-01-01

    Significant progress on Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating and control of profiles has been obtained in HT-7. Both on-axis and off-axis electron heating with global peaked and local steep electron pressure profiles were realized if the position of the resonant layer was selected to be plasma far from the plasma edge region. Reduction of electron heat transport has been observed from sawtooth heat pulse propagation. Improvement of both particle and energy confinement was slight in the on-axis and considerable in the off-axis heating cases. The improved confinement in off-axis heating mode may be due to the extension of the high performance plasma volume caused by IBW. These studies demonstrate that IBWs are potentially a tool for active control of plasma profiles and transport. (author)

  1. Mobile heat storage containers and their transport by rail or road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, Philipp

    2013-10-15

    Mobile heat storage containers are capable of making a contribution to the meaningful use of energy which is needed for use at a location other than where it originates. The study presented in this report outlines the technology of mobile heat storage and analyses an example of its transport by rail or road. (orig.)

  2. Process for the transport of heat energy released by a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberg, H.W.; Wolff, G.

    1978-01-01

    The heat produced in a nuclear reactor is converted into latent chemical binding energy. The heat can be released again below 400 0 C by recombination after transport by decomposition of ethane or propane into ethylene or propylene and hydrogen. (TK) [de

  3. Magnetically Modulated Heat Transport in a Global Simulation of Solar Magneto-convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossette, Jean-Francois [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Campus Box 600, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Charbonneau, Paul [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, RG2 9AX (United Kingdom); Rast, Mark P., E-mail: Jean-Francois.Cossette@lasp.colorado.edu, E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: smolar@ecmwf.int, E-mail: Mark.Rast@lasp.colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Campus Box 391, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    We present results from a global MHD simulation of solar convection in which the heat transported by convective flows varies in-phase with the total magnetic energy. The purely random initial magnetic field specified in this experiment develops into a well-organized large-scale antisymmetric component undergoing hemispherically synchronized polarity reversals on a 40 year period. A key feature of the simulation is the use of a Newtonian cooling term in the entropy equation to maintain a convectively unstable stratification and drive convection, as opposed to the specification of heating and cooling terms at the bottom and top boundaries. When taken together, the solar-like magnetic cycle and the convective heat flux signature suggest that a cyclic modulation of the large-scale heat-carrying convective flows could be operating inside the real Sun. We carry out an analysis of the entropy and momentum equations to uncover the physical mechanism responsible for the enhanced heat transport. The analysis suggests that the modulation is caused by a magnetic tension imbalance inside upflows and downflows, which perturbs their respective contributions to heat transport in such a way as to enhance the total convective heat flux at cycle maximum. Potential consequences of the heat transport modulation for solar irradiance variability are briefly discussed.

  4. Diffusive heat transport across magnetic islands and stochastic layers in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzl, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Heat transport in tokamak plasmas with magnetic islands and ergodic field lines was simulated at realistic plasma parameters in realistic tokamak geometries. This requires the treatment of anisotropic heat diffusion, which is more efficient along magnetic field lines by up to ten orders of magnitude than perpendicular to them. Comparisons with analytical predictions and experimental measurements allow to determine the stability properties of neoclassical tearing modes as well as the experimental heat diffusion anisotropy.

  5. Heat transport as torsional responses and Keldysh formalism in a curved spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Shitade, Atsuo

    2013-01-01

    We revisit a theory of heat transport in the light of a gauge theory of gravity and find the proper heat current with a corresponding gauge field, which yields the natural definitions of the heat magnetization and the Kubo-formula contribution to the thermal conductivity as torsional responses. We also develop a general framework for calculating gravitational responses by combining the Keldysh and Cartan formalisms. By using this framework, we explicitly calculate these two quantities and rep...

  6. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; J.-C. Domec; B.L. Gartner; J.M. Warren; D.R. Woodruff; K. Bible; D.C. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of tong-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D20) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  7. VS2DRTI: Simulating Heat and Reactive Solute Transport in Variably Saturated Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W; Haile, Sosina S; Parkhurst, David L; Charlton, Scott R

    2018-01-29

    Variably saturated groundwater flow, heat transport, and solute transport are important processes in environmental phenomena, such as the natural evolution of water chemistry of aquifers and streams, the storage of radioactive waste in a geologic repository, the contamination of water resources from acid-rock drainage, and the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Up to now, our ability to simulate these processes simultaneously with fully coupled reactive transport models has been limited to complex and often difficult-to-use models. To address the need for a simple and easy-to-use model, the VS2DRTI software package has been developed for simulating water flow, heat transport, and reactive solute transport through variably saturated porous media. The underlying numerical model, VS2DRT, was created by coupling the flow and transport capabilities of the VS2DT and VS2DH models with the equilibrium and kinetic reaction capabilities of PhreeqcRM. Flow capabilities include two-dimensional, constant-density, variably saturated flow; transport capabilities include both heat and multicomponent solute transport; and the reaction capabilities are a complete implementation of geochemical reactions of PHREEQC. The graphical user interface includes a preprocessor for building simulations and a postprocessor for visual display of simulation results. To demonstrate the simulation of multiple processes, the model is applied to a hypothetical example of injection of heated waste water to an aquifer with temperature-dependent cation exchange. VS2DRTI is freely available public domain software. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Role of ocean heat transport in climates of tidally locked exoplanets around M dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongyun; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-14

    The distinctive feature of tidally locked exoplanets is the very uneven heating by stellar radiation between the dayside and nightside. Previous work has focused on the role of atmospheric heat transport in preventing atmospheric collapse on the nightside for terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone around M dwarfs. In the present paper, we carry out simulations with a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to investigate the role of ocean heat transport in climate states of tidally locked habitable exoplanets around M dwarfs. Our simulation results demonstrate that ocean heat transport substantially extends the area of open water along the equator, showing a lobster-like spatial pattern of open water, instead of an "eyeball." For sufficiently high-level greenhouse gases or strong stellar radiation, ocean heat transport can even lead to complete deglaciation of the nightside. Our simulations also suggest that ocean heat transport likely narrows the width of M dwarfs' habitable zone. This study provides a demonstration of the importance of exooceanography in determining climate states and habitability of exoplanets.

  9. Diffusive and convective transport modelling from analysis of ECRH-stimulated electron heat wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erckmann, V.; Gasparino, U.; Giannone, L.

    1992-01-01

    ECRH power modulation experiments in toroidal devices offer the chance to analyze the electron heat transport more conclusively: the electron heat wave propagation can be observed by ECE (or SX) leading to radial profiles of electron temperature modulation amplitude and time delay (phase shift). Taking also the stationary power balance into account, the local electron heat transport can be modelled by a combination of diffusive and convective transport terms. This method is applied to ECRH discharges in the W7-AS stellarator (B=2.5T, R=2m, a≤18 cm) where the ECRH power deposition is highly localized. In W7-AS, the T e modulation profiles measured by a high resolution ECE system are the basis for the local transport analysis. As experimental errors limit the separation of diffusive and convective terms in the electron heat transport for central power deposition, also ECRH power modulation experiments with off-axis deposition and inward heat wave propagation were performed (with 70 GHz o-mode as well as with 140 GHz x-mode for increased absorption). Because collisional electron-ion coupling and radiative losses are only small, low density ECRH discharges are best candidates for estimating the electron heat flux from power balance. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs

  10. Thickness Optimisation of Textiles Subjected to Heat and Mass Transport during Ironing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korycki Ryszard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Let us next analyse the coupled problem during ironing of textiles, that is, the heat is transported with mass whereas the mass transport with heat is negligible. It is necessary to define both physical and mathematical models. Introducing two-phase system of mass sorption by fibres, the transport equations are introduced and accompanied by the set of boundary and initial conditions. Optimisation of material thickness during ironing is gradient oriented. The first-order sensitivity of an arbitrary objective functional is analysed and included in optimisation procedure. Numerical example is the thickness optimisation of different textile materials in ironing device.

  11. The cysteines of the extracellular loop are crucial for trafficking of human organic cation transporter 2 to the plasma membrane and are involved in oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brast, Sabine; Grabner, Alexander; Sucic, Sonja; Sitte, Harald H; Hermann, Edwin; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schlatter, Eberhard; Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2012-03-01

    Human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) is involved in transport of many endogenous and exogenous organic cations, mainly in kidney and brain cells. Because the quaternary structure of transmembrane proteins plays an essential role for their cellular trafficking and function, we investigated whether hOCT2 forms oligomeric complexes, and if so, which part of the transporter is involved in the oligomerization. A yeast 2-hybrid mating-based split-ubiquitin system (mbSUS), fluorescence resonance energy transfer, Western blot analysis, cross-linking experiments, immunofluorescence, and uptake measurements of the fluorescent organic cation 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium were applied to human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells transfected with hOCT2 and partly also to freshly isolated human proximal tubules. The role of cysteines for oligomerization and trafficking of the transporter to the plasma membranes was investigated in cysteine mutants of hOCT2. hOCT2 formed oligomers both in the HEK293 expression system and in native human kidneys. The cysteines of the large extracellular loop are important to enable correct folding, oligomeric assembly, and plasma membrane insertion of hOCT2. Mutation of the first and the last cysteines of the loop at positions 51 and 143 abolished oligomer formation. Thus, the cysteines of the extracellular loop are important for correct trafficking of the transporter to the plasma membrane and for its oligomerization.

  12. Loop kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Basic operators acting in the loop space are introduced. The topology of this space and properties of the Stokes type loop functionals are discussed. The parametrically invariant loop calculus developed here is used in the loop dynamics

  13. Heating and active control of profiles and transport by IBW in the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanping

    2002-01-01

    By a series of technical improvements and intensive RF boronization, significant progresses on the IBW heating and control of profiles and transport has been obtained since last IAEA meeting. Both on-axis and off-axis electron heating with global peaked and local steeped electron pressure profile was realized if the resonant layer is in plasma far from the edge region. Maximum increment of electron temperature was about 2 keV at power of 200 kW. The heating factor reached 9.4 eV x 10 13 cm -3 /kW. Reduction of local electron heat transport around resonant layer has been observed. Significant improvement of particle confinement by a factor of 2-4 with very peaked density profile was obtained if 5/2-deuterium resonant layer is located at the plasma edge. Global transport and edge poloidal velocity shear can been controlled by IBW. (author)

  14. Performance of the Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Rover Heat Rejection System Used for Thermal Control of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.; Miller, Jennifer; Karlmann, Paul; Liu, Yuanming; Anderson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The challenging range of landing sites for which the Mars Science Laboratory Rover was designed, required a rover thermal management system that is capable of keeping temperatures controlled across a wide variety of environmental conditions. On the Martian surface where temperatures can be as cold as -123 C and as warm as 38 C, the Rover relies upon a Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) Rover Heat Rejection System (RHRS) and external radiators to maintain the temperature of sensitive electronics and science instruments within a -40 C to +50 C range. The RHRS harnesses some of the waste heat generated from the Rover power source, known as the Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), for use as survival heat for the rover during cold conditions. The MMRTG produces 110 Watts of electrical power while generating waste heat equivalent to approximately 2000 Watts. Heat exchanger plates (hot plates) positioned close to the MMRTG pick up this survival heat from it by radiative heat transfer and supply it to the rover. This design is the first instance of use of a RHRS for thermal control of a rover or lander on the surface of a planet. After an extremely successful landing on Mars (August 5), the rover and the RHRS have performed flawlessly for close to an earth year (half the nominal mission life). This paper will share the performance of the RHRS on the Martian surface as well as compare it to its predictions.

  15. Characteristics of nonlocally-coupled transition of the heat transport in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Itoh, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Sudo, S.; Yamada, H.; Inagaki, S.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of characteristics between a nonlocal transport phenomenon and an electron internal transport barrier (ITB) in the Large Helical Device is performed with a transient transport analysis and from the viewpoint of a dynamic behavior of transport state. The electron ITB is characterized by a jump of electron temperature gradient. In contrast, the transient transport analysis indicates the nonlocal transport phenomenon is characterized by a jump of electron heat flux. And seen from the viewpoint of the dynamic behavior of transport state, the physical mechanism of the appearance of the nonlocal transport phenomenon is found to be qualitatively different from that of the formation of the electron ITB. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Comparison of transient electron heat transport in LHD helical and JT-60U tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, S.; Ida, K.; Tamura, N.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Sudo, S.; Ohkubo, K.; Takenaga, H.; Isayama, A.; Takizuka, T.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Transient transport experiments are performed in plasmas with and without Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) on LHD and JT-60U. The dependence of χ e on electron temperature, T e , and electron temperature gradient, ∇T e , is analyzed by an empirical non-linear heat transport model. In plasmas without ITB, two different types of non-linearity of the electron heat transport are observed from cold/heat pulse propagation. The χ e depends on T e and ∇T e in JT-60U, while the ∇T e dependence is weak in LHD. Inside the ITB region, there is no or weak ∇T e dependence both in LHD and JT-60U. A cold pulse growing driven by the negative T e dependence of χ e is observed inside the ITB region (LHD) and near the boundary of the ITB region (JT-60U). (author)

  17. Study of Heat Flux Threshold and Perturbation Effect on Transport Barrier Formation Based on Bifurcation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatthong, B.; Onjun, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Sarazin, Y.; Strugarek, A.; Picha, R.; Poolyarat, N.

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Formation of transport barrier in fusion plasma is studied using a simple one-field bistable S-curve bifurcation model. This model is characterized by an S-line with two stable branches corresponding to the low (L) and high (H) confinement modes, connected by an unstable branch. Assumptions used in this model are such that the reduction in anomalous transport is caused by v E velocity shear effect and also this velocity shear is proportional to pressure gradient. In this study, analytical and numerical approaches are used to obtain necessary conditions for transport barrier formation, i.e. the ratio of anomalous over neoclassical coefficients and heat flux thresholds which must be exceeded. Several profiles of heat sources are considered in this work including constant, Gaussian, and hyperbolic tangent forms. Moreover, the effect of perturbation in heat flux is investigated with respect to transport barrier formation

  18. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  19. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  20. Modification of the finite element heat and mass transfer code (FEHMN) to model multicomponent reactive transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    The finite element code FEHMN is a three-dimensional finite element heat and mass transport simulator that can handle complex stratigraphy and nonlinear processes such as vadose zone flow, heat flow and solute transport. Scientists at LANL have been developed hydrologic flow and transport models of the Yucca Mountain site using FEHMN. Previous FEHMN simulations have used an equivalent K d model to model solute transport. In this thesis, FEHMN is modified making it possible to simulate the transport of a species with a rigorous chemical model. Including the rigorous chemical equations into FEHMN simulations should provide for more representative transport models for highly reactive chemical species. A fully kinetic formulation is chosen for the FEHMN reactive transport model. Several methods are available to computationally implement a fully kinetic formulation. Different numerical algorithms are investigated in order to optimize computational efficiency and memory requirements of the reactive transport model. The best algorithm of those investigated is then incorporated into FEHMN. The algorithm chosen requires for the user to place strongly coupled species into groups which are then solved for simultaneously using FEHMN. The complete reactive transport model is verified over a wide variety of problems and is shown to be working properly. The simulations demonstrate that gas flow and carbonate chemistry can significantly affect 14 C transport at Yucca Mountain. The simulations also provide that the new capabilities of FEHMN can be used to refine and buttress already existing Yucca Mountain radionuclide transport studies

  1. Integrated heat transport simulation of high ion temperature plasma of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Sakai, A.

    2014-10-01

    A first dynamical simulation of high ion temperature plasma with carbon pellet injection of LHD is performed by the integrated simulation GNET-TD + TASK3D. NBI heating deposition of time evolving plasma is evaluated by the 5D drift kinetic equation solver, GNET-TD and the heat transport of multi-ion species plasma (e, H, He, C) is studied by the integrated transport simulation code, TASK3D. Achievement of high ion temperature plasma is attributed to the 1) increase of heating power per ion due to the temporal increase of effective charge, 2) reduction of effective neoclassical transport with impurities, 3) reduction of turbulence transport. The reduction of turbulence transport is most significant contribution to achieve the high ion temperature and the reduction of the turbulent transport from the L-mode plasma (normal hydrogen plasma) is evaluated to be a factor about five by using integrated heat transport simulation code. Applying the Z effective dependent turbulent reduction model we obtain a similar time behavior of ion temperature after the C pellet injection with the experimental results. (author)

  2. Fission products transport in CANDU Primary Heat Transport System in a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.; Rizoiu, A.; Turcu, I.; Negut, Gh.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The paper is intended to analyse the distribution of the fission products (FPs) in CANDU Primary Heat Transport (PHT) System by using the ASTEC code (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). The complexity of the data required by ASTEC and the complexity of CANDU PHT were strong motivation to begin with a simplified geometry in order to avoid the introducing of unmanageable errors at the level of input deck. Thus only 1/4 of the PHT circuit was simulated, an simplified FPs inventory and some simplifications in the feeders geometry were also used. The circuit consists of 95 horizontal fuel channels connected to 95 horizontal out-feeders, then through vertical feeders to the outlet-header (a big pipe that collects the water from feeders); the circuit continues from the outlet-header with a riser and then with the steam generator and a pump. After this pump, the circuit was broken; in this point the FPs are transferred to the containment. The data related to the nodes' definitions, temperatures and pressure conditions were chosen as possible as real data from CANDU NPP loss of coolant accident sequence. Temperature and pressure conditions in the time of the accident were calculated by CATHENA code and the source term of FPs introduced into the PHT was estimated by ORIGEN code. The results consist of mass distributions in the nodes of the circuit and the mass transfer to the containment through the break for different species (FPs and chemical species). The study is completed by sensitivity analysis for the parameters with important uncertainties. (authors)

  3. Nonlocal heat transport and improved target design for x-ray heating studies at x-ray free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoidn, Oliver; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2018-01-01

    The extremely high-power densities and short durations of single pulses of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) have opened new opportunities in atomic physics, where complex excitation-relaxation chains allow for high ionization states in atomic and molecular systems, and in dense plasma physics, where XFEL heating of solid-density targets can create unique dense states of matter having temperatures on the order of the Fermi energy. We focus here on the latter phenomena, with special emphasis on the problem of optimum target design to achieve high x-ray heating into the warm dense matter (WDM) state. We report fully three-dimensional simulations of the incident x-ray pulse and the resulting multielectron relaxation cascade to model the spatial energy density deposition in multicomponent targets, with particular focus on the effects of nonlocal heat transport due to the motion of high energy photoelectrons and Auger electrons. We find that nanoscale high-Z /low-Z multicomponent targets can give much improved energy density deposition in lower-Z materials, with enhancements reaching a factor of 100. This has three important benefits. First, it greatly enlarges the thermodynamic parameter space in XFEL x-ray heating studies of lower-Z materials. Second, it allows the use of higher probe photon energies, enabling higher-information content x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements such as in two-color XFEL operations. Third, while this is merely one step toward optimization of x-ray heating target design, the demonstration of the importance of nonlocal heat transport establishes important common ground between XFEL-based x-ray heating studies and more traditional laser plasma methods.

  4. Nonlinear charge transport in bipolar semiconductors due to electron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Valdovinos, S.; Gurevich, Yu.G.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that when strong electric field is applied to a semiconductor sample, the current voltage characteristic deviates from the linear response. In this letter, we propose a new point of view of nonlinearity in semiconductors which is associated with the electron temperature dependence on the recombination rate. The heating of the charge carriers breaks the balance between generation and recombination, giving rise to nonequilibrium charge carriers concentration and nonlinearity. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of nonlinearity of current-voltage characteristic (CVC) is proposed. • The hot electron temperature violates the equilibrium between electrons and holes. • This violation gives rise to nonequilibrium concentration of electrons and holes. • This leads to nonlinear CVC (along with the heating nonlinearity).

  5. Nonlinear charge transport in bipolar semiconductors due to electron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Valdovinos, S., E-mail: sergiom@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Académica de Física, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, CP 98060, Zacatecas, Zac, México (Mexico); Gurevich, Yu.G. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Física, Av. IPN 2508, México D.F., CP 07360, México (Mexico)

    2016-05-27

    It is known that when strong electric field is applied to a semiconductor sample, the current voltage characteristic deviates from the linear response. In this letter, we propose a new point of view of nonlinearity in semiconductors which is associated with the electron temperature dependence on the recombination rate. The heating of the charge carriers breaks the balance between generation and recombination, giving rise to nonequilibrium charge carriers concentration and nonlinearity. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of nonlinearity of current-voltage characteristic (CVC) is proposed. • The hot electron temperature violates the equilibrium between electrons and holes. • This violation gives rise to nonequilibrium concentration of electrons and holes. • This leads to nonlinear CVC (along with the heating nonlinearity).

  6. Molecular dynamics study on heat transport from single-walled carbon nanotubes to Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ya; Zhu, Jie, E-mail: zhujie@iet.cn; Tang, Da-Wei

    2015-02-06

    In this paper, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the heat transport between a vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and Si substrate, to find out the influence of temperature and system sizes, including diameter and length of SWNT and measurements of substrate. Results revealed that high temperature hindered heat transport in SWNT itself but was a beneficial stimulus for heat transport at interface of SWNT and Si. Furthermore, the system sizes strongly affected the peaks in vibrational density of states of Si, which led to interfacial thermal conductance dependent on system sizes. - Highlights: • NEMD is performed to simulate the heat transport from SWNT to Si substrate. • We analyze both interfacial thermal conductance and thermal conductivity of SWNT. • High temperature is a beneficial stimulus for heat transport at the interface. • Interfacial thermal conductance strongly depends on the sizes of SWNT and substrate. • We calculate VDOS of C and Si atoms to analyze phonon couplings between them.

  7. Combined heat and cold generation using vertical ground loops; Gekoppelte Kaelte- und Waermeerzeugung mit Erdwaermesonden: Handbuch zum Planungsvorgehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, J.; Nussbaumer, T. [Ingenieurbuero Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Huber, A.; Widmer, P. [Huber Energietechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Truessel, D. [Kaelte-Waerme-Technik AG, Belp (Switzerland); Schmid, Ch. [Buero fuer Energietechnik, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This handbook produced for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) addresses the problem of designing systems that produce heat and cold using integrated systems. The idea of using a single heat pump system instead of separate heating and refrigeration systems is introduced. Typical applications such as bakeries, restaurants and grocery stores are discussed. The use of vertical bore-hole heat-exchangers as a source of heat in winter and as a source of cold in summer is recommended. The handbook shows how heating and cooling needs can be calculated and examines the energy balance of a ground-coupled heat pump system. The design and calculation of an integrated system is described. A practical example of a system realised in a motor way restaurant near Berne, Switzerland, is given. Here, a heat pump-based system produces cold for refrigeration and heat for space heating and hot water. To enable comparisons to be made between different systems, the notions of energy efficiency ratio for heating and cooling (GLZ) and performance efficiency ratio for heating and cooling (GAZ) are introduced. An appendix provides useful information on simulation tools, temperature characteristics, the calculation of hot water demands, heat recovery and details on the energy consumption of refrigeration and deep-freeze equipment.

  8. 3D modeling of groundwater heat transport in the shallow Westliches Leibnitzer Feld aquifer, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Gerhard; Kupfersberger, Hans

    2018-02-01

    For the shallow Westliches Leibnitzer feld aquifer (45 km2) we applied the recently developed methodology by Kupfersberger et al. (2017a) to derive the thermal upper boundary for a 3D heat transport model from observed air temperatures. We distinguished between land uses of grass and agriculture, sealed surfaces, forest and water bodies. To represent the heat flux from heated buildings and the mixture between different land surfaces in urban areas we ran the 1D vertical heat conduction module SoilTemp which is coupled to the heat transport model (using FEFLOW) on a time step basis. Over a simulation period of 23 years the comparison between measured and observed groundwater temperatures yielded NSE values ranging from 0.41 to 0.92 including readings at different depths. The model results showed that the thermal input signals lead to distinctly different vertical groundwater temperature distributions. To overcome the influence of specific warm or cold years we introduced the computation of an annual averaged groundwater temperature profile. With respect to the use of groundwater cooling or heating facilities we evaluated the application of vertically averaged statistical groundwater temperature distributions compared to the use of temperature distributions at selected dates. We concluded that the heat transport model serves well as an aquifer scale management tool to optimize the use of the shallow subsurface for thermal purposes and to analyze the impacts of corresponding measures on groundwater temperatures.

  9. Analysis for Heat Transfer in a High Current-Passing Carbon Nanosphere Using Nontraditional Thermal Transport Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol C Y; Chen, B C; Tsai, Y H; Ma, C; Wen, M Y

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the thermal transport in hollow microscale and nanoscale spheres subject to electrical heat source using nontraditional thermal transport model. Working as supercapacitor electrodes, carbon hollow micrometer- and nanometer-sized spheres needs excellent heat transfer characteristics to maintain high specific capacitance, long cycle life, and high power density. In the nanoscale regime, the prediction of heat transfer from the traditional heat conduction equation based on Fourier's law deviates from the measured data. Consequently, the electrical heat source-induced heat transfer characteristics in hollow micrometer- and nanometer-sized spheres are studied using nontraditional thermal transport model. The effects of parameters on heat transfer in the hollow micrometer- and nanometer-sized spheres are discussed in this study. The results reveal that the heat transferred into the spherical interior, temperature and heat flux in the hollow sphere decrease with the increasing Knudsen number when the radius of sphere is comparable to the mean free path of heat carriers.

  10. A RSM-based predictive model to characterize heat treating parameters of D2 steel using combined Barkhausen noise and hysteresis loop methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrobaee, Saeed; Hejazi, Taha-Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Austenitizing and tempering temperatures are the effective characteristics in heat treating process of AISI D2 tool steel. Therefore, controlling them enables the heat treatment process to be designed more accurately which results in more balanced mechanical properties. The aim of this work is to develop a multiresponse predictive model that enables finding these characteristics based on nondestructive tests by a set of parameters of the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique and hysteresis loop method. To produce various microstructural changes, identical specimens from the AISI D2 steel sheet were austenitized in the range 1025-1130 °C, for 30 min, oil-quenched and finally tempered at various temperatures between 200 °C and 650 °C. A set of nondestructive data have been gathered based on general factorial design of experiments and used for training and testing the multiple response surface model. Finally, an optimization model has been proposed to achieve minimal error prediction. Results revealed that applying Barkhausen and hysteresis loop methods, simultaneously, coupling to the multiresponse model, has a potential to be used as a reliable and accurate nondestructive tool for predicting austenitizing and tempering temperatures (which, in turn, led to characterizing the microstructural changes) of the parts with unknown heat treating conditions.

  11. Fluid description of particle transport in hf heated magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, R.

    1980-01-01

    Particle fluxes averaged over high-frequency oscillations are analyzed. The collisional effects and the kinetic mechanisms of energy absorption are included. Spatial dependences of both the high-frequency and the (quasi-)steady electromagnetic fields are arbitrary. The equations governing the fluxes are deduced from the moments of the averaged kinetic equation. Explicit expressions for steady state fluxes are given in terms of electromagnetic field quantities. The results can also be applied to anomalous transport phenomena in weakly turbulent plasmas. (author)

  12. Effect of rotational speed modulation on heat transport in a fluid layer with temperature dependent viscosity and internal heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bhadauria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the combined effect of rotation speed modulation and internal heating on thermal instability in a temperature dependent viscous horizontal fluid layer. Rayleigh–Bénard momentum equation with Coriolis term has been considered to describe the convective flow. The system is rotating about it is own axis with non-uniform rotational speed. In particular, a time-periodic and sinusoidally varying rotational speed has been considered. A weak nonlinear stability analysis is performed to find the effect of modulation on heat transport. Nusselt number is obtained in terms of amplitude of convection and internal Rayleigh number, and depicted graphically for showing the effects of various parameters of the system. The effect of modulated rotation speed is found to have a stabilizing effect for different values of modulation frequency. Further, internal heating and thermo-rheological parameters are found to destabilize the system.

  13. Characteristics of convective heat transport in a packed pebble-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmohsin, Rahman S., E-mail: rsar62@mst.edu [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 400 West 11th Street/231 Schrenk Hall, Rolla, MO 65409-1230 (United States); Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H., E-mail: aldahhanm@mst.edu [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 400 West 11th Street/231 Schrenk Hall, Rolla, MO 65409-1230 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, 301 W. 14th St./222 Fulton Hall (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • A fast-response heat transfer probe has been developed and used in this work. • Heat transport has been quantified in terms of local heat transfer coefficients. • The method of the electrically heated single sphere in packing has been applied. • The heat transfer coefficient increases from the center to the wall of packed bed. • This work advancing the knowledge of heat transport in the studied packed bed. - Abstract: Obtaining more precise results and a better understanding of the heat transport mechanism in the dynamic core of packed pebble-bed reactors is needed because this mechanism poses extreme challenges to the reliable design and efficient operation of these reactors. This mechanism can be quantified in terms of a solid-to-gas convective heat transfer coefficient. Therefore, in this work, the local convective heat transfer coefficients and their radial profiles were measured experimentally in a separate effect pilot-plant scale and cold-flow experimental setup of 0.3 m in diameter, using a sophisticated noninvasive heat transfer probe of spherical type. The effect of gas velocity on the heat transfer coefficient was investigated over a wide range of Reynolds numbers of practical importance. The experimental investigations of this work include various radial locations along the height of the bed. It was found that an increase in coolant gas flow velocity causes an increase in the heat transfer coefficient and that effect of the gas flow rate varies from laminar to turbulent flow regimes at all radial positions of the studied packed pebble-bed reactor. The results show that the local heat transfer coefficient increases from the bed center to the wall due to the change in the bed structure, and hence, in the flow pattern of the coolant gas. The findings clearly indicate that one value of an overall heat transfer coefficient cannot represent the local heat transfer coefficients within the bed; therefore, correlations are needed to

  14. A planar conducting micro-loop structure for transportation of magnetic beads: An approach towards rapid sensing and quantification of biological entities

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic beads are utilized effectively in a wide variety of medical applications due to their small size, biocompatibility and large surface to volume ratio. Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices, which utilize magnetic beads, are promising tools for accurate and rapid cell sorting and counting. Effective manipulation of beads is a critical factor for the performance of LOC devices. In this paper we propose a planar conducting micro-loop structure to trap, manipulate and transport magnetic beads. Current through the micro-loops produces magnetic field gradients that are proportional to the force required to manipulate the beads. Numerical analyses were performed to study the magnetic forces and their spatial distributions. Experimental results showed that magnetic beads could not only be transported towards a target region, e.g., for sensing purposes, but also the trapping rate could be increased by switching current between the different loops in the micro-loop structure. This method could lead to rapid and accurate quantification of biological entities tagged with magnetic beads. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.

  15. A new treatment of the heat transport equation with a transport barrier and applications to ECRH experiments in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, A.G.; Bouquey, F.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Clemencon, A. [MIT, Electrochemical Energy Laboratory, Cambridge, MA (United States); Guivarch, C. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    2004-07-01

    An exact analytical solution of the electron heat diffusion equation in a cylinder has been found with a step-like diffusion coefficient, plus a monomial increase in the radial direction and a constant damping term. This model is sufficiently general to describe heat diffusion in the presence of a critical gradient threshold or a transport barrier, superimposed to the usual trend of increasing heat diffusivity from the plasma core to the edge. This type of representation allows us to see some well-known properties of heat transport phenomena in a different light. For instance, it has been shown that the contributions of the Eigenmodes to the time dependent solution grow at speeds that depend on the Eigenmode order i.e. at the beginning of the heating phase all the Eigenmodes are equally involved, whereas at the end only the lower order ones are left. This implies, e.g., that high frequency modulation experiments provide a characterization of transport phenomena that is intrinsically different with respect to power balance analysis of a stationary phase. It is particularly useful to analyse power switch on/off events and whenever high frequency modulations are not technically feasible. Low-frequency (1-2 Hz) ECRH modulation experiments have been performed on Tore Supra. A large jump (a factor of 8) in the heat diffusivity has been clearly identified at the ECRH power deposition layer. The amplitude and phase of several harmonics of the Fourier transform of the modulated temperature, as well as the time evolution of the modulated temperature have been reproduced by the analytical solution. The jump is found to be much weaker at lower ECRH power (one gyrotron)

  16. Computational simulation of flow and heat transfer in single-phase natural circulation loops; Simulacao computacional de escoamento e transferencia de calor em circuitos de circulacao natural monofasica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Larissa Cunha

    2017-07-01

    Passive decay heat removal systems based on natural circulation are essential assets for the new Gen III+ nuclear power reactors and nuclear spent fuel pools. The aim of the present work is to study both laminar and turbulent flow and heat transfer in single-phase natural circulation systems through computational fluid dynamics simulations. The working fluid is considered to be incompressible with constant properties. In the way, the Boussinesq Natural Convection Hypothesis was applied. The model chosen for the turbulence closure problem was the k -- εThe commercial computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX 15.0 was used to obtain the numerical solution of the governing equations. Two single-phase natural circulation circuits were studied, a 2D toroidal loop and a 3D rectangular loop, both with the same boundary conditions of: prescribed heat flux at the heater and fixed wall temperature at the cooler. The validation and verification was performed with the numerical data provided by DESRAYAUD et al. [1] and the experimental data provided by MISALE et al. [2] and KUMAR et al. [3]. An excellent agreement between the Reynolds number (Re) and the modified Grashof number (Gr{sub m}), independently of Prandtl Pr number was observed. However, the convergence interval was observed to be variable with Pr, thus indicating that Pr is a stability governing parameter for natural circulation. Multiple steady states was obtained for Pr = 0,7. Finally, the effect of inclination was studied for the 3D circuit, both in-plane and out-of-plane inclinations were verified for the steady state laminar regime. As a conclusion, the Re for the out-of-plane inclination was in perfect agreement with the correlation found for the zero inclination system, while for the in-plane inclined system the results differ from that of the corresponding vertical loop. (author)

  17. A RSM-based predictive model to characterize heat treating parameters of D2 steel using combined Barkhausen noise and hysteresis loop methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrobaee, Saeed; Hejazi, Taha-Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A statistical relationship between NDE inputs and heat treating outputs was provided. • Predicting austenitizing/tempering temperatures at unknown heat treating conditions. • An optimization model that achieves minimum error in prediction was developed. • Applying two simultaneous magnetic NDE methods led to better measuring reliability. - Abstract: Austenitizing and tempering temperatures are the effective characteristics in heat treating process of AISI D2 tool steel. Therefore, controlling them enables the heat treatment process to be designed more accurately which results in more balanced mechanical properties. The aim of this work is to develop a multiresponse predictive model that enables finding these characteristics based on nondestructive tests by a set of parameters of the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique and hysteresis loop method. To produce various microstructural changes, identical specimens from the AISI D2 steel sheet were austenitized in the range 1025–1130 °C, for 30 min, oil-quenched and finally tempered at various temperatures between 200 °C and 650 °C. A set of nondestructive data have been gathered based on general factorial design of experiments and used for training and testing the multiple response surface model. Finally, an optimization model has been proposed to achieve minimal error prediction. Results revealed that applying Barkhausen and hysteresis loop methods, simultaneously, coupling to the multiresponse model, has a potential to be used as a reliable and accurate nondestructive tool for predicting austenitizing and tempering temperatures (which, in turn, led to characterizing the microstructural changes) of the parts with unknown heat treating conditions.

  18. A RSM-based predictive model to characterize heat treating parameters of D2 steel using combined Barkhausen noise and hysteresis loop methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahrobaee, Saeed, E-mail: kahrobaee@sadjad.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Sadjad University of Technology, P.O. Box 91881-48848, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Taha-Hossein [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Sadjad University of Technology, P.O. Box 91881-48848, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A statistical relationship between NDE inputs and heat treating outputs was provided. • Predicting austenitizing/tempering temperatures at unknown heat treating conditions. • An optimization model that achieves minimum error in prediction was developed. • Applying two simultaneous magnetic NDE methods led to better measuring reliability. - Abstract: Austenitizing and tempering temperatures are the effective characteristics in heat treating process of AISI D2 tool steel. Therefore, controlling them enables the heat treatment process to be designed more accurately which results in more balanced mechanical properties. The aim of this work is to develop a multiresponse predictive model that enables finding these characteristics based on nondestructive tests by a set of parameters of the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique and hysteresis loop method. To produce various microstructural changes, identical specimens from the AISI D2 steel sheet were austenitized in the range 1025–1130 °C, for 30 min, oil-quenched and finally tempered at various temperatures between 200 °C and 650 °C. A set of nondestructive data have been gathered based on general factorial design of experiments and used for training and testing the multiple response surface model. Finally, an optimization model has been proposed to achieve minimal error prediction. Results revealed that applying Barkhausen and hysteresis loop methods, simultaneously, coupling to the multiresponse model, has a potential to be used as a reliable and accurate nondestructive tool for predicting austenitizing and tempering temperatures (which, in turn, led to characterizing the microstructural changes) of the parts with unknown heat treating conditions.

  19. Analysis of heat transfer and contaminant transport in fume hoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of three-dimensional flow patterns and the associated heat and mass transfer mechanisms in a fume hood enclosure. The flow enters the hood through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leaves the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow pattern around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its training surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. Both temperature and concentration were found to be maximum near the source and gradually decreased as the heated air or gaseous contaminant entrained with incoming air. The local concentration decreased with increase in sash opening area. The results will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air inside the room

  20. Heat, mass, and momentum transport model for hydrogen diffusion flames in nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is now possible to analyze the time-dependent, fully three-dimensional behavior of hydrogen diffusion flames in nuclear reactor containments. This analysis involves coupling the full Navier-Stokes equations with multi-species transport to the global chemical kinetics of hydrogen combustion. A transport equation for the subgrid scale turbulent kinetic energy density is solved to produce the time and space dependent turbulent transport coefficients. The heat transfer coefficient governing the exchange of heat between fluid computational cells adjacent to wall cells is calculated by a modified Reynolds analogy formulation. The analysis of a MARK-III containment indicates very complex flow patterns that greatly influence fluid and wall temperatures and heat fluxes. 18 refs., 24 figs

  1. Numerical simulation of the transport phenomena due to sudden heating in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, S.Y.; Zheng, G.Y.; Wang, B.X.; Yang, R.G.; Xia, C.M.

    1997-07-01

    Such process as wet porous media suddenly heated by hot fluids frequently occurs in nature and in industrial applications. The three-variable simulation model was developed to predict violent transport phenomena due to sudden heating in porous media. Two sets of independent variables were applied to different regions in porous media in the simulation. For the wet zone, temperature, wet saturation and air pressure were used as the independent variables. For the dry zone, the independent variables were temperature, vapor pressure and air pressure. The model simulated two complicated transport processes in wet unsaturated porous media which is suddenly heated by melting metal or boiling water. The effect of the gas pressure is also investigated on the overall transport phenomena.

  2. The influence of meridional ice transport on Europa's ocean stratification and heat content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Manucharyan, G.; Thompson, A. F.; Goodman, J. C.; Vance, S.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa likely hosts a saltwater ocean beneath its icy surface. Geothermal heating and rotating convection in the ocean may drive a global overturning circulation that redistributes heat vertically and meridionally, preferentially warming the ice shell at the equator. Here we assess thepreviously unconstrained influence of ocean-ice coupling on Europa's ocean stratification and heat transport. We demonstrate that a relatively fresh layer can form at the ice-ocean interface due to a meridional ice transport forced by the differential ice shell heating between the equator and the poles. We provide analytical and numerical solutions for the layer's characteristics, highlighting their sensitivity to critical ocean parameters. For a weakly turbulent and highly saline ocean, a strong buoyancy gradient at the base of the freshwater layer can suppress vertical tracer exchange with the deeper ocean. As a result, the freshwater layer permits relatively warm deep ocean temperatures.

  3. EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF CAMPUS HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM OF DNIPROPETROVSK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heat consumption for heating and hot water supply of housing and industrial facilities is an essential part of heat energy consumption. Prerequisite for development of energy saving measures in existing heating systems is their preliminary examination. The investigation results of campus heating system of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan are presented in the article. On the basis of the analysis it is proposed to take the energy saving measures and assess their effectiveness. Methodology. Analysis of the consumption structure of thermal energy for heating domestic and hot water supply was fulfilled. The real costs of heat supply during the calendar year and the normative costs were compared. Findings. The recording expenditures data of thermal energy for heating supply of residential buildings and dormitories in 2012 were analyzed. The comparison of actual performance with specific regulations was performed. This comparison revealed problems, whose solution will help the efficient use of thermal energy. Originality. For the first time the impact of climate conditions, features of schemes and designs of heating systems on the effective use of thermal energy were analyzed. It was studied the contribution of each component. Practical value. Based on the analysis of thermal energy consumption it was developed a list of possible energy saving measures that can be implemented in the system of heat and power facilities. It was evaluated the fuel and energy resources saving.

  4. Solar-energy heats a transportation test center--Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Petroleum-base, thermal energy transport fluid circulating through 583 square feet of flat-plate solar collectors accumulates majority of energy for space heating and domestic hot-water of large Test Center. Report describes operation, maintenance, and performance of system which is suitable for warehouses and similar buildings. For test period from February 1979 to January 1980, solar-heating fraction was 31 percent, solar hot-water fraction 79 percent.

  5. Study of heat transfer and particle transport in Tore Supra and HL-2A tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis reports on experimental studies of heat and particles transport performed on 2 large tokamaks: Tore Supra (based at CEA/Cadarache, France) and HL-2A (based at the Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, China). The modulated source is the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) for the heat pinch and density pump-out studies, while the non-local transport experiments use the Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) as source of modulation. The emphasis is put on the inward heat pinch. In the off-axis ECRH modulation experiments on Tore Supra with low frequency (1 Hz), strong heat inward transport has been observed, in particular for low density. Two transport models have been applied in order to analyze the experimental behavior. The first one is the linear pinch model (LPM) and the second one is an empirical model based on micro-instabilities theory, named Critical Gradient Model (CGM). Good agreement has been found for all harmonics between the experimental data and the simulation using LPM. On the other hand, good agreement has not been achieved using CGM. The density pump-out with large particles and energy losses during ECRH is commonly observed in tokamaks. A new dynamic approach using the modulation technique has been used in HL-2A for analyzing the transient phase of the density pump-out. A correlation between the turbulence increase and the density pump-out has been found. The non-local transport phenomenon, characterized by a fast transient process compared to the normal diffusive response to the perturbation is observed. Both phenomena, i.e., pump-out and non-locality, show as simultaneous variation of density and temperature. This can be an inspiration for the usage of a transport matrix which considers the density and temperature evolution together. Simulations with a simple transport matrix, with non-diagonal terms coupling temperature and density qualitatively reproduce the non-local and pump-out effects qualitatively

  6. A predictive transport modeling code for ICRF-heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.K.; Hwang, D.Q.

    1992-02-01

    In this report, a detailed description of the physic included in the WHIST/RAZE package as well as a few illustrative examples of the capabilities of the package will be presented. An in depth analysis of ICRF heating experiments using WHIST/RAZE will be discussed in a forthcoming report. A general overview of philosophy behind the structure of the WHIST/RAZE package, a summary of the features of the WHIST code, and a description of the interface to the RAZE subroutines are presented in section 2 of this report. Details of the physics contained in the RAZE code are examined in section 3. Sample results from the package follow in section 4, with concluding remarks and a discussion of possible improvements to the package discussed in section 5

  7. Computational study of heat transport in compositionally disordered binary crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyver, John W.; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2006-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of compositionally disordered binary crystals with atoms interacting through Lennard-Jones potentials has been studied as a function of temperature. The two species in the crystal differ in mass, hard-core atomic diameter, well depth and relative concentration. The isobaric Monte Carlo was used to equilibrate the samples at near-zero pressure. The isoenergy molecular dynamics combined with the Green-Kubo approach was taken to calculate the heat current time-dependent autocorrelation function and determine the lattice thermal conductivity of the sample. The inverse temperature dependence of the lattice thermal conductivity was shown to fail at low temperatures when the atomic diameters of the two species differ. Instead, the thermal conductivity was nearly a constant across temperatures for species with different atomic diameters. Overall, it is shown that there is a dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity with increasing atomic radii ratio between species and a moderate decrease due to mass disorder

  8. FFTF primary heat transport system heating, ventilating and air conditioning system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umek, A.M.; Hicks, D.F.; Schweiger, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    FFTF cools its primary/in-containment sodium equipment cells by means of a forced nitrogen cooling system which exchanges heat with a water-glycol system. The nitrogen cooling system is also used to maintain an inert gas atmosphere in the cells containing sodium equipment. Sodium Piping and Components have installed electrical resistance heaters to maintain a minimum sodium temperature and stainless steel jacketed mineral insulation to reduce heat loss. Design features and test results of a comprehensive redesign of the HVAC and insulation system required to support long-term nuclear operations are discussed

  9. Heat transport in low-dimensional materials: A review and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat transport is a key energetic process in materials and devices. The reduced sample size, low dimension of the problem and the rich spectrum of material imperfections introduce fruitful phenomena at nanoscale. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the understanding of heat transport process in low-dimensional materials, with focus on the roles of defects, disorder, interfaces, and the quantum-mechanical effect. New physics uncovered from computational simulations, experimental studies, and predictable models will be reviewed, followed by a perspective on open challenges.

  10. Diffusive-to-ballistic transition of the modulated heat transport in a rarefied air chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Heredia, C. L.; Macias, J.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Ares, O.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Modulated heat transfer in air subject to pressures from 760 Torr to 10-4 Torr is experimentally studied by means of a thermal-wave resonant cavity placed in a vacuum chamber. This is done through the analysis of the amplitude and phase delay of the photothermal signal as a function of the cavity length and pressure through of the Knudsen's number. The viscous, transitional, and free molecular regimes of heat transport are observed for pressures P>1.5 Torr, 25 mTorrheat transport.

  11. Required momentum, heat, and mass transport experiments for liquid-metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Sze, D.K.; Abdou, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Through the effects on fluid flow, many aspects of blanket behavior are affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects, including pressure drop, heat transfer, mass transfer, and structural behavior. In this paper, a set of experiments is examined that could be performed in order to reduce the uncertainties in the highly related set of issues dealing with momentum, heat, and mass transport under the influence of a strong magnetic field (i.e., magnetic transport phenomena). By improving our basic understanding and by providing direct experimental data on blanket behavior, these experiments will lead to improved designs and an accurate assessment of the attractiveness of liquid-metal blankets

  12. Flexibility analysis of main primary heat transport system : Narora Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents flexibility analysis problem of main primary heat transport system and the approximate analysis that has been made to estimate the loads coming on major equipments. The primary heat transport system for Narora Atomic Power Project is adopting vertical steam generators and pumps equally divided on either side of the reactor with inter-connecting pipes and feeders. Since the system is mainly spring supported with movement of a few points in certain direction defined but no anchorage, it represents a good problem for flexibility analysis which can only be solved in one step by developing a good computer programme. (author)

  13. Design considerations for CRBRP heat transport system piping operating at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.; Mello, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The heat transport system sodium piping for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) within the reactor containment building must withstand high temperatures for long periods of time. Each phase of the mechanical design process of the piping system is influenced by elevated temperature considerations which include material thermal creep effects, ratchetting caused by rapid temperature transients and stress relaxation, and material degradation effects. The structural design philosophy taken to design the CRBRP piping operating in a high temperature environment is described. The resulting design of the heat transport system piping is presented along with a discussion of special features that resulted from the elevated temperature considerations

  14. Importance of the Extracellular Loop 4 in the Human Serotonin Transporter for Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Wilson, Pamela; Kristensen, Kristina Birch; Sinning, Steffen; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Jacob

    2015-06-05

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by performing reuptake of released serotonin, and SERT is the primary target for antidepressants. SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin through an alternating access mechanism, implying that a central substrate site is connected to both sides of the membrane by permeation pathways, of which only one is accessible at a time. The coordinated conformational changes in SERT associated with substrate translocation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a Leu to Glu mutation at position 406 (L406E) in the extracellular loop 4 (EL4) of human SERT, which induced a remarkable gain-of-potency (up to >40-fold) for a range of SERT inhibitors. The effects were highly specific for L406E relative to six other mutations in the same position, including the closely related L406D mutation, showing that the effects induced by L406E are not simply charge-related effects. Leu(406) is located >10 Å from the central inhibitor binding site indicating that the mutation affects inhibitor binding in an indirect manner. We found that L406E decreased accessibility to a residue in the cytoplasmic pathway. The shift in equilibrium to favor a more outward-facing conformation of SERT can explain the reduced turnover rate and increased association rate of inhibitor binding we found for L406E. Together, our findings show that EL4 allosterically can modulate inhibitor binding within the central binding site, and substantiates that EL4 has an important role in controlling the conformational equilibrium of human SERT. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Importance of the Extracellular Loop 4 in the Human Serotonin Transporter for Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Translocation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Wilson, Pamela; Kristensen, Kristina Birch; Sinning, Steffen; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by performing reuptake of released serotonin, and SERT is the primary target for antidepressants. SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin through an alternating access mechanism, implying that a central substrate site is connected to both sides of the membrane by permeation pathways, of which only one is accessible at a time. The coordinated conformational changes in SERT associated with substrate translocation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a Leu to Glu mutation at position 406 (L406E) in the extracellular loop 4 (EL4) of human SERT, which induced a remarkable gain-of-potency (up to >40-fold) for a range of SERT inhibitors. The effects were highly specific for L406E relative to six other mutations in the same position, including the closely related L406D mutation, showing that the effects induced by L406E are not simply charge-related effects. Leu406 is located >10 Å from the central inhibitor binding site indicating that the mutation affects inhibitor binding in an indirect manner. We found that L406E decreased accessibility to a residue in the cytoplasmic pathway. The shift in equilibrium to favor a more outward-facing conformation of SERT can explain the reduced turnover rate and increased association rate of inhibitor binding we found for L406E. Together, our findings show that EL4 allosterically can modulate inhibitor binding within the central binding site, and substantiates that EL4 has an important role in controlling the conformational equilibrium of human SERT. PMID:25903124

  16. Investigation of thermal energy transport from an anisotropic central heating element to the adjacent channels: A multipoint flux approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; El-Amin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    anisotropy of the heating element and/or the encompassing plates on thermal energy transport to the fluid passing through the two channels. When the medium is anisotropic with respect to thermal conductivity; energy transport to the neighboring channels

  17. Modification of the finite element heat and mass transfer code (FEHM) to model multicomponent reactive transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, H.S.

    1996-08-01

    The finite element code FEHMN, developed by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), is a three-dimensional finite element heat and mass transport simulator that can handle complex stratigraphy and nonlinear processes such as vadose zone flow, heat flow and solute transport. Scientists at LANL have been developing hydrologic flow and transport models of the Yucca Mountain site using FEHMN. Previous FEHMN simulations have used an equivalent Kd model to model solute transport. In this thesis, FEHMN is modified making it possible to simulate the transport of a species with a rigorous chemical model. Including the rigorous chemical equations into FEHMN simulations should provide for more representative transport models for highly reactive chemical species. A fully kinetic formulation is chosen for the FEHMN reactive transport model. Several methods are available to computationally implement a fully kinetic formulation. Different numerical algorithms are investigated in order to optimize computational efficiency and memory requirements of the reactive transport model. The best algorithm of those investigated is then incorporated into FEHMN. The algorithm chosen requires for the user to place strongly coupled species into groups which are then solved for simultaneously using FEHMN. The complete reactive transport model is verified over a wide variety of problems and is shown to be working properly. The new chemical capabilities of FEHMN are illustrated by using Los Alamos National Laboratory's site scale model of Yucca Mountain to model two-dimensional, vadose zone 14 C transport. The simulations demonstrate that gas flow and carbonate chemistry can significantly affect 14 C transport at Yucca Mountain. The simulations also prove that the new capabilities of FEHMN can be used to refine and buttress already existing Yucca Mountain radionuclide transport studies

  18. An alternative treatment of heat flow for charge transport in semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Matt

    2009-01-01

    A unique thermodynamic model of Fermi gases suitable for semiconductor device simulation is presented. Like other models, such as drift diffusion and hydrodynamics, it employs moments of the Boltzmann transport equation derived using the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. However, unlike other approaches, it replaces the concept of an electron thermal conductivity with the heat capacity of an ideal Fermi gas to determine heat flow. The model is used to simulate a field-effect transistor and show that the external current-voltage characteristics are strong functions of the state space available to the heated Fermi distribution.

  19. Heat transfer in the in-pile test section and penetration region of 3-pin fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Dae Young; Lee, Chung Young; Sim, Bong Shick; Park, Kook Nam; Park, Su Ki; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Jin

    2003-12-01

    This report studies two types of normal heat transfer. One is the heat loss from the pressure vessel of In-Pile Test Section to HANARO pool water via IPS insulation gas gap. The other is the heat transfer of the Penetration Cooling Water System including the effect of the Foamglas insulator at the penetration region. The heat transfer from IPS insulation gas gap has been performed according to the detail design results from NUKEM. The heat loss also occurs at the concrete penetration region between the HANARO pool water and the FTL pipe gallery. The Foamglas insulator has been already installed at the MCW piping of the penetration region. This insulation effect has been reviewed. The Penetration Cooling Water System has been designed to fulfill the design requirement not to exceed the allowable temperature at the penetration concrete wall. The cooling ability and heat loss of PCW system has been reviewed with the insulation effect.

  20. Heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells; Thermique et phenomenes de transport dans les piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, P.M.; Boillot, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bonnet, C.; Didieerjean, S.; Lapicque, F.; Deseure, J.; Lottin, O.; Maillet, D.; Oseen-Senda, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 54 - Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Alexandre, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, ENSMA, 86 Poitiers (France); Topin, F.; Occelli, R.; Daurelle, J.V. [IUSTI / Polytech' Marseille, Institut universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels Ecole, 13 - Marseille (France); Pauchet, J.; Feidt, M. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la recherche sur les echangeurs thermiques (Greth), 38 (France); Voarino, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Tours (France); Morel, B.; Laurentin, J.; Bultel, Y.; Lefebvre-Joud, F. [CEA Grenoble, LEPMI, 38 (France); Auvity, B.; Lasbet, Y.; Castelain, C.; Peerohossaini, H. [Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Laboratoire de Thermocinetique de Nantes (LTN), 44 - Nantes (France)

    2005-07-01

    In this work are gathered the transparencies of the lectures presented at the conference 'heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells'. The different lectures have dealt with 1)the gas distribution in the bipolar plates of a fuel cell: experimental studies and computerized simulations 2)two-phase heat distributors in the PEMFC 3)a numerical study of the flow properties of the backing layers on the transfers in a PEMFC 4)modelling of the heat and mass transfers in a PEMFC 5)two-phase cooling of the PEMFC with pentane 6)stationary thermodynamic model of the SOFC in the GECOPAC system 7)modelling of the internal reforming at the anode of the SOFC 8)towards a new thermal design of the PEMFC bipolar plates. (O.M.)

  1. Heat pulse analysis in JET and relation to local energy transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.C.M. de; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Han, W.; Sack, C.; Taroni, A.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of a perturbation T e of the electron temperature depends on the linearised expression of the heat flux q e and may be not simply related to the local value of the electron heat conductivity χ e . It is possible that local heat transport models predicting similar temperature profiles and global energy confinement properties, imply a different propagation of heat pulses. We investigate here this possibility for the case of two models developed at JET. We also present results obtained at JET on a set of discharges covering the range of currents from 2 to 5 MA. Only L-modes, limiter discharges are considered here. Experimental results on the scaling of χ HP , the value of χ e related to heat pulse propagation, are compared with those of χ HP derived from the models. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Moment approach to neoclassical flows, currents and transport in auxiliary heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yil Bong.

    1988-02-01

    The moment approach is utilized to derive the full complement of neoclassical transport processes in auxiliary heated tokamaks. The effects of auxiliary heating [neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH)] considered arise from the collisional interaction between the background plasma species and the fast-ion-tail species. From a known fast ion distribution function we evaluate the parallel (to the magnetic field) momentum and heat flow inputs to the background plasma. Then, through the momentum and heat flow balance equations, we can determine the induced parallel flows (and current) and radial transpot fluxes in ''equilibrium'' (on the time scale much longer than the collisional relaxation time, i.e., t >> 1ν/sub ii/). In addition to the fast-ion-induced current, the total neoclassical current includes the boostap current, which is driven by the pressure and temperature gradients, the Pfirsch-Schlueter current which is required for charge neutrality, and the neoclassical (including trapped particle effects) Spitzer current due to the parallel electric field. The radial transport fluxes also include off-diagonal compnents in the transport matrix which correspond to the Ware (neoclassical) pinch due to the inductive applied electric field an the fast-ion-induced radial fluxes, in addition to the usual pressure- and temperature-gradient-driven fluxes (particle diffusion and heat conduction). Once the tranport coefficient are completely determined, the radial fluxes and the heat fluxes can be substituted into the density and energy evolution equations to provide a complete description of ''equilibrium'' (δδt << ν/sub ii/) neoclassical transport processes in a plasma. 47 refs., 14 figs

  3. A low-frequency wave motion mechanism enables efficient energy transport in carbon nanotubes at high heat fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Ming; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-07-11

    The great majority of investigations of thermal transport in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the open literature focus on low heat fluxes, that is, in the regime of validity of the Fourier heat conduction law. In this paper, by performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations we investigated thermal transport in a single-walled CNT bridging two Si slabs under constant high heat flux. An anomalous wave-like kinetic energy profile was observed, and a previously unexplored, wave-dominated energy transport mechanism is identified for high heat fluxes in CNTs, originated from excited low frequency transverse acoustic waves. The transported energy, in terms of a one-dimensional low frequency mechanical wave, is quantified as a function of the total heat flux applied and is compared to the energy transported by traditional Fourier heat conduction. The results show that the low frequency wave actually overtakes traditional Fourier heat conduction and efficiently transports the energy at high heat flux. Our findings reveal an important new mechanism for high heat flux energy transport in low-dimensional nanostructures, such as one-dimensional (1-D) nanotubes and nanowires, which could be very relevant to high heat flux dissipation such as in micro/nanoelectronics applications.

  4. The Influence of Heat Flux Boundary Heterogeneity on Heat Transport in Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. J.; Mound, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Rotating convection in planetary systems can be subjected to large lateral variations in heat flux from above; for example, due to the interaction between the metallic cores of terrestrial planets and their overlying silicate mantles. The boundary anomalies can significantly reorganise the pattern of convection and influence global diagnostics such as the Nusselt number. We have conducted a suite of numerical simulations of rotating convection in a spherical shell geometry comparing convection with homogeneous boundary conditions to that with two patterns of heat flux variation at the outer boundary: one hemispheric pattern, and one derived from seismic tomographic imaging of Earth's lower mantle. We consider Ekman numbers down to 10-6 and flux-based Rayleigh numbers up to 800 times critical. The heterogeneous boundary conditions tend to increase the Nusselt number relative to the equivalent homogeneous case by altering both the flow and temperature fields, particularly near the top of the convecting region. The enhancement in Nusselt number tends to increase as the amplitude and wavelength of the boundary heterogeneity is increased and as the system becomes more supercritical. In our suite of models, the increase in Nusselt number can be as large as 25%. The slope of the Nusselt-Rayleigh scaling also changes when boundary heterogeneity is included, which has implications when extrapolating to planetary conditions. Additionally, regions of effective thermal stratification can develop when strongly heterogeneous heat flux conditions are applied at the outer boundary.

  5. Computer simulation of natural circulation in FFTF secondary loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, T.R.; Turner, D.M.; Additon, S.L.

    1979-07-01

    A thermal/hydraulic model of the FFTF secondary heat transport loop has been calibrated against transient natural circulation test data collected March to May 1979. The tests verified that the transition to natural convective flow could be effected from near isothermal conditions without excessive cooling at the air dump heat exchangers. Key empirical parameters of pressure drop and heat loss were found to be at 88% and 81% of pretest estimates, respectively. Pretest piping thermal transport and flow calculational models required no further revision to produce good agreement with test data

  6. Study of heat transport in structured soil under grass cover. Dual-continuum approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Dohnal, M.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2011), s. 7414 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2011. 03.04.2011-08.04.2011, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : water and heat transport * model S1D * Sumava Mts. Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  7. Influence of geologic layering on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, D. W.; Allen, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling study was carried out to evaluate the influence of aquifer heterogeneity, as represented by geologic layering, on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Agassiz, British Columbia, Canada. Two 3D heat transport models were developed and calibrated using the flow and heat transport code FEFLOW including: a "non-layered" model domain with homogeneous hydraulic and thermal properties; and, a "layered" model domain with variable hydraulic and thermal properties assigned to discrete geological units to represent aquifer heterogeneity. The base model (non-layered) shows limited sensitivity for the ranges of all thermal and hydraulic properties expected at the site; the model is most sensitive to vertical anisotropy and hydraulic gradient. Simulated and observed temperatures within the wells reflect a combination of screen placement and layering, with inconsistencies largely explained by the lateral continuity of high permeability layers represented in the model. Simulation of heat injection, storage and recovery show preferential transport along high permeability layers, resulting in longitudinal plume distortion, and overall higher short-term storage efficiencies.

  8. Studies of Electron Transport and Isochoric Heating and Their Applicability to Fast Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M H; Amiranoff, F; Andersen, C; Batani, D; Baton, S D; Cowan, T; Fisch, N; Freeman, R; Gremillet, L; Hall, T; Hatchett, S; Hill, J; King, J; Kodama, R; Koch, J; Koenig, M; Lasinski, B; Langdon, B; MacKinnon, A; Martinolli, E; Norreys, P; Parks, P; Perrelli-Cippo, E; Rabec Le Gloahec, M; Rosenbluth, M; Rousseaux, C; Santon, J J; Scianitti, F; Snavely, R; Tabak, M; Tanaka, K; Town, R; Tsutumi, T; Stephens, R

    2003-01-01

    Experimental measurements of electron transport and isochoric heating in 100 J, 1 ps laser irradiation of solid A1 targets are presented. Modeling with a hybrid PIC code is compared with the data and good agreement is obtained using a heuristic model for the electron injection. The relevance for fast ignition is discussed

  9. Numerical modeling of coupled water flow and heat transport in soil and snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs J. Kelleners; Jeremy Koonce; Rose Shillito; Jelle Dijkema; Markus Berli; Michael H. Young; John M. Frank; William Massman

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional vertical numerical model for coupled water flow and heat transport in soil and snow was modified to include all three phases of water: vapor, liquid, and ice. The top boundary condition in the model is driven by incoming precipitation and the surface energy balance. The model was applied to three different terrestrial systems: A warm desert bare...

  10. Thermal transport in low dimensions from statistical physics to nanoscale heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Understanding non-equilibrium properties of classical and quantum many-particle systems is one of the goals of contemporary statistical mechanics. Besides its own interest for the theoretical foundations of irreversible thermodynamics(e.g. of the Fourier's law of heat conduction), this topic is also relevant to develop innovative ideas for nanoscale thermal management with possible future applications to nanotechnologies and effective energetic resources. The first part of the volume (Chapters 1-6) describes the basic models, the phenomenology and the various theoretical approaches to understand heat transport in low-dimensional lattices (1D e 2D). The methods described will include equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches and the solution of stochastic models. The second part (Chapters 7-10) deals with applications to nano and microscale heat transfer, as for instance phononic transport in carbon-based nanomaterials, including the prominent case of na...

  11. Study of the electron heat transport in Tore-Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harauchamps, E.

    2004-01-01

    This work presents analytical solutions to the electron heat transport equation involving a damping term and a convection term in a cylindrical geometry. These solutions, processed by Matlab, allow the determination of the evolution of the radial profile of electron temperature in tokamaks during heating. The modulated injection of waves around the electron cyclotron frequency is an efficient tool to study heat transport experimentally in tokamaks. The comparison of these analytical solutions with experimental results from Tore-Supra during 2 discharges (30550 and 31165) shows the presence of a sudden change for the diffusion and damping coefficients. The hypothesis of the presence of a pinch spread all along the plasma might explain the shape of the experimental temperature profiles. These analytical solutions could be used to determine the time evolution of plasma density as well or of any parameter whose evolution is governed by a diffusion-convection equation. (A.C.)

  12. Heat transport in the quasi-single-helicity islands of EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J.

    2009-03-01

    The heat transport inside the magnetic island generated in a quasi-single-helicity regime of a reversed-field pinch device is studied by using a numerical code that simulates the electron temperature and the soft x-ray emissivity. The heat diffusivity χe inside the island is determined by matching the simulated signals with the experimental ones. Inside the island, χe turns out to be from one to two orders of magnitude lower than the diffusivity in the surrounding plasma, where the magnetic field is stochastic. Furthermore, the heat transport properties inside the island are studied in correlation with the plasma current and with the amplitude of the magnetic fluctuations.

  13. Modeling of amorphous pocket formation in silicon by numerical solution of the heat transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, D.; Otto, G.; Hobler, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a model of amorphous pocket formation that is based on binary collision simulations to generate the distribution of deposited energy, and on numerical solution of the heat transport equation to describe the quenching process. The heat transport equation is modified to consider the heat of melting when the melting temperature is crossed at any point in space. It is discretized with finite differences on grid points that coincide with the crystallographic lattice sites, which allows easy determination of molten atoms. Atoms are considered molten if the average of their energy and the energy of their neighbors meets the melting criterion. The results obtained with this model are in good overall agreement with published experimental data on P, As, Te and Tl implantations in Si and with data on the polyatomic effect at cryogenic temperature

  14. [The design of heat dissipation of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiancang; Suin, Jianjun; Wu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Because of the compact structure of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, which is due to the same small space where the compressor, the condenser, the control circuit, the battery and the power supply device are all placed in, the design for heat dissipation and ventilation is of critical importance for the stability and reliability of the box. Several design schemes of the heat dissipation design of the box were simulated using the FLOEFD hot fluid analysis software in this study. Different distributions of the temperature field in every design scheme were constructed intimately in the present study. It is well concluded that according to the result of the simulation analysis, the optimal heat dissipation design is decent for the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, and the box can operate smoothly for a long time using the results of the design.

  15. Transient heat transport studies in JET conventional and advanced tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P.; Coffey, I.; Dux, R.

    2003-01-01

    Transient transport studies are a valuable complement to steady-state analysis for the understanding of transport mechanisms and the validation of physics-based transport models. This paper presents results from transient heat transport experiments in JET and their modelling. Edge cold pulses and modulation of ICRH (in mode conversion scheme) have been used to provide detectable electron and ion temperature perturbations. The experiments have been performed in conventional L-mode plasmas or in Advanced Tokamak regimes, in the presence of an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB). In conventional plasmas, the issues of stiffness and non-locality have been addressed. Cold pulse propagation in ITB plasmas has provided useful insight into the physics of ITB formation. The use of edge perturbations for ITB triggering has been explored. Modelling of the experimental results has been performed using both empirical models and physics-based models. Results of cold pulse experiments in ITBs have also been compared with turbulence simulations. (author)

  16. The Role of Ocean and Atmospheric Heat Transport in the Arctic Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Martes, R. M.; Kwon, Y. O.; Furey, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    Observational data and climate model projections have suggested that the Arctic region is warming around twice faster than the rest of the globe, which has been referred as the Arctic Amplification (AA). While the local feedbacks, e.g. sea ice-albedo feedback, are often suggested as the primary driver of AA by previous studies, the role of meridional heat transport by ocean and atmosphere is less clear. This study uses the Community Earth System Model version 1 Large Ensemble simulation (CESM1-LE) to seek deeper understanding of the role meridional oceanic and atmospheric heat transports play in AA. The simulation consists of 40 ensemble members with the same physics and external forcing using a single fully coupled climate model. Each ensemble member spans two time periods; the historical period from 1920 to 2005 using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical forcing and the future period from 2006 to 2100 using the CMIP5 Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. Each of the ensemble members are initialized with slightly different air temperatures. As the CESM1-LE uses a single model unlike the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, the internal variability and the externally forced components can be separated more clearly. The projections are calculated by comparing the period 2081-2100 relative to the time period 2001-2020. The CESM1-LE projects an AA of 2.5-2.8 times faster than the global average, which is within the range of those from the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble. However, the spread of AA from the CESM1-LE, which is attributed to the internal variability, is 2-3 times smaller than that of the CMIP5 ensemble, which may also include the inter-model differences. CESM1LE projects a decrease in the atmospheric heat transport into the Arctic and an increase in the oceanic heat transport. The atmospheric heat transport is further decomposed into moisture transport and dry static energy transport. Also, the oceanic heat

  17. Thermo-hydraulic Analysis of a Water-cooled Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger in a Small-scale Nitrogen Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Min Hwan; Shim, Jaesool; Lee, Gyung Dong

    2013-01-01

    The development of high-temperature heat exchangers is very important because of its higher operation temperature and pressure than those of common light water reactors and industrial process plants. In particular, the intermediate heat exchanger is a key-challenged high temperature component in a Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR). A printed circuit heat exchanger is one of the candidates for an intermediate heat exchanger in a VHTR. The printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) was developed and commercialized by HEATRIC. The compactness is better than any other heat exchanger types, because its core matrices are fabricated by diffusion bonding with photo-chemically etched micro-channels. Various tests and analysis have been performed to verify the performance of PCHE. The thermal stress analysis of the high temperature PCHE is necessary to endure the extremely operation condition of IHX. In this study, the thermo-hydraulic analysis for the laboratory-scale PCHE is performed to provide the input data for the boundary conditions of a structural analysis. The results from the first-principal calculation are compared with those from computational fluid dynamics code analysis. COMSOL 4.3a analysis is successfully performed at the uniform pressure drop condition in a set of flow channel stacks. The heat-exchanged region concentrated to the nitrogen inlet cause the uniform mass velocity distribution in the channels, therefore there is little difference between two analytical results

  18. Impact of plasma triangularity and collisionality on electron heat transport in TCV L-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenen, Y.; Pochelon, A.; Behn, R.; Bottino, A.; Bortolon, A.; Coda, S.; Karpushov, A.; Sauter, O.; Zhuang, G.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of plasma shaping on electron heat transport is investigated in TCV L-mode plasmas. The study is motivated by the observation of an increase in the energy confinement time with decreasing plasma triangularity which may not be explained by a change in the temperature gradient induced by changes in the geometry of the flux surfaces. The plasma triangularity is varied over a wide range, from positive to negative values, and various plasmas conditions are explored by changing the total electron cyclotron (EC) heating power and the plasma density. The mid-radius electron heat diffusivity is shown to significantly decrease with decreasing triangularity and, for similar plasma conditions, only half of the EC power is required at a triangularity of -0.4 compared with +0.4 to obtain the same temperature profile. Besides, the observed dependence of the electron heat diffusivity on the electron temperature, electron density and effective charge can be grouped in a unique dependence on the plasma effective collisionality. In summary, the electron heat transport level exhibits a continuous decrease with decreasing triangularity and increasing collisionality. Local gyro-fluid and global gyro-kinetic simulations predict that trapped electron modes are the most unstable modes in these EC heated plasmas with an effective collisionality ranging from 0.2 to 1. The modes stability dependence on the plasma triangularity is investigated

  19. Momentum, heat, and mass transfer analogy for vertical hydraulic transport of inert particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaćimovski Darko R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer in vertical liquid-solids flow, as well as in single phase flow, were studied. The aim of this investigation was to establish the analogy among those phenomena. Also, effect of particles concentration on momentum, heat and mass transfer was studied. The experiments in hydraulic transport were performed in a 25.4 mm I.D. cooper tube equipped with a steam jacket, using spherical glass particles of 1.94 mm in diameter and water as a transport fluid. The segment of the transport tube used for mass transfer measurements was inside coated with benzoic acid. In the hydraulic transport two characteristic flow regimes were observed: turbulent and parallel particle flow regime. The transition between two characteristic regimes (γ*=0, occurs at a critical voidage ε≈0.85. The vertical two-phase flow was considered as the pseudofluid, and modified mixture-wall friction coefficient (fw and modified mixture Reynolds number (Rem were introduced for explanation of this system. Experimental data show that the wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer coefficients, in vertical flow of pseudofluid, for the turbulent regime are significantly higher than in parallel regime. Wall-to-bed, mass and heat transfer coefficients in hydraulic transport of particles were much higher then in single-phase flow for lower Reynolds numbers (Re15000, there was not significant difference. The experimental data for wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer in vertical flow of pseudofluid in parallel particle flow regime, show existing analogy among these three phenomena. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172022

  20. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunyun; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen; Liu, Sha

    2015-01-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  1. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Liu, Sha; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  2. A practical nonlocal model for heat transport in magnetized laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaie, Ph.D.; Feugeas, J.-L.A.; Schurtz, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    A model of nonlocal transport for multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics codes is presented. In laser produced plasmas, it is now believed that the heat transport can be strongly modified by the nonlocal nature of the electron conduction. Other mechanisms, such as self-generated magnetic fields, may also affect the heat transport. The model described in this work, based on simplified Fokker-Planck equations aims at extending the model of G. Schurtz, Ph. Nicolaie, and M. Busquet [Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] to magnetized plasmas. A complete system of nonlocal equations is derived from kinetic equations with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields. These equations are analyzed and simplified in order to be implemented into large laser fusion codes and coupled to other relevant physics. The model is applied to two laser configurations that demonstrate the main features of the model and point out the nonlocal Righi-Leduc effect in a multidimensional case

  3. A practical nonlocal model for heat transport in magnetized laser plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaï, Ph. D.; Feugeas, J.-L. A.; Schurtz, G. P.

    2006-03-01

    A model of nonlocal transport for multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics codes is presented. In laser produced plasmas, it is now believed that the heat transport can be strongly modified by the nonlocal nature of the electron conduction. Other mechanisms, such as self-generated magnetic fields, may also affect the heat transport. The model described in this work, based on simplified Fokker-Planck equations aims at extending the model of G. Schurtz, Ph. Nicolaï, and M. Busquet [Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] to magnetized plasmas. A complete system of nonlocal equations is derived from kinetic equations with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields. These equations are analyzed and simplified in order to be implemented into large laser fusion codes and coupled to other relevant physics. The model is applied to two laser configurations that demonstrate the main features of the model and point out the nonlocal Righi-Leduc effect in a multidimensional case.

  4. Skylab and solar exploration. [chromosphere-corona structure, energy production and heat transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the findings concerning solar structure, energy production, and heat transport obtained with the aid of the manned Skylab space station observatory launched on May 14, 1973. Among the topics discussed are the observation of thermonuclear fusion processes which cannot be simulated on earth, the observation of short-wave solar radiation not visible to observers on earth, and the investigation of energy-transport processes occurring in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. An apparent paradox is noted in that the cooler chromosphere is heating the hotter corona, seemingly in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics, thus suggesting that a nonthermal mechanism underlies the energy transport. Understanding of this nonthermal mechanism is regarded as an indispensable prerequisite for future development of plasma systems for terrestrial applications.

  5. A continuum self organized critically model of turbulent heat transport in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangri, V; Das, A; Kaw, P; Singh, R [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2003-09-01

    Based on the now well known and experimentally observed critical gradient length (R/L{sub Te} = RT/{nabla}T) in tokamaks, we present a continuum one dimensional model for explaining self organized heat transport in tokamaks. Key parameters of this model include a novel hysteresis parameter which ensures that the switch of heat transport coefficient {chi} upwards and downwards takes place at two different values of R/L{sub Te}. Extensive numerical simulations of this model reproduce many features of present day tokamaks such as submarginal temperature profiles, intermittent transport events, 1/f scaling of the frequency spectra, propagating fronts, etc. This model utilises a minimal set of phenomenological parameters, which may be determined from experiments and/or simulations. Analytical and physical understanding of the observed features has also been attempted. (author)

  6. Variations in periplasmic loop interactions determine the pH-dependent activity of the hexameric urea transporter UreI from Helicobacter pylori: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Delpiano, Javier; Teneb, Jaime; Mansilla, Rodrigo; García, Apolinaria; Salas-Burgos, Alexis

    2015-06-26

    Helicobacter pylori is an important factor in the development of diseases such as ulcer and gastric cancer. This bacterium uses a periplasmic transporter, UreI, to deliver urea to the intracelullar space, where later it is transformed into ammonia by the cytoplasmic enzyme urease to survive the acidic condition of the human stomach. The UreI transporter presents a pH-dependent activity, where this pH-dependence remains unknown at a structural level. Althought the existance of several protonable residues in the periplasmic loops are related to the pH-dependent activity, we find interesting to have a clear view of the conformational changes involved in this phenomena through a molecular dynamic study. Molecular dynamic simulations of the UreI transporter at three different pH conditions were performed, revealing two main pH-dependent conformations, which we present as the open and close states. We find that salt bridges between the periplasmic loops are crucial interactions that stabilize these conformations. Besides, a cooperative behaviour exists between the six subunits of the system that is necessary to fulfill the activity of this transporter. We found different pH-dependent conformations of the urea transporter UreI from Helicobacter pylori, which are related to salt-bridge interactions in the periplasmic regions. The behaviour of every channel in the system is not independent, given the existance of a cooperative behaviour through the formation of salt-bridges between the subunits of the hexameric system. We believe that our results will be related to the generation of new eradication therapies using this transporter as an attractive target, denoting that the knowledge of the possible pH-dependent conformations adopted for this transporter are important for the development of rational drug design approximations.

  7. Design of Accumulators and Liquid/Gas Charging of Single Phase Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Heat Rejection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda; Birur, Gajanana; Karlmann, Paul; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    For single phase mechanically pumped fluid loops used for thermal control of spacecraft, a gas charged accumulator is typically used to modulate pressures within the loop. This is needed to accommodate changes in the working fluid volume due to changes in the operating temperatures as the spacecraft encounters varying thermal environments during its mission. Overall, the three key requirements on the accumulator to maintain an appropriate pressure range throughout the mission are: accommodation of the volume change of the fluid due to temperature changes, avoidance of pump cavitation and prevention of boiling in the liquid. The sizing and design of such an accumulator requires very careful and accurate accounting of temperature distribution within each element of the working fluid for the entire range of conditions expected, accurate knowledge of volume of each fluid element, assessment of corresponding pressures needed to avoid boiling in the liquid, as well as the pressures needed to avoid cavitation in the pump. The appropriate liquid and accumulator strokes required to accommodate the liquid volume change, as well as the appropriate gas volumes, require proper sizing to ensure that the correct pressure range is maintained during the mission. Additionally, a very careful assessment of the process for charging both the gas side and the liquid side of the accumulator is required to properly position the bellows and pressurize the system to a level commensurate with requirements. To achieve the accurate sizing of the accumulator and the charging of the system, sophisticated EXCEL based spreadsheets were developed to rapidly come up with an accumulator design and the corresponding charging parameters. These spreadsheets have proven to be computationally fast and accurate tools for this purpose. This paper will describe the entire process of designing and charging the system, using a case study of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) fluid loops, which is en route to

  8. ABC transporter Cdr1p harbors charged residues in the intracellular loop and nucleotide-binding domain critical for protein trafficking and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Banerjee, Atanu; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Mondal, Alok Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-08-01

    The ABC transporter Cdr1 protein of Candida albicans, which plays a major role in antifungal resistance, has two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). The 12 transmembrane helices of TMDs that are interconnected by extracellular and intracellular loops (ICLs) mainly harbor substrate recognition sites where drugs bind while cytoplasmic NBDs hydrolyze ATP which powers drug efflux. The coupling of ATP hydrolysis to drug transport requires proper communication between NBDs and TMDs typically accomplished by ICLs. This study examines the role of cytoplasmic ICLs of Cdr1p by rationally predicting the critical residues on the basis of their interatomic distances. Among nine pairs that fall within a proximity of trafficking. These results point to a new role for ICL/NBD interacting residues in PDR ABC transporters in protein folding and trafficking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Safety studies on heat transport and afterheat removal for GCR accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, Makoto

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA coordinated an international research program on 'Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for GCRs under Accident Conditions (CRP-3)'. America, China, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands and Russia participate the program. Final goal of the program is to show clearly to the world one of the most important salient features of the HTGR, that is the HTGR reactor can be cooled down by passive measures without causing any damage to the nuclear reactor system even in accidental conditions, and to make clear the boundaries (or restrictions) for the passive cooling regime. The first 5 year term of the coordinate program started in 1993 and established a goal to improve common knowledge for decay heat removal and to improve our tools, like computer codes and analytical models for the prediction of the performance of decay heat removal system. We are now performing benchmark problems for these purposes. The present efforts are concentrated on the benchmark for the passive heat removal performance outside the reactor vessel, partly because we have two different type of the HTGR in the world, the pebble bed type and the block type reactor. They have quite different heat dissipation behavior inside the reactor vessel. However, they have quite similar residual heat removal process outside the reactor vessel. For the first step of the international cooperation, we selected the common problem. After finishing the present benchmark we are planning to proceed to tackle the inside heat removal problem. (J.P.N.)

  10. Study of electronic heat transport in plasma through diagnosis based on modulated electron cyclotron heating; Etudes de transport de la chaleur electronique par injection modulee d'ondes a la frequence cyclotronique electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemencon, A.; Guivarch, C

    2003-07-01

    In order to make nuclear fusion energetically profitable, it is crucial to heat and confine the plasma efficiently. Studying the behavior of the heat diffusion coefficient is a key issue in this matter. The use of modulated electron cyclotron heating as a diagnostic has suggested the existence of a transport barrier under certain plasma conditions. We have determined the solution to the heat transport equation, for several heat diffusion coefficient profiles. By comparing the analytical solutions with experimental data; we are able to study the heat diffusion coefficient profile. Thus, in certain experiments, we can confirm that the heat diffusion coefficient switches from low to high values at the radius where the electron cyclotron heat deposition is made. (authors)

  11. Low order modelling and closed-loop thermal control of a ventilated plate subject to a heat source disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videcoq, E; Girault, M; Petit, D

    2012-01-01

    A multi-input multi-output (MIMO) thermal control problem in real-time is investigated. An aluminum slab is heated on one side by a radiative heat source and cooled on the other side by a fan panel. Starting from a nominal steady state configuration of heat source power and ventilation level, the objective is to control temperature at 4 chosen locations on the rear side when the thermal system is subject to a perturbation: the heat source power. The 4 actuators are the ventilation levels of 4 fans. The hypothesis of small inputs and temperature responses deviations is made, resulting in the assumption of a linear control problem. The originality of this work is twofold: (i) instead of a (large-sized) classical heat transfer model built from spatial discretization of local partial differential equations governing physics over the system domain, a low order model is identified from experimental data using the Modal Identification Method, (ii) this low order model is used to perform state feedback control in real time through a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) compensator.

  12. Magnetic flux tubes and transport of heat in the convection zone of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruit, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis consists of five papers dealing with transport of heat in the solar convection zone on the one hand, and with the structure of magnetic flux tubes in the top of the convection zone on the other hand. These subjects are interrelated. For example, the heat flow in the convection zone is disturbed by the presence of magnetic flux tubes, while exchange of heat between a flux tube and the convection zone is important for the energy balance of such a tube. A major part of this thesis deals with the structure of small magnetic flux tubes. Such small tubes (diameters less than about 2'') carry most of the flux appearing at the solar surface. An attempt is made to construct models of the surface layers of such small tubes in sufficient detail to make a comparison with observations possible. Underlying these model calculations is the assumption that the magnetic elements at the solar surface are flux tubes in a roughly static equilibrium. The structure of such tubes is governed by their pressure equilibrium, exchange of heat with the surroundings, and transport of heat by some modified form of convection along the tube. The tube models calculated are compared with observations

  13. Increased Heat Transport in Ultra-hot Jupiter Atmospheres through H2 Dissociation and Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Taylor J.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    A new class of exoplanets is beginning to emerge: planets with dayside atmospheres that resemble stellar atmospheres as most of their molecular constituents dissociate. The effects of the dissociation of these species will be varied and must be carefully accounted for. Here we take the first steps toward understanding the consequences of dissociation and recombination of molecular hydrogen (H2) on atmospheric heat recirculation. Using a simple energy balance model with eastward winds, we demonstrate that H2 dissociation/recombination can significantly increase the day–night heat transport on ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs): gas giant exoplanets where significant H2 dissociation occurs. The atomic hydrogen from the highly irradiated daysides of UHJs will transport some of the energy deposited on the dayside toward the nightside of the planet where the H atoms recombine into H2; this mechanism bears similarities to latent heat. Given a fixed wind speed, this will act to increase the heat recirculation efficiency; alternatively, a measured heat recirculation efficiency will require slower wind speeds after accounting for H2 dissociation/recombination.

  14. Numerical modelling of coupled fluid, heat, and solute transport in deformable fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Reid, J.A.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element code, MOTIF (model of transport in fractured/porous media), developed to model the coupled processes of groundwater flow, heat transport, brine transport, and one-species radionuclide transport in geological media. Three types of elements are available: a 3D continuum element, a planar fracture element that can be oriented in any arbitrary direction in 3D space or pipe flow in 3D space, and a line element for simulating fracture flow in 2D space or pipe flow in 3D space. As a quality-assurance measure, the MOTIF code was verified by comparison of its results with analytical solutions and other published numerical solutions

  15. Finite speed heat transport in a quantum spin chain after quenched local cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Pascal; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2017-04-01

    We study the dynamics of an initially thermalized spin chain in the quantum XY-model, after sudden coupling to a heat bath of lower temperature at one end of the chain. In the semi-classical limit we see an exponential decay of the system-bath heatflux by exact solution of the reduced dynamics. In the full quantum description however, we numerically find the heatflux to reach intermediate plateaus where it is approximately constant—a phenomenon that we attribute to the finite speed of heat transport via spin waves.

  16. The heat transport system and plant design for the HYLIFE-2 fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    HYLIFE is the name given to a family of self-healing liquid-wall reactor concepts for inertial confinement fusion. This HYLIFE-II concept employs the molten salt, Flibe, for the liquid jets instead of liquid lithium used in the original HYLIFE-I study. A preliminary conceptual design study of the heat transport system and the balance of plant of the HYLIFE-II fusion power plant is described in this paper with special emphasis on a scoping study to determine the best intermediate heat exchanger geometry and flow conditions for minimum cost of electricity. 11 refs., 8 figs

  17. A small stem-loop structure of the Ebola virus trailer is essential for replication and interacts with heat-shock protein A8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztuba-Solinska, Joanna; Diaz, Larissa; Kumar, Mia R; Kolb, Gaëlle; Wiley, Michael R; Jozwick, Lucas; Kuhn, Jens H; Palacios, Gustavo; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; J Le Grice, Stuart F; Johnson, Reed F

    2016-11-16

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the Filoviridae family. The leader and trailer non-coding regions of the EBOV genome likely regulate its transcription, replication, and progeny genome packaging. We investigated the cis-acting RNA signals involved in RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions that regulate replication of eGFP-encoding EBOV minigenomic RNA and identified heat shock cognate protein family A (HSC70) member 8 (HSPA8) as an EBOV trailer-interacting host protein. Mutational analysis of the trailer HSPA8 binding motif revealed that this interaction is essential for EBOV minigenome replication. Selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension analysis of the secondary structure of the EBOV minigenomic RNA indicates formation of a small stem-loop composed of the HSPA8 motif, a 3' stem-loop (nucleotides 1868-1890) that is similar to a previously identified structure in the replicative intermediate (RI) RNA and a panhandle domain involving a trailer-to-leader interaction. Results of minigenome assays and an EBOV reverse genetic system rescue support a role for both the panhandle domain and HSPA8 motif 1 in virus replication. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Effect of Loop Diameter on the Steady State and Stability Behaviour of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Natural Circulation Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Vijayan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In natural circulation loops, the driving force is usually low as it depends on the riser height which is generally of the order of a few meters. The heat transport capability of natural circulation loops (NCLs is directly proportional to the flow rate it can generate. With low driving force, the straightforward way to enhance the flow is to reduce the frictional losses. A simple way to do this is to increase the loop diameter which can be easily adopted in pressure tube designs such as the AHWR and the natural circulation boilers employed in fossil-fuelled power plants. Further, the loop diameter also plays an important role on the stability behavior. An extensive experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect of loop diameter on the steady state and stability behavior of single- and two-phase natural circulation loops have been carried out and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  19. Heat and fission product transport in molten core material pool with crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.I.; Suh, K.Y.; Kang, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Heat transfer and fluid flow in a molten pool are influenced by internal volumetric heat generated from the radioactive decay of fission product species retained in the reactor vessel during a severe accident. The pool superheat is determined based on the overall energy balance that equates the heat production rate to the heat loss rate. Decay heat of fission products in the pool is estimated by product of the mass concentration and energy conversion factor of each fission product. Twenty-nine elements are chosen and classified by their chemical properties to calculate heat generation rate in the pool. The mass concentration of a fission product is obtained from released fraction and the tabular output of the ORIGEN 2 code. The initial core and pool inventories at each time can also be estimated using ORIGEN 2. The released fraction of each fission product is calculated based on the bubble dynamics and mass transport. Numerical analysis is performed for heat and fission product transport in a molten core material pool during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The pool is assumed to be a partially filled hemisphere, whose change in geometry is neglected during the numerical calculation. Calculated results indicate that the peak temperature in the molten pool is significantly lowered, since a substantial amount of the volatile fission products is released from the molten pool during progression of the accident. The results may directly be applied to the existing severe accident analysis codes to more mechanistically determine the thermal load to the reactor vessel lower head during the in-vessel retention

  20. Man-machine interface design of real-time hardware-in-loop simulation system for power regulation of nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Xiaoli; Huang Xiaojin; Dong Zhe

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to set up real-time hardware-in-loop simulation system for power regulation of nuclear heating reactor (NHR) because it is used in the load following instance such as seawater desalination and energy source. As the experiment data are so large that it is hard to be real-time all in one computer and to save and show the data.With the distributed configuration, the system was set up having a legible and intuitionist man-machine interface, speeding the model calculation computer and meeting the requirements of power regulation of NHR. Screen clear and concise, easy command input and results output make the system easier to verify. (authors)

  1. Two-phase optimizing approach to design assessments of long distance heat transportation for CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Piotr; Duzinkiewicz, Kazimierz; Grochowski, Michał; Piotrowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for long distance heat transportation system effectivity evaluation. • Decision model formulation which reflects time and spatial structure of the problem. • Multi-criteria and complex approach to solving the decision-making problem. • Solver based on simulation-optimization approach with two-phase optimization method. • Sensitivity analysis of the optimization procedure elements. - Abstract: Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for power plants is a method of putting to use waste heat which would be otherwise released to the environment. This allows the increase in thermodynamic efficiency of the plant and can be a source of environmental friendly heat for District Heating (DH). In the paper CHP for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is analyzed with the focus on heat transportation. A method for effectivity and feasibility evaluation of the long distance, high power Heat Transportation System (HTS) between the NPP and the DH network is proposed. As a part of the method the multi-criteria decision-making problem, having the structure of the mathematical programming problem, for optimized selection of design and operating parameters of the HTS is formulated. The constraints for this problem include a static model of HTS, that allows considerations of system lifetime, time variability and spatial topology. Thereby variation of annual heat demand within the DH area, variability of ground temperature, insulation and pipe aging and/or terrain elevation profile can be taken into account in the decision-making process. The HTS construction costs, pumping power, and heat losses are considered as objective functions. In general, the analyzed optimization problem is multi-criteria, hybrid and nonlinear. The two-phase optimization based on optimization-simulation framework is proposed to solve the decision-making problem. The solver introduces a number of assumptions concerning the optimization process. Methods for problem decomposition

  2. Integral analysis of debris material and heat transport in reactor vessel lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.; Henry, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    An integral, fast-running, two-region model has been developed to characterize the debris material and heat transport in the reactor lower plenum under severe accident conditions. The debris bed is segregated into the oxidic pool and an overlying metallic layer. Debris crusts can develop on three surfaces: the top of the molten pool, the RPV wall, and the internal structures. To account for the decay heat generation, the crust temperature profile is assumed to be parabolic. The oxidic debris pool is homogeneously mixed and has the same material composition, and hence the same thermophysical properties, as the crusts, while the metallic constituents are assumed to rise to the top of the debris pool. Steady-state relationships are used to describe the heat transfer rates, with the assessment of solid or liquid state, and the liquid superheat in the pool being based on the average debris temperature. Natural convection heat transfer from the molten debris pool to the upper, lower and embedded crusts is calculated based on the pool Rayleigh number with the conduction heat transfer from the crusts being determined by the crust temperature profile. The downward heat flux is transferred to the lowest part of the RPV lower head through a crust-to-RPV contact resistance. The sideward heat flux is transferred to the upper regions of the RPV lower head as well as to the internal structures. The upward heat flux goes to the metal layer, water, or available heat sink structures above. Quenching due to water ingression is modeled separately from the energy transfer through the crust. The RPV wall temperature distribution and the primary system pressure are utilized to estimate challenges to the RPV integrity. ((orig.))

  3. Comparing the value of bioenergy in the heating and transport sectors of an electricity-intensive energy system in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa Hagos, Dejene; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu; Folsland Bolkesjø, Torjus

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the most valuable sector for the use of bioenergy in a flexible energy system in order to meet the energy policy objectives of Inland Norway. A reference system was used to construct alternative systems in the heating and transport sectors. The alternative system in the heating sector is based on heat pumps and bio-heat boilers while the alternative systems in the transport sector are based on three different pathways: bio-dimethyl ether, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The alternative systems were compared with the reference system after a business-economic optimisation had been made using an energy system analysis tool. The results show that the excess electricity availability due to increased energy efficiency measures hampers the competitiveness and penetration of bio-heating over heat pumps in the heating sector. Indeed, the synergy effect of using bio-dimethyl ether in the transport sector for an increased share of renewable energy sources is much higher than that of the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle and battery electric vehicle pathways. The study also revealed that increasing renewable energy production would increase the renewable energy share more than what would be achieved by an increase in energy efficiency. -- Highlights: •Bio-heating is less competitive over heat pump for low quality heat production. •Renewable energy production meets policy objectives better than system efficiency. •Bioenergy is more valuable in the transport sector than the heating sector

  4. Thermal transport of carbon nanotubes and graphene under optical and electrical heating measured by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, I.-Kai

    This thesis presents systematic studies of thermal transport in individual single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene by optical and electrical approaches using Raman spectroscopy. In the work presented from Chapter 2 to Chapter 6, individual suspended CNTs are preferentially measured in order to explore their intrinsic thermal properties. Moreover, the Raman thermometry is developed to detect the temperature of the carbon nanotube (CNT). A parabolic temperature profile is observed in the suspended region of the CNT while a heating laser scans across it, providing a direct evidence of diffusive thermal transport in an individual suspended CNT. Based on the curvature of the temperature profile, we can solve for the ratio of thermal contact resistance to the thermal resistance of the CNT, which spans the range from 0.02 to 17. The influence of thermal contact resistance on the thermal transport in an individual suspended CNT is also studied. The Raman thermometry is carried out in the center of a CNT, while its contact length is successively shortened by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip cutting technique. By investigating the dependence of the CNT temperature on its thermal contact length, the temperature of a CNT is found to increase dramatically as the contact length is made shorter. This work reveals the importance of manipulating the CNT thermal contact length when adopting CNT as a thermal management material. In using a focused laser to induce heating in a suspended CNT, one open question that remains unanswered is how many of the incident photons are absorbed by the CNT of interest. To address this question, micro-fabricated platinum thermometers, together with micro-Raman spectroscopy are used to quantify the optical absorption of an individual CNT. The absorbed power in the CNT is equal to the power detected by two thermometers at the end of the CNT. Our result shows that the optical absorption lies in the range between 0.03 to 0.44%. In

  5. Electron heat transport in current carrying and currentless thermonuclear plasmas. Tokamaks and stellarators compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the first experiment the plasma current in the RTP tokamak is varied. Here the underlying idea was to check whether at a low plasma current, transport in the tokamak resembles transport in stellarators more than at higher currents. Secondly, experiments have been done to study the relation of the diffusivity χ to the temperature and its gradient in both W7-AS and RTP. In this case the underlying idea was to find the explanation for the phenomenon observed in both tokamaks and stellarators that the quality of the confinement degrades when more heating is applied. A possible explanation is that the diffusivity increases with the temperature or its gradient. Whereas in standard tokamak and stellarator experiments the temperature and its gradient are strongly correlated, a special capability of the plasma heating system of W7-AS and RTP can force them to decouple. (orig.)

  6. Electron heat transport in current carrying and currentless thermonuclear plasmas. Tokamaks and stellarators compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M

    1996-01-16

    In the first experiment the plasma current in the RTP tokamak is varied. Here the underlying idea was to check whether at a low plasma current, transport in the tokamak resembles transport in stellarators more than at higher currents. Secondly, experiments have been done to study the relation of the diffusivity {chi} to the temperature and its gradient in both W7-AS and RTP. In this case the underlying idea was to find the explanation for the phenomenon observed in both tokamaks and stellarators that the quality of the confinement degrades when more heating is applied. A possible explanation is that the diffusivity increases with the temperature or its gradient. Whereas in standard tokamak and stellarator experiments the temperature and its gradient are strongly correlated, a special capability of the plasma heating system of W7-AS and RTP can force them to decouple. (orig.).

  7. Effective Heat and Mass Transport Properties of Anisotropic Porous Ceria for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Haussener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is employed to obtain the exact 3D geometrical configuration of porous anisotropic ceria applied in solar-driven thermochemical cycles for splitting H2O and CO2. The tomography data are, in turn, used in direct pore-level numerical simulations for determining the morphological and effective heat/mass transport properties of porous ceria, namely: porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, extinction coefficient, thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and tortuosity and residence time distributions. Tailored foam designs for enhanced transport properties are examined by means of adjusting morphologies of artificial ceria samples composed of bimodal distributed overlapping transparent spheres in an opaque medium.

  8. Heat-pipe effect on the transport of gaseous radionuclides released from a nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1990-11-01

    When an unsaturated porous medium is subjected to a temperature gradient and the temperature is sufficiently high, vadose water is heated and vaporizes. Vapor flows under its pressure gradient towards colder regions where it condenses. Vaporization and condensation produce a liquid saturation gradient, creating a capillary pressure gradient inside the porous medium. Condensate flows towards the hot end under the influence of a capillary pressure gradient. This is a heat pipe in an unsaturated porous medium. We study analytically the transport of gaseous species released from a spent-fuel waste package, as affected by a time-dependent heat pipe in an unsaturated rock. For parameter values typical of a potential repository in partially saturated fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, we found that a heat pipe develops shortly after waste is buried, and the heat-pipe's spatial extent is time-dependent. Water vapor movements produced by the heat pipe can significantly affect the migration of gaseous radionuclides. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Three-dimensional model of heat transport during In Situ Vitrification with melting and cool down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A potential technology for permanent remediation of buried wastes is the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. This process uses electrical resistance heating to melt waste and contaminated soil in place to produce a durable, glasslike material that encapsulates and immobilizes buried wastes. The magnitude of the resulting electrical resistance heating is sufficient to cause soil melting. As the molten region grows, surface heat losses cause the soil near the surface to re solidify. This paper presents numerical results obtained by considering heat transport and melting when solving the conservation of mass and energy equations using finite element methods. A local heat source is calculated by solving the electric field equation and calculating a Joule Heat source term. The model considered is a three-dimensional model of the electrodes and surrounding soil. Also included in the model is subsidence; where the surface of the melted soil subsides due to the change in density when the soil melts. A power vs. time profile is implemented for typical ISV experiments. The model agrees well with experimental data for melt volume and melt shape

  10. Heat and Fission Product Transport in a Molten U-Zr-O Pool With Crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.I.; Suh, K.Y.; Kang, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Heat transfer and fluid flow in a molten pool are influenced by internal volumetric heat generated from the radioactive decay of fission product species retained in the pool. The pool superheat is determined based on the overall energy balance that equates the heat production rate to the heat loss rate. Decay heat of fission products in the pool was estimated by product of the mass concentration and energy conversion factor of each fission product. For the calculation of heat generation rate in the pool, twenty-nine elements were chosen and classified by their chemical properties. The mass concentration of a fission product is obtained from released fraction and the tabular output of the ORIGEN 2 code. The initial core and pool inventories at each time can also be estimated using ORIGEN 2. The released fraction of each fission product is calculated based on the bubble dynamics and mass transport. Numerical analysis was performed for the TMI-2 accident. The pool is assumed to be a partially filled hemispherical geometry and the change of pool geometry during the numerical calculation was neglected. Results of the numerical calculation revealed that the peak temperature of the molten pool significantly decreased and most of the volatile fission products were released from the molten pool during the accident. (authors)

  11. Tokamak electron heat transport by direct numerical simulation of small scale turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labit, B.

    2002-10-01

    In a fusion machine, understanding plasma turbulence, which causes a degradation of the measured energy confinement time, would constitute a major progress in this field. In tokamaks, the measured ion and electron thermal conductivities are of comparable magnitude. The possible sources of turbulence are the temperature and density gradients occurring in a fusion plasma. Whereas the heat losses in the ion channel are reasonably well understood, the origin of the electron losses is more uncertain. In addition to the radial velocity associated to the fluctuations of the electric field, electrons are more affected than ions by the magnetic field fluctuations. In experiments, the confinement time can be conveniently expressed in terms of dimensionless parameters. Although still somewhat too imprecise, these scaling laws exhibit strong dependencies on the normalized pressure β or the normalized Larmor radius, ρ * . The present thesis assesses whether a tridimensional, electromagnetic, nonlinear fluid model of plasma turbulence driven by a specific instability can reproduce the dependence of the experimental electron heat losses on the dimensionless parameters β and ρ * . The investigated interchange instability is the Electron Temperature Gradient driven one (ETG). The model is built by using the set of Braginskii equations. The developed simulation code is global in the sense that a fixed heat flux is imposed at the inner boundary, leaving the gradients free to evolve. From the nonlinear simulations, we have put in light three characteristics for the ETG turbulence: the turbulent transport is essentially electrostatic; the potential and pressure fluctuations form radially elongated cells called streamers; the transport level is very low compared to the experimental values. The thermal transport dependence study has shown a very small role of the normalized pressure, which is in contradiction with the Ohkama's formula. On the other hand, the crucial role of the

  12. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie Keith; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier–Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were valida...

  13. Performance of the FFTF heat transport system during cycles 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, T.M.; Yunker, W.H.; Cramer, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    From April 1982 through May 1983, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed its first two full cycles of operation. This experience has provided significant information relative to the performance of the Main Heat Transport System (MHTS). While in general, the MHTS performance has been extremely good, there have been a few unanticipated events and trends which could very well influence the design and/or operation of further LMFBR plants. The performance of the major MHTS components is discussed

  14. Material and fabrication considerations for the CANDU-PHWR heat transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, A.; Price, E.G.; Barber, D.; Nickerson, J.

    1987-03-01

    CANDU PHWR nuclear systems have used carbon steel material for over 25 years. The accumulated operating experience of over 200 reactor years has proven this unique AECL approach to be both technically and economically attractive. This paper discusses design, material and fabrication considerations for out-reactor heat transport system major components. The contribution of this unique choice of materials and equipment to the outstanding CANDU performance is briefly covered

  15. Heat transport and afterheat removal for gas cooled reactors under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas Cooled Reactors Under Accident Conditions was organized within the framework of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR). This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs) and supports the conduct of these activities. Advanced GCR designs currently being developed are predicted to achieve a high degree of safety through reliance on inherent safety features. Such design features should permit the technical demonstration of exceptional public protection with significantly reduced emergency planning requirements. For advanced GCRs, this predicted high degree of safety largely derives from the ability of the ceramic coated fuel particles to retain the fission products under normal and accident conditions, the safe neutron physics behaviour of the core, the chemical stability of the core and the ability of the design to dissipate decay heat by natural heat transport mechanisms without reaching excessive temperatures. Prior to licensing and commercial deployment of advanced GCRs, these features must first be demonstrated under experimental conditions representing realistic reactor conditions, and the methods used to predict the performance of the fuel and reactor must be validated against these experimental data. Within this CRP, the participants addressed the inherent mechanisms for removal of decay heat from GCRs under accident conditions. The objective of this CRP was to establish sufficient experimental data at realistic conditions and validated analytical tools to confirm the predicted safe thermal response of advance gas cooled reactors during accidents. The scope includes experimental and analytical investigations of heat transport by natural convection conduction and thermal

  16. Analysis of simulation methodology for calculation of the heat of transport for vacancy thermodiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, William C.; Schelling, Patrick K., E-mail: patrick.schelling@ucf.edu [Advanced Material Processing and Analysis Center and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Computation of the heat of transport Q{sub a}{sup *} in monatomic crystalline solids is investigated using the methodology first developed by Gillan [J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 11, 4469 (1978)] and further developed by Grout and coworkers [Philos. Mag. Lett. 74, 217 (1996)], referred to as the Grout-Gillan method. In the case of pair potentials, the hopping of a vacancy results in a heat wave that persists for up to 10 ps, consistent with previous studies. This leads to generally positive values for Q{sub a}{sup *} which can be quite large and are strongly dependent on the specific details of the pair potential. By contrast, when the interactions are described using the embedded atom model, there is no evidence of a heat wave, and Q{sub a}{sup *} is found to be negative. This demonstrates that the dynamics of vacancy hopping depends strongly on the details of the empirical potential. However, the results obtained here are in strong disagreement with experiment. Arguments are presented which demonstrate that there is a fundamental error made in the Grout-Gillan method due to the fact that the ensemble of states only includes successful atom hops and hence does not represent an equilibrium ensemble. This places the interpretation of the quantity computed in the Grout-Gillan method as the heat of transport in doubt. It is demonstrated that trajectories which do not yield hopping events are nevertheless relevant to computation of the heat of transport Q{sub a}{sup *}.

  17. Physical aspects of thermotherapy: A study of heat transport with a view to treatment optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsrud, Johan Karl Otto

    1998-12-01

    Local treatment with the aim to destruct tissue by heating (thermotherapy) may in some cases be an alternative or complement to surgical methods, and has gained increased interest during the last decade. The major advantage of these, often minimally-invasive methods, is that the disease can be controlled with reduced treatment trauma and complications. The extent of thermal damage is a complex function of the physical properties of tissue, which influence the temperature distribution, and of the biological response to heat. In this thesis, methods of obtaining a well-controlled treatment have been studied from a physical point of view, with emphasis on interstitial laser-induced heating of tumours in the liver and intracavitary heating as a treatment for menorrhagia. Hepatic inflow occlusion, in combination with temperature-feedback control of the output power of the laser, resulted in well defined damaged volumes during interstitial laser thermotherapy in normal porcine liver. In addition, phantom experiments showed that the use of multiple diffusing laser fibres allows heating of clinically relevant tissue volumes in a single session. Methods for numerical simulation of heat transport were used to calculate the temperature distribution and the results agreed well with experiments. It was also found from numerical simulation that the influence of light transport on the damaged volume may be negligible in interstitial laser thermotherapy in human liver. Finite element analysis, disregarding light transport, was therefore proposed as a suitable method for 3D treatment planning. Finite element simulation was also used to model intracavitary heating of the uterus, with the purpose of providing an increased understanding of the influence of various treatment parameters on blood flow and on the depth of tissue damage. The thermal conductivity of human uterine tissue, which was used in these simulations, was measured. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was

  18. Controlling heat transport and flow structures in thermal turbulence using ratchet surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Jiang, Hechuan; Zhu, Xiaojue; Mathai, Varghese; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-11-01

    In this combined experimental and numerical study on thermally driven turbulence in a rectangular cell, the global heat transport and the coherent flow structures are controlled with an asymmetric ratchet-like roughness on the top and bottom plates. We show that, by means of symmetry breaking due to the presence of the ratchet structures on the conducting plates, the orientation of the Large Scale Circulation Roll (LSCR) can be locked to a preferred direction even when the cell is perfectly leveled out. By introducing a small tilt to the system, we show that the LSCR orientation can be tuned and controlled. The two different orientations of LSCR give two quite different heat transport efficiencies, indicating that heat transport is sensitive to the LSCR direction over the asymmetric roughness structure. Through analysis of the dynamics of thermal plume emissions and the orientation of the LSCR over the asymmetric structure, we provide a physical explanation for these findings. This work is financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11672156, the Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW) and a VIDI Grant.

  19. Controlling Heat Transport and Flow Structures in Thermal Turbulence Using Ratchet Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hechuan; Zhu, Xiaojue; Mathai, Varghese; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2018-01-01

    In this combined experimental and numerical study on thermally driven turbulence in a rectangular cell, the global heat transport and the coherent flow structures are controlled with an asymmetric ratchetlike roughness on the top and bottom plates. We show that, by means of symmetry breaking due to the presence of the ratchet structures on the conducting plates, the orientation of the large scale circulation roll (LSCR) can be locked to a preferred direction even when the cell is perfectly leveled out. By introducing a small tilt to the system, we show that the LSCR orientation can be tuned and controlled. The two different orientations of LSCR give two quite different heat transport efficiencies, indicating that heat transport is sensitive to the LSCR direction over the asymmetric roughness structure. Through a quantitative analysis of the dynamics of thermal plume emissions and the orientation of the LSCR over the asymmetric structure, we provide a physical explanation for these findings. The current work has important implications for passive and active flow control in engineering, biofluid dynamics, and geophysical flows.

  20. Suggestions for the interpretation of temperature noise measurements in a heated linear bundle in a water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalm, D.

    1975-09-01

    A concept is described how to use temperature noise for the detection and identification of a simulated malfunction (e.g. a blockage) in a heated linear bundle in the preboiling state. At first, methods are proposed how to find an optimal detector position down stream from the bundle exit in such a way that the detector sees the total bundle cross section. In addition some methods are proposed for the identification of the malfunction by making use of random data analysis

  1. Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments.

  2. Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments

  3. Medium-term experiences with in-situ gamma-spectrometry of the primary loop transport processes at Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raics, P.; Sztaricskai, T.; Szabo, J.; Szegedi, S.

    2001-01-01

    Surface activity of 15 corrosion/erosion and fission products was determined by in-situ gamma-spectrometry for 2-2 locations on the hot and cold legs of each loop, respectively. Gamma-dosimetry in the assay points was performed. Activity profiles of ion exchange columns were analyzed. Combined measurements along the steam generators completed the characterization of the primary circuits. Most of this technique was regularly included into all maintenance periods. Data evaluation was performed for the surface contaminations as well as coolant activities and reactor operation features for years 1985-2001. Trends and tendencies were investigated in the time behavior of the specific activities. Asymmetry in the surface contamination at the primary loop points, cold-leg activity inversion, water chemistry effects, isotope selectivity were observed. Correlations in different parameters have been calculated and analyzed. (R.P.)

  4. Glu-311 in External Loop 4 of the Sodium/Proline Transporter PutP Is Crucial for External Gate Closure*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, Susanne; Guérin, Kamila; Polyhach, Yevhen; Jeschke, Gunnar; Dittmer, Sophie; Frey, Sabine; Böhm, Maret; Jung, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The available structural information on LeuT and structurally related transporters suggests that external loop 4 (eL4) and the outer end of transmembrane domain (TM) 10′ participate in the reversible occlusion of the outer pathway to the solute binding sites. Here, the functional significance of eL4 and the outer region of TM10′ are explored using the sodium/proline symporter PutP as a model. Glu-311 at the tip of eL4, and various amino acids around the outer end of TM10′ are identified as particularly crucial for function. Substitutions at these sites inhibit the transport cycle, and affect in part ligand binding. In addition, changes at selected sites induce a global structural alteration in the direction of an outward-open conformation. It is suggested that interactions between the tip of eL4 and the peptide backbone at the end of TM10′ participate in coordinating conformational alterations underlying the alternating access mechanism of transport. Together with the structural information on LeuT-like transporters, the results further specify the idea that common design and functional principles are maintained across different transport families. PMID:26728461

  5. Glu-311 in External Loop 4 of the Sodium/Proline Transporter PutP Is Crucial for External Gate Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, Susanne; Guérin, Kamila; Polyhach, Yevhen; Jeschke, Gunnar; Dittmer, Sophie; Frey, Sabine; Böhm, Maret; Jung, Heinrich

    2016-03-04

    The available structural information on LeuT and structurally related transporters suggests that external loop 4 (eL4) and the outer end of transmembrane domain (TM) 10' participate in the reversible occlusion of the outer pathway to the solute binding sites. Here, the functional significance of eL4 and the outer region of TM10' are explored using the sodium/proline symporter PutP as a model. Glu-311 at the tip of eL4, and various amino acids around the outer end of TM10' are identified as particularly crucial for function. Substitutions at these sites inhibit the transport cycle, and affect in part ligand binding. In addition, changes at selected sites induce a global structural alteration in the direction of an outward-open conformation. It is suggested that interactions between the tip of eL4 and the peptide backbone at the end of TM10' participate in coordinating conformational alterations underlying the alternating access mechanism of transport. Together with the structural information on LeuT-like transporters, the results further specify the idea that common design and functional principles are maintained across different transport families. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Influence of transport on EBW heating efficiency in magnetic confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Tereshchenko, M.

    2007-01-01

    The main advantage of the heating performed by electron Bernstein waves (EBW) in the O-X-B1 regime (O mode injection that is converted into X mode, which is converted in Bernstein wave, strongly absorbed close to the cyclotron resonance layer at first harmonic) is that there is no cut-off density. Therefore, this heating system can work without upper density limit, still having all the advantages of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), which is localised in phase space due to its resonant nature. The heating efficiency of Bernstein waves depends on the fraction of waves that is transformed from O to X mode at the O mode cut off layer, then on the fraction of power converted into Bernstein waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer and, finally, on the final position of the absorption in the plasma. All these factors are related to the density profile, since the positions of the cut off and of the upper hybrid resonance layers depend on the actual plasma density profile. Besides, the absorption profile depends also on the temperature profile. Moreover, it is possible to observe that the former layers only appear for high enough plasma density, than can be obtained by gas puffing, as has been observed in the simulations performed for TJ-II stellarator. For such reasons, particle transport is basic for understanding and guaranteeing EBW heating. In this work, TJ-II plasmas are taken as a case example in order to simulate the full evolution of a plasma discharge that is created and heated by ECRH in a first step and finally is heated using EBW. The evolution of the discharge is simulated using the transport code ASTRA and the sequence of the discharge is as follows: O mode is launched on a steady state plasma with density lower than the O mode cut-off. Then a gas puff is injected in order to increase the plasma density over the level in which EBW heating is efficient because O mode cut off and upper hybrid layer appear. EBW ray tracing calculations are performed

  7. Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE, and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system.

  8. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering.

  9. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, heat transport and thermal waves in laminar and turbulent superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongiovì, Maria Stella; Jou, David; Sciacca, Michele

    2018-01-01

    This review paper puts together some results concerning non equilibrium thermodynamics and heat transport properties of superfluid He II. A one-fluid extended model of superfluid helium, which considers heat flux as an additional independent variable, is presented, its microscopic bases are analyzed, and compared with the well known two-fluid model. In laminar situations, the fundamental fields are density, velocity, absolute temperature, and heat flux. Such a theory is able to describe the thermomechanical phenomena, the propagation of two sounds in liquid helium, and of fourth sound in superleak. It also leads in a natural way to a two-fluid model on purely macroscopical grounds and allows a small amount of entropy associated with the superfluid component. Other important features of liquid He II arise in rotating situations and in superfluid turbulence, both characterized by the presence of quantized vortices (thin vortex lines whose circulation is restricted by a quantum condition). Such vortices have a deep influence on the transport properties of superfluid helium, as they increase very much its thermal resistance. Thus, heat flux influences the vortices which, in turn, modify the heat flux. The dynamics of vortex lines is the central topic in turbulent superfluid helium. The model is generalized to take into account the vortices in different cases of physical interest: rotating superfluids, counterflow superfluid turbulence, combined counterflow and rotation, and mass flow in addition to heat flow. To do this, the averaged vortex line density per unit volume L, is introduced and its dynamical equations are considered. Linear and non-linear evolution equations for L are written for homogeneous and inhomogeneous, isotropic and anisotropic situations. Several physical experiments are analyzed and the influence of vortices on the effective thermal conductivity of turbulent superfluid helium is found. Transitions from laminar to turbulent flows, from diffusive to

  10. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hyamaguc@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyo-tanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Iwamoto, Yuhiro [Department of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering. - Highlights: • Temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid (TSMF) has a great heat transport ability. • Magnetically-driven heat transport device using binary TSMF is proposed. • The basic heat transport characteristics are investigated. • Boiling of the organic mixture effectively enhances the heat transfer. • A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed.

  11. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering. - Highlights: • Temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid (TSMF) has a great heat transport ability. • Magnetically-driven heat transport device using binary TSMF is proposed. • The basic heat transport characteristics are investigated. • Boiling of the organic mixture effectively enhances the heat transfer. • A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed.

  12. Mesoscale Eddies in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean: Three-Dimensional Eddy Structures and Heat/Salt Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Di; Brandt, Peter; Chang, Ping; Schütte, Florian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Jinhui; Zeng, Jisheng

    2017-12-01

    The region encompassing the Kuroshio Extension (KE) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean (25°N-45°N and 130°E-180°E) is one of the most eddy-energetic regions of the global ocean. The three-dimensional structures and transports of mesoscale eddies in this region are comprehensively investigated by combined use of satellite data and Argo profiles. With the allocation of Argo profiles inside detected eddies, the spatial variations of structures of eddy temperature and salinity anomalies are analyzed. The results show that eddies predominantly have subsurface (near-surface) intensified temperature and salinity anomalies south (north) of the KE jet, which is related to different background stratifications between these regions. A new method based on eddy trajectories and the inferred three-dimensional eddy structures is proposed to estimate heat and salt transports by eddy movements in a Lagrangian framework. Spatial distributions of eddy transports are presented over the vicinity of the KE for the first time. The magnitude of eddy-induced meridional heat (freshwater volume) transport is on the order of 0.01 PW (103 m3/s). The eddy heat transport divergence results in an oceanic heat loss south and heat gain north of the KE, thereby reinforcing and counteracting the oceanic heat loss from air-sea fluxes south and north of the KE jet, respectively. It also suggests a poleward heat transport across the KE jet due to eddy propagation.

  13. Loop equations in the theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Voronov, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Loop-space variables (matrices of parallel transport) for the theory of gravitation are described. Loop equations, which are equivalent to the Einstein equations, are derived in the classical case. Loop equations are derived for gravity with cosmological constant as well. An analogy with the loop-space approach in Yang-Mills theory is discussed [ru

  14. Estimating the health benefits from natural gas use in transport and heating in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Oliva, Estefania; Saide, Pablo; Spak, Scott N; de la Maza, Cristóbal; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastián; Campbell, J Elliott; Tsao, Tsao Es Chi-Chung; Molina, Luisa T

    2012-07-01

    Chilean law requires the assessment of air pollution control strategies for their costs and benefits. Here we employ an online weather and chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, and a gridded population density map, LANDSCAN, to estimate changes in fine particle pollution exposure, health benefits, and economic valuation for two emission reduction strategies based on increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Santiago, Chile. The first scenario, switching to a CNG public transportation system, would reduce urban PM2.5 emissions by 229 t/year. The second scenario would reduce wood burning emissions by 671 t/year, with unique hourly emission reductions distributed from daily heating demand. The CNG bus scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 0.33 μg/m³ and up to 2 μg/m³ during winter months, while the residential heating scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 2.07 μg/m³, with peaks exceeding 8 μg/m³ during strong air pollution episodes in winter months. These ambient pollution reductions lead to 36 avoided premature mortalities for the CNG bus scenario, and 229 for the CNG heating scenario. Both policies are shown to be cost-effective ways of reducing air pollution, as they target high-emitting area pollution sources and reduce concentrations over densely populated urban areas as well as less dense areas outside the city limits. Unlike the concentration rollback methods commonly used in public policy analyses, which assume homogeneous reductions across a whole city (including homogeneous population densities), and without accounting for the seasonality of certain emissions, this approach accounts for both seasonality and diurnal emission profiles for both the transportation and residential heating sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of supercritical CO2 natural circulation in closed loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Deng, Bi-Li; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model thermosyphon heat transfer and stability with super-/trans-critical turbulence model incorporated. ► Potentials of super-/trans-critical CO 2 thermosyphon are confirmed. ► Three characteristics found: flow instability; high flow rate with density wave; heat transfer discrepancies. ► Major laws of system stability factors are different compared with traditional fluids. ► Traditional thermosyphon flow correlation has its limitations and deserves further development. -- Abstract: Natural convective flow of supercritical fluids has become a hot topic in engineering applications. Natural circulation thermosyphon using supercritical/trans-critical CO 2 can be a potential choice for effectively transportation of heat and mass without pumping devices. This paper presents a series of numerical investigations into the fundamental features in a supercritical/trans-critical CO 2 based natural circulation loop. New heat transport model aiming at trans-critical thermosyphon heat transfer and stability is proposed with supercritical/trans-critical turbulence model incorporated. In this study, the fundamentals include the basic flow and heat transfer behavior of the above loop, the effect of heat source temperature on system stability, the effect of loop diameter on natural convection supercritical CO 2 loop and its coupling effect with heat source temperature and the effect of constant changing heat input condition and system behavior evolution during unsteady input or failure conditions. The fundamental potentials of supercritical/trans-critical CO 2 based natural convection system are confirmed. Basic supercritical CO 2 closed loop flow and heat transfer behaviors are clarified. During this study, the CO 2 loop stability map are also put forward and introduced as an important feature of supercritical CO 2 system. Stability factors of natural convective trans-critical CO 2 flow and its implications on real system control are also discussed in

  16. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, Pattrick

    2010-01-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogeneous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R and D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part

  17. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  18. Impact of thermodynamic properties and heat loss on ignition of transportation fuels in rapid compression machines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2018-01-30

    Rapid compression machines (RCM) are extensively used to study autoignition of a wide variety of fuels at engine relevant conditions. Fuels ranging from pure species to full boiling range gasoline and diesel can be studied in an RCM to develop a better understanding of autoignition kinetics in low to intermediate temperature ranges. In an RCM, autoignition is achieved by compressing a fuel/oxidizer mixture to higher pressure and temperature, thereby initiating chemical reactions promoting ignition. During these experiments, the pressure is continuously monitored and is used to deduce significant events such as the end of compression and the onset of ignition. The pressure profile is also used to assess the temperature evolution of the gas mixture with time using the adiabatic core hypothesis and the heat capacity ratio of the gas mixture. In such RCM studies, real transportation fuels containing many components are often represented by simpler surrogate fuels. While simpler surrogates such as primary reference fuels (PRFs) and ternary primary reference fuel (TPRFs) can match research and motor octane number of transportation fuels, they may not accurately replicate thermodynamic properties (including heat capacity ratio). This non-conformity could exhibit significant discrepancies in the end of compression temperature, thereby affecting ignition delay (τign) measurements. Another aspect of RCMs that can affect τign measurement is post compression heat loss, which depends on various RCM parameters including geometry, extent of insulation, pre-heating temperature etc. To, better understand the effects of these non-chemical kinetic parameters on τign, thermodynamic properties of a number of FACE G gasoline surrogates were calculated and simulated in a multi-zone RCM model. The problem was further investigated using a variance based analysis and individual sensitivities were calculated. This study highlights the effects on τign due to thermodynamic properties of

  19. Impact of thermodynamic properties and heat loss on ignition of transportation fuels in rapid compression machines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz; Hantouche, Mireille; Khurshid, Muneeb; Mohamed, Samah; Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Farooq, Aamir; Roberts, William L.; Knio, Omar; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Rapid compression machines (RCM) are extensively used to study autoignition of a wide variety of fuels at engine relevant conditions. Fuels ranging from pure species to full boiling range gasoline and diesel can be studied in an RCM to develop a better understanding of autoignition kinetics in low to intermediate temperature ranges. In an RCM, autoignition is achieved by compressing a fuel/oxidizer mixture to higher pressure and temperature, thereby initiating chemical reactions promoting ignition. During these experiments, the pressure is continuously monitored and is used to deduce significant events such as the end of compression and the onset of ignition. The pressure profile is also used to assess the temperature evolution of the gas mixture with time using the adiabatic core hypothesis and the heat capacity ratio of the gas mixture. In such RCM studies, real transportation fuels containing many components are often represented by simpler surrogate fuels. While simpler surrogates such as primary reference fuels (PRFs) and ternary primary reference fuel (TPRFs) can match research and motor octane number of transportation fuels, they may not accurately replicate thermodynamic properties (including heat capacity ratio). This non-conformity could exhibit significant discrepancies in the end of compression temperature, thereby affecting ignition delay (τign) measurements. Another aspect of RCMs that can affect τign measurement is post compression heat loss, which depends on various RCM parameters including geometry, extent of insulation, pre-heating temperature etc. To, better understand the effects of these non-chemical kinetic parameters on τign, thermodynamic properties of a number of FACE G gasoline surrogates were calculated and simulated in a multi-zone RCM model. The problem was further investigated using a variance based analysis and individual sensitivities were calculated. This study highlights the effects on τign due to thermodynamic properties of

  20. Importance of the Extracellular Loop 4 in the Human Serotonin Transporter for Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Wilson, Pamela; Kristensen, Kristina Birch

    2015-01-01

    ) in the extracellular loop 4 (EL4) of human SERT, which induced a remarkable gain-of-potency (up to >40-fold) for a range of SERT inhibitors. The effects were highly specific for L406E relative to six other mutations in the same position, including the closely related L406D mutation, showing that the effects induced...... to favor a more outward-facing conformation of SERT can explain the reduced turnover rate and increased association rate of inhibitor binding we found for L406E. Together, our findings show that EL4 allosterically can modulate inhibitor binding within the central binding site, and substantiates that EL4...

  1. The early design stage for building renovation with a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) heat pump water heating system: Techno-economic analysis in three European climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Jingchun; Adkins, Deborah; Yang, Tong; Tang, Llewellyn; Zhao, Xudong; He, Wei; Xu, Peng; Liu, Chenchen; Luo, Huizhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LHP-STF was evaluated from both technical and economic aspects for three EU climates. • The impact of LHP-STF on the overall building socio-energy performance was explored. • A dedicated business model was developed to study the economic feasibility of LHP-STF. • Three fundamental methods for financial measurement of LHP-STF were analysed. • Four investment options were considered in this business model. - Abstract: Most of the building renovation plans are usually decided in the early design stage. This delicate phase contains the greatest opportunity to achieve the high energy performance buildings after refurbishment. It is therefore important to provide the pertinent energy performance information for the designers or decision-makers from multidisciplinary and comparative points of view. This paper investigates the renovation concept of a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) installed on a reference residential building by technical evaluation and economic analysis in three typical European climates, including North Europe (represented by Stockholm), West Europe (represented by London) and South Europe (represented by Madrid). The aim of this paper is firstly to explore the LHP-STF’s sensitivity with regards to the overall building socio-energy performance and secondly to study the LHP-STF’s economic feasibility by developing a dedicated business model. The reference building model was derived from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial buildings research, in which the energy data for the building models were from the ASHRAE codes and other standard practices. The financial data were collected from the European statistic institute and the cost of system was based on the manufactured prototype. Several critical financial indexes were applied to evaluate the investment feasibility of the LHP-STF system in building renovation, such as Payback Period (PP), Net Present Value (NPV), and the modified internal

  2. EFFECT OF SANDSTONE ANISOTROPY ON ITS HEAT AND MOISTURE TRANSPORT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fořt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Each type of natural stone has its own geological history, formation conditions, different chemical and mineralogical composition, which influence its possible anisotropy. Knowledge in the natural stones anisotropy represents crucial information for the process of stone quarrying, its correct usage and arrangement in building applications. Because of anisotropy, many natural stones exhibit different heat and moisture transport properties in various directions. The main goal of this study is to analyse several anisotropy indices and their effect on heat transport and capillary absorption. For the experimental determination of the anisotropy effect, five types of sandstone coming from different operating quarries in the Czech Republic are chosen. These materials are often used for restoration of culture heritage monuments as well as for other building applications where they are used as facing slabs, facade panels, decoration stones, paving, etc. For basic characterization of studied materials, determination of their bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity is done. Chemical composition of particular sandstones is analysed by X-Ray Fluorescence. Anisotropy is examined by the non-destructive measurement of velocity of ultrasonic wave propagation. On the basis of ultrasound testing data, the relative anisotropy, total anisotropy and anisotropy coefficient are calculated. Then, the measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity in various directions of samples orientation is carried out. The obtained results reveal significant differences between the parameters characterizing the heat transport in various directions, whereas these values are in accordance with the indices of anisotropy. Capillary water transport is described by water absorption coefficient measured using a sorption experiment, which is performed for distilled water and 1M NaCl water solution.  The measured data confirm the effect of anisotropy which is

  3. Diffusive-to-ballistic transition of the modulated heat transport in a rarefied air chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Gomez-Heredia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulated heat transfer in air subject to pressures from 760 Torr to 10-4 Torr is experimentally studied by means of a thermal-wave resonant cavity placed in a vacuum chamber. This is done through the analysis of the amplitude and phase delay of the photothermal signal as a function of the cavity length and pressure through of the Knudsen’s number. The viscous, transitional, and free molecular regimes of heat transport are observed for pressures P>1.5 Torr, 25 mTorrheat transport.

  4. Coupling between particle and heat transport during power modulation experiments in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J.F.; Bouquey, F.; Bremond, S.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Eury, S.P.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Power modulations are a powerful tool often used to investigate heat transport processes in tokamaks. In some situations, this could also be an interesting method for the investigation of the particle transport due to the anomalous pinch. Low frequency (∼ 1 Hz) power modulation experiments, using both electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), have been performed in the Tore Supra tokamak. Strong coupling has been observed between the temperature and density modulations during the low frequency ECRH and ICRH modulation experiments. It has been shown that mechanisms as outgassing, Ware pinch effect, curvature driven pinch are not likely to be responsible for this density modulation. Because of its dependence on temperature or temperature gradient, the thermodiffusion is a serious candidate to be the driving source for this density modulation. This analysis shows that low frequency power modulation experiments have a great potential for the investigation of the anomalous particle pinch in tokamaks. Future plans will include the use of more precise density profile measurements using X-mode reflectometry

  5. Study on a non-powered heat transporting system; Mudoryoku netsu hanso system ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper proposes a non-powered heat transportation (HT) system. The system is composed of an evaporator, condenser, receiver, switching chamber (SC) and 3 check valves which are connected with each other by vapor and liquid tubes. Condensed liquid supercooled in the condenser exists in the receiver forming a saturated condition at a concerned temperature, and condensed liquid is lifted up from the condenser to the receiver by pressure difference between the evaporator and receiver. Generally evaporation pressure is higher by pressure difference between liquid levels in the condenser and receiver. The lifted up amount of condensed liquid increases with evaporation pressure, resulting in an increase in heating surface area of the condenser and amount of condensed liquid. A proper evaporator pressure is thus retained by reduction of evaporation pressure. SC is connected with the receiver and evaporator, and switches high- and low-pressure valves by motion of an inner float to transport heat from the evaporator to condenser. Reverse HT is possible as normal latent HT by installing a bypass. Some problems are also described. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Coupling between particle and heat transport during power modulation experiments in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J.F.; Bouquey, F.; Bremond, S.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Eury, S.P.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L

    2004-07-01

    Power modulations are a powerful tool often used to investigate heat transport processes in tokamaks. In some situations, this could also be an interesting method for the investigation of the particle transport due to the anomalous pinch. Low frequency ({approx} 1 Hz) power modulation experiments, using both electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), have been performed in the Tore Supra tokamak. Strong coupling has been observed between the temperature and density modulations during the low frequency ECRH and ICRH modulation experiments. It has been shown that mechanisms as outgassing, Ware pinch effect, curvature driven pinch are not likely to be responsible for this density modulation. Because of its dependence on temperature or temperature gradient, the thermodiffusion is a serious candidate to be the driving source for this density modulation. This analysis shows that low frequency power modulation experiments have a great potential for the investigation of the anomalous particle pinch in tokamaks. Future plans will include the use of more precise density profile measurements using X-mode reflectometry.

  7. Low frequency turbulence, particle and heat transport in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    Low frequency turbulence in the drift frequency range and its relation to the observed particle transport in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole has been studied with a microwave scattering apparatus. The experimental parameters were T/sub e/ approx. T/sub i/ 13 cm -3 , 200 G < B/sub p-average/ < 1.25 kG. The effect of shear on the transport was studied by the addition of a small toroidal field. By matching experimentally measured density profiles to those given by numerical solutions of the transport equations, diffusion coefficients were obtained. Time dependent density fluctuation spectra were measured with an 8 mm microwave scattering diagnostic to correlate the drift wave portion of the spectrum with the observed diffusion. The density fluctuation spectrum of low frequency (1 kHz < ω < 6 MHz) turbulence was measured for several values of perpendicular wavenumber, k/sub perpendicular to/. Electron heat transport was studied by fitting experimentally measured electron temperature profiles to those predicted by numerical solutions of electron energy transport equation

  8. Influence of root-water-uptake parameterization on simulated heat transport in a structured forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubova, Jana; Vogel, Tomas; Dohnal, Michal; Dusek, Jaromir

    2015-04-01

    Coupled simulations of soil water flow and associated transport of substances have become a useful and increasingly popular tool of subsurface hydrology. Quality of such simulations is directly affected by correctness of its hydraulic part. When near-surface processes under vegetation cover are of interest, appropriate representation of the root water uptake becomes essential. Simulation study of coupled water and heat transport in soil profile under natural conditions was conducted. One-dimensional dual-continuum model (S1D code) with semi-separate flow domains representing the soil matrix and the network of preferential pathways was used. A simple root water uptake model based on water-potential-gradient (WPG) formulation was applied. As demonstrated before [1], the WPG formulation - capable of simulating both the compensatory root water uptake (in situations when reduced uptake from dry layers is compensated by increased uptake from wetter layers), and the root-mediated hydraulic redistribution of soil water - enables simulation of more natural soil moisture distribution throughout the root zone. The potential effect on heat transport in a soil profile is the subject of the present study. [1] Vogel T., M. Dohnal, J. Dusek, J. Votrubova, and M. Tesar. 2013. Macroscopic modeling of plant water uptake in a forest stand involving root-mediated soil-water redistribution. Vadose Zone Journal, 12, 10.2136/vzj2012.0154. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 14-15201J.

  9. Heat and Moisture Transport and Storage Parameters of Bricks Affected by the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Jerman, Miloš; Keppert, Martin; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The effect of external environment on heat and moisture transport and storage properties of the traditional fired clay brick, sand-lime brick and highly perforated ceramic block commonly used in the Czech Republic and on their hygrothermal performance in building envelopes is analyzed by a combination of experimental and computational techniques. The experimental measurements of thermal, hygric and basic physical parameters are carried out in the reference state and after a 3-year exposure of the bricks to real climatic conditions of the city of Prague. The obtained results showed that after 3 years of weathering the porosity of the analyzed bricks increased up to five percentage points which led to an increase in liquid and gaseous mois