Goodge, John W.
2018-02-01
Terrestrial heat flow is a critical first-order factor governing the thermal condition and, therefore, mechanical stability of Antarctic ice sheets, yet heat flow across Antarctica is poorly known. Previous estimates of terrestrial heat flow in East Antarctica come from inversion of seismic and magnetic geophysical data, by modeling temperature profiles in ice boreholes, and by calculation from heat production values reported for exposed bedrock. Although accurate estimates of surface heat flow are important as an input parameter for ice-sheet growth and stability models, there are no direct measurements of terrestrial heat flow in East Antarctica coupled to either subglacial sediment or bedrock. As has been done with bedrock exposed along coastal margins and in rare inland outcrops, valuable estimates of heat flow in central East Antarctica can be extrapolated from heat production determined by the geochemical composition of glacial rock clasts eroded from the continental interior. In this study, U, Th, and K concentrations in a suite of Proterozoic (1.2-2.0 Ga) granitoids sourced within the Byrd and Nimrod glacial drainages of central East Antarctica indicate average upper crustal heat production (Ho) of about 2.6 ± 1.9 µW m-3. Assuming typical mantle and lower crustal heat flux for stable continental shields, and a length scale for the distribution of heat production in the upper crust, the heat production values determined for individual samples yield estimates of surface heat flow (qo) ranging from 33 to 84 mW m-2 and an average of 48.0 ± 13.6 mW m-2. Estimates of heat production obtained for this suite of glacially sourced granitoids therefore indicate that the interior of the East Antarctic ice sheet is underlain in part by Proterozoic continental lithosphere with an average surface heat flow, providing constraints on both geodynamic history and ice-sheet stability. The ages and geothermal characteristics of the granites indicate that crust in central
Estimation of the Heat Flow Variation in the Chad Basin Nigeria ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Wireline logs from 14 oil wells from the Nigerian sector of the Chad Basin were analyzed and interpreted to estimate the heat flow trend in the basin. Geothermal gradients were computed from corrected bottom hole temperatures while the bulk effective thermal conductivity for the different stratigraphic units encountered in ...
THE ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL OF TURKEY BY MEANS OF HEAT FLOW ESTIMATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
UĞUR AKIN
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, the heat flow distribution of Turkey was investigated in the interest ofexploring new geothermal fields in addition to known ones. For this purposes, thegeothermal gradient was estimated from the Curie point depth map obtained from airbornemagnetic data by means of power spectrum method. By multiplying geothermal gradientwith thermal conductivity values, the heat flow map of Turkey was obtained. The averagevalue in the heat flow map of Turkey was determined as 74 mW/m2. It points out existenceof resources of geothermal energy larger than the average of the world resources. in termsof geothermal potential, the most significant region of Turkey is the Aydin and itssurrounding with a value exceeding 200 mW/m2. On the contrary, the value decreasesbelow 30 mW/m2in the region bordered by Aksaray, Niğde, Karaman and Konya. Thenecessity of conducting a detailed additional studies for East Black sea, East and SoutheastAnatolia is also revealed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Yueh-Hung; Li, Guang-Cheng; Yang, Chien-Yuh
2015-01-01
This study provides an Infrared Thermal Image observation on the evaporation heat transfer of refrigerant R-410A in plate heat exchanger with various flow arrangement and exit superheat conditions. An experimental method was derived for estimating the superheat region area of two-phase refrigerant evaporation in plate heat exchanger. The experimental results show that the superheat region area for parallel flow is much larger than that for counter flow as that estimated by Yang et al. [9]. There is an early superheated region at the central part of the plate heat exchanger for parallel flow arrangement. This effect is not significant for counter flow arrangement. The Yang et al. [9] method under estimated the superheat area approximately 40%–53% at various flow rates and degree of exit superheat. Even though the flow inside a plate heat exchanger is extremely turbulent because of the chevron flow passages, the assumption of uniform temperature distribution in the cross section normal to the bulk flow direction will cause significant uncertainties for estimating the superheat area for refrigerant evaporating in a plate heat exchanger
Estimation of respiratory heat flows in prediction of heat strain among Taiwanese steel workers.
Chen, Wang-Yi; Juang, Yow-Jer; Hsieh, Jung-Yu; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Chen-Peng
2017-01-01
International Organization for Standardization 7933 standard provides evaluation of required sweat rate (RSR) and predicted heat strain (PHS). This study examined and validated the approximations in these models estimating respiratory heat flows (RHFs) via convection (C res ) and evaporation (E res ) for application to Taiwanese foundry workers. The influence of change in RHF approximation to the validity of heat strain prediction in these models was also evaluated. The metabolic energy consumption and physiological quantities of these workers performing at different workloads under elevated wet-bulb globe temperature (30.3 ± 2.5 °C) were measured on-site and used in the calculation of RHFs and indices of heat strain. As the results show, the RSR model overestimated the C res for Taiwanese workers by approximately 3 % and underestimated the E res by 8 %. The C res approximation in the PHS model closely predicted the convective RHF, while the E res approximation over-predicted by 11 %. Linear regressions provided better fit in C res approximation (R 2 = 0.96) than in E res approximation (R 2 ≤ 0.85) in both models. The predicted C res deviated increasingly from the observed value when the WBGT reached 35 °C. The deviations of RHFs observed for the workers from those predicted using the RSR or PHS models did not significantly alter the heat loss via the skin, as the RHFs were in general of a level less than 5 % of the metabolic heat consumption. Validation of these approximations considering thermo-physiological responses of local workers is necessary for application in scenarios of significant heat exposure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cull, J.P.
1981-01-01
Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface temperature cause perturbations to the geothermal gradient which may be significant to depths of at least 1000 m, and major corrections are required to determine absolute values of heat flow from the Earth's interior. However, detailed climatic models remain contentious and estimates of error in geothermal gradients differ widely. Consequently, regions of anomalous heat flow which could contain geothermal resources may be more easily resolved by measuring relative values at a standard depth (e.g. 100 m) so that all data are subject to similar corrections. (orig./ME)
Analysis of Tube Bank Heat Transfer In Downward Directed Foam Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonas Gylys
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Apparatus with the foam flow are suitable to use in different technologies like heat exchangers, food industry, chemical and oil processing industry. Statically stable liquid foam until now is used in technologic systems rather seldom. Although a usage of this type of foam as heat transfer agent in foam equipment has a number of advantages in comparison with one phase liquid equipment: small quantity of liquid is required, heat transfer rate is rather high, mass of equipment is much smaller, energy consumption for foam delivery into heat transfer zone is lower. The paper analyzes the peculiarities of heat transfer from distributed in staggered order and perpendicular to foam flow in channel of rectangular cross section tube bundle to the foam flow. It was estimated the dependence of mean gas velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam flow to heat transfer in downward foam flow. Significant difference of heat transfer intensity from front and back tubes of tube row in laminar foam flow was noticed. Dependence of heat transfer on flow velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam was confirmed and estimated by criterion equations.
Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis D
2012-12-01
The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by using the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system to infer the velocity of water through a porous medium. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale and subsequently to upscale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for sampling and simultaneously estimating the tree's thermal diffusivity and probe spacing from in situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio measurement device. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require knowledge of probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential for obtaining reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests can be obtained in different seasons and can be automated using the existing data logging system. Empirical factors are introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology may be tested for its applicability to realistic field conditions, with an ultimate goal of calibrating heat ratio sap flow systems in practical applications.
Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-01
Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by
Goto, Shusaku; Kinoshita, Masataka; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko
2003-09-01
A low-temperature diffuse flow site associated with abundant vent fauna was found by submersible observations on the southern East Pacific Rise at 17°25‧ S in 1997. This site was characterized by thin sediment covered pillow and sheet lavas with collapsed pits up to ˜15 m in diameter. There were three warm water vents (temperature: 6.5 to 10.5 °C) within the site above which the vented fluids rise as plumes. To estimate heat flux of the warm water vents, a temperature logger array was deployed and the vertical temperature distribution in the water column up to 38 m above the seafloor was monitored. A stationary deep seafloor observatory system was also deployed to monitor hydrothermal activity in this site. The temperature logger array measured temperature anomalies, while the plumes from the vents passed through the array. Because the temperature anomalies were measured in only specific current directions, we identified one of the vents as the source. Heat flux from the vent was estimated by applying a plume model in crossflow in a density-stratified environment. The average heat flux from September 13 to October 18, 1997 was 39 MW. This heat flux is as same order as those of high-temperature black smokers, indicating that a large volume flux was discharged from the vent (1.9 m3/s). Previous observations found many similar warm water flow vents along the spreading axis between 17°20‧ S 30‧ S. The total heat flux was estimated to be at least a few hundred mega-watts. This venting style would contribute to form effluent hydrothermal plumes extended above the spreading axis.
Yoshioka, Mayumi; Takakura, Shinichi; Uchida, Youhei
2018-05-01
To estimate the groundwater flow around a borehole heat exchanger (BHE), thermal properties of geological core samples were measured and a thermal response test (TRT) was performed in the Tsukuba upland, Japan. The thermal properties were measured at 57 points along a 50-m-long geological core, consisting predominantly of sand, silt, and clay, drilled near the BHE. In this TRT, the vertical temperature in the BHE was also monitored during and after the test. Results for the thermal properties of the core samples and from the monitoring indicated that groundwater flow enhanced thermal transfers, especially at shallow depths. The groundwater velocities around the BHE were estimated using a two-dimensional numerical model with monitoring data on temperature changes. According to the results, the estimated groundwater velocity was generally consistent with hydrogeological data from previous studies, except for the data collected at shallow depths consisting of a clay layer. The reasons for this discrepancy at shallow depths were predicted to be preferential flow and the occurrence of vertical flow through the BHE grout, induced by the hydrogeological conditions.
Heat flow at the Platanares, Honduras, geothermal site
Meert, Joseph G.; Smith, Douglas L.
1991-03-01
Three boreholes, PLTG-1, PLTG-2 and PLTG-3, were drilled in the Platanares, Honduras geothermal system to evaluate the geothermal energy potential of the site. The maximum reservoir temperature was previously estimated at 225-240°C using various types of chemical and isotopic geothermometry. Geothermal gradients of 139-239°C/km, calculated from two segments of the temperature-depth profile for borehole PLTG-2, were used to project a minimum depth to the geothermal reservoir of 1.2-1.7 km. Borehole PLTG-1 exhibited an erratic temperature distribution attributed to fluid movement through a series of isolated horizontal and subhorizontal fractures. The maximum measured temperature in borehole PLTG-1 was 150.4°C, and in PLTG-2 the maximum measured temperature was 104.3°C. PLTG-3 was drilled after this study and the maximum recorded temperature of 165°C is similar to the temperature encountered in PLTG-1. Heat flow values of 392 mWm -2 and 266 mWm -2 represent the first directly-measured heat flow values for Honduras and northen Central America. Radioactive heat generation, based on gamma-ray analyses of uranium, thorium and potassium in five core samples, is less than 2.0 μWm -3 and does not appear to be a major source of the high heat flow. Several authors have proposed a variety of extensional tectonic environments for western Honduras and these heat flow values, along with published estimates of heat flow, are supportive of this type of tectonic regime.
Heat transfer measurements of the 1983 kilauea lava flow.
Hardee, H C
1983-10-07
Convective heat flow measurements of a basaltic lava flow were made during the 1983 eruption of Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. Eight field measurements of induced natural convection were made, giving heat flux values that ranged from 1.78 to 8.09 kilowatts per square meter at lava temperatures of 1088 and 1128 degrees Celsius, respectively. These field measurements of convective heat flux at subliquidus temperatures agree with previous laboratory measurements in furnace-melted samples of molten lava, and are useful for predicting heat transfer in magma bodies and for estimating heat extraction rates for magma energy.
Characterizing the Heat Flow from Between Enceladus' Tiger Stripes
Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Verbiscer, A.
2017-12-01
Enceladus' heat flow provides a fundamental constraint on its tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. Determining the total amount of emission is proving difficult, as different techniques produce differing constraints. For example, an initial estimate of this value, 5.8±1.3 GW, was made by Spencer et al. (2006) using Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 600 to 1100 cm-1 observations, which was refined using 10 to 600 cm-1 CIRS observations to 15.8±3.1 GW by Howett et al. (2011). However, recent reanalysis of high-spatial resolution 10 to 1100 cm-1 CIRS observations of Enceladus' active south polar region conducted by Spencer and Howett gives a heat flow of 4.64±0.23 GW. Whilst all of these heat flow estimates are much larger than those expected in a steady state, 1.1 GW (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007), their obvious discrepancy is a puzzle. In this work we seek to help understand these discrepancies by determining how much endogenic heat flow is coming from the funiscular terrain between Enceladus active tiger stripes.
Deming, D.; Sass, J.H.; Lachenbruch, A.H.; De Rito, R. F.
1992-01-01
Several high-resolution temperature logs were made in each of 21 drillholes and a total of 601 thermal conductivity measurements were made on drill cuttings and cores. Near-surface heat flow (??20%) is inversely correlated with elevation and ranges from a low of 27 mW/m2 in the foothills of the Brooks Range in the south, to a high of 90 mW/m2 near the north coast. Subsurface temperatures and thermal gradients estimated from corrected BHTs are similarly much higher on the coastal plain than in the foothills province to the south. Significant east-west variation in heat flow and subsurface temperature is also observed; higher heat flow and temperature coincide with higher basement topography. The observed thermal pattern is consistent with forced convection by a topographically driven ground-water flow system. Average ground-water (Darcy) velocity in the postulated flow system is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 m/yr; the effective basin-scale permeability is estimated to be of the order of 10-14 m2. -from Authors
Magnetic heat pump flow director
Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.
Estimating Antarctic Geothermal Heat Flux using Gravity Inversion
Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V.; Sasha Rogozhina, Irina
2013-04-01
Geothermal heat flux (GHF) in Antarctica is very poorly known. We have determined (Vaughan et al. 2012) top basement heat-flow for Antarctica and adjacent rifted continental margins using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). Continental lithosphere thinning and post-breakup residual thicknesses of continental crust determined from gravity inversion have been used to predict the preservation of continental crustal radiogenic heat productivity and the transient lithosphere heat-flow contribution within thermally equilibrating rifted continental and oceanic lithosphere. The sensitivity of present-day Antarctic top basement heat-flow to initial continental radiogenic heat productivity, continental rift and margin breakup age has been examined. Knowing GHF distribution for East Antarctica and the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) region in particular is critical because: 1) The GSM likely acted as key nucleation point for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS); 2) the region may contain the oldest ice of the EAIS - a prime target for future ice core drilling; 3) GHF is important to understand proposed ice accretion at the base of the EAIS in the GSM and its links to sub-ice hydrology (Bell et al. 2011). An integrated multi-dataset-based GHF model for East Antarctica is planned that will resolve the wide range of estimates previously published using single datasets. The new map and existing GHF distribution estimates available for Antarctica will be evaluated using direct ice temperature measurements obtained from deep ice cores, estimates of GHF derived from subglacial lakes, and a thermodynamic ice-sheet model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet driven by past climate reconstructions and each of analysed heat flow maps, as has recently been done for the Greenland region (Rogozhina et al. 2012). References Bell, R.E., Ferraccioli, F., Creyts, T.T., Braaten, D., Corr, H., Das, I., Damaske, D., Frearson, N
Molecular dynamics study of solid-liquid heat transfer and passive liquid flow
Yesudasan Daisy, Sumith
equilibrium canonical ensemble (NVT) is simulated using thermostat algorithms. For research in heat transfer involving solid liquid interaction, we need to perform non equilibrium MD (NEMD) simulations. In such NEMD simulations, the methods used for simulating heating from a surface is very important and must capture proper physics and thermodynamic properties. Development of MD simulation techniques to simulate solid-liquid heating and the study of fundamental mechanism of passive flow is the main focus of this thesis. An accurate surface-heating algorithm was developed for water which can now allow the study of a whole new set of fundamental heat transfer problems at the nanoscale like surface heating/cooling of droplets, thin-films, etc. The developed algorithm is implemented in the in-house developed C++ MD code. A direct two dimensional local pressure estimation algorithm is also formulated and implemented in the code. With this algorithm, local pressure of argon and platinum interaction is studied. Also, the surface tension of platinum-argon (solid-liquid) was estimated directly from the MD simulations for the first time. Contact angle estimation studies of water on platinum, and argon on platinum were also performed. A thin film of argon is kept above platinum plate and heated in the middle region, leading to the evaporation and pressure reduction thus creating a strong passive flow in the near surface region. This observed passive liquid flow is characterized by estimating the pressure, density, velocity and surface tension using Eulerian mapping method. Using these simulation, we have demonstrated the fundamental nature and origin of surface-driven passive flow. Heat flux removed from the surface is also estimated from the results, which shows a significant improvement can be achieved in thermal management of electronic devices by taking advantage of surface-driven strong passive liquid flow. Further, the local pressure of water on silicon di-oxide surface is
Active heat pulse sensing of 3-D-flow fields in streambeds
Banks, Eddie W.; Shanafield, Margaret A.; Noorduijn, Saskia; McCallum, James; Lewandowski, Jörg; Batelaan, Okke
2018-03-01
Profiles of temperature time series are commonly used to determine hyporheic flow patterns and hydraulic dynamics in the streambed sediments. Although hyporheic flows are 3-D, past research has focused on determining the magnitude of the vertical flow component and how this varies spatially. This study used a portable 56-sensor, 3-D temperature array with three heat pulse sources to measure the flow direction and magnitude up to 200 mm below the water-sediment interface. Short, 1 min heat pulses were injected at one of the three heat sources and the temperature response was monitored over a period of 30 min. Breakthrough curves from each of the sensors were analysed using a heat transport equation. Parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis was undertaken using the differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, an adaption of the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, to estimate the flux and its orientation. Measurements were conducted in the field and in a sand tank under an extensive range of controlled hydraulic conditions to validate the method. The use of short-duration heat pulses provided a rapid, accurate assessment technique for determining dynamic and multi-directional flow patterns in the hyporheic zone and is a basis for improved understanding of biogeochemical processes at the water-streambed interface.
Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices
Koplow, Jeffrey P.
2016-02-16
Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.
Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters
Howard, Frank S.
1995-01-01
Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.
Miniaturized heat flux sensor for high enthalpy plasma flow characterization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardarein, Jean-Laurent; Battaglia, Jean-Luc; Lohlec, Stefan; Jullien, Pierre; Van Ootegemd, Bruno; Couzie, Jacques; Lasserre, Jean-Pierre
2013-01-01
An improved miniaturized heat flux sensor is presented aiming at measuring extreme heat fluxes of plasma wind tunnel flows. The sensor concept is based on an in-depth thermocouple measurement with a miniaturized design and an advanced calibration approach. Moreover, a better spatial estimation of the heat flux profile along the flow cross section is realized with this improved small sensor design. Based on the linearity assumption, the heat flux is determined using the impulse response of the sensor relating the heat flux to the temperature of the embedded thermocouple. The non-integer system identification (NISI) procedure is applied that allows a calculation of the impulse response from transient calibration measurements with a known heat flux of a laser source. The results show that the new sensor leads to radially highly resolved heat flux measurement for a flow with only a few centimetres in diameter, the so far not understood non-symmetric heat flux profiles do not occur with the new sensor design. It is shown that this former effect is not a physical effect of the flow, but a drawback of the classical sensor design. (authors)
Estimation of heat transfer and heat source in a molten pool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yun, J.I.; Suh, K.Y.; Kang, C.S. [Seoul National Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering (Korea, Republic of)
2001-07-01
Heat transfer and fluid flow in a molten pool are influenced by internal volumetric heat generated from the radioactive decay of fission product species retained in the pool. The pool superheat is determined based on the overall energy balance that equates the heat production rate to the heat loss rate. Decay heat of fission products in the pool was estimated by product of the mass concentration and energy conversion factor of each fission product. For the calculation of heat generation rate in the pool, twenty-nine (29) elements were chosen and classified by their chemical properties. The mass concentration of a fission product is obtained from released fraction and the tabular output of the ORIGEN 2 code. The initial core and pool inventories at each time can also be estimated using ORIGEN 2. The released fraction of each fission product is calculated based on the bubble dynamics and mass transport. Numerical analysis was performed for the TMI-2 accident. The pool is assumed to be a partially filled hemispherical geometry, 1.45 m in radius and 32,700 kg in mass. The change of pool geometry during the numerical calculation was neglected. The peak temperature sizably decreased by about 60 K as the fission products were released from the pool. (author)
Estimation of heat transfer and heat source in a molten pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, J.I.; Suh, K.Y.; Kang, C.S.
2001-01-01
Heat transfer and fluid flow in a molten pool are influenced by internal volumetric heat generated from the radioactive decay of fission product species retained in the pool. The pool superheat is determined based on the overall energy balance that equates the heat production rate to the heat loss rate. Decay heat of fission products in the pool was estimated by product of the mass concentration and energy conversion factor of each fission product. For the calculation of heat generation rate in the pool, twenty-nine (29) elements were chosen and classified by their chemical properties. The mass concentration of a fission product is obtained from released fraction and the tabular output of the ORIGEN 2 code. The initial core and pool inventories at each time can also be estimated using ORIGEN 2. The released fraction of each fission product is calculated based on the bubble dynamics and mass transport. Numerical analysis was performed for the TMI-2 accident. The pool is assumed to be a partially filled hemispherical geometry, 1.45 m in radius and 32,700 kg in mass. The change of pool geometry during the numerical calculation was neglected. The peak temperature sizably decreased by about 60 K as the fission products were released from the pool. (author)
Luciani, S.; LeNiliot, C.
2008-11-01
Two-phase and boiling flow instabilities are complex, due to phase change and the existence of several interfaces. To fully understand the high heat transfer potential of boiling flows in microscale's geometry, it is vital to quantify these transfers. To perform this task, an experimental device has been designed to observe flow patterns. Analysis is made up by using an inverse method which allows us to estimate the local heat transfers while boiling occurs inside a microchannel. In our configuration, the direct measurement would impair the accuracy of the searched heat transfer coefficient because thermocouples implanted on the surface minichannels would disturb the established flow. In this communication, we are solving a 3D IHCP which consists in estimating using experimental data measurements the surface temperature and the surface heat flux in a minichannel during convective boiling under several gravity levels (g, 1g, 1.8g). The considered IHCP is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem and solved using the boundary element method (BEM).
Micro-channel convective boiling heat transfer with flow instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Consolini, L.; Thome, J.R.
2009-01-01
Flow boiling heat transfer in micro-channels has attracted much interest in the past decade, and is currently a strong candidate for high performance compact heat sinks, such as those required in electronics systems, automobile air conditioning units, micro-reactors, fuel cells, etc. Currently the literature presents numerous experimental studies on two-phase heat transfer in micro-channels, providing an extensive database that covers many different fluids and operating conditions. Among the noteworthy elements that have been reported in previous studies, is the sensitivity of micro-channel evaporators to oscillatory two-phase instabilities. These periodic fluctuations in flow and pressure drop either result from the presence of upstream compressibility, or are simply due to the interaction among parallel channels in multi-port systems. An oscillating flow presents singular characteristics that are expected to produce an effect on the local heat transfer mechanisms, and thus on the estimation of the two-phase heat transfer coefficients. The present investigation illustrates results for flow boiling of refrigerants R-134a, R-236fa, and R-245fa in a 510 μm circular micro-channel, exposed to various degrees of oscillatory compressible volume instabilities. The data describe the main features of the fluctuations in the temperatures of the heated wall and fluid, and draw attention to the differences in the measured unstable time-averaged heat transfer coefficients with respect to those for stable flow boiling. (author)
Micro-channel convective boiling heat transfer with flow instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Consolini, L.; Thome, J.R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse], e-mail: lorenzo.consolini@epfl.ch, e-mail: john.thome@epfl.ch
2009-07-01
Flow boiling heat transfer in micro-channels has attracted much interest in the past decade, and is currently a strong candidate for high performance compact heat sinks, such as those required in electronics systems, automobile air conditioning units, micro-reactors, fuel cells, etc. Currently the literature presents numerous experimental studies on two-phase heat transfer in micro-channels, providing an extensive database that covers many different fluids and operating conditions. Among the noteworthy elements that have been reported in previous studies, is the sensitivity of micro-channel evaporators to oscillatory two-phase instabilities. These periodic fluctuations in flow and pressure drop either result from the presence of upstream compressibility, or are simply due to the interaction among parallel channels in multi-port systems. An oscillating flow presents singular characteristics that are expected to produce an effect on the local heat transfer mechanisms, and thus on the estimation of the two-phase heat transfer coefficients. The present investigation illustrates results for flow boiling of refrigerants R-134a, R-236fa, and R-245fa in a 510 {mu}m circular micro-channel, exposed to various degrees of oscillatory compressible volume instabilities. The data describe the main features of the fluctuations in the temperatures of the heated wall and fluid, and draw attention to the differences in the measured unstable time-averaged heat transfer coefficients with respect to those for stable flow boiling. (author)
Heat exchanger with oscillating flow
Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.
Stokes flow heat transfer in an annular, rotating heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saatdjian, E.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Mota, J.P.B.
2011-01-01
The heat transfer rate into highly viscous, low thermal-conductivity fluids can be enhanced significantly by chaotic advection in three-dimensional flows dominated by viscous forces. The physical effect of chaotic advection is to render the cross-sectional temperature field uniform, thus increasing both the wall temperature gradient and the heat flux into the fluid. A method of analysis for one such flow-the flow in the eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger-and a procedure to determine the best heat transfer conditions, namely the optimal values of the eccentricity ratio and time-periodic rotating protocol, are discussed. It is shown that in continuous flows, such as the one under consideration, there exists an optimum frequency of the rotation protocol for which the heat transfer rate is a maximum. - Highlights: → The eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger is studied for periodic Stokes flow. → Counter-rotating the inner tube with a periodic velocity enhances the heat transfer. → The heat-transfer enhancement under such conditions is due to chaotic advection. → For a given axial flow rate there is a frequency that maximizes the heat transfer. → There is also an optimum value of the eccentricity ratio.
A review of surface heat-flow data of the northern Middle Atlas (Morocco)
Chiozzi, Paolo; Barkaoui, Alae-Eddine; Rimi, Abdelkrim; Verdoya, Massimo; Zarhloule, Yassine
2017-12-01
We revised thermal data available from water and oil wells in the northern sector of the Middle Atlas region. To avoid biased estimation of surface heat flow caused by advection likely occurring in shallow aquifers, temperature measurements in water boreholes were carefully inspected and selected. The heat flow in the oil wells was inferred by taking into account the porosity variation with depth, the temperature effect on thermal conductivity of the matrix and the pore fluid, together with the contribution of the radiogenic heat production. Moreover, the possible bias in heat flow caused by convection occurring in confined carbonate aquifers was evaluated. The results of heat flow slightly modify the picture reported in previous investigations. The heat flow value over the investigated region is rather uniform (about 80 mW m-2) and is similar in oil wells and in water boreholes. Geothermal calculations indicate that such a surface heat flow is compatible with a ∼70 km thick thermal lithosphere and normal thermal conditions in the asthenospheric mantle.
Interpretation of lunar heat flow data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conel, J.E.; Morton, J.B.
1975-01-01
Lunar heat flow observations at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites can be interpreted to imply bulk U concentrations for the Moon of 5 to 8 times those of normal chondrites and 2 to 4 times terrestrial values inferred from the Earth's heat flow and the assumption of thermal steady state between surface heat flow and heat production. A simple model of nearsurface structure that takes into account the large difference in (highly insulating) regolith thickness between mare and highland provinces is considered. This model predicts atypically high local values of heat flow near the margins of mare regions--possibly a factor of 10 or so higher than the global average. A test of the proposed model using multifrequency microwave techniques appears possible wherein heat flow traverse measurements are made across mare-highland contacts. The theoretical considerations discussed here urge caution in attributing global significance to point heat-flow measurements on the Moon
Heat flow and heat generation in greenstone belts
Drury, M. J.
1986-01-01
Heat flow has been measured in Precambrian shields in both greenstone belts and crystalline terrains. Values are generally low, reflecting the great age and tectonic stability of the shields; they range typically between 30 and 50 mW/sq m, although extreme values of 18 and 79 mW/sq m have been reported. For large areas of the Earth's surface that are assumed to have been subjected to a common thermotectonic event, plots of heat flow against heat generation appear to be linear, although there may be considerable scatter in the data. The relationship is expressed as: Q = Q sub o + D A sub o in which Q is the observed heat flow, A sub o is the measured heat generation at the surface, Q sub o is the reduced heat flow from the lower crust and mantle, and D, which has the dimension of length, represents a scale depth for the distribution of radiogenic elements. Most authors have not used data from greenstone belts in attempting to define the relationship within shields, considering them unrepresentative and preferring to use data from relatively homogeneous crystalline rocks. A discussion follows.
Heat flow at the proposed Appalachian Ultradeep Core Hole (ADCOH) Site: Tectonic implications
Costain, John K.; Decker, Edward R.
The heat flow in northwestern South Carolina at the Appalachian Ultradeep Core Hole (ADCOH) site area is approximately 55 mW/m². This data supplements other data to the east in the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain provinces where heat flows > 55 mW/m² are characteristic of post- and late-synmetamorphic granitoids. Piedmont heat flow and heat generation data for granites, metagranites, and one Slate Belt site, in a zone approximately parallel to major structural Appalachian trends, define a linear relation. Tectonic truncation of heat-producing crust at a depth of about 8 km (a depth equal to the slope of the heat flow-heat production line) is proposed to explain the linear relation. Using the value of reduced heat flow estimated from this empirical relation, and assuming thicknesses of heat-producing crust defined by new ADCOH seismic data, the heat flow and heat production at the ADCOH site are consistent with a depth to the base of the Inner Piedmont crystalline allochthon of about 5.5 km. Seismic data at the ADCOH site confirm that the Inner Piedmont is tectonically truncated at about 5.5 km by the Blue Ridge master decollement. Temperatures at 10 km at the ADCOH site are predicted to be less than 200 °C.
Plate heat exchanger - inertia flywheel performance in loss of flow transient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abou-El-Maaty, Talal; Abd-El-Hady, Amr
2009-01-01
One of the most versatile types of heat exchangers used is the plate heat exchanger. It has principal advantages over other heat exchangers in that plates can be added and/or removed easily in order to change the area available for heat transfer and therefore its overall performance. The cooling systems of Egypt's second research reactor (ETRR 2) use this type of heat exchanger for cooling purposes in its primary core cooling and pool cooling systems. In addition to the change in the number of heat exchanger cooling channels, the effect of changing the amount of mass flow rate on the heat exchanger performance is an important issues in this study. The inertia flywheel mounted on the primary core cooling system pump with the plate heat exchanger plays an important role in the case of loss of flow transients. The PARET code is used to simulate the effect of loss of flow transients on the reactor core. Hence, the core outlet temperature with the pump-flywheel flow coast down is fed into the plate heat exchanger model developed to estimate the total energy transferred to the cooling tower, the primary side heat exchanger temperature variation, the transmitted heat exchanger power, and the heat exchanger effectiveness. In addition, the pressure drop in both, the primary side and secondary side of the plate heat exchanger is calculated in all simulated transients because their values have limits beyond which the heat exchanger is useless. (orig.)
Frictional strength and heat flow of southern San Andreas Fault
Zhu, P. P.
2016-01-01
Frictional strength and heat flow of faults are two related subjects in geophysics and seismology. To date, the investigation on regional frictional strength and heat flow still stays at the stage of qualitative estimation. This paper is concentrated on the regional frictional strength and heat flow of the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF). Based on the in situ borehole measured stress data, using the method of 3D dynamic faulting analysis, we quantitatively determine the regional normal stress, shear stress, and friction coefficient at various seismogenic depths. These new data indicate that the southern SAF is a weak fault within the depth of 15 km. As depth increases, all the regional normal and shear stresses and friction coefficient increase. The former two increase faster than the latter. Regional shear stress increment per kilometer equals 5.75 ± 0.05 MPa/km for depth ≤15 km; regional normal stress increment per kilometer is equal to 25.3 ± 0.1 MPa/km for depth ≤15 km. As depth increases, regional friction coefficient increment per kilometer decreases rapidly from 0.08 to 0.01/km at depths less than ~3 km. As depth increases from ~3 to ~5 km, it is 0.01/km and then from ~5 to 15 km, and it is 0.002/km. Previously, frictional strength could be qualitatively determined by heat flow measurements. It is difficult to obtain the quantitative heat flow data for the SAF because the measured heat flow data exhibit large scatter. However, our quantitative results of frictional strength can be employed to investigate the heat flow in the southern SAF. We use a physical quantity P f to describe heat flow. It represents the dissipative friction heat power per unit area generated by the relative motion of two tectonic plates accommodated by off-fault deformation. P f is called "fault friction heat." On the basis of our determined frictional strength data, utilizing the method of 3D dynamic faulting analysis, we quantitatively determine the regional long-term fault
Settar, Abdelhakim; Abboudi, Saïd; Madani, Brahim; Nebbali, Rachid
2018-02-01
Due to the endothermic nature of the steam methane reforming reaction, the process is often limited by the heat transfer behavior in the reactors. Poor thermal behavior sometimes leads to slow reaction kinetics, which is characterized by the presence of cold spots in the catalytic zones. Within this framework, the present work consists on a numerical investigation, in conjunction with an experimental one, on the one-dimensional heat transfer phenomenon during the heat supply of a catalytic-wall reactor, which is designed for hydrogen production. The studied reactor is inserted in an electric furnace where the heat requirement of the endothermic reaction is supplied by electric heating system. During the heat supply, an unknown heat flux density, received by the reactive flow, is estimated using inverse methods. In the basis of the catalytic-wall reactor model, an experimental setup is engineered in situ to measure the temperature distribution. Then after, the measurements are injected in the numerical heat flux estimation procedure, which is based on the Function Specification Method (FSM). The measured and estimated temperatures are confronted and the heat flux density which crosses the reactor wall is determined.
Saturated flow boiling heat transfer in water-heated vertical annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Licheng; Yan Changqi; Sun Zhonning
2005-01-01
This paper describes the saturated flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of water at 1 atm and low velocities in water-heated vertical annuli with equivalent diameters of 10 mm and 6 mm. Test section is consisted of two concentric circular tubes outer of which is made of quartz, so the whole test courses can be visualized. There are three main flow patterns of bubble flow, churn flow and churn-annular flow in the annuli, most important of which is churn flow. Flooding is the mechanism of churn flow and churn can enhance the heat transport between steam and water; Among the three factors of mass flux, inlet subcooling and annulus width, the last one has great effect on heat transport, moderately decreasing the annulus width can enhance the heat transfer; Combined annular flow model with theory of flooding and turbulent Prandtl Number, the numerical value of heat flux is given, the shape of test boiling curve and that of calculated by model is very alike, but there is large discrepancy between test data and calculated results, the most possible reason is that some parameters given by fluid flooding model are based on experimental data of common circular tubes, but not of annuli. Doing more research on flooding in annulus, particularly narrow annulus, is necessary for calculating the saturated boiling in annulus. (authors)
Experimental study on flow pattern and heat transfer of inverted annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Akagawa, Koji; Fujii, Terushige; Nishida, Koji
1990-01-01
Experimental results are presented on flow pattern and heat transfer in the regions from inverted annular flow to dispersed flow in a vertical tube using freon R-113 as a working fluid at atmospheric pressure to discuss the correspondence between them. Axial distributions of heat transfer coefficient are measured and flow patterns are observed. The heat transfer characteristics are divided into three regions and a heat transfer characteristics map is proposed. The flow pattern changes from inverted annular flow (IAF) to dispersed flow (DF) through inverted slug flow (ISF) for lower inlet velocities and through agitated inverted annular flow (AIAF) for higher inlet velocities. A flow pattern map is obtained which corresponds well with the heat transfer characteristic map. (orig.)
K.A. McCulloh; K. Winter; F.C. Meinzer; M. Garcia; J. Aranda; Lachenbruch B.
2007-01-01
The use of Granier-style heat dissipation sensors to measure sap flow is common in plant physiology, ecology, and hydrology. There has been concern that any change to the original Granier design invalidates the empirical relationship between sap flux density and the temperature difference between the probes. We compared daily water use estimates from gravimetric...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamura, Toshiyo; Togawa, Tatsuo; Fukuoka, Masakazu; Kawakami, Kenji.
1982-01-01
The regional blood flow in the calf was determined simultaneously by thermal measurement and by 133 Xe clearance technique. Calf blood flow (Ft) by thermal measurement was accounted for by the equation of the form Ft=(CdT*d+Ho-Mb)/rho sub(b)c su b(D) (Ta-Td), where Cd is thermal capacitance of the calf compartment, T*d is the change of calf tissue temperature, Ta is arterila blood temperature, Td is calf tissue temperature, Ho is the heat dissipation from the compartment to the environment, Mb is estimated metabolism of the calf tissue and rho sub(b)c sub(b) is the product of density and specific heat of blood. The healthy men were chosen for the experiments. Total calf blood flow was 2.53+-1.31ml/(min-100ml calf), and muscle blood flow was 2.63+-1.69ml/(min- 100ml muscle) and skin blood flow 7.19+-3.83ml/(min-100ml skin) measured by 133 Xe clearance. On the basis of the results, an estimate has been made of the proportions of the calf volume which can be ascribed to skin and muscle respectively. Estimated muscle and skin blood flow were correlated with total calf blood flow(r=0.98). (author)
Regional Heat Flow Map and the Continental Thermal Isostasy Understanding of México
Espinoza-Ojeda, O. M.; Harris, R. N.
2014-12-01
The first heat flow values made in Mexico were reported by Von Herzen [Science, 1963] for the marine environment and Smith [EPSL, 1974] for the continent. Since that time the number of measurements has increased greatly but are mostly from oil and gas exploration and in and around geothermal areas. We have compiled published values of conductive heat flow for Mexico and the Gulf of California to generate a new regional heat flow map consisting of 261 values. In addition to those original values, published heat flow sources include, Lee and Henyey [JGR, 1975], Lawver and Williams [JGR, 1979] Smith et al. [JGR, 1979], Lachenbruch et al. [JGR, 1985], and Ziagos et al. [JGR, 1985]. Although the geographic distribution is uneven, heat flow data are present in each of the eight main tectonic provinces. Our new compilation indicates relatively high regional heat flow averages in the Gulf Extensional Province (n=114, 92±22 mW/m2) and Mexican Basin and Range (n=21, 82±20 mW/m2) and are consistent with geologic estimates of extension. Lower regional averages are found in the Baja California Microplate (n=91, 75±19 mW/m2), the Sierra Madre Occidental (n=9, 75±12 mW/m2), the Sierra Madre Oriental (n=4, 68±15 mW/m2) and Mesa Central (n=X 77±23 mW/m2). In contrast low and variable heat flow value characterize the forearc region of the Middle America Trench (n=6, 35±16 mW/m2). A higher mean heat flow is associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (n=6, 78±26 mW/m2). Continental elevation results from a combination of buoyancy (i.e. compositional and thermal) and geodynamic forces. We combine these regional heat flow values with estimates of crustal thickness and density for each tectonic province and compute the thermal and compositional buoyancy following the approach of Hasterok and Chapman [JGR, 2007a,b]. We find that within uncertainties most provinces lie near the theoretical isostatic relationship with the exception of the Mesa Central and Sierra Madre del Sur
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Parichay K.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► This method for estimating ΔT ad (t) against time in a semi-batch reactor is distinctively pioneer and novel. ► It has established uniquely a direct correspondence between the evolution of ΔT ad (t) in RC and C A (t) in a semi-batch reactor. ► Through a unique reaction scheme, the independent effects of heat of mixing and reaction on ΔT ad (t) has been demonstrated quantitatively. ► This work will help to build a thermally safe corridor of a thermally hazard reaction. ► This manuscript, the author believes will open a new vista for further research in Adiabatic Calorimetry. - Abstract: A novel method for estimating the transient profile of adiabatic rise in temperature has been developed from the heat flow data for exothermic chemical reactions that are conducted in reaction calorimeter (RC). It has also been mathematically demonstrated by the present design that there exists a direct qualitative equivalence between the temporal evolution of the adiabatic temperature rise and the concentration of the limiting reactant for an exothermic chemical reaction, carried out in semi batch mode. The proposed procedure shows that the adiabatic temperature rise will always be less than that of the reaction executed at batch mode thereby affording a thermally safe corridor. Moreover, a unique reaction scheme has been designed to establish the independent heat effect of dissolution and reaction quantitatively. It is hoped that the testimony of the transient adiabatic temperature rise that can be prepared by the proposed method, may provide ample scope for further research.
Langseth, M. G.
1977-01-01
The principal components of the experiment were probes, each with twelve thermometers of exceptional accuracy and stability, that recorded temperature variations at the surface and in the regolith down to 2.5 m. The Apollo 15 experiment and the Apollo 17 probes recorded lunar surface and subsurface temperatures. These data provided a unique and valuable history of the interaction of solar energy with lunar surface and the effects of heat flowing from the deep interior out through the surface of the moon. The interpretation of these data resulted in a clearer definition of the thermal and mechanical properties of the upper two meters of lunar regolith, direct measurements of the gradient in mean temperature due to heat flow from the interior and a determination of the heat flow at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 sites.
Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.
1985-01-01
A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.
Heat and mass transfer from the mantle: heat flow and He-isotope constraints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. G. Polyak
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Terrestrial heat flow density, q, is inversely correlated with the age, t, of tectono-magmatic activity in the Earth's crust (Polyak and Smirnov, 1966; etc.. «Heat flow-age dependence» indicates unknown temporal heat sources in the interior considered a priori as the mantle-derived diapirs. The validity of this hypothesis is demonstrated by studying the helium isotope ratio, 3He/4He = R, in subsurface fluids. This study discovered the positive correlation between the regionally averaged (background estimations of R- and q-values (Polyak et al., 1979a. Such a correlation manifests itself in both pan-regional scales (Norhtern Eurasia and separate regions, e.g., Japan (Sano et al., 1982, Eger Graben (Polyak et al., 1985 Eastern China rifts (Du, 1992, Southern Italy (Italiano et al., 2000, and elsewhere. The R-q relation indicates a coupled heat and mass transfer from the mantle into the crust. From considerations of heat-mass budget this transfer can be provided by the flux consisting of silicate matter rather than He or other volatiles. This conclusion is confirmed by the correlation between 3He/ 4He and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the products of the volcanic and hydrothermal activity in Italy (Polyak et al., 1979b; Parello et al., 2000 and other places. Migration of any substance through geotemperature field transports thermal energy accumulated within this substance, i.e. represents heat and mass transfer. Therefore, only the coupled analysis of both material and energy aspects of this transfer makes it possible to characterise the process adequately and to decipher an origin of terrestrial heat flow observed in upper parts of the earth crust. An attempt of such kind is made in this paper.
Flow and heat transfer in laminar–turbulent transitional flow regime under rolling motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Hongsheng; Tan, Sichao; Zhuang, Nailiang; Lan, Shu
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Flow and heat transfer experiment in transitional flow regime under rolling motion. • Increases of average friction factor and Nu were found. • Periodic breakdown of laminar flow contributes to the increase. • Nonlinear variation of pressure drop or Nu with Re also contributes to the increase. • Effect of critical Reynolds number shift was discussed. - Abstract: Flow and heat transfer characteristics under rolling motion are extremely important to thermohydraulic analysis of offshore nuclear reactors. An experimental study was conducted in a heated rectangular channel to investigate flow and heat transfer in laminar–turbulent transitional flow regime under rolling motion. The results showed that the average friction factor and Nusselt number are higher than that of the corresponding steady flow as the flow rate fluctuates in transitional flow regime. Larger relative flow rate fluctuation was observed under larger rolling amplitude or higher rolling frequency. In the same manner, larger increases of average friction factor and Nusselt number were achieved under larger rolling amplitude or higher rolling frequency. The increases were mainly caused by the flow rate fluctuation through periodic breakdown of laminar flow and development of turbulence in laminar–turbulent transitional flow regime. First, turbulence, which enhances the rate of momentum and energy exchange, occurs near the crest of flow rate wave even the flow is still in laminar flow regime according to the average Reynolds number. Second, as a result of rapid increases of the friction and heat transfer with Reynolds number in transitional flow regime, the increases of the friction and the heat transfer near the crest of flow rate wave are larger than the decreases of them near the trough of flow rate wave, which also contributes to increases of average friction and heat transfer. Additionally, the effect of critical Reynolds number shift under unsteady flow and heating
Heat transfer in a counterflow heat exchanger at low flow rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, A.; Hattori, N.; Naruke, K.
1995-01-01
A study was made of heat transfer in a double-tube heat exchanger at low flow rates of water. The temperatures of fluid and tube walls in the axial direction of tube were measured precisely at flow rate ratios of annulus to inner tube (or flow rate ratios of inner tube to annulus W i /W a , Re i approx. = 80 - 4000), W a /W i =0.1 - 1.1. In parallel with experiment, numerical calculation for forced-convection heat transfer was also carried out for laminar flows in the same tube configuration as experiment. Average over-all coefficients of heat transfer, obtained by experiments, indicate the same characteristics as numerical calculation in the examined range of flow rate ratio. Their experimental values, however, are somewhat larger than those of calculation at small values of flow rate ratio. (author)
Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing
2018-01-01
The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is widely considered to be a consequence of a mantle plume. The supporting evidence includes rapid emplacement, voluminous flood basalt eruptions, and high mantle potential temperature estimates. Several studies have suggested that there was surface uplift prior to the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts. Additionally, the plume's lateral extent is hard to constrain and has been variously estimated to be 800-1400 km in diameter. In this study, we analyzed present-day heat flow data and reconstructed the Permian paleo-heat flow using vitrinite reflectance and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology data in the ELIP region and discussed implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume. The present-day heat flow is higher in the inner and intermediate zones than in the outer zone, with a decrease of average heat flow from 76 mW/m2 to 51 mW/m2. Thermal history modeling results show that an abnormal high paleo-heat flow of 90-110 mW/m2 was caused by the Emeishan mantle plume activity. Based on the present-day heat flow data, we can calculate that there is lithospheric thinning in the central ELIP region, which may be due to the destruction of the lithosphere by mantle plume upwelling and magmatic underplating. The Permian paleo-heat flow anomaly implies that there was a temperature anomaly in the mantle. The ascending high-temperature mantle plume and the thinned lithosphere may have induced the large-scale uplift in the ELIP region. According to the range of the surface heat flow anomaly, it can be estimated that the diameter of the flattened head of the Emeishan mantle plume could have reached 1600-1800 km. Our research provides new insights into the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume through study of heat flow.
Heat flow map of the Bohemian massif
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cermak, V [Geophys. Inst., CS Acad. of Sci.
1977-01-01
Forty seven heat flow values for the Bohemian massif were used to determine the heat flow pattern of the area. By including data from neighboring countries it was possible to draw an isothermal map outlining the geothermal activity. As a result, it is possible to closely correlate the heat flow and the tectonic structure. It is obvious that the areas of high geothermal activity correspond to zones of crustal weakness associated with two major faults bordering the rigid central section of the massif. The highest heat flow values coincide with the axis of the sedimentary basin. The development of these heat flow patterns should assist in the recognition of probable areas of geothermal resources and several promising sites are readily discernible.
Augmentation of forced flow boiling heat transfer by introducing air flow into subcooled water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Y.; Ohtake, H.; Yuasa, T.; Matsushita, N.
2001-01-01
The effect of air injection into a subcooled water flow on boiling heat transfer and a critical heat flux (CHF) was examined experimentally. Experiments were conducted in the range of subcooling of 50 K, a superficial velocity of water and air Ul = 0.17 ∼ 3.4 and Ug = 0 ∼ 15 m/s, respectively. A test heat transfer surface was a 5 mm wide, 40 mm long and 0.5 mm thick stainless steel sheet embedded on the bottom wall of a 10 mm high and 20 mm wide rectangular flow channel. Nine times enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient in the non-boiling region was attained at the most by introducing an air flow into a water single-phase flow. The heat transfer improvement was prominent when the water flow rate was low and the air introduction was large. The present results of the non-boiling heat transfer were well correlated with the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter X tt ; h TP /h L0 = 5.0(1/ X tt ) 0.5 . The air introduction has some effect on the augmentation of heat transfer in the boiling region, however, the two-phase flow effect was little and the boiling was dominant in the fully developed boiling region. The CHF was improved a little by the air introduction in the high water flow region. However, that was rather greatly reduced in the low flow region. Even so, the general trend by the air introduction was that qCHF increased as the air introduction was increased. The heat transfer augmentation in the non-boiling region was attained by less power increase than that in the case that only the water flow rate was increased. From the aspect of the power consumption and the heat transfer enhancement, the small air introduction in the low water flow rate region seemed more profitable, although the air introduction in the high water flow rate region and also the large air introduction were still effective in the augmentation of the heat transfer in the non-boiling region. (author)
Valenzuela, Javier
2001-01-01
A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.
Matson, D. L.; Ransford, G. A.; Johnson, T. V.
1981-01-01
The existing ground-based measurements of Io's thermal emission at infrared wavelengths of 8.4, 10.6, and 21 microns have been reexamined. Present in these data is the signature of hot spots, presumably similar to the hot spots seen by the IRIS experiment on Voyager. It is possible to extract from these data the total amount of power radiated. Since the hot spots are believed to be a result of deep-seated activity in Io and since the remainder of Io's surface is an extraordinarily poor thermal conductor, the power radiated by the hot spots is essentially the total heat flow. The analysis yields a heat flow of 2 + or - 1 W/sq m. This value is tremendously large in comparison to the average heat flow of the earth (0.06 W/sq m) and the moon (0.02 W/sq m), but is characteristic of active geothermal areas on the earth. A heat flow this large requires that the interior of Io be at least partially molten on a global scale.
Heat Source Models in Simulation of Heat Flow in Friction Stir Welding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper
2004-01-01
The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of including the tool probe and the material flow in the numerical modelling of heat flow in Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The contact condition at the interface between the tool and workpiece controls the heat transfer mechanisms....... The convective heat transfer due to the material flow affects the temperature fields. Models presented previously in literature allow the heat to flow through the probe volume, and the majority of them neglect the influence of the contact condition as the sliding condition is assumed. In the present work......, a number of cases are established. Each case represents a combination of a contact condition, i.e. sliding and sticking, and a stage of refinement regarding the heat source distribution. In the most detailed models the heat flow is forced around the probe volume by prescribing a velocity field in shear...
Heat source models in simulation of heat flow in friction stir welding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper
2004-01-01
The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of including the tool probe and the material flow in the numerical modelling of heat flow in friction stir welding (FSW). The contact condition at the interface between the tool and workpiece controls the heat transfer mechanisms....... The convective heat transfer due to the material flow affects the temperature fields. Models presented previously in the literature allow the heat to flow through the probe volume, and the majority neglects the influence of the contact condition as the sliding condition is assumed. In this work, a number...... of cases is established. Each case represents a combination of a contact condition, i.e. sliding and sticking, and a stage of refinement regarding the heat source distribution. In the most detailed models, the heat flow is forced around the probe volume by prescribing a velocity field in shear layers...
Heat flow anomalies and their interpretation
Chapman, David S.; Rybach, Ladislaus
1985-12-01
More than 10,000 heat flow determinations exist for the earth and the data set is growing steadily at about 450 observations per year. If heat flow is considered as a surface expression of geothermal processes at depth, the analysis of the data set should reveal properties of those thermal processes. They do, but on a variety of scales. For this review heat flow maps are classified by 4 different horizontal scales of 10 n km (n = 1, 2, 3 and 4) and attention is focussed on the interpretation of anomalies which appear with characteristic dimensions of 10 (n - 1) km in the respective representations. The largest scale of 10 4 km encompasses heat flow on a global scale. Global heat loss is 4 × 10 13 W and the process of sea floor spreading is the principal agent in delivering much of this heat to the surface. Correspondingly, active ocean ridge systems produce the most prominent heat flow anomalies at this scale with characteristic widths of 10 3 km. Shields, with similar dimensions, exhibit negative anomalies. The scale of 10 3 km includes continent wide displays. Heat flow patterns at this scale mimic tectonic units which have dimensions of a few times 10 2 km, although the thermal boundaries between these units are sometimes sharp. Heat flow anomalies at this scale also result from plate tectonic processes, and are associated with arc volcanism, back arc basins, hot spot traces, and continental rifting. There are major controversies about the extent to which these surface thermal provinces reflect upper mantle thermal conditions, and also about the origin and evolution of the thermal state of continental lithosphere. Beginning with map dimensions of 10 2 km thermal anomalies of scale 10 1 km, which have a definite crustal origin, become apparent. The origin may be tectonic, geologic, or hydrologic. Ten kilometers is a common wavelength of topographic relief which drives many groundwater flow systems producing thermal anomalies. The largest recognized continental
Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Flow Distribution Test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufman, J.S.; Bressler, M.M.
1983-01-01
The Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Flow Distribution Test was the first part of a test program to develop a water-cooled (tube-side), compact heat exchanger for removing heat from the circulating gas in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Measurements of velocity and pressure were made with various shell side inlet and outlet configurations. A flow configuration was developed which provides acceptable velocity distribution throughout the heat exchanger without adding excessive pressure drop
Burnout heat flux in natural flow boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helal, M.M.; Darwish, M.A.; Mahmoud, S.I.
1978-01-01
Twenty runs of experiments were conducted to determine the critical heat flux for natural flow boiling with water flowing upwards through annuli of centrally heated stainless steel tube. The test section has concentric heated tube of 14mm diameter and heated lengthes of 15 and 25 cm. The outside surface of the annulus was formed by various glass tubes of 17.25, 20 and 25.9mm diameter. System pressure is atmospheric. Inlet subcooling varied from 18 to 5 0 C. Obtained critical heat flux varied from 24.46 to 62.9 watts/cm 2 . A number of parameters having dominant influence on the critical heat flux and hydrodynamic instability (flow and pressure oscillations) preceeding the burnout have been studied. These parameters are mass flow rate, mass velocity, throttling, channel geometry (diameters ratio, length to diameter ratio, and test section length), and inlet subcooling. Flow regimes before and at the moments of burnout were observed, discussed, and compared with the existing physical model of burnout
Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodell, J.M.; Chapman, D.S.
1982-01-01
We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m -2 but fall into the following district subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m -2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow 'thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m -2 compared to 80--90 mW m -2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15--20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur; Bruun, Erik
1995-01-01
This paper proposes a new way to estimate the flow in a micromechanical flow channel. A neural network is used to estimate the delay of random temperature fluctuations induced in a fluid. The design and implementation of a hardware efficient neural flow estimator is described. The system...... is implemented using switched-current technique and is capable of estimating flow in the μl/s range. The neural estimator is built around a multiplierless neural network, containing 96 synaptic weights which are updated using the LMS1-algorithm. An experimental chip has been designed that operates at 5 V...
Lunar ash flow with heat transfer.
Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.
1972-01-01
The most important heat-transfer process in the ash flow under consideration is heat convection. Besides the four important nondimensional parameters of isothermal ash flow (Pai et al., 1972), we have three additional important nondimensional parameters: the ratio of the specific heat of the gas, the ratio of the specific heat of the solid particles to that of gas, and the Prandtl number. We reexamine the one dimensional steady ash flow discussed by Pai et al. (1972) by including the effects of heat transfer. Numerical results for the pressure, temperature, density of the gas, velocities of gas and solid particles, and volume fraction of solid particles as function of altitude for various values of the Jeffreys number, initial velocity ratio, and two different gas species (steam and hydrogen) are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Futami, Hikaru; Arai, Tsunenori; Yashiro, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Izumi, Youtaro; Tsukada, Norimasa; Kawamura, Masafumi
2006-01-01
To develop an evaluation method for the curative field when using X-ray CT imaging during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer, we constructed a finite-element heat conduction simulator to estimate temperature distribution in the lung during cryo-treatment. We calculated temperature distribution using a simple two-dimensional finite element model, although the actual temperature distribution spreads in three dimensions. Temperature time-histories were measured within 10 minutes using experimental ex vivo and in vivo lung cryoablation conditions. We adjusted specific heat and thermal conductivity in the heat conduction calculation and compared them with measured temperature time-histories ex vivo. Adjusted lung specific heat was 3.7 J/ (g·deg C) for unfrozen lung and 1.8 J/ (g·deg C) for frozen lung. Adjusted lung thermal conductivity in our finite element model fitted proportionally to the exponential function of lung density. We considered the heat input by blood flow circulation and metabolic heat when we calculated the temperature time-histories during in vivo cryoablation of the lung. We assumed that the blood flow varies in inverse proportion to the change in blood viscosity up to the maximum blood flow predicted from cardiac output. Metabolic heat was set as heat generation in the calculation. The measured temperature time-histories of in vivo cryoablation were then estimated with an accuracy of ±3 deg C when calculated based on this assumption. Therefore, we successfully constructed a two-dimensional heat conduction simulator that is capable of estimating temperature distribution in the lung at the time of first freezing during cryoablation. (author)
Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Turbulent Gas Flow in Microtube with Constant Heat Flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Chungpyo; Matsushita, Shinichi; Ueno, Ichiro; Asako, Yutaka
2012-01-01
Local friction factors for turbulent gas flows in circular microtubes with constant wall heat flux were obtained numerically. The numerical methodology is based on arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian method to solve two-dimensional compressible momentum and energy equations. The Lam-Bremhorst's Low-Reynolds number turbulence model was employed to calculate eddy viscosity coefficient and turbulence energy. The simulations were performed for a wide flow range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers with different constant wall heat fluxes. The stagnation pressure was chosen in such a way that the outlet Mach number ranged from 0.07 to 1.0. Both Darcy friction factor and Fanning friction factor were locally obtained. The result shows that the obtained both friction factors were evaluated as a function of Reynolds number on the Moody chart. The values of Darcy friction factor differ from Blasius correlation due to the compressibility effects but the values of Fanning friction factor almost coincide with Blasius correlation. The wall heat flux varied from 100 to 10000 W/m 2 . The wall and bulk temperatures with positive heat flux are compared with those of incompressible flow. The result shows that the Nusselt number of turbulent gas flow is different from that of incompressible flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siddiqui, Faisal A.; Dasgupta, Engr Sarbadaman; Fartaj, Amir
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Air side heat transfer and flow characteristics of mesochannel cross-flow heat exchanger are studied experimentally. ► Hot ethylene glycol–water mixture (50:50) at constant mass flow rate is used against varying air flow. ► Air side heat transfer and fluid flow key parameters such as Nusselt number, Colburn factor, friction factor are obtained. ► General correlations are proposed for air side heat transfer and fluid flow parameters. - Abstract: Air side force convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of cross-flow mesochannel heat exchanger are investigated experimentally. A series of experiments representing 36 different operating conditions have been conducted on a finned mesochannel heat exchanger through the fully automated dynamic single-phase experimental facility which is capable of handling a wide variety of working fluids in air-to-liquid cross-flow orientation. The mesochannel heat exchanger is made of 15 aluminum slabs with arrays of wavy fins between slabs; 68 one millimeter circular diameter port located at each slab, and the air side frontal area of 304-mm × 304-mm. The ethylene glycol–water mixture as the working fluid in the liquid side was forced to flow through mesochannels maintaining constant inlet temperature and flow rate at 74 °C and 0.0345 kg/s respectively whereas the inlet flowing air into the arrays of wavy fins was changed at four different temperature levels from 28 °C to 43 °C. Frontal air velocity was altered in nine steps from 3 m/s to 11 m/s at each temperature level corresponding range of Reynolds number 752 a a ) and Colburn factor (j a ) were found higher in comparison with other studies.
Heating patterns during cancer heat therapy as a function of blood flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendecki, J.; Friedenthal, E.; Botstein, C.; Sterzer, F.; Paglione, R.W.
1984-01-01
Heating patterns as a function of regional blood flow were evaluated in healthy tissues with different vascular characteristics as well as in a variety of tumors submitted to microwave and RF-induced hyperthermia. Generally, faster heating and slower cooling was demonstrated for tumors. Definite correlation was found between the power needed to heat given tissue volume to a specific temperature and the ability of this tissue to dissipate heat via vascular flow. The measurements show that during the early phase of heating of tumors temperature rises slowly up to about 40 0 C. indicating good heat exchanges but that at this level rapid increase of temperature occurs for relatively small increments of power input. It is suggested that blood flow in malignant tissue remains competent and responsive to low grade heating, but that at higher temperature levels, in contrast to normal tissue, tumor blood flow rapidly decreases indicating compromised vascular system. Implication for treatment protocols are discussed
Numerical simulation of shell-side heat transfer and flow of natural circulation heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue Ruojun; Deng Chengcheng; Li Chaojun; Wang Mingyuan
2012-01-01
In order to analyze the influence on the heat transfer and flow characteristics of the heat exchanger model of different solving models and structures, a variety of transformation to the model equivalent for the heat exchanger was studied. In this paper, Fluent software was used to simulate the temperature-field and flow-field of the equivalent model, and investigate its heat-transferring and flow characteristics. Through comparative analysis of the distribution of temperature-field and flow-field for different models, the heat-transferring process and natural convection situation of heat exchanger were deeply understood. The results show that the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the natural circulation heat exchanger tubes is larger and the flow is more complex, so the turbulence model is the more reasonable choice. Asymmetry of tubes position makes the flow and heat transfer of the fluid on both sides to be dissymmetrical and makes the fluid interaction, and increases the role of natural convection. The complex structure of heat exchanger makes the flow and heat transfer of the fluid on both sides to be irregular to some extent when straight tubes into C-bent are transformed, and all these make the turbulence intensity increase and improve the effect of heat transfer. (authors)
Heat transfer in two-phase flow of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subbotin, V.I.; Deev, V.I.; Solodovnikov, V.V.; Arkhipov, V.V.
1986-01-01
The results of experimental study of heat transfer in two-phase helium flow are presented. The effect of operating parameters (pressure, mass velocity, heat flux and quality) on boiling heat transfer intensity was investigated. A significant influence of boiling process prehistory on heat transfer coefficients was demonstrated. On the basis of experimental data obtained three typical regimes of flow boiling heat transfer were found. Analogy of heat transfer in flow boiling and pool boiling of helium and noncryogenic liquids was established. Correlations were developed which are in close agreement with available heat transfer data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, S G; Duttagupta, S P; Jain, A; Sridharan, A; Agrawal, Amit
2009-01-01
The present work focuses on the generation of the flow regime map for two-phase water flow in microchannels of a hydraulic diameter of 140 µm. An image analysis algorithm has been developed and utilized to obtain the local void fraction. The image processing technique is also employed to identify and estimate the percentage of different flow regimes and heat transfer coefficient, as a function of position, heat flux and mass flow rate. Both void fraction and heat transfer coefficient are found to increase monotonically along the length of the microchannel. At low heat flux and low flow rates, bubbly, slug and annular flow regimes are apparent. However, the flow is predominately annular at high heat flux and high flow rate. A breakup of the flow frequency suggests that the flow is bistable in the annular regime, in that at a fixed location, the flow periodically switches from single-phase liquid to annular and vice versa. Otherwise, the occurrence of three regimes—single-phase liquid, bubbly and slug are observed. These results provide several useful insights about two-phase flow in microchannels besides being of fundamental interest
Lin, L.; Luo, X.; Qin, F.; Yang, J.
2018-03-01
As one of the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels in a combustion-heated wind tunnel, water vapor may condense during the rapid expansion process, which will lead to a complex two-phase flow inside the wind tunnel and even change the design flow conditions at the nozzle exit. The coupling of the phase transition and the compressible flow makes the estimation of the condensation effects in such wind tunnels very difficult and time-consuming. In this work, a reduced theoretical model is developed to approximately compute the nozzle-exit conditions of a flow including real-gas and homogeneous condensation effects. Specifically, the conservation equations of the axisymmetric flow are first approximated in the quasi-one-dimensional way. Then, the complex process is split into two steps, i.e., a real-gas nozzle flow but excluding condensation, resulting in supersaturated nozzle-exit conditions, and a discontinuous jump at the end of the nozzle from the supersaturated state to a saturated state. Compared with two-dimensional numerical simulations implemented with a detailed condensation model, the reduced model predicts the flow parameters with good accuracy except for some deviations caused by the two-dimensional effect. Therefore, this reduced theoretical model can provide a fast, simple but also accurate estimation of the condensation effect in combustion-heated hypersonic tunnels.
An analytical model for annular flow boiling heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Megahed, A.; Hassan, I.
2009-01-01
An analytical model has been developed to predict flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in microchannel heat sinks. The new analytical model is proposed to predict the two-phase heat transfer coefficient during annular flow regime based on the separated model. Opposing to the majority of annular flow heat transfer models, the model is based on fundamental conservation principles. The model considers the characteristics of microchannel heat sink during annular flow and eliminates using any empirical closure relations. Comparison with limited experimental data was found to validate the usefulness of this analytical model. The model predicts the experimental data with a mean absolute error 8%. (author)
Error estimation for CFD aeroheating prediction under rarefied flow condition
Jiang, Yazhong; Gao, Zhenxun; Jiang, Chongwen; Lee, Chunhian
2014-12-01
Both direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods have become widely used for aerodynamic prediction when reentry vehicles experience different flow regimes during flight. The implementation of slip boundary conditions in the traditional CFD method under Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) framework can extend the validity of this approach further into transitional regime, with the benefit that much less computational cost is demanded compared to DSMC simulation. Correspondingly, an increasing error arises in aeroheating calculation as the flow becomes more rarefied. To estimate the relative error of heat flux when applying this method for a rarefied flow in transitional regime, theoretical derivation is conducted and a dimensionless parameter ɛ is proposed by approximately analyzing the ratio of the second order term to first order term in the heat flux expression in Burnett equation. DSMC simulation for hypersonic flow over a cylinder in transitional regime is performed to test the performance of parameter ɛ, compared with two other parameters, Knρ and MaṡKnρ.
Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery
Reynolds, Michael G.
2015-09-22
An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.
Simulation of boiling flow in evaporator of separate type heat pipe with low heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuang, Y.W.; Wang, Wen; Zhuan, Rui; Yi, C.C.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A boiling flow model in a separate type heat pipe with 65 mm diameter tube. • Nucleate boiling is the dominant mechanism in large pipes at low mass and heat flux. • The two-phase heat transfer coefficient is less sensitive to the total mass flux. - Abstract: The separate type heat pipe heat exchanger is considered to be a potential selection for developing passive cooling spent fuel pool – for the passive pressurized water reactor. This paper simulates the boiling flow behavior in the evaporator of separate type heat pipe, consisting of a bundle of tubes of inner diameter 65 mm. It displays two-phase characteristic in the evaporation section of the heat pipe working in low heat flux. In this study, the two-phase flow model in the evaporation section of the separate type heat pipe is presented. The volume of fluid (VOF) model is used to consider the interaction between the ammonia gas and liquid. The flow patterns and flow behaviors are studied and the agitated bubbly flow, churn bubbly flow are obtained, the slug bubble is likely to break into churn slug or churn froth flow. In addition, study on the heat transfer coefficients indicates that the nucleate boiling is the dominant mechanism in large pipes at low mass and heat flux, with the heat transfer coefficient being less sensitive to the total mass flux
Critical heat flux and exit film flow rate in a flow boiling system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, Tatsuhiro; Isayama, Yasushi
1981-01-01
The critical heat flux in a flowing boiling system is an important problem in the evaporating tubes with high thermal load such as nuclear reactors and boilers, and gives the practical design limit. When the heat flux in uniformly heated evaporating tubes is gradually raised, the tube exit quality increases, and soon, the critical heat flux condition arises, and the wall temperature near tube exit rises rapidly. In the region of low exit quality, the critical heat flux condition is caused by the transition from nucleating boiling, and in the region of high exit quality, it is caused by dry-out. But the demarcation of both regions is not clear. In this study, for the purpose of obtaining the knowledge concerning the critical heat flux condition in a flowing boiling system, the relation between the critical heat flux and exit liquid film flow rate was examined. For the experiment, a uniformly heated vertical tube supplying R 113 liquid was used, and the measurement in the range of higher heating flux and mass velocity than the experiment by Ueda and Kin was carried out. The experimental setup and experimental method, the critical heat flux and exit quality, the liquid film flow rate at heating zone exit, and the relation between the critical heat flux and the liquid film flow rate at exit are described. (Kako, I.)
Development of low flow critical heat flux correlation for HANARO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Cheol; Chae, Hee Taek; Hang, Gee Yang.
1997-07-01
A low flow CHF correlation was developed for the safe operation of HANARO during the natural circulation cooling and the assessment of safety during the low flow condition of accident. The analytical model was applied to estimate the heat flux and the temperature distributions along the periphery of the fin at CHF conditions, and the predicted wall temperature at the sheath between the fins by the model agreed well with the measured one. The parametric trends of the CHF data for the finned geometry agreed with the general understanding from the previous studies for the unfinned annulus or tube geometries. It is revealed that the fin does not affect the CHF for low flow condition, although it increase the critical power due to larger heat transfer area. As the existing CHF correlation is proposed to predict the CHF for both finned and unfinned geometries at low flow and low pressure conditions. The developed correlation predicts the experimental CHF data with RMS errors of 13.7 %. (author). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 23 figs
Development of low flow critical heat flux correlation for HANARO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Cheol; Chae, Hee Taek; Hang, Gee Yang
1997-07-01
A low flow CHF correlation was developed for the safe operation of HANARO during the natural circulation cooling and the assessment of safety during the low flow condition of accident. The analytical model was applied to estimate the heat flux and the temperature distributions along the periphery of the fin at CHF conditions, and the predicted wall temperature at the sheath between the fins by the model agreed well with the measured one. The parametric trends of the CHF data for the finned geometry agreed with the general understanding from the previous studies for the unfinned annulus or tube geometries. It is revealed that the fin does not affect the CHF for low flow condition, although it increase the critical power due to larger heat transfer area. As the existing CHF correlation is proposed to predict the CHF for both finned and unfinned geometries at low flow and low pressure conditions. The developed correlation predicts the experimental CHF data with RMS errors of 13.7 %. (author). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 23 figs.
Temperature and flow fields in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces
Rivas, D.; Haya, R.
The temperature field in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces will be analyzed. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the mirror is formulated analytically, taking into account multiple reflections at the mirror. It will be shown that the effect of these multiple reflections in the heating process is quite important, and, as a consequence, the effect of the mirror reflectance in the temperature field is quite strong. The conduction-radiation model will be used to simulate the heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions; important parameters like the Marangoni number (that drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt), and the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. The model will be validated comparing with experimental data. The case of samples mounted in a wall-free configuration (as in the MAXUS-4 programme) will be also considered. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the melting of the silicon part and the surface temperature distribution in the melt will be analyzed. Of special interest is the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon part, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This thermocapillary flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of counterbalancing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be studied as well. Numerical results show that suppressing the thermocapillary flow can be accomplished quite effectively.
Analysis of the flow structure and heat transfer in a vertical mantle heat exchanger
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Søren; Morrison, GL; Behnia, M
2005-01-01
initially mixed and initially stratified inner tank and mantle. The analysis of the heat transfer showed that the flow in the mantle near the inlet is mixed convection flow and that the heat transfer is dependent on the mantle inlet temperature relative to the core tank temperature at the mantle level. (C......The flow structure inside the inner tank and inside the mantle of a vertical mantle heat exchanger was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the inner tank and in the mantle were measured using a Particle Image...... Velocimetry (PIV) system. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the vertical mantle heat exchanger was also developed for a detailed evaluation of the heat flux at the mantle wall and at the tank wall. The flow structure was evaluated for both high and low temperature incoming flows and for both...
Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems
Kirpich, Aaron S.
1989-01-01
In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.
Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Augusto Girardi
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.
Study on boiling heat transfer of subcooled flow under oscillatory flow condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Koizumi, Yasuo
2004-01-01
The Onset of Nucleate Boiling, the point of Net Vapor Generation and Critical Heat Flux on subcooled flow boiling under oscillatory flow, focusing on liquid velocity, amplitude and frequency of oscillatory flow were investigated experimentally and analytically. Experiments were conducted using a copper thin-film and subcooled water in a range of the liquid velocity from 0.27 to 4.07 m/s at 0.10MPa. The liquid subcooling was 20K. Frequency of oscillatory flow was 2 and 4 Hz, respectively; amplitude of oscillatory flow was 25 and 50% in a ratio of main flow rate, respectively. Temperatures at Onset of Nuclear Boiling and Critical Heat Flux obtained in the experiments decreased with the oscillatory flow. The decrease of liquid velocity by oscillatory flow caused the ONB and the CHF to decrease. On the other hand, heat flux at Net Vapor Generation decreased with oscillatory flow; the increase of liquid velocity by oscillatory flow caused the NVG to decrease. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitorello, I.
1978-01-01
Heat flow and heat production results are reported from nineteen widely spaced sites in eastern and central parts of Brazil. Three sites in the stable Sao Francisco Craton comprising rocks with Transamazonic ages (2600 to 1800 Ma) or older present an average heat flow of 41.8 +- 4.6 (standard error of the mean=sem) mW m -2 , typical of shield areas; eight sites located in the Late Precambrian Braziliane metamorphic belt have an average heat flow of 54.7 +- 3.8 (sem) mW m -2 ; and four sites in the Parana basin, locus of a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous basaltic volcanicity, have a mean heat flow of 70.1 +- 5.9 (sem) mW m -2 . Heat flow results from the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary alkalic intrusion of Pocos de Caldas have yielded a site mean of 55.3 mW m -2 . These results indicate a systematic decrease of heat flow with increasing age of the last tectonothermal event. As an explanation for this pattern, a model comprising three main heat flow components is advanced: radiogenic heat from the crust (40%), with the decrease of this contribution with time being achieved by erosional removal of radioactive material; a residual heat from a transient thermal perturbation associated with tectogenesis; and a uniform heat flow of about 28 mW m -2 from deeper sources. The Coastal Brazilian Shield is characterized by ordinary surface and reduced heat flow, but its heat production appears to be less concentrated near the surface, and distributed over a greater depth. Because of the variation in plate thickness, relative movements between the South American plate and the underlying mantle material are possibly constrained to depths exceeding 400 km
Heat transfer and fluid flow in minichannels and microchannels
Kandlikar, Satish; Li, Dongqing; Colin, Stephane; King, Michael R
2014-01-01
Heat exchangers with minichannel and microchannel flow passages are becoming increasingly popular due to their ability to remove large heat fluxes under single-phase and two-phase applications. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Minichannels and Microchannels methodically covers gas, liquid, and electrokinetic flows, as well as flow boiling and condensation, in minichannel and microchannel applications. Examining biomedical applications as well, the book is an ideal reference for anyone involved in the design processes of microchannel flow passages in a heat exchanger. Each chapter is accompan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yunmei
1994-01-01
In this paper we study the heat flow of harmonic maps between two compact Riemannian manifolds. The global existence of the regular solution and the weak solution, as well as the blow up of the weak solution are discussed. (author). 14 refs
Critical heat flux and flow pattern for water flow in annular geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jae Wook; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung
1996-01-01
An experimental study on critical heat flux (CHF) and two-phase flow visualization has been performed for water flow in internally-heated, vertical, concentric annuli under near atmospheric pressure. Tests have been done under stable forced-circulation, upward and downward flow conditions with three test sections of relatively large gap widths (heated length = 0.6 m, inner diameter = 19 mm, outer diameter = 29, 35 and 51 mm). The outer wall of the test section was made up of the transparent Pyrex tube to allow the observation of flow patterns near the CHF occurrence. The CHF mechanism was changed in the order of flooding, churn-to-annular flow transition, and local dryout under a large bubble in churn flow as the flow rate was increased from zero to higher values. Observed parametric trends are consistent with the previous understanding except that the CHF for downward flow is considerably lower than that for upward flow
Inverse estimation of heat flux and temperature on nozzle throat-insert inner contour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Tsung-Chien [Department of Power Vehicle and Systems Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-Hsi, Tao-Yuan 33509 (China); Liu, Chiun-Chien [Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan 32526 (China)
2008-07-01
During the missile flight, the jet flow with high temperature comes from the heat flux of propellant burning. An enormous heat flux from the nozzle throat-insert inner contour conducted into the nozzle shell will degrade the material strength of nozzle shell and reduce the nozzle thrust efficiency. In this paper, an on-line inverse method based on the input estimation method combined with the finite-element scheme is proposed to inversely estimate the unknown heat flux on the nozzle throat-insert inner contour and the inner wall temperature by applying the temperature measurements of the nozzle throat-insert. The finite-element scheme can easily define the irregularly shaped boundary. The superior capability of the proposed method is demonstrated in two major time-varying estimation cases. The computational results show that the proposed method has good estimation performance and highly facilitates the practical implementation. An effective analytical method can be offered to increase the operation reliability and thermal-resistance layer design in the solid rocket motor. (author)
Evaluation of Interfacial Heat Transfer Models for Flashing Flow with Two-Fluid CFD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yixiang Liao
2018-06-01
Full Text Available The complexity of flashing flows is increased vastly by the interphase heat transfer as well as its coupling with mass and momentum transfers. A reliable heat transfer coefficient is the key in the modelling of such kinds of flows with the two-fluid model. An extensive literature survey on computational modelling of flashing flows has been given in previous work. The present work is aimed at giving a brief review on available theories and correlations for the estimation of interphase heat transfer coefficient, and evaluating them quantitatively based on computational fluid dynamics simulations of bubble growth in superheated liquid. The comparison of predictions for bubble growth rate obtained by using different correlations with the experimental as well as direct numerical simulation data reveals that the performance of the correlations is dependent on the Jakob number and Reynolds number. No generally applicable correlations are available. Both conduction and convection are important in cases of bubble rising and translating in stagnant liquid at high Jakob numbers. The correlations combining the analytical solution for heat diffusion and the theoretical relation for potential flow give the best agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Balkrishna; Khandekar, Sameer
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Infra-red thermographic study of Taylor bubble train flow in square mini-channel. • Design of experiments for measurement of local streamwise Nusselt number. • Minimizing conjugate heat transfer effects and resulting errors in data reduction. • Benchmarking against single-phase flow and three-dimensional computations. • Local heat transfer enhancement up to two times due to Taylor bubble train flow. -- Abstract: In mini/micro confined internal flow systems, Taylor bubble train flow takes place within specific range of respective volume flow ratios, wherein the liquid slugs get separated by elongated Taylor bubbles, resulting in an intermittent flow situation. This unique flow characteristic requires understanding of transport phenomena on global, as well as on local spatio-temporal scales. In this context, an experimental design methodology and its validation are presented in this work, with an aim of measuring the local heat transfer coefficient by employing high-resolution InfraRed Thermography. The effect of conjugate heat transfer on the true estimate of local transport coefficients, and subsequent data reduction technique, is discerned. Local heat transfer coefficient for (i) hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing single-phase flow in three-side heated channel and, (ii) non-boiling, air–water Taylor bubble train flow is measured and compared in a mini-channel of square cross-section (5 mm × 5 mm; D h = 5 mm, Bo ≈ 3.4) machined on a stainless steel substrate (300 mm × 25 mm × 11 mm). The design of the setup ensures near uniform heat flux condition at the solid–fluid interface; the conjugate effects arising from the axial back conduction in the substrate are thus minimized. For benchmarking, the data from single-phase flow is also compared with three-dimensional computational simulations. Depending on the employed volume flow ratio, it is concluded that enhancement of nearly 1.2–2.0 times in time
Heat transfer of liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flow with internal heat generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Kurita, Kazuhisa; Kodama, Satoshi
2000-01-01
Numerical calculations on heat transfer of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with internal heat generation in a rectangular channel have been performed for the cases of very-large Hartmann numbers, finite wall conductivities and small aspect ratio (i.e. small length ratios of the channel side perpendicular to the applied magnetic field and the side parallel to the field), simulating typical conditions for a fusion-reactor blanket. The Nusselt numbers of the MHD flow in rectangular channels with aspect ratios of 1/10 to 1/40 for Hartmann numbers of ∼5 x 10 5 become ∼10 times higher than those for the corresponding flow under no magnetic field. The Nusselt number becomes higher as the internal heat generation rate increases as far as the heat generation rates in a fusion reactor blanket are considered. (author)
Heat flow during sawtooth collapse in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanada, Kazuaki
1994-01-01
Heat flow during sawtooth collapse was studied on the WT-3 tokamak by using temporal evolution of soft X-ray intensity profile in the poloidal cross section in a lower hybrid current driven plasma as well as an electron cyclotron heated plasma. Two phase in sawtooth collapses were observed. In the first phases, the hottest spot that is the peak of the soft X-ray distribution approaches the inversion surface and heat flows out through a narrow gate on the inversion surface. In the second phase, the hottest spot stays on the inversion surface, and heat flows out through the whole inversion surface. This suggests that magnetic reconnection as predicted by Kadomtsev's model occurs in the first phase, but in the second phase, a different mechanism dominates heat flow. (author)
Heat flow, heat transfer and lithosphere rheology in geothermal areas: Features and examples
Ranalli, G.; Rybach, L.
2005-10-01
Surface heat flow measurements over active geothermal systems indicate strongly positive thermal anomalies. Whereas in "normal" geothermal settings, the surface heat flow is usually below 100-120 mW m - 2 , in active geothermal areas heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on different lateral, depth and time scales. Borehole temperature profiles in active geothermal areas show various signs of subsurface fluid movement, depending on position in the active system. The heat transfer regime is dominated by heat advection (mainly free convection). The onset of free convection depends on various factors, such as permeability, temperature gradient and fluid properties. The features of heat transfer are different for single or two-phase flow. Characteristic heat flow and heat transfer features in active geothermal systems are demonstrated by examples from Iceland, Italy, New Zealand and the USA. Two main factors affect the rheology of the lithosphere in active geothermal areas: steep temperature gradients and high pore fluid pressures. Combined with lithology and structure, these factors result in a rheological zonation with important consequences both for geodynamic processes and for the exploitation of geothermal energy. As a consequence of anomalously high temperature, the mechanical lithosphere is thin and its total strength can be reduced by almost one order of magnitude with respect to the average strength of continental lithosphere of comparable age and thickness. The top of the brittle/ductile transition is located within the upper crust at depths less than 10 km, acts as the root zone of listric normal faults in extensional environments and, at least in some cases, is visible on seismic reflection lines. These structural and rheological features are well illustrated in the Larderello geothermal field in Tuscany.
Flow-excursion-induced dryout at low-heat-flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Cazzoli, E.G.
1983-01-01
Flow-excursion-induced dryout at low-heat-flux natural-convection boiling, typical of liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, is addressed. Steady-state calculations indicate that low-quality boiling is possible up to the point of Ledinegg instability leading to flow excursion and subsequent dryout in agreement with experimental data. A flow-regime-dependent dryout heat flux relationship based upon saturated boiling criterion is also presented. Transient analysis indicates that premature flow excursion can not be ruled out and sodium boiling is highly transient dependent. Analysis of a high-heat-flux forced convection, loss-of-flow transient shows a significantly faster flow excursion leading to dryout in excellent agreement with parallel calculations using the two-dimensional THORAX code. 17 figures
New terrestrial heat flow measurements on the Nazca Plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, R N [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY; Langseth, M G; Vacquier, V; Francheteau, J
1976-03-01
Sixty-seven new heat flow measurements on the Nazca Plate are reported, and the thermal regimes of three specific areas on the plate are examined. The Nazca Ridge is an aseismic ridge which may have been generated as an ''island trail'' from the Easter Island ''hot spot'' and/or may be a fossil transform fault. The Nazca Ridge has lower heat flow than the surrounding sea floor implying that the ridge might have low ''effective'' thermal conductivity causing heat to preferentially flow or refract to surrounding ocean crust which has higher conductivity, or, the low heat flow values may be caused by hydrothermal circulation on the ridge. The Carnegie Plateau is an elevated region south of the Carnegie Ridge on the northeastern Nazca Plate with high heat flow and shallow topography consistent with an age of less than 20 m.y. B.P. The central Nazca Plate is an area of highly variable heat flow which is possibly related to thin sediment and to rough regional topography.
Applications of thermoelectric modules on heat flow detection.
Leephakpreeda, Thananchai
2012-03-01
This paper presents quantitative analysis and practical scenarios of implementation of the thermoelectric module for heat flow detection. Mathematical models of the thermoelectric effects are derived to describe the heat flow from/to the detected media. It is observed that the amount of the heat flow through the thermoelectric module proportionally induces the conduction heat owing to the temperature difference between the hot side and the cold side of the thermoelectric module. In turn, the Seebeck effect takes place in the thermoelectric module where the temperature difference is converted to the electric voltage. Hence, the heat flow from/to the detected media can be observed from both the amount and the polarity of the voltage across the thermoelectric module. Two experiments are demonstrated for viability of the proposed technique by the measurements of the heat flux through the building wall and thermal radiation from the outdoor environment during daytime. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Tae Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Bae, Yoon Yeong
2009-01-01
Pressure of coolant flowing through a SCWR core subchannel is supercritical and the heat transfer behavior is known to be quite different from those at a subcritical pressure. Therefore the heat transfer study in a supercritical pressure is required for the acquisition of a reliable heat transfer correlation. A downward flow as well as an upward flow occurs in a multi-pass reactor core. The heat transfer at a supercritical pressure in downward channel has been known to result in a quite different behavior from an upward flow. An experiment for a supercritical CO 2 flowing vertically downward in circular tubes with inner diameters of 6.32 mm and 9 mm was performed by using SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation) at KAERI. The obtained test results are compared with the estimations from the existing correlations and an empirical formula for a downward flow is suggested
Heat transfer and flow structure evaluation of a synthetic jet emanating from a planar heat sink
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manning, Paul; Persoons, Tim; Murray, Darina
2014-01-01
Direct impinging synthetic jets are a proven method for heat transfer enhancement, and have been subject to extensive research. However, despite the vast amount of research into direct synthetic jet impingement, there has been little research investigating the effects of a synthetic jet emanating from a heated surface, this forms the basis of the current research investigation. Both single and multiple orifices are integrated into a planar heat sink forming a synthetic jet, thus allowing the heat transfer enhancement and flow structures to be assessed. The heat transfer analysis highlighted that the multiple orifice synthetic jet resulted in the greatest heat transfer enhancements. The flow structures responsible for these enhancements were identified using a combination of flow visualisation, thermal imaging and thermal boundary layer analysis. The flow structure analysis identified that the synthetic jets decreased the thermal boundary layer thickness resulting in a more effective convective heat transfer process. Flow visualisation revealed entrainment of local air adjacent to the heated surface; this occurred from vortex roll-up at the surface of the heat sink and from the highly sheared jet flow. Furthermore, a secondary entrainment was identified which created a surface impingement effect. It is proposed that all three flow features enhance the heat transfer characteristics of the system.
Preparation and Interpretation of Heat Flow Map of Turkey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozturk, S.; Karli, R.; Destur, M.
2007-01-01
There exist a lot of data indicating our country takes place on an impotrant Kown heat flow anomaly. The preparation of a detailed 'Heat Flow Map' as a result of rational studies and depending upon this the determination of the distribution of heat in litosphere, except from the scientific benefits; shall enlighten subjects such as oil basen analysis, prospection of hydrothermal ores and earthquakes and further shall increase the feasibility of planning geothermal energy research.In between years 1995- 2005; as a part of project of the Geophysical Department of MTA with the purpose of preperation of Heat Flow Maps of Turkey, the heat flow measurments had been carried on at the convenient cold water wells. Using the Thermic and Gamma-Ray measurments and calculated conductivity coefficients of the representative rock samples of formation, heat flow map had been prepared. A distance of 10-30 km had been kept carefully betwen the wells of interest a total of 80204 m Thermic and Gamma-Ray logs and 420 rock samples from 695 wells, had been used in the study. Then according to the Lambert Projection, using the Surfer 8.02 and Grapher4 programmes The Heat Flow Maps of Turkey of scale 1:1000000 had been obtained.Some regional researches indicate that Turkey takes place in a part of Europe of high heat flux. Unfortunately there exist no detailed heat flow map of our country up to now. This shows the importance of present project
Flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C.; Chen, J.C.
1979-01-01
Safety analyses of fast breeder reactors require understanding of the two-phase fluid dynamic and heat transfer characteristics of volume-heated boiling pool systems. Design of direct contact three-phase boilers, of practical interest in the chemical industries also requires understanding of the fundamental two-phase flow and heat transfer behavior of volume boiling systems. Several experiments have been recently reported relevant to the boundary heat-loss mechanisms of boiling pool systems. Considerably less is known about the two-phase fluid dynamic behavior of such systems. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the steady-state flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pool systems
Flowing and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in typical rod bundles at rolling motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Binghuo; Yu Lei; Gu Hanyang
2011-01-01
The influence mechanism of rolling motion on the flowing and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in typical four rod bundles was investigated with Fluent code. The flowing and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in rod bundles can be affected by rolling motion. But the flowing similarity of turbulent flow in adiabatic and non-adiabatic can not be affected. If the rolling period is small, the radial additional force can make the parameter profiles, the turbulent flowing and heat transfer change greatly. At rolling motion, as the pitch to diameter ratio decreases, especially if it is less than 1.1, the flowing and heat transfer of turbulent flow at rolling motion change significantly. The variation of pitch to diameter ratio can change the profiles of secondary flow and turbulent kinetic energy in cross-section greatly. (authors)
Heat Flow, Regional Geophysics and Lithosphere Structure In The Czech Republic
Safanda, J.; Cermak, V.; Kresl, M.; Dedecek, P.
Paper summarises and critically revises heat flow data that have been collected in the Czech Republic to date. The regional heat flow density map was prepared in view of all existing heat flow data completed with the similar in the surrounding countries and taking into consideration also temperature measurements in deep boreholes. Crustal temperature profiles were calculated by using the available geological information, results of deep seismic sounding and the laboratory data on radiogenic heat produc- tion and thermal conductivity. Special attention was paid to numerous temperature logs in two sedimentary basins, namely in the Cheb and Ostrava-Karvina coal basins, for which detailed heat flow patterns were proposed. Relationships between heat flow distribution and the crustal/lithosphere evolution, between heat flow and the heat pro- duction of the crustal rocks, heat flow and crustal thickness and the steady-state vs. transient heat transport are discussed.
Analysis on flow characteristic of nuclear heating reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin
1997-06-01
The experiment was carried out on the test loop HRTL-5, which simulates the geometry and system design of a 5 MW Nuclear heating reactor. The analysis was based on a one-dimensional two-phase flow drift model with conservation equations for mass, steam mass, energy and momentum. Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used for the calculation of flashing front in the riser. A set of ordinary equation, which describes the behavior of two-phase flow in the natural circulation system, was derived through integration of the above conservation equations in subcooled boiling region, bulk boiling region in the heated section and in the riser. The method of time-domain was used for the calculation. Both static and dynamic results are presented. System pressure, inlet subcooling and heat flux are varied as input parameters. The results show that, firstly, subcooled boiling in the heated section and void flashing in the riser have significant influence on the distribution of the void fraction, mass flow rate and stability of the system, especially at lower pressure, secondly, in a wide range of two-phase flow conditions, only subcooled boiling occurs in the heated section. For the designed two-phase regime operation of the 5 MW nuclear heating reactor, the temperature at the core exit has not reaches its saturation value. Thirdly, the mechanism of two-phase flow oscillation, namely, 'zero-pressure-drop', is described. In the wide range of inlet subcooling (0 K<ΔT<28 K) there exists three regions for system flow condition, namely, (1) stable two-phase flow, (2) bulk and subcooled boiling unstable flow, (3) subcooled boiling and single phase stable flow. The response of mass flow rate, after a small disturbance in the heat flux, is showed in the above inlet subcooling range, and based on it the instability map of the system is given through experiment and calculation. (3 refs., 9 figs.)
[Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].
Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun
2015-08-01
It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurganov, V.A.; Gladuntsov, A.I.
1977-01-01
Analysed are the experimental data obtained for heat transfer to gaseous dissociating ammonium (NH 3 ) under heating in round pipes (steel Kh18N10T) at developed eddying input flow and marginal condition of heat supply gsub(c) approximately equal to const in the ranges of the following parameters: p=3-10 atm; Tsub(input)=310-720 K; Tsub(c) ( 3 ; gsub(c)/-anti rho W 8.8 kJ/kg; gsub(c)/(anti rho WCsub(p) sub(input)Tsub(input)) (<=) 0.0104; 1/d (<=) 150 (where Tsub(c) is the wall temperature, gsub(c) the heat flow density on wall, and anti rho W velocity). The discussion involves phenomena of worsened heat transfer at high heat loads. The authors show the basic relationship between these phenomena and laminarization of the near-wall flow at the input site of the pipe. The regularities of heat transfer were noted to undergo substantial transformation under laminarized flow
Pipeline heating method based on optimal control and state estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vianna, F.L.V. [Dept. of Subsea Technology. Petrobras Research and Development Center - CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fvianna@petrobras.com.br; Orlande, H.R.B. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. POLI/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: helcio@mecanica.ufrj.br; Dulikravich, G.S. [Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Florida International University - FIU, Miami, FL (United States)], e-mail: dulikrav@fiu.edu
2010-07-01
In production of oil and gas wells in deep waters the flowing of hydrocarbon through pipeline is a challenging problem. This environment presents high hydrostatic pressures and low sea bed temperatures, which can favor the formation of solid deposits that in critical operating conditions, as unplanned shutdown conditions, may result in a pipeline blockage and consequently incur in large financial losses. There are different methods to protect the system, but nowadays thermal insulation and chemical injection are the standard solutions normally used. An alternative method of flow assurance is to heat the pipeline. This concept, which is known as active heating system, aims at heating the produced fluid temperature above a safe reference level in order to avoid the formation of solid deposits. The objective of this paper is to introduce a Bayesian statistical approach for the state estimation problem, in which the state variables are considered as the transient temperatures within a pipeline cross-section, and to use the optimal control theory as a design tool for a typical heating system during a simulated shutdown condition. An application example is presented to illustrate how Bayesian filters can be used to reconstruct the temperature field from temperature measurements supposedly available on the external surface of the pipeline. The temperatures predicted with the Bayesian filter are then utilized in a control approach for a heating system used to maintain the temperature within the pipeline above the critical temperature of formation of solid deposits. The physical problem consists of a pipeline cross section represented by a circular domain with four points over the pipe wall representing heating cables. The fluid is considered stagnant, homogeneous, isotropic and with constant thermo-physical properties. The mathematical formulation governing the direct problem was solved with the finite volume method and for the solution of the state estimation problem
Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes
Jang, J. H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W. S.
1989-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.
Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W.S.
1989-07-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures
Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe
Jang, Jong Hoon; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won Soon
1989-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.
Nonlinear Thermal Instability in Compressible Viscous Flows Without Heat Conductivity
Jiang, Fei
2018-04-01
We investigate the thermal instability of a smooth equilibrium state, in which the density function satisfies Schwarzschild's (instability) condition, to a compressible heat-conducting viscous flow without heat conductivity in the presence of a uniform gravitational field in a three-dimensional bounded domain. We show that the equilibrium state is linearly unstable by a modified variational method. Then, based on the constructed linearly unstable solutions and a local well-posedness result of classical solutions to the original nonlinear problem, we further construct the initial data of linearly unstable solutions to be the one of the original nonlinear problem, and establish an appropriate energy estimate of Gronwall-type. With the help of the established energy estimate, we finally show that the equilibrium state is nonlinearly unstable in the sense of Hadamard by a careful bootstrap instability argument.
Large eddy simulations of turbulent flows with heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatelain, Alexandre
2004-01-01
LES of turbulent flows with heat transfer was used within the framework of conjugate heat transfer problems. The objective of this work lies not only in identifying the various elements likely to impair temperature fluctuations estimations at the fluid/solid interface but also to introduce adequate wall modeling. The choice of a proper convection scheme for the transport of passive scalars led to the adoption of a high order upwind scheme with slope limiter. The use of classical wall models having shown some weaknesses as for the estimation of parietal temperature fluctuations, two new approaches are proposed and tested. The first one relies on a complete resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations on a refined grid close to the wall making it possible to rebuild the temperature fluctuations near the wall. The second one relies on the simultaneous and one dimensional resolution of a turbulent boundary layer equation and a variance transport equation near the wall. (author) [fr
Heat flow in a He II filled fin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warren, R.P.
1984-01-01
This chapter demonstrates the influence of diameter, length, Kapitza conductance and temperature on the heat carrying capacity of an externally cooled, circular He II filled channel with zero net mass flow and of negligible wall thermal resistance. Topics considered include the internal convection mechanism and the heat transfer model (boundary conditions, solution procedure). The large apparent thermal conductivity of He-II is explained by the two fluid model as an internal convection in which there is a counter flow of the normal and superfluids with no net mass flow. A separate bath is considered in which an He-IIp (pressurized superfluid helium) filled fin is immersed which extends from the heated reservoir. A single heat sink can serve multiple heat sources
Heat transfer to accelerating gas flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, T.D.A.
1978-01-01
The development of fuels for gas-cooled reactors has resulted in a number of 'gas loop' experiments in materials-testing research reactors. In these experiments, efforts are made to reproduce the conditions expected in gas-cooled power reactors. Constant surface temperatures are sought over a short (300 mm) fuelled length, and because of entrance effects, an accelerating flow is required to increase the heat transfer down-stream from the entrance. Strong acceleration of a gas stream will laminarise the flow even at Reynolds Numbers up to 50000, far above values normally associated with laminar flow. A method of predicting heat transfer in this situation is presented here. An integral method is used to find the velocity profile; this profile is then used in an explicit finite-difference solution of the energy equation to give a temperature profile and resultant heat-transfer coefficient values. The Kline criterion, which compares viscous and disruptive forces, is used to predict whether the flow will be laminar. Experimental results are compared with predictions, and good agreement is found to exist. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, M.; Kruizenga, A.; Anderson, M.; Corradini, M.
2012-01-01
Closed-loop Brayton cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO 2 ) show potential for use in high-temperature power generation applications including High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). Compared to Rankine cycles SCO 2 Brayton cycles offer similar or improved efficiency and the potential for decreased capital costs due to a reduction in equipment size and complexity. Compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are being considered as part of several SCO 2 Brayton designs to further reduce equipment size with increased energy density. Several designs plan to use a gas cooler operating near the pseudo-critical point of carbon dioxide to benefit from large variations in thermophysical properties, but further work is needed to validate correlations for heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of SCO 2 flows in candidate PCHE channel designs for a variety of operating conditions. This paper presents work on experimental measurements of the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of miniature channels using carbon dioxide at supercritical pressure. Results from several plate geometries tested in horizontal cooling-mode flow are presented, including a straight semi-circular channel, zigzag channel with a bend angle of 80 degrees, and a channel with a staggered array of extruded airfoil pillars modeled after a NACA 0020 airfoil with an 8.1 mm chord length facing into the flow. Heat transfer coefficients and bulk temperatures are calculated from measured local wall temperatures and local heat fluxes. The experimental results are compared to several methods for estimating the friction factor and Nusselt number of cooling-mode flows at supercritical pressures in millimeter-scale channels. (authors)
SCEPTIC, Pressure Drop, Flow Rate, Heat Transfer, Temperature in Reactor Heat Exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kattchee, N.; Reynolds, W.C.
1975-01-01
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: SCEPTIC is a program for calculating pressure drop, flow rates, heat transfer rates, and temperature in heat exchangers such as fuel elements of typical gas or liquid cooled nuclear reactors. The effects of turbulent and heat interchange between flow passages are considered. 2 - Method of solution: The computation procedure amounts to a nodal of lumped parameter type of calculation. The axial mesh size is automatically selected to assure that a prescribed accuracy of results is obtained. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of subchannels is 25, maximum number of heated surfaces is 46
Two dimensional heat transfer problem in flow boiling in a rectangular minichannel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hożejowska Sylwia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents mathematical modelling of flow boiling heat transfer in a rectangular minichannel asymmetrically heated by a thin and one-sided enhanced foil. Both surfaces are available for observations due to the openings covered with glass sheets. Thus, changes in the colour of the plain foil surface can be registered and then processed. Plain side of the heating foil is covered with a base coat and liquid crystal paint. Observation of the opposite, enhanced surface of the minichannel allows for identification of the gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns and vapour quality. A two-dimensional mathematical model of heat transfer in three subsequent layers (sheet glass, heating foil, liquid was proposed. Heat transfer in all these layers was described with the respective equations: Laplace equation, Poisson equation and energy equation, subject to boundary conditions corresponding to the observed physical process. The solutions (temperature distributions in all three layers were obtained by Trefftz method. Additionally, the temperature of the boiling liquid was obtained by homotopy perturbation method (HPM combined with Trefftz method. The heat transfer coefficient, derived from Robin boundary condition, was estimated in both approaches. In comparison, the results by both methods show very good agreement especially when restricted to the thermal sublayer.
Heat transfer in tube bundles of heat exchangers with flow baffles induced forced mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
AbuRomia, M.M.; Chu, A.W.; Cho, S.M.
1976-01-01
Thermal analysis of shell-and-tube heat exchangers is being investigated through geometric modeling of the unit configuration in addition to considering the heat transfer processes taking place within the tube bundle. The governing equations that characterize the heat transfer from the shell side fluid to the tube side fluid across the heat transfer tubewalls are indicated. The equations account for the heat transfer due to molecular conduction, turbulent thermal diffusion, and forced fluid mixing among various shell side fluid channels. The analysis, though general in principle, is being applied to the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant-Intermediate Heat Exchanger, which utilizes flow baffles appropriately designed for induced forced fluid mixing in the tube bundle. The results of the analysis are presented in terms of the fluid and tube wall temperature distributions of a non-baffled and baffled tube bundle geometry. The former case yields axial flow in the main bundle region while the latter is associated with axial/cross flow in the bundle. The radial components of the axial/cross flow yield the necessary fluid mixing that results in reducing the thermal unbalance among the heat transfer to the allowable limits. The effect of flow maldistribution, present on the tube or shell sides of the heat exchangers, in altering the temperature field of tube bundles is also noted
Boiling on a tube bundle: heat transfer, pressure drop and flow patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agostini, F.
2008-07-01
The complexity of the two-phase flow in a tube bundle presents important problems in the design and understanding of the physical phenomena taking place. The working conditions of an evaporator depend largely on the dynamics of the two-phase flow that in turn influence the heat exchange and the pressure drop of the system. A characterization of the flow dynamics, and possibly the identification of the flow pattern in the tube bundle, is thus expected to lead to a better understanding of the phenomena and to reveal on the mechanisms governing the tube bundle. Therefore, the present study aims at providing further insights into two-phase bundle flow through a new visualization system able to provide for the first time a view of the flow in the core of a tube bundle. In addition, the measurement of the light attenuation of a laser beam through the two-phase flow and measurement of the high frequency pressure fluctuations with a piezo-electric pressure transducer are used to characterize the flow. The design and the validation of this new instrumentation also provided a method for the detection of dry-out in tube bundles. This was achieved by a laser attenuation technique, flow visualization, and estimation of the power spectrum of the pressure fluctuation. The current investigation includes results for two different refrigerants, R134a and R236fa, three saturations temperatures T sat = 5, 10 and 15 °C, mass velocities ranging from 4 to 40 kg/sm² in adiabatic and diabatic conditions (several heat fluxes). Measurement of the local heat transfer coefficient and two-phase frictional pressure drop were obtained and utilized to improve the current prediction methods. The heat transfer and pressure drop data were supported by extensive characterization of the two-phase flow, which was to improve the understanding of the two-phase flow occurring in tube bundles. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Tae Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Bae, Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2009-05-15
Pressure of coolant flowing through a SCWR core subchannel is supercritical and the heat transfer behavior is known to be quite different from those at a subcritical pressure. Therefore the heat transfer study in a supercritical pressure is required for the acquisition of a reliable heat transfer correlation. A downward flow as well as an upward flow occurs in a multi-pass reactor core. The heat transfer at a supercritical pressure in downward channel has been known to result in a quite different behavior from an upward flow. An experiment for a supercritical CO{sub 2} flowing vertically downward in circular tubes with inner diameters of 6.32 mm and 9 mm was performed by using SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation) at KAERI. The obtained test results are compared with the estimations from the existing correlations and an empirical formula for a downward flow is suggested.
Conjugate Heat Transfer Study in Hypersonic Flows
Sahoo, Niranjan; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Peetala, Ravi Kumar
2018-04-01
Coupled and decoupled conjugate heat transfer (CHT) studies are carried out to imitate experimental studies for heat transfer measurement in hypersonic flow regime. The finite volume based solvers are used for analyzing the heat interaction between fluid and solid domains. Temperature and surface heat flux signals are predicted by both coupled and decoupled CHT analysis techniques for hypersonic Mach numbers. These two methodologies are also used to study the effect of different wall materials on surface parameters. Effectiveness of these CHT solvers has been verified for the inverse problem of wall heat flux recovery using various techniques reported in the literature. Both coupled and decoupled CHT techniques are seen to be equally useful for prediction of local temperature and heat flux signals prior to the experiments in hypersonic flows.
Visualisation of heat transfer in laminar flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.
2009-01-01
Heat transfer in fluid flows traditionally is examined in terms of temperature field and heat-transfer coefficients at non-adiabatic walls. However, heat transfer may alternatively be considered as the transport of thermal energy by the total convective-conductive heat flux in a way analogous to the
Heat Flow and Hydrothermal Circulation of the Lucky Strike Segment, Mid Atlantic Ridge
Bonneville, A.; Escartin, J.; Lucazeau, F.; Cannat, M.; Gouze, P.; von Herzen, R. P.; Adam, C.; Le Bars, M.; Monoury, E.; Vidal, V.
2003-12-01
complicated and the sediment cover heterogeneous, heat flow data show no clear spatial variation and their mean value, 60 to 90 mWm-2, is systematically lower than theoretical conductive values for young seafloor. These heat flow differences will be used to estimate the importance of advection in the heat budget. This characterization of the regional thermal state around a slow-spreading segment will provide the basis for future long-term studies on the structure, thermal evolution and the hydrothermal systems within the MOMAR (MOnitoring the Mid Atlantic Ridge) project.
The effects of radiogenic heat on groundwater flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beddoes, R.J.; Tammemagi, H.Y.
1986-03-01
The effects of radiogenic heat released by a nuclear waste repository on the groundwater flow in the neighbouring rock mass is reviewed. The report presents an overview of the hydrogeologic properties of crystalline rocks in the Canadian Shield and also describes the mathematical theory of groundwater flow and heat transfer in both porous media and fractured rock. Numerical methods for the solution of the governing equations are described. A number of case histories are described where analyses of flow systems have been performed both with and without radiogenic heat sources. A number of relevant topics are reviewed such as the role of the porous medium model, boundary conditions and, most importantly, the role of complex coupled processes where the effects of heat and water flow are intertwined with geochemical and mechanical processes. The implications to radioactive waste disposal are discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sinha
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of blood flow and heat transfer in a permeable vessel in the presence of an external magnetic field. The unsteadiness in the coupled flow and temperature fields is considered to be caused due to the time-dependent stretching velocity and the surface temperature of the vessel. The non-uniform heat source/sink effect on blood flow and heat transfer is taken into account. This study is of potential value in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disorders accompanied by accelerated circulation. The problem is treated mathematically by reducing it to a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, which have been solved by using similarity transformation and boundary layer approximation. The resulting nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference scheme. Computational results are obtained for the velocity, temperature, the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer in the vessel. The estimated results are compared with another analytical study reported earlier in scientific literatures. The present study reveals that the heat transfer rate is enhanced as the value of the unsteadiness parameter increases, but it reduces as the space-dependence parameter for heat source/sink increases.
Coupled equations for transient water flow, heat flow, and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
interacting processes, including flow of fluids, deformation of porous materials, chemical reactions, and transport of ... systems involving the flow of water, heat, and deformation. Such systems are ..... Defined thus, αI is independent of boundary con- ditions in an ... perature change with free deformation at constant total stress ...
Heat transfer in vapour-liquid flow of carbon dioxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagov, V.V.
2009-01-01
During the last decade a number of studies of boiling heat transfer in carbon dioxide notably increase. As a field of CO 2 practical using corresponds to high reduced pressures, and a majority of available experimental data on CO 2 flow boiling even in submillimetric channels relate to turbulent liquid flow regimes, a possibility arises to develop sufficiently general method for HTC predicting. Under the above conditions nucleate boiling occurs up to rather high flow quality, even in annular flow regime due to extremely small size of an equilibrium vapour bubble. This conclusion is in agreement with the available experimental data. The predicting equation for nucleate boiling heat transfer developed by the present author in 1988 is valid for any nonmetallic liquid. A contribution of forced convection in heat transfer is calculated according to the Petukhov et al. equation with correction factor, which accounted for an effect of velocity increase due to evaporation. This effect can be essential at relatively small heat fluxes and rather high mass flow rates. The Reynolds analogy and homogeneous model are used in order to account for the convective heat transfer augmentation in two-phase flow. Due to low ratio of liquid and vapour densities at high reduced pressures the homogeneous approximation of two-phase flow seems to be warranted. A total heat transfer coefficient is calculated as an interpolated value of boiling and convective HTCs. The experimental data on CO 2 flow boiling related to regimes before heated wall dryout incipience are in rather good agreement with the calculations. (author)
Mathematical Model for Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Processes in Plate Exchanger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cvete B. Dimitrieska
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Within the analytical solution of the system of equations which solve fluid flow and heat transfer processes, the elliptical and parabolic differential equations based on initial and boundary conditions is usually unfamiliar in a closed form. Numerical solution of equation system is necessarily obtained by discretization of equations. When system of equations relate to estimation of two dimensional stationary problems, the applicable method for estimation in basic two – dimensional form is recommended.
Dry-out heat fluxes of falling film and low-mass flux upward-flow in heated tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Yasuo; Ueda, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Teruyuki; Miyota, Yukio
1998-01-01
Dry-out heat fluxes were investigated experimentally for a film flow falling down on the inner surface of vertical heated-tubes and for a low mass flux forced-upward flow in the tubes using R 113. This work followed the study on those for a two-phase natural circulation system. For the falling film boiling, flow state observation tests were also performed, where dry-patches appearing and disappearing repeatedly were observed near the exit end of the heated section at the dry-out heat flux conditions. Relation between the dry-out heat flux and the liquid film flow rate is analyzed. The dry-out heat fluxes of the low mass flux upflow are expressed well by the correlation proposed in the previous work. The relation for the falling film boiling shows a similar trend to that for the upflow boiling, however, the dry-out heat fluxes of the falling film are much lower, approximately one third, than those of the upward flow. (author)
Convective heat transfer in supercritical flows of CO_2 in tubes with and without flow obstacles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eter, Ahmad; Groeneveld, Dé; Tavoularis, Stavros
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Measurements of supercritical heat transfer in tubes equipped with obstacles were obtained and compared with results in base tubes. • In general, flow obstacles improve supercritical heat transfer, but under certain conditions have a negative effect on it. • New correlations describing obstacle-enhanced supercritical heat transfer in the liquid-like and gas-like regimes are fitted to the data. - Abstract: Heat transfer measurements to CO_2-cooled tubes with and without flow obstacles at supercritical pressures were obtained at the University of Ottawa’s supercritical pressure test facility. The effects of obstacle geometry (obstacle pitch, obstacle shape, flow blockage) on the wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient were investigated. Tests were performed for vertical upward flow in a directly heated 8 mm ID tube for a pressure range from 7.69 to 8.36 MPa, a mass flux range from 200 to 1184 kg/m"2 s, and a heat flux range from 1 to 175 kW/m"2. The results are presented graphically in plots of wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient vs. bulk specific enthalpy of the fluid. The effects of flow parameters and flow obstacle geometry on supercritical heat transfer for both normal and deteriorated heat transfer are discussed. A comparison of the measurements with leading prediction methods for supercritical heat transfer in bare tubes and for spacer effects is also presented. The optimum increase in heat transfer coefficient was found to be for blunt obstacles, having a large flow blockage, and a short obstacle pitch.
Heat Transfer Enhancement in Separated and Vortex Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard J. Goldstein
2004-05-27
This document summarizes the research performance done at the Heat Transfer Laboratory of the University of Minnesota on heat transfer and energy separation in separated and vortex flow supported by DOE in the period September 1, 1998--August 31, 2003. Unsteady and complicated flow structures in separated or vortex flows are the main reason for a poor understanding of heat transfer under such conditions. The research from the University of Minnesota focused on the following important aspects of understanding such flows: (1) Heat/mass transfer from a circular cylinder; (2) study of energy separation and heat transfer in free jet flows and shear layers; and (3) study of energy separation on the surface and in the wake of a cylinder in crossflow. The current study used three different experimental setups to accomplish these goals. A wind tunnel and a liquid tunnel using water and mixtures of ethylene glycol and water, is used for the study of prandtl number effect with uniform heat flux from the circular cylinder. A high velocity air jet is used to study energy separation in free jets. A high speed wind tunnel, same as used for the first part, is utilized for energy separation effects on the surface and in the wake of the circular cylinder. The final outcome of this study is a substantial advancement in this research area.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Si-Ning; Zhang, Hong-Na; Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Qian; Li, Feng-Chen; Qian, Shizhi; Joo, Sang Woo
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Heat transfer performance of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a MHS is studied. • Pseudo-plastic fluid flow can clearly promote the heat transfer efficiency in MMC. • Heat transfer enhancement is attributed to the emergence of secondary flow. • The heat transfer uniformity can also be improved by pseudo-plastic fluid flow. - Abstract: As the miniaturization and integration become the leading trend of the micro-electro-mechanical systems, it is of great significance to improve the microscaled heat transfer performance. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation on the flow characteristics and heat transfer performance of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a manifold microchannel (MMC) heat sink and traditional microchannel (TMC) heat sink. The non-Newtonian fluid was described by the power-law model. The analyses concentrated on the non-Newtonian fluid effect on the heat transfer performance, including the heat transfer efficiency and uniformity of temperature distribution, as well as the influence of inlet/outlet configurations on fluid flow and heat transfer. Comparing with Newtonian fluid flow, pseudo-plastic fluid could reduce the drag resistance in both MMC and TMC, while the dilatant fluid brought in quite larger drag resistance. For the heat transfer performance, the introduction of pseudo-plastic fluid flow greatly improved the heat transfer efficiency owing to the generation of secondary flow due to the shear-thinning property. Besides, the temperature distribution in MMC was more uniform by using pseudo-plastic fluid. Moreover, the inlet/outlet configuration was also important for the design and arrangement of microchannel heat sinks, since the present work showed that the maximum temperature was prone to locating in the corners near the inlet and outlet. This work provides guidance for optimal design of small-scale heat transfer devices in many cooling applications, such as biomedical chips, electronic systems, and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Qiusheng; Fukuda, Katsuya
2003-01-01
The transient heat transfer coefficients for forced convection flow of helium gas over a horizontal cylinder were measured under wide experimental conditions. The platinum cylinder with a diameter of 1.0 mm was used as test heater and heated by electric current with an exponentially increasing heat input of Q 0 exp(t/τ). The gas flow velocities ranged from 5 to 35 m/s, the gas temperatures ranged from 25 to 80degC, and the periods of heat generation rate, τ, ranged from 40 ms to 20 s. The surface superheat and heat flux increase exponentially as the heat generation rate increases with the exponential function. It was clarified that the heat transfer coefficient approaches the quasi-steady-state one for the period τ longer than about 1 s, and it becomes higher for the period shorter than around 1 s. The transient heat transfer shows less dependence on the gas flowing velocity when the period becomes very shorter. The gas temperature in this study shows little influence on the heat transfer coefficient. Semi-empirical correlation for quasi-steady-state heat transfer was obtained based on the experimental data. The ratios of transient Nusselt number Nu tr to quasi-steady-state Nusselt number Nu st at various periods, flow velocities, and gas temperatures were obtained. The heat transfer shifts to the quasi-steady-state heat transfer for longer periods and shifts to the transient heat transfer for shorter periods at the same flow velocity. It also approaches the quasi-steady-state one for higher flow velocity at the same period. Empirical correlation for transient heat transfer was also obtained based on the experimental data. (author)
Flow visualization in heat-generating porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, D.O.; Nilson, R.H.
1977-11-01
The work reported is in support of the Sandia Post-Accident Heat Removal Program, in which simulated LMFBR beds will be subjected to in-pile heating in the ACPR (Annular Core Pulsed Reactor). Flow visualization experiments were performed to gain some insight into the flow patterns and temperature distributions in a fluid-saturated heat-generating porous medium. Although much of the information presented is of a qualitative nature, it is useful in the recognition of the controlling transport process and in the formulation of analytic and numerical models
Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rao, G.V.; Rao, R.U.M.
1983-01-01
Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m exp(2). The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m exp(2)) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned. (5 figs., 14 refs., 4 tables).
Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks
Rao, G. V.; Rao, R. U. M.
1983-01-01
Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m 2. The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m 2) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned.
Becker, K.; Von Herzen, R.; Kirklin, J.; Evans, R.; Kadko, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.; Mills, R.; Schultz, A.; Rona, P.
We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ±5-10 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m²), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the “Kremlin” area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- > 25 W/m²) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m²) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Koga, Tomonari; Wataru, Masumi; Hattori, Yasuo
1997-01-01
The report describes the result of heat removal test of passive cooling vault storage system of cross flow type using 1/5 scale model. Based on a prospect of steady increase in the amount of spent fuel, it is needed to establish large capacity dry storage technologies for spent fuel. Air flow patterns, distributions of air temperature and velocity were measured, by which heat removal characteristics of the system were made clear. Air flow patterns in the storage module depended on the ratio of the buoyant force to the inertial force; the former generated by the difference of air temperatures and the height of the storage module, the latter by the difference of air densities between the outlet of the storage module and ambience and the height of the chimney of the storage facility. A simple method to estimate air flow patterns in the storage module was suggested, where Ri(Richardson) number was applied to represent the ratio. Moreover, heat transfer coefficient from a model of storage tube to cooling air was evaluated, and it was concluded that the generalized expression of heat transfer coefficient for common heat exchangers could be applied to the vault storage system of cross flow type, in which dozens of storage tubes were placed in a storage module. (author)
Critical heat flux and flow pattern for water flow in annular geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, J.-W.; Baek, W.-P.; Chang, S.H.
1997-01-01
An experimental study on critical heat flux (CHF) and two-phase flow visualization has been performed for water flow in internally-heated, vertical, concentric annuli under near atmospheric pressure. Tests have been done under stable forced-circulation, upward and downward flow conditions with three test sections of relatively large gap widths (heated length = 0.6 m, inner diameter 19 mm, outer diameter = 29, 35 and 51 mm). The outer wall of the test section was made up of the transparent Pyrex tube to allow the observation of flow patterns near the CHF occurrence. The CHF mechanism was changed in the order of flooding, churn-to-annular flow transition and local dryout under a large bubble in churn flow as the flow rate was increased from zero to higher values. Observed parametric trends are consistent with the previous understanding except that the CHF for downward flow is considerably lower than that for the upward flow. In addition to the experiment, selected CHF correlations for annuli are assessed based on 1156 experimental data from various sources. The Doerffer et al. (1994); Barnett (1966); Jannsen and Kervinen (1963); Levitan and Lantsman (1977) correlations show reasonable predictions for wide parameter ranges, among which the Doerffer et al. (1994) correlation shows the widest parameter ranges and a possibility of further improvement. However, there is no correlation predicting the low-pressure, low-flow CHF satisfactorily. (orig.)
Predicting critical heat flux in slug flow regime of uniformly heated ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Numerical computation code (PWR-DNBP) has been developed to predict Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of forced convective flow of water in a vertical heated channel. The code was based on the liquid sub-layer model, with the assumption that CHF occurred when the liquid film thickness between the heated surface and vapour ...
Entropy resistance analyses of a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2013-01-01
Heat exchangers are widely used in industry, and analyses and optimizations of the performance of heat exchangers are important topics. In this paper, we define the concept of entropy resistance based on the entropy generation analyses of a one-dimensional heat transfer process. With this concept, a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating is analyzed and discussed. It is found that the minimization of entropy resistance always leads to the maximum heat transfer rate for the discussed two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger, while the minimizations of entropy generation rate, entropy generation numbers, and revised entropy generation number do not always. (general)
Computational Fluid Dynamic Pressure Drop Estimation of Flow between Parallel Plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Son, Hyung Min; Yang, Soo Hyung; Park, Jong Hark [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
Many pool type reactors have forced downward flows inside the core during normal operation; there is a chance of flow inversion when transients occur. During this phase, the flow undergo transition between turbulent and laminar regions where drastic changes take place in terms of momentum and heat transfer, and the decrease in safety margin is usually observed. Additionally, for high Prandtl number fluids such as water, an effect of the velocity profile inside the channel on the temperature distribution is more pronounced over the low Prandtl number ones. This makes the checking of its pressure drop estimation accuracy less important, assuming the code verification is complete. With an advent of powerful computer hardware, engineering applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have become quite common these days. Especially for a fully-turbulent and single phase convective heat transfer, the predictability of the commercial codes has matured enough so that many well-known companies adopt those to accelerate a product development cycle and to realize an increased profitability. In contrast to the above, the transition models for the CFD code are still under development, and the most of the models show limited generality and prediction accuracy. Unlike the system codes, the CFD codes estimate the pressure drop from the velocity profile which is obtained by solving momentum conservation equations, and the resulting friction factor can be a representative parameter for a constant cross section channel flow. In addition, the flow inside a rectangular channel with a high span to gap ratio can be approximated by flow inside parallel plates. The computational fluid dynamics simulation on the flow between parallel plates showed reasonable prediction capability for the laminar and the turbulent regime.
Heat transfer and fluid flow in regular rod arrays with opposing flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, J.W.
1979-01-01
The heat transfer and fluid flow problem of opposing flow in the fully developed laminar region has been solved analytically for regular rod arrays. The problem is governed by two parameters: the pitch-to-diameter ratio and the Grashof-to-Reynolds number ratio. The critical Gr/Re ratios for flow separation caused by the upward buoyancy force on the downward flow were evaluated for a large range of P/D ratios of the triangular array. Numerical results reveal that both the heat transfer and pressure loss are reduced by the buoyancy force. Applications to nuclear reactors are discussed
A single-probe heat pulse method for estimating sap velocity in trees.
López-Bernal, Álvaro; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J
2017-10-01
Available sap flow methods are still far from being simple, cheap and reliable enough to be used beyond very specific research purposes. This study presents and tests a new single-probe heat pulse (SPHP) method for monitoring sap velocity in trees using a single-probe sensor, rather than the multi-probe arrangements used up to now. Based on the fundamental conduction-convection principles of heat transport in sapwood, convective velocity (V h ) is estimated from the temperature increase in the heater after the application of a heat pulse (ΔT). The method was validated against measurements performed with the compensation heat pulse (CHP) technique in field trees of six different species. To do so, a dedicated three-probe sensor capable of simultaneously applying both methods was produced and used. Experimental measurements in the six species showed an excellent agreement between SPHP and CHP outputs for moderate to high flow rates, confirming the applicability of the method. In relation to other sap flow methods, SPHP presents several significant advantages: it requires low power inputs, it uses technically simpler and potentially cheaper instrumentation, the physical damage to the tree is minimal and artefacts caused by incorrect probe spacing and alignment are removed. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Freire F. B.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This work is concerned with the coupled estimation of the heat generated by the reaction (Qr and the overall heat transfer parameter (UA during the terpolymerization of styrene, butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate from temperature measurements and the reactor heat balance. By making specific assumptions about the dynamics of the evolution of UA and Q R, we propose a cascade of observers to successively estimate these two parameters without the need for additional measurements of on-line samples. One further aspect of our approach is that only the energy balance around the reactor was employed. It means that the flow rate of the cooling jacket fluid was not required.
A simplified method of calculating heat flow through a two-phase heat exchanger
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yohanis, Y.G. [Thermal Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Co Antrim, BT37 0QB Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: yg.yohanis@ulster.ac.uk; Popel, O.S. [Non-traditional Renewable Energy Sources, Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19 Izhorskaya str., IVTAN, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Frid, S.E. [Non-traditional Renewable Energy Sources, Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19 Izhorskaya str., IVTAN, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)
2005-10-01
A simplified method of calculating the heat flow through a heat exchanger in which one or both heat carrying media are undergoing a phase change is proposed. It is based on enthalpies of the heat carrying media rather than their temperatures. The method enables the determination of the maximum rate of heat flow provided the thermodynamic properties of both heat-carrying media are known. There will be no requirement to separately simulate each part of the system or introduce boundaries within the heat exchanger if one or both heat-carrying media undergo a phase change. The model can be used at the pre-design stage, when the parameters of the heat exchangers may not be known, i.e., to carry out an assessment of a complex energy scheme such as a steam power plant. One such application of this model is in thermal simulation exercises within the TRNSYS modeling environment.
A simplified method of calculating heat flow through a two-phase heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yohanis, Y.G.; Popel, O.S.; Frid, S.E.
2005-01-01
A simplified method of calculating the heat flow through a heat exchanger in which one or both heat carrying media are undergoing a phase change is proposed. It is based on enthalpies of the heat carrying media rather than their temperatures. The method enables the determination of the maximum rate of heat flow provided the thermodynamic properties of both heat-carrying media are known. There will be no requirement to separately simulate each part of the system or introduce boundaries within the heat exchanger if one or both heat-carrying media undergo a phase change. The model can be used at the pre-design stage, when the parameters of the heat exchangers may not be known, i.e., to carry out an assessment of a complex energy scheme such as a steam power plant. One such application of this model is in thermal simulation exercises within the TRNSYS modeling environment
Assessment of interfacial heat transfer models under subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A., E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: fbraz@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (DCTA/IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Energia Nuclear
2017-07-01
The present study concerns a detailed analysis of subcooled flow boiling characteristics under high pressure systems using a two-fluid Eulerian approach provided by a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver. For this purpose, a vertical heated pipe made of stainless steel with an internal diameter of 15.4 mm was considered as the modeled domain. An uniform heat flux of 570 kW/m2 and saturation pressure of 4.5 MPa were applied to the channel wall, whereas water mass flux of 900 kg/m2s was considered for all simulation cases. The model was validated against a set of experimental data and results have indicated a promising use of CFD technique for the estimation of wall temperature, the liquid bulk temperature and the location of the departure of nucleate boiling. Different sub-models of interfacial heat transfer coefficient were applied and compared, allowing a better prediction of void fraction along the heated channel. (author)
Intermediate heat exchanger tube vibration induced by cross and parallel mixed flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamura, Koji
1986-01-01
The characteristics of pool type LMFBR intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) tube vibrations induced by cross and parallel mixed flow were basically investigated. Secondary coolant in IHX tube bundle is mixed flow of parallel jit flow along the tube axis through flow holes in baffle plates and cross flow. By changing these two flow rate, flow distributions vary in the tube bundle. Mixed flow also induces vibrations which cause fretting wear and fatigue of tube. It is therefore very important to evaluate the tube vibration characteristics for estimating the tube integrity. The results show that the relationships between tube vibrations and flow distributions in the tube bundle were cleared, and mixed flow induced tube vibration could be evaluated on the base of the characteristics of both parallel and cross flow induced vibration. From these investigations it could be concluded that the characteristics of tube vibration for various flow distributions can be systematically evaluated. (author)
CHF multiplier of subcooled flow boiling for non-uniform heating conditions in swirl tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inasaka, F.; Nariai, H.
1994-01-01
The high heat flux components of fusion reactors, such as divertor plates and beam dumps of neutral beam injectors, are estimated to be subjected to very high heat loads more than 10 MW/m 2 . Critical heat flux (CHF), which determines the upper limit of heat removal, is one of the most important problems in designing cooling systems. For practical applications in cooling systems, subcooled flow boiling in water combined with swirl-flow in tubes with internal twisted tape is thought to be the most superior for CHF characteristics in fusion reactor components, heat by irradiation comes in from one side of the wall, and cooling channel is then under circumferentially non-uniform heating condition. Authors have conducted the experiments on the CHF with internal twisted tapes under circumferentially non-uniform heating conditions and showed that when the intensity of non-uniformity increased, q cH (peak heat flux at burnout under nonuniform heating condition) in tube with internal twisted tape increased above the q c,unif (CHF under uniform heating condition), though the average qualities were the same for both cases. They also showed that this CHF enhancement was not seen in smooth tubes without tape under the same average qualities
Experimental study of heat and mass transfer in a buoyant countercurrent exchange flow
Conover, Timothy Allan
Buoyant Countercurrent Exchange Flow occurs in a vertical vent through which two miscible fluids communicate, the higher-density fluid, residing above the lower-density fluid, separated by the vented partition. The buoyancy- driven zero net volumetric flow through the vent transports any passive scalars, such as heat and toxic fumes, between the two compartments as the fluids seek thermodynamic and gravitational equilibrium. The plume rising from the vent into the top compartment resembles a pool fire plume. In some circumstances both countercurrent flows and pool fires can ``puff'' periodically, with distinct frequencies. One experimental test section containing fresh water in the top compartment and brine (NaCl solution) in the bottom compartment provided a convenient, idealized flow for study. This brine flow decayed in time as the concentrations approached equilibrium. A second test section contained fresh water that was cooled by heat exchangers above and heated by electrical elements below and operated steadily, allowing more time for data acquisition. Brine transport was reduced to a buoyancy- scaled flow coefficient, Q*, and heat transfer was reduced to an analogous coefficient, H*. Results for vent diameter D = 5.08 cm were consistent between test sections and with the literature. Some results for D = 2.54 cm were inconsistent, suggesting viscosity and/or molecular diffusion of heat become important at smaller scales. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure velocity fields in both test sections, and in thermal flow a small thermocouple measured temperature simultaneously with velocity. Measurement fields were restricted to the plume base region, above the vent proper. In baseline periodic flow, instantaneous velocity and temperature were ensemble averaged, producing a movie of the average variation of each measure during a puffing flow cycle. The temperature movie revealed the previously unknown cold core of the puff during its early development. The
Analysis of slip flow heat transfer between two unsymmetrically
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper presents an analytical investigation to study the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in the slip flow region for hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed flow between parallel plates.Both upper and lower plates are subjected to asymmetric heat flux boundary conditions. The effect of first ordervelocity ...
Liquid metal heat transfer in heat exchangers under low flow rate conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mochizuki, Hiroyasu
2015-01-01
The present paper describes the liquid metal heat transfer in heat exchangers under low flow rate conditions. Measured data from some experiments indicate that heat transfer coefficients of liquid metals at very low Péclet number are much lower than what are predicted by the well-known empirical relations. The cause of this phenomenon was not fully understood for many years. In the present study, one countercurrent-type heat exchanger is analyzed using three, separated countercurrent heat exchanger models: one is a heat exchanger model in the tube bank region, while the upper and lower plena are modeled as two heat exchangers with a single heat transfer tube. In all three heat exchangers, the same empirical correlation is used in the heat transfer calculation on the tube and the shell sides. The Nusselt number, as a function of the Péclet number, calculated from measured temperature and flow rate data in a 50 MW experimental facility was correctly reproduced by the calculation result, when the calculated result is processed in the same way as the experiment. Finally, it is clarified that the deviation is a superficial phenomenon which is caused by the heat transfer in the plena of the heat exchanger. (author)
Temperature-gated thermal rectifier for active heat flow control.
Zhu, Jia; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Shen, Sheng; Wang, Kevin; Abate, Yohannes; Lee, Sangwook; Wu, Junqiao; Yin, Xiaobo; Majumdar, Arun; Zhang, Xiang
2014-08-13
Active heat flow control is essential for broad applications of heating, cooling, and energy conversion. Like electronic devices developed for the control of electric power, it is very desirable to develop advanced all-thermal solid-state devices that actively control heat flow without consuming other forms of energy. Here we demonstrate temperature-gated thermal rectification using vanadium dioxide beams in which the environmental temperature actively modulates asymmetric heat flow. In this three terminal device, there are two switchable states, which can be regulated by global heating. In the "Rectifier" state, we observe up to 28% thermal rectification. In the "Resistor" state, the thermal rectification is significantly suppressed (Rectifier state. This temperature-gated rectifier can have substantial implications ranging from autonomous thermal management of heating and cooling systems to efficient thermal energy conversion and storage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Hui; Jin, Zheyan; Lum, Chee; Nocera, Daniel; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr
2010-01-01
Recent progress made in the development of novel molecule-based flow diagnostic techniques, including molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) and lifetime-based molecular tagging thermometry (MTT), to achieve simultaneous measurements of multiple important flow variables for micro-flows and micro-scale heat transfer studies is reported in this study. The focus of the work described here is the particular class of molecular tagging tracers that relies on phosphorescence. Instead of using tiny particles, especially designed phosphorescent molecules, which can be turned into long-lasting glowing marks upon excitation by photons of appropriate wavelength, are used as tracers for both flow velocity and temperature measurements. A pulsed laser is used to 'tag' the tracer molecules in the regions of interest, and the tagged molecules are imaged at two successive times within the photoluminescence lifetime of the tracer molecules. The measured Lagrangian displacement of the tagged molecules provides the estimate of the fluid velocity. The simultaneous temperature measurement is achieved by taking advantage of the temperature dependence of phosphorescence lifetime, which is estimated from the intensity ratio of the tagged molecules in the acquired two phosphorescence images. The implementation and application of the molecular tagging approach for micro-scale thermal flow studies are demonstrated by two examples. The first example is to conduct simultaneous flow velocity and temperature measurements inside a microchannel to quantify the transient behavior of electroosmotic flow (EOF) to elucidate underlying physics associated with the effects of Joule heating on electrokinematically driven flows. The second example is to examine the time evolution of the unsteady heat transfer and phase changing process inside micro-sized, icing water droplets, which is pertinent to the ice formation and accretion processes as water droplets impinge onto cold wind turbine blades
Using Gravity Inversion to Estimate Antarctic Geothermal Heat Flux
Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; (Sasha) Golynsky, A. V.; Rogozhina, Irina
2014-05-01
New modelling studies for Greenland have recently underlined the importance of GHF for long-term ice sheet behaviour (Petrunin et al. 2013). Revised determinations of top basement heat-flow for Antarctica and adjacent rifted continental margins using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (Chappell & Kusznir 2008), using BedMap2 data have provided improved estimates of geothermal heat flux (GHF) in Antarctica where it is very poorly known. Continental lithosphere thinning and post-breakup residual thicknesses of continental crust determined from gravity inversion have been used to predict the preservation of continental crustal radiogenic heat productivity and the transient lithosphere heat-flow contribution within thermally equilibrating rifted continental and oceanic lithosphere. The sensitivity of present-day Antarctic top basement heat-flow to initial continental radiogenic heat productivity, continental rift and margin breakup age has been examined. Recognition of the East Antarctic Rift System (EARS), a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km (Ferraccioli et al. 2011) and is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system, highlights that crustal variability in interior Antarctica is much greater than previously assumed. GHF is also important to understand proposed ice accretion at the base of the EAIS in the GSM and its links to sub-ice hydrology (Bell et al. 2011). References Bell, R.E., Ferraccioli, F., Creyts, T.T., Braaten, D., Corr, H., Das, I., Damaske, D., Frearson, N., Jordan, T., Rose, K., Studinger, M. & Wolovick, M. 2011. Widespread persistent thickening of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet by freezing from the base. Science, 331 (6024), 1592-1595. Chappell, A.R. & Kusznir, N.J. 2008. Three-dimensional gravity inversion for Moho depth at rifted continental margins
Heat flow, deep formation temperature and thermal structure of the Tarim Basin, northwest China
Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Li, Xianglan
2016-04-01
Geothermal regime of a sedimentary basin not only provides constraint on understanding the basin formation and evolution, but also offers fundamental parameters for hydrocarbon resources assessment. As one of three Precambrian blocks in China, the Tarim craton is also a current hydrocarbon exploration target where the largest sedimentary basin (Tarim Basin) develops with great potential. Although considerable advancement of geothermal regime of this basin has been made during the past decades, nearly all the temperature data in previous studies are from the exploration borehole formation testing temperatures. Recently, we have conducted the steady-state temperature logging in the Tarim basin, and measured abundant rock thermal properties, enabling us to re-visit the thermal regime of this area with more confidence. Our results show that the present-day geothermal gradients for the Tarim Basin vary from 23 K/km to 27 K/km, with a mean of 22 K/km; the values of heat flow range from 40 mW/m2 to 49 mW/m2, with a mean of 43 mW/m2. These new data confirmed that the Tarim Basin has relatively low heat flow and shares similar geothermal regime with other Precambrian cratons in the world. In addition, the new temperatures from the steady-state logs are larger than the bottom hole temperatures (BHT) as 22 degree Celsius, indicating the thermal non-equilibrium for the BHTs used in previous studies. Spatial distribution of the estimated formation temperatures-at-depth of 1~5km within the basin is similar and mainly controlled by crystalline basement pattern. Generally, the temperatures at the depth of 1km range from 29 to 41 degree Celsius, with a mean of 35 degree Celsius; while the temperatures at 3km vary from 63 to 100 degree Celsius, and the mean is 82 degree Celsius; at 5km below the surface, the temperatures fall into a range between 90 and 160 degree Celsius, with a mean of 129 degree Celsius. We further proposed the long-term low geothermal background and large burial
Heat transfer characteristics of alkali metals flowing across tube banks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugiyama, K.; Ishiguro, R.; Kojima, Y.; Kanaoka, H.
2004-01-01
For the purpose of getting heat transfer coefficients of alkali metals flowing across tube banks at an acceptable level, we propose to use an inviscid-irrotational flow model, which is based on our flow visualization experiment. We show that the heat transfer coefficients obtained for the condition where only the test rod is heated in tube banks considerably differ from those obtained for the condition where all the rods are heated, because of interference between thick thermal boundary layers of alkali metals. We also confirm that the analytical values obtained by this flow model are in a reasonable agreement with experimental values. (author)
Turbulent Heat Transfer in Curved Pipe Flow
Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo
2013-11-01
In the present investigation, turbulent heat transfer in fully-developed curved pipe flow with axially uniform wall heat flux has been numerically studied. The Reynolds numbers under consideration are Reτ = 210 (DNS) and 1,000 (LES) based on the mean friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the Prandtl number (Pr) is 0.71. For Reτ = 210 , the pipe curvature (κ) was fixed as 1/18.2, whereas three cases of κ (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) were computed in the case of Reτ = 1,000. The mean velocity, turbulent intensities and heat transfer rates obtained from the present calculations are in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental results. To elucidate the secondary flow structures due to the pipe curvature, the mean quantities and rms fluctuations of the flow and temperature fields are presented on the pipe cross-sections, and compared with those of the straight pipe flow. To study turbulence structures and their influence on turbulent heat transfer, turbulence statistics including but not limited to skewness and flatness of velocity fluctuations, cross-correlation coefficients, an Octant analysis, and turbulence budgets are presented and discussed. Based on our results, we attempt to clarify the effects of Reynolds number and the pipe curvature on turbulent heat transfer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eter, Ahmad, E-mail: eng.eter@yahoo.com; Groeneveld, Dé, E-mail: degroeneveld@gmail.com; Tavoularis, Stavros, E-mail: stavros.tavoularis@uottawa.ca
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Measurements of supercritical heat transfer in tubes equipped with obstacles were obtained and compared with results in base tubes. • In general, flow obstacles improve supercritical heat transfer, but under certain conditions have a negative effect on it. • New correlations describing obstacle-enhanced supercritical heat transfer in the liquid-like and gas-like regimes are fitted to the data. - Abstract: Heat transfer measurements to CO{sub 2}-cooled tubes with and without flow obstacles at supercritical pressures were obtained at the University of Ottawa’s supercritical pressure test facility. The effects of obstacle geometry (obstacle pitch, obstacle shape, flow blockage) on the wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient were investigated. Tests were performed for vertical upward flow in a directly heated 8 mm ID tube for a pressure range from 7.69 to 8.36 MPa, a mass flux range from 200 to 1184 kg/m{sup 2} s, and a heat flux range from 1 to 175 kW/m{sup 2}. The results are presented graphically in plots of wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient vs. bulk specific enthalpy of the fluid. The effects of flow parameters and flow obstacle geometry on supercritical heat transfer for both normal and deteriorated heat transfer are discussed. A comparison of the measurements with leading prediction methods for supercritical heat transfer in bare tubes and for spacer effects is also presented. The optimum increase in heat transfer coefficient was found to be for blunt obstacles, having a large flow blockage, and a short obstacle pitch.
Heat and mass transfer and hydrodynamics in swirling flows (review)
Leont'ev, A. I.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Popov, I. A.
2017-02-01
Research results of Russian and foreign scientists of heat and mass transfer in whirling flows, swirling effect, superficial vortex generators, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics at micro- and nanoscales, burning at swirl of the flow, and technologies and apparatuses with the use of whirling currents for industry and power generation were presented and discussed at the "Heat and Mass Transfer in Whirling Currents" 5th International Conference. The choice of rational forms of the equipment flow parts when using whirling and swirling flows to increase efficiency of the heat-power equipment and of flow regimes and burning on the basis of deep study of the flow and heat transfer local parameters was set as the main research prospect. In this regard, there is noticeable progress in research methods of whirling and swirling flows. The number of computational treatments of swirling flows' local parameters has been increased. Development and advancement of the up to date computing models and national productivity software are very important for this process. All experimental works are carried out with up to date research methods of the local thermoshydraulic parameters, which enable one to reveal physical mechanisms of processes: PIV and LIV visualization techniques, high-speed and infrared photography, high speed registration of parameters of high-speed processes, etc. There is a problem of improvement of researchers' professional skills in the field of fluid mechanics to set adequately mathematics and physics problems of aerohydrodynamics for whirling and swirling flows and numerical and pilot investigations. It has been pointed out that issues of improvement of the cooling system and thermal protection effectiveness of heat-power and heat-transfer equipment units are still actual. It can be solved successfully using whirling and swirling flows as simple low power consumption exposing on the flow method and heat transfer augmentation.
Thermodynamic efficiency of information and heat flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allahverdyan, Armen E; Janzing, Dominik; Mahler, Guenter
2009-01-01
A basic task of information processing is information transfer (flow). Here we study a pair of Brownian particles each coupled to a thermal bath at temperatures T 1 and T 2 . The information flow in such a system is defined via the time-shifted mutual information. The information flow nullifies at equilibrium, and its efficiency is defined as the ratio of the flow to the total entropy production in the system. For a stationary state the information flows from higher to lower temperatures, and its efficiency is bounded from above by (max[T 1 ,T 2 ])/(|T 1 −T 2 |). This upper bound is imposed by the second law and it quantifies the thermodynamic cost for information flow in the present class of systems. It can be reached in the adiabatic situation, where the particles have widely different characteristic times. The efficiency of heat flow—defined as the heat flow over the total amount of dissipated heat—is limited from above by the same factor. There is a complementarity between heat and information flow: the set-up which is most efficient for the former is the least efficient for the latter and vice versa. The above bound for the efficiency can be (transiently) overcome in certain non-stationary situations, but the efficiency is still limited from above. We study yet another measure of information processing (transfer entropy) proposed in the literature. Though this measure does not require any thermodynamic cost, the information flow and transfer entropy are shown to be intimately related for stationary states
Heat transfer critical conditions in two-plase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assis, M.C.V. de.
1980-02-01
The critical heat flux for forced-convection flow of water inside an uniformly heated circular channel is analysed, taking into account several flow patterns usually met in this type of investigation. Comments about nomenclature, experimental methods and influence of operational parameters used in the description of this phenomenon are made. The experimental results from 187 tests of critical heat flux at low pressure are presented. One empirical correlation between the critical heat flux and the independent parameters, was developed. Some correlations developed in other laboratories in the same range of parameters are mentioned and compared with present one. (Author) [pt
Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts
Cross, M. F.
2011-01-01
A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.
Stem heat balance method to estimate transpiration of young orange and mango plants
Vellame,Lucas M.; Coelho Filho,Maurício A.; Paz,Vital P. S.; Coelho,Eugênio F.
2010-01-01
The present study had as its main objective the evaluation of the heat balance method in young orange and mango plants under protected environment. The work was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, Cruz das Almas, BA. Later on, estimates of sap flow were conducted for two mango plants cultivated in pots of 15 and 50 L installed on weighting platforms of 45 and 140 kg; sap flow was determined in three orange plants, two of which were also installed on weighing platforms. The val...
Transient convective heat transfer to laminar flow from a flat plate with constant heat capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanawa, Juichi
1980-01-01
Most basic transient heat transfer problem is the transient response characteristics of forced convection heat transfer in the flow along a flat plate or in a tube. In case of the laminar flow along a flat plate, the profile method using steady temperature distribution has been mostly adopted, but its propriety has not been clarified yet. About the unsteady heat transfer in the laminar flow along a flat plate, the analysis or experiment evaluating the heat capacity of the flat plate exactly was never carried out. The purpose of this study is to determine by numerical calculation the unsteady characteristics of the boundary layer in laminar flow and to confirm them by experiment concerning the unsteady heat transfer when a flat plate with a certain heat capacity is placed in parallel in uniform flow and given a certain quantity of heat generation suddenly. The basic equation and the solution are given, and the method of numerical calculation and the result are explained. The experimental setup and method, and the experimental results are shown. Both results were in good agreement, and the response of wall temperature, the response of Nusselt number and the change of temperature distribution in course of time were able to be determined by applying Laplace transformation and numerical Laplace inverse transformation to the equation. (Kako, I.)
Heat transfer enhancement in cross-flow heat exchanger using vortex generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, S. Y.; Kwon, H. K.; Kim, B. C.; Park, D. S.; Lee, S. S.
2003-01-01
Fouling is very serious problem in heat exchanger because it rapidly deteriorates the performance of heat exchanger. Cross-flow heat exchanger with vortex generators is developed, which enhance heat transfer and reduce fouling. In the present heat exchanger, shell and baffle are removed from the conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The naphthalene sublimation technique is employed to measure the local heat transfer coefficients. The experiments are performed for single circular tube, staggered array tube bank and in-line array tube bank with and without vortex generators. Local and average Nusselt numbers of single tube and tube bank with vortex generator are investigated and compared to those of without vortex generator
Thermal performance modeling of cross-flow heat exchangers
Cabezas-Gómez, Luben; Saíz-Jabardo, José Maria
2014-01-01
This monograph introduces a numerical computational methodology for thermal performance modeling of cross-flow heat exchangers, with applications in chemical, refrigeration and automobile industries. This methodology allows obtaining effectiveness-number of transfer units (e-NTU) data and has been used for simulating several standard and complex flow arrangements configurations of cross-flow heat exchangers. Simulated results have been validated through comparisons with results from available exact and approximate analytical solutions. Very accurate results have been obtained over wide ranges
Enhancing heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks using converging flow passages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehghan, Maziar; Daneshipour, Mahdi; Valipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Rafee, Roohollah; Saedodin, Seyfolah
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks are studied. • The Poiseuille and Nusselt numbers are presented for width-tapered MCHS. • Converging walls are found to enhance the thermal performance of MCHS. • The optimum performance of MCHS for fixed inlet and outlet pressures is discussed. • For the optimum configuration, the pumping power is reduced up to 75%. - Abstract: Constrained fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks (MCHS) with converging channels are investigated using the finite volume method (FVM) in the laminar regime. The maximum pressure of the MCHS loop is assumed to be limited due to constructional or operational conditions. Results show that the Poiseuille number increases with increased tapering, while the required pumping power decreases. Meanwhile, the Nusselt number increases with tapering as well as the convection heat transfer coefficient. The MCHS having the optimum heat transfer performance is found to have a width-tapered ratio equal to 0.5. For this tapering configuration and at the maximum pressure constraint of 3000 Pa, the pumping power reduces by a factor of 4 while the overall heat removal rate is kept fixed in comparison with a straight channel
An experimental investigation of turbulent flow heat transfer through ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the turbulent flow heat transfer and to determine the pressure drop characteristics of air, flowing through a tube with insert. An insert of special geometry is used inside the tube. The test section is electrically heated, and air is allowed to flow as the working fluid ...
Geothermal heat exchanger with coaxial flow of fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pejić Dragan M.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with a heat exchanger with coaxial flow. Two coaxial pipes of the secondary part were placed directly into a geothermal boring in such a way that geothermal water flows around the outer pipe. Starting from the energy balance of the exchanger formed in this way and the assumption of a study-state operating regime, a mathematical model was formulated. On the basis of the model, the secondary circle output temperature was determined as a function of the exchanger geometry, the coefficient of heat passing through the heat exchange areas, the average mass isobaric specific heats of fluid and mass flows. The input temperature of the exchanger secondary circle and the temperature of the geothermal water at the exit of the boring were taken as known values. Also, an analysis of changes in certain factors influencing the secondary water temperature was carried out. The parameters (flow temperature of the deep boring B-4 in Sijarinska Spa, Serbia were used. The theoretical results obtained indicate the great potential of this boring and the possible application of such an exchanger.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasuhisa Shinmoto
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The use of immiscible liquids for cooling of surfaces with high heat generation density is proposed based on the experimental verification of its superior cooling characteristics in fundamental systems of pool boiling and flow boiling in a tube. For the purpose of practical applications, however, heat transfer characteristics due to flow boiling in narrow rectangular channels with different small gap sizes need to be investigated. The immiscible liquids employed here are FC72 and water, and the gap size is varied as 2, 1, and 0.5 mm between parallel rectangular plates of 30 mm × 175 mm, where one plate is heated. To evaluate the effect of gap size, the heat transfer characteristics are compared at the same inlet velocity. The generation of large flattened bubbles in a narrow gap results in two opposite trends of the heat transfer enhancement due to thin liquid film evaporation and of the deterioration due to the extension of dry patch in the liquid film. The situation is the same as that observed for pure liquids. The latter negative effect is emphasized for extremely small gap sizes if the flow rate ratio of more-volatile liquid to the total is not reduced. The addition of small flow rate of less-volatile liquid can increase the critical heat flux (CHF of pure more-volatile liquid, while the surface temperature increases at the same time and assume the values between those for more-volatile and less-volatile liquids. By the selection of small flow rate ratio of more-volatile liquid, the surface temperature of pure less-volatile liquid can be decreased without reducing high CHF inherent in the less-volatile liquid employed. The trend of heat transfer characteristics for flow boiling of immiscible mixtures in narrow channels is more sensitive to the composition compared to the flow boiling in a round tube.
Flow and Heat Transfer in Cooling Microchannels with Phase-Change
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peles, Y P; Yarin, L P; Hetsroni, G [Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel) Faculty of Engineering
1998-05-19
The subject of the present work is the parametrical investigation of hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of laminar flow with phase-change in a heating microchannels. The study is based on the quasi-one-dimensional model of non-isothermal capillary flow. This model takes into account the evolution of flow, heating and evaporation of the liquid, as well as the influence of capillary, inertia, friction and gravity forces. The effect of various parameters (sizes of microchannel, initial temperature of cooling liquid, wall heat flux etc.) on hydrodynamic and thermal structures of the flow, the length of heating, evaporation and superheat regions is studied. Thc specific features of the phenomena is discussed.
Flow and Heat Transfer in Cooling Microchannels with Phase-Change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peles, Y.P.; Yarin, L.P.; Hetsroni, G.
1998-01-01
The subject of the present work is the parametrical investigation of hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of laminar flow with phase-change in a heating microchannels. The study is based on the quasi-one-dimensional model of non-isothermal capillary flow. This model takes into account the evolution of flow, heating and evaporation of the liquid, as well as the influence of capillary, inertia, friction and gravity forces. The effect of various parameters (sizes of microchannel, initial temperature of cooling liquid, wall heat flux etc.) on hydrodynamic and thermal structures of the flow, the length of heating, evaporation and superheat regions is studied. Thc specific features of the phenomena is discussed
A novel compact heat exchanger using gap flow mechanism.
Liang, J S; Zhang, Y; Wang, D Z; Luo, T P; Ren, T Q
2015-02-01
A novel, compact gap-flow heat exchanger (GFHE) using heat-transfer fluid (HTF) was developed in this paper. The detail design of the GFHE coaxial structure which forms the annular gap passage for HTF is presented. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were introduced into the design to determine the impacts of the gap width and the HTF flow rate on the GFHE performance. A comparative study on the GFHE heating rate, with the gap widths ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mm and the HTF flow rates ranged from 100 to 500 ml/min, was carried out. Results show that a narrower gap passage and a higher HTF flow rate can yield a higher average heating rate in GFHE. However, considering the compromise between the GFHE heating rate and the HTF pressure drop along the gap, a 0.4 mm gap width is preferred. A testing loop was also set up to experimentally evaluate the GFHE capability. The testing results show that, by using 0.4 mm gap width and 500 ml/min HTF flow rate, the maximum heating rate in the working chamber of the as-made GFHE can reach 18 °C/min, and the average temperature change rates in the heating and cooling processes of the thermal cycle test were recorded as 6.5 and 5.4 °C/min, respectively. These temperature change rates can well satisfy the standard of IEC 60068-2-14:2009 and show that the GFHE developed in this work has sufficient heat exchange capacity and can be used as an ideal compact heat exchanger in small volume desktop thermal fatigue test apparatus.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peyghambarzadeh, S.M.; Sarafraz, M.M.; Vaeli, N.; Ameri, E.; Vatani, A.; Jamialahmadi, M.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The cooling performance of water and n-heptane is compared during subcooled flow boiling. ► Although n-heptane leaves the heat exchanger warmer it has a lower heat transfer coefficient. ► Flow rate, heat flux and degree of subcooling have direct effect on heat transfer coefficient. ► The predictions of some correlations are evaluated against experimental data. - Abstract: In this research, subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficients of pure n-heptane and distilled water at different operating conditions have been experimentally measured and compared. The heat exchanger consisted of vertical annulus which is heated from the inner cylindrical heater with variable heat flux (less than 140 kW/m 2 ). Heat flux is varied so that two different flow regimes from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling condition are created. Meanwhile, liquid flow rate is changed in the range of 2.5 × 10 −5 –5.8 × 10 −5 m 3 /s to create laminar up to transition flow regimes. Three subcooling levels including 10, 20 and 30 °C are also considered. Experimental results demonstrated that subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient increases when higher heat flux, higher liquid flow rate and greater subcooling level are applied. Furthermore, influence of the operating conditions on the bubbles generation on the heat transfer surface is also discussed. It is also shown that water is better cooling fluid in comparison with n-heptane
Two-phase flow instabilities in a silicon microchannels heat sink
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogojevic, D.; Sefiane, K.; Walton, A.J.; Lin, H.; Cummins, G.
2009-01-01
Two-phase flow instabilities are highly undesirable in microchannels-based heat sinks as they can lead to temperature oscillations with high amplitudes, premature critical heat flux and mechanical vibrations. This work is an experimental study of boiling instabilities in a microchannel silicon heat sink with 40 parallel rectangular microchannels, having a length of 15 mm and a hydraulic diameter of 194 μm. A series of experiments have been carried out to investigate pressure and temperature oscillations during the flow boiling instabilities under uniform heating, using water as a cooling liquid. Thin nickel film thermometers, integrated on the back side of a heat sink with microchannels, were used in order to obtain a better insight related to temperature fluctuations caused by two-phase flow instabilities. Flow regime maps are presented for two inlet water temperatures, showing stable and unstable flow regimes. It was observed that boiling leads to asymmetrical flow distribution within microchannels that result in high temperature non-uniformity and the simultaneously existence of different flow regimes along the transverse direction. Two types of two-phase flow instabilities with appreciable pressure and temperature fluctuations were observed, that depended on the heat to mass flux ratio and inlet water temperature. These were high amplitude/low frequency and low amplitude/high frequency instabilities. High speed camera imaging, performed simultaneously with pressure and temperature measurements, showed that inlet/outlet pressure and the temperature fluctuations existed due to alternation between liquid/two-phase/vapour flows. It was also determined that the inlet water subcooling condition affects the magnitudes of the temperature oscillations in two-phase flow instabilities and flow distribution within the microchannels.
Visualisation of heat transfer in unsteady laminar flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.
2011-01-01
Heat transfer in fluid flows traditionally is examined in terms of temperature fields and heat-transfer coefficients. However, heat transfer may alternatively be considered as the transport of thermal energy by the total convective-conductive heat flux in a way analogous to the transport of fluid by
Critical heat flux of forced flow boiling in a narrow one-side heated rectangular flow channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Limin, Zheng [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Inst., SH (China); Iguchi, Tadashi; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime
1997-08-01
The present work deals with the critical heat flux (CHF) under subcooled flow boiling in a narrow one-side uniformly heated rectangular flow channel. The range of interest of parameters such as pressure, flow velocity and subcooling is around 0.1 MPa, 5-15 ms{sup -1} and 50degC, respectively. The rectangular flow channel used is 50 mm long, 12 mm in width and 0.2 to 3 mm in height. Test conditions were selected by combination of the following parameters: Gap=0.2-3.0 mm (D{sub hy}=0.3934-4.8 mm); flow length, 50.0 mm; water mass flux, 4.94-14.82 Mgm{sup -2}s{sup -1} (water flow velocity, 5-15 ms{sup -1}); exit pressure, 0.1 MPa; inlet temperature, 50degC, inlet coolant subcooling, 50degC. Over 40 CHF stable data points were obtained. CHF increased with the gap and flow velocity in a non-linear fashion. HTC increased with flow velocity and decreasing gap. Based on the experimental results, an empirical correlation was developed, indicating the dependence of CHF on the gap and flow velocity. All of data points predicted within {+-}18% error band for the present experimental data. On the other hand, another similitude-based correlation was also developed, indicating the dependence of Boiling number (Bo) on Reynolds number (Re) and the variable of Gap/La, where La is a characteristic length known as Laplace capillary constant. For the limited present experimental data, all of data points were predicted within {+-}16%. (author)
Critical heat flux of forced flow boiling in a narrow one-side heated rectangular flow channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Limin; Iguchi, Tadashi; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime.
1997-08-01
The present work deals with the critical heat flux (CHF) under subcooled flow boiling in a narrow one-side uniformly heated rectangular flow channel. The range of interest of parameters such as pressure, flow velocity and subcooling is around 0.1 MPa, 5-15 ms -1 and 50degC, respectively. The rectangular flow channel used is 50 mm long, 12 mm in width and 0.2 to 3 mm in height. Test conditions were selected by combination of the following parameters: Gap=0.2-3.0 mm (D hy =0.3934-4.8 mm); flow length, 50.0 mm; water mass flux, 4.94-14.82 Mgm -2 s -1 (water flow velocity, 5-15 ms -1 ); exit pressure, 0.1 MPa; inlet temperature, 50degC, inlet coolant subcooling, 50degC. Over 40 CHF stable data points were obtained. CHF increased with the gap and flow velocity in a non-linear fashion. HTC increased with flow velocity and decreasing gap. Based on the experimental results, an empirical correlation was developed, indicating the dependence of CHF on the gap and flow velocity. All of data points predicted within ±18% error band for the present experimental data. On the other hand, another similitude-based correlation was also developed, indicating the dependence of Boiling number (Bo) on Reynolds number (Re) and the variable of Gap/La, where La is a characteristic length known as Laplace capillary constant. For the limited present experimental data, all of data points were predicted within ±16%. (author)
An experimental and numerical study of a jetfire stop material and a new helical flow heat exchanger
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Austegard, Anders
1997-12-31
This thesis consists of two parts. Part 1: Experimental and numerical study of jetfire stop, and Part 2: Experimental and numerical study of a new kind of shell and tube heat exchanger with helical flow on shell side. Part 1 describes the development of the model for simulation of the temperature development through Viking jetfirestop. A simulation program is developed that calculates the temperature development through Viking jetfire stop. In the development of the model, measurements of reaction energy, pyrolysis and heat conductivity at low temperatures are made. The conductivity at higher temperatures and when pyrolysis reactions are going on is estimated experimentally and by numerical calculations. Full-scale jet fire test and small-scale xenon lamp experiments are made to test the simulation model. Part 2 contains the development of a model that simulate the fluid flow and heat transfer in a helical flow shell and tube heat exchanger. It consists of the development of a porosity model and a model for pressure drop and heat transfer as well as experiments in non-standard tube layouts. Results from the simulation program are compared with experiments on a helical flow shell and tube heat exchanger. There is a separate appendix volume. 62 refs., 152 figs., 22 tabs.
MINET, Transient Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Power Plant Network Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Tuyle, G.J.
2002-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: MINET (Momentum Integral Network) was developed for the transient analysis of intricate fluid flow and heat transfer networks, such as those found in the balance of plant in power generating facilities. It can be utilized as a stand-alone program or interfaced to another computer program for concurrent analysis. Through such coupling, a computer code limited by either the lack of required component models or large computational needs can be extended to more fully represent the thermal hydraulic system thereby reducing the need for estimating essential transient boundary conditions. The MINET representation of a system is one or more networks of volumes, segments, and boundaries linked together via heat exchangers only, i.e., heat can transfer between networks, but fluids cannot. Volumes are used to represent tanks or other volume components, as well as locations in the system where significant flow divisions or combinations occur. Segments are composed of one or more pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, turbines, and/or valves each represented by one or more nodes. Boundaries are simply points where the network interfaces with the user or another computer code. Several fluids can be simulated, including water, sodium, NaK, and air. 2 - Method of solution: MINET is based on a momentum integral network method. Calculations are performed at two levels, the network level (volumes) and the segment level. Equations conserving mass and energy are used to calculate pressure and enthalpy within volumes. An integral momentum equation is used to calculate the segment average flow rate. In-segment distributions of mass flow rate and enthalpy are calculated using local equations of mass and energy. The segment pressure is taken to be the linear average of the pressure at both ends. This method uses a two-plus equation representation of the thermal hydraulic behavior of a system of heat exchangers, pumps, pipes, valves, tanks, etc. With the
A Prototype Flux-Plate Heat-Flow Sensor for Venus Surface Heat-Flow Determinations
Morgan, Paul; Reyes, Celso; Smrekar, Suzanne E.
2005-01-01
Venus is the most Earth-like planet in the Solar System in terms of size, and the densities of the two planets are almost identical when selfcompression of the two planets is taken into account. Venus is the closest planet to Earth, and the simplest interpretation of their similar densities is that their bulk compositions are almost identical. Models of the thermal evolution of Venus predict interior temperatures very similar to those indicated for the regions of Earth subject to solid-state convection, but even global analyses of the coarse Pioneer Venus elevation data suggest Venus does not lose heat by the same primary heat loss mechanism as Earth, i.e., seafloor spreading. The comparative paucity of impact craters on Venus has been interpreted as evidence for relatively recent resurfacing of the planet associated with widespread volcanic and tectonic activity. The difference in the gross tectonic styles of Venus and Earth, and the origins of some of the enigmatic volcano-tectonic features on Venus, such as the coronae, appear to be intrinsically related to Venus heat loss mechanism(s). An important parameter in understanding Venus geological evolution, therefore, is its present surface heat flow. Before the complications of survival in the hostile Venus surface environment were tackled, a prototype fluxplate heat-flow sensor was built and tested for use under synthetic stable terrestrial surface conditions. The design parameters for this prototype were that it should operate on a conforming (sand) surface, with a small, self-contained power and recording system, capable of operating without servicing for at least several days. The precision and accuracy of the system should be < 5 mW/sq m. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars
2014-01-01
We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form −log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ 2 for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation
Flow film boiling heat transfer in water and Freon-113
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Qiusheng; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Sakurai, Akira
2002-01-01
Experimental apparatus and method for film boiling heat transfer measurement on a horizontal cylinder in forced flow of water and Freon-113 under pressurized and subcooled conditions were developed. The experiments of film boiling heat transfer from single horizontal cylinders with diameters ranging from 0.7 to 5 mm in saturated and subcooled water and Freon-113 flowing upward perpendicular to the cylinders were carried out for the flow velocities ranging from 0 to 1 m/s under system pressures ranging from 100 to 500 kPa. Liquid subcoolings ranged from 0 to 50 K, and the cylinder surface superheats were raised up to 800 K for water and 400 K for Freon-113. The film boiling heat transfer coefficients obtained were depended on surface superheats, flow velocities, liquid subcoolings, system pressures and cylinder diameters. The effects of these parameters were systematically investigated under wider ranges of experimental conditions. It was found that the heat transfer coefficients are higher for higher flow velocities, subcoolings, system pressures, and for smaller cylinder diameters. The observation results of film boiling phenomena were obtained by a high-speed video camera. A new correlation for subcooled flow film boiling heat transfer was derived by modifying authors' correlation for saturated flow film boiling heat transfer with authors' experimental data under wide subcooled conditions. (author)
Program Computes Flows Of Fluids And Heat
Cullimore, Brent; Ring, Steven; Welch, Mark
1993-01-01
SINDA'85/FLUINT incorporates lumped-parameter-network and one-dimensional-flow mathematical models. System enables analysis of mutual influences of thermal and flow phenomena. Offers two finite-difference numerical solution techniques: forward-difference explicit approximation and Crank-Nicholson approximation. Enables simulation of nonuniform heating and facilitates mathematical modeling of thin-walled heat exchangers. Ability to model nonequilibrium behavior within two-phase volumes included. Recent changes in program improve modeling of real evaporator pumps and other capillary-assist evaporators. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels
Saha, Sujoy Kumar
2015-01-01
This Brief concerns the important problem of critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.
Flow boiling heat transfer at low liquid Reynolds number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weizhong Zhang; Takashi Hibiki; Kaichiro Mishima
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: In view of the significance of a heat transfer correlation of flow boiling at conditions of low liquid Reynolds number or liquid laminar flow, and very few existing correlations in principle suitable for such flow conditions, this study is aiming at developing a heat transfer correlation of flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions. The obtained results are as follows: 1. A new heat transfer correlation has been developed for saturated flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions based on superimposition of two boiling mechanisms, namely convective boiling and nucleate boiling. In the new correlation, two terms corresponding to the mechanisms of nucleate boiling and convective boiling are obtained from the pool boiling correlation by Forster and Zuber and the analytical annular flow model by Hewitt and Hall-Taylor, respectively. 2. An extensive database was collected for saturated flow boiling heat transfer at low liquid Reynolds number conditions, including data for different channels geometries (circular and rectangular), flow orientations (vertical and horizontal), and working fluids (water, R11, R12, R113). 3. An extensive comparison of the new correlation with the collected database shows that the new correlation works satisfactorily with the mean deviation of 16.6% for saturated flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions. 4. The detailed discussion reveals the similarity of the newly developed correlation for flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number to the Chen correlation for flow boiling at high liquid Reynolds number. The Reynolds number factor F can be analytically deduced in this study. (authors)
Systematic heat flow measurements across the Wagner Basin, northern Gulf of California
Neumann, Florian; Negrete-Aranda, Raquel; Harris, Robert N.; Contreras, Juan; Sclater, John G.; González-Fernández, Antonio
2017-12-01
A primary control on the geodynamics of rifting is the thermal regime. To better understand the geodynamics of rifting in the northern Gulf of California we systematically measured heat-flow across the Wagner Basin, a tectonically active basin that lies near the southern terminus of the Cerro Prieto fault. The heat flow profile is 40 km long, has a nominal measurement spacing of ∼1 km, and is collocated with a seismic reflection profile. Heat flow measurements were made with a 6.5-m violin-bow probe. Although heat flow data were collected in shallow water, where there are significant temporal variations in bottom water temperature, we use CTD data collected over many years to correct our measurements to yield accurate values of heat flow. After correction for bottom water temperature, the mean and standard deviation of heat flow across the western, central, and eastern parts of the basin are 220 ± 60, 99 ± 14, 889 ± 419 mW m-2, respectively. Corrections for sedimentation would increase measured heat flow across the central part of basin by 40 to 60%. We interpret the relatively high heat flow and large variability on the western and eastern flanks in terms of upward fluid flow at depth below the seafloor, whereas the lower and more consistent values across the central part of the basin are suggestive of conductive heat transfer. Moreover, heat flow across the central basin is consistent with gabbroic underplating at a depth of 15 km and suggests that continental rupture here has not gone to completion.
Numerical analysis of thermal response tests with a groundwater flow and heat transfer model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raymond, J.; Therrien, R. [Departement de Geologie et de Genie Ggeologique, Universite Laval, 1065 avenue de la medecine, Quebec (Qc) G1V 0A6 (Canada); Gosselin, L. [Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Laval, 1065 avenue de la medecine, Quebec (Qc) G1V 0A6 (Canada); Lefebvre, R. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Quebec (Qc) G1K 9A9 (Canada)
2011-01-15
The Kelvin line-source equation, used to analyze thermal response tests, describes conductive heat transfer in a homogeneous medium with a constant temperature at infinite boundaries. The equation is based on assumptions that are valid for most ground-coupled heat pump environments with the exception of geological settings where there is significant groundwater flow, heterogeneous distribution of subsurface properties, a high geothermal gradient or significant atmospheric temperature variations. To address these specific cases, an alternative method to analyze thermal response tests was developed. The method consists in estimating parameters by reproducing the output temperature signal recorded during a test with a numerical groundwater flow and heat transfer model. The input temperature signal is specified at the entrance of the ground heat exchanger, where flow and heat transfer are computed in 2D planes representing piping and whose contributions are added to the 3D porous medium. Results obtained with this method are compared to those of the line-source model for a test performed under standard conditions. A second test conducted in waste rock at the South Dump of the Doyon Mine, where conditions deviate from the line-source assumptions, is analyzed with the numerical model. The numerical model improves the representation of the physical processes involved during a thermal response test compared to the line-source equation, without a significant increase in computational time. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta; Sundberg, Anders (GEO INNOVA AB, Linkoeping (Sweden))
2009-06-15
This report presents modelling of temperature and temperature gradients in boreholes in Laxemar and Forsmark and fitting to measured temperature data. The modelling is performed with an analytical expression including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat flow, internal heat generation and climate events in the past. As a result of the fitting procedure it is also possible to evaluate local heat flow values for the two sites. However, since there is no independent evaluation of the heat flow, uncertainties in for example thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the palaeoclimate temperature curve are transferred into uncertainties in the heat flow. Both for Forsmark and Laxemar, reasonably good fits were achieved between models and data on borehole temperatures. However, none of the general models achieved a fit within the 95% confidence intervals of the measurements. This was achieved in some cases for the additional optimised models. Several of the model parameters are uncertain. A good model fit does not automatically imply that 'correct' values have been used for these parameters. Similar model fits can be expected with different sets of parameter values. The palaeoclimatically corrected surface mean heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar is suggested to be 61 and 56 mW/m2 respectively. If all uncertainties are combined, including data uncertainties, the total uncertainty in the heat flow determination is judged to be within +12% to -14% for both sites. The corrections for palaeoclimate are quite large and verify the need of site-specific climate descriptions. Estimations of the current ground surface temperature have been made by extrapolations from measured temperature logging. The mean extrapolated ground surface temperature in Forsmark and Laxemar is estimated to 6.5 deg and 7.3 deg C respectively. This is approximately 1.7 deg C higher for Forsmark, and 1.6 deg C higher for Laxemar compared to data in the report SKB-TR-06-23. Comparison with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta; Sundberg, Anders
2009-05-01
This report presents modelling of temperature and temperature gradients in boreholes in Laxemar and Forsmark and fitting to measured temperature data. The modelling is performed with an analytical expression including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat flow, internal heat generation and climate events in the past. As a result of the fitting procedure it is also possible to evaluate local heat flow values for the two sites. However, since there is no independent evaluation of the heat flow, uncertainties in for example thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the palaeoclimate temperature curve are transferred into uncertainties in the heat flow. Both for Forsmark and Laxemar, reasonably good fits were achieved between models and data on borehole temperatures. However, none of the general models achieved a fit within the 95% confidence intervals of the measurements. This was achieved in some cases for the additional optimised models. Several of the model parameters are uncertain. A good model fit does not automatically imply that 'correct' values have been used for these parameters. Similar model fits can be expected with different sets of parameter values. The palaeoclimatically corrected surface mean heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar is suggested to be 61 and 56 mW/m 2 respectively. If all uncertainties are combined, including data uncertainties, the total uncertainty in the heat flow determination is judged to be within +12% to -14% for both sites. The corrections for palaeoclimate are quite large and verify the need of site-specific climate descriptions. Estimations of the current ground surface temperature have been made by extrapolations from measured temperature logging. The mean extrapolated ground surface temperature in Forsmark and Laxemar is estimated to 6.5 deg and 7.3 deg C respectively. This is approximately 1.7 deg C higher for Forsmark, and 1.6 deg C higher for Laxemar compared to data in the report SKB-TR-06-23. Comparison with air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, H.M.S.
2007-01-01
In this work, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was investigated theoretically and experimentally under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The author's earlier simulation program of wickless heat pipes flat plate solar water heaters was modified to be valid for the present type of wickless heat pipes solar collector by including the solution of the dimensionless governing equations of the present analysis. For verifying the modified simulation program, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was designed, constructed, and tested at different meteorological conditions and operating parameters. These parameters include different cooling water mass flow rates and different inlet cooling water temperatures. The comparison between the experimental results and their corresponding simulated ones showed considerable agreement. Under different climatic conditions, the experimental and theoretical results showed that the optimal mass flow rate is very close to the ASHRAE standard mass flow rate for testing conventional flat plate solar collectors. Also, the experimental and theoretical results indicated that the number of wickless heat pipes has a significant effect on the collector efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezin, A.N.; Grabezhnaya, V.A.; Mikheev, A.S.; Parfenov, A.S.
2014-01-01
The results of the work to determine the heat transfer coefficient in crossflow by lead of pipes are presented. The study was conducted at supercritical pressure in the water circuit. There was a significant inequality in the distribution of the heat flow in different rows of the bundle of heat exchange tubes of corridor location at crossflow their lead. The experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients from the lead differ substantially from those generally accepted recommendations for the calculation of heat transfer at cross flow of rod bundle by liquid metal. The experimental results are close to those obtained earlier on the model with cross flow of heat exchanger tubes bundle by lead alloy with bismuth [ru
Post-Dryout Heat Transfer to a Refrigerant Flowing in Horizontal Evaporator Tubes
Mori, Hideo; Yoshida, Suguru; Kakimoto, Yasushi; Ohishi, Katsumi; Fukuda, Kenichi
Studies of the post-dryout heat transfer were made based on the experimental data for HFC-134a flowing in horizontal smooth and spiral1y grooved (micro-fin) tubes and the characteristics of the post-dryout heat transfer were c1arified. The heat transfer coefficient at medium and high mass flow rates in the smooth tube was lower than the single-phase heat transfer coefficient of the superheated vapor flow, of which mass flow rate was given on the assumption that the flow was in a thermodynamic equilibrium. A prediction method of post-dryout heat transfer coefficient was developed to reproduce the measurement satisfactorily for the smooth tube. The post dryout heat transfer in the micro-fin tube can be regarded approximately as a superheated vapor single-phase heat transfer.
Estimating heat-to-heat variation from a statistician's point of view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hebble, T.L.
1976-01-01
Heat-to-heat variability is the change in results that occurs when the same tests under the same conditions are applied to samples from different heats of the same material. Heat-to-heat variability reflects, among other things, difference in chemistry and in processing history. Published Japanese tensile and creep tests on types 304 and 316 stainless steel tube are used to illustrate the analysis of variance technique as a tool for isolating heat-to-heat variation. The importance of the underlying model and the role of replication are indicated. Finally, confidence intervals and tolerance limits are computed from numerical estimates of heat-to-heat variation. 17 tables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Ruichang; Liu Ruolei; Zhong Yong; Liu Tao
2006-01-01
This paper reports on an experimental study on transitional heat transfer of water flow in a heated vertical tube under natural circulation conditions. In the experiments the local and average heat transfer coefficients were obtained. The experimental data were compared with the predictions by a forced flow correlation available in the literature. The comparisons show that the Nusselt number value in the fully developed region is about 30% lower than the predictions by the forced flow correlation due to flow laminarization in the layer induced by co-current bulk natural circulation and free convection. By using the Rayleigh number Ra to represent the influence of free convection on heat transfer, the empirical correlations for the calculation of local and average heat transfer behavior in the tube at natural circulation have been developed. The empirical correlations are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the experimental results, the effect of the thermal entry-length behavior on heat transfer design in the tube under natural circulation was evaluated
Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus
McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric
2014-06-01
We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.
THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A CROSS-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Tuğrul OĞULATA
1996-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, cross-flow plate type heat exchanger has been investigated because of its effective use in waste heat recovery systems. For this purpose, a heat regain system has been investigated and manufactured in laboratory conditions. Manufactured heat exchanger has been tested with an applicable experimental set up and temperatures, velocity of the air and the pressure losses occuring in the system have been measured and the efficiency of the system has been determined. The irreversibility of heat exchanger has been taken into consideration while the design of heat exchanger is being performed. So minimum entropy generation number has been analysied with respect to second law of thermodynamics in cross-flow heat exchanger. The minimum entropy generation number depends on parameters called optimum flow path length, dimensionless mass velocity and dimensionless heat transfer area. Variations of entropy generation number with these parameters have been analysied and introduced their graphics with their comments.
Heat transfer and flow characteristics on a gas turbine shroud.
Obata, M; Kumada, M; Ijichi, N
2001-05-01
The work described in this paper is an experimental investigation of the heat transfer from the main flow to a turbine shroud surface, which may be applicable to ceramic gas turbines. Three kinds of turbine shrouds are considered with a flat surface, a taper surface and a spiral groove surface opposite to the blades in an axial flow turbine of actual turbo-charger. Heat transfer measurements were performed for the experimental conditions of a uniform heat flux or a uniform wall temperature. The effects of the inlet flow angle, rotational speed, and tip clearance on the heat transfer coefficient were clarified under on- and off-design flow conditions. The mean heat transfer coefficient was correlated to the blade Reynolds number and tip clearance, and compared with an experimental correlation and measurements of a flat surface. A comparison was also made for the measurement of static pressure distributions.
Experimental investigation on Heat Transfer Performance of Annular Flow Path Heat Pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, In Guk; Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol
2015-01-01
Mochizuki et al. was suggested the passive cooling system to spent nuclear fuel pool. Detail analysis of various heat pipe design cases was studied to determine the heat pipes cooling performance. Wang et al. suggested the concept PRHRS of MSR using sodium heat pipes, and the transient performance of high temperature sodium heat pipe was numerically simulated in the case of MSR accident. The meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants alarmed to the dangers of station blackout (SBO) accident. After the SBO accident, passive decay heat removal systems have been investigated to prevent the severe accidents. Mochizuki et al. suggested the heat pipes cooling system using loop heat pipes for decay heat removal cooling and analysis of heat pipe thermal resistance for boiling water reactor (BWR). The decay heat removal systems for pressurized water reactor (PWR) were suggested using natural convection mechanisms and modification of PWR design. Our group suggested the concept of a hybrid heat pipe with control rod as Passive IN-core Cooling System (PINCs) for decay heat removal for advanced nuclear power plant. Hybrid heat pipe is the combination of the heat pipe and control rod. In the present research, the main objective is to investigate the effect of the inner structure to the heat transfer performance of heat pipe containing neutron absorber material, B 4 C. The main objective is to investigate the effect of the inner structure in heat pipe to the heat transfer performance with annular flow path. ABS pellet was used instead of B 4 C pellet as cylindrical structures. The thermal performances of each heat pipes were measured experimentally. Among them, concentric heat pipe showed the best performance compared with others. 1. Annular evaporation section heat pipe and annular flow path heat pipe showed heat transfer degradation. 2. AHP also had annular vapor space and contact cooling surface per unit volume of vapor was increased. Heat transfer coefficient of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, S.-O.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.-J.
2002-01-01
A CANDU reactor has the unique features and the intrinsic safety related characteristics that distinguish it from other water-cooled thermal reactors. If there is the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and a coincident failure of the emergency coolant injection (ECI) system, the heavy water moderator is continuously cooled, providing a heat sink for decay heat produced in the fuel. Therefore, it is one of major concerns to estimate the local subcooling of moderator inside the calandria vessel under postulated accident in CANDU safety analyses. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), a regulatory body in Canada, categorized the integrity of moderator as a generic safety issue and recommended that a series of experimental works be performed to verify the safety evaluation codes for individual simulated condition of nuclear power plant, comparing with the results of three-dimensional experimental data. In this study, three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer have been performed to assess thermal-hydraulic characteristics for moderator simulation conducted by SPEL (Sheridan Park Experimental Laboratory) experimental facility. The parametric study has also carried out to investigate the effect of major parameters such as flowrate, temperature, and heat load generated from the heaters on the temperature and flow distribution inside the moderator. Three flow patterns have been identified in the moderator with flowrate, heat generation, or both. As the transition of fluid flow is progressed, it is found that the dimensionless numbers (Ar) and the ratio of buoyancy to inertia forces are constant. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seong-Jin Kim; Goon-Cherl Park
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Models or correlations for phase interface are needed to analyze the multi-phase flow. Interfacial heat transfer coefficients are important to constitute energy equation of multi-phase flow, specially. In subcooled boiling flow, bubble condensation at the bubble-liquid interface is a major mechanism of heat transfer within bulk subcooled liquid. Bubble collapse rates and temperatures of each phase are needed to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for bubble condensation. Bubble collapse rates were calculated through image processing in single direction, generally. And in case of liquid bulk temperature, which has been obtained by general temperature sensor such as thermocouple, was used. However, multi-directional images are needed to analyze images due to limitations of single directional image processing. Also, temperature sensor, which has a fast response time, must be used to obtain more accurate interfacial heat transfer coefficient. Low pressure subcooled water flow experiments using micro-thermocouple and double directional image processing with mirrors were conducted to investigate bubble condensation phenomena and to modify interfacial heat transfer correlation. Experiments were performed in a vertical subcooled boiling flow of a rectangular channel. Bubble condensing traces with respect to time were recorded by high speed camera in double direction and bubble collapse rates were calculated by processing recorded digital images. Temperatures were measured by micro-thermocouple, which is a K-type with a 12.7 μm diameter. The liquid temperature was estimated by the developed algorithm to discriminate phases and find each phase temperature in the measured temperature including both liquid and bubble temperature. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient for bubble condensation was calculated from the bubble collapse rates and the estimated liquid temperature, and its correlation was modified. The modified
Prediction of strongly-heated internal gas flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McEligot, D.M.; Shehata, A.M.; Kunugi, Tomoaki
1997-01-01
The purposes of the present article are to remind practitioners why the usual textbook approaches may not be appropriate for treating gas flows heated from the surface with large heat fluxes and to review the successes of some recent applications of turbulence models to this case. Simulations from various turbulence models have been assessed by comparison to the measurements of internal mean velocity and temperature distributions by Shehata for turbulent, laminarizing and intermediate flows with significant gas property variation. Of about fifteen models considered, five were judged to provide adequate predictions
Local heat transfer where heated rods touch in axially flowing water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kast, S.J.
1983-05-01
An anlaytic model is developed to predict the azimuthal width of a stablesteam blanket region near the line of contact between two heated rods cooled by axially flowing water at high pressure. The model is intended to aid analysis of reduced surface heat transfer capability for the abnormal configuration of nuclear fuel rods bowed into contact in the core of a pressurized water nuclear reactor. The analytic model predicts the azimuthal width of the steam blanket zone having reduced surface heat transfer as a function of rod average heat flux, subchannel coolant conditions and rod dimensions. The analytic model is developed from a heat balance between the heat generated in the wall of a heated empty tube and the heat transported away by transverse mixing and axial convection in the coolant subchannel. The model is developed for seveal geometries including heated rods in line contact, a heated rod touching a short insulating plane and a heated rod touching the inside of a metal guide tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angadi, S.V.; Cutforth, H.W.; McConkey, B.G.
2003-01-01
Sap flow gauges using a heat balance have been reliable for measuring real-time transpiration in a number of crops. However, information on the accuracy of sap flow gauges in canola is lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted to validate the sap flow system in canola and to observe sap flow response to variations in temperature and solar radiation. There were strong relationships between sap flow measured with sap flow gauges and actual transpiration measured by the gravimetric method over short periods of 1 h (r 2 = 0.93 and RMSE = 2.34 g h -1 ), and over longer periods of 1 d (r 2 0.83 and RMSE = 48 g d -1 ), although sap flow slightly overestimated transpiration. In both cases the slope was not significantly different from 1. Water use in canola, estimated with sap flow gauges or from actual transpiration measurement, was dependent upon temperature (r 2 = 0.94 to 0.96). Water use increased until daytime temperatures reached 36 o C, after which water use decreased. Sap flow followed solar radiation trends in the field. Heat is lost or dissipated from the gauges convectively as the sap flows through the stem, conductively through the solid stem material, and radially into the surrounding air. As the convective proportion of the heat loss from the gauge increased, the accuracy of the water use estimation using the sap flow gauges increased. For sunny days, convective heat loss through sap flow accounted for a major portion of the total heat input to the gauges, while on cloudy days radial heat loss from the gauges accounted for a, major portion of the heat input. Thus, at low sap flow rates during cloudy days, the possibility of error in the sap flow system was high. Overall, sap flow in canola was strongly related to daily solar radiation (r 2 = 0.92). The sensitive response to weather variations and the possibility of improving the accuracy at high flow rates in the field makes the use of sap flow gauges a viable option for measuring real-time transpiration in
Estimating Nitrogen Availability of Heat-Dried Bio solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cogger, C.G.; Bary, A.I.; Myhre, E.A.
2011-01-01
As heat-dried bio solids become more widely produced and marketed, it is important to improve estimates of N availability from these materials. Objectives were to compare plant-available N among three different heat-dried bio solids and determine if current guidelines were adequate for estimating application rates. Heat-dried bio solids were surface applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in Washington State, USA, and forage yield and N uptake measured for two growing seasons following application. Three rates of urea and a zero-N control were used to calculate N fertilizer efficiency regressions. Application year plant-available N (estimated as urea N equivalent) for two bio solids exceeded 60% of total N applied, while urea N equivalent for the third bio solids was 45%. Residual (second-year) urea N equivalent ranged from 5 to 10%. Guidelines for the Pacific Northwest USA recommend mineralization estimates of 35 to 40% for heat-dried bio solids, but this research shows that some heat-dried materials fall well above that range.
Heat transfer in intermediate heat exchanger under low flow rate conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mochizuki, H.
2008-01-01
The present paper describes the heat transfer in intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) of liquid metal cooled fast reactors when flow rate is low such as a natural circulation condition. Although empirical correlations of heat transfer coefficients for IHX were derived using test data at the fast reactor 'Monju' and 'Joyo' and also at the 50 MW steam generator facility, the heat transfer coefficient was very low compared to the well known correlation for liquid metals proposed by Seban-Shimazaki. The heat conduction in IHX was discussed as a possible cause of the low Nusselt number. As a result, the heat conduction is not significant under the natural circulation condition, and the heat conduction term in the energy equation can be neglected in the one-dimensional plant dynamics calculation. (authors)
Lunar Heat Flow Probe, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To accurately determine endogenic heat flow, both thermal gradient and thermal conductivity measurements are needed. The thermal gradient measurement can be achieved...
Analysis of the one-dimensional transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes
Jang, Jong H.; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won S.
1991-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds as well as high mass flow rates are successfully predicted.
Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications
Becker, Sid
2015-01-01
Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...
Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column
Liu, Chong
2017-10-01
Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.
On the calculation of dynamic and heat loads on a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow
Bocharov, A. N.; Bityurin, V. A.; Evstigneev, N. M.; Fortov, V. E.; Golovin, N. N.; Petrovskiy, V. P.; Ryabkov, O. I.; Teplyakov, I. O.; Shustov, A. A.; Solomonov, Yu S.
2018-01-01
We consider a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow at zero angle of attack. Our aim is to estimate heat and aerodynamic loads on specific body elements. We are considering a previously developed code to solve coupled heat- and mass-transfer problem. The change of the surface shape is taken into account by formation of the iterative process for the wall material ablation. The solution is conducted on the multi-graphics-processing-unit (multi-GPU) cluster. Five Mach number points are considered, namely for M = 20-28. For each point we estimate body shape after surface ablation, heat loads on the surface and aerodynamic loads on the whole body and its elements. The latter is done using Gauss-type quadrature on the surface of the body. The comparison of the results for different Mach numbers is performed. We also estimate the efficiency of the Navier-Stokes code on multi-GPU and central processing unit architecture for the coupled heat and mass transfer problem.
Powell, William G.; Chapman, David S.
1990-05-01
A detailed heat flow study has been conducted at a site in the southern Wasatch Mountains, Utah, in the thermal transition between the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range tectonic provinces of the western U.S.A. Two wells, 600 m deep and only 400 m apart, in rugged terrain provided constraints on topographic and microclimatic effects and helped demonstrate the efficacy but also some inadequacies of commonly used heat flow corrections. Microclimatic effects changed the subsurface thermal gradients by up to 6%; atmospheric temperature lapse, insolation and vegetation all contribute about equally to the subsurface effects. The topographic disturbance decreased gradients by as much as 25%. Paleoclimate effects may decrease the heat flow by 7%, but the local paleoclimate is not well constrained and this value is uncertain. The rate of erosion in the Wasatch Mountains is also very poorly known, but is an important influence on the borehole temperature measurements. For reasonable bounds on the erosion rate of 0.1-1.0 mm y -1, acting over the past 10-20 My, the erosional history of the Wasatch Mountains contributes from 10% to 50% of the observed heat flow; lower values are more probable. The heat flow at Fifth Water is greater than 90 mW m -2, and possibly as high as 210 mW m -2, depending upon the paleoclimatic and erosional scenarios assumed. Our preferred value of corrected heat flow is 150 ± 10 mWm -2. This value is significantly higher than nearby heat flow determinations in both the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range provinces, although well within the range of all Basin and Range heat flow estimates. Cooling of magma bodies in the upper crust and upwelling groundwater are unlikely mechanisms for the elevated heat flow at this site.
Shit, G. C.; Mondal, A.; Sinha, A.; Kundu, P. K.
2016-11-01
A mathematical model has been developed for studying the electro-osmotic flow and heat transfer of bio-fluids in a micro-channel in the presence of Joule heating effects. The flow of bio-fluid is governed by the non-Newtonian power-law fluid model. The effects of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been examined in the case of hydrophobic channel. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation governing the electrical double layer field and a body force generated by the applied electric potential field are taken into consideration. The results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the channel is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the Stern and diffuse layers. The expressions for flow characteristics such as velocity, temperature, shear stress and Nusselt number have been derived analytically under the purview of the present model. The results estimated on the basis of the data available in the existing scientific literatures are presented graphically. The effects of thermal radiation have an important bearing on the therapeutic procedure of hyperthermia, particularly in understanding the heat transfer in micro-channel in the presence of electric potential. The dimensionless Joule heating parameter has a reducing impact on Nusselt number for both pseudo-plastic and dilatant fluids, nevertheless its impact on Nusselt number is more pronounced for dilatant fluid. Furthermore, the effect of viscous dissipation has a significant role in controlling heat transfer and should not be neglected.
Yamano, M.; Kawada, Y.; Gao, X.
2016-12-01
Surface heat flow observed on the floor of the Nankai Trough, near the trench axis, is highly variable and does not well correspond to the seafloor age of the incoming Philippine Sea plate (Shikoku Basin). Recent detailed measurements between 133.5°E and 137°E revealed that heat flow on the trough floor significantly varies along the trough. The most conspicuous variation is found around 136°E. Heat flow is extremely high and variable between 135°E and 136°E, much higher than the value estimated from the age. On the east of 136°E, heat flow gradually decreases eastward over 50 km to the value nearly consistent with the age with no appreciable scatter. Elevated heat flow on the trough floor can be attributed to vigorous fluid circulation in a permeable layer (aquifer) in the subducted oceanic crust, which efficiently transports heat upward along the plate interface (Spinelli and Wang, 2008). The heat flow variation around 136°E may therefore arise from variation in the permeability structure of the crustal aquifer. A probable cause of the heterogeneity in the aquifer permeability is a structure boundary in the incoming Shikoku Basin, the boundary between the younger part on the west formed by spreading in NE-SW direction and the older part on the east formed by E-W spreading. It is located around 136°E, about the same place as the heat flow distribution boundary. A possible additional source of variation in the permeability structure is the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. A prominent bend in the subducted plate between 135°E and 136°E, which corresponds to the high heat flow area on the trough floor, may have fractured the oceanic crust and enhanced the aquifer permeability. We evaluated the influence of variations in the aquifer permeability on the thermal structure through 3D numerical modelling using a high thermal-conductivity proxy for heat transport by fluid flow. A sharp along-strike change in the permeability of the subducted
Thandlam, Anil Kumar; Das, Chiranjib; Majumder, Subrata Kumar
2017-04-01
Investigation of wall-liquid mass transfer and heat transfer phenomena with gas-Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in vertically helical coil reactor have been reported in this article. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various dynamic and geometric parameters on mass and heat transfer coefficients in the helical coil reactor. The flow pattern-based heat and mass transfer phenomena in the helical coil reactor are highlighted at different operating conditions. The study covered a wide range of geometric parameters such as diameter of the tube ( d t ), diameter of the coil ( D c ), diameter of the particle ( d p ), pitch difference ( p/D c ) and concentrations of non-Newtonian liquid. The correlation models for the heat and mass transfer coefficient based on the flow pattern are developed which may be useful in process scale-up of the helical coil reactor for industrial application. The frictional drag coefficient was also estimated and analyzed by mass transfer phenomena based on the electrochemical method.
Modeling of a District Heating System and Optimal Heat-Power Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wentao Yang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available With ever-growing interconnections of various kinds of energy sources, the coupling between a power distribution system (PDS and a district heating system (DHS has been progressively intensified. Thus, it is becoming more and more important to take the PDS and the DHS as a whole in energy flow analysis. Given this background, a steady state model of DHS is first presented with hydraulic and thermal sub-models included. Structurally, the presented DHS model is composed of three major parts, i.e., the straight pipe, four kinds of local pipes, and the radiator. The impacts of pipeline parameters and the environment temperature on heat losses and pressure losses are then examined. The term “heat-power flow” is next defined, and the optimal heat-power flow (OHPF model formulated as a quadratic planning problem, in which the objective is to minimize energy losses, including the heat losses and active power losses, and both the operational constraints of PDS and DHS are respected. The developed OHPF model is solved by the well-established IPOPT (Interior Point OPTimizer commercial solver, which is based on the YALMIP/MATLAB toolbox. Finally, two sample systems are served for demonstrating the characteristics of the proposed models.
Thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter
Pawlowski, Eligiusz
2016-11-01
This paper presents new type of thermal flow converter with the pulse frequency output. The integrating properties of the temperature sensor have been used, which allowed for realization of pulse frequency modulator with thermal feedback loop, stabilizing temperature of sensor placed in the flowing medium. The system assures balancing of heat amount supplied in impulses to the sensor and heat given up by the sensor in a continuous way to the flowing medium. Therefore the frequency of output impulses is proportional to the heat transfer coefficient from sensor to environment. According to the King's law, the frequency of those impulses is a function of medium flow velocity around the sensor. The special feature of presented solution is total integration of thermal sensor with the measurement signal conditioning system. Sensor and conditioning system are not the separate elements of the measurement circuit, but constitute a whole in form of thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter. The advantage of such system is easiness of converting the frequency signal to the digital form, without using any additional analogue-to-digital converters. The frequency signal from the converter may be directly connected to the microprocessor input, which with use of standard built-in counters may convert the frequency into numerical value of high precision. Moreover, the frequency signal has higher resistance to interference than the voltage signal and may be transmitted to remote locations without the information loss.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabanskis A.
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.
Ocular blood flow decreases during passive heat stress in resting humans.
Ikemura, Tsukasa; Miyaji, Akane; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hayashi, Naoyuki
2013-12-06
Heat stress induces various physiological changes and so could influence ocular circulation. This study examined the effect of heat stress on ocular blood flow. Ocular blood flow, end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO2) and blood pressure were measured for 12 healthy subjects wearing water-perfused tube-lined suits under two conditions of water circulation: (1) at 35 °C (normothermia) for 30 min and (2) at 50 °C for 90 min (passive heat stress). The blood-flow velocities in the superior temporal retinal arteriole (STRA), superior nasal retinal arteriole (SNRA), and the retinal and choroidal vessels (RCV) were measured using laser-speckle flowgraphy. Blood flow in the STRA and SNRA was calculated from the integral of a cross-sectional map of blood velocity. PETCO2 was clamped at the normothermia level by adding 5% CO2 to the inspired gas. Passive heat stress had no effect on the subjects' blood pressures. The blood-flow velocity in the RCV was significantly lower after 30, 60 and 90 min of passive heat stress than the normothermic level, with a peak decrease of 18 ± 3% (mean ± SE) at 90 min. Blood flow in the STRA and SNRA decreased significantly after 90 min of passive heat stress conditions, with peak decreases of 14 ± 3% and 14 ± 4%, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that passive heat stress decreases ocular blood flow irrespective of the blood pressure or arterial partial pressure of CO2.
Heat flow in the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Mariana arc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamazaki, T. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))
1992-04-27
New heat flow data of 218 points obtained from 1984 to 1989 in the Izu-Ogasawara(Bonin)-Mariana Arc and their interpretation are presented. The purpose of the measurements is to evaluate the potential of hydrothermal activity and to increase an understanding of the tectonics in this region. The Sumisu Rift shows high and variable heat flow values, which suggests the existence of hydrothermal circulation. The Nishinoshima Trough is bounded on the west by a steep fault scarp, and heat flow is higher in the trough than to the west of the scarp. This contrast was considered to reflect difference in crustal thickness caused by old rifting. Local high heat flow associated with an intrusive body is found in the trough. The Mariana Trough north of 22{degree}N, which is currently in a rifting stage, shows thermal asymmetry. In the Mariana Trough south of 22{degree}N, which has developed to a spreading stage, anomalous temperature profiles suggesting hydrothermal circulation are found near the spreading centers. 44 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
The effect of buoyancy on flow and heat transfer in curved pipes
Mochizuki, Munekazu; Ishigaki, Hiroshi; 望月 宗和; 石垣 博
1994-01-01
Fully developed laminar flow in a heated horizontal curved pipe is studied numerically. The thermal boundary conditions at the wall are uniform wall heat flux axially and uniform wall temperature peripherally. Flow and heat transfer are governed by Dean number, Prandtl number and buoyancy number. Detailed prediction of the friction factor, average heat transfer rate, velocity profile, temperature profile and secondary-flow streamlines are given.
Heat transfer to a particle exposed to a rarefield ionized-gas flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, X.; He, P.
1986-01-01
Analytical results are presented concerning the heat transfer to a spherical particle exposed to a high temperature, ionized- gas flow for the extreme case of free-molecule flow regime. It has been shown that the presence of relative velocity between the particle and the ionized gas reduces the floating potential on the particle, enhances the heat flux and causes appreciably non-uniform distribution of the local heat flux. Pronounced difference is found between metallic and non-metallic particles in the floating potential and the local heat flux distributions, in particular for the case with high gas-flow temperature. Relative contribution of atoms to the total heat flux is dominant for the case of low gas-flow temperature, while the heat flux is mainly caused by ions and electrons for the case of high gas-flow temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Seok Pil; Kim, Sung Jin; Choi, Do Hyung
2000-01-01
As a mass flow controller is widely used in many manufacturing processes for controlling a mass flow rate of gas with accuracy of 1%, several investigators have tried to describe the heat transfer phenomena in a sensor tube of an MFC. They suggested a few analytic solutions and numerical models based on simple assumptions, which are physically unrealistic. In the present work, the heat transfer phenomena in the sensor tube of the MFC are studied by using both experimental and numerical methods. The numerical model is introduced to estimate the temperature profile in the sensor tube as well as in the gas stream. In the numerical model, the conjugate heat transfer problem comprising the tube wall and the gas stream is analyzed to fully understand the heat transfer interaction between the sensor tube and the fluid stream using a single domain approach. This numerical model is further verified by experimental investigation. In order to describe the transport of heat energy in both the flow region and the sensor tube, the Nusselt number at the interface between the tube wall and the gas stream as well as heatlines is presented from the numerical solution
An experimental study on micro-scale flow boiling heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tibirica, Cristiano Bigonha; Ribatski, Gherhardt
2009-01-01
In this paper, new experimental flow boiling heat transfer results in micro-scale tubes are presented. The experimental data were obtained in a horizontal 2.32 mm I.D. stainless steel tube with heating length of 464 mm, R134a as working fluid, mass velocities ranging from 50 to 600 kg/m 2 s, heat flux from 5 to 55 kW/m 2 , exit saturation temperatures of 22, 31 and 41 deg C, and vapor qualities from 0.05 to 0.98. Flow pattern characterization was also performed from images obtained by high speed filming. Heat transfer coefficient results from 2 to 14 kW/m 2 K were measured. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient is a strong function of the saturation pressure, heat flux, mass velocity and vapor quality. The experimental data were compared against the following micro-scale flow boiling predictive methods from the literature: Saitoh et al., Kandlikar, Zhang et al. and Thome et al. Comparisons against these methods based on the data segregated according to flow patterns were also performed. Though not satisfactory, Saitoh et al. worked the best and was able of capturing most of the experimental heat transfer trends. (author)
An experimental study on micro-scale flow boiling heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tibirica, Cristiano Bigonha; Ribatski, Gherhardt [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica
2009-07-01
In this paper, new experimental flow boiling heat transfer results in micro-scale tubes are presented. The experimental data were obtained in a horizontal 2.32 mm I.D. stainless steel tube with heating length of 464 mm, R134a as working fluid, mass velocities ranging from 50 to 600 kg/m{sup 2}s, heat flux from 5 to 55 kW/m{sup 2}, exit saturation temperatures of 22, 31 and 41 deg C, and vapor qualities from 0.05 to 0.98. Flow pattern characterization was also performed from images obtained by high speed filming. Heat transfer coefficient results from 2 to 14 kW/m{sup 2}K were measured. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient is a strong function of the saturation pressure, heat flux, mass velocity and vapor quality. The experimental data were compared against the following micro-scale flow boiling predictive methods from the literature: Saitoh et al., Kandlikar, Zhang et al. and Thome et al. Comparisons against these methods based on the data segregated according to flow patterns were also performed. Though not satisfactory, Saitoh et al. worked the best and was able of capturing most of the experimental heat transfer trends. (author)
Stretched flow of Oldroyd-B fluid with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hayat
Full Text Available The objective of present attempt is to analyse the flow and heat transfer in the flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a non-linear stretching sheet having variable thickness. Characteristics of heat transfer are analyzed with temperature dependent thermal conductivity and heat source/sink. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is considered rather than Fourier’s law of heat conduction in the present flow analysis. Thermal conductivity varies with temperature. Resulting partial differential equations through laws of conservation of mass, linear momentum and energy are converted into ordinary differential equations by suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions for the velocity and temperature distributions are developed and discussed. Keywords: Oldroyd-B fluid, Variable sheet thickness, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model, Heat source/sink, Temperature dependent thermal conductivity
Fluid flow and heat transfer in rotating porous media
Vadasz, Peter
2016-01-01
This Book concentrates the available knowledge on rotating fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media in one single reference. Dr. Vadasz develops the fundamental theory of rotating flow and heat transfer in porous media and introduces systematic classification and identification of the relevant problems. An initial distinction between rotating flows in isothermal heterogeneous porous systems and natural convection in homogeneous non-‐isothermal porous systems provides the two major classes of problems to be considered. A few examples of solutions to selected problems are presented, highlighting the significant impact of rotation on the flow in porous media.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anne Trehu; Peter Kannberg
2011-06-30
The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m{sup 2}). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that {approx}50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a 'toe-thrust' ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trehu, Anne; Kannberg, Peter
2011-06-30
The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m2). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that ~50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a "toe-thrust" ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sung Joong; McKrell, Tom; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu Linwen
2010-01-01
A nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-scale particles in water, or other base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve the critical heat flux (CHF) by as much as 200%. In a previous paper, we reported on subcooled flow boiling CHF experiments with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤0.1% by volume) at atmospheric pressure, which revealed a substantial CHF enhancement (∼40-50%) at the highest mass flux (G = 2500 kg/m 2 s) and concentration (0.1 vol.%) for all nanoparticle materials (). In this paper, we focus on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient data collected in the same tests. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient are similar (within ±20%). The heat transfer coefficient increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. A confocal microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticle deposition on the boiling surface occurred during nanofluid boiling. Such deposition changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also changes the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site density changes, but no definitive correlation between the nucleation site density and the heat transfer coefficient data could be found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Junfeng; Huang Yanping; Wang Yanlin; Song Mingliang
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Flow regimes were visually investigated in a heated narrow rectangular channel. ► Bubbly, churn, and annular flow were observed. Slug flow was never observed. ► Flow regime transition boundary could be predicted by existing criteria. ► Churn zone in present flow regime maps were poorly predicted by existing criteria. - Abstract: Flow regimes are very important in understanding two-phase flow resistance and heat transfer characteristics. In present work, two-phase flow regimes for steam–water flows in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel, having a width of 40 mm and a gap of 3 mm, were visually studied at relatively low pressure and low mass flux condition. The flow regimes observed in this experiment could be classified into bubbly, churn and annular flow. Slug flow was never observed at any of the conditions in our experiment. Flow regime maps at the pressure of 0.7 MPa and 1.0 MPa were developed, and then the pressure effect on flow regime transition was analyzed. Based on the experimental results, the comparisons with some existing flow regime maps and transition criteria were conducted. The comparison results show that the bubbly transition boundary and annular formation boundary of heated steam–water flow were consistent with that of adiabatic air–water flow. However, the intermediate flow pattern between bubbly and annular flow was different. Hibiki and Mishima criteria could predict the bubbly transition boundary and annular formation boundary satisfactorily, but it poorly predicted churn zone in present experimental data.
Turbulence modeling and surface heat transfer in a stagnation flow region
Wang, C. R.; Yeh, F. C.
1987-01-01
Analysis for the turbulent flow field and the effect of freestream turbulence on the surface heat transfer rate of a stagnation flow is presented. The emphasis is on modeling and its augmentation of surface heat transfer rate. The flow field considered is the region near the forward stagnation point of a circular cylinder in a uniform turbulent mean flow.
Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume
Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing
2016-04-01
It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.
Experimental study of supercritical water flow and heat transfer in vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hongbo; Yang Jue; Lu Donghua; Gu Hanyang; Zhao Meng
2012-01-01
The experiment of flow and heat transfer of supercritical water has been performed on the supercritical water multipurpose test loop co-constructed by China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group and Shanghai Jiao Tong University with a 7.6 mm vertical tube. Heat transfer experimental data is obtained. The results of experimental research of thermal-hydraulic parameters on flow and heat transfer of supercritical water show that: (1) Heat transfer enhancement occurs when the bulk temperature reaches pseudo-critical point with low mass flow velocity; (2) The heat transfer co- efficient and Nusselt number are decreased with the increasing of heat flux; (3) The wall temperature is decreased, but the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number are increased with the increasing of mass flow velocity; (4) The wall temperature is increased, but the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number are decreased with the increasing of sys- tem pressure. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hayat
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Here modeling and computations are presented to introduce the novel concept of Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Bidirectional stretching surface induces the flow. Darcy’s law is commonly replace by Forchheimer relation. Xue model is implemented for nonliquid transport mechanism. Nonlinear formulation based upon conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is first modeled and then solved by optimal homotopy analysis technique. Optimal estimations of auxiliary variables are obtained. Importance of influential variables on the velocity and thermal fields is interpreted graphically. Moreover velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed. Physical interpretation of influential variables is examined. Keywords: Porous medium, Heat generation/absorption, SWCNTs and MWCNTs, Nonlinear radiation
Experimental determination of heat transfer in a Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flow
Taher, R.; Abid, C.
2018-05-01
This paper deals with an experimental study of heat transfer in a Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flow. This situation corresponds to a mixed convection phenomenon in a horizontal rectangular channel uniformly heated from below. Flow visualisation and temperature measurements were achieved in order to describe the flow regimes and heat transfer behaviour. The classical measurement techniques such employing thermocouples give local measurement on one hand and on other hand they often disturb the flow. As the flow is three-dimensional, these techniques are not efficient. In order to not disturb the flow, a non-intrusive method is used for thermal measurement. The Planar laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) was implemented to determine thermal fields in the fluid. Experiments conducted for various Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers allow to determine the heat transfer and thus to propose correlation for Nusselt number for a mixed convection flow in Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard configuration. First a description of the use of this technique in water flow is presented and then the obtained results for various Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers allow to propose a correlation for the Nusselt number for such configuration of mixed convection. The comparison between the obtained heat transfer and the pure forced convection one confirms the well-known result that the convective heat transfer is greatly enhanced in mixed convection. Indeed, secondary flow induced by buoyant forces contributes to the refreshment of thermal boundary layers and so acts like mixers, which significantly enhances heat transfer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ranganayakulu, C. [Aeronautical Development Agency, Bangalore (India); Seetharamu, K.N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Southern Malaysia (KCP), Tronoh (Malaysia)
2000-05-01
An analysis of a crossflow plate-fin compact heat exchanger, accounting for the combined effect of two-dimensional longitudinal heat conduction through the exchanger wall and nonuniform inlet fluid flow distribution on both hot and cold fluid sides is carried out using a finite element method. Using the fluid flow maldistribution models, the exchanger effectiveness and its deterioration due to the combined effects of longitudinal heat conduction and flow nonuniformity are calculated for various design and operating conditions of the exchanger. It was found that the performance deteriorations are quite significant in some typical applications due to the combined effects of wall longitudinal heat conduction and inlet fluid flow nonuniformity on crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger. (orig.)
Laminar fluid flow and heat transfer in a fin-tube heat exchanger with vortex generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanagihara, J.I.; Rodriques, R. Jr. [Polytechnic School of Univ. of Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-12-31
Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for fin-tube heat exchangers has great importance in industry. In recent years, heat transfer augmentation by vortex generators has been considered for use in plate fin-tube heat exchangers. The present work describes a numerical investigation about the influence of delta winglet pairs of vortex generators on the flow structure and heat transfer of a plate fin-tube channel. The Navier-Stokes and Energy equations are solved by the finite volume method using a boundary-fitted coordinate system. The influence of vortex generators parameters such as position, angle of attack and aspect ratio were investigated. Local and global influences of vortex generators in heat transfer and flow losses were analyzed by comparison with a model using smooth fin. The results indicate great advantages of this type of geometry for application in plate fin-tube heat exchangers, in terms of large heat transfer enhancement and small pressure loss penalty. (author)
Laminar fluid flow and heat transfer in a fin-tube heat exchanger with vortex generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanagihara, J I; Rodriques, R Jr [Polytechnic School of Univ. of Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1997-12-31
Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for fin-tube heat exchangers has great importance in industry. In recent years, heat transfer augmentation by vortex generators has been considered for use in plate fin-tube heat exchangers. The present work describes a numerical investigation about the influence of delta winglet pairs of vortex generators on the flow structure and heat transfer of a plate fin-tube channel. The Navier-Stokes and Energy equations are solved by the finite volume method using a boundary-fitted coordinate system. The influence of vortex generators parameters such as position, angle of attack and aspect ratio were investigated. Local and global influences of vortex generators in heat transfer and flow losses were analyzed by comparison with a model using smooth fin. The results indicate great advantages of this type of geometry for application in plate fin-tube heat exchangers, in terms of large heat transfer enhancement and small pressure loss penalty. (author)
Ice slurry flow and heat transfer during flow through tubes of rectangular and slit cross-sections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niezgoda-Żelasko Beata
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry during its flow through tubes of rectangular and slit cross-sections. Moreover, the work discusses the influence of solid particles, type of motion and cross-section on the changes in the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The analysis presented in the paper allows for identification of the criterial relations used to calculate the Fanning factor and the Nusselt number for laminar and turbulent flow, taking into account elements such as phase change, which accompanies the heat transfer process. Ice slurry flow is treated as a generalized flow of a non-Newtonian fluid.
Heat transfer to air-water two-phase flow in slug/churn region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadekar, V.V.; Tuzla, K.; Chen, J.C.
1996-01-01
Measured heat transfer data for air-water two-phase flow in the slug/churn flow region are reported. The measurements were obtained from a 1.3 m tall, 15.7 mm diameter vertical tube test-section. It is observed that the data exhibit different heat transfer characteristics to those predicted by the standard correlations for the convective component of flow boiling heat transfer. Comparison with the predictions of a slug flow model for evaporation shows a significant overprediction of the data. The reason for the overprediction is attributed to the sensible heating requirement of the gas phase. The slug flow model is therefore suitably modified for non-evaporating two-phase flow. This specially adapted model is found to give reasonably good predictions of the measured data
Analysis of counter flow of corona wind for heat transfer enhancement
Shin, Dong Ho; Baek, Soo Hong; Ko, Han Seo
2018-03-01
A heat sink for cooling devices using the counter flow of a corona wind was developed in this study. Detailed information about the numerical investigations of forced convection using the corona wind was presented. The fins of the heat sink using the counter flow of a corona wind were also investigated. The corona wind generator with a wire-to-plate electrode arrangement was used for generating the counter flow to the fin. The compact and simple geometric characteristics of the corona wind generator facilitate the application of the heat sink using the counter flow, demonstrating the heat sink is effective for cooling electronic devices. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effect of the counter flow on the fins. Also, the velocity and temperature were measured experimentally for the test mock-up of the heat sink with the corona wind generator to verify the numerical results. From a numerical study, the type of fin and its optimal height, length, and pitch were suggested for various heat fluxes. In addition, the correlations to calculate the mass of the developed heat sink and its cooling performance in terms of the heat transfer coefficient were derived. Finally, the cooling efficiencies corresponding to the mass, applied power, total size, and noise of the devices were compared with the existing commercial central processing unit (CPU) cooling devices with rotor fans. As a result, it was confirmed that the heat sink using the counter flow of the corona wind showed appropriate efficiencies for cooling electronic devices, and is a suitable replacement for the existing cooling device for high power electronics.
Studies of heat transport to forced-flow He II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dresner, L.; Kashani, A.; Van Sciver, S.W.
1985-01-01
Analytical and experimental studies of heat transport to forced-flow He II are reported. The work is pertinent to the transfer of He II in space. An analytical model has been developed that establishes a condition for two-phase flow to occur in the transfer line. This condition sets an allowable limit to the heat leak into the transfer line. Experimental measurements of pressure drop and flow meter performances indicate that turbulent He II can be analyzed in terms of classical pressure drop correlations
Two-phase flow instability in a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondoh, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Kenji; Hasegawa, Shu; Yamada, Hidetomo; Ryu, Hiroyuki.
1988-01-01
Experimental and analytical investigations are conducted on flow instability in a vertically installed liquid nitrogen shell and tube type heat exchanger. The experiments are carried out by making use of water steam as a secondary fluid and it is observed that flow instability occurs in the range of small inlet flow rate. Mode analysis of the flow instability oscillation reveals that there exists a fundamental mode and its higher harmonics up to the fourth. As the period of the fundamental mode is nearly equal to the transit time for a fluid particle to travel through the heated tube, it is suggested that this flow instability is of the density wave type. It is shown that the amount of exchanged heat, as well as the pressure drop, decrease when unstable flow oscillation occurs. An analysis of the static heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics can simulate the experimental results in the stable region. Linear stability analysis is also carried out to yield the stability map as well as the period of flow oscillation, which proved to agree with the experimental data qualitatively. (author)
Heat transfer and pressure drop in flow boiling in microchannels
Saha, Sujoy Kumar
2016-01-01
This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer and pressure drop in flow boiling in micro channels occurring in high heat flux electronic cooling. A companion edition in the Springer Brief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Micro channels,” by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.
Effect of regional heating on the liver blood flow in rats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, T.; Song, C.W.; Osborn, J.L.; Rhee, J.G.; Levitt, S.H.
1987-01-01
The authors measured the blood flow in the liver of rats heated with a radio frequency capacitive heating device. The blood flow through the hepatic artery, as measured with the radioactive microsphere method, was 0.21 ml/min/gm; it increased by 13% and 16% when heated for 15 minutes at 41 0 C and 43 0 C, respectively. The portal vein blood flow was 1.09 ml/min/gm and decreased by 12% and 20% on heating for 15 minutes at 41 0 C and 43 0 C, respectively. The total liver blood flow, therefore, decreased by 11% at 41 0 C and by 14% at 43 0 C from the control value of 1.30 ml/min/gm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasuo Koizumi; Hiroyasu Ohtake; Tomoyuki Suzuki
2002-01-01
The influence of particle introduction into a subcooled water flow on boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux (CHF) was examined. When the water velocity was low, the particles crowded on the bottom wall of the flow channel and flowed just like sliding on the wall. When the water velocity was high, the particles were well dispersed in the water flow. In the non-boiling region, the heat transfer was augmented by the introduction of the particles into the water flow. As the introduction of the particles were increased, the augmentation was also increased in the high water flow rate region. However, it was independent upon the particle introduction rate in the low water flow rate region. The onset of boiling was delayed by the particle inclusion. The boiling heat transfer was enhanced by the particles. However, it was rather decreased in the high heat flux fully-developed-boiling region. The CHF was decreased by the particle inclusion in the low water flow region and was not affected in the high water flow region. (authors)
Wildemeersch, S; Jamin, P; Orban, P; Hermans, T; Klepikova, M; Nguyen, F; Brouyère, S; Dassargues, A
2014-11-15
Geothermal energy systems, closed or open, are increasingly considered for heating and/or cooling buildings. The efficiency of such systems depends on the thermal properties of the subsurface. Therefore, feasibility and impact studies performed prior to their installation should include a field characterization of thermal properties and a heat transfer model using parameter values measured in situ. However, there is a lack of in situ experiments and methodology for performing such a field characterization, especially for open systems. This study presents an in situ experiment designed for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers with focus on the specific heat capacity. This experiment consists in simultaneously injecting hot water and a chemical tracer into the aquifer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and concentration in the recovery well (and possibly in other piezometers located down gradient). Temperature and concentrations are then used for estimating the specific heat capacity. The first method for estimating this parameter is based on a modeling in series of the chemical tracer and temperature breakthrough curves at the recovery well. The second method is based on an energy balance. The values of specific heat capacity estimated for both methods (2.30 and 2.54MJ/m(3)/K) for the experimental site in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River (Belgium) are almost identical and consistent with values found in the literature. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are not required for estimating the specific heat capacity. However, they highlight that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is complex and contrasted with different dominant process depending on the depth leading to significant vertical heat exchange between upper and lower part of the aquifer. Furthermore, these temperature breakthrough curves could be included in the calibration of a complex heat transfer model for
Heat transfer of pulsating laminar flow in pipes with wall thermal inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Hongsheng; Tan, Sichao; Wen, Jing; Zhuang, Nailiang
2016-01-01
The effects of wall thermal inertia on heat transfer of pulsating laminar flow with constant power density within the pipe wall are investigated theoretically. The energy equation of the fully developed flow and heat transfer is solved by separation of variables and Green's function. The effects of the pulsation amplitude and frequency, the Prandtl number and the wall heat capacity on heat transfer features characterized by temperature, heat flux and Nusselt number are analyzed. The results show that the oscillation of wall heat flux increases along with the wall thermal inertia, while the oscillation of temperature and Nusselt number is suppressed by the wall thermal inertia. The influence of pulsation on the average Nusselt number is also obtained. The pulsating laminar flow can reduce the average Nusselt number. The Nusselt number reduction of pipe flow are a little more remarkable than that of flow between parallel plates, which is mainly caused by differences in hydraulic and thermal performances of the channels. (authors)
Analysis of natural convection heat transfer and flows in internally heated stratified liquid pools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubaidullin, A.A. Jr.; Dinh, T.N.; Sehgal, B.R.
1999-01-01
In this paper, natural convection flows and heat transfer in a liquid pool, with two superposed immiscible fluid layers, are analyzed. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of interfacial hydrodynamics and to develop a method which enables energy splitting to be evaluated in a stratified liquid pool. The thermal convection, with and without an internal heat source, in a rectangular cavity with different pairs of fluids was numerically simulated by a CFD code FLOW-3D. It was found that the code performs very well for prediction of heat transfer coefficients for different conditions. The hydrodynamic coupling between immiscible layers was found to have minor, if any, impact on the natural convection heat transfer for the conditions examined. Calculated results were used to develop, and validate, a new correlation for energy splitting and for heat transfer in stratified liquid pools
Numerical prediction of flow, heat transfer, turbulence and combustion
Spalding, D Brian; Pollard, Andrew; Singhal, Ashok K
1983-01-01
Numerical Prediction of Flow, Heat Transfer, Turbulence and Combustion: Selected Works of Professor D. Brian Spalding focuses on the many contributions of Professor Spalding on thermodynamics. This compilation of his works is done to honor the professor on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Relatively, the works contained in this book are selected to highlight the genius of Professor Spalding in this field of interest. The book presents various research on combustion, heat transfer, turbulence, and flows. His thinking on separated flows paved the way for the multi-dimensional modeling of turbu
Visualisation of heat transfer in 3D unsteady flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.
2010-01-01
Heat transfer in fluid flows traditionally is examined in terms oftemperature field and heat-transfer coefficients at non-adiabaticwalls. However, heat transfer may alternatively be considered asthe transport of thermal energy by the total convective-conductiveheat flux in a way analogous to the
A review of the heat flow data of NE Morocco
Chiozzi, Paolo; Barkaoui, Alae-Eddine; Rimi, Abdelkrim; Verdoya, Massimo; Zarhloule, Yassine
2016-04-01
The Atlas chain is characterised by a SW-NE trending volcanic belt roughly extending from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea and showing activity that spans in age mainly from Middle Miocene to Quaternary (14.6-0.3 Ma). The geochemical features of volcanism are mostly intraplate and alkaline with the exception of the northeastern termination of the belt where calc-alkaline series crop out. Lithospheric thermal and density models so far proposed, constrained by heat flow, gravity anomalies, geoid, and topography data, show that the Atlas chain is not supported isostatically by a thickened crust and a thin, hot and low-density lithosphere explains the high topography. One of the possible explanations for lithospheric mantle thinning, possibly in relation with the observed alkaline volcanism, is thermal erosion produced by either small-scale convection or activation of a small mantle plume, forming part of a hot and deep mantle reservoir system extending from the Canary Islands. This paper focuses on the several geothermal data available in the northeastern sector of the volcanic belt. The occurrence of an extensive, often artesian, carbonatic reservoir hosting moderately hot groundwater might boost the temperature gradient in the overlying impermeable cover, and consequently mask the deep thermal regime. We therefore revised the available dataset and investigated the contribution of advection. Temperature data available from water and oil wells were reprocessed and analysed in combination with thermal conductivity measurements on a wide set of lithotypes. Data were filtered according to rigid selection criteria, and, in the deeper boreholes, the heat flow was inferred by taking into account the porosity variation with depth and the temperature effect on the matrix and pore-filling fluid conductivity. Moreover, the possible effect of advection was evaluated with simple analytical models which envisage the carbonatic layers as confined aquifers heated by the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herszage, A.; Toren, M.
1998-01-01
Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry
Heating limits of boiling downward two-phase flow in parallel channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Kenji; Kondoh, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Shu; Sakai, Takaaki.
1989-01-01
Flow characteristics and heating limits of downward two-phase flow in single or parallel multi-channels are investigated experimentally and analytically. The heating section used is made of glass tube, in which the heater tube is inserted, and the flow regime inside it is observed. In single channel experiments with low flow rate conditions, it is found that, initially, gas phase which flows upward against the downward liquid phase flow condenses and diminishes as it flows up being cooled by inflowing liquid. However, as the heating power is increased, some portion of the gas phase reaches the top and accumulates to form an liquid level, which eventually causes the dryout. On the other hand, for high flow rate condition, the flooding at the bottom of the heated section is the cause of the dryout. In parallel multi-channels experiments, reversed (upward) flow which leads to the dryout is observed in some of these channels for low flow rate conditions, while the situation is the same to the single channel case for high flow rate conditions. Analyses are carried out to predict the onset of dryout in single channel using the drift flux model as well as the Wallis' flooding correlation. Above-mentioned two types of the dryout and their boundary are predicted which agree well with the experimental results. (author)
Flow visualization study of inverted annular flow of post dryout heat transfer region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.
1985-01-01
The inverted annular flow is important in the area of LWR accident analysis in terms of the maximum cladding temperature and effectiveness of the emergency core cooling. However, the inverted annular flow thermal-hydraulics is not well understood due to its special heat transfer condition of film boiling. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail experimentally. A new experimental apparatus has been constructed in which film boiling heat transfer can be established in a transparent test section. Data on liquid core stability, core break-up mechanism, and dispersed-core liquid slug and droplet sizes are obtained using F 113 as a test fluid. Both high speed movies and flash photographs are used
An analytical solution to the heat transfer problem in thick-walled hunt flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluck, Michael J; Wolfendale, Michael J
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Convective heat transfer in Hunt type flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct. • Analytical solution to the H1 constant peripheral temperature in a rectangular duct. • New H1 result demonstrating the enhancement of heat transfer due to flow distortion by the applied magnetic field. • Analytical solution to the H2 constant peripheral heat flux in a rectangular duct. • New H2 result demonstrating the reduction of heat transfer due to flow distortion by the applied magnetic field. • Results are important for validation of CFD in magnetohydrodynamics and for implementation of systems code approaches. - Abstract: The flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct, subject to a strong transverse magnetic field is of interest in a number of applications. An important application of such flows is in the context of coolants in fusion reactors, where heat is transferred to a lead-lithium eutectic. It is vital, therefore, that the heat transfer mechanisms are understood. Forced convection heat transfer is strongly dependent on the flow profile. In the hydrodynamic case, Nusselt numbers and the like, have long been well characterised in duct geometries. In the case of liquid metals in strong magnetic fields (magnetohydrodynamics), the flow profiles are very different and one can expect a concomitant effect on convective heat transfer. For fully developed laminar flows, the magnetohydrodynamic problem can be characterised in terms of two coupled partial differential equations. The problem of heat transfer for perfectly electrically insulating boundaries (Shercliff case) has been studied previously (Bluck et al., 2015). In this paper, we demonstrate corresponding analytical solutions for the case of conducting hartmann walls of arbitrary thickness. The flow is very different from the Shercliff case, exhibiting jets near the side walls and core flow suppression which have profound effects on heat transfer.
A Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Rising Taylor Bubbles
Scammell, Alexander David
2016-01-01
Practical application of flow boiling to ground- and space-based thermal management systems hinges on the ability to predict the systems heat removal capabilities under expected operating conditions. Research in this field has shown that the heat transfer coefficient within two-phase heat exchangers can be largely dependent on the experienced flow regime. This finding has inspired an effort to develop mechanistic heat transfer models for each flow pattern which are likely to outperform traditional empirical correlations. As a contribution to the effort, this work aimed to identify the heat transfer mechanisms for the slug flow regime through analysis of individual Taylor bubbles.An experimental apparatus was developed to inject single vapor Taylor bubbles into co-currently flowing liquid HFE 7100. The heat transfer was measured as the bubble rose through a 6 mm inner diameter heated tube using an infrared thermography technique. High-speed flow visualization was obtained and the bubble film thickness measured in an adiabatic section. Experiments were conducted at various liquid mass fluxes (43-200 kgm2s) and gravity levels (0.01g-1.8g) to characterize the effect of bubble drift velocityon the heat transfer mechanisms. Variable gravity testing was conducted during a NASA parabolic flight campaign.Results from the experiments showed that the drift velocity strongly affects the hydrodynamics and heat transfer of single elongated bubbles. At low gravity levels, bubbles exhibited shapes characteristic of capillary flows and the heat transfer enhancement due to the bubble was dominated by conduction through the thin film. At moderate to high gravity, traditional Taylor bubbles provided small values of enhancement within the film, but large peaks in the wake heat transfer occurred due to turbulent vortices induced by the film plunging into the trailing liquid slug. Characteristics of the wake heat transfer profiles were analyzed and related to the predicted velocity field
Theoretical study of evaporation heat transfer in horizontal microfin tubes: stratified flow model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honda, H; Wang, Y S [Kyushu Univ., Inst. for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)
2004-08-01
The stratified flow model of evaporation heat transfer in helically grooved, horizontal microfin tubes has been developed. The profile of stratified liquid was determined by a theoretical model previously developed for condensation in horizontal microfin tubes. For the region above the stratified liquid, the meniscus profile in the groove between adjacent fins was determined by a force balance between the gravity and surface tension forces. The thin film evaporation model was applied to predict heat transfer in the thin film region of the meniscus. Heat transfer through the stratified liquid was estimated by using an empirical correlation proposed by Mori et al. The theoretical predictions of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient were compared with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants. A good agreement was obtained for the region of Fr{sub 0}<2.5 as long as partial dry out of tube surface did not occur. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, Seong Gu; Park, Seung O.
2003-01-01
This paper provides the assessment of prediction performance of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models under conditions of mixed convective gas flows in a strongly-heated vertical tube. Two explicit algebraic stress models and four algebraic heat-flux models are selected for assessment. Eight combinations of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models are used in predicting the flows experimentally studied by Shehata and McEligot (IJHMT 41(1998) p.4333) in which property variation was significant. Among the various model combinations, the Wallin and Johansson (JFM 403(2000) p. 89) explicit algebraic stress model-Abe, Kondo, and Nagano (IJHFF 17(1996) p. 228) algebraic heat-flux model combination is found to perform best. We also found that the dimensionless wall distance y + should be calculated based on the local property rather than the property at the wall for property-variation flows. When the buoyancy or the property variation effects are so strong that the flow may relaminarize, the choice of the basic platform two-equation model is a most important factor in improving the predictions
Application of two-equation turbulence models to turbulent gas flow heated by a high heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamura, Hiroshi
1978-01-01
Heat transfer in heated turbulent gas flow is analyzed using two-equation turbulence models. Four kinds of two-equation models are examined; that is, k-epsilon model by Jones-Launder, k-w model by Wilcox-Traci, k-kL model by Rotta, k-ω model by Saffman-Wilcox. The results are compared with more than ten experiments by seven authors. The k-kL model proposed originally by Rotta and modified by the present author is found to give relatively the best results. It well predicts the decrease in the heat transfer coefficient found in the heated turbulent gas flow; however, it fails to predict the laminarization due to a strong heating. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshimine Ikeda
1985-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the possibility of estimating the heat flux balance at the sea surface from GOSSTCOMP (Global Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Computation developed by NOAA/NESS, USA, and sea surface current data based from ships drift information obtained from Pilot Charts, published by the Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (DHN, Brazilian Navy. The annual mean value of the heat flux balance at the sea surface off southeast Brazil for 1977, is estimated from data on the balance between the heat transported by the currents and that transported by eddy diffusion for each volume defined as 2º x 2º (Lat. x Long. square with a constant depth equivalent to an oceanic mixed layer, 100 m thick. Results show several oceanic areas where there are net flows of heat from atmosphere towards the sea surface. In front of Rio de Janeiro the heat flow was downward and up to 70 ly day-1 and is probably related to the upwellirug phenomenon normally occurring in that area. Another coastal area between Lat. 25ºS to 28ºS indicated an downward flow up to 50 ly day-1; and for an area south of Lat. 27ºS, Long. 040ºW - 048ºW an downward flow up to 200 ly day-1, where the transfer was probably due to the cold water of a nortward flux from the Falkland (Malvinas Current. Results also show several oceanic areas where net flows of heat (of about -100 ly day-1 were toward the atmosphere. In the oceanic areas Lat. 19ºS - 23ºS and Lat. 24ºS - 30ºS, the flows were probably due to the warm water of a southward flux of the Brazil Current. The resulting fluxes from the warm waters of the Brazil Current when compared with those from warm waters of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, indicate that the Gulf Stream carries about 3.3 times and the Kuroshio 1.7 times more heat than the Brazil Current. These values agree with those of data available on the heat fluxes of the above mentioned Currents calculated by different methods (Budyko, 1974.
Thermally determining flow and/or heat load distribution in parallel paths
Chainer, Timothy J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.
2016-12-13
A method including obtaining calibration data for at least one sub-component in a heat transfer assembly, wherein the calibration data comprises at least one indication of coolant flow rate through the sub-component for a given surface temperature delta of the sub-component and a given heat load into said sub-component, determining a measured heat load into the sub-component, determining a measured surface temperature delta of the sub-component, and determining a coolant flow distribution in a first flow path comprising the sub-component from the calibration data according to the measured heat load and the measured surface temperature delta of the sub-component.
Flow and heat transfer in a curved channel
Brinich, P. F.; Graham, R. W.
1977-01-01
Flow and heat transfer in a curved channel of aspect ratio 6 and inner- to outer-wall radius ratio 0.96 were studied. Secondary currents and large longitudinal vortices were found. The heat-transfer rates of the outer and inner walls were independently controlled to maintain a constant wall temperature. Heating the inner wall increased the pressure drop along the channel length, whereas heating the outer wall had little effect. Outer-wall heat transfer was as much as 40 percent greater than the straight-channel correlation, and inner-wall heat transfer was 22 percent greater than the straight-channel correlation.
Three-dimensional numerical study of heat transfer enhancement in separated flows
Kumar, Saurav; Vengadesan, S.
2017-11-01
The flow separation appears in a wide range of heat transfer applications and causes poor heat transfer performance. It motivates the study of heat transfer enhancement in laminar as well as turbulent flows over a backward facing step by means of an adiabatic fin mounted on the top wall. Recently, we have studied steady, 2-D numerical simulations in laminar flow and investigated the effect of fin length, location, and orientation. It revealed that the addition of fin causes enhancement of heat transfer and it is very effective to control the flow and thermal behavior. The fin is most effective and sensitive when it is placed exactly above the step. A slight displacement of the fin in upstream of the step causes the complete change of flow and thermal behavior. Based on the obtained 2-D results it is interesting to investigate the side wall effect in three-dimensional simulations. The comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations with the available experimental results will be presented. Special attention has to be given to capture unsteadiness in the flow and thermal field.
Models for fluid flows with heat transfer in mixed convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mompean Munhoz da Cruz, G.
1989-06-01
Second order models were studied in order to predict turbulent flows with heat transfer. The equations used correspond to the characteristic scale of turbulent flows. The order of magnitude of the terms of the equation is analyzed by using Reynolds and Peclet numbers. The two-equation model (K-ε) is applied in the hydrodynamic study. Two models are developed for the heat transfer analysis: the Prt + teta 2 and the complete model. In the first model, the turbulent thermal diffusivity is calculated by using the Prandtl number for turbulent flow and an equation for the variance of the temperature fluctuation. The second model consists of three equations concerning: the turbulent heat flow, the variance of the temperature fluctuation and its dissipation ratio. The equations were validated by four experiments, which were characterized by the analysis of: the air flow after passing through a grid of constant average temperature and with temperature gradient, an axysymmetric air jet submitted to high and low heating temperature, the mixing (cold-hot) of two coaxial jets of sodium at high Peclet number. The complete model is shown to be the most suitable for the investigations presented [fr
Ocular blood flow decreases during passive heat stress in resting humans
Ikemura, Tsukasa; Miyaji, Akane; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hayashi, Naoyuki
2013-01-01
Background Heat stress induces various physiological changes and so could influence ocular circulation. This study examined the effect of heat stress on ocular blood flow. Findings Ocular blood flow, end-tidal carbon dioxide (P ETCO2) and blood pressure were measured for 12 healthy subjects wearing water-perfused tube-lined suits under two conditions of water circulation: (1) at 35°C (normothermia) for 30 min and (2) at 50°C for 90 min (passive heat stress). The blood-flow velocities in the s...
Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems
Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D
2013-12-03
A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.
Natural convection heat transfer between vertical channel with flow resistance at the lower end
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwamoto, S.; Nishimura, S.; Ishihara, I.
2003-01-01
For natural convection in the geometrically complicated channel, the convection flow is suppressed by flow resistance due to such channel itself and the lopsided flow may take place. This could result in serious influences on the heat transfer in the channel. In order to investigate fundamentally the natural convection flow and heat transfer in such the channel, the vertical channel in which wall was heated with uniform heat flux and the flow resistance was given by small clearance between the lower end of channel and a wide horizontal floor. Flow pattern was observed by illuminating smoke filled in the channel and heat transfer rate was measured. (author)
Preliminary heat flow map of Europe. Explanatory text
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cermak, V.; Hurtig, E.
1977-08-08
A preliminary heat flow map of Europe was prepared, based on data contained in 401 references. The map was prepared on a scale of 1:5,000,000 and shows broad-scale geological structure (e.g., platforms, shields, foredeeps) and specialized rock suites (ophiolites, volcanites). Primary faults and thrust faults are indicated, and contours showing the depth of crystalline basement are given. Heat flow is plotted using 10.0 mW/m/sup 2/ isotherms. The accompanying explanatory text describes data acquisition and techniques of correction, and discusses some implications of the results.
Chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement in Stokes flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefevre, A.; Mota, J.P.B.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Saatdjian, E.
2003-01-01
The heat transfer rate from a solid boundary to a highly viscous fluid can be enhanced significantly by a phenomenon which is called chaotic advection or Lagrangian turbulence. Although the flow is laminar and dominated by viscous forces, some fluid particle trajectories are chaotic due either to a suitable boundary displacement protocol or to a change in geometry. As in turbulent flow, the heat transfer rate enhancement between the boundary and the fluid is intimately linked to the mixing of fluid in the system. Chaotic advection in real Stokes flows, i.e. flows governed by viscous forces and that can be constructed experimentally, is reviewed in this paper. An emphasis is made on recent new results on 3-D time-periodic open flows which are particularly important in industry
Editorial to "Heat flow: recent advances"
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čermák, Vladimír; Huang, S.; Ravat, D.; Verdoya, M.
2018-01-01
Roč. 107, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-3 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geothermics * climate change * terrestrial heat flow Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikielewicz Dariusz
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In the paper a method developed earlier by authors is applied to calculations of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling and also flow condensation for some recent data collected from literature for such fluids as R404a, R600a, R290, R32,R134a, R1234yf and other. The modification of interface shear stresses between flow boiling and flow condensation in annular flow structure are considered through incorporation of the so called blowing parameter. The shear stress between vapor phase and liquid phase is generally a function of nonisothermal effects. The mechanism of modification of shear stresses at the vapor-liquid interface has been presented in detail. In case of annular flow it contributes to thickening and thinning of the liquid film, which corresponds to condensation and boiling respectively. There is also a different influence of heat flux on the modification of shear stress in the bubbly flow structure, where it affects bubble nucleation. In that case the effect of applied heat flux is considered. As a result a modified form of the two-phase flow multiplier is obtained, in which the nonadiabatic effect is clearly pronounced.
Heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving porous flat plate with heat flux
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, Y.V.B.
The analysis of the heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving semi-infinite plate in the presence of suction/ injection with heat flux has been presented. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Yuya; Chen, Lin; Okajima, Junnosuke; Iga, Yuka; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Effective cooling design by super-/sub-sonic air flow in microchannels is proposed. • Microscale supersonic flows is successfully generated and examined. • Microchannel flow density field were visualized quantitatively by interferometer. • The bump design shows great potential of heat transfer enhancement in microscale. - Abstract: With the fast development of electronic systems and the ever-increasing demand of thermally “smart” design in space and aeronautic engineering, the heat transfer innovations and high heat flux challenges have become a hot topic for decades. This study is aimed at the effective cooling heat transfer design by super-/sub-sonic air flow in microscale channels for high heat flux devices. The design is based on the low temperature flows with supersonic expansion in microscale, which yields a compact and simple design. By careful microelectromechanical process, microscale straight and bumped channels (with simple arc curve) are fabricated and experimentally tested in this study. The microscale flow field and density distributions under new designs are visualized quantitatively by an advanced phase-shifting interferometer system, which results are then compared carefully with numerical simulations. In this study, large differences between the two designs in density distribution and temperature changes (around 50 K) are found. The high heat flux potential for supersonic microchannel flows is realized and discussion into detail. It is confirmed that the bump design contributes significantly to the heat transfer enhancement, which shows potential for future application in novel system designs.
Free convection flow and heat transfer in pipe exposed to cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mme, Uduak Akpan
2010-10-15
One of the challenges with thermal insulation design in subsea equipment is to minimize the heat loss through cold spots during production shut down. Cold spots are system components where insulation is difficult to implement, resulting in an insulation discontinuity which creates by nature a thermal bridge. It is difficult to avoid cold spots or thermal bridges in items like sensors, valves, connectors and supporting structures. These areas of reduced or no insulation are referred to as cold spots. Heat is drained faster through these spots, resulting in an increased local fluid density resulting in an internal fluid flow due to gravity and accelerated cool- down. This natural convection flow is important for both heat loss and internal distribution of the temperature. This thesis is presenting both experimental work and modelling work. A series of cool down tests and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of these tests are presented. These tests and simulations were carried out in order to understand the flow physics involved in heat exchange processes caused by free convection flow in pipe exposed to cooling. Inclination of the pipe relative to the direction of gravity and temperature difference between cooling water and internal pipe water are the two main parameters investigated in this study. The experimental heat removal and temperature field is discussed and further interpreted by means of computational fluid dynamics. For prediction of the evolvement of the local temperature and heat flow, selection of an appropriate turbulence model is critical. Hence, different models and wall functions are investigated. The predicted temperature profiles and heat extraction rates are compered to the experiments for the selected turbulence models. Our main conclusions, supported by our experimental and CFD results, include: (i) Heat transfer from a localized cold spot in an inclined pipe is most efficient when the pipe orientation is close to horizontal. As the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Savage
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface
Transient heat transfer for forced convection flow of helium gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Qiusheng; Fukuda, Katsuya; Sasaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Manabu
1999-01-01
Transient heat transfer coefficients for forced convection flow of helium gas over a horizontal cylinder were measured using a forced convection test loop. The platinum heater with a diameter of 1.0 mm was heated by electric current with an exponential increase of Q 0 exp(t/τ). It was clarified that the heat transfer coefficient approaches the steady-state one for the period τ over 1 s, and it becomes higher for the period of τ shorter than 1 s. The transient heat transfer shows less dependent on the gas flowing velocity when the period becomes very shorter. Semi-empirical correlations for steady-state and transient heat transfer were developed based on the experimental data. (author)
Surface roughness effects on heat transfer in Couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elia, G.G.
1981-01-01
A cell theory for viscous flow with rough surfaces is applied to two basic illustrative heat transfer problems which occur in Couette flow. Couette flow between one adiabatic surface and one isothermal surface exhibits roughness effects on the adiabatic wall temperature. Two types of rough cell adiabatic surfaces are studied: (1) perfectly insulating (the temperature gradient vanishes at the boundary of each cell); (2) average insulating (each cell may gain or lose heat but the total heat flow at the wall is zero). The results for the roughness on a surface in motion are postulated to occur because of fluid entrainment in the asperities on the moving surface. The symmetry of the roughness effects on thermal-viscous dissipation is discussed in detail. Explicit effects of the roughness on each surface, including combinations of roughness values, are presented to enable the case where the two surfaces may be from different materials to be studied. The fluid bulk temperature rise is also calculated for Couette flow with two ideal adiabatic surfaces. The effect of roughness on thermal-viscous dissipation concurs with the viscous hydrodynamic effect. The results are illustrated by an application to lubrication. (Auth.)
Noxious heat and scratching decrease histamine-induced itch and skin blood flow.
Yosipovitch, Gil; Fast, Katharine; Bernhard, Jeffrey D
2005-12-01
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thermal stimuli or distal scratching on skin blood flow and histamine-induced itch in healthy volunteers. Twenty-one healthy volunteers participated in the study. Baseline measurements of skin blood flow were obtained on the flexor aspect of the forearm. These measurements were compared with skin blood flow after various stimuli: heating the skin, cooling the skin, noxious cold 2 degrees C, noxious heat 49 degrees C, and scratching via a brush with controlled pressure. Afterwards histamine iontophoresis was performed and skin blood flow and itch intensity were measured immediately after the above-mentioned stimuli. Scratching reduced mean histamine-induced skin blood flow and itch intensity. Noxious heat pain increased basal skin blood flow but reduced histamine-induced maximal skin blood flow and itch intensity. Cold pain and cooling reduced itch intensity, but neither affected histamine-induced skin blood flow. Sub-noxious warming the skin did not affect the skin blood flow or itch intensity. These findings suggest that heat pain and scratching may inhibit itch through a neurogenic mechanism that also affects skin blood flow.
Lee, Man
2012-02-22
A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Lee, Man; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Zohar, Yitshak
2012-01-01
A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
A high performance cocurrent-flow heat pipe for heat recovery applications
Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. C.
1980-01-01
By the introduction of a plate-and-tube separator assembly into a heat pipe vapor core, it has been demonstrated that axial transport capacity in reflux mode can be improved by up to a factor of 10. This improvement is largely the result of eliminating the countercurrent shear that commonly limits reflux heat pipe axial capacity. With benzene, axial heat fluxes up to 1800 W/sq cm were obtained in the temperature range 40 to 80 C, while heat flux densities up to 3000 W/sq cm were obtained with R-11 over the temperature range 40 to 80 C. These very high axial capacities compare favorably with liquid metal limits; the sonic limit for liquid sodium, for example, is 3000 W/sq cm at 657 C. Computational models developed for these cocurrent flow heat pipes agreed with experimental data within + or - 25%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K.
2001-01-01
An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)
Flow analysis of an innovative compact heat exchanger channel geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitillo, F.; Cachon, L.; Reulet, F.; Millan, P.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An innovative compact heat transfer technology is proposed. • Experimental measurements are shown to validate the CFD model. • CFD simulations show various flow mechanisms. • Flow analysis is performed to study physical phenomena enhancing heat transfer. - Abstract: In the framework of CEA R&D program to develop an industrial prototype of sodium-cooled fast reactor named ASTRID, the present work aims to propose an innovative compact heat exchanger technology to provide solid technological basis for the utilization of a Brayton gas-power conversion system, in order to avoid the energetic sodium–water interaction if a traditional Rankine cycle was used. The aim of the present work is to propose an innovative compact heat exchanger channel geometry to potentially enhance heat transfer in such components. Hence, before studying the innovative channel performance, a solid experimental and numerical database is necessary to perform a preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis. To do that, two experimental test sections are used: a Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) test section and a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) test section. The acquired experimental database is used to validate the Anisotropic Shear Stress Transport (ASST) turbulence model. Results show a good agreement between LDV, PIV and ASST data for the pure aerodynamic flow. Once validated the numerical model, the innovative channel flow analysis is performed. Principal and secondary flow has been analyzed, showing a high swirling flow in the bend region and demonstrating that mixing actually occurs in the mixing zone. This work has to be considered as a step forward the preposition of a reliable high-performance component for application to ASTRID reactor as well as to any other industrial power plant dealing needing compact heat exchangers.
Heat transfer enhancement through control of added perturbation velocity in flow field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jiansheng; Wu, Cui; Li, Kangning
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Three strategies which restrain the flow drag in heat transfer are proposed. ► Added perturbation induces quasi-streamwise vortices around controlled zone. ► The flow and heat transfer features depend on induced quasi-streamwise vortices. ► Vertical strategy has the best synthesis performance of three control strategies. ► Synthesis performance with control strategy is superior to that without strategy. - Abstract: The characteristics of heat transfer and flow, through an added perturbation velocity, in a rectangle channel, are investigated by Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The downstream, vertical, and upstream control strategy, which can suppress the lift of low speed streaks in the process of improving the performance of heat transfer, are adopted in numerical investigation. Taking both heat transfer and flow properties into consideration, the synthesis performance of heat transfer and flow of three control strategies are evaluated. The numerical results show that the flow structure in boundary layer has been varied obviously for the effect of perturbation velocity and induced quasi-streamwise vortices emerging around the controlled zone. The results indicate that the vertical control strategy has the best synthesis performance of the three control strategies, which also has the least skin frication coefficient. The upstream and downstream strategies can improve the heat transfer performance, but the skin frication coefficient is higher than that with vertical control strategy
Radiation effects on heat transfer in heat exchangers, (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Yasuo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taira, Tatsuji.
1980-01-01
In a high temperature gas-cooled reactor system, in which the working fluid exchanges heat at high temperature near 1000 deg C, the heat transfer acceleration by positively utilizing the radiation heat transfer between solid surfaces should be considered. This paper reports on the results of experiment and analysis for the effects of radiant heat on the heat transfer performance at elevated temperature by applying the heat transfer-accelerating method using radiators to the heat exchanger with tube bundle composed of two channels of heating and heated sides. As the test heat exchangers, a parallel counter flow exchanger and the cross flow exchanger simulating helical tubes were employed, and the results studied on the characteristics of each heat exchanger are described. The plates placed in parallel to flow in every space of the tube bundle arranged in a matrix were used as the heat transfer accelerator. The effects of acceleration with the plates were the increase of heat transmission from 12 to 24% and 12 to 38% in the parallel flow and cross flow heat exchangers, respectively. Also, it was clarified that the theoretical analysis, in which it was assumed that the region within pitch S and two radiator plates, with a heat-transferring tube placed at the center, is the minimum domain for calculation, and that the heat exchange by radiation occurs only between the domain and the adjacent domains, can estimate the heat transfer-accelerating effect and the temperature distribution in a heat exchanger with sufficient accuracy. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Estimating heat-to-heat variation in mechanical properties from a statistician's point of view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hebble, T.L.
1976-01-01
A statistical technique known as analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to estimate the variance and standard deviation of differences among heats. The total variation of a collection of observations and how an ANOVA can be used to partition the total variation into its sources are discussed. Then, the ANOVA is adapted to published Japanese data indicating how to estimate heat-to-heat variation. Finally, numerical results are computed for several tensile and creep properties of Types 304 and 316 SS
Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal
Hunsbedt, Anstein N.
1988-01-01
An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.
A one-dimensional heat transfer model for parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers
de Jong, Anne; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries
2014-01-01
A one-dimensional (1D) laminar oscillating flow heat transfer model is derived and applied to parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers. The model can be used to estimate the heat transfer from the solid wall to the acoustic medium, which is required for the heat input/output of thermoacoustic
Computational simulation of heat transfer in laser melted material flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shankar, V.; Gnanamuthu, D.
1986-01-01
A computational procedure has been developed to study the heat transfer process in laser-melted material flow associated with surface heat treatment of metallic alloys to improve wear-and-tear and corrosion resistance. The time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved, accounting for both convective and conductive heat transfer processes. The convection, induced by surface tension and high surface temperature gradients, sets up a counterrotating vortex flow within the molten pool. This recirculating material flow is responsible for determining the molten pool shape and the associated cooling rates which affect the solidifying material composition. The numerical method involves an implicit triple-approximate factorization scheme for the energy equation, and an explicit treatment for the momentum and the continuity equations. An experimental setup, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser beam as a heat source, has been carried out to generate data for validation of the computational model. Results in terms of the depth, width, and shape of the molten pool and the heat-affected zone for various power settings and shapes of the laser, and for various travel speeds of the workpiece, compare very well with experimental data. The presence of the surface tension-induced vortex flow is demonstrated
An improved mechanistic critical heat flux model for subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Young Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
Based on the bubble coalescence adjacent to the heated wall as a flow structure for CHF condition, Chang and Lee developed a mechanistic critical heat flux (CHF) model for subcooled flow boiling. In this paper, improvements of Chang-Lee model are implemented with more solid theoretical bases for subcooled and low-quality flow boiling in tubes. Nedderman-Shearer`s equations for the skin friction factor and universal velocity profile models are employed. Slip effect of movable bubbly layer is implemented to improve the predictability of low mass flow. Also, mechanistic subcooled flow boiling model is used to predict the flow quality and void fraction. The performance of the present model is verified using the KAIST CHF database of water in uniformly heated tubes. It is found that the present model can give a satisfactory agreement with experimental data within less than 9% RMS error. 9 refs., 5 figs. (Author)
An improved mechanistic critical heat flux model for subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Young Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
Based on the bubble coalescence adjacent to the heated wall as a flow structure for CHF condition, Chang and Lee developed a mechanistic critical heat flux (CHF) model for subcooled flow boiling. In this paper, improvements of Chang-Lee model are implemented with more solid theoretical bases for subcooled and low-quality flow boiling in tubes. Nedderman-Shearer`s equations for the skin friction factor and universal velocity profile models are employed. Slip effect of movable bubbly layer is implemented to improve the predictability of low mass flow. Also, mechanistic subcooled flow boiling model is used to predict the flow quality and void fraction. The performance of the present model is verified using the KAIST CHF database of water in uniformly heated tubes. It is found that the present model can give a satisfactory agreement with experimental data within less than 9% RMS error. 9 refs., 5 figs. (Author)
Probabilistic tectonic heat flow modelling for basin maturation: method and applications
van Wees, J.D.A.M.; van Bergen, F.; David, P.; Nepveu, M.; Beekman, W.W.W.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Bonte, D.D.P.
2009-01-01
Tectonic modeling is often neglected in the basin modeling workflow and heat flow is most times considered a user input. Such heat flows can, therefore, result in erroneous basin modeling outcomes, resulting in false overoptimistic identification of prospective areas or failure to identify
Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variation and high heat flows
Singer, Kelsi N.; Bland, Michael T.; Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.
2018-05-01
Viscously relaxed craters provide a window into the thermal history of Ganymede, a satellite with copious geologic signs of past high heat flows. Here we present measurements of relaxed craters in four regions for which suitable imaging exists: near Anshar Sulcus, Tiamat Sulcus, northern Marius Regio, and Ganymede's south pole. We describe a technique to measure apparent depth, or depth of the crater with respect to the surrounding terrain elevation. Measured relaxation states are compared with results from finite element modeling to constrain heat flow scenarios [see companion paper: Bland et al. (2017)]. The presence of numerous, substantially relaxed craters indicates high heat flows-in excess of 30-40 mW m-2 over 2 Gyr, with many small (heat flows. Crater relaxation states are bimodal for some equatorial regions but not in the region studied near the south pole, which suggests regional variations in Ganymede's thermal history.
Computation of turbulent flow and heat transfer in subassemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slagter, W.
1979-01-01
This research is carried out in order to provide information on the thermohydraulic behaviour of fast reactor subassemblies. The research work involves the development of versatile computation methods and the evaluation of combined theoretical and experimental work on fluid flow and heat transfer in fuel rod bundles. The computation method described here rests on the application of the distributed parameter approach. The conditions considered cover steady, turbulent flow and heat transfer of incompressible fluids in bundles of bare rods. Throughout 1978 main efforts were given to the development of the VITESSE program and to the validation of the hydrodynamic part of the code. In its present version the VITESSE program is applicable to predict the fully developed turbulent flow and heat transfer in the subchannels of a bundle with bare rods. In this paper the main features of the code are described as well as the present status of development
Estimating the Heat of Formation of Foodstuffs and Biomass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burnham, Alan K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2010-11-23
Calorie estimates for expressing the energy content of food are common, however they are inadequate for the purpose of estimating the chemically defined heat of formation of foodstuffs for two reasons. First, they assume utilization factors by the body.1,2,3 Second, they are usually based on average values for their components. The best way to solve this problem would be to measure the heat of combustion of each material of interest. The heat of formation can then be calculated from the elemental composition and the heats of formation of CO2, H2O, and SO2. However, heats of combustion are not always available. Sometimes elemental analysis only is available, or in other cases, a breakdown into protein, carbohydrates, and lipids. A simple way is needed to calculate the heat of formation from various sorts of data commonly available. This report presents improved correlations for relating the heats of combustion and formation to the elemental composition, moisture content, and ash content. The correlations are also able to calculate heats of combustion of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids individually, including how they depend on elemental composition. The starting point for these correlations are relationships commonly used to estimate the heat of combustion of fossil fuels, and they have been modified slightly to agree better with the ranges of chemical structures found in foodstuffs and biomass.
Coupled heat and groundwater flow in porous rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rae, J.; Robinson, P.C.; Wickens, L.M.
1983-01-01
There are a number of technical areas where coupled heat and flow problems occur for water in porous rock. The area of most interest to the authors has been the possible disposal underground of high-level radioactive waste. High-level waste can emit enough heat to drive significant flows by buoyancy effects and groundwater flow is expected to be the chief transport process for solute leached from such a repository. The possible disposal of radioactive waste under the seabed raises many similar questions and needs similar techniques to find answers. Other areas where related questions arise are the storage and retrieval of hot water in underground reservoirs, the attempts to extract useful geothermal energy by pumping water into fracture systems in hot rock and in certain thermal techniques for persuading oil to flow in tight reservoirs. The authors address questions in a rather general way and give examples which lie more in the area of waste disposal
Lunar heat flow: Regional prospective of the Apollo landing sites
Siegler, M. A.; Smrekar, S. E.
2014-01-01
reexamine the Apollo Heat Flow Experiment in light of new orbital data. Using three-dimensional thermal conduction models, we examine effects of crustal thickness, density, and radiogenic abundance on measured heat flow values at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites. These models show the importance of regional context on heat flux measurements. We find that measured heat flux can be greatly altered by deep subsurface radiogenic content and crustal density. However, total crustal thickness and the presence of a near-surface radiogenic-rich ejecta provide less leverage, representing only minor (<1.5 mW m-2) perturbations on surface heat flux. Using models of the crust implied by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory results, we found that a roughly 9-13 mW m-2 mantle heat flux best approximate the observed heat flux. This equates to a total mantle heat production of 2.8-4.1 × 1011 W. These heat flow values could imply that the lunar interior is slightly less radiogenic than the Earth's mantle, perhaps implying that a considerable fraction of terrestrial mantle material was incorporated at the time of formation. These results may also imply that heat flux at the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Procellarum potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus (KREEP) Terrane (PKT) is anomalously elevated compared to the rest of the Moon. These results also suggest that a limited KREEP-rich layer exists beneath the PKT crust. If a subcrustal KREEP-rich layer extends below the Apollo 17 landing site, required mantle heat flux can drop to roughly 7 mW m-2, underlining the need for future heat flux measurements outside of the radiogenic-rich PKT region.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue Xiang
2010-08-01
Full Text Available The boundary heat flow has important significance for the microstructures of directional solidified binary alloy. Interface evolution of the directional solidified microstructure with different boundary heat flow was discussed. In this study, only one interface was allowed to have heat flow, and Neumann boundary conditions were imposed at the other three interfaces. From the calculated results, it was found that different boundary heat flows will result in different microstructures. When the boundary heat flow equals to 20 W·cm-2, the growth of longitudinal side branches is accelerated and the growth of transverse side branches is restrained, and meanwhile, there is dendritic remelting in the calculation domain. When the boundary heat flow equals to 40 W·cm-2, the growths of the transverse and longitudinal side branches compete with each other, and when the boundary heat flow equals to 100-200 W·cm-2, the growth of transverse side branches dominates absolutely. The temperature field of dendritic growth was analyzed and the relation between boundary heat flow and temperature field was also investigated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I-Chung Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We have analyzed the effects of variable heat flux and internal heat generation on the flow and heat transfer in a thin film on a horizontal sheet in the presence of thermal radiation. Similarity transformations are used to transform the governing equations to a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The obtained differential equations are solved approximately by the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. The effects of various parameters governing the flow and heat transfer in this study are discussed and presented graphically. Comparison of numerical results is made with the earlier published results under limiting cases.
Kinoshita, Masataka; Yamano, Makoto
1997-02-01
Detailed heat flow measurements revealed an enormous heat flow variation (102 to 105 mW m-2) in the Jade hydrothermal field (27°16'N, 127°05'E and water depth 1350 m) located on the slope of the Izena Hole in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Within the Jade site, heat flow is higher than 1000 mW m-2 and decreases to ˜100 mW m-2 with a 1 km horizontal scale. Near the Jade black smoker, heat flow varies from >30,000 mW m-2 at a hydrothermally altered area to 1700 mW m-2 less than 100 m from it. A large-scale heat flow variation suggests that the base of the escarpment near the Jade site serves as a recharge area for the Jade site. Linear geotherms indicate that the upward Darcian flow within sediments is slower than ˜3 cm yr-1. Thus the fluid circulation pathways would basically be restricted in permeable channels. Estimated conductive heat output rate from the Jade site is 4-7 MW, which is comparable to heat output by a single black smoker vent (˜8 MW). One-dimensional thermal modeling predicts the existence of a boiling zone at ˜200 m beneath the Jade site, which may be overlain by a fractured impermeable layer. The normal chloride content of venting fluids from the black smoker may be explained either by upwelling of fluid which boiled at shallow depth but suffered no phase segregation, or by upwelling of fluid above the boiling interface.
Gradient estimates on the weighted p-Laplace heat equation
Wang, Lin Feng
2018-01-01
In this paper, by a regularization process we derive new gradient estimates for positive solutions to the weighted p-Laplace heat equation when the m-Bakry-Émery curvature is bounded from below by -K for some constant K ≥ 0. When the potential function is constant, which reduce to the gradient estimate established by Ni and Kotschwar for positive solutions to the p-Laplace heat equation on closed manifolds with nonnegative Ricci curvature if K ↘ 0, and reduce to the Davies, Hamilton and Li-Xu's gradient estimates for positive solutions to the heat equation on closed manifolds with Ricci curvature bounded from below if p = 2.
Three-dimensional numerical study of flow and heat transfer from a cube placed in a uniform flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, A.K.
2006-01-01
The fluid flow and heat transfer from a stationary cube placed in a uniform flow is studied numerically. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier Stokes and energy equations are solved using higher order temporal and spatial discretizations. Computations are carried out for a Reynolds number range of 50-400. At Re = 218, the symmetry seen at Re = 216 breaks down in one of the orthogonal planes while remains symmetric on the other thus showing a planar symmetry. The flow experiences a Hopf bifurcation at a Reynolds number between 265 and 270 and becomes unsteady. The thermal field also shows all the transitions same as those of flow transitions. The drag coefficient decreases while the heat transfer shows an increasing trend with Reynolds number. The transition from a steady to an unsteady flow does not show any significant increase in the heat transfer. Both the flow and thermal fields show multiple frequencies at high Reynolds number and the number of frequencies increases with the increase in Reynolds number. The instantaneous flow and temperature field are seen to deviate from planar symmetry at Re = 400
Flow friction and heat transfer of ethanol–water solutions through silicon microchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Huiying; Wu Xinyu; Wei Zhen
2009-01-01
An experimental investigation was performed on the flow friction and convective heat transfer characteristics of the ethanol–water solutions flowing through five sets of trapezoidal silicon microchannels having hydraulic diameters ranging from 141.7 µm to 268.6 µm. Four kinds of ethanol–water solutions with the ethanol volume concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.8 were tested under different flow and heating conditions. It was found that the cross-sectional geometric parameters had great effect on the flow friction and heat transfer, and the microchannels with a larger W b /W t (bottom width-to-top width ratio) and a smaller H/W t (depth-to-top width ratio) usually had a larger friction constant and a higher Nusselt number. Entrance effects were significant for the flow friction and heat transfer in silicon microchannels, and decreased with the increase of dimensionless hydrodynamic length L and dimensionless thermal length L + h . When L > 1.0, the hydrodynamic entrance effect on the flow friction was ignorable. For the developed laminar flow in silicon microchannels, the Navier–Stokes equation was applicable. It was also found that the volume concentrations had different effects on the flow friction and heat transfer. Within the experimental range, the effect of volume concentrations on the flow friction was ignorable, and the friction constants of the ethanol–water solutions having different concentrations were the same as those of the pure water. However, volume concentrations had great effect on the convection heat transfer in silicon microchannels. With the increase of the volume concentrations, the Nusselt number of the ethanol–water solutions increased obviously, which was attributed to the combination effect of the increase in the Prantdtl number as well as the volatilization effect of the ethanol. Based on the experimental data, the dimensionless correlations for the flow friction and heat transfer of the ethanol–water solutions in the silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raisson, Claude
1968-01-01
This research thesis reports the experimental study of flows and of their evolution until critical heating by using appropriate measurement instruments. The objective is to understand how flow evolution may condition critical heating. After a recall of some notions and values related to the study of two-phase flows, and an overview of published works on flow configurations and on critical heating, the author describes test installation and measurement devices, presents the typical test process, reports instrument calibration, and flow configuration tests with water-air flow under low pressure. Results are reported. The author proposes explanations regarding observed phenomena, and a possible scheme to explain the flow evolution until critical heating [fr
Preliminary evaluation of vector flow and spectral velocity estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per
Spectral estimation is considered as the golden standard in ultrasound velocity estimation. For spectral velocity estimation the blood flow angle is set by the ultrasound operator. Vector flow provides temporal and spatial estimates of the blood flow angle and velocity. A comparison of vector flow...... line covering the vessel diameter. A commercial ultrasound scanner (ProFocus 2202, BK Medical, Denmark) and a 7.6 MHz linear transducer was used (8670, BK Medical). The mean vector blood flow angle estimations were calculated {52(18);55(23);60(16)}°. For comparison the fixed angles for spectral...... estimation were obtained {52;56;52}°. The mean vector velocity estimates at PS {76(15);95(17);77(16)}cm/s and at end diastole (ED) {17(6);18(6);24(6)}cm/s were calculated. For comparison spectral velocity estimates at PS {77;110;76}cm/s and ED {18;18;20}cm/s were obtained. The mean vector angle estimates...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Yoshida, Takuya; Nariai, Hideki; Inasaka, Fujio
1998-01-01
Effect of heated length on the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of subcooled flow boiling with water was experimentally investigated by using direct current heated tube made of stainless steel a part of whose wall thickness was axially cut for realizing nonuniform heat flux condition. The higher enhancement of the CHF was derived for shorter tube length. The effective heated length was determined for the tube under axially nonuniform heat flux condition. When the lower heat flux part below the Net Vapor Generation (NVG) heat flux exists at the middle of tube length, then the effective heated length becomes the tube length downstream the lower heat flux parts. However, when the lower heat flux part is above the NVG, then the effective heated length is full tube length. (author)
Modelling of convective heat and mass transfer in rotating flows
Shevchuk, Igor V
2016-01-01
This monograph presents results of the analytical and numerical modeling of convective heat and mass transfer in different rotating flows caused by (i) system rotation, (ii) swirl flows due to swirl generators, and (iii) surface curvature in turns and bends. Volume forces (i.e. centrifugal and Coriolis forces), which influence the flow pattern, emerge in all of these rotating flows. The main part of this work deals with rotating flows caused by system rotation, which includes several rotating-disk configurations and straight pipes rotating about a parallel axis. Swirl flows are studied in some of the configurations mentioned above. Curvilinear flows are investigated in different geometries of two-pass ribbed and smooth channels with 180° bends. The author demonstrates that the complex phenomena of fluid flow and convective heat transfer in rotating flows can be successfully simulated using not only the universal CFD methodology, but in certain cases by means of the integral methods, self-similar and analyt...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Austegard, Anders
1997-12-31
This thesis consists of two parts. Part 1: Experimental and numerical study of jetfire stop, and Part 2: Experimental and numerical study of a new kind of shell and tube heat exchanger with helical flow on shell side. Part 1 describes the development of the model for simulation of the temperature development through Viking jetfirestop. A simulation program is developed that calculates the temperature development through Viking jetfirestop. In the development of the model, measurements of reaction energy, pyrolysis and heat conductivity at low temperatures are made. The conductivity at higher temperatures and when pyrolysis reactions are going on is estimated experimentally and by numerical calculations. Full-scale jet fire test and small-scale xenon lamp experiments are made to test the simulation model. Part 2 contains the development of a model that simulate the fluid flow and heat transfer in a helical flow shell and tube heat exchanger. It consists of the development of a porosity model and a model for pressure drop and heat transfer as well as experiments in non-standard tube layouts. Results from the simulation program are compared with experiments on a helical flow shell and tube heat exchanger. This is a separate appendix volume, including computer codes and simulated results. 316 figs., 11 tabs.
Depression of the Superfluid Transition Temperature in 4He by a Heat Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin Liang; Qi Xin; Lin Peng
2014-01-01
The depression of the superfluid transition temperature T λ in 4 He by a heat flow Q is studied. A small sealed cell with a capillary is introduced and a stable and flat superfluid transition temperature plateau is easily obtained by controlling the temperature of the variable-temperature platform and the bottom chamber of the sealed cell. Owing to the depression effect of the superfluid transition temperature by the heat flow, the heat flow through the capillary is changed by the temperature control to obtain multiple temperature plateaus of different heat flows. The thermometer self-heating effect, the residual heat leak of the 4.2 K environment, the temperature difference on the He II liquid column, the Kapiza thermal resistance between the liquid helium and the copper surface of the sealed cell, the temperature gradient of the sealed cell, the static pressure of the He II liquid column and other factors have influence on the depression effect and the influence is analyzed in detail. Twenty experiments of the depression of the superfluid transition temperature in 4 He by heat flow are made with four sealed cells in one year. The formula of the superfluid transition temperature pressured by the heat flow is T λ (Q) = −0.00000103Q + 2.1769108, and covers the range 229 ≤ Q ≤ 6462 μW/cm 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, H.
2004-01-01
The aim of this study is to reveal the temporal and spatial heat transfer performance of an isothermally heated sphere placed in a uniform, downwardly directed flow using a micro-foil heat flow sensor (HFS). A HFS, whose response time is about 0.02 s, was pasted on the surface of a heated copper sphere. Experiments were carried out using air with a Grashof number of 3.3 x 10 5 and with several Reynolds numbers (Re) up to 1800. Three flow patterns appeared: a chaotic flow at Re<240; a two-dimensional steady separated flow at 240 ≤ Re<500, and a three-dimensional unsteady separated flow at Re ≥ 500. In addition, the instantaneous and time-averaged heat transfer performance around the sphere in each of the three regions was clarified. Next, enhancement of the latent heat storage rate of a solid phase change material (PCM) in a spherical capsule was performed. The flow around the spherical capsule, in which the solid PCM was filled and placed in a heated, upwardly directed flow, is the approximate adverse flow phenomenon around the heated sphere which was placed in a downwardly directed flow. In other words, the buoyant flow and the forced flow are in the opposite directions in these two cases. Tests of latent heat storage were run for two Reynolds numbers which represented different flow characteristics in the heat transfer experiments, Re=150 and 1800. Furthermore, copper plates were inserted into the solid PCM, of which thermal conductivity was considerably low, to enhance the latent heat storage rate for the two Reynolds number flows
Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.
1976-01-01
The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....
Heat flow in the Sumisu Rift, Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamazaki, Toshitsugu
1988-01-27
Heat flow in the Sumisu rift of the Izu-Ogasawara Arc. was measured. Temperature gradients measured at 11 locations give the heat flow of 38 - 700 mW/m. The wide fluctuation is attributed to the existing hydrothermal system but can barely be explained by the influence of the thermal conductivity which depends upon the surface and basement rock topography. High values are found in the area of upwelling hot water and low values in the downwelling area, proving the hypothesis that the Sumisu Rift is in the early period of back-arc spreading. In the measurement at five locations at dense intervals (0.5 - 1 km) across the geological faults, high heat flow is found near the base of the submarine canyons. The wavelength of local thermal flow variation is several km, that is close to the distance between geological faults. The hydrothermal circulation is caused by the high aquiclude of the active faults and the low viscosity of high temperature interstitial water although there exists in this area an alluvial deposit of 1500 m thick, or the largest in the Sumisu Rift, which has low aquiclude and low heat convection. (5 figs, 1 tab, 23 refs)
DNS of fully developed turbulent heat transfer of a viscoelastic drag-reducing flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Bo [Department of Oil and Gas Storage and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Kawaguchi, Yasuo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)
2005-10-01
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent heat transfer in a channel flow with a Giesekus model was carried out to investigate turbulent heat transfer mechanism of a viscoelastic drag-reducing flow by additives. The configuration was a fully-developed turbulent channel flow with uniform heat flux imposed on both the walls. The temperature was considered as a passive scalar with the effect of buoyancy force neglected. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and half the channel height was 150. Statistical quantities such as root-mean-square temperature fluctuations, turbulent heat fluxes and turbulent Prandtl number were obtained and compared with those of a Newtonian fluid flow. Budget terms of the temperature variance and turbulent heat fluxes were also presented. (author)
Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer from microporous surfaces in a small channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Sun; Li, Zhang; Hong, Xu; Xiaocheng, Zhong
2011-01-01
The continuously increasing requirement for high heat transfer rate in a compact space can be met by combining the small channel/microchannel and heat transfer enhancement methods during fluid subcooled flow boiling. In this paper, the sintered microporous coating, as an efficient means of enhancing nucleate boiling, was applied to a horizontal, rectangular small channel. Water flow boiling heat transfer characteristics from the small channel with/without the microporous coating were experimentally investigated. The small channel, even without the coating, presented flow boiling heat transfer enhancement at low vapor quality due to size effects of the channel. This enhancement was also verified by under-predictions from macro-scale correlations. In addition to the enhancement from the channel size, all six microporous coatings with various structural parameters were found to further enhance nucleate boiling significantly. Effects of the coating structural parameters, fluid mass flux and inlet subcooling were also investigated to identify the optimum condition for heat transfer enhancement. Under the optimum condition, the microporous coating could produce the heat transfer coefficients 2.7 times the smooth surface value in subcooled flow boiling and 3 times in saturated flow boiling. The combination of the microporous coating and small channel led to excellent heat transfer performance, and therefore was deemed to have promising application prospects in many areas such as air conditioning, chip cooling, refrigeration systems, and many others involving compact heat exchangers. (authors)
Heat transfer and material flow during laser assisted multi-layer additive manufacturing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.
2014-01-01
A three-dimensional, transient, heat transfer, and fluid flow model is developed for the laser assisted multilayer additive manufacturing process with coaxially fed austenitic stainless steel powder. Heat transfer between the laser beam and the powder particles is considered both during their flight between the nozzle and the growth surface and after they deposit on the surface. The geometry of the build layer obtained from independent experiments is compared with that obtained from the model. The spatial variation of melt geometry, cooling rate, and peak temperatures is examined in various layers. The computed cooling rates and solidification parameters are used to estimate the cell spacings and hardness in various layers of the structure. Good agreement is achieved between the computed geometry, cell spacings, and hardness with the corresponding independent experimental results.
MODELING COUPLED PROCESSES OF MULTIPHASE FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Y. Wu; S. Mukhopadhyay; K. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson
2006-01-01
A mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is developed for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. The TH model, consisting of three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the unsaturated zone, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, and thermal loading scenario under estimated current and future climate conditions. More specifically, the TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the most updated, best-estimated input parameters. This mountain-scale TH model simulates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale multiphase fluid flow, and evaluates the impact of radioactive waste heat on the hydrogeological system, including thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. For a better description of the ambient geothermal condition of the unsaturated zone system, the TH model is first calibrated against measured borehole temperature data. The ambient temperature calibration provides the necessary surface and water table boundary as well as initial conditions. Then, the TH model is used to obtain scientific understanding of TH processes in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone under the designed schedule of repository thermal load
Transient heat transfer to laminar flow from a flat plate with heat capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanawa, Juichi
1975-01-01
As the most basic problem in transient heat transfer, a plate with heat capacity was studied, which is placed in uniform laminar flow in parallel with it, is initially at the same temperature as that of the fluid, and then abruptly is given a specific heating value. The equation of transient heat transfer in this case was solved by numerical calculation. The following matters were revealed. (1) The equation was able to be solved by the application of Laplace transformation and numerical inverse transformation. (2) Wall temperature when the heat capacity of a plate was zero initially agreed well with heat conduction solution. With increase of the heat capacity, the delay in wall temperature rise was increased. (3) Heat transfer rate in case of the heat capacity of zero initially agreed well with the heat-conduction solution. With increase of the heat capacity, the Nusselt number increased. (4) Temperature distribution in case of the heat capacity of zero initially agreed well with the heat-conduction solution. (Mori, K.)
Study on Fins' Effect of Boiling Flow in Millimeter Channel Heat Exchanger
Watanabe, Satoshi
2005-11-01
Recently, a lot of researches about compact heat exchangers with mini-channels have been carried out with the hope of obtaining a high-efficiency heat transfer, due to the higher ratio of surface area than existing heat exchangers. However, there are many uncertain phenomena in fields such as boiling flow in mini-channels. Thus, in order to understand the boiling flow in mini-channels to design high-efficiency heat exchangers, this work focused on the visualization measurement of boiling flow in a millimeter channel. A transparent acrylic channel (heat exchanger form), high-speed camera (2000 fps at 1024 x 1024 pixels), and halogen lamp (backup light) were used as the visualization system. The channel's depth is 2 mm, width is 30 mm, and length is 400 mm. In preparation for commercial use, two types of channels were experimented on: a fins type and a normal slit type (without fins). The fins are circular cylindrical obstacles (diameter is 5 mm) to promote heat transfer, set in a triangular array (distance between each center point is 10 mm). Especially in this work, boiling flow and heat transfer promotion in the millimeter channel heat exchanger with fins was evaluated using a high-speed camera.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M Hadi Kusuma; Mulya Juarsa; Anhar Riza Antariksawan
2013-01-01
Boiling heat transfer phenomena on rectangular narrow gap was related to the safety of nuclear reactors. Research done in order to study the safety of nuclear reactors in particular relating to boiling heat transfer and useful on the improvement of next-generation reactor designs. The research focused on calculation of the heat flux during the cooling process in rectangular narrow gap size 1.0 mm. with initial temperatures 200°C. 400°C, and 600°C, also the flow rates of cooling water 0,1 liters/second. 0,2 liters/second. and 0,3 liters/second. Experiments carried out by injecting water at a certain flow rate with the water temperature 85°C. Transient temperature measurement data recorded by the data acquisition system. Transient temperature measurement data is used to calculate the flux of heat gain is then used to obtain the heat transfer coefficient. This research aimed to obtain the correlation between critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient to changes in temperatures and water flow rates for bilaterally-heated cases on rectangular narrow gap. The results obtained for a constant cooling water flow rate, critical heat flux will increase when hot plate temperature also increased. While on a constant hot plate temperature, coefficient heat transfer will increase when cooling water flow rate also increased. Thus it can be said that the cooling water flow rate and temperature of the hot plate has a significant effect on the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient resulted in quenching process of vertical rectangular narrow gap with double-heated cases. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, J A; Walsh, P A
2014-01-01
This paper presents an investigation on the heat transfer characteristics associated with liquid-gas Taylor flows in mini channels incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM). Taylor flows have been shown to result in heat transfer enhancements due to the fluid recirculation experienced within liquid slugs which is attributable to the alternating liquid slug and gas bubble flow structure. Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) also offer significant potential with increased thermal capacity due to the latent heat required to cause phase change. The primary aim of this work was to examine the overall heat transfer potential associated with combining these two novel liquid cooling technologies. By investigating the local heat transfer characteristics, the augmentation/degradation over single phase liquid cooling was quantified while examining the effects of dimensionless variables, including Reynolds number, liquid slug length and gas void fraction. An experimental test facility was developed which had a heated test section and allowed MPCM-air Taylor flows to be subjected to a constant heat flux boundary condition. Infrared thermography was used to record high resolution experimental wall temperature measurements and determine local heat transfer coefficients from the thermal entrance point. 30.2% mass particle concentration of the MPCM suspension fluid was examined as it provided the maximum latent heat for absorption. Results demonstrate a significant reduction in experimental wall temperatures associated with MPCM-air Taylor flows when compared with the Graetz solution for conventional single phase coolants. Total enhancement in the thermally developed region is observed to be a combination of the individual contributions due to recirculation within the liquid slugs and also absorption of latent heat. Overall, the study highlights the potential heat transfer enhancements that are attainable within heat exchange devices employing MPCM
Dense Descriptors for Optical Flow Estimation: A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmadreza Baghaie
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Estimating the displacements of intensity patterns between sequential frames is a very well-studied problem, which is usually referred to as optical flow estimation. The first assumption among many of the methods in the field is the brightness constancy during movements of pixels between frames. This assumption is proven to be not true in general, and therefore, the use of photometric invariant constraints has been studied in the past. One other solution can be sought by use of structural descriptors rather than pixels for estimating the optical flow. Unlike sparse feature detection/description techniques and since the problem of optical flow estimation tries to find a dense flow field, a dense structural representation of individual pixels and their neighbors is computed and then used for matching and optical flow estimation. Here, a comparative study is carried out by extending the framework of SIFT-flow to include more dense descriptors, and comprehensive comparisons are given. Overall, the work can be considered as a baseline for stimulating more interest in the use of dense descriptors for optical flow estimation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, R.T.
1975-08-01
Selected experimental data pertinent to piping heat transfer, transient fluid flow regimes, and steam generator heat transfer obtained during the Semiscale Mod-1 isothermal blowdown test series (Test Series 1) are analyzed. The tests in this first test series were designed to provide counterparts to the LOFT nonnuclear experiments. The data from the Semiscale Mod-1 intact and broken loop piping are evaluated to determine the surface heat flux and average heat transfer coefficients effective during the blowdown transient and compared with well known heat transfer correlations used in the RELAP4 computer program. Flow regimes in horizontal pipe sections are calculated and compared with data obtained from horizontal and vertical densitometers and with an existing steady state flow map. Effects of steam generator heat transfer are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The Semiscale Mod-1 data and the analysis presented in this report are valuable for evaluating the adequacy and improving the predictive capability of analytical models developed to predict system response to piping heat transfer, piping flow regimes, and steam generator heat transfer during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). 16 references. (auth)
Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers
Vitale, N.; Yarr, George
1993-01-01
Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdulla, Sherif H.; Liu Xin; Anderson, Mark H.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Corradini, Michael L.; Cho, Dae; Page, Richard
2005-01-01
Advanced reactor system designs are being considered with liquid-metal cooling connected to a steam power cycle. In addition, current reactor safety systems are considering auxiliary cooling schemes that assure ex-vessel debris coolability utilizing direct water injection into molten material pools to achieve core quenching and eventual coolability. The phenomenon common in both applications is direct contact heat exchange. The current study focuses on detailed measurements of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange that is directly applicable to improvements in effective heat transfer in devices that are being considered for both of these purposes.In this study, a test facility was designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to map the operating range of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange. The test section (184-cm height, 45.75-cm width, and 10-cm depth) is a rectangular slice of a larger heat exchange device. This apparatus was used not only to provide measurements of integral thermal performance (i.e., volumetric heat transfer coefficient), but also local heat transfer coefficients in a bubbly flow regime with X-ray imaging based on measured parameters such as bubble formation time, bubble rise velocity, and bubble diameters.To determine these local heat transfer coefficients, a complete methodology of the X-ray radiography for two-phase flow measurement has been developed. With this methodology, a high-energy X-ray imaging system is optimized for our heat exchange experiments. With this real-time, large-area, high-energy X-ray imaging system, the two-phase flow was quantitatively visualized. An efficient image processing strategy was developed by combining several optimal digital image-processing algorithms into a software computational tool written in MATLAB called T-XIP. Time-dependent heat transfer-related variables such as bubble volumes and velocities, were determined. Finally, an error analysis associated with these measurements
Flow visualization study of inverted annular flow of post dryout heat transfer region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.
1985-01-01
The inverted annular flow is important in the area of LWR accident analysis in terms of the maximum cladding temperature and effectiveness of the emergency core cooling. However, the inverted annular flow thermal-hydraulics is not well understood due to its special heat transfer condition of film boiling. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formation, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail experimentally. A new experimental apparatus has been constructed in which film boiling heat transfer can be established in a transparent test section. The test section consists of two coaxial quartz tubes. The annular gap between these two tubes is filled with a hot, clear fluid (syltherm 800) so as to maintain film boiling temperatures and heat transfer rates at the inner quartz tube wall. Data on liquid core stability, core break-up mechanism, and dispersed-core liquid slug and droplet sizes are obtained using F 113 as a test fluid. Both high speed movies and flash photographs (3 μsec) are used
Critical heat-flux experiments under low-flow conditions in a vertical annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.
1982-03-01
An experimental study was performed on critical heat flux (CHF) at low flow conditions for low pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The test section was transparent, therefore, visual observations of dryout as well as various instrumentations were made. The data indicated that a premature CHF occurred due to flow regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the critical heat flux observed in the experiment is essentially similar to a flooding-limited burnout and the critical heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow regime transition. The observed CHF values are much smaller than the standard high quality CHF criteria at low flow, corresponding to the annular flow film dryout. This result is very significant, because the coolability of a heater surface at low flow rates can be drastically reduced by the occurrence of this mode of CHF
Study on drop pressure and flow distribution of double-tube heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Junqiang; Chen Minghui; Hu Yumin; Li Rizhu; Kong Dechun; Zhang Weijie
2007-01-01
The parallel connection channel pressure drop characters of the double-tube bundle heat exchange were experimentally investigated in this paper in order to find out how the flow of the heat exchanger is distributed and then to optimize the structure of heat exchanger according to the flow distribution. A double-tube bundle heat exchanger was built according to the similarity criteria. The experiment system was also built to test the optimization of the heat exchanger. The experiment results reveal that the calculating model is reliable and decreasing pipe space to optimize the heat exchanger is reasonable. (authors)
MHD Flow Towards a Permeable Surface with Prescribed Wall Heat Flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan
2009-01-01
The steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow towards a vertical permeable surface with prescribed heat flux is investigated. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically by a finite-difference method. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of the governing parameters are analysed and discussed. Both assisting and opposing flows are considered. It is found that dual solutions exist for the assisting flow, besides the solutions usually reported in the literature for the opposing fow
Effects of roll waves on annular flow heat transfer at horizontal condenser tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondo, Masaya; Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Sakashita, Akihiro
2002-01-01
Heat removal characteristic of a horizontal in-tube condensation heat exchanger is under investigation to be used for a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a next generation-type BWR. Flow regime observed at the inlet of the condenser tube was annular flow, and the local heat transfer rate was ∼20% larger than the prediction by the Dobson-Chato correlation. Roll waves were found to appear on the liquid film in the annular flow. The measured local condensation heat transfer rate was being closely related to the roll waves frequency. Based on these observations, a model is proposed which predicts the condensation heat transfer coefficient for annular flows around the tube inlet. The proposed model predicts well the influences of pressure, local gas-phase velocity and film thickness. (author)
Void fraction distribution in a heated rod bundle under flow stagnation conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrero, V.A.; Guido-Lavalle, G.; Clausse, A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina)
1995-09-01
An experimental study was performed to determine the axial void fraction distribution along a heated rod bundle under flow stagnation conditions. The development of the flow pattern was investigated for different heat flow rates. It was found that in general the void fraction is overestimated by the Zuber & Findlay model while the Chexal-Lellouche correlation produces a better prediction.
Heat and fluid flow during rapid solidification of non-equilibrium materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negli, S.C.; Eddingfield, D.L.; Brower, W.E. Jr.
1990-01-01
Rapid solidification technology (RST) is an advanced solidification process which is being utilized to produce non-equilibrium structures with properties not previously available with conventionally cast materials. An iron based alloy rapidly quenched to form a metallic glass is being installed on a large scale in electric power transformers where it cuts heat losses dramatically. The formation of a non-equilibrium structure usually requires a cooling rate of at least a million degrees per second. Achieving this high a cooling rate depends not only on the heat transfer conditions during the quenching process, but also on the fluid flow conditions in the molten metal before and during solidification. This paper presents a model of both heat and fluid flow during RST by the hammer and anvil method. The symmetry of two sided cooling permits analysis which is still applicable to the one sided cooling that occurs during melt spinning, the prevalent method of RST. The heat flow is modeled as one dimensional, normal to the quench surface. Previous models have shown the heat flow in the plane of the quench surface not to be significant. The fluid flow portion of the model utilizes the squeeze film solution for flow between two parallel flat plates. The model predicts the effects of superheat of the melt and of the quench hammer speed upon cooling rate during the formation of nonequilibrium phases. An unexpected result is that increased superheat results in much higher cooling rates, due to fluid flow before a potential transformation would take place; this enhanced liquid metal flow results in a thinner section casting which in turn has a dominant effect on the cooling rate. The model also predicts an expanded regime of Newtonian (interface controlled) cooling by about a factor of ten as compared to previous model of RST
Local Heat Transfer and CHF for Subcooled Flow Boiling - Annual Report 1993
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, Ronald D.
2000-01-01
Subcooled flow boiling in heated coolant channels is an important heat transfer enhancement technique in the development of fusion reactor components, where high heat fluxes must be accommodated. As energy fluxes increase in magnitude, additional emphasis must be devoted to enhancing techniques such as sub cooling and enhanced surfaces. In addition to subcooling, other high heat flux alternatives such as high velocity helium and liquid metal cooling have been considered as serious contenders. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages [1], which must be weighed as to reliability and reduced cost of fusion reactor components. Previous studies [2] have set the stage for the present work, which will concentrate on fundamental thermal hydraulic issues associated with the h-international Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Engineering Design Activity (EDA). This proposed work is intended to increase our understanding of high heat flux removal alternatives as well as our present capabilities by: (1) including single-side heating effects in models for local predictions of heat transfer and critical heat flux; (2) inspection of the US, Japanese, and other possible data sources for single-side heating, with the aim of exploring possible correlations for both CHF and local heat transfer; and (3) assessing the viability of various high heat flux removal techniques. The latter task includes: (a) sub-cooled water flow boiling with enhancements such as twisted tapes, and hypervapotrons, (b) high velocity helium cooling, and (c) other potential techniques such as liquid metal cooling. This assessment will increase our understanding of: (1) hypervapotron heat transfer via fins, flow recirculation, and flow oscillation, and (2) swirl flow. This progress report contains selective examples of ongoing work. Section II contains an extended abstract, which is part of and evolving technical paper on single-side f heating. Section III describes additional details
A mechanistic model of heat transfer for gas-liquid flow in vertical wellbore annuli.
Yin, Bang-Tang; Li, Xiang-Fang; Liu, Gang
2018-01-01
The most prominent aspect of multiphase flow is the variation in the physical distribution of the phases in the flow conduit known as the flow pattern. Several different flow patterns can exist under different flow conditions which have significant effects on liquid holdup, pressure gradient and heat transfer. Gas-liquid two-phase flow in an annulus can be found in a variety of practical situations. In high rate oil and gas production, it may be beneficial to flow fluids vertically through the annulus configuration between well tubing and casing. The flow patterns in annuli are different from pipe flow. There are both casing and tubing liquid films in slug flow and annular flow in the annulus. Multiphase heat transfer depends on the hydrodynamic behavior of the flow. There are very limited research results that can be found in the open literature for multiphase heat transfer in wellbore annuli. A mechanistic model of multiphase heat transfer is developed for different flow patterns of upward gas-liquid flow in vertical annuli. The required local flow parameters are predicted by use of the hydraulic model of steady-state multiphase flow in wellbore annuli recently developed by Yin et al. The modified heat-transfer model for single gas or liquid flow is verified by comparison with Manabe's experimental results. For different flow patterns, it is compared with modified unified Zhang et al. model based on representative diameters.
Flow regimes and mechanistic modeling of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions
Le Corre, Jean-Marie
Thermal performance of heat flux controlled boiling heat exchangers are usually limited by the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) above which the heat transfer degrades quickly, possibly leading to heater overheating and destruction. In an effort to better understand the phenomena, a literature review of CHF experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available data. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. It is postulated that a high local wall superheat occurs locally in a dry area of the heated wall, due to a cyclical event inherent to the considered CHF two-phase flow regime, preventing rewetting (Leidenfrost effect). The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow. A numerical model using a two-dimensional transient thermal analysis of the heater undergoing nucleation was developed to mechanistically predict CHF in the case of a bubbly flow regime. In this type of CHF two-phase flow regime, the high local wall superheat occurs underneath a nucleating bubble at the time of bubble departure. The model simulates the spatial and temporal heater temperature variations during nucleation at the wall, accounting for the stochastic nature of the boiling phenomena. The model has also the potential to evaluate
Heat transfer enhancement of free surface MHD-flow by a protrusion wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hulin Huang; Bo Li
2010-01-01
Due to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect on the flow, which degrades heat transfer coefficients by pulsation suppression of external magnetic field on the flow, a hemispherical protrusion wall is applied to free surface MHD-flow system as a heat transfer enhancement, because the hemispherical protrusion wall has some excellent characteristics including high heat transfer coefficients, low friction factors and high overall thermal performances. So, the characteristics of the fluid flow and heat transfer of the free surface MHD-flow with hemispherical protrusion wall are simulated numerically and the influence of some parameters, such as protrusion height δ/D, and Hartmann number, are also discussed in this paper. It is found that, in the range of Hartmann number 30 ≤ Ha ≤ 70, the protrusion wall assemblies can achieve heat transfer enhancements (Nu/Nu 0 ) of about 1.3-2.3 relative to the smooth channel, while the friction loss (f/f 0 ) increases by about 1.34-1.45. Thus, the high Nusselt number can be obtained when the protrusion wall with a radically lower friction loss increase, which may help get much higher overall thermal performances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Kyoung Woo; Oh, Jae Min; Seo, Jae Kwang; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Doo Jeong
2009-01-01
For a research reactor, a conceptual primary cooling system (PCS) was designed for an adequate cooling to the reactor core. The developed primary cooling circuit consisted of decay tanks, pumps, heat exchangers, vacuum breakers, some isolation and check valves, connection piping, and instruments. The main function of the primary cooling pumps (PCPs) of the PCS was to circulate the reactor coolant through the fuel core and the heat exchangers during a normal operation. The head according to the design flow rate which was determined by the thermal hydraulic design analysis for the core should be estimated to design the PCPs in the fluid system. The pressure loss in the PCS can be calculated by the dimensional analysis of the pipe flow and the head loss coefficient of the components. However, it is insufficient to estimate the pressure loss for 3-dimensional flow phenomena such as the flow path in the reactor with the theoretical dimensional analysis based on experimental data. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the pressure loss of the part of a research reactor vessel. For evaluating the pressure loss, the commercially available CFD computer model, FLUENT, was employed. First, for validating the application of FLUENT to the pressure loss, a simple case was calculated and compared with the Idelchik empirical correlation. Secondly, several cases for the inlet part of a research reactor vessel were estimated by a FLUENT 3- dimensional calculation
Theoretical analysis and experimental research on dispersed-flow boiling heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Zhenwan; Jia Dounan; Li Linjiao; Mu Quanhou
1989-01-01
Experiment on dispersed-flow boiling heat transfer at low pressure has been done. The hot patch technique has been used to establish post-dryout conditions. The position of the hot patch can be varied along the test section. The superheated vapor temperatures at different elevations after dryout point are obtained. The experimental data are generally in agreement with the models of predictions of existing nonequilibrium film boiling. A heat transfer model for dispersed-flow boiling heat transfer has been developed. And the model can explain the phenomena of heat transfer near the dryout point. (orig./DG)
Comparison of heat transfer in straight and corrugated minichannels with two-phase flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peukert P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Measurements of heat transfer rates performed with an experimental condensation heat exchanger are reported for a corrugated minichannel tube and for a straight minichannel tube. The two cases were compared at same flow regimes. The corrugation appears advantageous for relatively low steam pressures and flow rates where much higher heat transfer rates were observed close to the steam entrance, thus allowing shortening the heat exchanger with the associated advantages of costs lowering and smaller built-up space. At high steam pressures and high flow rates both tubes performed similarly.
Evaluation of correlations of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in horizontal channels.
Zhou, Zhanru; Fang, Xiande; Li, Dingkun
2013-01-01
The calculation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels is required in a variety of applications, such as chemical process cooling systems, refrigeration, and air conditioning. A number of correlations for flow boiling heat transfer in channels have been proposed. This work evaluates the existing correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient with 1669 experimental data points of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 collected from 18 published papers. The top two correlations for R22 are those of Liu and Winterton (1991) and Fang (2013), with the mean absolute deviation of 32.7% and 32.8%, respectively. More studies should be carried out to develop better ones. Effects of channel dimension and vapor quality on heat transfer are analyzed, and the results provide valuable information for further research in the correlation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels.
Heat-flow equation motivated by the ideal-gas shock wave.
Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel
2010-08-01
We present an equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, in order to model shockwave propagation in gases. Our approach is motivated by the observation of a disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the temperature component in the direction of a planar shock wave, versus those in the transverse directions. This difference is most prominent near the shock front. We test our heat-flow equation for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which has been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes solutions. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of hard spheres under strong shockwave conditions.
Estimation of Dense Image Flow Fields in Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus; Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
or an estimate there-of is known. Estimated flow fields in weather satellite imagery might also be used on an operational basis as inputs to short-term weather prediction. In this article we describe a method for the estimation of dense flow fields. Local measurements of motion are obtained by analysis...
Estimation of Dense Image Flow Fields in Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus; Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
1998-01-01
or an estimate there-of is known. Estimated flow fields in weather satellite imagery might also be used on an operational basis as inputs to short-term weather prediction. In this article we describe a method for the estimation of dense flow fields. Local measurements of motion are obtained by analysis...
Evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takamori, Kazuhide; Minato, Akihiko
1993-01-01
A multidimensional analysis code for two-phase flow using a two-fluid model was improved by taking into consideration the condensation heat transfer, film thickness, and film velocity, in order to develop an evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater. The following results were obtained by a two-dimensional analysis of a feed-water heater for a power plant. (1) In the model, the film flowed downward in laminar flow due to gravity, with droplet entrainment and deposition. For evaluation of the film thickness, Fujii's equation was used in order to account for forced convection of steam flow. (2) Based on the former experimental data, the droplet deposition coefficient and droplet entrainment rate of liquid film were determined. When the ratio at which the liquid film directly flowed from an upper heat transfer tube to a lower heat transfer tube was 0.7, the calculated total heat transfer rate agreed with the measured value of 130 MW. (3) At the upper region of a heat transfer tube bundle where film thickness was thin, and at the outer region of a heat transfer tube bundle where steam velocity was high, the heat transfer rate was large. (author)
Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.
1987-01-01
Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.
Flow visualization study of inverted annular flow of post dryout heat transfer region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.
1987-01-01
The inverted annular flow is important in the area of LWR accident analysis in terms of the maximum cladding temperature and effectiveness of the emergency core cooling. However, the inverted annular flow thermal-hydraulics is not well understood due to its special heat transfer condition of film boiling. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail experimentally. A new experimental apparatus has been constructed in which film boiling heat transfer can be established in a transparent test section. Data on liquid core stability, core break-up mechanism, and dispersed-core liquid slug and droplet sizes are obtained using F 113 as a test fluid. Both high speed movies and flash photographs are used. The inlet section consists of specially designed coaxial nozzles for gas and liquid such that the ideal inverted annular flow can be generated. The roll wave formation, droplet entrainment from wave crests, agitated sections with large interfacial areas, classical sinuous jet instability, jet break-up into multiple liquid ligaments and drop formation from liquid ligaments have been observed in detail. (orig.)
Heat Flow and Geothermal Potential in the South-Central United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negraru, Petru T.; Blackwell, David D.; Erkan, Kamil
2008-01-01
Geothermal exploration is typically limited to high-grade hydrothermal reservoirs that are usually found in the western United States, yet large areas with subsurface temperatures above 150 deg. C at economic drilling depths can be found east of the Rocky Mountains. The object of this paper is to present new heat flow data and to evaluate the geothermal potential of Texas and adjacent areas. The new data show that, west of the Ouachita Thrust Belt, the heat flow values are lower than east of the fault zone. Basement heat flow values for the Palo Duro and Fort Worth Basins are below 50 mW/m 2 while, in the frontal zone of the belt, they can exceed 60 mW/m 2 . Further east, along the Balcones fault system the heat flow is in general higher than 55 mW/m 2 . The eastern most heat flow sites are in Louisiana and they show very high heat flow (over 80 mW/m 2 ), which is associated with the apparently highly radioactive basement of the Sabine uplift. The geothermal resource in this area is large and diverse, and can be divided in high grade (temperature above 150 deg. C) convective systems, conductive based enhanced geothermal systems and geothermal/geopressured systems. One of the most attractive areas east of the cordillera extends from eastern Texas across Louisiana and Arkansas to western Mississippi. Here temperatures reach exploitation range at depths below 4 km, and tapping such a resource from shut in hydrocarbon fields is relatively easy. The initial costs of the development can be greatly reduced if existing hydrocarbon infrastructure is used, and therefore using shut-in hydrocarbon fields for geothermal purposes should not be neglected
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fridriksson, Thrainn; Kristjansson, Bjarni Reyr; Armannsson, Halldor; Margretardottir, Eygerour; Olafsdottir, Snjolaug; Chiodini, Giovanni
2006-01-01
Carbon dioxide emissions and heat flow through soil, steam vents and fractures, and steam heated mud pools were determined in the Reykjanes geothermal area, SW Iceland. Soil diffuse degassing of CO 2 was quantified by soil flux measurements on a 600 m by 375 m rectangular grid using a portable closed chamber soil flux meter and the resulting data were analyzed by both a graphical statistical method and sequential Gaussian simulations. The soil temperature was measured in each node of the grid and used to evaluate the heat flow. The heat flow data were also analyzed by sequential Gaussian simulations. Heat flow from steam vents and fractures was determined by quantifying the amount of steam emitted from the vents by direct measurements of steam flow rate. The heat loss from the steam heated mud pools was determined by quantifying the rate of heat loss from the pools by evaporation, convection, and radiation. The steam flow rate into the pools was calculated from the observed heat loss from the pools, assuming that steam flow was the only mechanism of heat transport into the pool. The CO 2 emissions from the steam vents and mud pools were determined by multiplying the steam flow rate from the respective sources by the representative CO 2 concentration of steam in the Reykjanes area. The observed rates of CO 2 emissions through soil, steam vents, and steam heated mud pools amounted to 13.5 ± 1.7, 0.23 ± 0.05, and 0.13 ± 0.03 tons per day, respectively. The heat flow through soil, steam vents, and mud pools was 16.9 ± 1.4, 2.2 ± 0.4, and 1.2 ± 0.1 MW, respectively. Heat loss from the geothermal reservoir, inferred from the CO 2 emissions through the soil amounts to 130 ± 16 MW of thermal energy. The discrepancy between the observed heat loss and the heat loss inferred from the CO 2 emissions is attributed to steam condensation in the subsurface due to interactions with cold ground water. These results demonstrate that soil diffuse degassing can be a more
Investigation of the tube side flow distribution in heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
AbuRomia, M.M.; Pyare, R.
1977-01-01
The tube side flow distribution in heat exchangers is being investigated through the solution of the governing equations of fluid mechanics with distributed resistances that simulate the presence of the tubes. The modeling scheme used in the analysis and the numerical methods of solving the governing equations are described. The analysis is applied to the CRBRP-Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX), where its tube side plenum is simulated by several models that approximate its spherical boundary. The flow field within the plenum and the distribution of the total flow rate among the tubes are determined by the analysis
Occurrence of critical heat flux during blowdown with flow reversal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leung, J.C.M.
1976-04-01
A small-scale experiment using Freon-11 at 130 0 F and 65 psia in a well-instrumented transparent annular test section was used to study the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) during blowdown with flow reversal. The inner stainless steel tube of the annulus was uniformly heated over its 2 ft length. Inlet and exit void fractions were measured by a capacitance technique. Flow regime transition was observed with high speed photography. A 1-hr contact time between Freon-11 and nitrogen at 130 0 F and 60 psig was found to greatly affect the steady-state subcooled boiling initial conditions. Delay in bubble growth was observed in adiabatic blowdown runs. This was caused by the thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions required for the unstable bubble growth. For the diabatic runs, equilibrium was more closely approached in the test section during the early phase of blowdown. Critical heat flux did not occur immediately during the flow decay in an approximately 60 msec reversal period. The first or early CHF which occurred at about 400 msec was independent of the blowdown volume and did not propagate upward. An annular flow pattern appeared at the onset of this CHF which occurred only at the lower 8 in. of the heated zone
Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids
Ferrari, C.; Kaoui, B.; L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.; Rudenko, O.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Toschi, F.
2012-01-01
We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles.
Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L'. Dorčák
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the heat flow is calculated using a method based on application of fractional-order derivatives. Thirdly, monitored is the theoretical temperature of the blast furnace combustion process in the area of tuyeres.
Numerical simulation on coolant flow and heat transfer in core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Zhaohui; Wang Xuefang; Shen Mengyu
1997-01-01
To simulate the coolant flow and the heat transfer characteristics of a core, a computer code, THAPMA (Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Porous Medium Analysis) has been developed. In THAPMA code, conservation equations are based on a porous-medium formulation, which uses four parameters, i.e, volume porosity, directional surface porosity, distributed resistance, and distributed heat source (sink), to model the effects of fuel rods and other internal solid structures on flow and heat transfer. Because the scheme and the solution are very important in accuracy and speed of calculation, a new difference scheme (WSUC) has been used in the energy equation, and a modified PISO solution method have been employed to simulate the steady/transient states. The code has been proved reliable and can effectively solve the transient state problem by several numerical tests. According to the design of Qinshan NPP-II, the flow and heat transfer phenomena in reactor core have been numerically simulated. The distributions of the velocity and the temperature can provide a theoretical basis for core design and safety analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Loveridge, Fleur
2018-01-01
This paper investigates the applicability of currently available analytical, empirical and numerical heat flow models for interpreting thermal response tests (TRT) of quadratic cross section precast pile heat exchangers. A 3D finite element model (FEM) is utilised for interpreting five TRTs by in...
Modeling studies of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.
1989-01-01
Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repositorywide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow effects from corrosion of low-level waste packages
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Minghuei; Lin, Tsunkuo; Tseng, Chyuanchyi [National Sun Yat Sen Univ., Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2002-09-01
Flow pattern and heat transfer during evaporation in a 10.7 mm diameter smooth tube and a micro-fin tube are presented. The tubes were tested in the ranges of mass flux between 163 and 408 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1} and heat flux between 2200 and 56 000 W m{sup -2}. The evaporation temperature was 6{sup o}C. Flow maps for both the tubes are plotted in the coordinates of mass flux and vapor quality. The relations of flow pattern and local heat transfer coefficient are discussed. The heat transfer coefficients for intermittent and annular flows in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube are shown to agree well with Gungor and Winterton's correlation with modified constants. (author)
Probabilistic tectonic heat flow modeling for basin maturation: Assessment method and applications
Wees, J.D. van; Bergen, F. van; David, P.; Nepveu, M.; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; Bonté, D.
2009-01-01
Tectonic modeling is often neglected in the basin modeling workflow and heat flow is most times considered a user input. Such heat flows can, therefore, result in erroneous basin modeling outcomes, resulting in false overoptimistic identification of prospective areas or failure to identify
Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper investigates double diffusive convection MHD flow past a vertical porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic ...
Numerical simulation of gas-liquid two-phase flow behavior with condensation heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takamori, Kazuhide; Murase, Michio; Baba, Yoshikazu; Aihara, Tsuyoshi.
1995-01-01
In this study, condensation heat transfer experiments were performed in order to verify a condensation heat transfer model coupled with a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis. In the heat transfer model, the liquid film flow rate on the heat transfer tubes was calculated by a mass balance equation and the liquid film thickness was calculated from the liquid film flow rate using Nusselt's laminar flow model and Fujii's equation for steam velocity effect. In the experiments, 112 horizontal staggered tubes with an outer diameter of 16 mm and length of 0.55 m were used. Steam and spray water were supplied to the test section, and inlet quality was controlled by the spray water flow rate. The temperature was 100degC and the pressure was 0.1 MPa. The overall heat transfer coefficients were measured for inlet quality of 13-100%. From parameter calculations for the falling liquid film ratio from the upper tubes to the lower tubes, the calculated overall heat transfer coefficients agreed with the data to within ±5% at the falling liquid film ratio of 0.7. (author)
Hydromagnetic nonlinear thermally radiative nanoliquid flow with Newtonian heat and mass conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ijaz Khan
Full Text Available This paper communicates the analysis of MHD three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nanoliquid over a stretchable surface. Flow due to a bidirectional surface is considered. Heat and mass transfer subject to volume fraction of nanoparticles, heat generation and nonlinear solar radiation are examined. Newtonian heat and mass transportation conditions are employed at surface. Concept of boundary layer is utilized to developed the mathematical problem. The boundary value problem is dictated by ten physical parameters: Deborah number, Hartman number, ratio of stretching rates, thermophoretic parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, temperature ratio parameter, conjugate heat and mass parameters and Lewis number. Convergent solutions are obtained using homotopic procedure. Convergence zone for obtained results is explicitly identified. The obtained solutions are interpreted physically. Keywords: Hydromagnetic flow, Viscoelastic nanofluid, Thermophoretic and Brownian moment, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Heat generation
A way to visualise heat transfer in 3D unsteady flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.
2009-01-01
Heat transfer in fluid flows traditionally is examined in terms of temperature field and heat-transfer coefficients. However, heat transfer may alternatively be considered as the transport of thermal energy by the total convective-conductive heat flux in a way analogous to the transport of fluid by
Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids.
Ferrari, Claudio; Kaoui, Badr; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii; ten Thije Boonkkamp, J H M; Toschi, Federico
2012-07-01
We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles. The rotation of the nanoparticles has a twofold effect: it induces a fluid advection around the particle and it strongly influences the statistical distribution of particle orientations. These dynamical effects, which were not included in existing thermal models, are responsible for changing the thermal properties of flowing fluids as compared to quiescent fluids. The proposed model is strongly supported by extensive numerical simulations, demonstrating a potential increase of the heat flux far beyond the Maxwell-Garnett limit for the spherical nanoparticles. The road ahead, which should lead toward robust predictive models of heat flux enhancement, is discussed.
Heat-flow and temperature control in Tian–Calvet microcalorimeters: toward higher detection limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilchiz-Bravo, L E; Pacheco-Vega, A; Handy, B E
2010-01-01
Strategies based on the principle of heat flow and temperature control were implemented, and experimentally tested, to increase the sensitivity of a Tian–Calvet microcalorimeter for measuring heats of adsorption. Here, both heat-flow and temperature control schemes were explored to diminish heater-induced thermal variations within the heat sink element, hence obtaining less noise in the baseline signal. PID controllers were implemented within a closed-loop system to perform the control actions in a calorimetric setup. The experimental results demonstrate that the heat flow control strategy provided a better baseline stability when compared to the temperature control. The effects on the results stemming from the type of power supply used were also investigated
Heat and Groundwater Flow in the San Gabriel Mountains, California
Newman, A. A.; Becker, M.; Laton, W. R., Jr.
2017-12-01
Groundwater flow paths in mountainous terrain often vary widely in both time and space. Such systems remain difficult to characterize due to fracture-dominated flow paths, high topographic relief, and sparse hydrologic data. We develop a hydrogeologic conceptual model of the Western San Gabriel Mountains in Southern California based on geophysical, thermal, and hydraulic head data. Boreholes are located along the San Gabriel Fault Zone (SGFZ) and cover a wide range of elevations to capture the heterogeneity of the hydrogeologic system. Long term (2016-2017) monitoring of temperature and hydraulic head was carried out in four shallow (300-600m depth) boreholes within the study area using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). Borehole temperature profiles were used to assess the regional groundwater flow system and local flows in fractures intersecting the borehole. DTS temperature profiles were compared with available borehole geophysical logs and head measurements collected with grouted vibrating wire pressure transducers (VWPT). Spatial and temporal variations in borehole temperature profiles suggest that advective heat transfer due to fluid flow affected the subsurface thermal regime. Thermal evidence of groundwater recharge and/or discharge and flow through discrete fractures was found in all four boreholes. Analysis of temporal changes to the flow system in response to seasonal and drilling-induced hydraulic forcing was useful in reducing ambiguities in noisy datasets and estimating interborehole relationships. Acoustic televiewer logs indicate fractures were primarily concentrated in densely fractured intervals, and only a minor decrease of fracture density was observed with depth. Anomalously high hydraulic gradients across the SGFZ suggest that the feature is a potential barrier to lateral flow. However, transient thermal anomalies consistent with groundwater flow within the SGFZ indicate this feature may be a potential conduit to vertical flow
Restoration of the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments Metadata
Nagihara, S.; Stephens, M. K.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Nakamura, Y.
2015-01-01
Geothermal heat flow probes were deployed on the Apollo 15 and 17 missions as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). At each landing site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The holes were 1- and 1.5-m deep at the Apollo 15 site and 2.5-m deep at the Apollo 17 sites. The probes monitored surface temperature and subsurface temperatures at different depths. At the Apollo 15 site, the monitoring continued from July 1971 to January 1977. At the Apollo 17 site, it did from December 1972 to September 1977. Based on the observations made through December 1974, Marcus Langseth, the principal investigator of the heat flow experiments (HFE), determined the thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith by mathematically modeling how the seasonal temperature fluctuation propagated down through the regolith. He also determined the temperature unaffected by diurnal and seasonal thermal waves of the regolith at different depths, which yielded the geothermal gradient. By multiplying the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity, Langseth obtained the endogenic heat flow of the Moon as 21 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 15 and 16 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 17.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liles, D.R.
1982-01-01
Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced
Comprehensive study of flow and heat transfer at the surface of circular cooling fin
Mityakov, V. Yu; Grekov, M. A.; Gusakov, A. A.; Sapozhnikov, S. Z.; Seroshtanov, V. V.; Bashkatov, A. V.; Dymkin, A. N.; Pavlov, A. V.; Milto, O. A.; Kalmykov, K. S.
2017-11-01
For the first time is proposed to combine heat flux measurements with thermal imaging and PIV (particle image velocimetry) for a comprehensive study of flow and heat transfer at the surface of the circular cooling fin. The investigated hollow fin is heated from within with saturated water steam; meanwhile the isothermal external surface simulates one of the perfect fin. Flow and heat transfer at the surface of the solid fin of the same size and shape, made of titanium alloy is investigated in the same regimes. Gradient Heat Flux Sensors (GHFS) were installed at different places of the fin surface. Velocity field around a cylinder, temperature field at the surface of the fin and heat flux for each rated time were obtained. Comprehensive method including heat flux measurement, PIV and thermal imaging allow to study flow and heat transfer at the surface of the fin in real time regime. The possibility to study flow and heat transfer for non-isothermal fins is shown; it is allow to improve traditional calculation of the cooling fins.
Analysis of flow induced vibration in heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beek, A.W. van
1977-01-01
A description will be given of three different types of heat exchangers developed by the Dutch Nuclear Industry Group ''Neratoom'' in cooperation with TNO for the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor SNR-300 at Kalkar. Moreover, the research related with flow induced vibrations carried out by TNO (Organization for Applied Scientific Research) will be presented. The flow induced forces on the tubes of the straight-tube steam generators were measured at the inlet and outlet section where partial crossflow occurs. With the measured flow induced forces the response of a tube was calculated as a function of the tube-to-supportbush clearances taking into account the non-linear damping effects from the sodium. The theoretical results showed that for this particular design no tube impact damage is to be expected which was confirmed later by a full scale experiment. Special attention will be devoted to the steam generator with helical-coil tube-bundles, where the sodium flows in a counter cross-flow over the tube-bundle. Extensive measurements of the power spectra of the flow induced forces were carried out since no information could be found in the literature. The vibration analysis will be presented and vibration modes of the entire bundle will be compared with experimentally obtained results. Finally a description of the vibration tests to be carried out on the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) will be presented. (author)
Analysis of flow induced vibration in heat exchangers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beek, A.W. van [Institute for Mechanical Constructions TNO, Delft (Netherlands)
1977-12-01
A description will be given of three different types of heat exchangers developed by the Dutch Nuclear Industry Group ''Neratoom'' in cooperation with TNO for the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor SNR-300 at Kalkar. Moreover, the research related with flow induced vibrations carried out by TNO (Organization for Applied Scientific Research) will be presented. The flow induced forces on the tubes of the straight-tube steam generators were measured at the inlet and outlet section where partial crossflow occurs. With the measured flow induced forces the response of a tube was calculated as a function of the tube-to-supportbush clearances taking into account the non-linear damping effects from the sodium. The theoretical results showed that for this particular design no tube impact damage is to be expected which was confirmed later by a full scale experiment. Special attention will be devoted to the steam generator with helical-coil tube-bundles, where the sodium flows in a counter cross-flow over the tube-bundle. Extensive measurements of the power spectra of the flow induced forces were carried out since no information could be found in the literature. The vibration analysis will be presented and vibration modes of the entire bundle will be compared with experimentally obtained results. Finally a description of the vibration tests to be carried out on the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) will be presented. (author)
An experimental investigation on ground heat flow balance issue for a GCHP
Jiufa Chen; Hongqi Zheng; Qin Xue; Erming An; Weilai Qiao
2010-01-01
For a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP), it is vital to keep the ground heat flow balanced in order to achieve sustainable energy-saving operation. However, the importance of this issue has not been well studied. Focused on the heat flow balance issue, this paper made an exclusive experimental study using a newly installed GCHP system with the designed cooling capacity 1960 kW and heating capacity 1590 kW. The GCHP system was equipped with a data acquisition system and had temperature sensors i...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vejen, Niels Kristian
1997-01-01
A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility.......A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility....
The flow distribution in the parallel tubes of the cavity receiver under variable heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao, Yun; Wang, Yueshe; Hu, Tian
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An experimental loop is built to find the flow distribution in the parallel tubes. • With the concentration of heat flux, two-phase flow makes distribution more uneven. • The total flow rate is chosen appropriately for a wider heat flux distribution. • A suitable system pressure is essential for the optimization of flow distribution. - Abstract: As an optical component of tower solar thermal power station, the heliostat mirror reflects sunlight to one point of the heated surface in the solar cavity receiver, called as one-point focusing system. The radiation heat flux concentrated in the cavity receiver is always non-uniform temporally and spatially, which may lead to extremely local over-heat on the receiver evaporation panels. In this paper, an electrical heated evaporating experimental loop, including five parallel vertical tubes, is set up to evaluate the hydrodynamic characteristics of evaporation panels in a solar cavity receiver under various non-uniform heat flux. The influence of the heat flux concentration ratio, total flow rate, and system pressure on the flow distribution of parallel tubes is discussed. It is found that the flow distribution becomes significantly worse with the increase of heat flux and concentration ratio; and as the system pressure decreased, the flow distribution is improved. It is extremely important to obtain these interesting findings for the safe and stable operation of solar cavity receiver, and can also provide valuable references for the design and optimization of operating parameters solar tower power station system.
Conjugate heat transfer for turbulent flow in a thick walled plain pipe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Canli Eyub
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Laminar and turbulent flow have their own characteristics in respect of heat transfer in pipes. While conjugate heat transfer is a major concern for a thick walled pipe with laminar flow inside it, there are limited studies about a turbulent flow in a thick walled plain pipe considering the conjugate heat transfer. In order to conduct such a work by means of in-house developed code, it was desired to make a preliminary investigation with commercially available CFD codes. ANSYS CFD was selected as the tool since it has a positive reputation in the literature for reliability. Defined heat transfer problem was solved with SIMPLE and Coupled Schemes for pressure velocity coupling and results are presented accordingly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milčić Dragan S.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding technique that utilizes thermomechanical influence of the rotating welding tool on parent material resulting in a monolith joint - weld. On the contact of welding tool and parent material, significant stirring and deformation of parent material appears, and during this process, mechanical energy is partially transformed into heat. Generated heat affects the temperature of the welding tool and parent material, thus the proposed analytical model for the estimation of the amount of generated heat can be verified by temperature: analytically determined heat is used for numerical estimation of the temperature of parent material and this temperature is compared to the experimentally determined temperature. Numerical solution is estimated using the finite difference method - explicit scheme with adaptive grid, considering influence of temperature on material's conductivity, contact conditions between welding tool and parent material, material flow around welding tool, etc. The analytical model shows that 60-100% of mechanical power given to the welding tool is transformed into heat, while the comparison of results shows the maximal relative difference between the analytical and experimental temperature of about 10%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Center], e-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br
2009-07-01
Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A.
2009-01-01
Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)
Effect of thermal interface on heat flow in carbon nanofiber composites.
Gardea, F; Naraghi, M; Lagoudas, D
2014-01-22
The thermal transport process in carbon nanofiber (CNF)/epoxy composites is addressed through combined micromechanics and finite element modeling, guided by experiments. The heat exchange between CNF constituents and matrix is studied by explicitly accounting for interface thermal resistance between the CNFs and the epoxy matrix. The effects of nanofiber orientation and discontinuity on heat flow and thermal conductivity of nanocomposites are investigated through simulation of the laser flash experiment technique and Fourier's model of heat conduction. Our results indicate that when continuous CNFs are misoriented with respect to the average temperature gradient, the presence of interfacial resistance does not affect the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, as most of the heat flow will be through CNFs; however, interface thermal resistance can significantly alter the patterns of heat flow within the nanocomposite. It was found that very high interface resistance leads to heat entrapment at the interface near to the heat source, which can promote interface thermal degradation. The magnitude of heat entrapment, quantified via the peak transient temperature rise at the interface, in the case of high thermal resistance interfaces becomes an order of magnitude more intense as compared to the case of low thermal resistance interfaces. Moreover, high interface thermal resistance in the case of discontinuous fibers leads to a nearly complete thermal isolation of the fibers from the matrix, which will marginalize the contribution of the CNF thermal conductivity to the heat transfer in the composite.
Methods for estimating low-flow statistics for Massachusetts streams
Ries, Kernell G.; Friesz, Paul J.
2000-01-01
Methods and computer software are described in this report for determining flow duration, low-flow frequency statistics, and August median flows. These low-flow statistics can be estimated for unregulated streams in Massachusetts using different methods depending on whether the location of interest is at a streamgaging station, a low-flow partial-record station, or an ungaged site where no data are available. Low-flow statistics for streamgaging stations can be estimated using standard U.S. Geological Survey methods described in the report. The MOVE.1 mathematical method and a graphical correlation method can be used to estimate low-flow statistics for low-flow partial-record stations. The MOVE.1 method is recommended when the relation between measured flows at a partial-record station and daily mean flows at a nearby, hydrologically similar streamgaging station is linear, and the graphical method is recommended when the relation is curved. Equations are presented for computing the variance and equivalent years of record for estimates of low-flow statistics for low-flow partial-record stations when either a single or multiple index stations are used to determine the estimates. The drainage-area ratio method or regression equations can be used to estimate low-flow statistics for ungaged sites where no data are available. The drainage-area ratio method is generally as accurate as or more accurate than regression estimates when the drainage-area ratio for an ungaged site is between 0.3 and 1.5 times the drainage area of the index data-collection site. Regression equations were developed to estimate the natural, long-term 99-, 98-, 95-, 90-, 85-, 80-, 75-, 70-, 60-, and 50-percent duration flows; the 7-day, 2-year and the 7-day, 10-year low flows; and the August median flow for ungaged sites in Massachusetts. Streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for 87 to 133 streamgaging stations and low-flow partial-record stations were used to develop the equations. The
Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a double pipe heat exchanger with porous structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Targui, N.; Kahalerras, H.
2008-01-01
A numerical study of flow and heat transfer characteristics is made in a double pipe heat exchanger with porous structures inserted in the annular gap in two configurations: on the inner cylinder (A) and on both the cylinders in a staggered fashion (B). The flow field in the porous regions is modelled by the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of several parameters such as Darcy number, porous structures thickness and spacing and thermal conductivity ratio are considered in order to look for the most appropriate properties of the porous structures that allow optimal heat transfer enhancement. It is found that the highest heat transfer rates are obtained when the porous structures are attached in configuration B especially at small spacing and high thicknesses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Zhigang [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Huai, Xiulan; Tao, Yujia; Chen, Huanzhuo [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)
2007-12-15
Three-dimensional conjugate numerical simulations using the inlet, average and variable thermal properties respectively were performed for the laminar water flow and heat transfer in rectangular microchannels with D{sub h} of 0.333 mm at Re of 101-1775. Both average and variable properties are adopted in data reduction. The calculated local and average characteristics of flow and heat transfer are compared among different methods, and with the experiments, correlations and simplified theoretical solution data from published literatures. Compared with the inlet property method, both average and variable property methods have significantly lower f{sub app}, but higher convective heat transfer coefficient h{sub z} and Nu{sub z}. Compared with the average property method, the variable property method has higher f{sub app}Re{sub ave} and lower h{sub z} at the beginning, but lower f{sub app}Re{sub ave} and higher h{sub z} at the later section of the channel. The calculated Nu{sub ave} agree well with the Sieder-Tate correlation and the recently reported experiment, validating the traditional macroscale theory in predicting the flow and heat transfer characteristics in the dimension and Re range of the present work. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perroud, P.; De La Harpe, A.; Rebiere, J.
1960-12-01
Two stainless steel tubes were used (with diameters of 5 and 10 mm, lengths 400 and 600 mm respectively), heated electrically (50 Hz). The mixture flows from top to bottom. The work was carried out mainly on mixtures of high concentration (x > 0.1), at pressures between 50 and 60 kg/cm 2 , flowing as a liquid film on the walls of the tube with droplets suspended in the central current of steam. By analysis of the heat transfer laws the exchange mechanisms were established, and the conditions under which the critical heat flux may be exceeded without danger of actual burnout were determined. In this way high output concentrations (x s > 0.9) may be obtained. An attempt has been made to find out to what extent existing correlation formulae can be used to account for the phenomena observed. It is shown that those dealing with exchange coefficients can only be applied in a first approximation in cases where exchange by convection is preponderant, and only below the critical flux. The formulae proposed by WAPD and CISE do not give a satisfactory estimation of the critical heat flux, and the essential reasons for this inadequacy are explained. Lastly, the Martinelli and Nelson method may be used to an approximation of 30 per cent for the calculation of charge losses. (author) [fr
Darcy-Forchheimer flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions.
Hayat, Tasawar; Haider, Farwa; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2017-01-01
Here Darcy-Forchheimer flow of viscoelastic fluids has been analyzed in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Results for two viscoelastic fluids are obtained and compared. A linear stretching surface has been used to generate the flow. Flow in porous media is characterized by considering the Darcy-Forchheimer model. Modified version of Fourier's law through Cattaneo-Christov heat flux is employed. Equal diffusion coefficients are employed for both reactants and auto catalyst. Optimal homotopy scheme is employed for solutions development of nonlinear problems. Solutions expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration fields are provided. Skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate are computed and analyzed. Here the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower for Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model in comparison to classical Fourier's law of heat conduction. Moreover, the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions parameters have opposite behaviors for concentration field.
Study of flow control by localized volume heating in hypersonic boundary layers
Keller, M. A.; Kloker, M. J.; Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Polivanov, P. A.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.
2014-12-01
Boundary-layer flow control is a prerequisite for a safe and efficient operation of future hypersonic transport systems. Here, the influence of an electric discharge—modeled by a heat-source term in the energy equation—on laminar boundary-layer flows over a flat plate with zero pressure gradient at Mach 3, 5, and 7 is investigated numerically. The aim was to appraise the potential of electro-gasdynamic devices for an application as turbulence generators in the super- and hypersonic flow regime. The results with localized heat-source elements in boundary layers are compared to cases with roughness elements serving as classical passive trips. The numerical simulations are performed using the commercial code ANSYS FLUENT (by ITAM) and the high-order finite-difference DNS code NS3D (by IAG), the latter allowing for the detailed analysis of laminar flow instability. For the investigated setups with steady heating, transition to turbulence is not observed, due to the Reynolds-number lowering effect of heating.
Experimental Study of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Microfin Tube
Yu, Jian; Koyama, Shigeru; Momoki, Satoru
1995-01-01
An experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer in a horizontal microfin tube is conducted with pure refrigerants HFC134a, HCFC123 and HCFC22 using a water-heated double-tube type test section. The test microfin tube is a copper tube having the following dimensions: 8.37mm mean inside diameter, 0.168mm fin height, 60fin number and 18 degree of helix angle. The local heat transfer coefficients for both counter and parallel flows are measured in a range of heat flux of 1 to 93W/m^2, mass ve...
Flow and Convective Heat Transfer of Cylinder Misaligned from Aerodynamic Axis of Cyclone Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. L. Leukhin
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The paper provides and analyzes results of experimental investigations on physical specific features of hydrodynamics and convective heat transfer of a cyclone flow with a group of round cylinders located symmetrically relative to its aerodynamic axis, calculative equations for average and local heat transfer factors at characteristic sections of cylinder surface.
Instability of flow of liquid film over a heated surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sha, W.T.
1994-01-01
Fundamental concepts and basic equations of a flowing thin liquid film cooling a heated surfaced by its vaporization and the effect of dry patches were treated. Stable film flow prior to the appearance of dry patches on the heated surface is maintained by a balance of various forces due to surface tension, shear stress, heat and mass transfer, and gravity. Film splitting at a critical film thickness produces dry patches due to perturbation by waves on a perfect surface, and often by surface imperfection and uneven heating. This work is primarily motivated by the design of next-generation nuclear reactors, which employ many novel passive heat-removal systems via natural circulation. These systems are design to prevent damage to the reactor core and containment without action by the reactor operators during or after a design basis accident such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a main steam-line break (MSLB) accident
Temperature and blood flow distribution in the human leg during passive heat stress.
Chiesa, Scott T; Trangmar, Steven J; González-Alonso, José
2016-05-01
The influence of temperature on the hemodynamic adjustments to direct passive heat stress within the leg's major arterial and venous vessels and compartments remains unclear. Fifteen healthy young males were tested during exposure to either passive whole body heat stress to levels approaching thermal tolerance [core temperature (Tc) + 2°C; study 1; n = 8] or single leg heat stress (Tc + 0°C; study 2; n = 7). Whole body heat stress increased perfusion and decreased oscillatory shear index in relation to the rise in leg temperature (Tleg) in all three major arteries supplying the leg, plateauing in the common and superficial femoral arteries before reaching severe heat stress levels. Isolated leg heat stress increased arterial blood flows and shear patterns to a level similar to that obtained during moderate core hyperthermia (Tc + 1°C). Despite modest increases in great saphenous venous (GSV) blood flow (0.2 l/min), the deep venous system accounted for the majority of returning flow (common femoral vein 0.7 l/min) during intense to severe levels of heat stress. Rapid cooling of a single leg during severe whole body heat stress resulted in an equivalent blood flow reduction in the major artery supplying the thigh deep tissues only, suggesting central temperature-sensitive mechanisms contribute to skin blood flow alone. These findings further our knowledge of leg hemodynamic responses during direct heat stress and provide evidence of potentially beneficial vascular alterations during isolated limb heat stress that are equivalent to those experienced during exposure to moderate levels of whole body hyperthermia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Liu, Song; Jin, Hua; Song, KeWei; Wang, LiangChen; Wu, Xiang; Wang, LiangBi
2017-10-01
The heat transfer performance of the tube bank fin heat exchanger is limited by the air-side thermal resistance. Thus, enhancing the air-side heat transfer is an effective method to improve the performance of the heat exchanger. A new fin pattern with flow redistributors and curved triangular vortex generators is experimentally studied in this paper. The effects of the flow redistributors located in front of the tube stagnation point and the curved vortex generators located around the tube on the characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop are discussed in detail. A performance comparison is also carried out between the fins with and without flow redistributors. The experimental results show that the flow redistributors stamped out from the fin in front of the tube stagnation points can decrease the friction factor at the cost of decreasing the heat transfer performance. Whether the combination of the flow redistributors and the curved vortex generators will present a better heat transfer performance depends on the size of the curved vortex generators. As for the studied two sizes of vortex generators, the heat transfer performance is promoted by the flow redistributors for the fin with larger size of vortex generators and the performance is suppressed by the flow redistributors for the fin with smaller vortex generators.
Hayat, T.; Ullah, Siraj; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.; Zaigham Zia, Q. M.
2018-03-01
Here modeling and computations are presented to introduce the novel concept of Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Bidirectional stretching surface induces the flow. Darcy's law is commonly replace by Forchheimer relation. Xue model is implemented for nonliquid transport mechanism. Nonlinear formulation based upon conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is first modeled and then solved by optimal homotopy analysis technique. Optimal estimations of auxiliary variables are obtained. Importance of influential variables on the velocity and thermal fields is interpreted graphically. Moreover velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed. Physical interpretation of influential variables is examined.
3-D Vector Flow Estimation With Row-Column-Addressed Arrays.
Holbek, Simon; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Beers, Christopher; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt
2016-11-01
Simulation and experimental results from 3-D vector flow estimations for a 62 + 62 2-D row-column (RC) array with integrated apodization are presented. A method for implementing a 3-D transverse oscillation (TO) velocity estimator on a 3-MHz RC array is developed and validated. First, a parametric simulation study is conducted, where flow direction, ensemble length, number of pulse cycles, steering angles, transmit/receive apodization, and TO apodization profiles and spacing are varied, to find the optimal parameter configuration. The performance of the estimator is evaluated with respect to relative mean bias ~B and mean standard deviation ~σ . Second, the optimal parameter configuration is implemented on the prototype RC probe connected to the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS. Results from measurements conducted in a flow-rig system containing a constant laminar flow and a straight-vessel phantom with a pulsating flow are presented. Both an M-mode and a steered transmit sequence are applied. The 3-D vector flow is estimated in the flow rig for four representative flow directions. In the setup with 90° beam-to-flow angle, the relative mean bias across the entire velocity profile is (-4.7, -0.9, 0.4)% with a relative standard deviation of (8.7, 5.1, 0.8)% for ( v x , v y , v z ). The estimated peak velocity is 48.5 ± 3 cm/s giving a -3% bias. The out-of-plane velocity component perpendicular to the cross section is used to estimate volumetric flow rates in the flow rig at a 90° beam-to-flow angle. The estimated mean flow rate in this setup is 91.2 ± 3.1 L/h corresponding to a bias of -11.1%. In a pulsating flow setup, flow rate measured during five cycles is 2.3 ± 0.1 mL/stroke giving a negative 9.7% bias. It is concluded that accurate 3-D vector flow estimation can be obtained using a 2-D RC-addressed array.
A Dual-Plane PIV Study of Turbulent Heat Transfer Flows
Wernet, Mark P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Locke, Randy J.
2016-01-01
Thin film cooling is a widely used technique in turbomachinery and rocket propulsion applications, where cool injection air protects a surface from hot combustion gases. The injected air typically has a different velocity and temperature from the free stream combustion flow, yielding a flow field with high turbulence and large temperature differences. These thin film cooling flows provide a good test case for evaluating computational model prediction capabilities. The goal of this work is to provide a database of flow field measurements for validating computational flow prediction models applied to turbulent heat transfer flows. In this work we describe the application of a Dual-Plane Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique in a thin film cooling wind tunnel facility where the injection air stream velocity and temperatures are varied in order to provide benchmark turbulent heat transfer flow field measurements. The Dual-Plane PIV data collected include all three components of velocity and all three components of vorticity, spanning the width of the tunnel at multiple axial measurement planes.
Development of gas-solid direct contact heat exchanger by use of axial flow cyclone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimizu, Akihiko; Yokomine, Takehiko [Kyushu University (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences; Nagafuchi, Tatsuro [Miura Co. Ltd., Matsuyamashi (Japan)
2004-10-01
A heat exchanger between particulate or granular materials and gas is developed. It makes use of a swirling gas flow similar to the usual cyclone separators but the difference from them is that the swirl making gas is issued into the cyclone chamber with downward axial velocity component. After it turns the flow direction near the bottom of the chamber, the low temperature gas receives heat from high temperature particles supplied from above at the chamber's center. Through this configuration, a direct contact and quasi counter-flow heat exchange pattern is realized so that the effective recovery of heat carried by particles is achieved. A model heat exchanger was manufactured via several numerical experiments and its performances of heat exchange as well as particle recovery were examined. Attaching a small particle diffuser below the particle-feeding nozzle brought about a drastic improvement of the heat exchange performance without deteriorating the particle recovery efficiency. The outlet gas temperature much higher than the particle outlet temperature was finally obtained, which is never realized in the parallel flow heat exchanger. (author)
Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variation and high heat flows
Singer, Kelsi N.; Bland, Michael T.; Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.
2018-01-01
Viscously relaxed craters provide a window into the thermal history of Ganymede, a satellite with copious geologic signs of past high heat flows. Here we present measurements of relaxed craters in four regions for which suitable imaging exists: near Anshar Sulcus, Tiamat Sulcus, northern Marius Regio, and Ganymede's south pole. We describe a technique to measure apparent depth, or depth of the crater with respect to the surrounding terrain elevation. Measured relaxation states are compared with results from finite element modeling to constrain heat flow scenarios [see companion paper: Bland et al. (2017)]. The presence of numerous, substantially relaxed craters indicates high heat flows—in excess of 30–40 mW m−2 over 2 Gyr, with many small (heat flows. Crater relaxation states are bimodal for some equatorial regions but not in the region studied near the south pole, which suggests regional variations in Ganymede's thermal history.
Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.
2016-03-01
Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.
Mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchangers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pater Sebastian
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The main task of mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchanger (BHE-Borehole Heat Exchanger is to determine the unit of borehole depth heat flux obtainable or transferred during the operation of the installation. This assignment is indirectly associated with finding the circulating fluid temperature flowing out from the U-tube at a given inlet temperature of fluid in respect to other operational parameters of the installation.
Bilim, Funda; Kosaroglu, Sinan; Aydemir, Attila; Buyuksarac, Aydin
2017-12-01
In this study, curie point depth (CPD), heat flow, geothermal gradient, and radiogenic heat production maps of the Cappadocian region in central Anatolia are presented to reveal the thermal structure from the aeromagnetic data. The large, circular pattern in these maps matches with previously determined shallow (2 km in average) depression. Estimated CPDs in this depression filled with loose volcano-clastics and ignimbrite sheets of continental Neogene units vary from 7 to 12 km, while the geothermal gradient increases from 50 to 68 °C/km. Heat flows were calculated using two different conductivity coefficients of 2.3 and 2.7 Wm-1 K-1. The radiogenic heat production was also obtained between 0.45 and 0.70 μW m-3 in this area. Heat-flow maps were compared with the previous, regional heat-flow map of Turkey and significant differences were observed. In contrast to linear heat-flow increment through the northeast in the previous map in the literature, produced maps in this study include a large, caldera-like circular depression between Nevsehir, Aksaray, Nigde, and Yesilhisar cities indicating high geothermal gradient and higher heat-flow values. In addition, active deformation is evident with young magmatism in the Neogene and Quaternary times and a large volcanic cover on the surface. Boundaries of volcanic eruption centers and buried large intrusions are surrounded with the maxspots of the horizontal gradients of magnetic anomalies. Analytic signal (AS) map pointing-out exact locations of causative bodies is also presented in this study. Circular region in the combined map of AS and maxspots apparently indicates a possible caldera.
Convection flows driven by laser heating of a liquid layer
Rivière , David; Selva , Bertrand; Chraibi , Hamza; Delabre , Ulysse; Delville , Jean-Pierre
2016-01-01
International audience; When a fluid is heated by the absorption of a continuous laser wave, the fluid density decreases in the heated area. This induces a pressure gradient that generates internal motion of the fluid. Due to mass conservation, convection eddies emerge in the sample. To investigate these laser-driven bulk flows at the microscopic scale, we built a setup to perform temperature measurements with a fluorescent-sensitive dye on the one hand, and measured the flow pattern at diffe...
Compact, Deep-Penetrating Geothermal Heat Flow Instrumentation for Lunar Landers
Nagihara, S.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Taylor, P. T.
2012-01-01
Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of the two separate measurements of geothermal gradient in, and thermal conductivity of, the vertical soi/rock/regolith interval penetrated by the instrument. Heat flow measurements are a high priority for the geophysical network missions to the Moon recommended by the latest Decadal Survey [I] and previously the International Lunar Network [2]. The two lunar-landing missions planned later this decade by JAXA [3] and ESA [4] also consider geothermal measurements a priority.
Modeling studies for multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.
1988-07-01
Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport, and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repository-wide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow corrosion of low-level waste packages. 34 refs; 7 figs; 2 tabs
Flow-Boiling Critical Heat Flux Experiments Performed in Reduced Gravity
Hasan, Mohammad M.; Mudawar, Issam
2005-01-01
Poor understanding of flow boiling in microgravity has recently emerged as a key obstacle to the development of many types of power generation and advanced life support systems intended for space exploration. The critical heat flux (CHF) is perhaps the most important thermal design parameter for boiling systems involving both heatflux-controlled devices and intense heat removal. Exceeding the CHF limit can lead to permanent damage, including physical burnout of the heat-dissipating device. The importance of the CHF limit creates an urgent need to develop predictive design tools to ensure both the safe and reliable operation of a two-phase thermal management system under the reduced-gravity (like that on the Moon and Mars) and microgravity environments of space. At present, very limited information is available on flow-boiling heat transfer and the CHF under these conditions.
2007 Estimated International Energy Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J
2011-03-10
An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.
Newtonian heating effects in three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qayyum, A.; Hayat, T.; Alhuthali, M. S.; Malaikah, H. M.
2014-01-01
A mathematical model is constructed to investigate the three-dimensional flow of a non-Newtonian fluid. An incompressible viscoelastic fluid is used in mathematical formulation. The conjugate convective process (in which heat the transfer rate from the bounding surface with a finite capacity is proportional to the local surface temperature) in three-dimensional flow of a differential type of non-Newtonian fluid is analyzed for the first time. Series solutions for the nonlinear differential system are computed. Plots are presented for the description of emerging parameters entering into the problem. It is observed that the conjugate heating phenomenon causes an appreciable increase in the temperature at the stretching wall. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Ahn, Hojin
1989-12-01
Granular materials flowing down an inclined chute were studied experimentally and analytically. Characteristics of convective heat transfer to granular flows were also investigated experimentally and numerically. Experiments on continuous, steady flows of granular materials in an inclined chute were conducted with the objectives of understanding the characteristics of chute flows and of acquiring information on the rheological behavior of granular material flow. Existing constitutive equations and governing equations were used to solve for fully developed chute flows of granular materials, and thus the boundary value problem was formulated with two parameters (the coefficient of restitution between particles, and the chute inclination) and three boundary values at the chute base wall (the values of solid fraction, granular temperature, and mean velocity at the wall). The boundary value problem was numerically solved by the shooting method. These analytical results were also compared with the present experimental values and with the computer simulations by other investigators in their literature. Experiments on heat transfer to granular flows over a flat heating plate were conducted with three sizes of glass beads, polystyrene beads, and mustard seeds. A modification on the existing model for the convective heat transfer was made using the effective Nusselt number and the effective Peclet number, which include the effects of solid fraction variations. The slightly modified model could describe the heat transfer characteristics of both fast and slow flows (supercritical and subcritical). A numerical analysis of the transfer to granular flows was also performed. The results were compared with the present experimental data, and reasonable agreement was found in the comparison.
Effectiveness-ntu computation with a mathematical model for cross-flow heat exchangers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. A. Navarro
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Due to the wide range of design possibilities, simple manufactured, low maintenance and low cost, cross-flow heat exchangers are extensively used in the petroleum, petrochemical, air conditioning, food storage, and others industries. In this paper a mathematical model for cross-flow heat exchangers with complex flow arrangements for determining epsilon -NTU relations is presented. The model is based on the tube element approach, according to which the heat exchanger outlet temperatures are obtained by discretizing the coil along the tube fluid path. In each cross section of the element, tube-side fluid temperature is assumed to be constant because the heat capacity rate ratio C*=Cmin/Cmax tends toward zero in the element. Thus temperature is controlled by effectiveness of a local element corresponding to an evaporator or a condenser-type element. The model is validated through comparison with theoretical algebraic relations for single-pass cross-flow arrangements with one or more rows. Very small relative errors are obtained showing the accuracy of the present model. epsilon -NTU curves for several complex circuit arrangements are presented. The model developed represents a useful research tool for theoretical and experimental studies on heat exchangers performance.
Magnetohydrodynamic flow and heat transfer around a heated cylinder of arbitrary conductivity
Tassone, A.; Nobili, M.; Caruso, G.
2017-11-01
The interaction of the liquid metal with the plasma confinement magnetic field constitutes a challenge for the design of fusion reactor blankets, due to the arise of MHD effects: increased pressure drops, heat transfer suppression, etc. To overcome these issues, a dielectric fluid can be employed as coolant for the breeding zone. A typical configuration involves pipes transverse to the liquid metal flow direction. This numerical study is conducted to assess the influence of pipe conductivity on the MHD flow and heat transfer. The CFD code ANSYS CFX was employed for this purpose. The fluid is assumed to be bounded by rectangular walls with non-uniform thickness and subject to a skewed magnetic field with the main component aligned with the cylinder axis. The simulations were restricted to Re = (20; 40) and M = (10; 50). Three different scenarios for the obstacle were considered: perfectly insulating, finite conductivity and perfectly conducting. The electrical conductivity was found to affect the channel pressure penalty due to the obstacle insertion only for M = 10 and just for the two limiting cases. A general increment of the heat transfer with M was found due to the tendency of the magnetic field to equalize the flow rate between the sub-channels individuated by the pipe. The best results were obtained with the insulating pipe, due to the reduced electromagnetic drag. The generation of counter-rotating vortices close to the lateral duct walls was observed for M = 50 and perfectly conducting pipe as a result of the modified currents distribution.
An experimental and analytical study of fluid flow and critical heat flux in PWR fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowditch, F.H.; Mogford, D.J.
1987-02-01
This report describes experiments that have been carried out at the Winfrith Establishment of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority to determine the critical heat flux characteristics of pressurized water reactor fuel elements over an unusually wide range of coolant flow conditions that are relevant to both normal and fault conditions of reactor operation. The experiments were carried out in the TITAN loop using an electrically heated bundle of 25 rods of 9.5 mm diameter on a 12.7 mm pitch fitted with plain grids in order to provide a generic base for code validation. The fully tabulated experimental data for critical heat flux, pressure drop and sub-channel mixing are encompassed by ranges of pressure between 20 and 160 Bar, coolant flow between 150 and 3600 Kg/m 2 s, and coolant inlet temperature between 150 and 320 0 C. The results of the experiments are compared with predicted data based upon several established critical heat flux correlations. It is concluded that the extrapolation of some correlations to conditions beyond their intended range of application can lead to dangerous over estimates of critical heat flux, but the Winfrith WSC-2 and the EPRI NP-2609 correlations perform well over the whole data range and correlate all data with RMS errors of 9% and 6% respectively. (author)
Surface heat flow density at the Phlegrean Fields caldera (southern Italy)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corrado, Gennardo [Naples Univ., Dept. of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples (Italy); De Lorenzo, Salvatore; Mongelli, Francesco; Tramacere, Antonio; Zito, Gianmaria [Bari Univ., Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Bari (Italy)
1998-08-01
The Phlegrean Fields areas is a Holocene caldera located west of Naples, southern Italy. The recent post caldera activity is characterised by several eruptive centers inside the collapsed areas. In order to investigate the still active volcanic processes, surface heat flow measurement were carried out in 1995 in 30 sites of the Phlegrean Fields and a heat flow map compiled. Filtering of the map reveals some well-defined anomalies superimposed on a general southward-increasing trend. Local anomalies are related to small magma bodies, whereas the observed general trend has been attributed to the effect of ground-water flow. This effect was calculated and removed. The undisturbed mean value of the surface heat flow density in the eastern sector is 149mW/m{sup 2}, which is above the regional value of 85mW/m{sup 2} assigned to the eastern part of the Tyrrhenian Sea, and which is probably influenced by a very large, deep magmatic body. (Author)
Dynamics of the cross flow heat exchanger for heating purposes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, K [Karlsruhe Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Mess- und Regelungstechnik mit Maschinenlaboratorium
1980-09-01
A series of publications is available on the dynamic behaviour of heat exchangers (or heat transmitters, respectively), the subject of which is to deal with direct methods or with refined starting models for this general theme. The bridging between both these manners of advance remained as a problem. The author tried in his own investigation to solve the problem, and indeed by the selection of the correct starting model. He succeeded in this way, in that he removed conceptually a finned pipe from an arbitrary place of a heat exchanger and, furthermore, cut out from this particular pipe an arbitrary section. This section now does not stand alone for itself because the processes, which occur upstream of this section at the air-side and the water-side, are the input quantities of the section, which changes them due to its static and dynamic behaviour and emits them again as output quantities. The author, therefore, treats at first the dynamic behaviour of the section, which is represented in a signal flow diagram and which is used to derive approximate solutions from it. Furthermore, the author discusses the evident derivation of the total behaviour of heat exchangers.
Analysis of the convective heat transfer of a fluid flow over an ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Convective heat transfer in a homogeneous fluid flow Reynolds number of order less than 2000 over an immersed axi-symmetrical body with curved surfaces has been investigated. The fluid flow in consideration was unsteady and of constant density .This study analysed the extent to which convective heat transfer has on ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahin, Ahmet Z.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The optimality in both heat and fluid flow systems has been investigated. ► A new thermodynamic property has been introduced. ► The second law of thermodynamics was extended to present the temheat balance that included the temheat destruction. ► The principle of temheat destruction minimization was introduced. ► It is shown that the rate of total temheat destruction is minimized in steady heat conduction and fluid flow problems. - Abstract: Heat transfer and fluid flow processes exhibit similarities as they occur naturally and are governed by the same type of differential equations. Natural phenomena occur always in an optimum way. In this paper, the natural optimality that exists in the heat transfer and fluid flow processes is investigated. In this regard, heat transfer and fluid flow problems are treated as optimization problems. We discovered a thermodynamic quantity that is optimized during the steady heat transfer and fluid flow processes. Consequently, a new thermodynamic property, the so called temheat, is introduced using the second law of thermodynamics and the definition of entropy. It is shown, through several examples, that overall temheat destruction is always minimized in steady heat and fluid flow processes. The principle of temheat destruction minimization that is based on the temheat balance equation provides a better insight to understand how the natural flow processes take place.
Slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-newtonian nanofluid in a microtube.
Niu, Jun; Fu, Ceji; Tan, Wenchang
2012-01-01
The slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid in a microtube is theoretically studied. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe the non-Newtonian characteristics of the flow, in which the fluid consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index depend on the nanoparticle volume fraction. The velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and local Nusselt number are calculated for different values of nanoparticle volume fraction and slip length. The results show that the influence of nanoparticle volume fraction on the flow of the nanofluid depends on the pressure gradient, which is quite different from that of the Newtonian nanofluid. Increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction has the effect to impede the flow at a small pressure gradient, but it changes to facilitate the flow when the pressure gradient is large enough. This remarkable phenomenon is observed when the tube radius shrinks to micrometer scale. On the other hand, we find that increase of the slip length always results in larger flow rate of the nanofluid. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate of the nanofluid in the microtube can be enhanced due to the non-Newtonian rheology and slip boundary effects. The thermally fully developed heat transfer rate under constant wall temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions is also compared.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Dong Soo; Lee, Joo Seong; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, Yongchan
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Flat plate pulsating heat pipes with asymmetric and aspect ratios were tested. • Flow patterns were investigated according to channel geometry and flow condition. • Heat transfer characteristics were analyzed with various heat inputs. • Optimum asymmetric and aspect ratios were suggested for maximum thermal performance. - Abstract: The thermal performance of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) in compact electronic devices can be improved by adopting asymmetric channels with increased pressure differences and an unbalanced driving force. The objective of this study is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of flat plate PHPs with various asymmetric ratios and aspect ratios in the channels. The thermal performance and flow pattern of the flat plate PHPs were measured by varying the asymmetric ratio from 1.0 to 4.0, aspect ratio from 2.5 to 5.0, and heat input from 2 to 28 W. The effects of the asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio on the thermal resistance were analyzed with the measured evaporator temperature and flow patterns at various heat inputs. With heat inputs of 6 W and 12 W, the optimum asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio for the flat plate PHPs were determined to be 4.0 and 2.5, respectively. With the heat input of 18 W, the optimum asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio were determined to be 1.5 and 2.5, respectively.
Large eddy simulation of particulate flow inside a differentially heated cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bosshard, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.bosshard@a3.epfl.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Thermalhydraulics (LTH), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dehbi, Abdelouahab, E-mail: abdel.dehbi@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Thermalhydraulics (LTH), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Deville, Michel, E-mail: michel.deville@epfl.ch [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, STI-DO, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Leriche, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.leriche@univ-lille1.fr [Université de Lille I, Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille, Avenue Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cédex (France); Soldati, Alfredo, E-mail: soldati@uniud.it [Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine and Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica, Universitá degli Studi di Udine, Udine (Italy)
2014-02-15
Highlights: • Nuclear accident leads to airborne radioactive particles in containment atmosphere. • Large eddy simulation with particles in differentially heated cavity is carried out. • LES results show negligible differences with direct numerical simulation. • Four different particle sets with diameters from 10 μm to 35 μm are tracked. • Particle removal dominated by gravity settling and turbophoresis is negligible. - Abstract: In nuclear safety, some severe accident scenarios lead to the presence of fission products in aerosol form in the closed containment atmosphere. It is important to understand the particle depletion process to estimate the risk of a release of radioactivity to the environment should a containment break occur. As a model for the containment, we use the three-dimensional differentially heated cavity problem. The differentially heated cavity is a cubical box with a hot wall and a cold wall on vertical opposite sides. On the other walls of the cube we have adiabatic boundary conditions. For the velocity field the no-slip boundary condition is applied. The flow of the air in the cavity is described by the Boussinesq equations. The method used to simulate the turbulent flow is the large eddy simulation (LES) where the dynamics of the large eddies is resolved by the computational grid and the small eddies are modelled by the introduction of subgrid scale quantities using a filter function. Particle trajectories are computed using the Lagrangian particle tracking method, including the relevant forces (drag, gravity, thermophoresis). Four different sets with each set containing one million particles and diameters of 10 μm, 15 μm, 25 μm and 35 μm are simulated. Simulation results for the flow field and particle sizes from 15 μm to 35 μm are compared to previous results from direct numerical simulation (DNS). The integration time of the LES is three times longer and the smallest particles have been simulated only in the LES. Particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Easterday, O.T.; Wang, C.Y.; Cheng, P.
1995-01-01
Understanding and predicting two-phase flow and heat transfer in porous media is of fundamental interest for a number of engineering applications. Examples include thermal technologies for remediation of contaminated subsurfaces, the extraction of geothermal energy from vapor-dominated reservoirs, and the assessment of high-level nuclear waste repositories. A numerical and experimental study is reported for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a horizontal porous formation with water through flow and partial heating from below. Based on a newly developed two-phase mixture model, numerical results of the temperature distribution, liquid saturation, liquid and vapor phase velocity fields are presented for three representative cases with varying inlet velocities. It is found that the resulting two-phase structure and flow patterns are strongly dependent upon the water inlet velocity and the bottom heat flux. The former parameter measures the flow along the horizontal direction, while the latter creates a relative motion between the phases in the vertical direction. Experiments are also performed to measure temperature distributions and to visualize the two-phase flow patterns. Qualitative agreement between experiments and numerical predictions is achieved. Overall, this combined experimental and numerical study has provided new insight into conjugate single- and two-phase flow and heat transfer in porous media, although future research is required if accurate modeling of these complex problems is to be accomplished
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knudsen, Soeren
2004-07-01
This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The
Numberical Solution to Transient Heat Flow Problems
Kobiske, Ronald A.; Hock, Jeffrey L.
1973-01-01
Discusses the reduction of the one- and three-dimensional diffusion equation to the difference equation and its stability, convergence, and heat-flow applications under different boundary conditions. Indicates the usefulness of this presentation for beginning students of physics and engineering as well as college teachers. (CC)
Abrantes, João R. C. B.; Moruzzi, Rodrigo B.; Silveira, Alexandre; de Lima, João L. M. P.
2018-02-01
The accurate measurement of shallow flow velocities is crucial to understand and model the dynamics of sediment and pollutant transport by overland flow. In this study, a novel triple-tracer approach was used to re-evaluate and compare the traditional and well established dye and salt tracer techniques with the more recent thermal tracer technique in estimating shallow flow velocities. For this purpose a triple tracer (i.e. dyed-salted-heated water) was used. Optical and infrared video cameras and an electrical conductivity sensor were used to detect the tracers in the flow. Leading edge and centroid velocities of the tracers were measured and the correction factors used to determine the actual mean flow velocities from tracer measured velocities were compared and investigated. Experiments were carried out for different flow discharges (32-1813 ml s-1) on smooth acrylic, sand, stones and synthetic grass bed surfaces with 0.8, 4.4 and 13.2% slopes. The results showed that thermal tracers can be used to estimate shallow flow velocities, since the three techniques yielded very similar results without significant differences between them. The main advantages of the thermal tracer were that the movement of the tracer along the measuring section was more easily visible than it was in the real image videos and that it was possible to measure space-averaged flow velocities instead of only one velocity value, with the salt tracer. The correction factors used to determine the actual mean velocity of overland flow varied directly with Reynolds and Froude numbers, flow velocity and slope and inversely with flow depth and bed roughness. In shallow flows, velocity estimation using tracers entails considerable uncertainty and caution must be taken with these measurements, especially in field studies where these variables vary appreciably in space and time.
Laboratory experiments on heat-drive two-phase flows in natural and artificial rock fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Pruess, Karsten
1998-01-01
Water flow in partially saturated fractures under thermal drive may lead to fast flow along preferential localized pathways and heat pipe conditions. At the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, water flowing in fast pathways may ultimately contact waste packages and transport radionuclides to the accessible environment. Sixteen experiments were conducted to visualize heat-driven liquid flow in fracture models that included (1) assemblies of roughened glass plates, (2) epoxy replicas of rock fractures, and (3) a fractured specimen of Topopah Spring tuff. Continuous rivulet flow was observed for high liquid flow rates, intermittent rivulet flow and drop flow for intermediate flow rates, and film flow for lower flow rates and wide apertures. Heat pipe conditions (vapor-liquid counterflow with phase change) were identified in five of the seven experiments in which spatially resolved thermal monitoring was performed but not when vapor-liquid counterflow was hindered by very narrow apertures and when an inadequate working fluid volume was used
Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil
Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.
2018-01-01
A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, C.-H.; Wu, H.-H.
2006-01-01
In the present study an inverse hyperbolic heat conduction problem is solved by the conjugate gradient method (CGM) in estimating the unknown boundary heat flux based on the boundary temperature measurements. Results obtained in this inverse problem will be justified based on the numerical experiments where three different heat flux distributions are to be determined. Results show that the inverse solutions can always be obtained with any arbitrary initial guesses of the boundary heat flux. Moreover, the drawbacks of the previous study for this similar inverse problem, such as (1) the inverse solution has phase error and (2) the inverse solution is sensitive to measurement error, can be avoided in the present algorithm. Finally, it is concluded that accurate boundary heat flux can be estimated in this study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muraglia, M.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Brun, J.; Carette, M.; Lyoussi, A.
2013-06-01
Improvement of measurements in reactor is still a challenge. Thus, this work focuses on numerical studies of one sensor dedicated to nuclear heating measurements: a radiometric complex calorimeter. More precisely, using a simplified conduction heat model, this work presents the first full 3D simulations of a simplified calorimeter reduced to the complex calorimeter head showing that the key parameter for the sensitivity control is the convective heat transfers between the calorimeter and its external surrounding. The effect of external flow velocity on the calorimeter head response is determined for different flow regimes (natural convection, forced convection) and numerical results are found to be in agreement with experimental results under non-irradiated conditions obtained for the complex calorimeter. Moreover, in order to understand and describe fully the mechanisms leading at the different calorimeter heat transfer, the flow velocity dynamics should be added in the model. In a first approach, due to low influence of the flow velocity for tested power range, a static cooling fluid around the calorimeter head is added in the model. Then, in order to get the full flow dynamics, using Boussinesq approximation, a new 2D fluid model, including both temperature field and flow velocity dynamics, is derived taking into account the nuclear heating effect on the flow. (authors)
Influences of buoyancy and thermal boundary conditions on heat transfer with naturally-induced flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, J.D.; Li, J.
2002-01-01
A fundamental study is reported of heat transfer from a vertical heated tube to air which is induced naturally upwards through it by the action of buoyancy. Measurements of local heat transfer coefficient were made using a specially designed computer-controlled power supply and measurement system for conditions of uniform wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux. The effectiveness of heat transfer proved to be much lower than for conditions of forced convection. It was found that the results could be correlated satisfactorily when presented in terms of dimensionless parameters similar to those used for free convection heat transfer from vertical surfaces provided that the heat transfer coefficients were evaluated using local fluid bulk temperature calculated utilising the measured values of flow rate induced through the system. Additional experiments were performed' with pumped flow. These covered the entire mixed convection region. It was found that the data for naturally-induced flow mapped onto the pumped flow data when presented in terms of Nusselt number ratio (mixed to forced) and buoyancy parameter. Computational simulations of the experiments were performed using an advanced computer code which incorporated a buoyancy-influenced, variable property, developing wall shear flow formulation and a low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence model. These reproduced observed behaviour quite well. (author)
Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hożejowska Sylwia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface – fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two–phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.
Heat flow and geothermal processes in Iceland
Flóvenz, Ólafur G.; Saemundsson, Kristján
1993-09-01
Heat flow values, derived from temperature measurements in shallow boreholes in Iceland, vary substantially across the country. The near-surface temperature gradients range from almost 0 to 500°C/km. The thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks varies from 1.6 to 2.0 W/m°C. The temperature gradient in Iceland is mainly dependent on four factors: (1) the regional heat flow through the crust, (2) hydrothermal activity, (3) the permeability of the rock, and (4) residual heat in extinct volcanic centers. As Iceland is mainly made of basaltic material the radiogenic heat production is almost negligible. The thermal conductivity is, on the other hand, mainly influenced by the porosity of the rock; it increases as the porosity decreases. Iceland is made of sequences of flood basalts that formed within the volcanic rift zone—a continuation of the axis of the Mid-Atlantic ridge—and subsequently drifted sideways. Fresh basaltic lava is usually highly porous (30%) and fractured, and heat is mainly transported by convection. Therefore, a very low or even no temperature gradient is observed at shallow levels within the volcanic rift zone. As the basalt becomes buried the pores close due to lithostatic pressure and formation of secondary minerals. Below 500-1000 m depth in an uneroded lava pile, the heat is mainly transported by conduction. In the lowlands and valleys of Iceland outside the volcanic rift zone, 1000-1500 m of the original lava pile has been eroded, leaving thermal conduction as the most important heat transport mechanism. The regional temperature gradient has been measured in drillholes in dense and poorly permeable rocks away from the geothermal fields. The results show that the temperature gradient varies from 50 to 150°C/km. The highest values are found close to the volcanic rift zone and the gradient decreases with distance from the spreading axis. This result is mainly based on numerous shallow boreholes (60-500 m) but in some cases the results
UNSAT-H Version 3.0: Unsaturated Soil Water and Heat Flow Model Theory, User Manual, and Examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayer, M.J.
2000-01-01
The UNSAT-H model was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the water dynamics of arid sites and, in particular, estimate recharge fluxes for scenarios pertinent to waste disposal facilities. During the last 4 years, the UNSAT-H model received support from the Immobilized Waste Program (IWP) of the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This program is designing and assessing the performance of on-site disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (LMHC 1999). The IWP is interested in estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the vadose zone disposal of tank wastes. Simulation modeling with UNSAT-H is one of the methods being used to provide those estimates (e.g., Rockhold et al. 1995; Fayer et al. 1999). To achieve the above goals for assessing water dynamics and estimating recharge rates, the UNSAT-H model addresses soil water infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, deep drainage, and soil heat flow as one-dimensional processes. The UNSAT-H model simulates liquid water flow using Richards' equation (Richards 1931), water vapor diffusion using Fick's law, and sensible heat flow using the Fourier equation. This report documents UNSAT-H .Version 3.0. The report includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plants, and the code manual. Version 3.0 is an, enhanced-capability update of UNSAT-H Version 2.0 (Fayer and Jones 1990). New features include hysteresis, an iterative solution of head and temperature, an energy balance check, the modified Picard solution technique, additional hydraulic functions, multiple-year simulation capability, and general enhancements
Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and heat transfer in a capillary with thermal radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, A.; Shit, G.C.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical study on heat transfer characteristics together with fully developed electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood through a capillary, having electrokinetic effects by considering the constant heat flux at the wall. The effect of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been taken into account. A rigorous mathematical model for describing Joule heating in electro-osmotic flow of blood including the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, the momentum equation and the energy equation is developed. The alterations in the thermal transport phenomenon, induced by the variation of imposed electromagnetic effects, are thoroughly explained through an elegant mathematical formalism. Results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the capillary is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the stern and diffuse layers. The essential features of the electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and associated heat transfer characteristics through capillary are clearly highlighted by the variations in the non-dimensional parameters for velocity profile, temperature profile and the Nusselt number. The study reveals that the temperature of blood can be controlled by regulating Joule heating parameter. - Highlights: • Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood in capillary is studied. • Potential electric field is applied for driving elecroosmotic flow of blood. • Effect of thermal radiation, Joule heating and velocity slip is investigated. • Thermal radiation bears the significant change in the temperature field
Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and heat transfer in a capillary with thermal radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinha, A. [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Shit, G.C., E-mail: gopal_iitkgp@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600113 (India)
2015-03-15
This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical study on heat transfer characteristics together with fully developed electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood through a capillary, having electrokinetic effects by considering the constant heat flux at the wall. The effect of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been taken into account. A rigorous mathematical model for describing Joule heating in electro-osmotic flow of blood including the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, the momentum equation and the energy equation is developed. The alterations in the thermal transport phenomenon, induced by the variation of imposed electromagnetic effects, are thoroughly explained through an elegant mathematical formalism. Results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the capillary is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the stern and diffuse layers. The essential features of the electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and associated heat transfer characteristics through capillary are clearly highlighted by the variations in the non-dimensional parameters for velocity profile, temperature profile and the Nusselt number. The study reveals that the temperature of blood can be controlled by regulating Joule heating parameter. - Highlights: • Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood in capillary is studied. • Potential electric field is applied for driving elecroosmotic flow of blood. • Effect of thermal radiation, Joule heating and velocity slip is investigated. • Thermal radiation bears the significant change in the temperature field.
Lattice Boltzmann simulations of heat transfer in fully developed periodic incompressible flows
Wang, Zimeng; Shang, Helen; Zhang, Junfeng
2017-06-01
Flow and heat transfer in periodic structures are of great interest for many applications. In this paper, we carefully examine the periodic features of fully developed periodic incompressible thermal flows, and incorporate them in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for flow and heat transfer simulations. Two numerical approaches, the distribution modification (DM) approach and the source term (ST) approach, are proposed; and they can both be used for periodic thermal flows with constant wall temperature (CWT) and surface heat flux boundary conditions. However, the DM approach might be more efficient, especially for CWT systems since the ST approach requires calculations of the streamwise temperature gradient at all lattice nodes. Several example simulations are conducted, including flows through flat and wavy channels and flows through a square array with circular cylinders. Results are compared to analytical solutions, previous studies, and our own LBM calculations using different simulation techniques (i.e., the one-module simulation vs. the two-module simulation, and the DM approach vs. the ST approach) with good agreement. These simple, however, representative simulations demonstrate the accuracy and usefulness of our proposed LBM methods for future thermal periodic flow simulations.
Comparison of strongly heat-driven flow codes for unsaturated media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Updegraff, C.D.
1989-08-01
Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in unsaturated welded tuff. As part of this effort, SNL evaluated existing strongly heat-driven flow computer codes for simulating ground-water flow in unsaturated media. The three codes tested, NORIA, PETROS, and TOUGH, were compared against a suite of problems for which analytical and numerical solutions or experimental results exist. The problems were selected to test the abilities of the codes to simulate situations ranging from simple, uncoupled processes, such as two-phase flow or heat transfer, to fully coupled processes, such as vaporization caused by high temperatures. In general, all three codes were found to be difficult to use because of (1) built-in time stepping criteria, (2) the treatment of boundary conditions, and (3) handling of evaporation/condensation problems. A drawback of the study was that adequate problems related to expected repository conditions were not available in the literature. Nevertheless, the results of this study suggest the need for thorough investigations of the impact of heat on the flow field in the vicinity of an unsaturated HLW repository. Recommendations are to develop a new flow code combining the best features of these three codes and eliminating the worst ones. 19 refs., 49 figs
Free convection film flows and heat transfer
Shang, Deyi
2010-01-01
Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.
Pressure drop and heat transfer in viscoelastic duct flow - A new look
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostic, M.; Hartnett, J.P.
1987-01-01
Asymptotic friction factors and heat transfer j-factors for turbulent duct flow of viscoelastic fluids are viewed from a new reference - the extended laminar flow results which exhibit the lowest possible friction and heat transfer. This analysis suggests that the presence of elasticity laminarizes the flow. A simple model which takes account of the reinforced fluid structure resulting from the presence of macromolecular polymer chains is introduced to explain the decrease in the turbulence level associated with viscoelastic fluids. A major feature of the proposed model is that a viscoelastic fluid has a nonuniform and nonisotropic viscosity, which in a duct flow produced non-homogeneous turbulent fluctuations. The observed decrease in friction factor and heat transfer, as well as the large increases in critical Reynolds number and hydrodynamic and thermal entrance lengths are consistent with the model
Experimental investigation of transverse flow estimation using transverse oscillation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2003-01-01
Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the blood velocity component parallel to the ultrasound beam. Introducing a laterally oscillating field gives signals from which the transverse velocity component can be estimated using 2:1 parallel receive beamformers. To yield the performance...... perpendicular to the ultrasound beam. The velocity profile of the blood is parabolic, and the speed of the blood in the center of the vessel is 1.1 m/s. An extended autocorrelation algorithm is used for velocity estimation for 310 trials, each containing 32 beamformed signals. The velocity can be estimated.......0% and the relative mean standard deviation is found to be 9.8%. With the Compuflow 1000 programmable flow pump a color flow mode image is produced of the experimental setup for a parabolic flow. Also the flow of the human femoralis is reproduced and it is found that the characteristics of the flow can be estimated....
Simplified numerical model for predicting onset of flow instability in parallel heated channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noura Rassoul; El-Khider Si-Ahmed; Tewfik Hamidouche; Anis Bousbia-Salah
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Flow instabilities are undesirable phenomena in heated channels since change in flow rate affects the local heat transfer characteristics and may results in premature burnout. For instance, two-phase flow excursion (Ledinegg) instability in boiling channels is of great concern in the design and operation of numerous practical systems especially the MTR fuel type Research Reactors. For heated parallel channels, the negative-sloped segment of the pressure drop-flow rate characteristics (demand curve) of a boiling channel becomes negative. Such instability can lead to significant reduction in channel flow, thereby causing premature burnout of the heated channel before the CHF point. Furthermore, as a consequence of this flow decrease, different types of flow instabilities that may appear can also induce (density wave) flow oscillations of constant amplitude or diverging amplitude. The present work focuses on a numerical simulation of pressure drop in forced convection boiling in vertical narrow and parallel uniformly heated channels. The objective is to determine the point of Onset of flow instability by varying input flow rate without any consideration to density wave oscillations. By the way, the axial void distribution is provided. The numerical model is based on the finite difference method which transform the partial differential conservation equations of Mass, Momentum and Energy, in algebraic equations. Closure relationships as the drift flux model and other constitutive equations are considered to determine the channel pressure drop under steady state boiling conditions. The model validation is performed by confronting the calculations with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Thermal Hydraulic Test Loop (THTL) experimental data set. Further verification of this model is performed by code-to code verification using the results of RELAP5/Mod 3.2 code. (authors)
Wang, C. R.; Towne, C. E.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Poinsatte, P. E.
1997-01-01
This study investigated the Navier-Stokes computations of the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. A transition duct from an axisymmetric cross section to a non-axisymmetric cross section, is usually used to connect the turbine exit to the nozzle. As the gas turbine inlet temperature increases, the transition duct is subjected to the high temperature at the gas turbine exit. The transition duct flow has combined development of hydraulic and thermal entry length. The design of the transition duct required accurate surface heat transfer coefficients. The Navier-Stokes computational method could be used to predict the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. The Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical computational code was used in this study. The code was first studied for the computations of the turbulent developing flow properties within a circular duct and a square duct. The code was then used to compute the turbulent flow properties of a transition duct flow. The computational results of the surface pressure, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer coefficient were described and compared with their values obtained from theoretical analyses or experiments. The comparison showed that the Navier-Stokes computation could predict approximately the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow.
Numerical analysis of cavitating flow characteristics in impeller of residual heat removal pump
Hong, Feng; Yuan, Jianping; Zhou, Banglun
2016-01-01
In order to investigate internal cavitating flow characteristics of the impeller in residual heat removal pumps, the three-dimensional cavitating flow in a residual heat removal model pump is numerically calculated by using the homogeneous mixture cavitation model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset
Modelling of fluid flow and heat transfer in a reciprocating compressor
Tuhovcak, J.; Hejcik, J.; Jicha, M.
2015-08-01
Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on several parameters. The most important are valve behaviour and heat transfer. Valves affect the flow through the suction and discharge line. Heat flow from the walls to working fluid increases the work of the cycle. Understanding of these phenomena inside the compressor is a necessary step in the development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide range of opportunities how to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor nowadays, however they are too demanding in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several approaches using various correlation equation exist to describe the heat transfer inside the cylinder, however none of them was validated by measurements due to the complicated settings. The goal of this paper is to show a comparison between these correlations using in-house code based on energy balance through the cycle.
Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials
Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M.; Ávila, Ricardo
2011-07-01
We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.
Flow induced vibration characteristics in 2X3 bundle critical heat flux experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dae Hun; Chang, Soon Heung
2005-01-01
Above a certain heat flux, the liquid can no longer permanently wet the heater surface. This situation leads to an inordinate decrease in the surface heat transfer. This heat flux is commonly referred to as the critical heat flux (CHF). The CHF in nuclear reactors is one of the important thermal hydraulic parameters limiting the available power. Flow induced vibration (FIV) is the vibration caused by a fluid flowing around a body. In the fluid flowing system, FIV occurred by structures and flow condition. Many structures in nuclear power plant system are designed to prevent from structure failure due to FIV. Recently, Hibiki and Ishii (1998) carried out an experimental investigation on the effect of flow-induced vibration (FIV) on two-phase flow structure in vertical tube and reported that the FIV drastically changed the void fraction profiles. The void fraction profiles is one of the important parameter for determining CHF. Therefore, the investigation on the effect of FIV on CHF are needed. The research on FIV characteristics detection during CHF experiment in 2X3 bundle using R-134a has been carried out in KAIST. Using the results new FIV correlation in 2-pahse turbulent flow are suggested after finding out relation between CHF and dynamic pressure fluctuation value
William T. Simpson
2004-01-01
Equations for a two-dimensional finite difference heat flow analysis were developed and applied to ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers to calculate the time required to heat the center of the squares to target temperature. The squares were solid piled, which made their surfaces inaccessible to the heating air, and thus surface temperatures failed to attain...
Two-phase flow heat transfer in nuclear reactor systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koncar, Bostjan; Krepper, Eckhard; Bestion, Dominique; Song, Chul-Hwa; Hassan, Yassin A.
2013-01-01
occurring in at least two different spatial scales. Uncertainty in modelling of bubble departure diameter at boiling was studied by M. Matkovic and B. Koncar. In this article the propagation of input uncertainties for the simplified model of bubble departure size is evaluated. A methodology for estimating the prediction capability of a given correlation is provided taking into account its range of applicability. Aqueous nanofluids have a great potential for cooling applications, hence they have been studied in the article of P.N. Alekseev et al. as a possible coolant in pressurized water reactor (PWR). The theoretical study presents how a stable formation of nanoparticles in water solution can be established. Formation of fractal nanoparticles with a higher thermal conductivity than water can enhance the heat transfer of water used as a coolant in PWR. Apart from solid particles, also alternative formation of gaseous nanoparticles in density fluctuations of water is discussed. The article of R. Rzehak and E. Krepper provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of CFD modelling of subcooled flow boiling. The efficient predictive capability of current models requires calibration of model parameters over a wide range of measured data and operating conditions.The results presented in the article confirmed the great potential of the existing modelling approach for the 3D simulation of subcooled flow boiling in industrial applications but also highlight the need for specific model improvements to achieve highly accurate predictions. Two articles deal with one-dimensional analyses of two phase flows. In the article of O.Costa et al., a rapid depressurization in vertical heated pipe is simulated with the in-house 1D computer code WAHA, which was developed specifically for simulations of two-phase water hammer phenomena. The WAHA results were confronted with the simulations of the well-known system code RELAP5 on the same experimental data. The thermal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Das
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The influence of Newtonian heating on heat and mass transfer in unsteady hydromagnetic flow of a Casson fluid past a vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction is studied. The Casson fluid model is used to distinguish the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. The fluid flow is induced due to periodic oscillations of the plate along its length and a uniform transverse magnetic field is applied in a direction which is normal to the direction of fluid flow. The partial differential equations governing the flow, heat, and mass transfer are transformed to non-dimensional form using suitable non-dimensional variables which are then solved analytically by using Laplace transform technique. The numerical values of the fluid velocity, fluid temperature, and species concentration are depicted graphically whereas the values of skin-friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are presented in tabular form. It is noticed that the fluid velocity and temperature decrease with increasing values of Casson parameter while concentration decreases with increasing values of chemical reaction parameter and Schmidt number. Such a fluid flow model has several industrial and medical applications such as in glass manufacturing, paper production, purification of crude oil and study of blood flow in the cardiovascular system.
Modeling heat efficiency, flow and scale-up in the corotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis, Alan; Szabo, Peter; Karlson, Torben
2002-01-01
A comparison of two different scale corotating disc scraped surface heat exchangers (CDHE) was performed experimentally. The findings were compared to predictions from a finite element model. We find that the model predicts well the flow pattern of the two CDHE's investigated. The heat transfer...... performance predicted by the model agrees well with experimental observations for the laboratory scale CDHE whereas the overall heat transfer in the scaled-up version was not in equally good agreement. The lack of the model to predict the heat transfer performance in scale-up leads us to identify the key...
Heat pipe heat exchanger for heat recovery in air conditioning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abd El-Baky, Mostafa A.; Mohamed, Mousa M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minufiya University, Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)
2007-03-15
The heat pipe heat exchangers are used in heat recovery applications to cool the incoming fresh air in air conditioning applications. Two streams of fresh and return air have been connected with heat pipe heat exchanger to investigate the thermal performance and effectiveness of heat recovery system. Ratios of mass flow rate between return and fresh air of 1, 1.5 and 2.3 have been adapted to validate the heat transfer and the temperature change of fresh air. Fresh air inlet temperature of 32-40{sup o}C has been controlled, while the inlet return air temperature is kept constant at about 26{sup o}C. The results showed that the temperature changes of fresh and return air are increased with the increase of inlet temperature of fresh air. The effectiveness and heat transfer for both evaporator and condenser sections are also increased to about 48%, when the inlet fresh air temperature is increased to 40{sup o}C. The effect of mass flow rate ratio on effectiveness is positive for evaporator side and negative for condenser side. The enthalpy ratio between the heat recovery and conventional air mixing is increased to about 85% with increasing fresh air inlet temperature. The optimum effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger is estimated and compared with the present experimental data. The results showed that the effectiveness is close to the optimum effectiveness at fresh air inlet temperature near the fluid operating temperature of heat pipes. (author)
Jakkareddy, Pradeep S.; Balaji, C.
2016-09-01
This paper employs the Bayesian based Metropolis Hasting - Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to solve inverse heat transfer problem of determining the spatially varying heat transfer coefficient from a flat plate with flush mounted discrete heat sources with measured temperatures at the bottom of the plate. The Nusselt number is assumed to be of the form Nu = aReb(x/l)c . To input reasonable values of ’a’ and ‘b’ into the inverse problem, first limited two dimensional conjugate convection simulations were done with Comsol. Based on the guidance from this different values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ are input to a computationally less complex problem of conjugate conduction in the flat plate (15mm thickness) and temperature distributions at the bottom of the plate which is a more convenient location for measuring the temperatures without disturbing the flow were obtained. Since the goal of this work is to demonstrate the eficiacy of the Bayesian approach to accurately retrieve ‘a’ and ‘b’, numerically generated temperatures with known values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ are treated as ‘surrogate’ experimental data. The inverse problem is then solved by repeatedly using the forward solutions together with the MH-MCMC aprroach. To speed up the estimation, the forward model is replaced by an artificial neural network. The mean, maximum-a-posteriori and standard deviation of the estimated parameters ‘a’ and ‘b’ are reported. The robustness of the proposed method is examined, by synthetically adding noise to the temperatures.
A. Sinha; J.C. Misra; G.C. Shit
2016-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of blood flow and heat transfer in a permeable vessel in the presence of an external magnetic field. The unsteadiness in the coupled flow and temperature fields is considered to be caused due to the time-dependent stretching velocity and the surface temperature of the vessel. The non-uniform heat source/sink effect on blood flow and heat transfer is taken into account. This study is of potential value in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disor...
Analysis of radiative heat transfer impact in cross-flow tube and fin heat exchangers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała Małgorzata
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A cross-flow, tube and fin heat exchanger of the water – air type is the subject of the analysis. The analysis had experimental and computational form and was aimed for evaluation of radiative heat transfer impact on the heat exchanger performance. The main element of the test facility was an enlarged recurrent segment of the heat exchanger under consideration. The main results of measurements are heat transfer rates, as well as temperature distributions on the surface of the first fin obtained by using the infrared camera. The experimental results have been next compared to computational ones coming from a numerical model of the test station. The model has been elaborated using computational fluid dynamics software. The computations have been accomplished for two cases: without radiative heat transfer and taking this phenomenon into account. Evaluation of the radiative heat transfer impact in considered system has been done by comparing all the received results.
The heat-transfer performance of gas—solid trickle flow over a regularly stacked packing
Verver, A.B.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria
1986-01-01
The heat-transfer behaviour of a countercurrent gas—solid trickle flow contactor is studied, using coarse sand particles as the solids phase. Experimental data on the overall heat-transfer rate constant between the gas flow and the solid particle flow were obtained in a 0.15 m square cross-section
Creeping Viscous Flow around a Heat-Generating Solid Sphere
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1981-01-01
The velocity field for creeping viscous flow around a solid sphere due to a spherically symmetric thermal field is determined and a simple thermal generalization of Stokes' formula is obtained. The velocity field due to an instantaneous heat source at the center of the sphere is obtained in closed...... form and an application to the storage of heat-generating nuclear waste is discussed....
A solution of coupled heat-moisture transfer in saturated-unsaturated media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geraminegad, M.; Saxena, S.K.
1985-01-01
Two formulations of coupled heat and mass flow in the porous media are presented and solved numerically using finite element method. This paper concludes that the formulation based on Phillip and de Vries better estimates heat flow, and, the non-linear behavior of soil parameters significantly affects heat and mass flow in the porous media
Test of a new heat-flow equation for dense-fluid shock waves.
Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel; Ravelo, Ramon
2010-09-21
Using a recently proposed equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, we model shockwave propagation in the dense Lennard-Jones fluid. Disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the kinetic temperature in the direction of a planar shock wave and those in the transverse directions, particularly in the region near the shock front, gives rise to a new transport (equilibration) mechanism not seen in usual one-dimensional heat-flow situations. The modification of the heat-flow equation was tested earlier for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which had been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes-Fourier solutions. Now, the Lennard-Jones fluid, whose equation of state and transport properties have been determined from independent calculations, allows us to study the case where potential, as well as kinetic contributions are important. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations under strong shock wave conditions, compared to Navier-Stokes.
On heat transfer to pulsatile flow of a two-phase fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. P. Chakraborty
2005-09-01
Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer to pulsatile flow of a two-phase fluid-particle system contained in a channel bounded by two infinitely long rigid impervious parallel walls has been studied in this paper. The solutions for the steady and the fluctuating temperature distributions are obtained. The rates of heat transfer at the walls are also calculated. The results are discussed numerically with graphical presentations. It is shown that the presence of the particles not only diminishes the steady and unsteady temperature fields but also decreases the reversal of heat flux at the hotter wall irrespective of the influences of other flow parameters.
Linear flow of heat in an infinite region and hermite polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Hawaj, A.Y.
1991-01-01
The problem of linear flow of heat in an infinite region occupies a prominent place in the field of conduction of heat in solids. A number of solutions to this problem, have been given from time to time by several mathematicians. The object of this paper is to derive the solutions of the problem of linear flow of heat in an infinite region, which lead to Hermite Polynomials. The author further presents three linear combinations of his solutions and their particular cases. The region (- ∞ < x < ∞) of the problem led him to investigate the solutions of the problem in terms of Hermite Polynomials
On dryout heat flux and pressure drop of a submerged inductively heated bed flow from below
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsai, F.F.; Catton, I.
1983-01-01
An experimental investigation of dryout heat flux in a saturated porous medal with forced flow from below has been conducted using methanol as a coolant. The mass flux varied from 0 to 0.557 kg/m 2 sec. Particle sizes were 590-790 μm, 1.6 mm, 3.2 mm, and 4.8 mm. The dryout heat flux increases as the mass flux increases, and asymptotically goes to the total evaporation energy of the inlet flow. The pressure drop across the bed changed very rapidly near the dryout point due to the formation of dry zone
Flow visualization study of post-critical heat flux in inverted flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babelli, I.; Revankar, S.T.; Ishii, M.
1994-01-01
A visual study of film boiling was carried out to determine the flow regime transition in the post-CHF region for a transient bottom reflooding of a hot transparent test section. The effect of test liquid subcooling and inlet velocity on flow transition as well as on the quench front propagation was investigated. The respective ranges for liquid velocity and subcooling were 1.8-26.8 cm/s, and 20-45 C, respectively. The test liquid was Freon 113 which was introduced into the bottom of the quartz test section whose walls were maintained well above the film boiling temperature of the test liquid, via a transparent heat transfer fluid. The flow regimes observed down stream of the upward moving quench front were the rough wavy, the agitated, and the dispersed droplet/ligaments in agreement with a steady state, two-phase core injection study carried on recently by one of the authors. A correlation for the flow regime transition between the inverted annular and the dispersed droplet/ligament flow patterns was developed. The correlation showed a marked dependence on the void fraction at the CHF location and hence on the flow regime encountered in the pre-CHF region. (orig.)
Analysis of a double pipe heat exchanger performance by use of porous baffles and pulsating flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Targui, N.; Kahalerras, H.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • A double pipe heat exchanger performance is numerically studied. • Use of porous baffles and pulsating flow to enhance heat exchanger efficiency. • The governing equations are solved by the control volume method. • The efficiency increases with the amplitude and frequency of pulsation. • The highest values of are obtained when only hot fluid is pulsating (Case3). - Abstract: A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of porous baffles and flow pulsation on a double pipe heat exchanger performance. The hot fluid flows in the inner cylinder, whereas the cold fluid circulates in the annular gap. The Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model is adopted to describe the flow in the porous regions and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations with the appropriate boundary conditions. The effects of the amplitude and frequency of pulsation, as well as the porous baffles permeability on the flow structure and the heat exchanger efficiency are analyzed. The results reveal that the addition of an oscillating component to the mean flow affects the flow structure, and enhances the heat transfer in comparison to the steady non pulsating flow. The highest heat exchanger performance is obtained when only the flow of the hot fluid is pulsating
Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon
2012-01-01
Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow...... with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different...
Analysis of two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer in inclined channel of core-catcher
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahara, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Abe, N.; Kurita, T.; Hamazaki, R.; Kojima, Y.
2008-01-01
Passive Corium Cooling System (CCS) provides a function of ex-vessel debris cooling and molten core stabilization during a severe accident. CCS features inclined cooling channels arranged axi-symmetrically below the core-catcher basin. In order to estimate the coolability of the inclined cooling channel, it is indispensable to identify the flow pattern of the two-phase flow in the cooling channel. Several former studies for the two-phase flow pattern in the inclined channel are referred. Taitel and Dukler (1976) developed a prediction method of the flow pattern transition in horizontal and near horizontal tubes. Barnea et al. (1980) showed the flow pattern map of upward flow with 10 degrees inclination. Sakaguti et al. (1996) observed the two-phase flow patterns in the horizontal pipe connected with slightly upward pipe, in which the flow pattern in the pipe with a bending part was expressed by the combination of a basic flow pattern and some auxiliary flow patterns. Then we investigated these studies In order to identify the flow patterns observed in the inclined cooling channel of CCS. Furthermore we experimentally observed the flow patterns in the inclined cooling channel with various inlet conditions. As a result of the investigation and observation, typical flow patterns in the inclined cooling channel were identified. Two typical flow patterns were observed depending on the steam flow rate, one of which is 'elongated bubble 'flow, and the other is 'churn with collapsing backward and upward slug 'flow The flow and heat transfer in the inclined channel of CCS is analyzed by using a two-phase analysis code employing two-fluid model in which the constitutive equations for the two-phase flow in inclined channels are incorporated. That is, drift flux parameter for each of the elongated bubble flow, and the churn with collapsing backward and upward slug flow are incorporated to the two-phase analysis code, which are based on the rising velocity of the long bubble in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Li Peiwen; Liu Hong; Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel
2011-01-01
A study of the heat transfer performance of liquid-cooled heat sinks with conventional and novel micro-channel flow field configurations for application in electronic devices, fuel cells, and concentrated solar cells is presented in this paper. The analyses were based on computations using the CFD software ANSYS FLUENT. The flow regime in heat sinks is constrained to laminar flow in the study. Details of the heat transfer performance, particularly, the uniformity of temperature distribution on the heating surface, as well as the pressure losses and pumping power in the operation of the studied heat sinks were obtained. Comparisons of the flow distribution uniformity in multiple flow channels, temperature uniformity on heating surfaces, and pumping power consumption of heat sinks with novel flow field configurations and conventional flow field configurations were conducted. It was concluded that the novel flow field configurations studied in this work exhibit appreciable benefits for application in heat sinks. - Highlights: → We present novel designs of flow channel configurations in liquid cooled heat sinks. → The flow and heat transfer in heat sinks were simulated using CFD tool. → The temperature and pressure loss in novel and conventional heat sinks were studied. → Figure of merit of heat sinks in different flow channel configurations was presented. → The heat sinks having our novel design of flow channel configurations are excellent.
Two-phase flow regimes and mechanisms of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Corre, Jean-Marie; Yao, Shi-Chune; Amon, Cristina H.
2010-01-01
A literature review of critical heat flux (CHF) experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available experimental information. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. Even though the selected concept has not received much attention (in term or theoretical developments and applications) as compared to other more popular DNB models, its basis have often been cited by experimental investigators and is considered by the authors as the 'most-likely' mechanism based on the literature review and analysis performed in this work. The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow and has been numerically implemented and validated in bubbly flow and coupled with one- and three-dimensional (CFD) two-phase flow codes, in a companion paper. [Le Corre, J.M., Yao, S.C., Amon, C.H., in this issue. A mechanistic model of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions for application to one and three-dimensional computer codes. Nucl. Eng. Des.].
CFD analysis on heat transfer in low Prandtl number fluid flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borgohain, A.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Sinha, R.K., E-mail: bananta@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Reactor Engineering Div., Trombay, Mumbai (India)
2011-07-01
Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is helpful for designing liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor systems. Before using any CFD code proper evaluation of the code is essential for simulation of heat transfer in liquid metal flow. In this paper, a review of the literature on the correlations for liquid metal heat transfer is carried out and a comparison with experimental results is performed. CFD analysis is carried out using PHOENICS-3.6 code on heat transfer in molten Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) flowing through tube. Turbulent flow analyses are carried out for the evaluation of the CFD code. The CFD results are compared with the available correlations. Assessment of various turbulence models and correlations for turbulent Prandtl number in the tube geometry are carried out. From the analysis it is found that, the CFD prediction can be improved with modified turbulent Prandtl number in the turbulence models. (author)
An Engineering Aerodynamic Heating Method for Hypersonic Flow
Riley, Christopher J.; DeJarnette, Fred R.
1992-01-01
A capability to calculate surface heating rates has been incorporated in an approximate three-dimensional inviscid technique. Surface streamlines are calculated from the inviscid solution, and the axisymmetric analog is then used along with a set of approximate convective-heating equations to compute the surface heat transfer. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three-dimensional ellipsoidal cones at angle of attack for the laminar flow of a perfect gas. The method is also applicable to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and viscous shock-layer (VSL) equations. The new technique represents a significant improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.
Critical heat flux for flow boiling of water in mini-channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Weizhong; Mishima, Kaichiro; Hibiki, Takashi
2007-01-01
Critical heat flux (CHF) is a limiting factor when flow boiling is applied to dissipate high heat flux in mini-channels. In view of practical importance of critical heat flux correlations in engineering design and prediction, this study presents an evaluation of existing CHF correlations for flow boiling of water with available databases taken from small-diameter tubes, and then develops a new, simple CHF correlation for flow boiling in mini-channel. Three correlations by Bowring, Katto and Shah are evaluated with available CHF data in the literature for saturated flow boiling, and three correlations by Inasaka-Nariai, Celata et al. and Hall-Mudawar evaluated with the CHF data for subcooled flow boiling. The Hall-Mudawar correlation and the Shah correlation appear to be the most reliable tools for CHF prediction in the subcooled and saturated flow boiling regions, respectively. In order to avoid the defect of predictive discontinuities often encountered when applying previous correlations, a simple, nondimensional, inlet conditions dependent CHF correlation for saturated flow boiling has been formulated. Its functional form is determined by application of the artificial neural network and parametric trend analyses to the collected database. Superiority of this new correlation has been verified by the collected database. It has a mean deviation of 16.8% for this collected databank, smallest among all tested correlations. Compared to many inordinately complex correlations, this new correlation consists only of one single equation. (author)
Degradation of the performance of microchannel heat exchangers due to flow maldistribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Christensen, Dennis
2012-01-01
The effect of flow maldistribution on the performance of microchannel parallel plate heat exchangers is investigated using an established single blow numerical model and cyclic steady-state regenerator experiments. It is found that as the variation of the individual channel thickness...... in a particular stack (heat exchanger) increases the actual performance of the heat exchanger decreases significantly, deviating from the expected nominal performance. We show that this is due to both the varying fluid flow velocities in each individual channel and the thermal cross talk between the channels...
RELAP5/MOD2 benchmarking study: Critical heat flux under low-flow conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggles, E.; Williams, P.T.
1990-01-01
Experimental studies by Mishima and Ishii performed at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent experimental studies performed by Mishima and Nishihara have investigated the critical heat flux (CHF) for low-pressure low-mass flux situations where low-quality burnout may occur. These flow situations are relevant to long-term decay heat removal after a loss of forced flow. The transition from burnout at high quality to burnout at low quality causes very low burnout heat flux values. Mishima and Ishii postulated a model for the low-quality burnout based on flow regime transition from churn turbulent to annular flow. This model was validated by both flow visualization and burnout measurements. Griffith et al. also studied CHF in low mass flux, low-pressure situations and correlated data for upflows, counter-current flows, and downflows with the local fluid conditions. A RELAP5/MOD2 CHF benchmarking study was carried out investigating the performance of the code for low-flow conditions. Data from the experimental study by Mishima and Ishii were the basis for the benchmark comparisons
Hamilton's gradient estimate for the heat kernel on complete manifolds
Kotschwar, Brett
2007-01-01
In this paper we extend a gradient estimate of R. Hamilton for positive solutions to the heat equation on closed manifolds to bounded positive solutions on complete, non-compact manifolds with $Rc \\geq -Kg$. We accomplish this extension via a maximum principle of L. Karp and P. Li and a Bernstein-type estimate on the gradient of the solution. An application of our result, together with the bounds of P. Li and S.T. Yau, yields an estimate on the gradient of the heat kernel for complete manifol...
Flow and heat transfer regimes during quenching of hot surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnea, Y.; Elias, E.
1993-05-01
Reflooding experiments have been performed to study flow and heat transfer regimes in a heated annular vertical channel under supercooled inlet conditions. A gamma densitometer was employed to determine the void fraction as a function of the distance from the quench front. Surface heat fluxes were determined by fast measurements of the temperature spatial distribution. Two quench front is shown to lie in the transition boiling region which spreads into the dry and wet segments of the heated surface. (authors) 5 refs, 3 figs
Minimal vascular flows cause strong heat sink effects in hepatic radiofrequency ablation ex vivo.
Lehmann, Kai S; Poch, Franz G M; Rieder, Christian; Schenk, Andrea; Stroux, Andrea; Frericks, Bernd B; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Holmer, Christoph; Kreis, Martin E; Ritz, Jörg P; Zurbuchen, Urte
2016-08-01
The present paper aims to assess the lower threshold of vascular flow rate on the heat sink effect in bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) ex vivo. Glass tubes (vessels) of 3.4 mm inner diameter were introduced in parallel to bipolar RFA applicators into porcine liver ex vivo. Vessels were perfused with flow rates of 0 to 1,500 ml/min. RFA (30 W power, 15 kJ energy input) was carried out at room temperature and 37°C. Heat sink effects were assessed in RFA cross sections by the decrease in ablation radius, area and by a high-resolution sector planimetry. Flow rates of 1 ml/min already caused a significant cooling effect (P ≤ 0.001). The heat sink effect reached a maximum at 10 ml/min (18.4 mm/s) and remained stable for flow rates up to 1,500 ml/min. Minimal vascular flows of ≥1 ml/min cause a significant heat sink effect in hepatic RFA ex vivo. A lower limit for volumetric flow rate was not found. The maximum of the heat sink effect was reached at a flow rate of 10 ml/min and remained stable for flow rates up to 1,500 ml/min. Hepatic inflow occlusion should be considered in RFA close to hepatic vessels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Foster, C.A.
1984-11-01
An unsteady, two-dimensional heat conduction code has been used to study the performance of swirl-flow-based neutral particle beam targets. The model includes the effects of two-phase heat transfer and asymmetric heating of tubular elements. The calorimeter installed in the Medium Energy Test Facility, which has been subjected to 30-s neutral beam pulses with incident heat flux intensities of greater than or equal to 5 kW/cm 2 , has been modeled. The numerical results indicate that local heat fluxes in excess of 7 kW/cm 2 occur at the water-cooled surface on the side exposed to the beam. This exceeds critical heat flux limits for uniformly heated tubes wih straight flow by approximately a factor of 5. The design of a plasma limiter based on swirl flow heat transfer is presented
A Preliminary Heat Flow Model for Cooling a Batholith near Ica, Peru
Gonzalez, L. U.; Clausen, B. L.; Molano, J. C.; Martinez, A. M.; Poma, O.
2014-12-01
This research models the cooling of a suite in the Linga Super-unit located at the north end of the Arequipa segment in the Cretaceous Peruvian Coastal Batholith. The monzogabbro to granite Linga suite is approximately 50 km long and 15 km wide, with an estimated vertical extent of about 5 km originally intruded to a depth of 3 km. The emplacement was in andesitic volcanics on the west and the Pampahuasi diorite Super-unit on the east and has incorporated earlier gabbroic bodies. The Linga suite is thought to be the result of a sequence of three pulses: an elongate unit to the west then two elliptical units to the northeast and southeast. The data for modeling comes from field observations on internal and external contacts, some well-defined magma chamber walls and roof, pendant and stoped blocks, magma chamber zoning, the nature and distribution of enclaves and xenoliths, magmatic fabric, evidences of magma mingling, rock porosity, mineralogical associations in metamorphic aureoles, extensive mineralization and brecciated conduits, and the types of hydrothermal alteration varying with distance from contacts. More than forty hand samples, thin sections, and geochemical analyses were used to estimate water content, magma and country rock temperature, liquid density, and viscosity. Further data will come from: zircon U-Pb ages for country rock and magma batch timeframes, fluid inclusions for magma pressure and temperature, and δ18O data for source of hydrothermal fluids. Simple heat conduction calculations using MATLAB and HEAT 3D for a single tabular intrusion estimated a cooling time to solidus of about 300 k.y. More complex modeling includes magma convection and multiple intrusions. Extensive veining and pervasive alteration suggested the use of HYDROTHERM to model possible additional heat flow effects from hydrothermal fluids. Extensive propylitic and significant potassic alteration were observed and, with TerraSpec infrared spectroscopy to identify
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Xiaodong; Wu, Yingwei; Zhou, Linglan; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Hong
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We developed a model based on homogeneous flow model to analyze two-phase flow instability in parallel channels. • The influence of axial non-uniform heating on the system stability has been investigated. • Influences of various factors on system instability under cosine heat flux have been studied. • The system under top-peaked heat flux is the most stable system. - Abstract: Two-phase flow instability in parallel channels heated by axial non-uniform heat flux has been theoretically studied in this paper. The system control equations of parallel channels were established based on the homogeneous flow model in two-phase region. Semi-implicit finite-difference scheme and staggered mesh method were used to discretize the equations, and the difference equations were solved by chasing method. Cosine, bottom-peaked and top-peaked heat fluxes were used to study the influe