Graphene heat dissipating structure
Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Wheeler, David R.; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Railkar, Tarak A.
2017-08-01
Various technologies presented herein relate to forming one or more heat dissipating structures (e.g., heat spreaders and/or heat sinks) on a substrate, wherein the substrate forms part of an electronic component. The heat dissipating structures are formed from graphene, with advantage being taken of the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The graphene (e.g., in flake form) is attached to a diazonium molecule, and further, the diazonium molecule is utilized to attach the graphene to material forming the substrate. A surface of the substrate is treated to comprise oxide-containing regions and also oxide-free regions having underlying silicon exposed. The diazonium molecule attaches to the oxide-free regions, wherein the diazonium molecule bonds (e.g., covalently) to the exposed silicon. Attachment of the diazonium plus graphene molecule is optionally repeated to enable formation of a heat dissipating structure of a required height.
Offshore heat dissipation for nuclear energy centers
Bauman, H.F.
1978-09-01
The technical, environmental, and economic aspects of utilizing the ocean or other large water bodies for the dissipation of reject heat from Nuclear Energy Centers (NECs) were investigated. An NEC in concept is an aggregate of nuclear power plants of 10 GW(e) capacity or greater on a common site. The use of once-through cooling for large power installations offers advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, especially under summer peak-load conditions, compared to closed-cycle cooling systems. A disadvantage of once-through cooling is the potential for greater adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. A concept is presented for minimizing the impacts of such systems by placing water intake and discharge locations relatively distant from shore in deeper water than has heretofore been the practice. This technique would avoid impacts on relatively biologically productive and ecologically sensitive shallow inshore areas. The NEC itself would be set back from the shoreline so that recreational use of the shore area would not be impaired. The characteristics of a heat-dissipation system of the size required for a NEC were predicted from the known characteristics of a smaller system by applying hydraulic scaling laws. The results showed that adequate heat dissipation can be obtained from NEC-sized systems located in water of appropriate depth. Offshore intake and discharge structures would be connected to the NEC pump house on shore via tunnels or buried pipelines. Tunnels have the advantage that shoreline and beach areas would not be disturbed. The cost of an offshore heat-dissipation system depends on the characteristics of the site, particularly the distance to suitably deep water and the type of soil or rock in which water conduits would be constructed. For a favorable site, the cost of an offshore system is estimated to be less than the cost of a closed-cycle system
Luminaries-level structure improvement of LEDs for heat dissipation ...
the natural convection heat transfer process of LED luminaries is simulated by compu- ... Heat dissipation has become one of the key problems limiting the large ... micro channel heat radiator, are able to reject heat efficiently, they may make LED ... convection heat transfer coefficient, for example, adopting finned surface to ...
Simulation of coupled electromagnetic and heat dissipation problems
Janssen, H.H.J.M.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Houwelingen, van D.
1994-01-01
A description is given of an integrated simulation environment for the solution of coupled electromagnetic and heat dissipation problems in two dimensions, in particular for the field of induction heating, dielectric heating, and hysteresis heating. The equations are coupled because the most
Ko, Dong Guk; Cong Ge, Jun; Im, Ik Tae; Choi, Nag Jung; Kim, Min Soo
2018-01-01
In this study, we analyzed the heat dissipation performance of UCD lamp ballast fin with various aspect ratios. The minimum grid size was 0.02 mm and the number of grid was approximately 11,000. In order to determine the influence of the aspect ratio on the heat dissipation performance of UCD lamp ballast fin, the heat transfer area of the fin was kept constant at 4 mm2. The aspect ratios of the fin were 2 mm: 2 mm (basic model), 1.5 mm: 2.7 mm and 2.7 mm: 1.5 mm, respectively. The heat flux and heat flux time at fin were kept constant at 1×105 W/m2 and 10 seconds, respectively. The heat dissipation performance by the fin was the best at an aspect ratio of 1.5 mm: 2.7 mm.
Constructal entransy dissipation minimization for 'volume-point' heat conduction
Chen Lingen; Wei Shuhuan; Sun Fengrui
2008-01-01
The 'volume to point' heat conduction problem, which can be described as to how to determine the optimal distribution of high conductivity material through the given volume such that the heat generated at every point is transferred most effectively to its boundary, has became the focus of attention in the current constructal theory literature. In general, the minimization of the maximum temperature difference in the volume is taken as the optimization objective. A new physical quantity, entransy, has been identified as a basis for optimizing heat transfer processes in terms of the analogy between heat and electrical conduction recently. Heat transfer analyses show that the entransy of an object describes its heat transfer ability, just as the electrical energy in a capacitor describes its charge transfer ability. Entransy dissipation occurs during heat transfer processes, as a measure of the heat transfer irreversibility with the dissipation related thermal resistance. By taking equivalent thermal resistance (it corresponds to the mean temperature difference), which reflects the average heat conduction effect and is defined based on entransy dissipation, as an optimization objective, the 'volume to point' constructal problem is re-analysed and re-optimized in this paper. The constructal shape of the control volume with the best average heat conduction effect is deduced. For the elemental area and the first order construct assembly, when the thermal current density in the high conductive link is linear with the length, the optimized shapes of assembly based on the minimization of entransy dissipation are the same as those based on minimization of the maximum temperature difference, and the mean temperature difference is 2/3 of the maximum temperature difference. For the second and higher order construct assemblies, the thermal current densities in the high conductive link are not linear with the length, and the optimized shapes of the assembly based on the
Heat dissipation during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds.
Powers, Donald R; Tobalske, Bret W; Wilson, J Keaton; Woods, H Arthur; Corder, Keely R
2015-12-01
Flying animals generate large amounts of heat, which must be dissipated to avoid overheating. In birds, heat dissipation is complicated by feathers, which cover most body surfaces and retard heat loss. To understand how birds manage heat budgets during flight, it is critical to know how heat moves from the skin to the external environment. Hummingbirds are instructive because they fly at speeds from 0 to more than 12 m s(-1), during which they transit from radiative to convective heat loss. We used infrared thermography and particle image velocimetry to test the effects of flight speed on heat loss from specific body regions in flying calliope hummingbirds (Selasphorus calliope). We measured heat flux in a carcass with and without plumage to test the effectiveness of the insulation layer. In flying hummingbirds, the highest thermal gradients occurred in key heat dissipation areas (HDAs) around the eyes, axial region and feet. Eye and axial surface temperatures were 8°C or more above air temperature, and remained relatively constant across speeds suggesting physiological regulation of skin surface temperature. During hovering, birds dangled their feet, which enhanced radiative heat loss. In addition, during hovering, near-body induced airflows from the wings were low except around the feet (approx. 2.5 m s(-1)), which probably enhanced convective heat loss. Axial HDA and maximum surface temperature exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern across speeds, revealing a localized relationship with power production in flight in the HDA closest to the primary flight muscles. We conclude that hummingbirds actively alter routes of heat dissipation as a function of flight speed.
Dissipation of heat from building integrated PV
Taylor, C.M.L.
2001-07-01
The objectives of the project were to investigate methods for improving heat transfer and the reflection of heat from PV modules in building integrated situations and to develop the design of a building integrated PV element with improved heat transfer characteristics, with the aim of reducing the operating temperature of the PV cells. The prototypes developed for improving heat transfer have only shown small reductions in the PV cell operating temperature and these results have not been fully quantified due to problems associated with experimental testing. The improvement in the overall electrical performance of PV modules operating at lower temperatures is consequently even smaller. As a result, none of the prototypes can be considered to be economically viable. Based upon the theoretical and experimental results of this work, it is the recommendation of this project that no further work be conducted in improving BIPV performance through improved heat transfer of BIPV. (Author)
Surfaces for high heat dissipation with no Leidenfrost limit
Sajadi, Seyed Mohammad; Irajizad, Peyman; Kashyap, Varun; Farokhnia, Nazanin; Ghasemi, Hadi
2017-07-01
Heat dissipation from hot surfaces through cooling droplets is limited by the Leidenfrost point (LFP), in which an insulating vapor film prevents direct contact between the cooling droplet and the hot surface. A range of approaches have been developed to raise this limit to higher temperatures, but the limit still exists. Recently, a surface architecture, decoupled hierarchical structure, was developed that allows the suppression of LFP completely. However, heat dissipation by the structure in the low superheat region was inferior to other surfaces and the structure required an extensive micro/nano fabrication procedure. Here, we present a metallic surface structure with no LFP and high heat dissipation capacity in all temperature ranges. The surface features the nucleate boiling phenomenon independent of the temperature with an approximate heat transfer coefficient of 20 kW m-2 K-1. This surface is developed in a one-step process with no micro/nano fabrication. We envision that this metallic surface provides a unique platform for high heat dissipation in power generation, photonics/electronics, and aviation systems.
Review of heat dissipation in geologic media
Pohl, R.O.; Vandersande, J.W.
1981-01-01
Existing data on the thermal conductivity of various rocks, e.g., rocksalt, granite, basalt, etc., will be critically reviewed, with the objective of determining the likely range of conductivity to be expected in a geologic repository. Research carried out at Cornell on the thermal conductivity of rocksalt from different sources, and from different horizons at the WIPP site in New Mexico will be described, as well as the search for the influence of ionizing radiation and of heat treatment. A few examples chosen from previously published calculations of expected temperature profiles will be presented; the considerable discrepancies demonstrate the need for more reliable calculations and for sensitivity analyses
Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner
Gluekler, E.L.; Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.
1985-11-21
A nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel is described in this disclosure. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.
Critical review of hydraulic modeling on atmospheric heat dissipation
Onishi, Y.; Brown, S.M.
1977-01-01
Objectives of this study were: to define the useful roles of hydraulic modeling in understanding the predicting atmospheric effects of heat dissipation systems; to assess the state-of-the-art of hydraulic modeling of atmospheric phenomena; to inventory potentially useful existing hydraulic modeling facilities both in the United States and abroad; and to scope hydraulic model studies to assist the assessment of atmospheric effects of nuclear energy centers
Fully-developed heat transfer in annuli with viscous dissipation
Coelho, P.M. [Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal). Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia; Pinho, F.T. [Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal). Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Faculdade de Engenharia
2006-09-15
For Newtonian concentric annular flows analytical solutions are obtained under imposed asymmetric constant wall heat fluxes as well as under imposed asymmetric constant wall temperatures, taking into account viscous dissipation and for fluid dynamic and thermally fully-developed conditions. Results for the special case of the heat flux ratio for identical wall temperatures and the critical Brinkman numbers marking changes of sign in wall heat fluxes are also derived. Equations are presented for the Nusselt numbers at the inner and outer walls, bulk temperature and normalised temperature distribution as a function of all relevant non-dimensional numbers. Given the complexity of the derived equations, simpler exact expressions are presented for the Nusselt numbers for ease of use, with their coefficients given in tables as a function of the radius ratio. (author)
Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for frequency-dependent specific heat
Dyre, Jeppe; Nielsen, Johannes K.
1996-01-01
A derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation (FD) theorem for the frequency-dependent specific heat of a system described by a master equation is presented. The FD theorem is illustrated by a number of simple examples, including a system described by a linear Langevin equation, a two-level system......, and a system described by the energy master equation. It is shown that for two quite different models with low-energy cutoffsa collection of two-level systems and a system described by the energy master equationthe frequency-dependent specific heat in dimensionless units becomes universal at low temperatures......, i.e., independent of both energy distribution and temperature. These two models give almost the same universal frequency-dependent specific heat, which compares favorably to experiments on supercooled alcohols....
Surface spin tunneling and heat dissipation in magnetic nanoparticles
Palakkal, Jasnamol P.; Obula Reddy, Chinna; Paulose, Ajeesh P.; Sankar, Cheriyedath Raj
2018-03-01
Quantum superparamagnetic state is observed in ultra-fine magnetic particles, which is often experimentally identified by a significant hike in magnetization towards low temperatures much below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. Here, we report experimentally observed surface spin relaxation at low temperatures in hydrated magnesium ferrite nanoparticles of size range of about 5 nm. We observed time dependent oscillatory magnetization of the sample below 2.5 K, which is attributed to surface spin tunneling. Interestingly, we observed heat dissipation during the process by using an external thermometer.
Modern thermodynamics from heat engines to dissipative structures
Kondepudi, Dilip
2014-01-01
Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition presents a comprehensive introduction to 20th century thermodynamics that can be applied to both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems, unifying what was traditionally divided into 'thermodynamics' and 'kinetics' into one theory of irreversible processes. This comprehensive text, suitable for introductory as well as advanced courses on thermodynamics, has been widely used by chemists, physicists, engineers and geologists. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition includes the following updates and featur
Katunin, A.
2018-03-01
The critical self-heating temperature at which the structural degradation of polymer composites under cyclic loading begins is evaluated by analyzing the heat dissipation rate. The method proposed is an effective tool for evaluating the degradation degree of such structures.
Engine and radiator: fetal and placental interactions for heat dissipation.
Schröder, H J; Power, G G
1997-03-01
The 'engine' of fetal metabolism generates heat (3-4 W kg-1 in fetal sheep) which has to be dissipated to the maternal organism. Fetal heat may move through the amniotic/allantoic fluids to the uterine wall (conductive pathway; total conductance, 1.1 W degrees C-1 kg-1) and with the umbilical arterial blood flow (convective pathway) to the placenta. Because resistance to heat flow is larger than zero fetal temperature exceeds maternal temperature by about 0.5 degree C (0.3-1 degree C). Probably 85% of fetal heat is lost to the maternal organism through the placenta, which thus serves as the main 'radiator'. Placental heat conductivity appears to be extremely high and this may lead to impaired heat exchange (guinea-pig placenta). A computer simulation demonstrates that fetal temperature is essentially clamped to maternal temperature, and that fetal thermoregulatory efforts to gain thermal independence would be futile. Indeed, when the late gestational fetus in utero is challenged by cold stress, direct and indirect indicators of (non-shivering) thermogenesis (oxygen consumption, increase of plasma glycerol and free fatty acid levels) change only moderately. In prematurely delivered lambs, however, cold stress provokes summit metabolism and maximum heat production. Only when birth is imitated in utero (by cord clamping, external artificial lung ventilation and cooling) do thermogenic efforts approach levels typical of extra-uterine life. This suggests the presence of inhibitors of thermogenesis of placental origin, e.g. prostaglandins and adenosine. When the synthesis of prostaglandins is blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin, sheep fetuses react to intra-uterine cooling with vigorous thermogenic responses, which can be subdued by infusion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Since the sheep placenta is known to produce sufficient amounts of PGE2, it seems that the placenta controls fetal thermogenic responses to some extent. This transforms the fetus into an ectothermic
Heat flux and quantum correlations in dissipative cascaded systems
Lorenzo, Salvatore; Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Palma, G. Massimo; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2015-02-01
We study the dynamics of heat flux in the thermalization process of a pair of identical quantum systems that interact dissipatively with a reservoir in a cascaded fashion. Despite that the open dynamics of the bipartite system S is globally Lindbladian, one of the subsystems "sees" the reservoir in a state modified by the interaction with the other subsystem and hence it undergoes a non-Markovian dynamics. As a consequence, the heat flow exhibits a nonexponential time behavior which can greatly deviate from the case where each party is independently coupled to the reservoir. We investigate both thermal and correlated initial states of S and show that the presence of correlations at the beginning can considerably affect the heat-flux rate. We carry out our study in two paradigmatic cases—a pair of harmonic oscillators with a reservoir of bosonic modes and two qubits with a reservoir of fermionic modes—and compare the corresponding behaviors. In the case of qubits and for initial thermal states, we find that the trace distance discord is at any time interpretable as the correlated contribution to the total heat flux.
Heat transfer analysis of frictional heat dissipation during articulation of femoral implants.
Davidson, J A; Gir, S; Paul, J P
1988-12-01
Previous studies have shown the tendency for frictional heating to occur during articulation of total hip systems in vitro under simulated hip loading conditions. The magnitude of this heating is sufficient to accelerate wear, creep, and oxidation degradation of the UHMWPE bearing surface. It was shown that ceramic articulating systems generate less frictional heating than polished cobalt alloy against UHMWPE. This frictional heating is expected to occur primarily for younger, heavier, and more active patients. Thus, long-term performance of the articulating hip system in these patients may not be that predicted from current, body-temperature wear, creep, and degradation studies. Although the tendency to generate frictional heat has been observed only during in vitro simulated hip loading, a heat transfer analysis of this phenomenon is presented to evaluate the ability of the hip joint to dissipate such heating in vivo. Additional experiments were performed using controlled resistance heaters inside a cobalt femoral head to verify the calculated levels of frictional heat and to assess the heat dissipation under simulated in vivo conditions. The effect of blood perfusion on the effective thermal conductivity of the joint capsule is also discussed. The present study describes and analyzes the various heat dissipation mechanisms present both in vitro and in vivo during articulation of metal and ceramic hip systems. From these tests and analyses, it is concluded that frictional heating in the reconstructed hip cannot be effectively removed, and that degredative elevated temperature processes can be expected to occur in vivo to both the UHMWPE and adjacent tissue under extended periods of excessive patient activity. This is particularly true for metal cobalt alloy femoral heads articulating on UHMWPE versus ceramic heads which generate significantly lower levels of heat.
Characterization of a New Heat Dissipation Matric Potential Sensor
Rolf Krebs
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Soil moisture sensors can help to reduce the amount of water needed for irrigation. In this paper we describe the PlantCare soil moisture sensor as a new type of heat dissipation sensor, its calibration and the correction for temperature changes. With the PlantCare sensor it is possible to measure the matric potential indirectly to monitor or control irrigation. This sensor is based on thermal properties of a synthetic felt. After a defined heating phase the cooling time to a threshold temperature is a function of the water content in the synthetic felt. The water content in this porous matrix is controlled by the matric potential in the surrounding soil. Calibration measurements have shown that the sensor is most sensitive to −400 hPa and allows lower sensitivity measurements to −800 hPa. The disturbing effect of the temperature change during the measurement on the cooling time can be corrected by a linear function and the differences among sensors are minimized by a two point calibration.
Viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects in MHD 3D flow with heat and mass fluxes
Muhammad, Taseer; Hayat, Tasawar; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2018-03-01
The present research explores the three-dimensional stretched flow of viscous fluid in the presence of prescribed heat (PHF) and concentration (PCF) fluxes. Mathematical formulation is developed in the presence of chemical reaction, viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Appropriate transformations yield the nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The resulting nonlinear system has been solved. Graphs are plotted to examine the impacts of physical parameters on the temperature and concentration distributions. Skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and analyzed.
Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanofluids Used for Heat Dissipation in Hybrid Green Energy Systems
Yi-Hsuan Hung
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize carbon nanotube (CNT/water nanofluids (CNWNFs and to apply the nanofluids in a heat-dissipation system of dual green energy sources. CNTs were mixed with water in weight fractions of 0.125%, 0.25%, and 0.5% to produce nanofluids. The thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, and specific heat of the nanofluids were measured. An experimental platform consisting of a simulated dual energy source and a microchip controller was established to evaluate the heat-dissipation performance. Two indices, the heat dissipation enhancement ratio and specific heat dissipation enhancement ratio (SHDER, were defined and calculated. The CNWNFs with a CNT concentration of 0.125 wt.% were used because they exhibited the highest SHDER. The steady-state performance was evaluated at 2 flow rates, 11 hybrid flow ratios, and 3 heating ratios for a total power of 1000 W. The transient behavior of the energy sources at preset optimal temperatures was examined, and the CNWNFs exhibited average increases in stability and heat dissipation efficiency of 36.2% and 5%, respectively, compared with water. This nanofluid heat-dissipation system is expected to be integrated with real dual energy sources in the near future.
Study on the Optimal Equivalent Radius in Calculating the Heat Dissipation of Surrounding Rock
H. T. Song
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The heat dissipation of surrounding rock of a non-circular roadway is computed using an equivalent circular roadway approach under three circumstances when the area, perimeter, or hydraulic diameter of the circular roadway is equal to the non-circular roadway to obtain the optimal equivalent radius. The differential equations of heat conduction for unstable surrounding rock are established in cylindrical and rectangular coordinate systems using dimensionless analysis method. The calculation formulas of heat dissipation capacity and heat transfer resistance are derived from differential equations. Based on the method of equivalent radius, the similarities and differences between non-circular and circular roadways in calculating the heat dissipation of surrounding rock are discussed. Using the finite volume method, the calculation models for non-circular and circular roadways in the heat dissipation of surrounding rock are also established, among the non-circular roadways including three circumstances, namely, trapezoid, rectangle, and arch. The relation errors of heat dissipation of the surrounding rock of the three equivalent circular roadway methods are investigated for the three non-circular roadways. Results show that the calculation approach with equal perimeters is the best for the heat dissipation of surrounding rock of non-circular roadways.
Viscous dissipation effects on heat transfer in flow past a continuous moving plate
Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.
The study of thermal boundary layer on taking into account the viscous dissipative heat, on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate is presented here.Similarity solutions are derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...
Coronal heating by Alfven waves dissipation in compressible nonuniform media
Malara, Francesco; Primavera, Leonardo; Veltri, Pierluigi
1996-01-01
The possibility to produce small scales and then to efficiently dissipate energy has been studied by Malara et al. [1992b] in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an weakly dissipative incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend this work to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Numerical simulations show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. These effects give rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates of the typical times the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfven waves of photospheric origin
Xiao, Tiejun
2016-11-01
In this paper, stochastic thermodynamics of delayed bistable Langevin systems near coherence resonance is discussed. We calculate the heat dissipation rate and the information flow of a delayed bistable Langevin system under various noise intensities. Both the heat dissipation rate and the information flow are found to be bell-shaped functions of the noise intensity, which implies that coherence resonance manifests itself in the thermodynamic properties.
Using AlN-Coated Heat Sink to Improve the Heat Dissipation of LED Packages
Jean Ming-Der
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study optimizes aluminum nitride (AlN ceramics, in order to enhance the thermal performance of light-emitting diode (LED packages. AlN coatings are grown on copper/ aluminum substrates as a heat interface material, using an electrostatic spraying process. The effect of the deposition parameters on the coatings is determined. The thermal performance of AlN coated Cu/Al substrates is evaluated in terms of the heat dissipated and compared by measuring the LED case temperature. The structure and properties of the coating are also examined a scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In sum, the thermal performance of the LED is increased and good heat resistance characteristics are obtained. The results show that using AlN ceramic coating on a copper/aluminum substrate increases the thermal performance.
Wan, Jiangbo; Zhang, Guoan; Qiu, Yuxuan; Wen, Chunquan; Fu, Tairan
2016-05-01
This study aimed to further explore heat dissipation by blood circulation and airway tissue heat absorption in an inhalational thermal injury model. Twelve adult male Beagle dogs were divided into four groups to inhale heated air for 10min: the control group, group I (100.5°C), group II (161.5°C), and group III (218°C). The relative humidity and temperature of the inhaled heated air were measured in the heating tube and trachea, as were blood temperatures and flow velocities in both common jugular veins. Formulas were used to calculate the total heat quantity reduction of the heated air, heat dissipation by the blood, and airway tissue heat absorption. The blood temperatures of both the common jugular veins increased by 0.29°C±0.07°C to 2.96°C±0.24°C and the mean blood flow volume after injury induction was about 1.30-1.74 times greater than before injury induction. The proportions of heat dissipated by the blood and airway tissue heat absorption were 68.92%±14.88% and 31.13%±14.87%, respectively. The heat dissipating ability of the blood circulation was demonstrated and improved upon along with tissue heat absorption owing to increased regional blood flow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Junho; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Chung, Wonsub
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We fabricate the CuO/resin composite coating layer on aluminum alloy heat sink. • CuO/resin coating considerably improved the surface emissivity. • The LED junction temperature was reduced by CuO/resin coated heat sink. • The thermal resistance of heat sink was decreased by CuO/resin composite coating at 200 μm thickness. - Abstract: A composite coating composed of cupric oxide (CuO) and silicon-based resin was applied to an aluminum-alloy heat sink for a light emitting diode (LED) module. The purpose of the composite coating is to improve the heat dissipation performance of heat sink by enhancing thermal radiation emission. The heat dissipation performance was investigated in terms of LED junction temperature and thermal resistance using a thermal transient method. The CuO and silicon-based resin composite coating showed higher emissivity, and the lower junction temperature and thermal resistance of the heat sink was achieved. In addition, a continuous operation test of the LED chip with the heat sink revealed that the surface treated with the CuO composite coating stably dissipated heat without degradation. In conclusion, the composite coating proposed here showed a significant improvement of the heat dissipation performance of the aluminum-alloy heat sink due to the enhanced thermal radiation property.
A Novel Methodology for Measurements of an LED's Heat Dissipation Factor
Jou, R.-Y.; Haung, J.-H.
2015-12-01
Heat generation is an inevitable byproduct with high-power light-emitting diode (LED) lighting. The increase in junction temperature that accompanies the heat generation sharply degrades the optical output of the LED and has a significant negative influence on the reliability and durability of the LED. For these reasons, the heat dissipation factor, Kh, is an important factor in modeling and thermal design of LED installations. In this study, a methodology is proposed and experiments are conducted to determine LED heat dissipation factors. Experiments are conducted for two different brands of LED. The average heat dissipation factor of the Edixeon LED is 0.69, and is 0.60 for the OSRAM LED. By using the developed test method and comparing the results to the calculated luminous fluxes using theoretical equations, the interdependence of optical, electrical, and thermal powers can be predicted with a reasonable accuracy. The difference between the theoretical and experimental values is less than 9 %.
Senve, Vinay; Narasimham, G.S.V.L.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Transport processes in isothermal hexagonal sheath with 19 heat generating rods is studied. → Correlation is given to predict the maximum temperature considering all transport processes. → Effective thermal conductivity of rod bundle can be obtained using max temperature. → Data on the critical Rayleigh numbers for p/d ratios of 1.1-2.0 is presented. → Radiative heat transfer contributes to heat dissipation of 38-65% of total heat. - Abstract: A numerical study of conjugate natural convection and surface radiation in a horizontal hexagonal sheath housing 19 solid heat generating rods with cladding and argon as the fill gas, is performed. The natural convection in the sheath is driven by the volumetric heat generation in the solid rods. The problem is solved using the FLUENT CFD code. A correlation is obtained to predict the maximum temperature in the rod bundle for different pitch-to-diameter ratios and heat generating rates. The effective thermal conductivity is related to the heat generation rate, maximum temperature and the sheath temperature. Results are presented for the dimensionless maximum temperature, Rayleigh number and the contribution of radiation with changing emissivity, total wattage and the pitch-to-diameter ratio. In the simulation of a larger system that contains a rod bundle, the effective thermal conductivity facilitates simplified modelling of the rod bundle by treating it as a solid of effective thermal conductivity. The parametric studies revealed that the contribution of radiation can be 38-65% of the total heat generation, for the parameter ranges chosen. Data for critical Rayleigh number above which natural convection comes into effect is also presented.
Vasculature of the hive: heat dissipation in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera) hive
Bonoan, Rachael E.; Goldman, Rhyan R.; Wong, Peter Y.; Starks, Philip T.
2014-06-01
Eusocial insects are distinguished by their elaborate cooperative behavior and are sometimes defined as superorganisms. As a nest-bound superorganism, individuals work together to maintain favorable nest conditions. Residing in temperate environments, honey bees ( Apis mellifera) work especially hard to maintain brood comb temperature between 32 and 36 °C. Heat shielding is a social homeostatic mechanism employed to combat local heat stress. Workers press the ventral side of their bodies against heated surfaces, absorb heat, and thus protect developing brood. While the absorption of heat has been characterized, the dissipation of absorbed heat has not. Our study characterized both how effectively worker bees absorb heat during heat shielding, and where worker bees dissipate absorbed heat. Hives were experimentally heated for 15 min during which internal temperatures and heat shielder counts were taken. Once the heat source was removed, hives were photographed with a thermal imaging camera for 15 min. Thermal images allowed for spatial tracking of heat flow as cooling occurred. Data indicate that honey bee workers collectively minimize heat gain during heating and accelerate heat loss during cooling. Thermal images show that heated areas temporarily increase in size in all directions and then rapidly decrease to safe levels (<37 °C). As such, heat shielding is reminiscent of bioheat removal via the cardiovascular system of mammals.
Heat Dissipation for Microprocessor Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Based Liquid
Trinh, Pham Van; Chuc, Nguyen Van; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc
2013-01-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity (2000 W/m · K compared with thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m · K). This suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation system for high power electronic devices, such as computer processor and high brightness light emitting diode (HB-LED). In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based liquid was made by COOH functionalized MWCNTs dispersed in distilled water with concentration in the range between 0.2 and 1.2 gram/liter. MWCNT based liquid was used in liquid cooling system to enhance thermal dissipation for computer processor. By using distilled water in liquid cooling system, CPU's temperature decreases by about 10°C compared with using fan cooling system. By using MWCNT liquid with concentration of 1 gram/liter MWCNTs, the CPU's temperature decreases by 7°C compared with using distilled water in cooling system. Theoretically, we also showed that the presence of MWCNTs reduced thermal resistance and increased the thermal conductivity of liquid cooling system. The results have confirmed the advantages of the MWCNTs for thermal dissipation systems for the μ-processor and other high power electronic devices. PMID:24453829
Research on Heat Dissipation of Electric Vehicle Based on Safety Architecture Optimization
Zhou, Chao; Guo, Yajuan; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Haitao; Wu, Liwei
2017-10-01
In order to solve the problem of excessive temperature in the discharge process of lithium-ion battery and the temperature difference between batteries, a heat dissipation of electric vehicle based on safety architecture optimization is designed. The simulation is used to optimize the temperature field of the heat dissipation of the battery. A reasonable heat dissipation control scheme is formulated to achieve heat dissipation requirements. The results show that the ideal working temperature range of the lithium ion battery is 20?∼45?, and the temperature difference between the batteries should be controlled within 5?. A cooling fan is arranged at the original air outlet of the battery model, and the two cooling fans work in turn to realize the reciprocating flow. The temperature difference is controlled within 5? to ensure the good temperature uniformity between the batteries of the electric vehicle. Based on the above finding, it is concluded that the heat dissipation design for electric vehicle batteries is safe and effective, which is the most effective methods to ensure battery life and vehicle safety.
Heat Dissipation for Microprocessor Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Based Liquid
Hung Thang, Bui; Trinh, Pham Van; Chuc, Nguyen Van; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc
2013-01-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity (2000 W/m · K compared with thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m · K). This suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation system for high power electronic devices, such as computer processor and high brightness light emitting diode (HB-LED). In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based liquid was made by COOH functionalized MWCNTs dispersed in distilled water with conce...
[The design of heat dissipation of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation].
Wei, Jiancang; Suin, Jianjun; Wu, Jian
2013-02-01
Because of the compact structure of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, which is due to the same small space where the compressor, the condenser, the control circuit, the battery and the power supply device are all placed in, the design for heat dissipation and ventilation is of critical importance for the stability and reliability of the box. Several design schemes of the heat dissipation design of the box were simulated using the FLOEFD hot fluid analysis software in this study. Different distributions of the temperature field in every design scheme were constructed intimately in the present study. It is well concluded that according to the result of the simulation analysis, the optimal heat dissipation design is decent for the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, and the box can operate smoothly for a long time using the results of the design.
Dissipation of the reactor heat at the Savannah River Plant
Neill, J.S.; Babcock, D.F.
1971-10-01
The effluent cooling water from the heat exchangers of the Savannah River nuclear reactors is cooled by natural processes as it flows through the stream beds, canals, ponds, and swamps on the plant site. The Langhaar equation, which gives the rate of heat removal from the water surface as a function of the surface temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, is applied satisfactorily to calculate the cooling that occurs at all temperature levels and for all modes of water flow. The application of this equation requires an accounting of effects such as solar heating, shading, mixing, staging, stratification, underflow, rainfall, the imposed heat load, and the rate of change in heat content of the body of water
Junxiong Hu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate a facile approach to significantly enhance the heat dissipation potential of conventional aluminum (Al heat sinks by mechanically coating graphene nanosheets. For Al and graphene-coated Al heat sinks, the change in temperature with change in coating coverage, coating thickness and heat flux are studied. It is found that with the increase in coating coverage from 0 to 100%, the steady-state temperature is decreased by 5 °C at a heat flux of 1.8 W cm-1. By increasing the average thickness of graphene coating from 480 nm to 1900 nm, a remarkable temperature reduction up to 7 °C can be observed. Moreover, with the increase in heat flux from 1.2 W cm-1 to 2.4 W cm-1, the temperature difference between uncoated and graphene-coated samples increases from 1 °C to 6 °C. The thermal analysis and finite element simulation reveal that the thermal radiation plays a key role in enhancing the heat dissipation performance. The effect of heat convection remains weak owing to the low air velocity at surface-air boundary. This work provides a technological innovation in improving metal heat dissipation using graphene nanosheets.
Optimization study of using PTC for human body heating dissipation
Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A better knowledge of the human body heat loses mechanisms is important for both diminishing the number of deaths during the surgical procedures of the patients under effect of full anaesthesia and increasing the efficiency of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems. For these studies it is necessary to manufacture a human body mannequin having its surface temperature maintained on a value close to the real human body temperature. A number of PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient thermistors placed on the entire external surface of the mannequin can be used for this purpose. This paper presents a study of the transient heating regime and the stability of the maintained temperature, performed on these devices.
Experimental Study of Heat Dissipation in Indoor Sports Shoes
Dessing, O.; Jansen, A.J.; Leihitu, C.; Overhage, D.
2014-01-01
As indoor sports shoes are intensively used in a warm and sweaty environment for periods of up to three consecutive hours, the built-up heat inside is insufficiently released causing warm and perspiring feet. This results in an increased chance of blisters and skin irritations. Experimental research
Soil warming for utilization and dissipation of waste heat in Pennsylvania
DeWalle, D.R.; Chapura, A.M. Jr.
1978-01-01
The feasibility of using soil warming for utilization and dissipation of reject heat from power plants was demonstrated in a year-long test operation of a field prototype in Pennsylvania. A parallel network of 5-mm-diam polyethylene pipes was buried at a 0.3-m depth and with 0.6-m spacing in the soil covering a 15- x 60-m area to convey hot water simulating condenser cooling water from a power plant. Crop response to the heated soil varied: Snap beans and warm season forage crops such as sudangrass responded with increased yields, while cool season forage crops experienced decreased yields. Winter wheat yields were also increased, but winter barley was winter-killed due to delayed development of cold tolerance in the warm soil. Heat dissipation from the buried pipes was primarily by thermal conduction to the soil surface. Rates of heat loss from the buried pipes were most accurately predicted using an equation that included an explicit term for heat conduction below the pipes. Estimated soil warming land area necessary to dissipate all the reject heat from a 33% efficiency, 1500-MW electrical power plant based on minimum measured summer heat loss rates was 76 km 2 compared to the economic optimum of 18.2 km 2 determined as the least-cost system
Calorimetry Minisensor for the Localised Measurement of Surface Heat Dissipated from the Human Body.
Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel
2016-11-06
We have developed a calorimetry sensor that can perform a local measurement of the surface heat dissipated from the human body. The operating principle is based on the law of conductive heat transfer: heat dissipated by the human body passes across a thermopile located between the individual and a thermostat. Body heat power is calculated from the signals measured by the thermopile and the amount of power dissipated across the thermostat in order to maintain a constant temperature. The first prototype we built had a detection area measuring 6 × 6 cm², while the second prototype, which is described herein, had a 2 × 2 cm² detection area. This new design offers three advantages over the initial one: (1) greater resolution and three times greater thermal sensitivity; (2) a twice as fast response; and (3) it can take measurements from smaller areas of the body. The sensor has a 5 mW resolution, but the uncertainty is greater, up to 15 mW, due to the measurement and calculation procedure. The order of magnitude of measurements made in healthy subjects ranged from 60 to 300 mW at a thermostat temperature of 28 °C and an ambient room temperature of 21 °C. The values measured by the sensor depend on the ambient temperature and the thermostat's temperature, while the power dissipated depends on the individual's metabolism and any physical and/or emotional activity.
Ion-cyclotron heating with low dissipation in T-10 tokamak
Alikaev, V.V.; Vdovin, V.L.; Lisenko, S.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Shapotkovskii, N.V.
1979-02-01
This paper examines the problem of plasma heating in the T-10 tokamak using the second harmonic of ion-cyclotron frequency ω = 2ω/sub Bi/. There are several promising methods for heating in this frequency range, for example ion-ion hybrid resonance. We will, however, concentrate our attention in this paper on the study of fast wave heating methods under conditions of low dissipation using resonance pumping. Multi-mode character of plasma resonator is a characteristic feature of such a large machine with a dense plasma. It will be shown, therefore, that a comparatively small absorption spans over a majority of modes; this simplifies considerably the matching of the excitation device to the generator under the conditions of changing electron density. An important consequence of mode spanning at low dissipation is the localization of electromagnetic energy under the exciter
A novel high-torque magnetorheological brake with a water cooling method for heat dissipation
Wang, D M; Hou, Y F; Tian, Z Z
2013-01-01
The extremely severe heating of magnetorheological (MR) brakes restricts their application in high-power situations. This study aims to develop a novel MR brake with a high-torque capacity. To achieve this goal, a water cooling method is adopted to assist in heat dissipation. In the study, a structural model design of the high-torque MR brake is first developed according to the transmission properties of the MR fluid between the rotating plates. Then, the operating principle of the MR brake is illustrated, which is followed by a detailed design of the water channel. Moreover, theoretical analysis, including the transmitted torque, magnetic field and thermal analysis, is performed as well. After this, an experimental prototype of the proposed MR brake is fabricated and assembled. Then the torque transmission and heat dissipation of the prototype are experimentally investigated to evaluate the torque transmission properties and water cooling efficiency. Results indicate that the proposed MR brake is capable of producing a highly controllable brake torque, and the water cooling method can effectively assist in heat dissipation from the MR brake. (paper)
Research on the Heat Dissipation Characteristics of Lithium Battery Spatial Layout in an AUV
Zhaoyong Mao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To meet the power demand requirements of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs, the power supply is generally composed of a large number of high-energy lithium battery groups. The lithium battery heat dissipation properties not only affect the underwater vehicle performance but also bring some security risks. Based on the widespread application of lithium batteries, lithium batteries in an AUV are taken as an example to investigate the heat dissipation characteristics of the lithium battery spatial layout in an AUV. With the aim of increasing the safety of lithium batteries, a model is developed for the heat transfer process based on the energy conservation equation, and the battery heat dissipation characteristics of the spatial layout are analyzed. The results indicate that the most suitable distance between the cells and the cross arrangement is better than the sequence arrangement in terms of cooling characteristics. The temperature gradient and the temperature change inside the cabin with time are primarily affected by the navigation speed, but they have little relationship with the environmental temperature.
Kumar Hitesh
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The boundary layer steady flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible fluid due to a stretching plate with viscous dissipation effect in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is studied. The equations of motion and heat transfer are reduced to non-linear ordinary differential equations and the exact solutions are obtained using properties of confluent hypergeometric function. It is assumed that the prescribed heat flux at the stretching porous wall varies as the square of the distance from origin. The effects of the various parameters entering into the problem on the velocity field and temperature distribution are discussed.
Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1
Eduardo Augusto Girardi
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.
George Bobin Saji
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Intensifying electronic component power dissipation levels, shortening product design cycle times, and greater than before requirement for more compact and reliable electronic systems with greater functionality, has heightened the need for thermal design tools that enable accurate solutions to be generated and quickly assessed. The present numerical study aims at developing a computational tool in OpenFOAM that can predict the heat dissipation rate and temperature profile of any electronic component in operation. A suitable computational domain with defined aspect ratio is chosen. For analyzing, “buoyant Boussinesq Simple Foam“ solver available with OpenFOAM is used. It was modified for adapting to the investigation with specified initial and boundary conditions. The experimental setup was made with the dimensions taken up for numerical study. Thermocouples were calibrated and placed in specified locations. For different heat input, the temperatures are noted down at steady state and compared with results from the numerical study.
Tyler, Robert
2012-04-01
The tidal flow response and associated dissipative heat generated in a satellite ocean depends strongly on the ocean configuration parameters as these parameters control the form and frequencies of the ocean's natural modes of oscillation; if there is a near match between the form and frequency of one of these natural modes and that of one of the available tidal forcing constituents, the ocean can be resonantly excited, producing strong tidal flow and appreciable dissipative heat. Of primary interest in this study are the ocean parameters that can be expected to evolve (notably, the ocean depth in an ocean attempting to freeze, and the stratification in an ocean attempting to cool) because this evolution can cause an ocean to be pushed into a resonant configuration where the increased dissipative heat of the resonant response halts further evolution and a liquid ocean can be maintained by ocean tidal heat. In this case the resonant ocean tidal response is not only allowed but may be inevitable. Previous work on this topic is extended to describe the resonant configurations in both unstratified and stratified cases for an assumed global ocean on Titan subject to both obliquity and eccentricity tidal forces. Results indicate first that the assumption of an equilibrium tidal response is not justified and the correct dynamical response must be considered. Second, the ocean tidal dissipation will be appreciable if the ocean configuration is near that producing a resonant state. The parameters values required for this resonance are provided in this study, and examples/movies of calculated ocean tidal flow are also presented.
Design of a sodium-air heat dissipator capable of transmitting powers till a megawatt
Castellanos C, G.
1977-01-01
This is a theoretical study of the transport phenomenon in which emphasis is put on heat transference. From the chemical and nuclear point of view a revision is made of the sodium behavior as an agent of heat transference and as a fluid. The heat transference is analyzed on wide surfaces and the design of a sodium air heat dissipator capable of transferring powers at the range of a megawatt is presented with a simulation by computer. The results show that the heat transference coefficients don't vary in a great measure in relation with the temperature. This way we can use the caloric temperature for the determination of the sodium properties and the medium temperature for the determination of the air properties. (author)
Enhanced lateral heat dissipation packaging structure for GaN HEMTs on Si substrate
Cheng, Stone; Chou, Po-Chien; Chieng, Wei-Hua; Chang, E.Y.
2013-01-01
This work presents a technology for packaging AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on a Si substrate. The GaN HEMTs are attached to a V-groove copper base and mounted on a TO-3P leadframe. The various thermal paths from the GaN gate junction to the case are carried out for heat dissipation by spreading to protective coating; transferring through the bond wires; spreading in the lateral device structure through the adhesive layer, and vertical heat spreading of silicon chip bottom. Thermal characterization showed a thermal resistance of 13.72 °C/W from the device to the TO-3P package. Experimental tests of a 30 mm gate-periphery single chip packaged in a 5 × 3 mm V-groove Cu base with a 100 V drain bias showed power dissipation of 22 W. -- Highlights: ► An enhanced packaging structure designed for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on an Si substrate. ► The V-groove copper base is designed on the device periphery surface heat conduction for enhancing Si substrate thermal dissipation. ► The proposed device shows a lower thermal resistance and upgrade in thermal conductivity capability. ► This work provides useful thermal IR imagery information to aid in designing high efficiency package for GaN HEMTs on Si
Yamanoi, Kazuto; Yokotani, Yuki; Kimura, Takashi
2015-01-01
The heat dissipation due to the resonant precessional motion of the magnetization in a ferromagnetic metal has been investigated. We demonstrated that the temperature during the ferromagnetic resonance can be simply detected by the electrical resistance measurement of the Cu strip line in contact with the ferromagnetic metal. The temperature change of the Cu strip due to the ferromagnetic resonance was found to exceed 10 K, which significantly affects the spin-current transport. The influence of the thermal conductivity of the substrate on the heating was also investigated
Natural convection in an adiabatic vertical channel due to a dissipated heat element
Ramos, M.A.M.S.
1986-01-01
An experimental study was perfomed on natural convection heat transfer to air in a vertical channel due to an isothermal heated element attached in one of the walls of the channel. The heated element dissipates heat due to the Joule effect. To determine the heat transfer coefficient, it is necessary to evaluate the heat transferred to air by natural convenction alone. Hence, the heat lost by the element due to conduction and radiation is evaluated in order to correct the measured heat transfer. The natural-convenction heat transfer coefficient is a function of the following parameters: the temperature difference between the element and the ambient air, the position of the element in the channel, and the channel spacing. An optimal value of the channel spacing, when the heat transfer coefficient attains its maximum value, was observed for each of the temperature difference investigated. These maximum values may be up to 25% higher than the value for the case of infinite spacing. Comparisons are made with results available in the literature for similar configurations, and the values found in this work are higher. (author) [pt
Soil warming for utilization and dissipation of waste heat from power generation in Pennsylvania
DeWalle, D.R.
1977-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe the Penn State research project, which studies the soil warming by circulation of heated power plant discharge water through a buried pipe network. Waste heat can be utilized by soil warming for increased crop growth in open fields with proper selection of crops and cropping systems. Dissipation of waste heat from a buried pipe network can be predicted using either of two steady-state conduction equations tested. Accurate predictions are dependent upon estimates of the pipe outer-surface temperatures, soil surface temperatures in heated soil and soil thermal conductivity. The effect of economic optimization on soil-warming land area requirements for a 1500 MWe power plant in Pennsylvania is presented. (M.S.)
Dissipation and heating in solar wind turbulence: from the macro to the micro and back again.
Kiyani, Khurom H; Osman, Kareem T; Chapman, Sandra C
2015-05-13
The past decade has seen a flurry of research activity focused on discerning the physics of kinetic scale turbulence in high-speed astrophysical plasma flows. By 'kinetic' we mean spatial scales on the order of or, in particular, smaller than the ion inertial length or the ion gyro-radius--the spatial scales at which the ion and electron bulk velocities decouple and considerable change can be seen in the ion distribution functions. The motivation behind most of these studies is to find the ultimate fate of the energy cascade of plasma turbulence, and thereby the channels by which the energy in the system is dissipated. This brief Introduction motivates the case for a themed issue on this topic and introduces the topic of turbulent dissipation and heating in the solar wind. The theme issue covers the full breadth of studies: from theory and models, massive simulations of these models and observational studies from the highly rich and vast amount of data collected from scores of heliospheric space missions since the dawn of the space age. A synopsis of the theme issue is provided, where a brief description of all the contributions is discussed and how they fit together to provide an over-arching picture on the highly topical subject of dissipation and heating in turbulent collisionless plasmas in general and in the solar wind in particular. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
S. Das
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The combined effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on the momentum and thermal transport for the magnetohydrodynamic flow past an inclined plate in both aiding and opposing buoyancy situations have been carried out. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the fluid velocity, temperature as well as the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the plate. The results show that there are significant effects of pertinent parameters on the flow fields.
Jill M Stapleton
Full Text Available Studies have reported that older females have impaired heat loss responses during work in the heat compared to young females. However, it remains unclear at what level of heat stress these differences occur. Therefore, we examined whole-body heat loss [evaporative (HE and dry heat loss, via direct calorimetry] and changes in body heat storage (∆Hb, via direct and indirect calorimetry in 10 young (23±4 years and 10 older (58±5 years females matched for body surface area and aerobic fitness (VO2peak during three 30-min exercise bouts performed at incremental rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1, 325 (Ex2 and 400 (Ex3 W in the heat (40°C, 15% relative humidity. Exercise bouts were separated by 15 min of recovery. Since dry heat gain was similar between young and older females during exercise (p=0.52 and recovery (p=0.42, differences in whole-body heat loss were solely due to HE. Our results show that older females had a significantly lower HE at the end of Ex2 (young: 383±34 W; older: 343±39 W, p=0.04 and Ex3 (young: 437±36 W; older: 389±29 W, p=0.008, however no difference was measured at the end of Ex1 (p=0.24. Also, the magnitude of difference in the maximal level of HE achieved between the young and older females became greater with increasing heat loads (Ex1=10.2%, Ex2=11.6% and Ex3=12.4%. Furthermore, a significantly greater ∆Hb was measured for all heat loads for the older females (Ex1: 178±44 kJ; Ex2: 151±38 kJ; Ex3: 216±25 kJ, p=0.002 relative to the younger females (Ex1: 127±35 kJ; Ex2: 96±45 kJ; Ex3: 146±46 kJ. In contrast, no differences in HE or ∆Hb were observed during recovery (p>0.05. We show that older habitually active females have an impaired capacity to dissipate heat compared to young females during exercise-induced heat loads of ≥325 W when performed in the heat.
N. Khan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The investigation of heat transfer analysis on steady MHD axi-symmetric flow between two infinite stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating is basic objective of this paper. Attention has been focused to acquire the similarity solutions of the equations governing the flow and thermal fields. The transformed boundary value problem is solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. The series solutions are developed and the convergence of these solutions is explicitly discussed. The analytical expressions for fluid velocity, pressure and temperature are constructed and analyzed for various set of parameter values. The numerical values for skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Particular attention is given to the variations of Prandtl and Eckert numbers. We examined that the dimensionless temperature field is enhanced when we increase the values of Eckert number and Prandtl number.
Heat dissipation research on the water-cooling channel of HL-2M in-vessel coils
Jiang, J., E-mail: jiangjiaming@swip.ac.cn; Liu, Y.; Chen, Q.; Ji, X.Q.
2017-04-15
Highlights: • The joule heat of in-vessel coils is very difficult to dissipate inside HL-2M vacuum vessel. • Heat dissipation model of the coil includes the joule heat model, the heat conduction model and the heat transfer model. • The CFD analysis has been done for the coil-water cooling, with comparison with the date of theoretical analysis and experiment. • The result shows water-cooling channel is good for the joule heat transfer and taken away. - Abstract: HL-2M in-vessel coils are positioned in high vacuum circumstance, and they will generate joule heat when they carry 15 kA electrical current, but joule heat is very difficult to dissipate in vacuum, so a hollow cable with 8 mm inner diameter is design as water-cooling channel for heat convection. By using the methods of the theoretical derivation, together with CFD numeric simulation method and the experiment of the heat transfer, the water channel of HL-2M in-vessel coils has been studied, and the temperature of HL-2M in-vessel coils under different cooling water flow rates is obtained and acceptable. Simultaneously, the external cooling water supply system parameters for the water-cooling channel of the coils are estimated. Three methods’ results are in good agreement; the theoretical model is verified and could be popularized for predicting the temperature rise of HL-2M in-vessel coils.
Optimization design of LED heat dissipation structure based on strip fins
Xue, Lingyun; Wan, Wenbin; Chen, Qingguang; Rao, Huanle; Xu, Ping
2018-03-01
To solve the heat dissipation problem of LED, a radiator structure based on strip fins is designed and the method to optimize the structure parameters of strip fins is proposed in this paper. The combination of RBF neural networks and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used for modeling and optimization respectively. During the experiment, the 150 datasets of LED junction temperature when structure parameters of number of strip fins, length, width and height of the fins have different values are obtained by ANSYS software. Then RBF neural network is applied to build the non-linear regression model and the parameters optimization of structure based on particle swarm optimization algorithm is performed with this model. The experimental results show that the lowest LED junction temperature reaches 43.88 degrees when the number of hidden layer nodes in RBF neural network is 10, the two learning factors in particle swarm optimization algorithm are 0.5, 0.5 respectively, the inertia factor is 1 and the maximum number of iterations is 100, and now the number of fins is 64, the distribution structure is 8*8, and the length, width and height of fins are 4.3mm, 4.48mm and 55.3mm respectively. To compare the modeling and optimization results, LED junction temperature at the optimized structure parameters was simulated and the result is 43.592°C which approximately equals to the optimal result. Compared with the ordinary plate-fin-type radiator structure whose temperature is 56.38°C, the structure greatly enhances heat dissipation performance of the structure.
Skin histology and its role in heat dissipation in three pinniped species
Khamas Wael A
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinnipeds have a thick blubber layer and may have difficulty maintaining their body temperature during hot weather when on land. The skin is the main thermoregulatory conduit which emits excessive body heat. Methods Thorough evaluation of the skin histology in three pinniped species; the California sea lion-Zalophus californianus, the Pacific harbor seal-Phoca vitulina richardsi, and the Northern elephant seal-Mirounga angustirostris, was conducted to identify the presence, location and distribution of skin structures which contribute to thermoregulation. These structures included hair, adipose tissue, sweat glands, vasculature, and arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA. Thermal imaging was performed on live animals of the same species to correlate histological findings with thermal emission of the skin. Results The presence and distribution of skin structures directly relates to emissivity of the skin in all three species. Emissivity of skin in phocids (Pacific harbor and Northern elephant seals follows a different pattern than skin in otariids (California sea lions. The flipper skin in phocids tends to be the most emissive region during hot weather and least emissive during cold weather. On the contrary in otariids, skin of the entire body has a tendency to be emissive during both hot and cold weather. Conclusion Heat dissipation of the skin directly relates to the presence and distribution of skin structures in all three species. Different skin thermal dissipation patterns were observed in phocid versus otariid seals. Observed thermal patterns can be used for proper understanding of optimum thermal needs of seals housed in research facilities, rescue centers and zoo exhibits.
Application of Carbon Nanotube Assemblies for Sound Generation and Heat Dissipation
Kozlov, Mikhail; Haines, Carter; Oh, Jiyoung; Lima, Marcio; Fang, Shaoli
2011-03-01
Nanotech approaches were explored for the efficient transformation of an electrical signal into sound, heat, cooling action, and mechanical strain. The studies are based on the aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT forests) that can be grown on various substrates using a conventional CVD technique. They form a three-dimensional conductive network that possesses uncommon electrical, thermal, acoustic and mechanical properties. When heated with an alternating current or a near-IR laser modulated in 0.01--20 kHz range, the nanotube forests produce loud, audible sound. High generated sound pressure and broad frequency response (beyond 20 kHz) show that the forests act as efficient thermo-acoustic (TA) transducers. They can generate intense third and fourth TA harmonics that reveal peculiar interference-like patterns from ac-dc voltage scans. A strong dependence of the patterns on forest height can be used for characterization of carbon nanotube assemblies and for evaluation of properties of thermal interfaces. Because of good coupling with surrounding air, the forests provide excellent dissipation of heat produced by IC chips. Thermoacoustic converters based on forests can be used for thermo- and photo-acoustic sound generation, amplification and noise cancellation.
Jeremy R. Dunklin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Polymer films containing plasmonic nanostructures are of increasing interest for development of responsive energy, sensing, and therapeutic systems. The present work evaluates heat dissipated from power absorbed by resonant gold (Au nanoparticles (NP with negligible Rayleigh scattering cross sections randomly dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS films. Finite element analysis (FEA of heat transport was coordinated with characterization of resonant absorption by Mie theory and coupled dipole approximation (CDA. At AuNP particle separation greater than resonant wavelength, correspondence was observed between measured and CDA-predicted optical absorption and FEA-derived power dissipation. At AuNP particle separation less than resonant wavelength, measured extinction increased relative to predicted values, while FEA-derived power dissipation remained comparable to CDA-predicted power absorption before lagging observed extinguished power at higher AuNP content and resulting particle separation. Effects of isolated particles, for example, scattering, and particle-particle interactions, for example, multiple scattering, aggregation on observed optothermal activity were evaluated. These complementary approaches to distinguish contributions to resonant heat dissipation from isolated particle absorption and interparticle interactions support design and adaptive control of thermoplasmonic materials for a variety of implementations.
Tsai, Wei-Yu; Huang, Guan-Rong; Wang, Kuang-Kuo; Chen, Chin-Fu; Huang, J C
2017-04-26
Aluminum alloys, which serve as heat sink in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, are often inherent with a high thermal conductivity, but poor thermal total emissivity. Thus, high emissive coatings on the Al substrate can enhance the thermal dissipation efficiency of radiation. In this study, the ultrasonic mechanical coating and armoring (UMCA) technique was used to insert various ceramic combinations, such as Al₂O₃, SiO₂, or graphite, to enhance thermal dissipation. Analytic models have been established to couple the thermal radiation and convection on the sample surface through heat flow equations. A promising match has been reached between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. With the adequate insertion of ceramic powders, the temperature of the Al heat sinks can be lowered by 5-11 °C, which is highly favorable for applications requiring cooling components.
Kailin Pan
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Thermal resistance is a key technical index which indicates the thermal management of multi-chip module high power LED (MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system. In this paper, the prototype structure of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is proposed to study the reliable thermal resistance calculation method. In order to analyze the total thermal resistance of the MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system, three kinds of thermal resistance calculation method including theoretical calculation, experimental testing and finite element simulation are developed respectively. Firstly, based on the thermal resistance network model and the principle of steady state heat transfer, the theoretical value of total thermal resistance is 6.111 K/W through sum of the thermal resistance of every material layer in the major direction of heat flow. Secondly, the thermal resistance experiment is carried out by T3Ster to obtain the experimental result of total thermal resistance, and the value is 6.729 K/W. Thirdly, a three-dimensional finite element model of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is established, and the junction temperature experiment is also performed to calculated the finite element simulated result of total thermal resistance, the value is 6.99 K/W. Finally, by comparing the error of all the three kinds of result, the error of total thermal resistance between the theoretical value and experimental result is 9.2 %, and the error of total thermal resistance between the experimental result and finite element simulation is only about -3.9 %, meanwhile, the main reason of each error is discussed respectively.
Electrodeposition of Copper/Carbonous Nanomaterial Composite Coatings for Heat-Dissipation Materials
Yasuki Goto
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Carbonous nanomaterials are promising additives for composite coatings for heat-dissipation materials because of their excellent thermal conductivity. Here, copper/carbonous nanomaterial composite coatings were prepared using nanodiamond (ND as the carbonous nanomaterial. The copper/ND composite coatings were electrically deposited onto copper substrates from a continuously stirred copper sulfate coating bath containing NDs. NDs were dispersed by ultrasonic treatment, and the initial bath pH was adjusted by adding sodium hydroxide solution or sulfuric acid solution before electrodeposition. The effects of various coating conditions—the initial ND concentration, initial bath pH, stirring speed, electrical current density, and the amount of electricity—on the ND content of the coatings were investigated. Furthermore, the surface of the NDs was modified by hydrothermal treatment to improve ND incorporation. A higher initial ND concentration and a higher stirring speed increased the ND content of the coatings, whereas a higher initial bath pH and a greater amount of electricity decreased it. The electrical current density showed a minimum ND content at approximately 5 A/dm2. Hydrothermal treatment, which introduced carboxyl groups onto the ND surface, improved the ND content of the coatings. A copper/ND composite coating with a maximum of 3.85 wt % ND was obtained.
Iyyappan, I.; Ponmurugan, M.
2018-03-01
A trade of figure of merit (\\dotΩ ) criterion accounts the best compromise between the useful input energy and the lost input energy of the heat devices. When the heat engine is working at maximum \\dotΩ criterion its efficiency increases significantly from the efficiency at maximum power. We derive the general relations between the power, efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion and minimum dissipation for the linear irreversible heat engine. The efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion has the lower bound \
Smith, Caroline J; Johnson, John M
2016-04-01
Under normothermic, resting conditions, humans dissipate heat from the body at a rate approximately equal to heat production. Small discrepancies between heat production and heat elimination would, over time, lead to significant changes in heat storage and body temperature. When heat production or environmental temperature is high the challenge of maintaining heat balance is much greater. This matching of heat elimination with heat production is a function of the skin circulation facilitating heat transport to the body surface and sweating, enabling evaporative heat loss. These processes are manifestations of the autonomic control of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor functions and form the basis of this review. We focus on these systems in the responses to hyperthermia. In particular, the cutaneous vascular responses to heat stress and the current understanding of the neurovascular mechanisms involved. The available research regarding cutaneous active vasodilation and vasoconstriction is highlighted, with emphasis on active vasodilation as a major responder to heat stress. Involvement of the vasoconstrictor and active vasodilator controls of the skin circulation in the context of heat stress and nonthermoregulatory reflexes (blood pressure, exercise) are also considered. Autonomic involvement in the cutaneous vascular responses to direct heating and cooling of the skin are also discussed. We examine the autonomic control of sweating, including cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms, the local control of sweating, thermoregulatory and nonthermoregulatory reflex control and the possible relationship between sudomotor and cutaneous vasodilator function. Finally, we comment on the clinical relevance of these control schemes in conditions of autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek
2016-05-15
The capacity for heat dissipation is considered to be one of the most important constraints on rates of energy expenditure in mammals. To date, the significance of this constraint has been tested exclusively under peak metabolic demands, such as during lactation. Here, we used a different set of metabolic stressors, which do not induce maximum energy expenditures and yet are likely to expose the potential constraining effect of heat dissipation. We compared the physiological responses of mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low basal metabolic rate (L-BMR) to simultaneous exposure to the keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) antigen and high ambient temperature (Ta). At 34°C (and at 23°C, used as a control), KLH challenge resulted in a transient increase in core body temperature (Tb) in mice of both line types (by approximately 0.4°C). Warm exposure did not produce line-type-dependent differences in Tb (which was consistently higher by ca. 0.6°C in H-BMR mice across both Ta values), nor did it result in the suppression of antibody synthesis. These findings were also supported by the lack of between-line-type differences in the mass of the thymus, spleen or lymph nodes. Warm exposure induced the downsizing of heat-generating internal organs (small intestine, liver and kidneys) and an increase in intrascapular brown adipose tissue mass. However, these changes were similar in scope in both line types. Mounting a humoral immune response in selected mice was therefore not affected by ambient temperature. Thus, a combined metabolic challenge of high Ta and an immune response did not appreciably compromise the capacity to dissipate heat, even in the H-BMR mice. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Viscous Dissipation and Heat Conduction in Binary Neutron-Star Mergers
Alford, Mark G.; Bovard, Luke; Hanauske, Matthias; Rezzolla, Luciano; Schwenzer, Kai
2018-01-01
Inferring the properties of dense matter is one of the most exciting prospects from the measurement of gravitational waves from neutron star mergers. However, it requires reliable numerical simulations that incorporate viscous dissipation and energy transport as these can play a significant role in the survival time of the post-merger object. We calculate time scales for typical forms of dissipation and find that thermal transport and shear viscosity will not be important unless neutrino trapping occurs, which requires temperatures above 10 MeV and gradients over length scales of 0.1 km or less. On the other hand, if direct-Urca processes remain suppressed, leaving modified-Urca processes to establish flavor equilibrium, then bulk viscous dissipation could provide significant damping to density oscillations right after merger. When comparing with data from state-of-the-art merger simulations, we find that the bulk viscosity takes values close to its resonant maximum in a typical merger, motivating a more careful assessment of the role of bulk viscous dissipation in the gravitational-wave signal from merging neutron stars.
Viscous Dissipation and Heat Conduction in Binary Neutron-Star Mergers.
Alford, Mark G; Bovard, Luke; Hanauske, Matthias; Rezzolla, Luciano; Schwenzer, Kai
2018-01-26
Inferring the properties of dense matter is one of the most exciting prospects from the measurement of gravitational waves from neutron star mergers. However, it requires reliable numerical simulations that incorporate viscous dissipation and energy transport as these can play a significant role in the survival time of the post-merger object. We calculate time scales for typical forms of dissipation and find that thermal transport and shear viscosity will not be important unless neutrino trapping occurs, which requires temperatures above 10 MeV and gradients over length scales of 0.1 km or less. On the other hand, if direct-Urca processes remain suppressed, leaving modified-Urca processes to establish flavor equilibrium, then bulk viscous dissipation could provide significant damping to density oscillations right after merger. When comparing with data from state-of-the-art merger simulations, we find that the bulk viscosity takes values close to its resonant maximum in a typical merger, motivating a more careful assessment of the role of bulk viscous dissipation in the gravitational-wave signal from merging neutron stars.
Boudjada, Nazim; Segal, Dvira
2014-11-26
We study in a unified manner the dissipative dynamics and the transfer of heat in the two-bath spin-boson model. We use the Bloch-Redfield (BR) formalism, valid in the very weak system-bath coupling limit, the noninteracting-blip approximation (NIBA), applicable in the nonadiabatic limit, and iterative, numerically exact path integral tools. These methodologies were originally developed for the description of the dissipative dynamics of a quantum system, and here they are applied to explore the problem of quantum energy transport in a nonequilibrium setting. Specifically, we study the weak-to-intermediate system-bath coupling regime at high temperatures kBT/ħ > ε, with ε as the characteristic frequency of the two-state system. The BR formalism and NIBA can lead to close results for the dynamics of the reduced density matrix (RDM) in a certain range of parameters. However, relatively small deviations in the RDM dynamics propagate into significant qualitative discrepancies in the transport behavior. Similarly, beyond the strict nonadiabatic limit NIBA's prediction for the heat current is qualitatively incorrect: It fails to capture the turnover behavior of the current with tunneling energy and temperature. Thus, techniques that proved meaningful for describing the RDM dynamics, to some extent even beyond their rigorous range of validity, should be used with great caution in heat transfer calculations, because qualitative-serious failures develop once parameters are mildly stretched beyond the techniques' working assumptions.
G. Meneghetti
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Fatigue crack initiation and propagation involve plastic strains that require some work to be done on the material. Most of this irreversible energy is dissipated as heat and consequently the material temperature increases. The heat being an indicator of the intense plastic strains occurring at the tip of a propagating fatigue crack, when combined with the Neuber’s structural volume concept, it might be used as an experimentally measurable parameter to assess the fatigue damage accumulation rate of cracked components. On the basis of a theoretical model published previously, in this work the heat energy dissipated in a volume surrounding the crack tip is estimated experimentally on the basis of the radial temperature profiles measured by means of an infrared camera. The definition of the structural volume in a fatigue sense is beyond the scope of the present paper. The experimental crack propagation tests were carried out on hot-rolled, 6-mm-thick AISI 304L stainless steel specimens subject to completely reversed axial fatigue loading.
Thang, Bui Hung; Trinh, Pham Van; Quang, Le Dinh; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc; Huong, Nguyen Thi
2014-01-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are some of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown by using chemical vapor deposition is 600 ± 100 Wm -1 K -1 compared with the thermal conductivity 419 Wm -1 K -1 of Ag. Carbon-nanotube-based liquids - a new class of nanomaterials, have shown many interesting properties and distinctive features offering potential in heat dissipation applications for electronic devices, such as computer microprocessor, high power LED, etc. In this work, a multiwalled carbon-nanotube-based liquid was made of well-dispersed hydroxyl-functional multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-OH) in ethylene glycol (EG)/distilled water (DW) solutions by using Tween-80 surfactant and an ultrasonication method. The concentration of MWCNT-OH in EG/DW solutions ranged from 0.1 to 1.2 gram/liter. The dispersion of the MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions was evaluated by using a Zeta-Sizer analyzer. The MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions were used as coolants in the liquid cooling system for the Intel Core i5 processor. The thermal dissipation efficiency and the thermal response of the system were evaluated by directly measuring the temperature of the micro-processor using the Core Temp software and the temperature sensors built inside the micro-processor. The results confirmed the advantages of CNTs in thermal dissipation systems for computer processors and other high-power electronic devices.
Yu Bai
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the incompressible fractional MHD Maxwell fluid due to a power function accelerating plate with the first order slip, and the numerical analysis on the flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid has been done. Moreover the deformation motion of fluid micelle is simply analyzed. Nonlinear velocity equation are formulated with multi-term time fractional derivatives in the boundary layer governing equations, and convective heat transfer boundary condition and viscous dissipation are both taken into consideration. A newly finite difference scheme with L1-algorithm of governing equations are constructed, whose convergence is confirmed by the comparison with analytical solution. Numerical solutions for velocity and temperature show the effects of pertinent parameters on flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid. It reveals that the fractional derivative weakens the effects of motion and heat conduction. The larger the Nusselt number is, the greater the heat transfer capacity of fluid becomes, and the temperature gradient at the wall becomes more significantly. The lower Reynolds number enhances the viscosity of the fluid because it is the ratio of the viscous force and the inertia force, which resists the flow and heat transfer.
Bai, Yu; Jiang, Yuehua; Liu, Fawang; Zhang, Yan
2017-12-01
This paper investigates the incompressible fractional MHD Maxwell fluid due to a power function accelerating plate with the first order slip, and the numerical analysis on the flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid has been done. Moreover the deformation motion of fluid micelle is simply analyzed. Nonlinear velocity equation are formulated with multi-term time fractional derivatives in the boundary layer governing equations, and convective heat transfer boundary condition and viscous dissipation are both taken into consideration. A newly finite difference scheme with L1-algorithm of governing equations are constructed, whose convergence is confirmed by the comparison with analytical solution. Numerical solutions for velocity and temperature show the effects of pertinent parameters on flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid. It reveals that the fractional derivative weakens the effects of motion and heat conduction. The larger the Nusselt number is, the greater the heat transfer capacity of fluid becomes, and the temperature gradient at the wall becomes more significantly. The lower Reynolds number enhances the viscosity of the fluid because it is the ratio of the viscous force and the inertia force, which resists the flow and heat transfer.
Groshev, A.I.; Slobodchuk, V.I.
1986-01-01
The results of numerical calculation of the conjugated problem of convective heat transfer under unsteady conditions are presented. The equations describing heat transfer take into account longitudinal heat diffusion in liquid and in a wall. The formulae for calculating local heat flows at the wall-liquid surface in the case of an arbitrary law of temperature variation at the outer wall surface along the channel length are proposed for steady-state heat transfer conditions
O. D. Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Heat transfer characteristics of a Berman flow of water based nanofluids containing copper (Cu and alumina (Al2O3 as nanoparticles in a porous channel with Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and convective cooling are investigated. It is assumed that the exchange of heat with the ambient surrounding takes place at the channel walls following Newton’s law of cooling. The governing partial differential equations and boundary conditions are converted into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity transformations. These equations are solved analytically by regular perturbation methods with series improvement technique and numerically using an efficient Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique coupled with shooting scheme. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, pressure drop, and Nusselt numbers are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.
Meyer, Jörg; Reuter, Karsten
2014-04-25
We present an embedding technique for metallic systems that makes it possible to model energy dissipation into substrate phonons during surface chemical reactions from first principles. The separation of chemical and elastic contributions to the interaction potential provides a quantitative description of both electronic and phononic band structure. Application to the dissociation of O2 at Pd(100) predicts translationally "hot" oxygen adsorbates as a consequence of the released adsorption energy (ca. 2.6 eV). This finding questions the instant thermalization of reaction enthalpies generally assumed in models of heterogeneous catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Thang, Bui Hung; Trinh, Pham Van; Quang, Le Dinh; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh CIty (Viet Nam); Huong, Nguyen Thi [Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam)
2014-08-15
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are some of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown by using chemical vapor deposition is 600 ± 100 Wm{sup -1}K{sup -1} compared with the thermal conductivity 419 Wm{sup -1}K{sup -1} of Ag. Carbon-nanotube-based liquids - a new class of nanomaterials, have shown many interesting properties and distinctive features offering potential in heat dissipation applications for electronic devices, such as computer microprocessor, high power LED, etc. In this work, a multiwalled carbon-nanotube-based liquid was made of well-dispersed hydroxyl-functional multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-OH) in ethylene glycol (EG)/distilled water (DW) solutions by using Tween-80 surfactant and an ultrasonication method. The concentration of MWCNT-OH in EG/DW solutions ranged from 0.1 to 1.2 gram/liter. The dispersion of the MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions was evaluated by using a Zeta-Sizer analyzer. The MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions were used as coolants in the liquid cooling system for the Intel Core i5 processor. The thermal dissipation efficiency and the thermal response of the system were evaluated by directly measuring the temperature of the micro-processor using the Core Temp software and the temperature sensors built inside the micro-processor. The results confirmed the advantages of CNTs in thermal dissipation systems for computer processors and other high-power electronic devices.
Using a heat pipe (TPTC for dissipating energy generated by an electronic circuit
Rodrigo Correa
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation aimed at estimating the thermal efficiency of a heat pipe compared to the most common elements for removing heat from a circuit (i.e., an electric fan and a fin - extended surface. The input voltage frequency for a standard power circuit was changed for the experiments, whilst all the other parameters were kept constant. An experimental statistical design was used as an analytical tool. Unexpectedly, the heat pipe showed the lowest thermal efficiency for all the experiments, although it had the advantage of being a passive element having low volume and no mobile parts.
Studies on Single-phase and Multi-phase Heat Pipe for LED Panel for Efficient Heat Dissipation
Vyshnave, K. C.; Rohit, G.; Maithreya, D. V. N. S.; Rakesh, S. G.
2017-08-01
The popularity of LED panel as a source of illumination has soared recently due to its high efficiency. However, the removal of heat that is produced in the chip is still a major challenge in its design since this has an adverse effect on its reliability. If high junction temperature develops, the colour of the emitted light may diminish over prolonged usage or even a colour shift may occur. In this paper, a solution has been developed to address this problem by using a combination of heat pipe and heat fin technology. A single-phase and a two-phase heat pipes have been designed theoretically and computational simulations carried out using ANSYS FLUENT. The results of the theoretical calculations and those obtained from the simulations are found to be in agreement with each other.
di Liberto, Francesco; Pastore, Raffaele; Peruggi, Fulvio
2011-05-01
When some entropy is transferred, by means of a reversible engine, from a hot heat source to a colder one, the maximum efficiency occurs, i.e. the maximum available work is obtained. Similarly, a reversible heat pumps transfer entropy from a cold heat source to a hotter one with the minimum expense of energy. In contrast, if we are faced with non-reversible devices, there is some lost work for heat engines, and some extra work for heat pumps. These quantities are both related to entropy production. The lost work, i.e. ? , is also called 'degraded energy' or 'energy unavailable to do work'. The extra work, i.e. ? , is the excess of work performed on the system in the irreversible process with respect to the reversible one (or the excess of heat given to the hotter source in the irreversible process). Both quantities are analysed in detail and are evaluated for a complex process, i.e. the stepwise circular cycle, which is similar to the stepwise Carnot cycle. The stepwise circular cycle is a cycle performed by means of N small weights, dw, which are first added and then removed from the piston of the vessel containing the gas or vice versa. The work performed by the gas can be found as the increase of the potential energy of the dw's. Each single dw is identified and its increase, i.e. its increase in potential energy, evaluated. In such a way it is found how the energy output of the cycle is distributed among the dw's. The size of the dw's affects entropy production and therefore the lost and extra work. The distribution of increases depends on the chosen removal process.
Hunegnaw Dessie
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this analysis, MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a fluid with variable viscosity through a porous medium towards a stretching sheet by taking in to the effects of viscous dissipation in presence of heat source/sink is considered. The symmetry groups admitted by the corresponding boundary value problem are obtained by using Lie’s scaling group of transformations. These transformations are used to convert the partial differential equations of the governing equations into self-similar non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by Runge-Kutta fourth order with shooting method. Numerical results obtained for different parameters such as viscosity variation parameter A, permeability parameter k1, heat source/sink parameter λ, magnetic field parameter M, Prandtl number Pr, and Eckert number Ec are drawn graphically and effects of different flow parameters on velocity and temperature profiles are discussed. The skin-friction coefficient -f″(0 and heat transfer coefficient −θ′(0 are presented in tables.
Study of heat transfer at the upper boundary of a fluid bath with voluminal power dissipation
Bernaz, L.
1998-01-01
In order to examine the possibilities of external cooling of reactor vessels in the case of core meltdown accident in PWR reactors, it is necessary to determine the distribution of heat fluxes at the boundaries of the hemispherical bath. This distribution is controlled by the natural convection movements inside the bath. The first part of the document introduces the problem. The second part is a bibliographic analysis of previous works performed on natural convection inside a liquid bath with an internal heat source. The modeling of heat transfer at the upper boundary is assimilated to the Rayleigh-Benard turbulent convection. An analytical model of weak turbulence regime is developed in part 3. Different laws about the relationship between thermal plume characteristics and the parameters of the system are defined. Part 4 presents the experimental devices and scale models (MARABEC and BALI) used for the validation of the theoretical model and for the obtention of a database of reactor parameters. The laser induced fluorescence visualisation technique is used for the parametric study of between plumes spacing. The fifth part is devoted to the presentation and interpretation of results. (J.S.)
Atmospheric considerations regarding the impact of heat dissipation from a nuclear energy center
Rotty, R.M.; Bauman, H.; Bennett, L.L.
1976-05-01
Potential changes in climate resulting from a large nuclear energy center are discussed. On a global scale, no noticeable changes are likely, but on both a regional and a local scale, changes can be expected. Depending on the cooling system employed, the amount of fog may increase, the amount and distribution of precipitation will change, and the frequency or location of severe storms may change. Very large heat releases over small surface areas can result in greater atmospheric instability; a large number of closely spaced natural-draft cooling towers have this disadvantage. On the other hand, employment of natural-draft towers makes an increase in the occurrence of ground fog unlikely. The analysis suggests that the cooling towers for a large nuclear energy center should be located in clusters of four with at least 2.5-mile spacing between the clusters. This is equivalent to the requirement of one acre of land surface per each two megawatts of heat being rejected
PLASMA HEATING INSIDE INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS BY ALFVÉNIC FLUCTUATIONS DISSIPATION
Li, Hui; Wang, Chi; Zhang, Lingqian [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); He, Jiansen [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Richardson, John D.; Belcher, John W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tu, Cui, E-mail: hli@spaceweather.ac.cn [Laboratory of Near Space Environment, National Space Science Center, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China)
2016-11-10
Nonlinear cascade of low-frequency Alfvénic fluctuations (AFs) is regarded as one of the candidate energy sources that heat plasma during the non-adiabatic expansion of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). However, AFs inside ICMEs were seldom reported in the literature. In this study, we investigate AFs inside ICMEs using observations from Voyager 2 between 1 and 6 au. It has been found that AFs with a high degree of Alfvénicity frequently occurred inside ICMEs for almost all of the identified ICMEs (30 out of 33 ICMEs) and for 12.6% of the ICME time interval. As ICMEs expand and move outward, the percentage of AF duration decays linearly in general. The occurrence rate of AFs inside ICMEs is much less than that in ambient solar wind, especially within 4.75 au. AFs inside ICMEs are more frequently presented in the center and at the boundaries of ICMEs. In addition, the proton temperature inside ICME has a similar “W”-shaped distribution. These findings suggest significant contribution of AFs on local plasma heating inside ICMEs.
Anand, Vishal
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Exponential formulation of s-PTT model used. • Heat transfer and entropy generation characteristics studied. • Effects of three slip laws examined. • Exponential formulation more accurate than linear formulation. - Abstract: This study concerns the heat transfer and entropy generation characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow modeled by the exponential formulation of simplified Phan-Thien–Tanner (s-PTT) model. This is the first such study in literature of thermal behavior of viscoelastic fluids modeled by the exponential formulation of s-PTT model. The flow between two parallel plates is laminar, hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed, viscous dissipative and subject to uniform heat flux on the walls. The slip velocity boundary condition is imposed on the fluid–solid interface and the slip is captured by three slip laws, namely, Navier's non-linear slip law, Hatzikiriakos slip law, and asymptotic slip law. The governing equations have been solved analytically. Closed form solutions for the velocity distribution have been derived while the temperature distribution is presented in terms of an infinite but convergent series. The results pertaining to the three slip laws have been presented in detail. Finally, a comparison has been made between the results for exponential formulation and those for the linear formulation of the s-PTT model. The comparison shows that results for linear formulation deviate significantly from those for exponential formulation and thus the accuracy of the exponential formulation justifies the extra mathematical complexity which it entails.
H. Dupuis
Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.
H. Dupuis
1995-10-01
Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.
Dupuis, Hélène; Weill, Alain; Katsaros, Kristina; Taylor, Peter K.
1995-10-01
Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.
Planeta, R.
1990-04-01
We discuss several problems of nuclear physics with heavy ions. Special attention is paid to close collisions, where impact parameters are considerably smaller than the corresponding grazing values. Such collisions can lead to a formation of a compound nucleus (fusion) or to two body exit channels with a sizable loss of kinetic energy and large transfer of mass and charge between interacting nuclei (damped collisions). A short survey of experimental works done with my participation and devoted to fusion reactions is presented. This is followed by presentation of new experimental results in the field of damped collisions. The data demonstrate that the N/Z equilibration and temperature equilibration are not rapid processes. A distinct correlation between the net nucleon transfer and the heating of the acceptor nucleus is observed. Experimental data are compared with the transport model. Disagreement between model and experiment is discussed. 113 refs. (author)
Reyes-Acosta, J Leonardo; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy; Lubczynski, Maciek W
2012-07-01
Sap flow measurements conducted with thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are vulnerable to natural temperature gradient (NTG) bias. Few studies, however, attempted to explain the dynamics underlying the NTG formation and its influence on the sensors' signal. This study focused on understanding how the TDP signals are affected by negative and positive temperature influences from NTG and tested the novel cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) method to filter out the NTG bias. A series of three experiments were performed in which gravity-driven water flow was enforced on freshly cut stem segments of Fagus sylvatica L., while an artificial temperature gradient (ATG) was induced. The first experiment sought to confirm the incidence of the ATG on sensors. The second experiment established the mis-estimations caused by the biasing effect of the ATG on standard TDP measurements. The third experiment tested the accuracy of the CHD method to account for the ATG biasing effect, as compared with other cyclic correction methods. During experiments, sap flow measured by TDP was assessed against gravimetric measurements. The results show that negative and positive ATGs were comparable in pattern but substantially larger than field NTGs. Second, the ATG bias caused an overestimation of the standard TDP sap flux density of ∼17 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by 76%, and the sap flux density of ∼2 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by over 800%. Finally, the proposed CHD method successfully reduced the max. ATG bias to 25% at ∼11 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) and to 40% at ∼1 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1). We concluded that: (i) the TDP method is susceptible to NTG especially at low flows; (ii) the CHD method successfully corrected the TDP signal and resulted in generally more accurate sap flux density estimates (mean absolute percentage error ranging between 11 and 21%) than standard constant power TDP method and other cyclic power methods; and (iii) the ATG enforcing system is a suitable way of re-creating NTG for future tests.
Hager, B. H.; Mazarico, E.; Touma, J.; Wisdom, J.
2003-12-01
Quantitative understanding of Earth's heat budget has eluded a list of distinguished physicists and geochemists ranging from Lord Kelvin to Don L Anderson. The global heat flux is substantially greater than that generated by the estimated inventory of radioactive heat sources, so simple energy balance considerations demand an additional heat source. Secular cooling is commonly invoked to balance Earth's energy budget, but the required cooling rates are difficult to reconcile with both traditional convection calculations and petrologic estimates of ancient upper mantle temperatures. A non-geochemical heat source seems plausible. Indeed, Tuoma and Wisdom (Astron. J., 122, 2001) showed that tidal dissipation of rotational energy associated with resonant coupling could provide a substantial heat pulse to the CMB. D'' Layer Activation (DLA) by dumping of rotational energy could have important geodynamical consequences that we explore here. DLA could lead to a sudden (but modest) increase in the temperature of preexisting plumes, leading to a sudden increase in melt volume without the need for a troublesome plume head. The dissipation depends on non-hydrostatic CMB ellipticity, which itself is a result of mantle convection, leading to the possibility of an important feedback mechanism - DLA would lead to an increase in CMB ellipticity, further increasing the geodynamic importance of DLA.
Heat dissipating nuclear reactor
Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.
1985-11-21
Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extend from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.
Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.
2018-03-01
The impact of Marangoni convection on dusty Casson fluid boundary layer flow with Joule heating and viscous dissipation aspects is addressed. The surface tension is assumed to vary linearly with temperature. Physical aspects of magnetohydrodynamics and thermal radiation are also accounted. The governing problem is modelled under boundary layer approximations for fluid phase and dust particle phase and then Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method based numeric solutions are established. The momentum and heat transport mechanisms are focused on the result of distinct governing parameters. The Nusselt number is also calculated. It is established that the rate of heat transfer can be enhanced by suspending dust particles in the base fluid. The temperature field of fluid phase and temperature of dust phase are quite reverse for thermal dust parameter. The radiative heat, viscous dissipation and Joule heating aspects are constructive for thermal fields of fluid and dust phases. The velocity of dusty Casson fluid dominates the velocity of dusty fluid while this trend is opposite in the case of temperature. Moreover qualitative behaviour of fluid phase and dust phase temperature/velocity are similar.
El-Amin, Mohamed; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; Reddy Gorla, Rama Subba
2012-01-01
In this paper, the effects of viscous dissipation on unsteady free convection from an isothermal vertical flat plate in a fluidsaturated porous medium are investigated. The Darcy-Brinkman model is employed to describe the flow field. A new model of viscous dissipation is used for the Darcy-Brinkman model of porous media. The simultaneous development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers is obtained by using a finite-difference method. Boundary layer and Boussinesq approximation have been incorporated. Numerical calculations are carried out for various parameters entering into the problem. Velocity and temperature profiles as well as the local friction factor and local Nusselt number are displayed graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient approach steady state. © 2012 by Begell House, Inc.
Khilap Singh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model is developed to examine the effects of thermal radiation on unsteady mixed convection flow of a viscous dissipating incompressible micropolar fluid adjacent to a heated vertical stretching surface in the presence of the buoyancy force and heat generation/absorption. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The model contains nonlinear coupled partial differential equations which have been converted into ordinary differential equation by using the similarity transformations. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth fifth-order method with shooting technique. Numerical solutions are then obtained and investigated in detail for different interesting parameters such as the local skin-friction coefficient, wall couple stress, and Nusselt number as well as other parametric values such as the velocity, angular velocity, and temperature.
Dulal Pal
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD convective heat and mass transfer near a stagnation-point flow over stretching/shrinking sheet of nanofluids is presented in this paper by considering thermal radiation, Ohmic heating, viscous dissipation and heat source/sink parameter effects. Non-similarity method is adopted for the governing basic equations before they are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method using shooting technique. The numerical results are validated by comparing the present results with previously published results. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of some selected governing parameters such as Richardson number, radiation parameter, Schimdt number, Eckert number and magnetic parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and Sherwood number.
Dehkordi, Asghar Molaei; Mohammadi, Ali Asghar
2009-01-01
A numerical investigation was conducted on the transient behavior of a hydrodynamically, fully developed, laminar flow of power-law fluids in the thermally developing entrance region of circular ducts taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation but neglecting the effect of axial conduction. In this regard, the unsteady state thermal energy equation was solved by using a finite difference method, whereas the steady state thermal energy equation without wall heat flux was solved analytically as the initial condition of the former. The effects of the power-law index and wall heat flux on the local Nusselt number and thermal entrance length were investigated. Moreover, the local Nusselt number of steady state conditions was correlated in terms of the power-law index and wall heat flux and compared with literature data, which were obtained by an analytic solution for Newtonian fluids. Furthermore, a relationship was proposed for the thermal entrance length
Ganesh Kumar, K.; Rudraswamy, N. G.; Gireesha, B. J.; Krishnamurthy, M. R.
2017-09-01
Present exploration discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on three dimensional flow and heat transfer of a Jeffrey nanofluid in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation. Here the flow is generated over bidirectional stretching sheet in the presence of applied magnetic field by accounting thermophoresis and Brownian motion of nanoparticles. Suitable similarity transformations are employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. Graphically results are presented and discussed for various parameters. Validation of the current method is proved by comparing our results with the existing results under limiting situations. It can be concluded that combined effect of Joule and viscous heating increases the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness.
Vischer, D. L; Hager, Willi H; Hager, W. H
1995-01-01
.... the book comprises chapters in farious fields such as hydraulic jump, stilling basins, ski jumps and plunge pools but introduces also a general account on various methods of dissipation, as well...
S. Chanpongsang
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.
Prasad Ramachandra V.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available An unsteady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, laminar free convective boundary-layer flow of an incompressible, Newtonian, electrically-conducting and radiating fluid past an infinite heated vertical porous plate with heat and mass transfer is analyzed, by taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed and graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer and tabulated results for the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented and discussed. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases, the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer, whereas when thermal and solutal Grashof increases the velocity increases.
Bukhov, N.G.; Boucher, N.; Carpentier, R.
1998-01-01
The after effects of a short exposure of intact barley leaves to moderately elevated temperature (40°C, 5 min) on the induction transients and the irradiance dependencies of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence are presented. This mild heat treatment strongly reduced the oscillations in the rate of photosynthesis and in the yield of chlorophyll fluorescence. However, only a 25% irreversible inhibition of maximum photosynthetic capacity of photosystem II (PSII) measured by oxygen evolution was produced and the intrinsic quantum yield of PSII measured by the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio (F m - F o )/Fm decreased by only 15%. In contrast, the above treatment increased radiationless dissipation processes in PSII by a factor of two. In heat-treated leaves, photosynthesis was not saturated even by strong light. Both ΔpH-dependent quenching of excitons in PSII (including formation of zeaxanthin) and state 1/state 2 transition were found to be stimulated. Heat exposure enhanced the control of PSII activity by PSI, as evidenced by a significant increase in the quenching effect of far-red light on the maximum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence. It was deduced that after mild heat treatment, the photosynthetic apparatus in leaves lacks the precise coordinating control of electron transport and carbon metabolism owing to the inability of PSII to support electron transport at a level adequate for carbon metabolism. This effect was not related to the small irreversible thermal damage to PSII, but was rather due to a significant increase in non-photochemical quenching of excitation energy. (author)
Michele Vascellari; Stefano Sollai; Pier Francesco Orru; Giorgio Cau [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy). Department of Mechanical Engineering
2007-07-01
A small scale test rig based on a two-stage reactor for testing water gas shift conversion processes has been set up at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Cagliari, chiefly for the purpose of supporting a pilot plant operation for high sulphur (Sulcis) coal gasification, gas cleaning and treatment, CO{sub 2} separation, hydrogen and electricity production. The laboratory test rig comprises two packed-bed reactors in series to be operated at different temperatures and has been designed for testing CO-shift conversion processes using a variety of catalysts for different syngas temperatures (up to 500{sup o}C) and compositions. One critical component of the system is a recuperative-dissipative heat exchanger placed between the two reactors. The heat exchanger, which preheats the syngas prior to entering the high temperature reactor and cools the shifted gas exiting there from, prior to its entering the low temperature reactor, is subjected to severe thermo-mechanical stress. Thus the design and analysis of this component, described herein, is a critical issue. A full 3D conjugate heat transfer CFD analysis of the tubular heat exchanger has been performed, considering different geometries. Based on the CFD results we were able to verify the preliminary design of the component, carried out using simple thermal correlations and to predict wall temperature distribution for the thermo-structural analysis. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Jusoh, Rahimah; Nazar, Roslinda
2018-04-01
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching/shrinking sheet is studied numerically. Mathematical modelling and analysis are attended in the presence of viscous dissipation. Appropriate similarity transformations are used to reduce the boundary layer equations for momentum, energy and concentration into a set of ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are solved numerically using the built in bvp4c function in Matlab. The numerical and graphical results on the effects of various parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are analyzed and discussed in this paper. The study discovers the existence of dual solutions for a certain range of the suction parameter. The conducted stability analysis reveals that the first solution is stable and feasible, while the second solution is unstable.
K.V.S. Raju
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a steady MHD forced convective flow of a viscous fluid of finite depth in a saturated porous medium over a fixed horizontal channel with thermally insulated and impermeable bottom wall in the presence of viscous dissipation and joule heating. The governing equations are solved in the closed form and the exact solutions are obtained for velocity and temperature distributions when the temperatures on the fixed bottom and on the free surface are prescribed. The expressions for flow rate, mean velocity, temperature, mean temperature, mean mixed temperature in the flow region and the Nusselt number on the free surface have been obtained. The cases of large and small values of porosity coefficients have been obtained as limiting cases. Further, the cases of small depth (shallow fluid and large depth (deep fluid are also discussed. The results are presented and discussed with the help of graphs.
Aftab Ahmed
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined effects of the thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, suction/injection and internal heat generation/absorption on the boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian power law fluid over a semi infinite permeable flat plate moving in parallel or reversely to a free stream. The resulting system of partial differential equations (PDEs is first transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs which are then solved numerically by using the shooting technique. It is found that the dual solutions exist when the flat plate and the free stream move in the opposite directions. Dimensionless boundary layer velocity and temperature distributions are plotted and discussed for various values of the emerging physical parameters. Finally, the tables of the relevant boundary derivatives are presented for some values of the governing physical parameters.
Mohammad M. Rahman
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze numerically the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of Casson fluid with variable temperature and viscous dissipation past a permeable shrinking sheet with second order slip velocity. Using appropriate similarity transformations, the basic nonlinear partial differential equations have been transformed into ordinary differential equations. These equations have been solved numerically for different values of the governing parameters namely: shrinking parametersuction parameterCasson parameterfirst order slip parametersecond order slip parameter Prandtl number and the Eckert number using the bvp4c function from MATLAB. A stability analysis has also been performed. Numerical results have been obtained for the reduced skin-friction, heat transfer and the velocity and temperature profiles. The results indicate that dual solutions exist for the shrinking surface for certain values of the parameter space. The stability analysis indicates that the lower solution branch is unstable, while the upper solution branch is stable and physically realizable. In addition, it is shown that for a viscous fluida very good agreement exists between the present numerical results and those reported in the open literature. The present results are original and new for the boundary-layer flow and heat transfer past a shrinking sheet in a Casson fluid. Therefore, this study has importance for researchers working in the area of non-Newtonian fluids, in order for them to become familiar with the flow behavior and properties of such fluids.
Gnaneswara Reddy, Machireddy
2017-12-01
The problem of micropolar fluid flow over a nonlinear stretching convective vertical surface in the presence of Lorentz force and viscous dissipation is investigated. Due to the nature of heat transfer in the flow past vertical surface, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model effect is properly accommodated in the energy equation. The governing partial differential equations for the flow and heat transfer are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations by employing the acceptable similarity transformations. Runge-Kutta and Newton's methods are utilized to resolve the altered governing nonlinear equations. Obtained numerical results are compared with the available literature and found to be an excellent agreement. The impacts of dimensionless governing flow pertinent parameters on velocity, micropolar velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically for two cases (linear and nonlinear) and analyzed in detail. Further, the variations of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are reported with the aid of plots for the sundry flow parameters. The temperature and the related boundary enhances enhances with the boosting values of M. It is found that fluid temperature declines for larger thermal relaxation parameter. Also, it is revealed that the Nusselt number declines for the hike values of Bi.
Kallfelz, F.A.; Wentworth, R.A.; Cady, K.B.
1976-01-01
A total of sixty dogs were implanted with radioisotope-powered artificial heart systems producing radiation fluxes similar to that of plutonium-238, but having no associated heat, at levels of from one to seventy times the radiation flux expected from a 30-watt plutonium-238 source. Results from studies lasting up to 6 years after implantation indicate that these animals, and by inference human beings, may be able to tolerate the radiation flux from 30-watt /sup 238/Pu power sources. Results of heat dissipation studies in calves indicate that it may be possible to induce a vascularized connective tissue capsule sufficient to dissipate 30 watts of additional heat from a surface area of approximately 500 cm sq., allowing a heat flux of 0.06 watts per cm sq.
Dissipative structures in magnetorotational turbulence
Ross, Johnathan; Latter, Henrik N.
2018-03-01
Via the process of accretion, magnetorotational turbulence removes energy from a disk's orbital motion and transforms it into heat. Turbulent heating is far from uniform and is usually concentrated in small regions of intense dissipation, characterised by abrupt magnetic reconnection and higher temperatures. These regions are of interest because they might generate non-thermal emission, in the form of flares and energetic particles, or thermally process solids in protoplanetary disks. Moreover, the nature of the dissipation bears on the fundamental dynamics of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) itself: local simulations indicate that the large-scale properties of the turbulence (e.g. saturation levels, the stress-pressure relationship) depend on the short dissipative scales. In this paper we undertake a numerical study of how the MRI dissipates and the small-scale dissipative structures it employs to do so. We use the Godunov code RAMSES and unstratified compressible shearing boxes. Our simulations reveal that dissipation is concentrated in ribbons of strong magnetic reconnection that are significantly elongated in azimuth, up to a scale height. Dissipative structures are hence meso-scale objects, and potentially provide a route by which large scales and small scales interact. We go on to show how these ribbons evolve over time — forming, merging, breaking apart, and disappearing. Finally, we reveal important couplings between the large-scale density waves generated by the MRI and the small-scale structures, which may illuminate the stress-pressure relationship in MRI turbulence.
Zahoor, I; Mitchell, M A; Hall, S; Beard, P M; Gous, R M; De Koning, D J; Hocking, P M
2016-01-01
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality. The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment. There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen. Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology. It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative.
Sithole, Hloniphile; Mondal, Hiranmoy; Sibanda, Precious
2018-06-01
This study addresses entropy generation in magnetohydrodynamic flow of a second grade nanofluid over a convectively heated stretching sheet with nonlinear thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. The second grade fluid is assumed to be electrically conducting and is permeated by an applied non-uniform magnetic field. We further consider the impact on the fluid properties and the Nusselt number of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions and a convective boundary condition. The mathematical equations are solved using the spectral local linearization method. Computations for skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are carried out and displayed in a table. It is observed that the effects of the thermophoresis parameter is to increase the temperature distributions throughout the boundary layer. The entropy generation is enhanced by larger magnetic parameters and increasing Reynolds number. The aim of this manuscript is to pay more attention of entropy generation analysis with heat and fluid flow on second grade nanofluids to improve the system performance. Also the fluid velocity and temperature in the boundary layer region rise significantly for increasing the values of the second grade nanofluid parameter.
Droval, G; Feller, J F; Salagnac, P; Glouannec, P
2008-01-01
In classical self-limiting heating devices where conductive polymer composites (CPC) are used, one of the main problems to solve is the stability of properties with time. Different strategies are proposed to stabilize the morphologies during the structuring of these heterogeneous materials. Some of them are well known in the use of co-continuous polymer blends or confinement but the interest of this work is to combine different structuring methods such as volume exclusion, adsorption and multiple percolations to achieve original properties. In fact the CPC developed exhibit enhanced heat dissipation and thermal stability (up to 180 °C), independent adjustability of electrical and thermal conductivity, and a sharp and large amplitude PTC effect. These original results were obtained with a co-continuous structure associating a thermally conductive polymer phase (syndiotactic poly(styrene) (sPS) filled with aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) or boron nitride (BN)) with an electrically conductive polymer phase (high-density poly(ethylene)) (hdPE) filled with carbon nanoparticles (CNP) in appropriate proportions
Lubczynski, Maciek W; Chavarro-Rincon, Diana; Roy, Jean
2012-07-01
Natural temperature gradient (NTG) can be a significant problem in thermal sap flow measurements, particularly in dry environments with sparse vegetation. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel correction method called cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) in its thermal dissipation probe (TDP) application. The CHD method is based on cyclic, switching ON/OFF power schema measurements and a three-exponential model, extrapolating measured signal to steady state thermal equilibrium. The extrapolated signal OFF represents NTG, whereas the extrapolated signal ON represents standard TDP signal, biased by NTG. Therefore, subtraction of the OFF signal from the ON signal allows defining the unbiased TDP signal, finally processed according to standard Granier calibration. The in vivo Kalahari measurements were carried out in three steps on four different tree species, first as NTG, then as standard TDP and finally in CHD mode, each step for ∼1-2 days. Afterwards, each tree was separated from its stem following modified Roberts' (1977) procedure, and CHD verification was applied. The typical NTG varying from ∼0.5 °C during night-time to -1 °C during day-time, after CHD correction, resulted in significant reduction of sap flux densities (J(p)) as compared with the standard TDP, particularly distinct for low J(p). The verification of the CHD method indicated ∼20% agreement with the reference method, largely dependent on the sapwood area estimate. The proposed CHD method offers the following advantages: (i) in contrast to any other NTG correction method, it removes NTG bias from the measured signal by using in situ, extrapolated to thermal equilibrium signal; (ii) it does not need any specific calibration making use of the standard Granier calibration; (iii) it provides a physical background to the proposed NTG correction; (iv) it allows for power savings; (v) it is not tied to TDP, and so can be adapted to other thermal methods. In its current state, the CHD data
Mehmet Camurdan
1998-01-01
are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.
M.C. Raju
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A theoretical analysis is performed to study induced magnetic field effects on free convection flow past a vertical plate. The x¯-axis is taken vertically upwards along the plate, y¯-axis normal to the plate into the fluid region. It is assumed that the plate is electrically non-conducting and the applied magnetic field is of uniform strength (H0 and perpendicular to the plate. The magnetic Reynolds number of the flow is not taken to be small enough so that the induced magnetic field is taken into account. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are solved by Perturbation technique and the effects of various physical parameters on velocity, temperature, and induced magnetic fields are studied through graphs and tables. Variations in Skin friction and rate of heat transfer are also studied. It is observed that an increase in magnetic parameter decreases the velocity for both water and air. It is also seen that there is a fall in induced magnetic field as magnetic Prandtl number, and magnetic field parameter increase.
S. Bilal
2016-12-01
Full Text Available An attempt has been constructed in the communication to envision heat and mass transfer characteristics of viscous fluid over a vertically rotating cone. Thermal transport in the fluid flow is anticipated in the presence of viscous dissipation. Whereas, concentration of fluid particles is contemplated by incorporating the diffusion-thermo (Dufour and thermo-diffusion (Soret effects. The governing equations for concerning problem is first modelled and then nondimensionalized by implementing compatible transformations. The utilization of these transformations yields ordinary differential system which is computed analytically through homotopic procedure. Impact of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented through fascinating graphics. The influence of various pertinent parameters on skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are interpreted through graphical and tabular display. After comprehensive examination of analysis, it is concluded that temperature of fluid deescalates for growing values of Soret parameter whereas it shows inciting attitude towards Dufour parameter and similar agreement is observed for the behavior of concentration profile with respect to these parameters. Furthermore, the affirmation of present work is established by developing comparison with previously published literature. An excellent agreement is found which shows the credibility and assurance of present analysis.
Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, Stefaan [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Viñas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Wicks, Robert T., E-mail: yana.maneva@wis.kuleuven.be [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2015-11-20
We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations with massless fluid electrons and kinetic particle-in-cell ions to study the temporal evolution of ion temperatures, temperature anisotropies, and velocity distribution functions in relation to the dissipation and turbulent evolution of a broadband spectrum of parallel and obliquely propagating Alfvén-cyclotron waves. The purpose of this paper is to study the relative role of parallel versus oblique Alfvén-cyclotron waves in the observed heating and acceleration of alpha particles in the fast solar wind. We consider collisionless homogeneous multi-species plasma, consisting of isothermal electrons, isotropic protons, and a minor component of drifting α particles in a finite-β fast stream near the Earth. The kinetic ions are modeled by initially isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution functions, which develop nonthermal features and temperature anisotropies when a broadband spectrum of low-frequency nonresonant, ω ≤ 0.34 Ω{sub p}, Alfvén-cyclotron waves is imposed at the beginning of the simulations. The initial plasma parameter values, such as ion density, temperatures, and relative drift speeds, are supplied by fast solar wind observations made by the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU. The imposed broadband wave spectra are left-hand polarized and resemble Wind measurements of Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind. The imposed magnetic field fluctuations for all cases are within the inertial range of the solar wind turbulence and have a Kraichnan-type spectral slope α = −3/2. We vary the propagation angle from θ = 0° to θ = 30° and θ = 60°, and find that the heating of alpha particles is most efficient for the highly oblique waves propagating at 60°, whereas the protons exhibit perpendicular cooling at all propagation angles.
Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, Stefaan; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Wicks, Robert T.
2015-01-01
We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations with massless fluid electrons and kinetic particle-in-cell ions to study the temporal evolution of ion temperatures, temperature anisotropies, and velocity distribution functions in relation to the dissipation and turbulent evolution of a broadband spectrum of parallel and obliquely propagating Alfvén-cyclotron waves. The purpose of this paper is to study the relative role of parallel versus oblique Alfvén-cyclotron waves in the observed heating and acceleration of alpha particles in the fast solar wind. We consider collisionless homogeneous multi-species plasma, consisting of isothermal electrons, isotropic protons, and a minor component of drifting α particles in a finite-β fast stream near the Earth. The kinetic ions are modeled by initially isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution functions, which develop nonthermal features and temperature anisotropies when a broadband spectrum of low-frequency nonresonant, ω ≤ 0.34 Ω p , Alfvén-cyclotron waves is imposed at the beginning of the simulations. The initial plasma parameter values, such as ion density, temperatures, and relative drift speeds, are supplied by fast solar wind observations made by the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU. The imposed broadband wave spectra are left-hand polarized and resemble Wind measurements of Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind. The imposed magnetic field fluctuations for all cases are within the inertial range of the solar wind turbulence and have a Kraichnan-type spectral slope α = −3/2. We vary the propagation angle from θ = 0° to θ = 30° and θ = 60°, and find that the heating of alpha particles is most efficient for the highly oblique waves propagating at 60°, whereas the protons exhibit perpendicular cooling at all propagation angles
2002-01-01
The moon's gravity imparts tremendous energy to the Earth, raising tides throughout the global oceans. What happens to all this energy? This question has been pondered by scientists for over 200 years, and has consequences ranging from the history of the moon to the mixing of the oceans. Richard Ray at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and Gary Egbert of the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. studied six years of altimeter data from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite to address this question. According to their report in the June 15 issue of Nature, about 1 terawatt, or 25 to 30 percent of the total tidal energy dissipation, occurs in the deep ocean. The remainder occurs in shallow seas, such as on the Patagonian Shelf. 'By measuring sea level with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter, our knowledge of the tides in the global ocean has been remarkably improved,' said Richard Ray, a geophysicist at Goddard. The accuracies are now so high that this data can be used to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. (Red areas, above) The deep-water tidal dissipation occurs generally near rugged bottom topography (seamounts and mid-ocean ridges). 'The observed pattern of deep-ocean dissipation is consistent with topographic scattering of tidal energy into internal motions within the water column, resulting in localized turbulence and mixing', said Gary Egbert an associate professor at OSU. One important implication of this finding concerns the possible energy sources needed to maintain the ocean's large-scale 'conveyor-belt' circulation and to mix upper ocean heat into the abyssal depths. It is thought that 2 terawatts are required for this process. The winds supply about 1 terawatt, and there has been speculation that the tides, by pumping energy into vertical water motions, supply the remainder. However, all current general circulation models of the oceans ignore the tides. 'It is possible that properly
Kudinov, V. A.; Eremin, A. V.; Kudinov, I. V.
2017-11-01
The differential equation of heat transfer with allowance for energy dissipation and spatial and temporal nonlocality has been derived by the relaxation of heat flux and temperature gradient in the Fourier law formula for the heat flux at the use of the heat balance equation. An investigation of the numerical solution of the heat-transfer problem at a laminar fluid flow in a plane duct has shown the impossibility of an instantaneous acceptance of the boundary condition of the first kind — the process of its settling at small values of relaxation coefficients takes a finite time interval the duration of which is determined by the thermophysical and relaxation properties of the fluid. At large values of relaxation coefficients, the use of the boundary condition of the first kind is possible only at Fo → ∞. The friction heat consideration leads to the alteration of temperature profiles, which is due to the rise of the intervals of elevated temperatures in the zone of the maximal velocity gradients. With increasing relaxation coefficients, the smoothing of temperature profiles occurs, and at their certain high values, the fluid cooling occurs at a gradientless temperature variation along the transverse spatial variable and, consequently, the temperature proves to be dependent only on time and on longitudinal coordinate.
Dissipation effects in mechanics and thermodynamics
Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.
2016-07-01
With the discussion of three examples, we aim at clarifying the concept of energy transfer associated with dissipation in mechanics and in thermodynamics. The dissipation effects due to dissipative forces, such as the friction force between solids or the drag force in motions in fluids, lead to an internal energy increase of the system and/or to heat transfer to the surroundings. This heat flow is consistent with the second law, which states that the entropy of the universe should increase when those forces are present because of the irreversibility always associated with their actions. As far as mechanics is concerned, the effects of the dissipative forces are included in Newton’s equations as impulses and pseudo-works.
Collisionless dissipation of Langmuir turbulence
Erofeev, V.I.
2002-01-01
An analysis of two experimental observations of Langmuir wave collapse is performed. The corresponding experimental data are shown to give evidence against the collapse. The physical reason for preventing the collapses is found to be the nonresonant electron diffusion in momentums. In this process, plasma thermal electrons are efficiently heated at the expense of wave energy, and intense collisionless wave dissipation takes place. The basic reason of underestimation of this phenomenon in traditional theory is shown to be the substitution of real plasma by a plasma probabilistic ensemble. A theory of nonresonant electron diffusion in a single collisionless plasma is developed. It is shown that corresponding collisionless wave dissipation may arrest spectral energy transfer towards small wave numbers
The thermodynamic basis of entransy and entransy dissipation
Xu, Mingtian
2011-01-01
In the present work, the entransy and entransy dissipation are defined from the thermodynamic point of view. It is shown that the entransy is a state variable and can be employed to describe the second law of thermodynamics. For heat conduction, a principle of minimum entransy dissipation is established based on the second law of thermodynamics in terms of entransy dissipation, which leads to the governing equation of the steady Fourier heat conduction without heat source. Furthermore, we derive the expressions of the entransy dissipation in duct flows and heat exchangers from the second law of thermodynamics, which paves the way for applications of the entransy dissipation theory in heat exchanger design. -- Highlights: → The concepts of entransy and entransy dissipation are defined from the thermodynamic point of view. → We find that the entransy is a new thermodynamic property. → The second law of thermodynamics can be described by the entransy and entransy dissipation. → The expressions of entransy dissipation in duct flows and heat exchangers are derived from the second law of thermodynamics.
estimation of ionospheric energy dissipation for the year 2012 using
userpc
energy dissipation is the dominant channel of energy transfer in that year from the solar wind. This is consistent with many results found by other researchers. Keywords: Østgaard's Empirical Relation, Ionospheric Energy Dissipation, Electron. Precipitation, Joule Heating. INTRODUCTION. In the Earth's magnetosphere, the ...
Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics
Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.
1989-01-01
Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova
Energy balance for a dissipative quantum system
Kumar, Jishad
2014-01-01
The role of random force in maintaining equilibrium in a dissipative quantum system is studied here. We compute the instantaneous power supplied by the fluctuating (random) force, which provides information about the work done by the random force on the quantum subsystem of interest. The quantum Langevin equation formalism is used here to verify that, at equilibrium, the work done by the fluctuating force balances the energy lost by the quantum subsystem to the heat bath. The quantum subsystem we choose to couple to the heat bath is the charged oscillator in a magnetic field. We perform the calculations using the Drude regularized spectral density of bath oscillators instead of using a strict ohmic spectral density that gives memoryless damping. We also discuss the energy balance for our dissipative quantum system and in this regard it is to be understood that the physical system is the charged magneto-oscillator coupled to the heat bath, not the uncoupled charged magneto-oscillator. (paper)
Weiss, Ulrich
2008-01-01
Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi
Chernousenko, V.M.; Kuklin, V.M.; Panachenko, I.P.; Vorob'yov, V.M.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on a wide spectrum of oscillations that is excited due to the evolution instabilities, being in a weak above-threshold state, in the inequilibrium media with decaying spectrum. In this case the pumping, whose part is played by an intensive wave or occupation inversion in the active medium, synchronized the phases of excited modes and, thus, forms the space dissipative structure of the field. In dissipative nonlinear media with nondecaying spectrum the space structures, formed due to the development of instability, experience small-scale hexagonal modulation
Tidal dissipation in the subsurface ocean of Enceladus
Matsuyama, I.; Hay, H.; Nimmo, F.; Kamata, S.
2017-12-01
Icy satellites of the outer solar system have emerged as potential habitable worlds due to the presence of subsurface oceans. As a long-term energy source, tidal heating in these oceans can influence the survivability of subsurface oceans, and the thermal, rotational, and orbital evolution of these satellites. Additionally, the spatial and temporal variation of tidal heating has implications for the interior structure and spacecraft observations. Previous models for dissipation in thin oceans are not generally applicable to icy satellites because either they ignore the presence of an overlying solid shell or use a thin shell membrane approximation. We present a new theoretical treatment for tidal dissipation in thin oceans with overlying shells of arbitrary thickness and apply it to Enceladus. The shell's resistance to ocean tides increases with shell thickness, reducing tidal dissipation as expected. Both the magnitude of energy dissipation and the resonant ocean thicknesses decrease as the overlying shell thickness increases, as previously shown using a membrane approximation. In contrast to previous work based on the traditional definition of the tidal quality factor, Q, our new definition is consistent with higher energy dissipation for smaller Q, and introduces a lower limit on Q. The dissipated power and tides are not in phase with the forcing tidal potential due to the delayed ocean response. The phase lag depends on the Rayleigh friction coefficient and ocean and shell thicknesses, which implies that phase lag observations can be used to constrain these parameters. Eccentricity heating produces higher dissipation near the poles, while obliquity heating produces higher dissipation near the equator, in contrast to the dissipation patterns in the shell. The time-averaged surface distribution of tidal heating can generate lateral shell thickness variations, providing an additional constraint on the Rayleigh friction coefficient. Explaining the endogenic power
A. M. Salem
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model is developed to study the effects of temperature-dependent viscosity on heat and mass transfer flow of magnetohydrodynamic(MHD micropolar fluids with medium molecular weight along a permeable stretching surface embedded in a non-Darcian porous medium in the presence of viscous dissipation and chemical reaction. The governing boundary equations for momentum, angular momentum (microrotation, and energy and mass transfer are transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity solutions which are then solved numerically by shooting technique. A comparison between the analytical and the numerical solutions has been included. The effects of the various physical parameters entering into the problem on velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically. Finally, the effects of pertinent parameters on local skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are also presented graphically. One important observation is that for some kinds of mixtures (e.g., H2, air with light and medium molecular weight, the magnetic field and temperature-dependent viscosity effects play a significant role and should be taken into consideration as well.
Collective variables and dissipation
Balian, R.
1984-09-01
This is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We emphasize in particular the relevant entropy relative to a given set of collective variables, the meaning of the projection method in the Liouville space, its use to establish the generalized transport equations for these variables, and the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory
Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Azeem
2016-01-01
The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r_i. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number
Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Khan, T. M. Yunus, E-mail: yunus.tatagar@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, BVB College of Engineering & Technology, Hubli (India); Azeem [Dept. of Computer System & Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2016-06-21
The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r{sub i}. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number.
Jussálvia da S. Pimentel
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Alguns métodos são capazes de determinar diretamente a quantidade de água consumida por uma planta, entre eles o "método de dissipação de calor" ou método de Granier. Neste trabalho se propôs, como objetivo, construir e calibrar sensores de dissipação térmica, avaliar a transpiração em função da posição de inserção do sensor na planta (Norte, Sul, Leste ou Oeste e comparar os resultados com os elementos meteorológicos e a evapotranspiração de referência. Em 24 cafeeiros se instalaram sensores de dissipação térmica, adaptados de Granier (1985, em que o conjunto termopar e resistência foi inserido na agulha. Obteve-se a densidade de fluxo de seiva a partir da variação da diferença de temperatura entre as sondas e se acompanhou a transpiração, em função da transição entre os períodos diurno e noturno. O experimento foi avaliado em 3 períodos: antecedente à floração, na floração e no início da frutificação. Não houve diferença significativamente entre os ângulos de inserção para o fluxo de seiva. Quanto aos elementos meteorológicos, a radiação e a umidade relativa foram os fatores mais determinantes da transpiração obtendo-se, por análises de regressão coeficientes r² entre 0,84 e 0,80.Some methods are capable of directly determining the amount of water consumed by a plant, among them, the "heat dissipation method" or Granier method. This study aimed to: build and calibrate sensors of thermal dissipation; to evaluate the transpiration as a function of the position of insertion of the sensor in the plant (North, South, East or West and to compare the results with the meteorological elements and the evapotranspiration of reference. In 24 coffee plants, thermal dissipation sensors adapted from Granier (1985 were installed, where the whole thermocouple and resistance were inserted into the needle. Density of the sap flow was obtained from the variation of the difference in temperature between
Theoretical Consolidation of Acoustic Dissipation
Casiano, M. J.; Zoladz, T. F.
2012-01-01
In many engineering problems, the effects of dissipation can be extremely important. Dissipation can be represented by several parameters depending on the context and the models that are used. Some examples of dissipation-related parameters are damping ratio, viscosity, resistance, absorption coefficients, pressure drop, or damping rate. This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the theoretical consolidation of the classic absorption coefficients with several other dissipation parameters including linearized resistance. The primary goal of this TM is to theoretically consolidate the linearized resistance with the absorption coefficient. As a secondary goal, other dissipation relationships are presented.
Energy dissipation through wind-generated breaking waves
ZHANG Shuwen; CAO Ruixue; XIE Lingling
2012-01-01
Wave breaking is an important process that controls turbulence properties and fluxes of heat and mass in the upper oceanic layer.A model is described for energy dissipation per unit area at the ocean surface attributed to wind-generated breaking waves,in terms of ratio of energy dissipation to energy input,windgenerated wave spectrum,and wave growth rate.Also advanced is a vertical distribution model of turbulent kinetic energy,based on an exponential distribution method.The result shows that energy dissipation rate depends heavily on wind speed and sea state.Our results agree well with predictions of previous works.
Strong tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter from astrometric observations.
Lainey, Valéry; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Karatekin, Ozgür; Van Hoolst, Tim
2009-06-18
Io is the volcanically most active body in the Solar System and has a large surface heat flux. The geological activity is thought to be the result of tides raised by Jupiter, but it is not known whether the current tidal heat production is sufficiently high to generate the observed surface heat flow. Io's tidal heat comes from the orbital energy of the Io-Jupiter system (resulting in orbital acceleration), whereas dissipation of energy in Jupiter causes Io's orbital motion to decelerate. Here we report a determination of the tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter through its effect on the orbital motions of the Galilean moons. Our results show that the rate of internal energy dissipation in Io (k(2)/Q = 0.015 +/- 0.003, where k(2) is the Love number and Q is the quality factor) is in good agreement with the observed surface heat flow, and suggest that Io is close to thermal equilibrium. Dissipation in Jupiter (k(2)/Q = (1.102 +/- 0.203) x 10(-5)) is close to the upper bound of its average value expected from the long-term evolution of the system, and dissipation in extrasolar planets may be higher than presently assumed. The measured secular accelerations indicate that Io is evolving inwards, towards Jupiter, and that the three innermost Galilean moons (Io, Europa and Ganymede) are evolving out of the exact Laplace resonance.
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution
Foot, R.
2018-02-01
Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.
Attractors of dissipative structure in three dissipative fluids
Kondoh, Yoshiomi
1993-10-01
A general theory with use of auto-correlations for distributions is presented to derive that realization of coherent structures in general dissipative dynamic systems is equivalent to that of self-organized states with the minimum dissipation rate for instantaneously contained energy. Attractors of dissipative structure are shown to be given by eigenfunctions for dissipative dynamic operators of the dynamic system and to constitute the self-organized and self-similar decay phase. Three typical examples applied to incompressible viscous fluids, to incompressible viscous and resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluids and to compressible resistive MHD plasmas are presented to lead to attractors in the three dissipative fluids and to describe a common physical picture of self-organization and bifurcation of the dissipative structure. (author)
Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto
2008-01-01
A few classes of algorithms to implement division in hardware have been used over the years: division by digit-recurrence, by reciprocal approximation by iterative methods and by polynomial approximation. Due to the differences in the algorithms, a comparison among their implementation in terms o...... of performance and precision is sometimes hard to make. In this work, we use power dissipation and energy consumption as metrics to compare among those different classes of algorithms. There are no previous works in the literature presenting such a comparison....
Explicit dissipative structures
Roessler, O.E.
1987-01-01
Dissipative structures consisting of a few macrovariables arise out of a sea of reversible microvariables. Unexpected residual effects of the massive underlying reversibility, on the macrolevel, cannot therefore be excluded. In the age of molecular-dynamics simulations, explicit dissipative structures like excitable systems (explicit observers) can be generated in a computer from first reversible principles. A class of classical, 1-D Hamiltonian systems of chaotic type is considered which has the asset that the trajectorial behavior in phase space can be understood geometrically. If, as nuatural, the number of particle types is much smaller than that of particles, the Gibbs symmetry must be taken into account. The permutation invariance drastically changes the behavior in phase space (quasi-periodization). The explicity observer becomes effectively reversible on a short time scale. In consequence, his ability to measure microscopic motions is suspended in a characteristic fashion. Unlike quantum mechanics whose holistic nature cannot be transcended, the present holistic (internal-interface) effects - mimicking the former to some extent - can be understood fully in principle
Dissipation and the relaxation to equilibrium
Evans, Denis J; Williams, Stephen R; Searles, Debra J
2009-01-01
Using the recently derived dissipation theorem and a corollary of the transient fluctuation theorem (TFT), namely the second-law inequality, we derive the unique time independent, equilibrium phase space distribution function for an ergodic Hamiltonian system in contact with a remote heat bath. We prove under very general conditions that any deviation from this equilibrium distribution breaks the time independence of the distribution. Provided temporal correlations decay, we show that any nonequilibrium distribution that is an even function of the momenta eventually relaxes (not necessarily monotonically) to the equilibrium distribution. Finally we prove that the negative logarithm of the microscopic partition function is equal to the thermodynamic Helmholtz free energy divided by the thermodynamic temperature and Boltzmann's constant. Our results complement and extend the findings of modern ergodic theory and show the importance of dissipation in the process of relaxation towards equilibrium
Conservation laws shape dissipation
Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano
2018-02-01
Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs—we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations.
Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.
1998-01-01
The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon
Heterogeneous dissipative composite structures
Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris; Parshina, Ludmila
2018-05-01
The paper suggests mathematical models of decaying vibrations in layered anisotropic plates and orthotropic rods based on Hamilton variation principle, first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory (FSDT), as well as on the viscous-elastic correspondence principle of the linear viscoelasticity theory. In the description of the physical relationships between the materials of the layers forming stiff polymeric composites, the effect of vibration frequency and ambient temperature is assumed as negligible, whereas for the viscous-elastic polymer layer, temperature-frequency relationship of elastic dissipation and stiffness properties is considered by means of the experimentally determined generalized curves. Mitigation of Hamilton functional makes it possible to describe decaying vibration of anisotropic structures by an algebraic problem of complex eigenvalues. The system of algebraic equation is generated through Ritz method using Legendre polynomials as coordinate functions. First, real solutions are found. To find complex natural frequencies of the system, the obtained real natural frequencies are taken as input values, and then, by means of the 3rd order iteration method, complex natural frequencies are calculated. The paper provides convergence estimates for the numerical procedures. Reliability of the obtained results is confirmed by a good correlation between analytical and experimental values of natural frequencies and loss factors in the lower vibration tones for the two series of unsupported orthotropic rods formed by stiff GRP and CRP layers and a viscoelastic polymer layer. Analysis of the numerical test data has shown the dissipation & stiffness properties of heterogeneous composite plates and rods to considerably depend on relative thickness of the viscoelastic polymer layer, orientation of stiff composite layers, vibration frequency and ambient temperature.
Notari, Alessio
2016-12-22
We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...
Dissipative systems and Bateman's Hamiltonian
Pedrosa, I.A.; Baseia, B.
1983-01-01
It is shown, by using canonical transformations, that one can construct Bateman's Hamiltonian from a Hamiltonian for a conservative system and obtain a clear physical interpretation which explains the ambiguities emerging from its application to describe dissipative systems. (Author) [pt
Dissipative Effect and Tunneling Time
Samyadeb Bhattacharya
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The quantum Langevin equation has been studied for dissipative system using the approach of Ford et al. Here, we have considered the inverted harmonic oscillator potential and calculated the effect of dissipation on tunneling time, group delay, and the self-interference term. A critical value of the friction coefficient has been determined for which the self-interference term vanishes. This approach sheds new light on understanding the ion transport at nanoscale.
Magnetic intermittency of solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range
Pei, Zhongtian; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua
2016-04-01
The feature, nature, and fate of intermittency in the dissipation range are an interesting topic in the solar wind turbulence. We calculate the distribution of flatness for the magnetic field fluctuations as a functionof angle and scale. The flatness distribution shows a "butterfly" pattern, with two wings located at angles parallel/anti-parallel to local mean magnetic field direction and main body located at angles perpendicular to local B0. This "butterfly" pattern illustrates that the flatness profile in (anti-) parallel direction approaches to the maximum value at larger scale and drops faster than that in perpendicular direction. The contours for probability distribution functions at different scales illustrate a "vase" pattern, more clear in parallel direction, which confirms the scale-variation of flatness and indicates the intermittency generation and dissipation. The angular distribution of structure function in the dissipation range shows an anisotropic pattern. The quasi-mono-fractal scaling of structure function in the dissipation range is also illustrated and investigated with the mathematical model for inhomogeneous cascading (extended p-model). Different from the inertial range, the extended p-model for the dissipation range results in approximate uniform fragmentation measure. However, more complete mathematicaland physical model involving both non-uniform cascading and dissipation is needed. The nature of intermittency may be strong structures or large amplitude fluctuations, which may be tested with magnetic helicity. In one case study, we find the heating effect in terms of entropy for large amplitude fluctuations seems to be more obvious than strong structures.
Notari, Alessio [Departament de Física Fondamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Tywoniuk, Konrad, E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es, E-mail: konrad.tywoniuk@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2016-12-01
We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term φ/ f {sub γ} F ∼ F , such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρ{sub R}, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff f {sub γ}, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if f {sub γ} is smaller than the field excursion φ{sub 0} by about a factor of at least O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4–5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with f {sub γ}. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρ{sub R} rather than φ-dot {sup 2}/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/ f {sub γ} to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/ f {sub G} to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed φ{sub 0∼} f {sub G}.
Dissipative structures and related methods
Langhorst, Benjamin R; Chu, Henry S
2013-11-05
Dissipative structures include at least one panel and a cell structure disposed adjacent to the at least one panel having interconnected cells. A deformable material, which may comprise at least one hydrogel, is disposed within at least one interconnected cell proximate to the at least one panel. Dissipative structures may also include a cell structure having interconnected cells formed by wall elements. The wall elements may include a mesh formed by overlapping fibers having apertures formed therebetween. The apertures may form passageways between the interconnected cells. Methods of dissipating a force include disposing at least one hydrogel in a cell structure proximate to at least one panel, applying a force to the at least one panel, and forcing at least a portion of the at least one hydrogel through apertures formed in the cell structure.
Microscopic nuclear dissipation. Pt. 2
Yannouleas, C.; Dworzecka, M.; Griffin, J.J.
1983-01-01
We have formulated a microscopic, nonperturbative, time reversible model which exhibits a dissipative decay of collective motion for times short compared to the system's Poincare time. The model assumes an RPA approximate description of the initial collective state within a restricted subspace, then traces its time evolution when an additional subspace is coupled to the restricted subspace by certain simplified matrix elements. It invokes no statistical assumptions. The damping of the collective motion occurs via real transitions from the collective state to other more complicated nuclear states of the same energy. It corresponds therefore to the so called 'one-body' long mean free path limit of nuclear dissipation when the collective state describes a surface vibration. When the simplest RPA approximation is used, this process associates the dissipation with the escape width for direct particle emission to the continuum. When the more detailed second RPA is used, it associates the dissipation with the spreading width for transitions to the 2p-2h components of the nuclear compound states as well. The energy loss rate for sharp n-phonon initial states is proportional to the total collective energy, unlike the dissipation of a classical damped oscillator, where it is proportional to the kinetic energy only. However, for coherent, multi-phonon wave packets, which explicitly describe the time-dependent oscillations of the mean field, dissipation proportional only to the kinetic energy is obtained. Canonical coordinates for the collective degree of freedom are explicitly introduced and a nonlinear frictional hamiltonian to describe such systems is specified by the requirement that it yield the same time dependence for the collective motion as the microscopic model. Thus, for the first time a descriptive nonlinear hamiltonian is derived explicitly from the underlying microscopic model of a nuclear system. (orig.)
Zero temperature dissipation and holography
Banerjee, Pinaki; Sathiapalan, B. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences,CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India)
2016-04-14
We use holographic techniques to study the zero-temperature limit of dissipation for a Brownian particle moving in a strongly coupled CFT at finite temperature in various space-time dimensions. The dissipative term in the boundary theory for ω→0, T→0 with ω/T held small and fixed, does not match the same at T=0, ω→0. Thus the T→0 limit is not smooth for ω
Dissipative heavy-ion collisions
Feldmeier, H.T.
1985-01-01
This report is a compilation of lecture notes of a series of lectures held at Argonne National Laboratory in October and November 1984. The lectures are a discussion of dissipative phenomena as observed in collisions of atomic nuclei. The model is based on a system which has initially zero temperature and the initial energy is kinetic and binding energy. Collisions excite the nuclei, and outgoing fragments or the compound system deexcite before they are detected. Brownian motion is used to introduce the concept of dissipation. The master equation and the Fokker-Planck equation are derived. 73 refs., 59 figs
Hyperbolic theory of relativistic conformal dissipative fluids
Lehner, Luis; Reula, Oscar A.; Rubio, Marcelo E.
2018-01-01
We develop a complete description of the class of conformal relativistic dissipative fluids of divergence form, following the formalism described in [R. Geroch and L. Lindblom, Phys. Rev. D 41, 1855 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevD.41.1855, S. Pennisi, Some considerations on a non linear approach to extended thermodynamics and in Proceedings of Symposium of Kinetic Theory and Extended Thermodynamics, Bologna, 1987.]. This type of theory is fully described in terms of evolution variables whose dynamics are governed by total divergence-type conservation laws. Specifically, we give a characterization of the whole family of conformal fluids in terms of a single master scalar function defined up to second-order corrections in dissipative effects, which we explicitly find in general form. This allows us to identify the equilibrium states of the theory and derive constitutive relations and a Fourier-like law for the corresponding first-order theory heat flux. Finally, we show that among this class of theories—and near equilibrium configurations—there exist symmetric hyperbolic ones, implying that for them one can define well-posed initial value problems.
ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE
Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)
2015-12-15
Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.
Compaction shock dissipation in low density granular explosive
Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A., E-mail: gonthier@me.lsu.edu; Chakravarthy, Sunada [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2016-06-14
The microstructure of granular explosives can affect dissipative heating within compaction shocks that can trigger combustion and initiate detonation. Because initiation occurs over distances that are much larger than the mean particle size, homogenized (macroscale) theories are often used to describe local thermodynamic states within and behind shocks that are regarded as the average manifestation of thermodynamic fields at the particle scale. In this paper, mesoscale modeling and simulation are used to examine how the initial packing density of granular HMX (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8}) C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8} having a narrow particle size distribution influences dissipation within resolved, planar compaction shocks. The model tracks the evolution of thermomechanical fields within large ensembles of particles due to pore collapse. Effective shock profiles, obtained by averaging mesoscale fields over space and time, are compared with those given by an independent macroscale compaction theory that predicts the variation in effective thermomechanical fields within shocks due to an imbalance between the solid pressure and a configurational stress. Reducing packing density is shown to reduce the dissipation rate within shocks but increase the integrated dissipated work over shock rise times, which is indicative of enhanced sensitivity. In all cases, dissipated work is related to shock pressure by a density-dependent power law, and shock rise time is related to pressure by a power law having an exponent of negative one.
Dissipative effects in Multilevel Systems
Solomon, A I [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Schirmer, S G [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2007-11-15
Dissipation is sometimes regarded as an inevitable and regrettable presence in the real evolution of a quantum system. However, the effects may not always be malign, although often non-intuitive and may even be beneficial. In this note we we display some of these effects for N-level systems, where N = 2,3,4. We start with an elementary introduction to dissipative effects on the Bloch Sphere, and its interior, the Bloch Ball, for a two-level system. We describe explicitly the hamiltonian evolution as well as the purely dissipative dynamics, in the latter case giving the t {yields} {infinity} limits of the motion. This discussion enables us to provide an intuitive feeling for the measures of control-reachable states. For the three-level case we discuss the impossibility of isolating a two-level (qubit) subsystem; this is a Bohm-Aharonov type consequence of dissipation. We finally exemplify the four-level case by giving constraints on the decay of two-qubit entanglement.
Quantum thermodynamics for driven dissipative bosonic systems
Ochoa, Maicol A.; Zimbovskaya, Natalya; Nitzan, Abraham
2018-02-01
We investigate two prototypical dissipative bosonic systems under slow driving and arbitrary system-bath coupling strength, recovering their dynamic evolution as well as the heat and work rates, and we verify that thermodynamic laws are respected. Specifically, we look at the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped two-level system. For the former, we study independently the slow time-dependent perturbation in the oscillator frequency and in the coupling strength. For the latter, we concentrate on the slow modulation of the energy gap between the two levels. Importantly, we are able to find the entropy production rates for each case without explicitly defining nonequilibrium extensions for the entropy functional. This analysis also permits the definition of phenomenological friction coefficients in terms of structural properties of the system-bath composite.
Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems
Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H
2009-01-01
We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a σ x x σ z interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.
Scalar dissipation rate and dissipative anomaly in isotropic turbulence
Donzis, D.A.; Sreenivasan, K.R.; Yeung, P.K.
2006-12-01
We examine available data from experiment and recent numerical simulations to explore the supposition that the scalar dissipation rate in turbulence becomes independent of the fluid viscosity when the viscosity is small and of scalar diffusivity when the diffusivity is small. The data are interpreted in the context of semi-empirical spectral theory of Obukhov and Corrsin when the Schmidt number, Sc, is below unity, and of Batchelor's theory when Sc is above unity. Practical limits in terms of the Taylor-microscale Reynolds number, R λ , as well as Sc, are deduced for scalar dissipation to become sensibly independent of molecular properties. In particular, we show that such an asymptotic state is reached if R λ Sc 1/2 >> 1 for Sc λ 1. (author)
Dissipation of Wave Energy by Cohesive Sediments
Kaihatu, James M; Sheremet, Alexandru
2004-01-01
Wave energy dissipation by bottom muds is studied. A dissipation mechanism which contains explicit expressions of wavenumber modification due to a viscous bottom fluid is incorporated into a nonlinear wave shoaling model...
Dissipation and nuclear collective motion
Hofmann, Helmut; Jensen, A.S.; Ngo, Christian; Siemens, P.J.; California Univ., Berkeley
1979-01-01
This contribution is intended to give a brief summary of a forthcoming paper which shall review extensively the linear response theory for dissipation and statistical fluctuations as well as its application to heavy-ion collisions. It shall contain new results on the following subjects: numerical computations of response functions and transport coefficients; dissipation in a self-consistent treatment of harmonic vibrations; introduction of collective variables within a quantum theory. The method used consists of an extended version of the Bohm and Pines treatment of the electron gas. It allows to deduce a quantum Hamiltonian for the collective and intrinsic motion including coupling terms; discussion and solution of a quantal Master equation for non-linear collective motion. Additionally, a somewhat elaborate discussion of the problems of irreversibility is given, especially in connection to a treatment within the moving basis
Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation
Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.
2017-08-01
Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.
Nuclear Dissipation from Fission Time
Gontchar, I.; Morjean, M.; Basnary, S.
2000-01-01
Fission times, pre-scission neutron multiplicities and GDR pre-scission γ-ray multiplicities measured for uranium or thorium nuclei formed with temperatures T ∼ 1.8 MeV have been compared with calculations performed with CDSM2, a two-dimensional dynamical model combined with a statistical one. Among the three experimental approaches considered, fission times give access to the most precise pieces of information on nuclear dissipation at high excitation energy. For the temperature range under consideration, an agreement between the model and data is achieved if one-body dissipation is used with a strength factor k red ∼ 0.45 ± 0.10 applied to the wall term for the mononuclear configuration. (authors)
Anisotropy dissipation in quantum cosmology
Calzetta, E.; Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina)
1991-01-01
We study the issue of decoherence and dissipation in the wave function of the Universe for a Bianchi type-I universe with classical and quantum matter. We obtain a coarse-grained description by tracing over the matter degrees of freedom. Provided that for small universes the wave function of the universe is concentrated on a neighborhood of the isotropic configuration, then the coarse-grained density matrix of the universe will show an even more marked peak around isotropy for large universes. In this sense we can say that, while decoherence makes the reduced density matrix of the universe diagonal, dissipation causes the universe to be isotropic with a high probability for large radii
Dissipative fluid mechanics of nuclei
Morgenstern, B.
1987-11-01
With the aim to describe nucleus-nucleus collisions at low energies in the present thesis for the first time dissipative fluid dynamics for large-amplitude nuclear motion have been formulated. Thereby the collective dynamics are described in a scaling approximation in which the wave function of the system is distorted by a vortex-free velocity field. For infintely extended nuclear matter this scaling of the wave functions leads to a deformation of the Fermi sphere. Two-body collisions destroy the collective deformation of the Fermi sphere and yield so the dissipative contribution of the motion. Equations of motion for a finite set of collective variables and a field equation for the collective velocity potential in the limit of infinitely many degrees of freedom were developed. In the elastic limit oscillations around the equilibrium position are described. For small collective amplitudes and vortex-free velocity fields the integrodifferential equation for the velocity potential in the elastic limit could be transformed to the divergence of the field equation of fluid dynamics. In the dissipative limit an equation results which is similar to the Navier-Stokes equation and transforms to the divergence of the Navier-Stokes equation for vortex-free fields. It was shown that generally the dynamics of the many-body system is described by non-Markovian equations. (orig./HSI) [de
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Black, Carrie; Kuznetsova, Masha
2011-01-01
It was recently proposed that the electron-frame dissipation measure, the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron s rest frame, identifies the dissipation region of collisionless magnetic reconnection [Zenitani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195003 (2011)]. The measure is further applied to the electron-scale structures of antiparallel reconnection, by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The size of the central dissipation region is controlled by the electron-ion mass ratio, suggesting that electron physics is essential. A narrow electron jet extends along the outflow direction until it reaches an electron shock. The jet region appears to be anti-dissipative. At the shock, electron heating is relevant to a magnetic cavity signature. The results are summarized to a unified picture of the single dissipation region in a Hall magnetic geometry.
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Black, Carrie; Kuznetsova, Masha
2011-01-01
It was recently proposed that the electron-frame dissipation measure, the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron's rest frame, identifies the dissipation region of collisionless magnetic reconnection [Zenitani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195003 (2011)]. The measure is further applied to the electron-scale structures of antiparallel reconnection, by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The size of the central dissipation region is controlled by the electron-ion mass ratio, suggesting that electron physics is essential. A narrow electron jet extends along the outflow direction until it reaches an electron shock. The jet region appears to be anti-dissipative. At the shock, electron heating is relevant to a magnetic cavity signature. The results are summarized to a unified picture of the single dissipation region in a Hall magnetic geometry.
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Black, Carrie; Kuznetsova, Masha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)
2011-12-15
It was recently proposed that the electron-frame dissipation measure, the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron's rest frame, identifies the dissipation region of collisionless magnetic reconnection [Zenitani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195003 (2011)]. The measure is further applied to the electron-scale structures of antiparallel reconnection, by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The size of the central dissipation region is controlled by the electron-ion mass ratio, suggesting that electron physics is essential. A narrow electron jet extends along the outflow direction until it reaches an electron shock. The jet region appears to be anti-dissipative. At the shock, electron heating is relevant to a magnetic cavity signature. The results are summarized to a unified picture of the single dissipation region in a Hall magnetic geometry.
Numerical simulation of energy equation with viscous dissipation for compressible flow over cones
Asif, M.; Chughtai, I.R.
1998-01-01
A finite volume discretization technique has been used to solve the energy equation with viscous dissipation. The effects of viscous heat dissipation for Mach numbers 1.5 and 2.0, at an angle of attack of 0 degree, over sharp and blunt cones have been studied. Algebraic equations have been solved using line-by-line Tda method. Supersonic flow over cones has been analyzed and discussed with and without considering the viscous dissipation effects. It has been found that the effects of viscous dissipation increase with the increase in Mach number. Viscous dissipation affects the temperature distribution of the body. However, the temperature difference in these cases was insignificant. This may be due to the fact that these analysis have been done at 0 km altitude. (author)
Nishimura, M.
1998-04-01
To predict thermal-hydraulic phenomena in actual plant under various conditions accurately, adequate simulation of laminar-turbulent flow transition is of importance. A low Reynolds number turbulence model is commonly used for a numerical simulation of the laminar-turbulent transition. The existing low Reynolds number turbulence models generally demands very thin mesh width between a wall and a first computational node from the wall, to keep accuracy and stability of numerical analyses. There is a criterion for the distance between the wall and the first computational node in which non-dimensional distance y + must be less than 0.5. Due to this criterion the suitable distance depends on Reynolds number. A liquid metal sodium is used for a coolant in first reactors therefore, Reynolds number is usually one or two order higher than that of the usual plants in which air and water are used for the work fluid. This makes the load of thermal-hydraulic numerical simulation of the liquid sodium relatively heavier. From above context, a new method is proposed for providing wall boundary condition of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ε. The present method enables the wall-first node distance 10 times larger compared to the existing models. A function of the ε wall boundary condition has been constructed aided by a direct numerical simulation (DNS) data base. The method was validated through calculations of a turbulent Couette flow and a fully developed pipe flow and its laminar-turbulent transition. Thus the present method and modeling are capable of predicting the laminar-turbulent transition with less mesh numbers i.e. lighter computational loads. (J.P.N.)
Dynamics of charged viscous dissipative cylindrical collapse with full causal approach
Shah, S.M.; Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)
2017-11-15
The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamical aspects of a charged viscous cylindrical source by using the Misner approach. To this end, we have considered the more general charged dissipative fluid enclosed by the cylindrical symmetric spacetime. The dissipative nature of the source is due to the presence of dissipative variables in the stress-energy tensor. The dynamical equations resulting from such charged cylindrical dissipative source have been coupled with the causal transport equations for heat flux, shear and bulk viscosity, in the context of the Israel-Steward theory. In this case, we have the considered Israel-Steward transportation equations without excluding the thermodynamics viscous/heat coupling coefficients. The results are compared with the previous works in which such coefficients were excluded and viscosity variables do not satisfy the casual transportation equations. (orig.)
Nondestructive evaluation of dissipative behavior of reinforced concrete structure
Luong, M.P. [Ecole Polytechnique, LMS, CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
2001-07-01
Current technological developments tend toward increased exploitation of materials strengths and toward tackling extreme loads and environmental actions such as offshore structures subject to wind and wave loading, or buildings in seismic area. Concrete is widely used as a construction material because of its high strength-cost ratio in many applications. Experience of earthquakes and laboratory tests has shown that well designed and detailed reinforced concrete is suitable for earthquake resistant structures. The most severe likely earthquake can be survived if the members are sufficiently ductile to absorb and dissipate seismic energy by inelastic deformation. This requires a designer to assess realistically the acceptable levels of strength and to ensure adequate dissipation. This paper proposes the use of infrared thermography as a nondestructive, noncontact and real-time technique to examine diverse mechanisms of dissipation and to illustrate the onset of damage process, stress concentration and heat dissipation localization in loaded zone. In addition, this technique can be used as a nondestructive method for evaluating the fatigue limit of concrete structure subject to repeated loading.
Nondestructive evaluation of dissipative behavior of reinforced concrete structure
Luong, M.P.
2001-01-01
Current technological developments tend toward increased exploitation of materials strengths and toward tackling extreme loads and environmental actions such as offshore structures subject to wind and wave loading, or buildings in seismic area. Concrete is widely used as a construction material because of its high strength-cost ratio in many applications. Experience of earthquakes and laboratory tests has shown that well designed and detailed reinforced concrete is suitable for earthquake resistant structures. The most severe likely earthquake can be survived if the members are sufficiently ductile to absorb and dissipate seismic energy by inelastic deformation. This requires a designer to assess realistically the acceptable levels of strength and to ensure adequate dissipation. This paper proposes the use of infrared thermography as a nondestructive, noncontact and real-time technique to examine diverse mechanisms of dissipation and to illustrate the onset of damage process, stress concentration and heat dissipation localization in loaded zone. In addition, this technique can be used as a nondestructive method for evaluating the fatigue limit of concrete structure subject to repeated loading
Dissipation Mechanisms and Particle Acceleration at the Earth's Bow Shock
Desai, M. I.; Burch, J. L.; Broll, J. M.; Genestreti, K.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Wei, H.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Phan, T.; Chen, L. J.; Lai, H.; Wang, S.; Schwartz, S. J.; Allen, R. C.; Mauk, B.; Gingell, I.
2017-12-01
NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has four spacecraft equipped with identical state-of-the-art instruments that acquire magnetic and electric field, plasma wave, and particle data at unprecedented temporal resolution to study the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. During Phase 1a, MMS also encountered and crossed the Earth's bow shock more than 300 times. We use burst data during 2 bow shock crossings to shed new light on key open questions regarding the formation, evolution, and dissipation mechanisms at collisionless shocks. Specifically, we focus on two events that exhibit clear differences in the ion and electron properties, the associated wave activity, and, therefore in the nature of the dissipation. In the case of a quasi-perpendicular, low beta shock crossing, we find that the dissipation processes are most likely associated with field-aligned electron beams that are coincident with high frequency electrostatic waves. On the other hand, the dissipation processes at an oblique, high beta shock crossing are largely governed by the quasi-static electric field and generation of magnetosonic whistler waves that result in perpendicular temperature anisotropy for the electrons. We also discuss the implications of these results for ion heating, reflection, and particle acceleration.
Brownian motion of classical spins: Anomalous dissipation and generalized Langevin equation
Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Jayannavar, A. M.
2017-10-01
In this work, we derive the Langevin equation (LE) of a classical spin interacting with a heat bath through momentum variables, starting from the fully dynamical Hamiltonian description. The derived LE with anomalous dissipation is analyzed in detail. The obtained LE is non-Markovian with multiplicative noise terms. The concomitant dissipative terms obey the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The Markovian limit correctly produces the Kubo and Hashitsume equation. The perturbative treatment of our equations produces the Landau-Lifshitz equation and the Seshadri-Lindenberg equation. Then we derive the Fokker-Planck equation corresponding to LE and the concept of equilibrium probability distribution is analyzed.
Dissipative hidden sector dark matter
Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.
2015-01-01
A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.
Designing Biomimetic, Dissipative Material Systems
Balazs, Anna C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Whitesides, George M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Brinker, C. Jeffrey [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology. Center for Micro-Engineered Materials; Aranson, Igor S. [UChicago, LLC., Argonne, IL (United States); Chaikin, Paul [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dogic, Zvonimir [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Glotzer, Sharon [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Macromolecular Science and Engineering Physics; Hammer, Daniel [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Irvine, Darrell [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering; Little, Steven R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Parikh, Atul N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Stupp, Samuel [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Medicine. Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Szostak, Jack [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
2016-01-21
Throughout human history, new materials have been the foundation of transformative technologies: from bronze, paper, and ceramics to steel, silicon, and polymers, each material has enabled far-reaching advances. Today, another new class of materials is emerging—one with both the potential to provide radically new functions and to challenge our notion of what constitutes a “material”. These materials would harvest, transduce, or dissipate energy to perform autonomous, dynamic functions that mimic the behaviors of living organisms. Herein, we discuss the challenges and benefits of creating “dissipative” materials that can potentially blur the boundaries between living and non-living matter.
Causal dissipation and shock profiles in the relativistic fluid dynamics of pure radiation.
Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake
2014-06-08
CURRENT THEORIES OF DISSIPATION IN THE RELATIVISTIC REGIME SUFFER FROM ONE OF TWO DEFICITS: either their dissipation is not causal or no profiles for strong shock waves exist. This paper proposes a relativistic Navier-Stokes-Fourier-type viscosity and heat conduction tensor such that the resulting second-order system of partial differential equations for the fluid dynamics of pure radiation is symmetric hyperbolic. This system has causal dissipation as well as the property that all shock waves of arbitrary strength have smooth profiles. Entropy production is positive both on gradients near those of solutions to the dissipation-free equations and on gradients of shock profiles. This shows that the new dissipation stress tensor complies to leading order with the principles of thermodynamics. Whether higher order modifications of the ansatz are required to obtain full compatibility with the second law far from the zero-dissipation equilibrium is left to further investigations. The system has exactly three a priori free parameters χ , η , ζ , corresponding physically to heat conductivity, shear viscosity and bulk viscosity. If the bulk viscosity is zero (as is stated in the literature) and the total stress-energy tensor is trace free, the entire viscosity and heat conduction tensor is determined to within a constant factor.
Natural approach to quantum dissipation
Taj, David; Öttinger, Hans Christian
2015-12-01
The dissipative dynamics of a quantum system weakly coupled to one or several reservoirs is usually described in terms of a Lindblad generator. The popularity of this approach is certainly due to the linear character of the latter. However, while such linearity finds justification from an underlying Hamiltonian evolution in some scaling limit, it does not rely on solid physical motivations at small but finite values of the coupling constants, where the generator is typically used for applications. The Markovian quantum master equations we propose are instead supported by very natural thermodynamic arguments. They themselves arise from Markovian master equations for the system and the environment which preserve factorized states and mean energy and generate entropy at a non-negative rate. The dissipative structure is driven by an entropic map, called modular, which introduces nonlinearity. The generated modular dynamical semigroup (MDS) guarantees for the positivity of the time evolved state the correct steady state properties, the positivity of the entropy production, and a positive Onsager matrix with symmetry relations arising from Green-Kubo formulas. We show that the celebrated Davies Lindblad generator, obtained through the Born and the secular approximations, generates a MDS. In doing so we also provide a nonlinear MDS which is supported by a weak coupling argument and is free from the limitations of the Davies generator.
Eduardo Augusto Girardi
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.O fluxo de seiva poderia ser utilizado como parâmetro fisiológico para fomentar a irrigação de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido pela estimação do consumo contínuo de água. Neste trabalho, reportam-se os primeiros resultados, indicando o uso potencial e as limitações iniciais do método de dissipação de calor para medição do fluxo de seiva em mudas cítricas em recipientes. Mudas de laranjeira-doce 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck foram avaliadas por 30 dias, durante o verão. Sondas de dissipação de calor e sensores do tipo termopar foram construídos a partir de materiais prontamente disponíveis e de baixo custo para favorecer o acesso ao método por viveiristas. O fluxo de seiva apresentou alta correlação com a temperatura do ar dentro da estufa telada. Contudo, erros inerentes ao gradiente térmico natural e a injúrias nos tecidos do caule afetaram a
Causal dissipation for the relativistic dynamics of ideal gases.
Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake
2017-05-01
We derive a general class of relativistic dissipation tensors by requiring that, combined with the relativistic Euler equations, they form a second-order system of partial differential equations which is symmetric hyperbolic in a second-order sense when written in the natural Godunov variables that make the Euler equations symmetric hyperbolic in the first-order sense. We show that this class contains a unique element representing a causal formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics which (i) is equivalent to the classical descriptions by Eckart and Landau to first order in the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction and (ii) has its signal speeds bounded sharply by the speed of light. Based on these properties, we propose this system as a natural candidate for the relativistic counterpart of the classical Navier-Stokes equations.
Stable schemes for dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy
Stoltz, Gabriel, E-mail: stoltz@cermics.enpc.fr
2017-07-01
This article presents a new numerical scheme for the discretization of dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy. The key idea is to reduce elementary pairwise stochastic dynamics (either fluctuation/dissipation or thermal conduction) to effective single-variable dynamics, and to approximate the solution of these dynamics with one step of a Metropolis–Hastings algorithm. This ensures by construction that no negative internal energies are encountered during the simulation, and hence allows to increase the admissible timesteps to integrate the dynamics, even for systems with small heat capacities. Stability is only limited by the Hamiltonian part of the dynamics, which suggests resorting to multiple timestep strategies where the stochastic part is integrated less frequently than the Hamiltonian one.
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution. II.
Foot, R.
2018-05-01
Within the mirror dark matter model and dissipative dark matter models in general, halos around galaxies with active star formation (including spirals and gas-rich dwarfs) are dynamical: they expand and contract in response to heating and cooling processes. Ordinary type II supernovae (SNe) can provide the dominant heat source, which is possible if kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ɛ ˜10-9- 10-10 . Dissipative dark matter halos can be modeled as a fluid governed by Euler's equations. Around sufficiently isolated and unperturbed galaxies the halo can relax to a steady state configuration, where heating and cooling rates locally balance and hydrostatic equilibrium prevails. These steady state conditions can be solved to derive the physical properties, including the halo density and temperature profiles, for model galaxies. Here, we consider idealized spherically symmetric galaxies within the mirror dark particle model, as in our earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 97, 043012 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.043012], but we assume that the local halo heating in the SN vicinity dominates over radiative sources. With this assumption, physically interesting steady state solutions arise which we compute for a representative range of model galaxies. The end result is a rather simple description of the dark matter halo around idealized spherically symmetric systems, characterized in principle by only one parameter, with physical properties that closely resemble the empirical properties of disk galaxies.
Energy Dissipation in Quantum Computers
Granik, A.; Chapline, G.
2003-01-01
A method is described for calculating the heat generated in a quantum computer due to loss of quantum phase information. Amazingly enough, this heat generation can take place at zero temperature. and may explain why it is impossible to extract energy from vacuum fluctuations. Implications for optical computers and quantum cosmology are also briefly discussed.
Variational principles for dissipative waves
Dodin, I. Y.; Ruiz, D. E.
2016-10-01
Variational methods are a powerful tool in plasma theory. However, their applications are typically restricted to conservative systems or require doubling of variables, which often contradicts the purpose of the variational approach altogether. We show that these restrictions can be relaxed for some classes of dynamical systems that are of practical interest in plasma physics, particularly including dissipative plasma waves. Applications will be discussed to calculating dispersion relations and modulational dynamics of individual plasma waves and wave ensembles. The work was supported by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, by the U.S. DOE through Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.
Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems
Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)
2009-05-01
We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.
Transport phenomena in dissipative heavy-ion collisions: the one-body dissipation approach
Feldmeier, H.
1987-01-01
The paper reviews dissipative collisions between two atomic nuclei, with the help of the classical description of Brownian movement and the Langevin equation. The 'one-body dissipation model' for dissipative heavy-ion collisions is discussed, and its predictions are compared with measured data. Special attention is paid to the non-equilibrium relation between friction and diffusion. (U.K.)
Crustal control of dissipative ocean tides in Enceladus and other icy moons
Beuthe, Mikael
2016-12-01
Could tidal dissipation within Enceladus' subsurface ocean account for the observed heat flow? Earthlike models of dynamical tides give no definitive answer because they neglect the influence of the crust. I propose here the first model of dissipative tides in a subsurface ocean, by combining the Laplace Tidal Equations with the membrane approach. For the first time, it is possible to compute tidal dissipation rates within the crust, ocean, and mantle in one go. I show that oceanic dissipation is strongly reduced by the crustal constraint, and thus contributes little to Enceladus' present heat budget. Tidal resonances could have played a role in a forming or freezing ocean less than 100 m deep. The model is general: it applies to all icy satellites with a thin crust and a shallow ocean. Scaling rules relate the resonances and dissipation rate of a subsurface ocean to the ones of a surface ocean. If the ocean has low viscosity, the westward obliquity tide does not move the crust. Therefore, crustal dissipation due to dynamical obliquity tides can differ from the static prediction by up to a factor of two.
Mancier, Valérie; Leclercq, Didier
2007-02-01
Two new determination methods of the power dissipated in an aqueous medium by an ultrasound generator were developed. They are based on the use of a heat flow sensor inserted between a tank and a heat sink that allows to measure the power directly coming through the sensor. To be exploitable, the first method requires waiting for stationary flow. On the other hand, the second, extrapolated from the first one, makes it possible to determine the dissipated power in only five minutes. Finally, the results obtained with the flowmetric method are compared to the classical calorimetric ones.
Dissipative Solitons that Cannot be Trapped
Pardo, Rosa; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.
2006-01-01
We show that dissipative solitons in systems with high-order nonlinear dissipation cannot survive in the presence of trapping potentials of the rigid wall or asymptotically increasing type. Solitons in such systems can survive in the presence of a weak potential but only with energies out of the interval of existence of linear quantum mechanical stationary states
Quantum dissipation of a simple conservative system
Ibeh, G. J.; Mshelia, E. D.
2014-01-01
A model of quantum dissipative system is presented. Here dissipation of energy is demonstrated as based on the coupling of a free translational motion of a centre of mass to a harmonic oscillator. The two-dimensional arrangement of two coupled particles of different masses is considered.
Dissipative electromagnetism from a nonequilibrium thermodynamics perspective
Jelic, A.; Hütter, M.; Öttinger, H.C.
2006-01-01
Dissipative effects in electromagnetism on macroscopic scales are examined by coarse-graining the microscopic Maxwell equations with respect to time. We illustrate a procedure to derive the dissipative effects on the macroscopic scale by using a Green-Kubo type expression in terms of the microscopic
Dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions
Santanu Pal
1984-01-01
This paper deals with the mechanism of one- and two-body dissipations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The average energy transferred to nuclear excitations is calculated using a time-dependent density matrix approach with lowest-order approximations. Considering the nuclei as Fermi gases, and using a gaussian-type NN interaction as the basic perturbation, simplified expressions are obtained for energy dissipations. These expressions are quite instructive to follow a number of interesting aspects of one- and two-body dissipations. It is theoretically observed that the memory time for the two-body dissipation is significantly smaller than that of one-body dissipation. A threshold-type dependence of the transferred energy on the relative velocity between the two nuclei is also observed. This threshold velocity is found to be related with the intrinsic nucleon kinetic energy for two-body dissipation and with the nuclear size for the one-body case. This observation further suggests that the total dissipated energy is shared between the two nuclei approximately in the ratio of their masses. The physical origin of these observations is also explained. Numerical calculations further illustrate some characteristic features of one- and two-body dissipations. (orig.)
On the stability of dissipative MHD equilibria
Teichmann, J.
1979-04-01
The global stability of stationary equilibria of dissipative MHD is studied uisng the direct Liapunov method. Sufficient and necessary conditions for stability of the linearized Euler-Lagrangian system with the full dissipative operators are given. The case of the two-fluid isentropic flow is discussed. (orig.)
Analytical study of dissipative solitary waves
Dini, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamzadeh, Mehdi Molaie [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Sina [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bobin, Jean Louis [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Amrollahi, Reza [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sodagar, Majid [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnegar, Milad [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2008-02-15
In this paper, the analytical solution to a new class of nonlinear solitons is presented with cubic nonlinearity, subject to a dissipation term arising as a result of a first-order derivative with respect to time, in the weakly nonlinear regime. Exact solutions are found using the combination of the perturbation and Green's function methods up to the third order. We present an example and discuss the asymptotic behavior of the Green's function. The dissipative solitary equation is also studied in the phase space in the non-dissipative and dissipative forms. Bounded and unbounded solutions of this equation are characterized, yielding an energy conversation law for non-dissipative waves. Applications of the model include weakly nonlinear solutions of terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors and ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability.
Thermodynamic dissipation theory for the origin of life
Michaelian, K.
2011-03-01
Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Life, as are all irreversible processes, is contingent on entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the tendency of Nature to explore available microstates. The most important irreversible process generating entropy in the biosphere and, thus, facilitating this exploration, is the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat. Here we hypothesize that life began, and persists today, as a catalyst for the absorption and dissipation of sunlight on the surface of Archean seas. The resulting heat could then be efficiently harvested by other irreversible processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the intense ultraviolet light that penetrated the dense early atmosphere and are remarkably rapid in transforming this light into heat in the presence of liquid water. From this perspective, the origin and evolution of life, inseparable from water and the water cycle, can be understood as resulting from the natural thermodynamic imperative of increasing the entropy production of the Earth in its interaction with its solar environment. A mechanism is proposed for the reproduction of RNA and DNA without the need for enzymes, promoted instead through UV light dissipation and diurnal temperature cycling of the Archean sea-surface.
Costa, V.A.F. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)
2006-07-15
Care needs to be taken when considering the viscous dissipation in the energy conservation formulation of the natural convection problem in fluid-saturated porous media. The unique energy formulation compatible with the First Law of Thermodynamics informs us that if the viscous dissipation term is taken into account, also the work of pressure forces term needs to be taken into account. In integral terms, the work of pressure forces must equal the energy dissipated by viscous effects, and the net energy generation in the overall domain must be zero. If only the (positive) viscous dissipation term is considered in the energy conservation equation, the domain behaves as a heat multiplier, with an heat output greater than the heat input. Only the energy formulation consistent with the First Law of Thermodynamics leads to the correct flow and temperature fields, as well as of the heat transfer parameters characterizing the involved porous device. Attention is given to the natural convection problem in a square enclosure filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium, using the Darcy Law to describe the fluid flow, but the main ideas and conclusions apply equally for any general natural or mixed convection heat transfer problem. It is also analyzed the validity of the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation when applied to natural convection problems in fluid-saturated porous media. (author)
Fractional Stochastic Differential Equations Satisfying Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem
Li, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Lu, Jianfeng
2017-10-01
We propose in this work a fractional stochastic differential equation (FSDE) model consistent with the over-damped limit of the generalized Langevin equation model. As a result of the `fluctuation-dissipation theorem', the differential equations driven by fractional Brownian noise to model memory effects should be paired with Caputo derivatives, and this FSDE model should be understood in an integral form. We establish the existence of strong solutions for such equations and discuss the ergodicity and convergence to Gibbs measure. In the linear forcing regime, we show rigorously the algebraic convergence to Gibbs measure when the `fluctuation-dissipation theorem' is satisfied, and this verifies that satisfying `fluctuation-dissipation theorem' indeed leads to the correct physical behavior. We further discuss possible approaches to analyze the ergodicity and convergence to Gibbs measure in the nonlinear forcing regime, while leave the rigorous analysis for future works. The FSDE model proposed is suitable for systems in contact with heat bath with power-law kernel and subdiffusion behaviors.
Time evolution of distribution functions in dissipative environments
Hu Li-Yun; Chen Fei; Wang Zi-Sheng; Fan Hong-Yi
2011-01-01
By introducing the thermal entangled state representation, we investigate the time evolution of distribution functions in the dissipative channels by bridging the relation between the initial distribution function and the any time distribution function. We find that most of them are expressed as such integrations over the Laguerre—Gaussian function. Furthermore, as applications, we derive the time evolution of photon-counting distribution by bridging the relation between the initial distribution function and the any time photon-counting distribution, and the time evolution of R-function characteristic of nonclassicality depth. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Lagrangian descriptors in dissipative systems.
Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2016-11-09
The reaction dynamics of time-dependent systems can be resolved through a recrossing-free dividing surface associated with the transition state trajectory-that is, the unique trajectory which is bound to the barrier region for all time in response to a given time-dependent potential. A general procedure based on the minimization of Lagrangian descriptors has recently been developed by Craven and Hernandez [Phys. Rev. Lett., 2015, 115, 148301] to construct this particular trajectory without requiring perturbative expansions relative to the naive transition state point at the top of the barrier. The extension of the method to account for dissipation in the equations of motion requires additional considerations established in this paper because the calculation of the Lagrangian descriptor involves the integration of trajectories in forward and backward time. The two contributions are in general very different because the friction term can act as a source (in backward time) or sink (in forward time) of energy, leading to the possibility that information about the phase space structure may be lost due to the dominance of only one of the terms. To compensate for this effect, we introduce a weighting scheme within the Lagrangian descriptor and demonstrate that for thermal Langevin dynamics it preserves the essential phase space structures, while they are lost in the nonweighted case.
Dissipative structures and biological rhythms
Goldbeter, Albert
2017-10-01
Sustained oscillations abound in biological systems. They occur at all levels of biological organization over a wide range of periods, from a fraction of a second to years, and with a variety of underlying mechanisms. They control major physiological functions, and their dysfunction is associated with a variety of physiological disorders. The goal of this review is (i) to give an overview of the main rhythms observed at the cellular and supracellular levels, (ii) to briefly describe how the study of biological rhythms unfolded in the course of time, in parallel with studies on chemical oscillations, (iii) to present the major roles of biological rhythms in the control of physiological functions, and (iv) the pathologies associated with the alteration, disappearance, or spurious occurrence of biological rhythms. Two tables present the main examples of cellular and supracellular rhythms ordered according to their period, and their role in physiology and pathophysiology. Among the rhythms discussed are neural and cardiac rhythms, metabolic oscillations such as those occurring in glycolysis in yeast, intracellular Ca++ oscillations, cyclic AMP oscillations in Dictyostelium amoebae, the segmentation clock that controls somitogenesis, pulsatile hormone secretion, circadian rhythms which occur in all eukaryotes and some bacteria with a period close to 24 h, the oscillatory dynamics of the enzymatic network driving the cell cycle, and oscillations in transcription factors such as NF-ΚB and tumor suppressors such as p53. Ilya Prigogine's concept of dissipative structures applies to temporal oscillations and allows us to unify within a common framework the various rhythms observed at different levels of biological organization, regardless of their period and underlying mechanism.
Low moduli elastomers with low viscous dissipation
Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2012-01-01
A controlled reaction schema for addition curing silicones leads to both significantly lower elastic modulus and lower viscous dissipation than for the chemically identical network prepared by the traditional reaction schema....
Phenomenological approaches of dissipative heavy ion collisions
Ngo, C.
1983-09-01
These lectures describe the properties of dissipative heavy ion collisions observed in low bombarding energy heavy ion reactions. These dissipative collisions are of two different types: fusion and deep inelastic reactions. Their main experimental properties are described on selected examples. It is shown how it is possible to give a simple interpretation to the data. A large number of phenomenological models have been developped to understand dissipative heavy ion collisions. The most important are those describing the collision by classical mechanics and friction forces, the diffusion models, and transport theories which merge both preceding approaches. A special emphasis has been done on two phenomena observed in dissipative heavy ion collisions: charge equilibratium for which we can show the existence of quantum fluctuations, and fast fission which appears as an intermediate mechanism between deep inelastic reactions and compound nucleus formation [fr
Observed eddy dissipation in the Agulhas Current
Braby, L
2016-08-01
Full Text Available (negative) velocity anomalies propagate downstream in the Agulhas Current at 44 km/d (23 km/d). Many models are unable to represent these eddy dissipation processes, affecting our understanding of the Agulhas Current....
Minimum dissipative relaxed states in toroidal plasmas
organised equi- librium in RFP and tokamak by a deterministic approach to incompressible dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. In an earlier work Kondoh [8] formulated an energy principle including the edge plasma effects for a slightly resistive MHD ...
Static Dissipative Cable Ties, Such as for Radiation Belt Storm Probes
Langley, Patrick T. (Inventor); Siddique, Fazle E. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An article, such as, but not limited to, a cable strap to wrap, support, or secure one or more wires or cables, is formed by cyclically heating and cooling and/or irradiating an article formed of a static dissipative ethylene tetrafluoroethylen (ETFE) resin, to reduce an electrical resistivity and/or to increase a tensile strength of the article.
Energy dissipation in multifrequency atomic force microscopy
Valentina Pukhova
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The instantaneous displacement, velocity and acceleration of a cantilever tip impacting onto a graphite surface are reconstructed. The total dissipated energy and the dissipated energy per cycle of each excited flexural mode during the tip interaction is retrieved. The tip dynamics evolution is studied by wavelet analysis techniques that have general relevance for multi-mode atomic force microscopy, in a regime where few cantilever oscillation cycles characterize the tip–sample interaction.
Hamiltonian description and quantization of dissipative systems
Enz, Charles P.
1994-09-01
Dissipative systems are described by a Hamiltonian, combined with a “dynamical matrix” which generalizes the simplectic form of the equations of motion. Criteria for dissipation are given and the examples of a particle with friction and of the Lotka-Volterra model are presented. Quantization is first introduced by translating generalized Poisson brackets into commutators and anticommutators. Then a generalized Schrödinger equation expressed by a dynamical matrix is constructed and discussed.
Drift bifurcation detection for dissipative solitons
Liehr, A W; Boedeker, H U; Roettger, M C; Frank, T D; Friedrich, R; Purwins, H-G
2003-01-01
We report on the experimental detection of a drift bifurcation for dissipative solitons, which we observe in the form of current filaments in a planar semiconductor-gas-discharge system. By introducing a new stochastic data analysis technique we find that due to a change of system parameters the dissipative solitons undergo a transition from purely noise-driven objects with Brownian motion to particles with a dynamically stabilized finite velocity
Ilioaia, C.; Johnson, M.P.; Horton, P.; Ruban, A.V.
2008-01-01
Under excess illumination, the Photosystem II light-harvesting antenna of higher plants has the ability to switch into an efficient photoprotective mode, allowing safe dissipation of excitation energy into heat. In this study, we show induction of the energy dissipation state, monitored by
Diurnal modulation signal from dissipative hidden sector dark matter
R. Foot
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We consider a simple generic dissipative dark matter model: a hidden sector featuring two dark matter particles charged under an unbroken U(1′ interaction. Previous work has shown that such a model has the potential to explain dark matter phenomena on both large and small scales. In this framework, the dark matter halo in spiral galaxies features nontrivial dynamics, with the halo energy loss due to dissipative interactions balanced by a heat source. Ordinary supernovae can potentially supply this heat provided kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ϵ∼10−9. This type of kinetically mixed dark matter can be probed in direct detection experiments. Importantly, this self-interacting dark matter can be captured within the Earth and shield a dark matter detector from the halo wind, giving rise to a diurnal modulation effect. We estimate the size of this effect for detectors located in the Southern hemisphere, and find that the modulation is large (≳10% for a wide range of parameters.
Alfvén wave dissipation in the solar chromosphere
Grant, Samuel D. T.; Jess, David B.; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Beck, Christian; Socas-Navarro, Hector; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Keys, Peter H.; Christian, Damian J.; Houston, Scott J.; Hewitt, Rebecca L.
2018-05-01
Magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén waves1 have been a focus of laboratory plasma physics2 and astrophysics3 for over half a century. Their unique nature makes them ideal energy transporters, and while the solar atmosphere provides preferential conditions for their existence4, direct detection has proved difficult as a result of their evolving and dynamic observational signatures. The viability of Alfvén waves as a heating mechanism relies upon the efficient dissipation and thermalization of the wave energy, with direct evidence remaining elusive until now. Here we provide the first observational evidence of Alfvén waves heating chromospheric plasma in a sunspot umbra through the formation of shock fronts. The magnetic field configuration of the shock environment, alongside the tangential velocity signatures, distinguish them from conventional umbral flashes5. Observed local temperature enhancements of 5% are consistent with the dissipation of mode-converted Alfvén waves driven by upwardly propagating magneto-acoustic oscillations, providing an unprecedented insight into the behaviour of Alfvén waves in the solar atmosphere and beyond.
Relaxational dissipation of magnetic field energy in a rarefied plasma
Vekshtejn, G.E.
1987-01-01
A mechanism of solar corona plasma heating connected with relaxation of a magnetic configuration in the corona to the state of the magnetic energy minimum at restrictions imposed by high conductivity of a medium is considered. Photospheric plasma pulsations leading to generation of longitudinal currents in the corona are in this case energy sources. The excess magnetic energy of these currents is dissipated as a result of reclosing of force lines of the magnetic field in narrow current layers. Plasmaturbulence related to the process of magnetic reclosing is phenomenologically described in this case by introducing certain characteristic time of relaxation. Such an approach permits to relate the plasma heating energy with parameters of photospheric motions in the framework of a simple model of the magnetic field
Modular Heat Dissipation Technique for a CubeSat
2015-07-28
Research Overview Even though the interest in CubeSats has increased over the past decade, there is little publicly released research about thermal...understanding of the thermal design and analysis effort of CubeSats in the past decade, a research overview was provided. 25 III. Methodology The...CubeSats, because it leaves a considerable area for circuitry on the board and has a simple scheme [ Pumpkin , 2013]. Assuming there are high power
Incoherent tunneling and heat dissipation in molecular bridges
Pecchia, A; Gagliardi, A; Solomon, G; Carlo, A Di; Frauenheim, Th; Reimers, J R
2006-01-01
Simulated IV characteristics and inelastic electron tunneling spectra of octanedithiol chemisorbed on gold electrodes are presented. The geometric and electronic structure is obtained from calculations based on a density functional scheme. A non-equilibrium Green's function formalism is employed to deal with the transport aspect of the problem. Both the IV and the calculated spectra show good agreement with experimental results and suggest further details in the assignment and characterization of such spectra
Energy dissipation mapping of cancer cells.
Dutta, Diganta; Palmer, Xavier-Lewis; Kim, Jinhyun; Qian, Shizhi; Stacey, Michael
2018-02-01
The purpose of this study is to map the energy dissipation of Jurkat cells using a single 60 nanosecond pulse electric field (NsPEF), primarily through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The phase shift is generated by the sample elements that do not have a heterogeneous surface. Monitoring and manipulating the phase shift is a powerful way for determining the dissipated energy and plotting the topography. The dissipated energy is a relative value, so the silica wafer and cover slip are given a set reference while the transmission of energy between the tip of the cantilever and cell surfaces is measured. The most important finding is that the magnitude and the number of variations in the dissipated energy change with the strength of NsPEF applied. Utilizing a single low field strength NsPEF (15kV/cm), minor changes in dissipated energy were found. The application of a single high field strength NsPEF (60kV/cm) to Jurkat cells resulted in a higher dissipated energy change versus that of in the low field strength condition. Thus, the dissipated energy from the Jurkat cells changes with the strength of NsPEF. By analyzing the forces via investigation in the tapping mode of the AFM, the stabilization of the cytoskeleton and membrane of the cell are related to the strength of NsPEF applied. Furthermore, the strength of NsPEF indicates a meaningful relationship to the survival of the Jurkat cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Decay of Kadomtsev-Petviashvili lumps in dissipative media
Clarke, S.; Gorshkov, K.; Grimshaw, R.; Stepanyants, Y.
2018-03-01
The decay of Kadomtsev-Petviashvili lumps is considered for a few typical dissipations-Rayleigh dissipation, Reynolds dissipation, Landau damping, Chezy bottom friction, viscous dissipation in the laminar boundary layer, and radiative losses caused by large-scale dispersion. It is shown that the straight-line motion of lumps is unstable under the influence of dissipation. The lump trajectories are calculated for two most typical models of dissipation-the Rayleigh and Reynolds dissipations. A comparison of analytical results obtained within the framework of asymptotic theory with the direct numerical calculations of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is presented. Good agreement between the theoretical and numerical results is obtained.
Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion
Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: antoniomarcosbatista@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)
2016-04-22
Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.
Dissipative dark matter and the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies
Foot, R., E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
2016-07-01
There is ample evidence from rotation curves that dark matter halos around disk galaxies have nontrivial dynamics. Of particular significance are: a) the cored dark matter profile of disk galaxies, b) correlations of the shape of rotation curves with baryonic properties, and c) Tully-Fisher relations. Dark matter halos around disk galaxies may have nontrivial dynamics if dark matter is strongly self interacting and dissipative. Multicomponent hidden sector dark matter featuring a massless 'dark photon' (from an unbroken dark U(1) gauge interaction) which kinetically mixes with the ordinary photon provides a concrete example of such dark matter. The kinetic mixing interaction facilitates halo heating by enabling ordinary supernovae to be a source of these 'dark photons'. Dark matter halos can expand and contract in response to the heating and cooling processes, but for a sufficiently isolated halo could have evolved to a steady state or 'equilibrium' configuration where heating and cooling rates locally balance. This dynamics allows the dark matter density profile to be related to the distribution of ordinary supernovae in the disk of a given galaxy. In a previous paper a simple and predictive formula was derived encoding this relation. Here we improve on previous work by modelling the supernovae distribution via the measured UV and H α fluxes, and compare the resulting dark matter halo profiles with the rotation curve data for each dwarf galaxy in the LITTLE THINGS sample. The dissipative dark matter concept is further developed and some conclusions drawn.
Dissipative dark matter and the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies
Foot, R.
2016-01-01
There is ample evidence from rotation curves that dark matter halos around disk galaxies have nontrivial dynamics. Of particular significance are: a) the cored dark matter profile of disk galaxies, b) correlations of the shape of rotation curves with baryonic properties, and c) Tully-Fisher relations. Dark matter halos around disk galaxies may have nontrivial dynamics if dark matter is strongly self interacting and dissipative. Multicomponent hidden sector dark matter featuring a massless 'dark photon' (from an unbroken dark U(1) gauge interaction) which kinetically mixes with the ordinary photon provides a concrete example of such dark matter. The kinetic mixing interaction facilitates halo heating by enabling ordinary supernovae to be a source of these 'dark photons'. Dark matter halos can expand and contract in response to the heating and cooling processes, but for a sufficiently isolated halo could have evolved to a steady state or 'equilibrium' configuration where heating and cooling rates locally balance. This dynamics allows the dark matter density profile to be related to the distribution of ordinary supernovae in the disk of a given galaxy. In a previous paper a simple and predictive formula was derived encoding this relation. Here we improve on previous work by modelling the supernovae distribution via the measured UV and H α fluxes, and compare the resulting dark matter halo profiles with the rotation curve data for each dwarf galaxy in the LITTLE THINGS sample. The dissipative dark matter concept is further developed and some conclusions drawn.
Cold collisions in dissipative optical lattices
Piilo, J; Suominen, K-A
2005-01-01
The invention of laser cooling methods for neutral atoms allows optical and magnetic trapping of cold atomic clouds in the temperature regime below 1 mK. In the past, light-assisted cold collisions between laser cooled atoms have been widely studied in magneto-optical atom traps (MOTs). We describe here theoretical studies of dynamical interactions, specifically cold collisions, between atoms trapped in near-resonant, dissipative optical lattices. The extension of collision studies to the regime of optical lattices introduces several complicating factors. For the lattice studies, one has to account for the internal substates of atoms, position-dependent matter-light coupling, and position-dependent couplings between the atoms, in addition to the spontaneous decay of electronically excited atomic states. The developed one-dimensional quantum-mechanical model combines atomic cooling and collision dynamics in a single framework. The model is based on Monte Carlo wavefunction simulations and is applied when the lattice-creating lasers have frequencies both below (red-detuned lattice) and above (blue-detuned lattice) the atomic resonance frequency. It turns out that the radiative heating mechanism affects the dynamics of atomic cloud in a red-detuned lattice in a way that is not directly expected from the MOT studies. The optical lattice and position-dependent light-matter coupling introduces selectivity of collision partners. The atoms which are most mobile and energetic are strongly favoured to participate in collisions, and are more often ejected from the lattice, than the slow ones in the laser parameter region selected for study. Consequently, the atoms remaining in the lattice have a smaller average kinetic energy per atom than in the case of non-interacting atoms. For blue-detuned lattices, we study how optical shielding emerges as a natural part of the lattice and look for ways to optimize the effect. We find that the cooling and shielding dynamics do not mix
Dynamics of quasi-stable dissipative systems
Chueshov, Igor
2015-01-01
This book is devoted to background material and recently developed mathematical methods in the study of infinite-dimensional dissipative systems. The theory of such systems is motivated by the long-term goal to establish rigorous mathematical models for turbulent and chaotic phenomena. The aim here is to offer general methods and abstract results pertaining to fundamental dynamical systems properties related to dissipative long-time behavior. The book systematically presents, develops and uses the quasi-stability method while substantially extending it by including for consideration new classes of models and PDE systems arising in Continuum Mechanics. The book can be used as a textbook in dissipative dynamics at the graduate level. Igor Chueshov is a Professor of Mathematics at Karazin Kharkov National University in Kharkov, Ukraine.
Sudden viscous dissipation in compressing plasma turbulence
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel
2015-11-01
Compression of a turbulent plasma or fluid can cause amplification of the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the turnover and viscous dissipation times of the turbulent eddies. The consideration of compressing turbulent flows in inviscid fluids has been motivated by the suggestion that amplification of turbulent kinetic energy occurred on experiments at the Weizmann Institute of Science Z-Pinch. We demonstrate a sudden viscous dissipation mechanism whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, which further increases the temperature, feeding back to further enhance the dissipation. Application of this mechanism in compression experiments may be advantageous, if the plasma can be kept comparatively cold during much of the compression, reducing radiation and conduction losses, until the plasma suddenly becomes hot. This work was supported by DOE through contract 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836) and by the DTRA.
Topological protection of multiparticle dissipative transport
Loehr, Johannes; Loenne, Michael; Ernst, Adrian; de Las Heras, Daniel; Fischer, Thomas M.
2016-06-01
Topological protection allows robust transport of localized phenomena such as quantum information, solitons and dislocations. The transport can be either dissipative or non-dissipative. Here, we experimentally demonstrate and theoretically explain the topologically protected dissipative motion of colloidal particles above a periodic hexagonal magnetic pattern. By driving the system with periodic modulation loops of an external and spatially homogeneous magnetic field, we achieve total control over the motion of diamagnetic and paramagnetic colloids. We can transport simultaneously and independently each type of colloid along any of the six crystallographic directions of the pattern via adiabatic or deterministic ratchet motion. Both types of motion are topologically protected. As an application, we implement an automatic topologically protected quality control of a chemical reaction between functionalized colloids. Our results are relevant to other systems with the same symmetry.
Effect of dissipation on dynamical fusion thresholds
Sierk, A.J.
1986-01-01
The existence of dynamical thresholds to fusion in heavy nuclei (A greater than or equal to 200) due to the nature of the potential-energy surface is shown. These thresholds exist even in the absence of dissipative forces, due to the coupling between the various collective deformation degrees of freedom. Using a macroscopic model of nuclear shape dynamics, It is shown how three different suggested dissipation mechanisms increase by varying amounts the excitation energy over the one-dimensional barrier required to cause compound-nucleus formation. The recently introduced surface-plus-window dissipation may give a reasonable representation of experimental data on fusion thresholds, in addition to properly describing fission-fragment kinetic energies and isoscalar giant multipole widths. Scaling of threshold results to asymmetric systems is discussed. 48 refs., 10 figs
Optimizing the microstructure of dissipative materials
Andreassen, Erik; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
the material’s loss factor, however, only for large wave lengths (small wave numbers) and constant material parameters (Andreasen et al., 2012). An alternative way to determine the material’s loss factor is to consider the material’s band diagram (Sigalas and Economou, 1992), from which the loss factor can......The aim of this work is to present a method to design material microstructures with high dissipation using topology optimization. In order to compute the macroscopic energy dissipation in periodic structures, we focus both on capturing the physical dissipation mechanism and to find the effective...... from experimental results in (Schaedler, 2011), where a highly energy absorbing material, constructed from structural elements with a small cross sectional area but large area moment of inertia, is presented. Furthermore, the applicability of multiscale finite element methods (Efendiev, 2009...
Induced waveform transitions of dissipative solitons
Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Tuz, Vladimir R.
2018-01-01
The effect of an externally applied force upon the dynamics of dissipative solitons is analyzed in the framework of the one-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation supplemented by a potential term with an explicit coordinate dependence. The potential accounts for the external force manipulations and consists of three symmetrically arranged potential wells whose depth varies along the longitudinal coordinate. It is found out that under an influence of such potential a transition between different soliton waveforms coexisting under the same physical conditions can be achieved. A low-dimensional phase-space analysis is applied in order to demonstrate that by only changing the potential profile, transitions between different soliton waveforms can be performed in a controllable way. In particular, it is shown that by means of a selected potential, stationary dissipative soliton can be transformed into another stationary soliton as well as into periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic spatiotemporal dissipative structures.
Dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model.
Smirne, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo
2015-08-05
Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is the most refined and studied among collapse models. A well-known problem of this model, and of similar ones, is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we present the dissipative version of the CSL model, which guarantees a finite energy during the entire system's evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a non-linear stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise. The possibility to introduce dissipation within collapse models in a consistent way will have relevant impact on the experimental investigations of the CSL model, and therefore also on the testability of the quantum superposition principle.
Microscopic theory of one-body dissipation
Koonin, S.E.; Randrup, J.; Hatch, R.; Kolomietz, V.
1977-01-01
A microscopic theory is developed for nuclear collective motion in the limit of a long nuclear mean-free path. Linear response techniques are applied to an independent particle model and expressions for the collective kinetic energy and rate of energy dissipation are obtained. For leptodermous systems, these quantities are characterized by mass and dissipation kernels coupling the velocities at different points on the nuclear surface. In a classical treatment, the kernels are given in terms of nucleon trajectories within the nuclear shape. In a quantal treatment, the dissipation kernel is related to the nuclear Green function. The spatial and thermal properties of the kernels are investigated. Corrections for the diffuseness of the potential and shell effects are also discussed. (Auth.)
Marilaine Campanati Araújo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available O conhecimento da demanda hídrica das culturas é uma informação básica para o manejo de irrigação. O método de dissipação térmica (MDT vem recebendo atenção nos últimos tempos para esta finalidade, em virtude de utilizar princípios físicos relativamente simples e poder ser aplicado diretamente no campo. Este trabalho objetivou realizar a calibração do método de sonda de dissipação térmica na determinação do fluxo de seiva em coqueiro anão-verde. Para a calibração, a sonda foi inserida em um segmento de pecíolo da folha do coqueiro-anão verde. Um fluxo estável de água foi estabelecido no segmento do pecíolo. Foram feitas medidas de vazão, volume por unidade de tempo, e temperatura, dada pela sonda. Após a calibração em laboratório foram realizados experimentos de campo na Região Norte Fluminense, Brasil, nos quais o modelo calibrado foi capaz de acompanhar a demanda atmosférica. Conclui-se que modelo matemático obtido da calibração do MDT é satisfatório para a obtenção da transpiração no coqueiro anão-verde.The knowledge of crop water demand is basic for irrigation management. In recent years, the Heat Dissipation Method (HDM has received attention for this purpose because its relatively simple physical principles and applicability in field conditions. This study aimed to perform calibration of the HDM for sap flow determination in green-dwarf coconut plants. For calibration, the probe was inserted in a segment of the leaf petiole of a dwarf coconut tree. A steady stream of water was established in the segment of petiole. Measurements of flow rate, volume per unit time and temperature, were taken with the probe. After calibrating HDM in laboratory, field experiments were carried out in the Norte Fluminense, Brazil, where the calibrated model were well coupled to the atmospheric demand. It is concluded that the mathematical model obtained in the HDM calibration is suitable for obtaining the
Relationship between dynamical entropy and energy dissipation far from thermodynamic equilibrium
Green, Jason R.; Costa, Anthony B.; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Szleifer, Igal
2013-01-01
Connections between microscopic dynamical observables and macroscopic nonequilibrium (NE) properties have been pursued in statistical physics since Boltzmann, Gibbs, and Maxwell. The simulations we describe here establish a relationship between the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy and the energy dissipated as heat from a NE system to its environment. First, we show that the Kolmogorov–Sinai or dynamical entropy can be separated into system and bath components and that the entropy of the system characterizes the dynamics of energy dissipation. Second, we find that the average change in the system dynamical entropy is linearly related to the average change in the energy dissipated to the bath. The constant energy and time scales of the bath fix the dynamical relationship between these two quantities. These results provide a link between microscopic dynamical variables and the macroscopic energetics of NE processes. PMID:24065832
Analysis of phononic bandgap structures with dissipation
Andreassen, Erik; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2013-01-01
and longer wavelengths, we show that the two formulations produce nearly identical results in terms of propagation constant and wave decay. We use the k(ω)-formulation to compute loss factors with dissipative bandgap materials for steady-state wave propagation and create simplified diagrams that unify...... the spatial loss factor from dissipative and bandgap effects. Additionally, we demonstrate the applicability of the k(ω)-formulation for the computation of the band diagram for viscoelastic composites and compare the computed loss factors for low frequency wave propagation to existing results based on quasi...
New derivation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics
Jaiswal, Amaresh; Bhalerao, Rajeev S.; Pal, Subrata
2012-01-01
Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics has been quite successful in explaining the spectra and azimuthal anisotropy of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC and recently at the LHC. The first-order dissipative fluid dynamics or the relativistic Navier-Stokes (NS) theory involves parabolic differential equations and suffers from a causality and instability. The second-order or Israel-Stewart (IS) theory with its hyperbolic equations restores causality but may not guarantee stability. The correct formulation of relativistic viscous fluid dynamics is far from settled and is under intense investigation
Quantum dissipation from power-law memory
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2012-01-01
A new quantum dissipation model based on memory mechanism is suggested. Dynamics of open and closed quantum systems with power-law memory is considered. The processes with power-law memory are described by using integration and differentiation of non-integer orders, by methods of fractional calculus. An example of quantum oscillator with linear friction and power-law memory is considered. - Highlights: ► A new quantum dissipation model based on memory mechanism is suggested. ► The generalization of Lindblad equation is considered. ► An exact solution of generalized Lindblad equation for quantum oscillator with linear friction and power-law memory is derived.
DISSIPATION PATTERN OF BIFENTHRIN IN TOMATO
Ravi Kumar Katroju; Sreenivasa Rao Cherukuri; Shashi Bushan Vemuri; Narasimha Reddy K
2014-01-01
Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 to evaluate the dissipation pattern of most commonly used insecticide bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 with two sprays of insecticide first given after fruit initiation and the second spray 10 days later and collecting the fruits at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 days after last spray, and analysed for residues using the validated QuEChERS method. The initial deposits of bifenthrin were 0.85 mg kg-1 which dissipated to 0.39, 0.15 mg kg-1 by 1st an...
Mechanical energy dissipation in natural ceramic composites.
Mayer, George
2017-12-01
Ceramics and glasses, in their monolithic forms, typically exhibit low fracture toughness values, but rigid natural marine ceramic and glass composites have shown remarkable resistance to mechanical failure. This has been observed in load-extension behavior by recognizing that the total area under the curve, notably the part beyond the yield point, often conveys substantial capacity to carry mechanical load. The mechanisms underlying the latter observations are proposed as defining factors for toughness that provide resistance to failure, or capability to dissipate energy, rather than fracture toughness. Such behavior is exhibited in the spicules of glass sponges and in mollusk shells. There are a number of similarities in the manner in which energy dissipation takes place in both sponges and mollusks. It was observed that crack diversion, a new form of crack bridging, creation of new surface area, and other important energy-dissipating mechanisms occur and aid in "toughening". Crack tolerance, key to energy dissipation in these natural composite materials, is assisted by promoting energy distribution over large volumes of loaded specimens by minor components of organic constituents that also serve important roles as adhesives. Viscoelastic deformation was a notable characteristic of the organic component. Some of these energy-dissipating modes and characteristics were found to be quite different from the toughening mechanisms that are utilized for more conventional structural composites. Complementary to those mechanisms found in rigid natural ceramic/organic composites, layered architectures and very thin organic layers played major roles in energy dissipation in these structures. It has been demonstrated in rigid natural marine composites that not only architecture, but also the mechanical behavior of the individual constituents, the nature of the interfaces, and interfacial bonding play important roles in energy dissipation. Additionally, the controlling
Morphing of the Dissipative Reaction Mechanism
Schroeder, W.U.; Toke, J.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Houck, M.A.; Lu, J.; Pienkowski, L.
2003-01-01
Important trends in the evolution of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms with bombarding energy and impact parameter are reviewed. Essential features of dissipative reactions appear preserved at E/A = 50-62 MeV, such as dissipative orbiting and multi-nucleon exchange. The relaxation of the A/Z asymmetry with impact parameter is slow. Non-equilibrium emission of light particles and clusters is an important process accompanying the evolution of the mechanism. Evidence is presented for a new mechanism of statistical cluster emission from hot, metastable primary reaction products, driven by surface entropy. These results suggest a plausible reinterpretation of multi-fragmentation. (authors)
Complex Fluids in Energy Dissipating Systems
Francisco J. Galindo-Rosales
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The development of engineered systems for energy dissipation (or absorption during impacts or vibrations is an increasing need in our society, mainly for human protection applications, but also for ensuring the right performance of different sort of devices, facilities or installations. In the last decade, new energy dissipating composites based on the use of certain complex fluids have flourished, due to their non-linear relationship between stress and strain rate depending on the flow/field configuration. This manuscript intends to review the different approaches reported in the literature, analyses the fundamental physics behind them and assess their pros and cons from the perspective of their practical applications.
Dissipation in the superfluid helium film
Turkington, R.R.; Harris-Lowe, R.F.
1977-01-01
We have measured the rate of energy dissipation in superfluid helium film flow in an attempt to test a recent theory due to Harris-Lowe, which predicts that for superfluid stream velocities v/sub s/ that just exceed the critical velocity v/sub c0/, the rate of dissipation is given by an equation of the form Q=C(v/sub s/-v/sub c0/)/sup 3/2/. Our experiments at 1.33 K show that the exponent, predicted to be 3/2, is 1.491 +- 0.021
Dissipation and decoherence in quantum systems
Menskii, Mikhail B
2003-01-01
The theory of dissipative quantum systems and its relation to the quantum theory of continuous measurements are reviewed. Constructing a correct theory of a dissipative quantum system requires that the system's interaction with its environment (reservoir) be taken into account. Since information about the system is 'recorded' in the state of the reservoir, the quantum theory of continuous measurements can be used to account for the influence of the reservoir. If based on the use of restricted path integrals, this theory does not require an explicit reservoir model and is therefore much simpler technically. (reviews of topical problems)
Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications
Dattagupta, Sushanta
2004-01-01
From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.
Morphing of the Dissipative Reaction Mechanism
Schroeder, W.U.; Toke, J.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Houck, M.A.; Lu, J.; Pienkowski, L. [Rochester Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Rochester, NY (United States)
2003-07-01
Important trends in the evolution of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms with bombarding energy and impact parameter are reviewed. Essential features of dissipative reactions appear preserved at E/A = 50-62 MeV, such as dissipative orbiting and multi-nucleon exchange. The relaxation of the A/Z asymmetry with impact parameter is slow. Non-equilibrium emission of light particles and clusters is an important process accompanying the evolution of the mechanism. Evidence is presented for a new mechanism of statistical cluster emission from hot, metastable primary reaction products, driven by surface entropy. These results suggest a plausible reinterpretation of multi-fragmentation. (authors)
Effects of dissipation and fluctuation in preheating
Vartuli, Rodrigo; Ramos, Rudnei de O.
2006-01-01
In this paper, we study the effects of dissipation and fluctuation in preheating after inflation. The effective equation of motion for a scalar field χ interacting with lighter fields is derived using the field theoretical method of closed time path due to Schwinger, winch is suitable to study nonequilibrium and time dependent process. In this derivation the emergent equation is intrinsically dissipative and stochastic in nature. The resulting dynamics is then studied both analytically and numerically. The results obtained are then discussed for then relevance for the reheating epoch right after an inflationary phase(preheating) for the case of the evolution of the scalar field χ and its decay into fermion. (author)
Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited
Górniewicz Lech
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.
Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited
Lech Górniewicz
2006-05-01
Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.
Appendix to Power Dissipation in Division
Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto
This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation of the archite......This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation...
On hyperbolic-dissipative systems of composite type
Tan, Zhong; Wang, Yanjin
2016-01-01
The Shizuta-Kawashima condition plays the fundamental role in guaranteeing global stability for systems of hyperbolic-parabolic/hyperbolic with relaxation. However, there are many important physical systems not satisfying this coupling condition, which are of composite type with regard to dissipation. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations with zero heat conductivity and Euler equations of adiabatic flow through porous media are two typical examples. In this paper, we construct the global unique solution near constant equilibria to these two systems in three dimensions for the small Hℓ (ℓ > 3) initial data. Our proof is based on a reformation of the systems in terms of the pressure, velocity and entropy, a scaled energy estimates with minimal fractional derivative counts in conjunction with the linear L2-L2 decay estimates to extract a fast enough decay of velocity gradient, which is used to close the energy estimates for the non-dissipative entropy. We also include an application to certain two-phase models.
Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence
Gregory L. Eyink
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or “coarse-grained” solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive “4/5th-law”-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the “Big Power Law in the Sky” observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.
Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence
Eyink, Gregory L.; Drivas, Theodore D.
2018-02-01
We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or "coarse-grained" solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy) by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive "4 /5 th-law"-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents) required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the "Big Power Law in the Sky" observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.
Georgious, I. T.; Sun, C. T.
1992-01-01
The history of temperature rise due to internal dissipation of mechanical energy in insulated off-axis uniaxial specimens of the unidirectional thermoplastic composite (AS4/PEEK) has been measured. The experiment reveals that the rate of temperature rise is a polynomial function of stress amplitude: It consists of a quadratic term and a sixth power term. This fact implies that the specific heat of the composite depends on the stretching its microstructure undergoes during deformation. The Einstein theory for specific heat is used to explain the dependence of the specific heat on the stretching of the microstructure.
Numerical simulations of thermal conductivity in dissipative two-dimensional Yukawa systems.
Khrustalyov, Yu V; Vaulina, O S
2012-04-01
Numerical data on the heat transfer constants in two-dimensional Yukawa systems were obtained. Numerical study of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity was carried out for the equilibrium systems with parameters close to conditions of laboratory experiments with dusty plasma. For calculations of heat transfer constants the Green-Kubo formulas were used. The influence of dissipation (friction) on the heat transfer processes in nonideal systems was investigated. The approximation of the coefficient of thermal conductivity is proposed. Comparison of the obtained results to the existing experimental and numerical data is discussed.
An estimate of energy dissipation due to soil-moisture hysteresis
McNamara, H.
2014-01-01
Processes of infiltration, transport, and outflow in unsaturated soil necessarily involve the dissipation of energy through various processes. Accounting for these energetic processes can contribute to modeling hydrological and ecological systems. The well-documented hysteretic relationship between matric potential and moisture content in soil suggests that one such mechanism of energy dissipation is associated with the cycling between wetting and drying processes, but it is challenging to estimate the magnitude of the effect in situ. The Preisach model, a generalization of the Independent Domain model, allows hysteresis effects to be incorporated into dynamical systems of differential equations. Building on earlier work using such systems with field data from the south-west of Ireland, this work estimates the average rate of hysteretic energy dissipation. Through some straightforward assumptions, the magnitude of this rate is found to be of O(10-5) W m-3. Key Points Hysteresis in soil-water dissipates energy The rate of dissipation can be estimated directly from saturation data The rate of heating caused is significant ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Kannan, R. M.; Pullepu, Bapuji; Immanuel, Y.
2018-04-01
A two dimensional mathematical model is formulated for the transient laminar free convective flow with heat transfer over an incompressible viscous fluid past a vertical cone with uniform surface heat flux with combined effects of viscous dissipation and radiation. The dimensionless boundary layer equations of the flow which are transient, coupled and nonlinear Partial differential equations are solved using the Network Simulation Method (NSM), a powerful numerical technique which demonstrates high efficiency and accuracy by employing the network simulator computer code Pspice. The velocity and temperature profiles have been investigated for various factors, namely viscous dissipation parameter ε, Prandtl number Pr and radiation Rd are analyzed graphically.
Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham
2008-07-25
Mergers of supermassive black hole binaries release peak power of up to approximately 10(57) erg s(-1) in gravitational waves (GWs). As the GWs propagate through ambient gas, they induce shear and a small fraction of their power is dissipated through viscosity. The dissipated heat appears as electromagnetic (EM) radiation, providing a prompt EM counterpart to the GW signal. For thin accretion disks, the GW heating rate exceeds the accretion power at distances farther than approximately 10(3) Schwarzschild radii, independently of the accretion rate and viscosity coefficient.
Friction and dissipative phenomena in quantum mechanics
Kostin, M.D.
1975-01-01
Frictional and dissipative terms of the Schroedinger equation are studied. A proof is given showing that the frictional term of the Schroedinger--Langevin equation causes the quantum system to lose energy. General expressions are derived for the frictional term of the Schroedinger equation. (U.S.)
Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation
Cantcheff, M.B. [IFLP-CONICET CC 67, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gadelha, Alexandre L. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Marchioro, Dafni F.Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz [Universidade Federal da Integracao Latino-Americana, Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciencias da Vida e da Natureza, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)
2018-02-15
In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacuum state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017). (orig.)
Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation
Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dáfni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz
2018-02-01
In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacumm state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017).
On multi-dissipative dynamic systems
Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro
1999-01-01
We consider deterministic dynamic systems with state space representations which are dissipative in the sense of Willems (1972) with respect to several supply rates. This property is of interest in robustness analysis and in multi-objective control. We give conditions under which the convex cone...
Quantum phase transition with dissipative frustration
Maile, D.; Andergassen, S.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.
2018-04-01
We study the quantum phase transition of the one-dimensional phase model in the presence of dissipative frustration, provided by an interaction of the system with the environment through two noncommuting operators. Such a model can be realized in Josephson junction chains with shunt resistances and resistances between the chain and the ground. Using a self-consistent harmonic approximation, we determine the phase diagram at zero temperature which exhibits a quantum phase transition between an ordered phase, corresponding to the superconducting state, and a disordered phase, corresponding to the insulating state with localized superconducting charge. Interestingly, we find that the critical line separating the two phases has a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the dissipative coupling strength. This result is a consequence of the frustration between (i) one dissipative coupling that quenches the quantum phase fluctuations favoring the ordered phase and (ii) one that quenches the quantum momentum (charge) fluctuations leading to a vanishing phase coherence. Moreover, within the self-consistent harmonic approximation, we analyze the dissipation induced crossover between a first and second order phase transition, showing that quantum frustration increases the range in which the phase transition is second order. The nonmonotonic behavior is reflected also in the purity of the system that quantifies the degree of correlation between the system and the environment, and in the logarithmic negativity as an entanglement measure that encodes the internal quantum correlations in the chain.
Dissipative preparation of entanglement in optical cavities
Kastoryano, Michael James; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg
2011-01-01
We propose a novel scheme for the preparation of a maximally entangled state of two atoms in an optical cavity. Starting from an arbitrary initial state, a singlet state is prepared as the unique fixed point of a dissipative quantum dynamical process. In our scheme, cavity decay is no longer...
Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops
Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.
2013-01-01
Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure....... Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact...... degradation is dominating. We are currently testing the regression to predict degradation half-lives in crops. By providing mean degradation half-lives at 20°C for more than 300 pesticides, we reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current practice of health risk and impact assessments....
Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics
Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.
2015-11-01
In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.
Magnetization dissipation in ferromagnets from scattering theory
Brataas, A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2011-01-01
The magnetization dynamics of ferromagnets is often formulated in terms of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The reactive part of this equation describes the response of the magnetization in terms of effective fields, whereas the dissipative part is parametrized by the Gilbert damping
Energy and dissipated work in snow avalanches
Bartelt, P.; Buser, O.
2004-12-01
Using the results of large scale avalanche experiments at the Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test site, the energy balance of several snow avalanches is determined. Avalanches convert approximately one-seventh of their potential energy into kinetic energy. The total potential energy depends strongly on the entrained snowcover, indicating that entrainment processes cannot be ignored when predicting terminal velocities and runout distances. We find energy dissipation rates on the order of 1 GW. Fluidization of the fracture slab can be identified in the experiments as an increase in dissipation rate, thereby explaining the initial and rapid acceleration of avalanches after release. Interestingly, the dissipation rates appear to be constant along the track, although large fluctuations in internal velocity exist. Thus, we can demonstrate within the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics that -- in space -- granular snow avalanches are irreversible, dissipative systems that minimize entropy production because they appear to reach a steady-state non-equilibrium. A thermodynamic analysis reveals that fluctuations in velocity depend on the roughness of the flow surface and viscosity of the granular system. We speculate that this property explains the transition from flowing avalanches to powder avalanches.
Mars’ Low Dissipation Factor at 11-h - Interpretation from Anelasticity-Based Dissipation Model
Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Choukroun, M.
2010-10-01
We explore the information contained in the ratio of the tidal Love number k2 to the dissipation factor Q characterizing the response of Mars to the tides exerted by its satellite Phobos (11-h period). Assuming that Mars can be approximated as a Maxwell body, Bills et al. [1] have inferred an average viscosity of the Martian mantle 8.7x1014 Pa s. Such a low viscosity appears inconsistent with Mars’ thermal evolution and current heat budget models. Alternative explanations include the presence of partial melt in the mantle [2], or the presence of an aquifer in the crust [3]. We revisit the interpretation of Mars’ k2/Q using a laboratory-based attenuation model that accounts for material viscoelasticity and anelasticity. As a first step, we have computed Mars’ k2/Q for an interior model that includes a solid inner core, a liquid core layer, a mantle, and crust (consistent with the observed moment of inertia, and k2 measured at the orbital period), and searched for the range of mantle viscosities that can explain the observed k2/Q. Successful models are characterized by an average mantle viscosity between 1018 and 1022 Pa s, which rules out the presence of partial melt in the mantle. We can narrow down that range by performing a more detailed calculation of the mineralogy and temperature profiles. Preliminary results will be presented at the meeting. References: [1] Bills et al. (2005) JGR 110, E00704; [2] Ruedas et al. (2009 White paper to the NRC Planetary Science decadal survey; [3] Bills et al. (2009) LPS 40, 1712. MC is supported by a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellowship, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities. This work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.
Radiation entropy influx as a measure of planetary dissipative processes
Izakov, M.N.
1989-01-01
Dissipative processes including high flows of matter and energy occur at the planets. Radiation negentropy influx, resulting from difference of entropy fluxes of incoming solar and outgoing thermal radiation of the planet, is a measure of all these processes. Large share of radiation negentropy influx is spent in the vertical thermal fluxes which keep the planet temperature conditions. Next share of radiation negentropy consumption at the Earth is water evaporation. It's rest part is used for the dynamics, which is explained by the efficiency insignificant amount of heat engine, which generates movements in the atmosphere and ocean. Essentially higher share of radiation negentropy influx, than at the Earth, is spent at the Venus, where there are practically no water
Nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics including dissipation and noise
Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Leupold, Stefan
2011-01-01
We present a consistent theoretical approach for the study of nonequilibrium effects in chiral fluid dynamics within the framework of the linear σ model with constituent quarks. Treating the quarks as an equilibrated heat bath, we use the influence functional formalism to obtain a Langevin equation for the σ field. This allows us to calculate the explicit form of the damping coefficient and the noise correlators. For a self-consistent derivation of both the dynamics of the σ field and the quark fluid, we have to employ the 2PI (two-particle irreducible) effective action formalism. The energy dissipation from the field to the fluid is treated in the exact formalism of the 2PI effective action where a conserved energy-momentum tensor can be constructed. We derive its form and comment on approximations generating additional terms in the energy-momentum balance of the entire system.
The optimization of longitudinal convective fins with internal heat generation
Razelos, P.
1979-01-01
The solution of the optimization problem for longitudinal convective fins of constant thickness, triangular or parabolic profile, and uniform internal heat generation, is presented. The cases considered are those of a given heat generation density, total heat generation and heat generation per unit width of the fin, when either the heat dissipation or the width of the fin is prescribed. The results are set forth in a nondimensional form, which are presented graphically. The effect of the fin's thermal conductivity upon the optimum dimensions is discussed, and limiting values for the heat generation and the heat dissipation, which may be imposed on the fin for a feasible optimization, are also obtained. (Auth.)
Brandão, P V; Alves, L S de B; Barletta, A
2014-01-01
The present paper investigates the transition from convective to absolute instability induced by viscous dissipation. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first time such a study is reported in the literature. Its framework is provided by the Poiseuille-Darcy-Benard convection of a Newtonian fluid. We found the same behaviour observed in the absence of viscous dissipation whenever the Gebhart number is smaller than Ge < 0.95, which is the stabilising effect of the cross flow. When 0.95 < Ge < 4.31, weak cross flows still stabilise the onset of absolute instability but stronger cross flows destabilise it. For a stronger viscous dissipation, i.e. Ge > 4.31, the cross flow always destabilises this onset. The latter two conditions create a scenario where viscous dissipation is capable of inducing a transition to absolute instability in the absence of wall heating, i.e. with a zero Rayleigh number
Chee, Yi Shen; Ting, Tiew Wei; Hung, Yew Mun
2015-01-01
The effect of thermal asymmetrical boundaries on entropy generation of viscous dissipative flow of forced convection in thermal non-equilibrium porous media is analytically studied. The two-dimensional temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analysed comprehensively to provide insights into the underlying physical significance of the effect on entropy generation. By incorporating the effects of viscous dissipation and thermal non-equilibrium, the first-law and second-law characteristics of porous-medium flow are investigated via various pertinent parameters, i.e. heat flux ratio, effective thermal conductivity ratio, Darcy number, Biot number and averaged fluid velocity. For the case of symmetrical wall heat flux, an optimum condition with a high Nusselt number and a low entropy generation is identified at a Darcy number of 10 −4 , providing an ideal operating condition from the second-law aspect. This type of heat and fluid transport in porous media covers a wide range of engineering applications, involving porous insulation, packed-bed catalytic process in nuclear reactors, filtration transpiration cooling, and modelling of transport phenomena of microchannel heat sinks. - Highlights: • Effects of thermal asymmetries on convection in porous-medium are studied. • Exergetic effectiveness of porous media with thermal asymmetries is investigated. • 2-D temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analyzed. • Significance of viscous dissipation in entropy generation is scrutinized. • Significance of thermal non-equilibrium in entropy generation is studied
Kinetic analysis of thermally relativistic flow with dissipation
Yano, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Kojiro
2011-01-01
Nonequilibrium flow of thermally relativistic matter with dissipation is considered in the framework of the relativistic kinetic theory. As an object of the analysis, the supersonic rarefied flow of thermally relativistic matter around the triangle prism is analyzed using the Anderson-Witting model. Obtained numerical results indicate that the flow field changes in accordance with the flow velocity and temperature of the uniform flow owing to both effects derived from the Lorentz contraction and thermally relativistic effects, even when the Mach number of the uniform flow is fixed. The profiles of the heat flux along the stagnation streamline can be approximated on the basis of the relativistic Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) law except for a strong nonequilibrium regime such as the middle of the shock wave and the vicinity of the wall, whereas the profile of the heat flux behind the triangle prism cannot be approximated on the basis of the relativistic NSF law owing to rarefied effects via the expansion behind the triangle prism. Additionally, the heat flux via the gradient of the static pressure is non-negligible owing to thermally relativistic effects. The profile of the dynamic pressure is different from that approximated on the basis of the NSF law, which is obtained by the Eckart decomposition. Finally, variations of convections of the mass and momentum owing to the effects derived from the Lorentz contraction and thermally relativistic effects are numerically confirmed.
Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation
Javad Alinejad
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.
Hossain, M.A.; Arbad, O.
1988-07-01
Effect of buoyancy force in a laminar uniform forced convection flow past a semi-infinite vertical plate has been analyzed near the leading edge, taking into account the viscous dissipation. The coupled non-linear locally similar equations, which govern the flow, are solved by the method of parametric differentiation. Effects of the buoyancy force and the heat due to viscous dissipation on the flow and the temperature fields as well as on the wall shear-stress and the heat transfer at the surface of the plate are shown graphically for the values of the Prandtl number σ ranging from 10 -1 to 1.0. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
Storage functions for dissipative linear systems are quadratic state functions
Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, Jan C.
1997-01-01
This paper deals with dissipative dynamical systems. Dissipative dynamical systems can be used as models for physical phenomena in which energy exchange with their environment plays a role. In a dissipative dynamical system, the book-keeping of energy is done via the supply rate and a storage
Dynamical properties of dissipative XYZ Heisenberg lattices
Rota, R.; Minganti, F.; Biella, A.; Ciuti, C.
2018-04-01
We study dynamical properties of dissipative XYZ Heisenberg lattices where anisotropic spin-spin coupling competes with local incoherent spin flip processes. In particular, we explore a region of the parameter space where dissipative magnetic phase transitions for the steady state have been recently predicted by mean-field theories and exact numerical methods. We investigate the asymptotic decay rate towards the steady state both in 1D (up to the thermodynamical limit) and in finite-size 2D lattices, showing that critical dynamics does not occur in 1D, but it can emerge in 2D. We also analyze the behavior of individual homodyne quantum trajectories, which reveal the nature of the transition.
Patterns and Interfaces in Dissipative Dynamics
Pismen, L.M
2006-01-01
Spontaneous pattern formation in nonlinear dissipative systems far from equilibrium is a paradigmatic case of emergent behaviour associated with complex systems. It is encountered in a great variety of settings, both in nature and technology, and has numerous applications ranging from nonlinear optics through solid and fluid mechanics, physical chemistry and chemical engineering to biology. Nature creates its variety of forms through spontaneous pattern formation and self-assembly, and this strategy is likely to be imitated by future biomorphic technologies. This book is a first-hand account by one of the leading players in this field, which gives in-depth descriptions of analytical methods elucidating the complex evolution of nonlinear dissipative systems, and brings the reader to the forefront of current research. The introductory chapter on the theory of dynamical systems is written with a view to applications of its powerful methods to spatial and spatio-temporal patterns. It is followed by two chapters t...
Non-dissipative effects in nonequilibrium systems
Maes, Christian
2018-01-01
This book introduces and discusses both the fundamental aspects and the measurability of applications of time-symmetric kinetic quantities, outlining the features that constitute the non-dissipative branch of non-equilibrium physics. These specific features of non-equilibrium dynamics have largely been ignored in standard statistical mechanics texts. This introductory-level book offers novel material that does not take the traditional line of extending standard thermodynamics to the irreversible domain. It shows that although stationary dissipation is essentially equivalent with steady non-equilibrium and ubiquitous in complex phenomena, non-equilibrium is not determined solely by the time-antisymmetric sector of energy-entropy considerations. While this should not be very surprising, this book provides timely, simple reminders of the role of time-symmetric and kinetic aspects in the construction of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.
On the Lagrangian description of dissipative systems
Martínez-Pérez, N. E.; Ramírez, C.
2018-03-01
We consider the Lagrangian formulation with duplicated variables of dissipative mechanical systems. The application of Noether theorem leads to physical observable quantities which are not conserved, like energy and angular momentum, and conserved quantities, like the Hamiltonian, that generate symmetry transformations and do not correspond to observables. We show that there are simple relations among the equations satisfied by these two types of quantities. In the case of the damped harmonic oscillator, from the quantities obtained by the Noether theorem follows the algebra of Feshbach and Tikochinsky. Furthermore, if we consider the whole dynamics, the degrees of freedom separate into a physical and an unphysical sector. We analyze several cases, with linear and nonlinear dissipative forces; the physical consistency of the solutions is ensured, observing that the unphysical sector has always the trivial solution.
Dissipative Boltzmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies
Hiscock, W.A.; Salmonson, J.
1991-01-01
The equations governing a flat Robertson-Walker cosmological model containing a dissipative Boltzmann gas are integrated numerically. The bulk viscous stress is modeled using the Eckart and Israel-Stewart theories of dissipative relativistic fluids; the resulting cosmologies are compared and contrasted. The Eckart models are shown to always differ in a significant quantitative way from the Israel-Stewart models. It thus appears inappropriate to use the pathological (nonhyperbolic) Eckart theory for cosmological applications. For large bulk viscosities, both cosmological models approach asymptotic nonequilibrium states; in the Eckart model the total pressure is negative, while in the Israel-Stewart model the total pressure is asymptotically zero. The Eckart model also expands more rapidly than the Israel-Stewart models. These results suggest that ''bulk-viscous'' inflation may be an artifact of using a pathological fluid theory such as the Eckart theory
Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability.
Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K
2016-08-09
Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.
Astrophysical constraints on Planck scale dissipative phenomena.
Liberati, Stefano; Maccione, Luca
2014-04-18
The emergence of a classical spacetime from any quantum gravity model is still a subtle and only partially understood issue. If indeed spacetime is arising as some sort of large scale condensate of more fundamental objects, then it is natural to expect that matter, being a collective excitation of the spacetime constituents, will present modified kinematics at sufficiently high energies. We consider here the phenomenology of the dissipative effects necessarily arising in such a picture. Adopting dissipative hydrodynamics as a general framework for the description of the energy exchange between collective excitations and the spacetime fundamental degrees of freedom, we discuss how rates of energy loss for elementary particles can be derived from dispersion relations and used to provide strong constraints on the base of current astrophysical observations of high-energy particles.
Carlos Alberto da Silva Oliveira
1999-08-01
, Delta T values had increased variability for the dry soil region in comparison with the wet soil region. There was no statistical difference (test F; 5% between Delta T averages, obtained under field conditions with the heat dissipation sensor installed at 10 cm of depth, and soil water tension averages provided by the tensiometer and transformed to Delta T.
Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.
Tanford, C
1982-01-01
The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic ...
Dissipation in graphene and nanotube resonators
Seoánez, C.; Guinea, F.; Castro Neto, A. H.
2007-09-01
Different damping mechanisms in graphene nanoresonators are studied: charges in the substrate, ohmic losses in the substrate and the graphene sheet, breaking and healing of surface bonds (Velcro effect), two level systems, attachment losses, and thermoelastic losses. We find that, for realistic structures and contrary to semiconductor resonators, dissipation is dominated by ohmic losses in the graphene layer and metallic gate. An extension of this study to carbon nanotube-based resonators is presented.
Dissipation in graphene and nanotube resonators
Seoanez, C.; Guinea, F.; Neto, A. H. Castro
2007-01-01
Different damping mechanisms in graphene nanoresonators are studied: charges in the substrate, ohmic losses in the substrate and the graphene sheet, breaking and healing of surface bonds (Velcro effect), two level systems, attachment losses, and thermoelastic losses. We find that, for realistic structures and contrary to semiconductor resonators, dissipation is dominated by ohmic losses in the graphene layer and metallic gate. An extension of this study to carbon nanotube-based resonators is ...
''Reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics and minimum dissipation rates
Montgomery, D.
1992-01-01
It is demonstrated that all solutions of the equations of ''reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics approach a uniform-current, zero-flow state for long times, given a constant wall electric field, uniform scalar viscosity and resistivity, and uniform mass density. This state is the state of minimum energy dissipation rate for these boundary conditions. No steady-state turbulence is possible. The result contrasts sharply with results for full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics before the reduction occurs
On local Hamiltonians and dissipative systems
Castagnino, M. [CONICET-Institutos de Fisica Rosario y de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio Casilla de Correos 67, Sucursal 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gadella, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura UNR, Rosario (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias c. Real de Burgos, s.n., 47011 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: manuelgadella@yahoo.com.ar; Lara, L.P. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura UNR, Rosario (Argentina)
2006-11-15
We study a type of one-dimensional dynamical systems on the corresponding two-dimensional phase space. By using arguments related to the existence of integrating factors for Pfaff equations, we show that some one-dimensional non-Hamiltonian systems like dissipative systems, admit a Hamiltonian description by sectors on the phase plane. This picture is not uniquely defined and is coordinate dependent. A simple example is exhaustively discussed. The method, is not always applicable to systems with higher dimensions.
Dissipation and decoherence in Brownian motion
Bellomo, Bruno [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche dell' Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Barnett, Stephen M [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Jeffers, John [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)
2007-05-15
We consider the evolution of a Brownian particle described by a measurement-based master equation. We derive the solution to this equation for general initial conditions and apply it to a Gaussian initial state. We analyse the effects of the diffusive terms, present in the master equation, and describe how these modify uncertainties and coherence length. This allows us to model dissipation and decoherence in quantum Brownian motion.
Dissipation element analysis of turbulent scalar fields
Wang Lipo; Peters, Norbert
2008-01-01
Dissipation element analysis is a new approach for studying turbulent scalar fields. Gradient trajectories starting from each material point in a scalar field Φ'(x-vector,t) in ascending directions will inevitably reach a maximal and a minimal point. The ensemble of material points sharing the same pair ending points is named a dissipation element. Dissipation elements can be parameterized by the length scale l and the scalar difference Δφ ', which are defined as the straight line connecting the two extremal points and the scalar difference at these points, respectively. The decomposition of a turbulent field into dissipation elements is space-filling. This allows us to reconstruct certain statistical quantities of fine scale turbulence which cannot be obtained otherwise. The marginal probability density function (PDF) of the length scale distribution based on a Poisson random cutting-reconnection process shows satisfactory agreement with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. In order to obtain the further information that is needed for the modeling of scalar mixing in turbulence, such as the marginal PDF of the length of elements and all conditional moments as well as their scaling exponents, there is a need to model the joint PDF of l and Δφ ' as well. A compensation-defect model is put forward in this work to show the dependence of Δφ ' on l. The agreement between the model prediction and DNS results is satisfactory, which may provide another explanation of the Kolmogorov scaling and help to improve turbulent mixing models. Furthermore, intermittency and cliff structure can also be related to and explained from the joint PDF.
Heat Stress and feeding strategies in meat-type chickens
Syafwan, W.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.
2011-01-01
Heat stress can induce hyperthermia in poultry. A reduction in heat load can be achieved by increasing the possibilities for dissipation, decreasing the level of heat production or by changing the thermal production pattern within a day. Strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress can
Salama, Amgad
2013-02-01
Some sort of controversy is associated with the problem of viscous dissipation in saturated porous media for which we try to present a comparison study between the influences of the different terms contributing to this phenomenon. We consider viscous dissipation by studying the case of semi-infinite flat plate embedded in saturated porous medium and is kept at constant, higher temperature compared with the surrounding fluid. The fluid is induced to move upwards by natural convection during which viscous dissipation is considered. The boundary layer assumptions are considered to simplify the treatment and to highlight the influencing parameters. The behavior of temperature, and velocity fields in the neighborhood of the vertical flat plate were used to highlight the effects of these parameters. Three terms were considered to contribute to viscous dissipation, namely Darcy\\'s term, the Forchheimer term and Al-Hadharami\\'s term. Although there are no unanimous agreements between researchers to include the Forchhemier term in the dissipation function, some researchers argued it might have an indirect effect and hence for this sake and for completion purposes, we include it in this comparison study. Dimensional considerations reveal that Darcy\\'s term is influenced by Gebhart number, the Forchheimer term is controlled by the non-Darcy parameter and Al-Hadharami\\'s term is influenced by Darcy\\'s number. The governing, non-dimensional set of equations together with the imposed boundary conditions is numerically investigated by finite element method. The results for the details of the governing parameters are presented and investigated. It is found that the irreversible process of transforming the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to heat energy via the viscosity of the moving fluid (i.e., viscous dissipation) is very much influenced by the relative magnitude of these dimensionless parameters. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Crises in a dissipative bouncing ball model
Livorati, André L.P., E-mail: livorati@usp.br [Departamento de Física, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Instituto de Física, IFUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, Rua do Matão, Tr.R 187, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Caldas, Iberê L. [Instituto de Física, IFUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, Rua do Matão, Tr.R 187, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dettmann, Carl P. [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Leonel, Edson D. [Departamento de Física, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)
2015-11-06
Highlights: • We studied a dissipative bouncing ball dynamics. • A two-dimensional nonlinear mapping describes the dynamics. • Crises between attractors and its manifolds were characterized. • A new physical crisis between vibrating platform and an attractor was characterized. • The existence of a ‘robust’ chaotic attractor was set. - Abstract: The dynamics of a bouncing ball model under the influence of dissipation is investigated by using a two-dimensional nonlinear mapping. When high dissipation is considered, the dynamics evolves to different attractors. The evolution of the basins of the attracting fixed points is characterized, as we vary the control parameters. Crises between the attractors and their boundaries are observed. We found that the multiple attractors are intertwined, and when the boundary crisis between their stable and unstable manifolds occurs, it creates a successive mechanism of destruction for all attractors originated by the sinks. Also, a physical impact crisis is described, an important mechanism in the reduction of the number of attractors.
Dissipation range turbulent cascades in plasmas
Terry, P. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Forest, C. B.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Sarff, J. S.; Fiksel, G.; Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Prager, S. C.; Ren, Y.
2012-01-01
Dissipation range cascades in plasma turbulence are described and spectra are formulated from the scaled attenuation in wavenumber space of the spectral energy transfer rate. This yields spectra characterized by the product of a power law and exponential fall-off, applicable to all scales. Spectral indices of the power law and exponential fall-off depend on the scaling of the dissipation, the strength of the nonlinearity, and nonlocal effects when dissipation rates of multiple fluctuation fields are different. The theory is used to derive spectra for MHD turbulence with magnetic Prandtl number greater than unity, extending previous work. The theory is also applied to generic plasma turbulence by considering the spectrum from damping with arbitrary wavenumber scaling. The latter is relevant to ion temperature gradient turbulence modeled by gyrokinetics. The spectrum in this case has an exponential component that becomes weaker at small scale, giving a power law asymptotically. Results from the theory are compared to three very different types of turbulence. These include the magnetic plasma turbulence of the Madison Symmetric Torus, the MHD turbulence of liquid metal in the Madison Dynamo Experiment, and gyrokinetic simulation of ion temperature gradient turbulence.
Critical behavior in earthquake energy dissipation
Wanliss, James; Muñoz, Víctor; Pastén, Denisse; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro
2017-09-01
We explore bursty multiscale energy dissipation from earthquakes flanked by latitudes 29° S and 35.5° S, and longitudes 69.501° W and 73.944° W (in the Chilean central zone). Our work compares the predictions of a theory of nonequilibrium phase transitions with nonstandard statistical signatures of earthquake complex scaling behaviors. For temporal scales less than 84 hours, time development of earthquake radiated energy activity follows an algebraic arrangement consistent with estimates from the theory of nonequilibrium phase transitions. There are no characteristic scales for probability distributions of sizes and lifetimes of the activity bursts in the scaling region. The power-law exponents describing the probability distributions suggest that the main energy dissipation takes place due to largest bursts of activity, such as major earthquakes, as opposed to smaller activations which contribute less significantly though they have greater relative occurrence. The results obtained provide statistical evidence that earthquake energy dissipation mechanisms are essentially "scale-free", displaying statistical and dynamical self-similarity. Our results provide some evidence that earthquake radiated energy and directed percolation belong to a similar universality class.
Relativistic electrodynamics of dissipative elastic media
Kranys, M.
1980-01-01
A phenomenological general relativistic electrodynamics is proposed for a dissipative elastic solid which is polarizable and magnetizable and whose governing equations form a hyperbolic system. Non-stationary transport equations are proposed for dissipative fluxes (and constitutive equations of electrodynamics) containing new cross-effect terms, as required for compatibility with an entropy principle expressed by a new balance equation (including a new Gibbs equation). The dynamic equations are deduced from the unified Minkowski-Abraham-Eckart energy-momentum tensor. The theory, formed by a set of 29 (reducible to 23) partial differential equations (in special relativity) governing the material behaviour of the system characterized by generalizing the constitutive equations of quasineutral media, together with Maxwell's equations, may be referred to as the electrodynamics of dissipative elastic media (or fluid). The proposed transport laws for polarization and magnetization generalize the well-known Debye law for relaxation and show the influence of shear and bulk viscosity on polarization and magentization. Besides the form of the entropy function, the free energy function in the non-stationary regime is also formulated. (auth)
Correlated Photon Dynamics in Dissipative Rydberg Media
Zeuthen, Emil; Gullans, Michael J.; Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.
2017-07-01
Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of a large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media. Using this approach, we analyze the saturation behavior of the transmission through one-dimensional Rydberg-EIT media in the regime of nonperturbative dissipative interactions relevant to current experiments. Our model is able to capture the many-body dynamics of bright, coherent pulses through these strongly interacting media. We compare our model with available experimental data in this regime and find good agreement. We also analyze a scheme for generating regular trains of single photons from continuous-wave input and derive its scaling behavior in the presence of imperfect single-photon EIT.
Low Energy Dissipation Nano Device Research
Yu, Jenny
2015-03-01
The development of research on energy dissipation has been rapid in energy efficient area. Nano-material power FET is operated as an RF power amplifier, the transport is ballistic, noise is limited and power dissipation is minimized. The goal is Green-save energy by developing the Graphene and carbon nantube microwave and high performance devices. Higher performing RF amplifiers can have multiple impacts on broadly field, for example communication equipment, (such as mobile phone and RADAR); higher power density and lower power dissipation will improve spectral efficiency which translates into higher system level bandwidth and capacity for communications equipment. Thus, fundamental studies of power handling capabilities of new RF (nano)technologies can have broad, sweeping impact. Because it is critical to maximizing the power handling ability of grephene and carbon nanotube FET, the initial task focuses on measuring and understanding the mechanism of electrical breakdown. We aim specifically to determine how the breakdown voltage in graphene and nanotubes is related to the source-drain spacing, electrode material and thickness, and substrate, and thus develop reliable statistics on the breakdown mechanism and probability.
Dissipative quantum dynamics and nonlinear sigma-model
Tarasov, V.E.
1992-01-01
Sedov variational principle which is the generalization of the least action principle for the dissipative and irreversible processes and the classical dissipative mechanics in the phase space is considered. Quantum dynamics for the dissipative and irreversible processes is constructed. As an example of the dissipative quantum theory the nonlinear two-dimensional sigma-model is considered. The conformal anomaly of the energy momentum tensor trace for closed bosonic string on the affine-metric manifold is investigated. The two-loop metric beta-function for nonlinear dissipative sigma-model was calculated. The results are compared with the ultraviolet two-loop conterterms for affine-metric sigma model. 71 refs
Tidal dissipation in a homogeneous spherical body. II. Three examples: Mercury, Io, and Kepler-10 b
Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael, E-mail: vvm@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: michael.efroimsky@usno.navy.mil [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)
2014-11-01
In Efroimsky and Makarov (Paper I), we derived from the first principles a formula for the tidal heating rate in a homogeneous sphere, compared it with the previously used formulae, and noted the differences. Now we present case studies: Mercury, Kepler-10 b, and a triaxial Io. A sharp frequency dependence of k {sub 2}/Q near spin-orbit resonances yields a sharp dependence of k {sub 2}/Q (and, therefore, of tidal heating) upon the spin rate. Thereby physical libration plays a major role in tidal heating of synchronously rotating planets. The magnitude of libration in the spin rate being defined by the planet's triaxiality, the latter becomes a factor determining the dissipation rate. Other parameters equal, a strongly triaxial synchronized body generates more heat than a similar body of a more symmetrical shape. After an initially triaxial object melts and loses its triaxiality, dissipation becomes less intensive; the body can solidify, with the tidal bulge becoming a new figure with triaxiality lower than the original. We derive approximate expressions for the dissipation rate in a Maxwell planet with the Maxwell time longer than the inverse tidal frequency. The expressions derived pertain to the 1:1 and 3:2 resonances and a nonresonant case; so they are applicable to most close-in super-Earths detected. In these planets, the heating outside synchronism is weakly dependent on the eccentricity and obliquity, provided both these parameters's values are moderate. According to our calculation, Kepler-10 b could hardly survive the intensive tidal heating without being synchronized, circularized, and reshaped through a complete or partial melt-down.
Thermal-dissipation sap flow sensors may not yield consistent sap-flux estimates over multiple years
Georgianne W. Moore; Barbara J. Bond; Julia A. Jones; Frederick C. Meinzer
2010-01-01
Sap flow techniques, such as thermal dissipation, involve an empirically derived relationship between sap flux and the temperature differential between a heated thermocouple and a nearby reference thermocouple inserted into the sapwood. This relationship has been widely tested but mostly with newly installed sensors. Increasingly, sensors are used for extended periods...
Spatial Inhomogeneity of Kinetic and Magnetic Dissipations in Thermal Convection
Hotta, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba university, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)
2017-08-20
We investigate the inhomogeneity of kinetic and magnetic dissipations in thermal convection using high-resolution calculations. In statistically steady turbulence, the injected and dissipated energies are balanced. This means that a large amount of energy is continuously converted into internal energy via dissipation. As in thermal convection, downflows are colder than upflows and the inhomogeneity of the dissipation potentially changes the convection structure. Our investigation of the inhomogeneity of the dissipation shows the following. (1) More dissipation is seen around the bottom of the calculation domain, and this tendency is promoted with the magnetic field. (2) The dissipation in the downflow is much larger than that in the upflow. The dissipation in the downflow is more than 80% of the total at maximum. This tendency is also promoted with the magnetic field. (3) Although 2D probability density functions of the kinetic and magnetic dissipations versus the vertical velocity are similar, the kinetic and magnetic dissipations are not well correlated. Our result suggests that the spatial inhomogeneity of the dissipation is significant and should be considered when modeling a small-scale strong magnetic field generated with an efficient small-scale dynamo for low-resolution calculations.
Energy Dissipation in the Upper Atmospheres of TRAPPIST-1 Planets
Cohen, Ofer; Glocer, Alex; Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Bell, Jared M.
2018-03-01
We present a method to quantify the upper limit of the energy transmitted from the intense stellar wind to the upper atmospheres of three of the TRAPPIST-1 planets (e, f, and g). We use a formalism that treats the system as two electromagnetic regions, where the efficiency of the energy transmission between one region (the stellar wind at the planetary orbits) to the other (the planetary ionospheres) depends on the relation between the conductances and impedances of the two regions. Since the energy flux of the stellar wind is very high at these planetary orbits, we find that for the case of high transmission efficiency (when the conductances and impedances are close in magnitude), the energy dissipation in the upper planetary atmospheres is also very large. On average, the Ohmic energy can reach 0.5–1 W m‑2, about 1% of the stellar irradiance and 5–15 times the EUV irradiance. Here, using constant values for the ionospheric conductance, we demonstrate that the stellar wind energy could potentially drive large atmospheric heating in terrestrial planets, as well as in hot Jupiters. More detailed calculations are needed to assess the ionospheric conductance and to determine more accurately the amount of heating the stellar wind can drive in close-orbit planets.
Mesoscopic photon heat transistor
Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2008-01-01
We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir-Wingreen-Landauer-typ......We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir......-Wingreen-Landauer-type of conductance formula, which gives the photonic heat current through an arbitrary circuit element coupled to two dissipative reservoirs at finite temperatures. As an illustration we present an exact solution for the case when the intermediate circuit can be described as an electromagnetic resonator. We discuss...
Inferring energy dissipation from violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem
Wang, Shou-Wen
2018-05-01
The Harada-Sasa equality elegantly connects the energy dissipation rate of a moving object with its measurable violation of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (FDT). Although proven for Langevin processes, its validity remains unclear for discrete Markov systems whose forward and backward transition rates respond asymmetrically to external perturbation. A typical example is a motor protein called kinesin. Here we show generally that the FDT violation persists surprisingly in the high-frequency limit due to the asymmetry, resulting in a divergent FDT violation integral and thus a complete breakdown of the Harada-Sasa equality. A renormalized FDT violation integral still well predicts the dissipation rate when each discrete transition produces a small entropy in the environment. Our study also suggests a way to infer this perturbation asymmetry based on the measurable high-frequency-limit FDT violation.
Dynamics of dissipative systems and computational physics
Adam, Gh.; Scutaru, H.; Ixaru, L.; Adam, S.; Rizea, M.; Stefanescu, E.; Mihalache, D.; Mazilu, D.; Crasovan, L.
2002-01-01
During the first year of research activity in the frame of this project there have been investigated two main topics: I. Dynamics of systems of fermions in complex dissipative media; II. Solitons with topologic charge in dissipative systems. An essential problem of the quantum information systems is the controllability and observability of the quantum states, generally described by Lindblad's master equation with phenomenological coefficients. In its usual form, this equation describes a decay of the mean-values, but not necessarily the expected decaying transitions. The basic and very difficult problem of a dissipative quantum theory is to project the evolution of the total system (the system of interest + the environment) on the space of the system of interest. In this case, one obtains a quantum master equation where the system evolution is described by two terms: 1) a Hamiltonian term for the processes with energy conservation, and 2) a non-Hamiltonian term with coefficients depending on the dissipative coupling. That means that a master equation is based on some approximations enabling the replacement of the operators of the dissipative environment with average value coefficients. It is often assumed that the evolution operators of the dissipative system define a semigroup, not a group as in the case of an isolated system. In this framework, Lindblad obtained a quantum master equation in agreement with all the quantum-mechanical principles. However, the Lindblad master equation was unable to secure a correct description of the decaying states. To do that, one has to take into account the transition operators between the system eigenstates with appropriate coefficients. Within this investigation, we have obtained an equation obeying to this requirement, giving the ρ(t) time derivative in terms of creation-annihilation operators of the single-particle states |i>, and λ ij , representing the dissipative coefficients, the microscopic expressions of which are
Cancer is an adaptation that selects in animals against energy dissipation.
Muller, Anthonie W J
2017-07-01
As cancer usually follows reproduction, it is generally assumed that cancer does not select. Graham has however argued that juvenile cancer, which precedes reproduction, could during evolution have implemented a "cancer selection" that resulted in novel traits that suppress this juvenile cancer; an example is protection against UV sunlight-induced cancer, required for the emergence of terrestrial animals from the sea. We modify the cancer selection mechanism to the posited "cancer adaptation" mechanism, in which juvenile mortality is enhanced through the diminished care received by juveniles from their (grand) parents when these suffer from cancer in old age. Moreover, it is posited that the cancer adaptation selects against germline "dissipative genes", genes that result in enhanced free energy dissipation. Cancer's progression is interpreted as a cascade at increasing scale of repeated amplification of energy dissipation, a cascade involving heat shock, the Warburg effect, the cytokine IL-6, tumours, and hypermetabolism. Disturbance of any physiological process must enhance energy dissipation if the animal remains functioning normally, what explains multicausality, why "everything gives you cancer". The hypothesis thus comprises two newly invoked partial processes-diminished (grand) parental care and dissipation amplification-and results in a "selection against enhanced energy dissipation" which gives during evolution the benefit of energy conservation. Due to this benefit, cancer would essentially be an adaptation, and not a genetic disease, as assumed in the "somatic mutation theory". Cancer by somatic mutations is only a side process. The cancer adaptation hypothesis is substantiated by (1) cancer's extancy, (2) the failure of the somatic mutation theory, (3) cancer's initiation by a high temperature, (4) the interpretation of cancer's progression as a thermal process, and (5) the interpretation of tumours as organs that implement thermogenesis. The hypothesis
Application of multiwall carbon nanotubes for thermal dissipation in a micro-processor
Bui Hung Thang; Phan Ngoc Hong; Phan Hong Khoi; Phan Ngoc Minh [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: minhpn@ims.vast.ac.vn
2009-09-01
One of the most valuable properties of the carbon nanotubes materials is its high thermal conductivity with 2000 W/m.K (compared to thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m.K). It suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation media to improve the performance of computer processors and other high power electronic devices. In this research, the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) made by thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at our laboratory was employed as the heat dissipation media in a microprocessor a Personal Computer with configuration: Intel Pentium IV 3.066 GHz, 512Mb of RAM and Windows XP Service Pack 2 Operating System. We directly measured the temperature of the microprocessor during the operation of the computer in two modes: 100% usage CPU mode and over-clocking mode. The measured results showed that when using our thermal dissipation media (a mixture of the mentioned commercial thermal compound and 2 wt.%. MWCNTs), the temperature of the microprocessor decreased 5 deg. C, and the time for increasing the temperature of the microprocessor was three times longer than that when using commercial thermal compound. In over-clocking mode, the processor speed reached 3.8 GHz with 165 MHz of system bus clock speed; it was 1.24 times higher than that in non over-clocking mode. The results confirmed a promising way of using MWCNTs as the thermal dissipation media for microprocessor and high power electronic devices.
Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Sasa, Shin-Ichi; Sagawa, Takahiro
2014-06-03
F1-ATPase (or F1), the highly efficient and reversible biochemical engine, has motivated physicists as well as biologists to imagine the design principles governing machines in the fluctuating world. Recent experiments have clarified yet another interesting property of F1; the dissipative heat inside the motor is very small, irrespective of the velocity of rotation and energy transport. Conceptual interest is devoted to the fact that the amount of internal dissipation is not simply determined by the sequence of equilibrium pictures, but also relies on the rotational-angular dependence of nucleotide affinity, which is a truly nonequilibrium aspect. We propose that the totally asymmetric allosteric model (TASAM), where adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding to F1 is assumed to have low dependence on the angle of the rotating shaft, produces results that are most consistent with the experiments. Theoretical analysis proves the crucial role of two time scales in the model, which explains the universal mechanism to produce the internal dissipation-free feature. The model reproduces the characteristic torque dependence of the rotational velocity of F1 and predicts that the internal dissipation upon the ATP synthesis direction rotation becomes large at the low nucleotide condition. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Application of multiwall carbon nanotubes for thermal dissipation in a micro-processor
Thang, Bui Hung; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc
2009-09-01
One of the most valuable properties of the carbon nanotubes materials is its high thermal conductivity with 2000 W/m.K (compared to thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m.K). It suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation media to improve the performance of computer processors and other high power electronic devices. In this research, the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) made by thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at our laboratory was employed as the heat dissipation media in a microprocessor a Personal Computer with configuration: Intel Pentium IV 3.066 GHz, 512Mb of RAM and Windows XP Service Pack 2 Operating System. We directly measured the temperature of the microprocessor during the operation of the computer in two modes: 100% usage CPU mode and over-clocking mode. The measured results showed that when using our thermal dissipation media (a mixture of the mentioned commercial thermal compound and 2 wt.%. MWCNTs), the temperature of the microprocessor decreased 5°C, and the time for increasing the temperature of the microprocessor was three times longer than that when using commercial thermal compound. In over-clocking mode, the processor speed reached 3.8 GHz with 165 MHz of system bus clock speed; it was 1.24 times higher than that in non over-clocking mode. The results confirmed a promising way of using MWCNTs as the thermal dissipation media for microprocessor and high power electronic devices.
Application of multiwall carbon nanotubes for thermal dissipation in a micro-processor
Bui Hung Thang; Phan Ngoc Hong; Phan Hong Khoi; Phan Ngoc Minh
2009-01-01
One of the most valuable properties of the carbon nanotubes materials is its high thermal conductivity with 2000 W/m.K (compared to thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m.K). It suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation media to improve the performance of computer processors and other high power electronic devices. In this research, the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) made by thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at our laboratory was employed as the heat dissipation media in a microprocessor a Personal Computer with configuration: Intel Pentium IV 3.066 GHz, 512Mb of RAM and Windows XP Service Pack 2 Operating System. We directly measured the temperature of the microprocessor during the operation of the computer in two modes: 100% usage CPU mode and over-clocking mode. The measured results showed that when using our thermal dissipation media (a mixture of the mentioned commercial thermal compound and 2 wt.%. MWCNTs), the temperature of the microprocessor decreased 5 deg. C, and the time for increasing the temperature of the microprocessor was three times longer than that when using commercial thermal compound. In over-clocking mode, the processor speed reached 3.8 GHz with 165 MHz of system bus clock speed; it was 1.24 times higher than that in non over-clocking mode. The results confirmed a promising way of using MWCNTs as the thermal dissipation media for microprocessor and high power electronic devices.
Study on the Preparation of a High-Efficiency Carbon Fiber Dissipating Coating
Jing Li
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The working temperature of electronic components directly determines their service life and stability. In order to ensure normal operation of electronic components, cooling the coating is one of the best ways to solve the problem. Based on an acrylic amino-resin system, a dissipating coating was prepared with carbon fiber (CF as the main thermal conductive filler. The influence of the CF content on the thermal conductivity was determined by the single factor method. The surface structure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show: With the increase of the CF mass fraction, both the heat dispersion and heat conduction coefficient of the coating tend to increase at first and then decrease, and the heat dissipation effect is optimum when the CF mass fraction is 12.3 wt %. At this point, the coating shows an excellent comprehensive performance, such as 1st level adhesion, H grade hardness, and thermal conductivity of 1.61 W/m·K. Furthermore, this paper explored the radiating mechanism of coating in which CF produces a coating which forms a heat “channel” for rapid heat conduction. When the optimal value is exceeded, the cooling effect is reduced because of the accumulation and the anisotropy of CF.
Viscose liquid heat treatment using plate scraper heat exchanger
K. A. Rashkin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The current work analyzes the use of different types of heat exchangers, depending on the technology of production. It is taken the detail analysis of the ways of applicability of various types of heat exchangers, depending on the viscosity of the processed product. It is posed the problem of the analytical determination of the required area of heat exchange with the use of differential equations of heat transfer in a moving liquid media, written in cylindrical coordinates, for symmetrical temperature distribution, without taking in account the energy dissipation.
Dissipative motion perturbation theory and exact solutions
Lodder, J.J.
1976-06-01
Dissipative motion of classical and quantum systems is described. In particular, attention is paid to systems coupled to the radiation field. A dissipative equation of motion for a particle in an arbitrary potential coupled to the radiation field is derived by means of perturbation theory. The usual divrgencies associated with the radiation field are eliminated by the application of a theory of generalized functions. This theory is developed as a subject in its own right and is presented independently. The introduction of classical zero-point energy makes the classical equa tion of motion for the phase density formally the same as its quantum counterpart. In particular, it is shown that the classical zero-point energy prevents the collapse of a classical H-atom and gives rise to a classical ground state. For systems with a quadratic Hamiltoian, the equation of motion can be solved exactly, even in the continuum limit for the radiation field, by means of the new generalized functions. Classically, the Fokker-Planck equation is found without any approximations, and quantum mechanically, the only approximation is the neglect of the change in the ground state caused by the interaction. The derivation is valid even for strong damping and arbitrarily short times. There is no transient time. For harmonic oscillators complete equivalence is shown to exist between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics with zero-point energy. A discussion of the derivation of the Pauli equation is given and perturbation theory is compared with the exact derivation. The exactly solvable models are used to calculate the Langevin force of the radiation field. The result is that the classical Langevin force is exactly delta-correlated, while the quantum Langevin force is not delta-correlated at all. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is shown to be an exact consequence of the solution to the equations of motion
Thermoelectricity from wasted heat of integrated circuits
Fahad, Hossain M.
2012-05-22
We demonstrate that waste heat from integrated circuits especially computer microprocessors can be recycled as valuable electricity to power up a portion of the circuitry or other important accessories such as on-chip cooling modules, etc. This gives a positive spin to a negative effect of ever increasing heat dissipation associated with increased power consumption aligned with shrinking down trend of transistor dimension. This concept can also be used as an important vehicle for self-powered systemson- chip. We provide theoretical analysis supported by simulation data followed by experimental verification of on-chip thermoelectricity generation from dissipated (otherwise wasted) heat of a microprocessor.
Passive heat removal from containment
Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.
1990-01-01
This patent describes a heat removal system for removing heat from a containment of a nuclear reactor. It comprises: a sealed suppression chamber in the containment; means for venting steam from the nuclear reactor into the suppression chamber upon occurrence of an event requiring dissipation of heat from the nuclear reactor. The suppression chamber containing a quantity of water; the suppression chamber having a gas-containing space above the water; a heat exchanger disposed within the gas-containing space of the suppression chamber; the heat exchanger including an enclosed structure for holding a heat-exchange fluid; means for metering a supply of heat-exchange fluid to the heat exchanger to maintain a predetermined level thereof in the enclosed structure. The heat-exchange fluid boiling in the heat exchanger in consequence of heat transfer thereto from steam present in the suppression chamber; means for separating a heat-exchange fluid vapor in the heat exchanger from the heat-exchange fluid; and means for discharging the vapor immediately following its separation from heat-exchange fluid directly from the heat exchanger to a location exterior of the containment, whereby heat is discharged from the suppression chamber, and the containment is maintained at a temperature and pressure below its design value
Powers, Donald R; Langland, Kathleen M; Wethington, Susan M; Powers, Sean D; Graham, Catherine H; Tobalske, Bret W
2017-12-01
At high temperature (greater than 40°C) endotherms experience reduced passive heat dissipation (radiation, conduction and convection) and increased reliance on evaporative heat loss. High temperatures challenge flying birds due to heat produced by wing muscles. Hummingbirds depend on flight for foraging, yet inhabit hot regions. We used infrared thermography to explore how lower passive heat dissipation during flight impacts body-heat management in broad-billed ( Cynanthus latirostris , 3.0 g), black-chinned ( Archilochus alexandri , 3.0 g), Rivoli's ( Eugenes fulgens , 7.5 g) and blue-throated ( Lampornis clemenciae , 8.0 g) hummingbirds in southeastern Arizona and calliope hummingbirds ( Selasphorus calliope , 2.6 g) in Montana. Thermal gradients driving passive heat dissipation through eye, shoulder and feet dissipation areas are eliminated between 36 and 40°C. Thermal gradients persisted at higher temperatures in smaller species, possibly allowing them to inhabit warmer sites. All species experienced extended daytime periods lacking thermal gradients. Broad-billed hummingbirds lacking thermal gradients regulated the mean total-body surface temperature at approximately 38°C, suggesting behavioural thermoregulation. Blue-throated hummingbirds were inactive when lacking passive heat dissipation and hence might have the lowest temperature tolerance of the four species. Use of thermal refugia permitted hummingbirds to tolerate higher temperatures, but climate change could eliminate refugia, forcing distributional shifts in hummingbird populations.
Alfven wave absorption in dissipative plasma
Gavrikov, M B; Taiurskii, A A
2017-01-01
We consider nonlinear absorption of Alfven waves due to dissipative effects in plasma and relaxation of temperatures of electrons and ions. This study is based on an exact solution of the equations of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics (EMHD) of plasma. It is shown that in order to study the decay of Alfven waves, it suffices to examine the behavior of their amplitudes whose evolution is described by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) obtained in this paper. On finite time intervals, the system of equations on the amplitudes is studied numerically, while asymptotic integration (the Hartman-Grobman theorem) is used to examine its large-time behavior. (paper)
Tunneling with dissipation in open quantum systems
Adamyan, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Scheid, W.
1997-01-01
Based on the general form of the master equation for open quantum systems the tunneling is considered. Using the path integral technique a simple closed form expression for the tunneling rate through a parabolic barrier is obtained. The tunneling in the open quantum systems strongly depends on the coupling with environment. We found the cases when the dissipation prohibits tunneling through the barrier but decreases the crossing of the barrier for the energies above the barrier. As a particular application, the case of decay from the metastable state is considered
Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter
Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.
2005-01-01
The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis
Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter
Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.
2005-01-01
The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis.
Dissipative Structures At Laser-Solid Interactions
Nanai, Laszlo
1989-05-01
The questions which are discussed in this lecture refer to one of sections of laser-solid interactions, namely: to formation of different dissipative structures on the surface of metals and semiconductors when they are irradiated by intensive laser light in chemically active media (f.e.air). Some particular examples of the development at different spatial and time instabilities, periodic and stochastic structures, auto-wave processes are present-ed using testing materials vanadium metal and semiconducting V205 single crystals and light sources: cw and pulsed CO2 and YAG lasers.
Dissipative charged fluid in a magnetic field
Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali, E-mail: davody.phy@gmail.com
2016-05-10
We study the collective excitations in a dissipative charged fluid at zero chemical potential when an external magnetic field is present. While in the absence of magnetic field, four collective excitations appear in the fluid, we find five hydrodynamic modes here. This implies that the magnetic field splits the degeneracy between the transverse shear modes. Using linear response theory, we then compute the retarded response functions. In particular, it turns out that the correlation between charge and the energy fluctuations will no longer vanish, even at zero chemical potential. By use of the response functions, we also derive the relevant Kubo formulas for the transport coefficients.
Damping by heat conduction in the Timoshenko system: Fourier and Cattaneo are the same
Said-Houari, Belkacem; Kasimov, Aslan R.
2013-01-01
We consider the Cauchy problem for the one-dimensional Timoshenko system coupled with heat conduction, wherein the latter is described by either the Cattaneo law or the Fourier law. We prove that heat dissipation alone is sufficient to stabilize
Non-linear phonon Peltier effect in dissipative quantum dot systems.
De, Bitan; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran
2018-03-26
Solid state thermoelectric cooling is based on the electronic Peltier effect, which cools via an electronic heat current in the absence of an applied temperature gradient. In this work, we demonstrate that equivalently, a phonon Peltier effect may arise in the non-linear thermoelectric transport regime of a dissipative quantum dot thermoelectric setup described via Anderson-Holstein model. This effect leads to an electron induced phonon heat current in the absence of a thermal gradient. Utilizing the modification of quasi-equilibrium phonon distribution via charge induced phonon accumulation, we show that in a special case the polarity of the phonon heat current can be reversed so that setup can dump heat into the hotter reservoirs. In further exploring possibilities that can arise from this effect, we propose a novel charge-induced phonon switching mechanism that may be incited via electrostatic gating.
Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.
1993-03-01
Radioactive spent fuel assemblies are a source of hazardous waste that will have to be dealt with in the near future. It is anticipated that the spent fuel assemblies will be transported to disposal sites in spent fuel transportation casks. In order to design a reliable and safe transportation cask, the maximum cladding temperature of the spent fuel rod arrays must be calculated. A comparison between numerical calculations using commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degree C and 23 degree C for the low heat dissipation and high heat dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower for the low and medium heat dissipation levels, but higher at the high heat dissipation. The temperature differences are 1 degree C and 6 degree C for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degree C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include experimental uncertainty in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This work demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases
Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling
Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul
2006-10-31
A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.
Semiclassical evolution of dissipative Markovian systems
Ozorio de Almeida, A M; Rios, P de M; Brodier, O
2009-01-01
A semiclassical approximation for an evolving density operator, driven by a 'closed' Hamiltonian operator and 'open' Markovian Lindblad operators, is obtained. The theory is based on the chord function, i.e. the Fourier transform of the Wigner function. It reduces to an exact solution of the Lindblad master equation if the Hamiltonian operator is a quadratic function and the Lindblad operators are linear functions of positions and momenta. Initially, the semiclassical formulae for the case of Hermitian Lindblad operators are reinterpreted in terms of a (real) double phase space, generated by an appropriate classical double Hamiltonian. An extra 'open' term is added to the double Hamiltonian by the non-Hermitian part of the Lindblad operators in the general case of dissipative Markovian evolution. The particular case of generic Hamiltonian operators, but linear dissipative Lindblad operators, is studied in more detail. A Liouville-type equivariance still holds for the corresponding classical evolution in double phase space, but the centre subspace, which supports the Wigner function, is compressed, along with expansion of its conjugate subspace, which supports the chord function. Decoherence narrows the relevant region of double phase space to the neighbourhood of a caustic for both the Wigner function and the chord function. This difficulty is avoided by a propagator in a mixed representation, so that a further 'small-chord' approximation leads to a simple generalization of the quadratic theory for evolving Wigner functions
Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory.
Zhang, Yu; Yam, Chi Yung; Chen, GuanHua
2013-04-28
A dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory is developed to treat the transient current through molecular or nanoscopic devices in presence of electron-phonon interaction. The dissipation via phonon is taken into account by introducing a self-energy for the electron-phonon coupling in addition to the self-energy caused by the electrodes. Based on this, a numerical method is proposed. For practical implementation, the lowest order expansion is employed for the weak electron-phonon coupling case and the wide-band limit approximation is adopted for device and electrodes coupling. The corresponding hierarchical equation of motion is derived, which leads to an efficient and accurate time-dependent treatment of inelastic effect on transport for the weak electron-phonon interaction. The resulting method is applied to a one-level model system and a gold wire described by tight-binding model to demonstrate its validity and the importance of electron-phonon interaction for the quantum transport. As it is based on the effective single-electron model, the method can be readily extended to time-dependent density functional theory.
Hydrodynamic relaxations in dissipative particle dynamics
Hansen, J. S.; Greenfield, Michael L.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2018-01-01
This paper studies the dynamics of relaxation phenomena in the standard dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model [R. D. Groot and P. B. Warren, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)]. Using fluctuating hydrodynamics as the framework of the investigation, we focus on the collective transverse and longitudinal dynamics. It is shown that classical hydrodynamic theory predicts the transverse dynamics at relatively low temperatures very well when compared to simulation data; however, the theory predictions are, on the same length scale, less accurate for higher temperatures. The agreement with hydrodynamics depends on the definition of the viscosity, and here we find that the transverse dynamics are independent of the dissipative and random shear force contributions to the stress. For high temperatures, the spectrum for the longitudinal dynamics is dominated by the Brillouin peak for large length scales and the relaxation is therefore governed by sound wave propagation and is athermal. This contrasts the results at lower temperatures and small length scale, where the thermal process is clearly present in the spectra. The DPD model, at least qualitatively, re-captures the underlying hydrodynamical mechanisms, and quantitative agreement is excellent at intermediate temperatures for the transverse dynamics.
Engineering dissipation with phononic spectral hole burning
Behunin, R. O.; Kharel, P.; Renninger, W. H.; Rakich, P. T.
2017-03-01
Optomechanics, nano-electromechanics, and integrated photonics have brought about a renaissance in phononic device physics and technology. Central to this advance are devices and materials supporting ultra-long-lived photonic and phononic excitations that enable novel regimes of classical and quantum dynamics based on tailorable photon-phonon coupling. Silica-based devices have been at the forefront of such innovations for their ability to support optical excitations persisting for nearly 1 billion cycles, and for their low optical nonlinearity. While acoustic phonon modes can persist for a similar number of cycles in crystalline solids at cryogenic temperatures, it has not been possible to achieve such performance in silica, as silica becomes acoustically opaque at low temperatures. We demonstrate that these intrinsic forms of phonon dissipation are greatly reduced (by >90%) by nonlinear saturation using continuous drive fields of disparate frequencies. The result is a form of steady-state phononic spectral hole burning that produces a wideband transparency window with optically generated phonon fields of modest (nW) powers. We developed a simple model that explains both dissipative and dispersive changes produced by phononic saturation. Our studies, conducted in a microscale device, represent an important step towards engineerable phonon dynamics on demand and the use of glasses as low-loss phononic media.
Analysing half-lives for pesticide dissipation in plants
Jacobsen, R.E.; Fantke, Peter; Trapp, Stefan
2015-01-01
Overall dissipation of pesticides from plants is frequently measured, but the contribution of individual loss processes is largely unknown. We use a pesticide fate model for the quantification of dissipation by processes other than degradation. The model was parameterised using field studies....... Scenarios were established for Copenhagen/Denmark and Shanghai/PR China, and calibrated with measured results. The simulated dissipation rates of 42 pesticides were then compared with measured overall dissipation from field studies using tomato and wheat. The difference between measured overall dissipation...... and scenario. Accordingly, degradation is the most relevant dissipation process for these 42 pesticides, followed by growth dilution. Volatilisation was less relevant, which can be explained by the design of plant protection agents. Uptake of active compound from soil into plants leads to a negative...
Dissipation of oxytetracycline in soils under different redox conditions
Yang Jigeng; Ying Guangguo; Zhou Lijun; Liu Shan; Zhao Jianliang
2009-01-01
This study investigated the dissipation kinetics of oxytetracycline in soils under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Laboratory experiments showed that the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil followed first-order reaction kinetics and its dissipation rates decreased with increasing concentration. Oxytetracycline dissipated faster in soil under aerobic conditions than under anoxic conditions. The half-lives for oxytetracycline in soil under aerobic conditions ranged between 29 and 56 days for non-sterile treatments and 99-120 days for sterile treatments, while under anoxic conditions the half-lives of oxytetracycline ranged between 43 and 62 days in the non-sterile soil and between 69 and 104 days in the sterile soil. This suggests microbes can degrade oxytetracycline in agricultural soil. Abiotic factors such as strong sorption onto soil components also played a role in the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil. - Oxytetracycline dissipation in soils is influenced by redox conditions and soil properties.
Dissipation of oxytetracycline in soils under different redox conditions
Jigeng, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Sciences, Changde 415000 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.co [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lijun, Zhou; Shan, Liu; Jianliang, Zhao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)
2009-10-15
This study investigated the dissipation kinetics of oxytetracycline in soils under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Laboratory experiments showed that the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil followed first-order reaction kinetics and its dissipation rates decreased with increasing concentration. Oxytetracycline dissipated faster in soil under aerobic conditions than under anoxic conditions. The half-lives for oxytetracycline in soil under aerobic conditions ranged between 29 and 56 days for non-sterile treatments and 99-120 days for sterile treatments, while under anoxic conditions the half-lives of oxytetracycline ranged between 43 and 62 days in the non-sterile soil and between 69 and 104 days in the sterile soil. This suggests microbes can degrade oxytetracycline in agricultural soil. Abiotic factors such as strong sorption onto soil components also played a role in the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil. - Oxytetracycline dissipation in soils is influenced by redox conditions and soil properties.
ENERGY DISSIPATION AND LANDAU DAMPING IN TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PLASMA TURBULENCE
Li, Tak Chu; Howes, Gregory G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Klein, Kristopher G. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); TenBarge, Jason M. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2016-12-01
Plasma turbulence is ubiquitous in space and astrophysical plasmas, playing an important role in plasma energization, but the physical mechanisms leading to dissipation of the turbulent energy remain to be definitively identified. Kinetic simulations in two dimensions (2D) have been extensively used to study the dissipation process. How the limitation to 2D affects energy dissipation remains unclear. This work provides a model of comparison between two- and three-dimensional (3D) plasma turbulence using gyrokinetic simulations; it also explores the dynamics of distribution functions during the dissipation process. It is found that both 2D and 3D nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of a low-beta plasma generate electron velocity-space structures with the same characteristics as that of the linear Landau damping of Alfvén waves in a 3D linear simulation. The continual occurrence of the velocity-space structures throughout the turbulence simulations suggests that the action of Landau damping may be responsible for the turbulent energy transfer to electrons in both 2D and 3D, and makes possible the subsequent irreversible heating of the plasma through collisional smoothing of the velocity-space fluctuations. Although, in the 2D case where variation along the equilibrium magnetic field is absent, it may be expected that Landau damping is not possible, a common trigonometric factor appears in the 2D resonant denominator, leaving the resonance condition unchanged from the 3D case. The evolution of the 2D and 3D cases is qualitatively similar. However, quantitatively, the nonlinear energy cascade and subsequent dissipation is significantly slower in the 2D case.
If there is dissipation the particle can gain energy
De Carvalho, R Egydio
2015-01-01
In this work, we summarize two different mechanisms to gain energy from the presence of dissipation in a time-dependent non-linear system. The particles can gain energy, in the average, from two different scenarios: i) for very week dissipation with the creation of an attractor with high velocity, and ii) in the opposite limit, for very strong dissipation, the particles can also gain energy from a boundary crisis. From the thermodynamic viewpoint both results are totally acceptable. (paper)
Effective mass approximation for tunneling states with dissipation
Chen Hong; Wu Xiang.
1987-08-01
The dissipative tunneling in an asymmetric double-well potential is studied at low temperature. With effective mass approximation, the dissipation can be replaced by a temperature-dependent effective mass. The effective mass increases with decreasing temperature and becomes infinite at T=0. The partition function of the system is derived, which has the same form as that of a non-dissipative tunneling system. Some possible applications in glasses and heavy fermion system are also discussed. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig
On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity
Knowles, James K.
2010-01-01
Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...
The Fluctuation Theorem and Dissipation Theorem for Poiseuille Flow
Brookes, Sarah J; Reid, James C; Evans, Denis J; Searles, Debra J
2011-01-01
The fluctuation theorem and the dissipation theorem provide relationships to describe nonequilibrium systems arbitrarily far from, or close to equilibrium. They both rely on definition of a central property, the dissipation function. In this manuscript we apply these theorems to examine a boundary thermostatted system undergoing Poiseuille flow. The relationships are verified computationally and show that the dissipation theorem is potentially useful for study of boundary thermostatted systems consisting of complex molecules undergoing flow in the nonlinear regime.
Power dissipated measurement of an ultrasonic generator in a viscous medium by flowmetric method.
Mancier, Valérie; Leclercq, Didier
2008-09-01
A new flowmetric method of the power dissipated by an ultrasound generator in an aqueous medium has been developed in previous works and described in a preceding paper [V. Mancier, D. Leclercq, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 14 (2007) 99-106]. The works presented here are an enlargement of this method to a high viscosity liquid (glycerol) for which the classical calorimetric measurements are rather difficult. As expected, it is shown that the dissipated power increases with the medium viscosity. It was also found that this flowmetric method gives good results for various quantities of liquid and positioning of the sonotrode in the tank. Moreover, the important variation of viscosity due to the heating of the liquid during experiments does not disturb flow measurements.
Dissipative open systems theory as a foundation for the thermodynamics of linear systems.
Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Sandberg, Henrik
2017-03-06
In this paper, we advocate the use of open dynamical systems, i.e. systems sharing input and output variables with their environment, and the dissipativity theory initiated by Jan Willems as models of thermodynamical systems, at the microscopic and macroscopic level alike. We take linear systems as a study case, where we show how to derive a global Lyapunov function to analyse networks of interconnected systems. We define a suitable notion of dynamic non-equilibrium temperature that allows us to derive a discrete Fourier law ruling the exchange of heat between lumped, discrete-space systems, enriched with the Maxwell-Cattaneo correction. We complete these results by a brief recall of the steps that allow complete derivation of the dissipation and fluctuation in macroscopic systems (i.e. at the level of probability distributions) from lossless and deterministic systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Hydromagnetic flow of a Cu-water nanofluid past a moving wedge with viscous dissipation
M. Salem, A.; Galal, Ismail; Rania, Fathy
2014-04-01
A numerical study is performed to investigate the flow and heat transfer at the surface of a permeable wedge immersed in a copper (Cu)-water-based nanofluid in the presence of magnetic field and viscous dissipation using a nanofluid model proposed by Tiwari and Das (Tiwari I K and Das M K 2007 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 50 2002). A similarity solution for the transformed governing equation is obtained, and those equations are solved by employing a numerical shooting technique with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. A comparison with previously published work is carried out and shows that they are in good agreement with each other. The effects of velocity ratio parameter λ, solid volume fraction φ, magnetic field M, viscous dissipation Ec, and suction parameter Fw on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are discussed. The unique and dual solutions for self-similar equations of the flow and heat transfer are analyzed numerically. Moreover, the range of the velocity ratio parameter for which the solution exists increases in the presence of magnetic field and suction parameter.
Dissipation Assisted Quantum Memory with Coupled Spin Systems
Jiang, Liang; Verstraete, Frank; Cirac, Ignacio; Lukin, Mikhail
2009-05-01
Dissipative dynamics often destroys quantum coherences. However, one can use dissipation to suppress decoherence. A well-known example is the so-called quantum Zeno effect, in which one can freeze the evolution using dissipative processes (e.g., frequently projecting the system to its initial state). Similarly, the undesired decoherence of quantum bits can also be suppressed using controlled dissipation. We propose and analyze the use of this generalization of quantum Zeno effect for protecting the quantum information encoded in the coupled spin systems. This new approach may potentially enhance the performance of quantum memories, in systems such as nitrogen-vacancy color-centers in diamond.
Entropy model of dissipative structure on corporate social responsibility
Li, Zuozhi; Jiang, Jie
2017-06-01
Enterprise is prompted to fulfill the social responsibility requirement by the internal and external environment. In this complex system, some studies suggest that firms have an orderly or chaotic entropy exchange behavior. Based on the theory of dissipative structure, this paper constructs the entropy index system of corporate social responsibility(CSR) and explores the dissipative structure of CSR through Brusselator model criterion. Picking up listed companies of the equipment manufacturing, the research shows that CSR has positive incentive to negative entropy and promotes the stability of dissipative structure. In short, the dissipative structure of CSR has a positive impact on the interests of stakeholders and corporate social images.
Heating of the solar chromosphere by ionization pumping
Lindsey, C. A.
1981-01-01
A new theory is proposed to explain the heating of the solar chromosphere, and possibly the corona, by the dissipation of hydrodynamic compression waves. The basis of the dissipative mechanism, here referred to as ionization pumping, is hysteresis caused by irreversible relaxation of the chromospheric medium to ionization equilibrium following pressure perturbations. In the middle chromosphere, where hydrogen is partially ionized, it is shown that ionization pumping will cause strong dissipation of waves whose periods are 200s or less. This could cause heating of the chromosphere sufficient to compensate for the radiative losses. The mechanism retains a high efficiency for waves of arbitrarily small amplitude and, thus, can be more efficient than shock dissipation for small perturbations in pressure. The formation of shocks therefore is not required for the dissipation of waves whose periods are several minutes or less.
An extended dissipative particle dynamics model
Cotter, C J
2003-01-01
The method of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) was introduced by Hoogerbrugge & Koelman to study meso-scale material processes. The theoretical investigation of the DPD method was initiated by Espanol who used a Fokker-Planck formulation of the DPD method and applied the Mori-Zwanzig projection operator calculus to obtain the equations of hydrodynamics for DPD. A current limitation of DPD is that it requires a clear separation of scales between the resolved and unresolved processes. In this note, we suggest a simple extension of DPD that allows for inclusion of unresolved processes with exponentially decaying variance for any value of the decay rate. The main point of the extension is that it is as easy to implement as DPD in a numerical algorithm.
Thermodynamique des moteurs thermiques aux structures dissipatives
Prigogine, Ilya
1999-01-01
Ce livre constitue à la fois une présentation complète de la thermodynamique et une introduction scientifique à l'œuvre de Prigogine. Les auteurs innovent en montrant comment la thermodynamique du non-équilibre est un prolongement naturel de la thermodynamique de l'équilibre. Elle constitue ainsi la science des processus irréversibles - " la flèche du temps " - dont les structures dissipatives sont les témoignages les plus éclatants. Les développements historiques en font, non seulement un texte de référence, mais aussi un livre de culture. Les nombreux exemples et exercices, comme les programmes informatiques et les références aux sites Internet en font un outil de travail irremplaçable.
Quantum Markov Chain Mixing and Dissipative Engineering
Kastoryano, Michael James
2012-01-01
This thesis is the fruit of investigations on the extension of ideas of Markov chain mixing to the quantum setting, and its application to problems of dissipative engineering. A Markov chain describes a statistical process where the probability of future events depends only on the state...... of the system at the present point in time, but not on the history of events. Very many important processes in nature are of this type, therefore a good understanding of their behaviour has turned out to be very fruitful for science. Markov chains always have a non-empty set of limiting distributions...... (stationary states). The aim of Markov chain mixing is to obtain (upper and/or lower) bounds on the number of steps it takes for the Markov chain to reach a stationary state. The natural quantum extensions of these notions are density matrices and quantum channels. We set out to develop a general mathematical...
The Application of Coconut Fiber as Dissipative Silencer
Madlan, M. A.; Ghazali, M. I.; Zaman, I.; Kasron, M. Z.; Ying, T. C.
2017-01-01
Heat ventilation air conditioning system (HVAC) is one of the ducting systems that broadly applied in the building. There are HVAC silencers in the market, however the sound absorptive material commonly used is mineral wool. In this research study, a sound absorptive material made of coconut fiber was tested to identify its performance as a potential replacement of green material for ducting silencer. The experiment was carried out in a testing apparatus that follows the BS EN ISO 11691:2009 standard. Different configurations of sound absorptive material and contents of coconut fiber were investigated in the study. The trend of insertion loss at 1/3 octave frequency was identified where at frequency below 3000Hz, the insertion loss of dissipative silencer is observed high at certain frequency with a very narrow range. At 3000Hz, the insertion loss of 4dB to 6dB is constant until 4000Hz and drops until 5000Hz before it increases again steadily up to 13dB at 10000Hz. A similar trend was observed for different configuration of sound absorptive material. Despite the configuration different, the outcome shows that the insertion loss is increasing with higher content of coconut fiber.
The distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system
Li, Jiayu; Yang, Jian; Gu, Xiaobing
2016-01-01
The knowledge of local radiant absorption is important to the nanostructure optimization, it is beneficial to the applications in energy harvesting, optical heating, photocatalysis, etc. In this paper, FDTD model is constructed for the distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system. The theoretical model extended from Mie theory is used to examine the FDTD model, the parameters and conditions set for FDTD simulation are confirmed based on the comparison. Then, the influence of Ag nanoparticle on the absorptive properties of nearby TiO_2 nanoparticle is investigated by FDTD simulation at the wavelength of 0.25 μm. It is indicated that suitable distance between TiO_2 and Ag particles is beneficial to the spectral radiant absorption of TiO_2 particle. Considering the agglomeration of nanoparticles and the oxidation at the TiO_2–Ag interface, the Ag core coated with Al_2O_3 shell is suggested, and the simulated results indicated that the shell thickness and the Ag core size need to be optimized for enhancing the radiant absorption of TiO_2 particle. - Highlights: • The absorptive power distribution in nanoparticulate system is simulated by FDTD. • FDTD simulation is compared with theoretical model extended from Mie theory. • The parameters and conditions are confirmed based on the comparison. • The influence of Ag nanoparticle on nearby TiO_2 particle's absorption is analyzed.
Foucault Dissipation in a Rolling Cylinder: A Webcam Quantitative Study
Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Camarca, M.; Sapia, P.
2011-01-01
In this paper we present an experimental strategy to measure the micro power dissipation due to Foucault "eddy" currents in a copper cylinder rolling on two parallel conductive rails in the presence of a magnetic field. Foucault power dissipation is obtained from kinematical measurements carried out by using a common PC webcam and video analysis…
Dissipative differential systems and the state space H∞ control problem
Trentelman, H.L.; Willems, J.C.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to apply our very recent results on the synthesis of dissipative linear differential systems to the 'classical' state space H∞ control problem. We first review our general problem set-up, where the problem of rendering a given plant dissipative by general
Balance laws and centro velocity in dissipative systems
van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Mainardi, F.
1990-01-01
Starting with a density that is conserved for a dynamical system when dissipation is ignored, a local conservation law is derived for which the total flux (integrated over the spatial domain) is unique. When dissipation is incorporated, the conservation law becomes a balance law. The contribution
Observation of flow dissipation in 3He-B
Eisenstein, J.P.; Packard, R.E.
1982-01-01
Anomalous dissipation is observed in 3 He-B flowing in a U-tube device. The dissipation is of unknown origin and persists to the lowest measured velocity. The position of this result in the framework of other 3 He-B flow experiments is discussed
Dissipation and leaching of pyroxasulfone and s-metolachlor
Pyroxasulfone dissipation and mobility in the soil was evaluated and compared to S-metolachlor in 2009 and 2010 at two field sites in northern Colorado, on a Nunn fine clay loam, and Olney fine sandy loam soil. Pyroxasulfone dissipation half-life (DT50) values varied from 47 to 134 d, and those of S...
Braun-Le Chatelier principle in dissipative thermodynamics
Pavelka, Michal; Grmela, Miroslav
2016-01-01
Braun-Le Chatelier principle is a fundamental result of equilibrium thermodynamics, showing how stable equilibrium states shift when external conditions are varied. The principle follows from convexity of thermodynamic potential. Analogously, from convexity of dissipation potential it follows how steady non-equilibrium states shift when thermodynamic forces are varied, which is the extension of the principle to dissipative thermodynamics.
Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter
Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Shelton, Jessie, E-mail: jijifan1982@gmail.com, E-mail: katz.andrey@gmail.com, E-mail: jshelton137@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2014-06-01
We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints.
Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space: Damped harmonic oscillator
Chou, Chia-Chun
2016-01-01
Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space are investigated in the framework of the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation provides a phenomenological description for dissipative quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the complex-extended logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we derive the complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation including the dissipative potential. It is shown that dissipative quantum trajectories satisfy a quantum Newtonian equation of motion in complex space with a friction force. Exact dissipative complex quantum trajectories are analyzed for the wave and solitonlike solutions to the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the damped harmonic oscillator. These trajectories converge to the equilibrium position as time evolves. It is indicated that dissipative complex quantum trajectories for the wave and solitonlike solutions are identical to dissipative complex classical trajectories for the damped harmonic oscillator. This study develops a theoretical framework for dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space.
Dissipative nucleus-nucleus collisions: study of memory effects
Agarwal, K.C.; Yadav, H.L.
2002-01-01
Dissipative collisions between two heavy nuclei are described in terms of a macroscopic dynamical model within the framework of a multi-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The reaction 86 Kr(8.18 MeV/u) + 166 Er has been used as a prototype to study and demonstrate the memory effects for dissipation and diffusion processes
Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space: Damped harmonic oscillator
Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: ccchou@mx.nthu.edu.tw
2016-10-15
Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space are investigated in the framework of the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation provides a phenomenological description for dissipative quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the complex-extended logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we derive the complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation including the dissipative potential. It is shown that dissipative quantum trajectories satisfy a quantum Newtonian equation of motion in complex space with a friction force. Exact dissipative complex quantum trajectories are analyzed for the wave and solitonlike solutions to the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the damped harmonic oscillator. These trajectories converge to the equilibrium position as time evolves. It is indicated that dissipative complex quantum trajectories for the wave and solitonlike solutions are identical to dissipative complex classical trajectories for the damped harmonic oscillator. This study develops a theoretical framework for dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space.
Two-dimensional dissipation in third sound resonance
Buck, A.L.; Mochel, J.M.; Illinois Univ., Urbana
1981-01-01
The first determination of non-linear superflow dissipation in a truly two-dimensional helium film is reported. Superfluid velocities were measured using third sound resonance on a closed superfluid film. The predicted power law dissipation function, with exponent of approximately eight, is observed at three temperatures in a film of 0.58 mobile superfluid layers. (orig.)
Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter
Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Shelton, Jessie
2014-01-01
We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints
Influence of viscous dissipation and radiation on MHD Couette flow ...
The overall analysis of the study of these parameters in various degrees show an increase in the velocity profile of the fluid, while radiation parameter decreases the temperature profile; viscous dissipation and Reynolds number increase the temperature profile of the fluid. Key word: Couette flow, viscous dissipation, ...
Effect of magnetic shear on dissipative drift instabilities
Guzdar, P.N.; Chen, L.; Kaw, P.K.; Oberman, C.
1978-03-01
In this letter we report the results of a linear radial eigenmode analysis of dissipative drift waves in a plasma with magnetic shear and spatially varying density gradient. The results of the analysis are shown to be consistent with a recent experiment on the study of dissipative drift instabilities in a toroidal stellarator
Energy dissipation of slot-type flip buckets
Wu, Jian-hua; Li, Shu-fang; Ma, Fei
2018-03-01
The energy dissipation is a key index in the evaluation of energy dissipation elements. In the present work, a flip bucket with a slot, called the slot-type flip bucket, is theoretically and experimentally investigated by the method of estimating the energy dissipation. The theoretical analysis shows that, in order to have the energy dissipation, it is necessary to determine the sequent flow depth h 1 and the flow speed V 1 at the corresponding position through the flow depth h 2 after the hydraulic jump. The relative flow depth h 2 / h 。 is a function of the approach flow Froude number Fr 。, the relative slot width b/B 。, and the relative slot angle θ/β. The expression for estimating the energy dissipation is developed, and the maximum error is not larger than 9.21%.
Dissipation of Alfven waves in compressible inhomogeneous media
Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.
1997-01-01
In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. Using numerical simulations, we study the properties of Alfven waves propagating in a compressible inhomogeneous medium, with an inhomogeneity transverse to the direction of wave propagation. Two dynamical effects, energy pinching and phase mixing, are responsible for the small-scales formation, similarly to the incompressible case. Moreover, compressive perturbations, slow waves and a static entropy wave are generated; the former are subject to steepening and form shock waves, which efficiently dissipate their energy, regardless of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates show that the dissipation times are consistent with those required to dissipate Alfven waves of photospheric origin inside the solar corona
Quantified Energy Dissipation Rates in the Terrestrial Bow Shock. 2; Waves and Dissipation
Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Breneman, A. W.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C.; Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Malaspina, D. M.
2014-01-01
We present the first quantified measure of the energy dissipation rates, due to wave-particle interactions, in the transition region of the Earth's collision-less bow shock using data from the Time History of Events and Macro-Scale Interactions during Sub-Storms spacecraft. Our results show that wave-particle interactions can regulate the global structure and dominate the energy dissipation of collision-less shocks. In every bow shock crossing examined, we observed both low-frequency (less than 10 hertz) and high-frequency (approximately or greater than10 hertz) electromagnetic waves throughout the entire transition region and into the magnetosheath. The low-frequency waves were consistent with magnetosonic-whistler waves. The high-frequency waves were combinations of ion-acoustic waves, electron cyclotron drift instability driven waves, electrostatic solitary waves, and whistler mode waves. The high-frequency waves had the following: (1) peak amplitudes exceeding delta B approximately equal to 10 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 300 millivolts per meter, though more typical values were delta B approximately equal to 0.1-1.0 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 10-50 millivolts per meter (2) Poynting fluxes in excess of 2000 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter) (typical values were approximately 1-10 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter); (3) resistivities greater than 9000 omega meters; and (4) associated energy dissipation rates greater than 10 microWm(sup -3) (micro-waves per cubic meter). The dissipation rates due to wave-particle interactions exceeded rates necessary to explain the increase in entropy across the shock ramps for approximately 90 percent of the wave burst durations. For approximately 22 percent of these times, the wave-particle interactions needed to only be less than or equal to 0.1 percent efficient to balance the nonlinear wave steepening that produced the shock waves. These results show that wave
Heat exchanger with oscillating flow
Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.
In Situ Observation of Intermittent Dissipation at Kinetic Scales in the Earth's Magnetosheath
Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Wan, M.; Haggerty, C. C.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Paterson, W. R.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Moore, T. E.; Ergun, R. E.; Burch, J. L.
2018-03-01
We present a study of signatures of energy dissipation at kinetic scales in plasma turbulence based on observations by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) in the Earth’s magnetosheath. Using several intervals, and taking advantage of the high-resolution instrumentation on board MMS, we compute and discuss several statistical measures of coherent structures and heating associated with electrons, at previously unattainable scales in space and time. We use the multi-spacecraft Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) technique to study the intermittent structure of the magnetic field. Furthermore, we examine a measure of dissipation and its behavior with respect to the PVI as well as the current density. Additionally, we analyze the evolution of the anisotropic electron temperature and non-Maxwellian features of the particle distribution function. From these diagnostics emerges strong statistical evidence that electrons are preferentially heated in subproton-scale regions of strong electric current density, and this heating is preferentially in the parallel direction relative to the local magnetic field. Accordingly, the conversion of magnetic energy into electron kinetic energy occurs more strongly in regions of stronger current density, a finding consistent with several kinetic plasma simulation studies and hinted at by prior studies using lower resolution Cluster observations.
On the viscous dissipation modeling of thermal fluid flow in a porous medium
Salama, Amgad
2011-02-24
The problem of viscous dissipation and thermal dispersion in saturated porous medium is numerically investigated for the case of non-Darcy flow regime. The fluid is induced to flow upward by natural convection as a result of a semi-infinite vertical wall that is immersed in the porous medium and is kept at constant higher temperature. The boundary layer approximations were used to simplify the set of the governing, nonlinear partial differential equations, which were then non-dimensionalized and solved using the finite elements method. The results for the details of the governing parameters are presented and investigated. It is found that the irreversible process of transforming the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to heat energy via the viscosity of the moving fluid (i.e.; viscous dissipation) resulted in insignificant generation of heat for the range of parameters considered in this study. On the other hand, thermal dispersion has shown to disperse heat energy normal to the wall more effectively compared with the normal diffusion mechanism. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Nonlinear dynamics of drift structures in a magnetized dissipative plasma
Aburjania, G. D.; Rogava, D. L.; Kharshiladze, O. A.
2011-01-01
and localized, while the cyclone is less intense and has a larger size. In the course of further evolution, the cyclone persists for a relatively longer time, while the anticyclone breaks into small-scale vortices and dissipation hastens this process. It is found that the relaxation of the vortex by viscous dissipation differs in character from that by the frictional force. The time scale on which the vortex is damped depends strongly on its typical size: larger scale vortices are longer lived structures. It is shown that, as the instability develops, the initial vortex is amplified and the lifetime of the dipole pair components-cyclone and anticyclone-becomes longer. As time elapses, small-scale noise is generated in the system, and the spatial structure of the perturbation potential becomes irregular. The pattern of interaction of solitary vortex structures among themselves and with the medium shows that they can take part in strong drift turbulence and anomalous transport of heat and matter in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma.
Dynamical tides in highly eccentric binaries: chaos, dissipation, and quasi-steady state
Vick, Michelle; Lai, Dong
2018-05-01
Highly eccentric binary systems appear in many astrophysical contexts, ranging from tidal capture in dense star clusters, precursors of stellar disruption by massive black holes, to high-eccentricity migration of giant planets. In a highly eccentric binary, the tidal potential of one body can excite oscillatory modes in the other during a pericentre passage, resulting in energy exchange between the modes and the binary orbit. These modes exhibit one of three behaviours over multiple passages: low-amplitude oscillations, large-amplitude oscillations corresponding to a resonance between the orbital frequency and the mode frequency, and chaotic growth, with the mode energy reaching a level comparable to the orbital binding energy. We study these phenomena with an iterative map that includes mode dissipation, fully exploring how the mode evolution depends on the orbital and mode properties of the system. The dissipation of mode energy drives the system towards a quasi-steady state, with gradual orbital decay punctuated by resonances. We quantify the quasi-steady state and the long-term evolution of the system. A newly captured star around a black hole can experience significant orbital decay and heating due to the chaotic growth of the mode amplitude and dissipation. A giant planet pushed into a high-eccentricity orbit may experience a similar effect and become a hot or warm Jupiter.
Soap film vibration: origin of the dissipation.
Acharige, Sébastien Kosgodagan; Elias, Florence; Derec, Caroline
2014-11-07
We investigate the complex dispersion relationship of a transverse antisymmetric wave on a horizontal soap film. Experimentally, the complex wave number k at a fixed forcing frequency is determined by measuring the vibrating amplitude of the soap film: the wavelength (linked to the real part of k) is determined by the spatial variation of the amplitude; the decay length (linked to the imaginary part of k) is determined by analyzing the resonance curves of the vibrating wave as a function of frequency. Theoretically, we compute the complex dispersion relationship taking into account the physical properties of the bulk liquid and gas phase, and of the gas-liquid interfaces. The comparison between the computation (developed to the leading order under our experimental conditions) and the experimental results confirms that the phase velocity is fixed by the interplay between surface tension, and liquid and air inertia, as reported in previous studies. Moreover, we show that the attenuation of the transverse antisymmetric wave originates from the viscous dissipation in the gas phase surrounding the liquid film. This result is an important step in understanding the propagation of an acoustic wave in liquid foam, using a bottom-up approach.
Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions
Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P.
1990-01-01
Using 14 CO 2 gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO 2 uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to -2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO 2 exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO 2 uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO 2 . This CO 2 -recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO 2 recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations
Energy dissipation of rockfalls by coppice structures
G. Ciabocco
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop elements to improve understanding of the behaviour of a coppice in relation to the phenomenon of falling boulders. The first section proposes an amendment to the equation for calculating the index which describes the probability of impact between a rock and plants in managed coppice forests. A study was carried out, using models to calculate the kinetic energy of a falling boulder along a slope considering the kinetic energy dissipated during the impact with the structure of forest plants managed by coppice. The output of the simulation models were then compared with the real dynamics of falling boulders in field tests using digital video.
It emerged from an analysis of the results of this comparison that a modification to the 1989 Gsteiger equation was required, in order to calculate the "Average Distance between Contacts" (ADC. To this purpose, the concept of "Structure of Interception", proposed in this paper, was developed, valid as a first approach for describing the differences in the spatial distribution of stems between coppice and forest. This study also aims to provide suggestions for forestry management, in order to maintain or increase the protective capacity of a coppice managed with conventional techniques for the area studied, modifying the dendrometric characteristics.
Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions
Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. (Universitaet Kaiserslautern (West Germany))
1990-04-01
Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.
Fabrication of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane for High Heat Flux Evaporation
McGrath, Kristine
2016-01-01
As electronics become more powerful and have higher energy densities, it is becoming more and more necessary to find solutions to dissipate these high heat fluxes. One solution to this problem is nanopore evaporative cooling. Based on current literature, the experimental data is far below what is expected from the theoretical calculations.In this thesis, the experimental results produced heat fluxes much closer to the theoretical values. Experimentally, a maximum heat dissipation of 103 W was...
Zenkour, A. M.; Alnefaie, K. A.; Abu-Hamdeh, N. H.; Aljinaid, A. A.; Aifanti, E. C. [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abouelregal, A. E. [Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)
2015-07-15
In this article, an Euler-Bernoulli beam model based upon nonlocal thermoelasticity theory without energy dissipation is used to study the vibration of a nanobeam subjected to ramp-type heating. Classical continuum theory is inherently size independent, while nonlocal elasticity exhibits size dependence. Among other things, this leads to a new expression for the effective nonlocal bending moment as contrasted to its classical counterpart. The thermal problem is addressed in the context of the Green-Naghdi (GN) theory of heat transport without energy dissipation. The governing partial differential equations are solved in the Laplace transform domain by the state space approach of modern control theory. Inverse of Laplace transforms are computed numerically using Fourier expansion techniques. The effects of nonlocality and ramping time parameters on the lateral vibration, temperature, displacement and bending moment are discussed.
Architected squirt-flow materials for energy dissipation
Cohen, Tal; Kurzeja, Patrick; Bertoldi, Katia
2017-12-01
In the present study we explore material architectures that lead to enhanced dissipation properties by taking advantage of squirt-flow - a local flow mechanism triggered by heterogeneities at the pore level. While squirt-flow is a known dominant source of dissipation and seismic attenuation in fluid saturated geological materials, we study its untapped potential to be incorporated in highly deformable elastic materials with embedded fluid-filled cavities for future engineering applications. An analytical investigation, that isolates the squirt-flow mechanism from other potential dissipation mechanisms and considers an idealized setting, predicts high theoretical levels of dissipation achievable by squirt-flow and establishes a set of guidelines for optimal dissipation design. Particular architectures are then investigated via numerical simulations showing that a careful design of the internal voids can lead to an increase of dissipation levels by an order of magnitude, compared with equivalent homogeneous void distributions. Therefore, we suggest squirt-flow as a promising mechanism to be incorporated in future architected materials to effectively and reversibly dissipate energy.
AGN Heating in Simulated Cool-core Clusters
Li, Yuan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bryan, Greg L., E-mail: yuanlium@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Pupin Physics Laboratories, New York, NY 10027 (United States)
2017-10-01
We analyze heating and cooling processes in an idealized simulation of a cool-core cluster, where momentum-driven AGN feedback balances radiative cooling in a time-averaged sense. We find that, on average, energy dissipation via shock waves is almost an order of magnitude higher than via turbulence. Most of the shock waves in the simulation are very weak shocks with Mach numbers smaller than 1.5, but the stronger shocks, although rare, dissipate energy more effectively. We find that shock dissipation is a steep function of radius, with most of the energy dissipated within 30 kpc, more spatially concentrated than radiative cooling loss. However, adiabatic processes and mixing (of post-shock materials and the surrounding gas) are able to redistribute the heat throughout the core. A considerable fraction of the AGN energy also escapes the core region. The cluster goes through cycles of AGN outbursts accompanied by periods of enhanced precipitation and star formation, over gigayear timescales. The cluster core is under-heated at the end of each cycle, but over-heated at the peak of the AGN outburst. During the heating-dominant phase, turbulent dissipation alone is often able to balance radiative cooling at every radius but, when this is occurs, shock waves inevitably dissipate even more energy. Our simulation explains why some clusters, such as Abell 2029, are cooling dominated, while in some other clusters, such as Perseus, various heating mechanisms including shock heating, turbulent dissipation and bubble mixing can all individually balance cooling, and together, over-heat the core.
Fatigue and frictional heating in ceramic matrix composites
Jacobsen, T.K.; Sørensen, B.F.; Brøndsted, P.
1997-01-01
This paper describes an experimental technique for monitoring the damage evolution in ceramic matrix composites during cyclic testing. The damage is related to heat dissipation, which may be measured as radiated heat from the surface of the test specimen. In the present experimental set-up an iso......This paper describes an experimental technique for monitoring the damage evolution in ceramic matrix composites during cyclic testing. The damage is related to heat dissipation, which may be measured as radiated heat from the surface of the test specimen. In the present experimental set...... with a high spatial and temperature resolution and changes in the heat dissipation can be measured almost instantaneously. The technique has been tested on uni-directional ceramic matrix composites. Experimental results are shown and the possibilities and the limitations of the technique are discussed....
Solving the small-scale structure puzzles with dissipative dark matter
Foot, Robert [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Vagnozzi, Sunny, E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: sunny.vagnozzi@fysik.su.se [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullbacken 21A, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2016-07-01
Small-scale structure is studied in the context of dissipative dark matter, arising for instance in models with a hidden unbroken Abelian sector, so that dark matter couples to a massless dark photon. The dark sector interacts with ordinary matter via gravity and photon-dark photon kinetic mixing. Mirror dark matter is a theoretically constrained special case where all parameters are fixed except for the kinetic mixing strength, ε. In these models, the dark matter halo around spiral and irregular galaxies takes the form of a dissipative plasma which evolves in response to various heating and cooling processes. It has been argued previously that such dynamics can account for the inferred cored density profiles of galaxies and other related structural features. Here we focus on the apparent deficit of nearby small galaxies (''missing satellite problem'), which these dissipative models have the potential to address through small-scale power suppression by acoustic and diffusion damping. Using a variant of the extended Press-Schechter formalism, we evaluate the halo mass function for the special case of mirror dark matter. Considering a simplified model where M {sub baryons} ∝ M {sub halo}, we relate the halo mass function to more directly observable quantities, and find that for ε ≈ 2 × 10{sup −10} such a simplified description is compatible with the measured galaxy luminosity and velocity functions. On scales M {sub halo} ∼< 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}, diffusion damping exponentially suppresses the halo mass function, suggesting a nonprimordial origin for dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies, which we speculate were formed via a top-down fragmentation process as the result of nonlinear dissipative collapse of larger density perturbations. This could explain the planar orientation of satellite galaxies around Andromeda and the Milky Way.
Solving the small-scale structure puzzles with dissipative dark matter
Foot, Robert; Vagnozzi, Sunny
2016-07-01
Small-scale structure is studied in the context of dissipative dark matter, arising for instance in models with a hidden unbroken Abelian sector, so that dark matter couples to a massless dark photon. The dark sector interacts with ordinary matter via gravity and photon-dark photon kinetic mixing. Mirror dark matter is a theoretically constrained special case where all parameters are fixed except for the kinetic mixing strength, epsilon. In these models, the dark matter halo around spiral and irregular galaxies takes the form of a dissipative plasma which evolves in response to various heating and cooling processes. It has been argued previously that such dynamics can account for the inferred cored density profiles of galaxies and other related structural features. Here we focus on the apparent deficit of nearby small galaxies (``missing satellite problem"), which these dissipative models have the potential to address through small-scale power suppression by acoustic and diffusion damping. Using a variant of the extended Press-Schechter formalism, we evaluate the halo mass function for the special case of mirror dark matter. Considering a simplified model where Mbaryons propto Mhalo, we relate the halo mass function to more directly observable quantities, and find that for epsilon ≈ 2 × 10-10 such a simplified description is compatible with the measured galaxy luminosity and velocity functions. On scales Mhalo lesssim 108 Msolar, diffusion damping exponentially suppresses the halo mass function, suggesting a nonprimordial origin for dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies, which we speculate were formed via a top-down fragmentation process as the result of nonlinear dissipative collapse of larger density perturbations. This could explain the planar orientation of satellite galaxies around Andromeda and the Milky Way.
Identification of energy dissipation mechanisms in CNT-reinforced nanocomposites
Gardea, Frank; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Naraghi, Mohammad; Glaz, Bryan; Riddick, Jaret
2016-01-01
In this paper we present our recent findings on the mechanisms of energy dissipation in polymer-based nanocomposites obtained through experimental investigations. The matrix of the nanocomposite was polystyrene (PS) which was reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). To study the mechanical strain energy dissipation of nanocomposites, we measured the ratio of loss to storage modulus for different CNT concentrations and alignments. CNT alignment was achieved via hot-drawing of PS-CNT. In addition, CNT agglomeration was studied via a combination of SEM imaging and Raman scanning. We found that at sufficiently low strains, energy dissipation in composites with high CNT alignment is not a function of applied strain, as no interfacial slip occurs between the CNTs and PS. However, below the interfacial slip strain threshold, damping scales monotonically with CNT content, which indicates the prevalence of CNT-CNT friction dissipation mechanisms within agglomerates. At higher strains, interfacial slip also contributes to energy dissipation. However, the increase in damping with strain, especially when CNT agglomerates are present, does not scale linearly with the effective interface area between CNTs and PS, suggesting a significant contribution of friction between CNTs within agglomerates to energy dissipation at large strains. In addition, for the first time, a comparison between the energy dissipation in randomly oriented and aligned CNT composites was made. It is inferred that matrix plasticity and tearing caused by misorientation of CNTs with the loading direction is a major cause of energy dissipation. The results of our research can be used to design composites with high energy dissipation capability, especially for applications where dynamic loading may compromise structural stability and functionality, such as rotary wing structures and antennas. (paper)
Global dissipativity of continuous-time recurrent neural networks with time delay
Liao Xiaoxin; Wang Jun
2003-01-01
This paper addresses the global dissipativity of a general class of continuous-time recurrent neural networks. First, the concepts of global dissipation and global exponential dissipation are defined and elaborated. Next, the sets of global dissipativity and global exponentially dissipativity are characterized using the parameters of recurrent neural network models. In particular, it is shown that the Hopfield network and cellular neural networks with or without time delays are dissipative systems
Magnetic energy dissipation in force-free jets
Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Konigl, Arieh
1986-01-01
It is shown that a magnetic pressure-dominated, supersonic jet which expands or contracts in response to variations in the confining external pressure can dissipate magnetic energy through field-line reconnection as it relaxes to a minimum-energy configuration. In order for a continuous dissipation to occur, the effective reconnection time must be a fraction of the expansion time. The dissipation rate for the axisymmetric minimum-energy field configuration is analytically derived. The results indicate that the field relaxation process could be a viable mechanism for powering the synchrotron emission in extragalactic jets if the reconnection time is substantially shorter than the nominal resistive tearing time in the jet.
Relative Entropy, Interaction Energy and the Nature of Dissipation
Bernard Gaveau
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Many thermodynamic relations involve inequalities, with equality if a process does not involve dissipation. In this article we provide equalities in which the dissipative contribution is shown to involve the relative entropy (a.k.a. Kullback-Leibler divergence. The processes considered are general time evolutions both in classical and quantum mechanics, and the initial state is sometimes thermal, sometimes partially so. By calculating a transport coefficient we show that indeed—at least in this case—the source of dissipation in that coefficient is the relative entropy.
Dissipation of magnetic energy during disruptive current termination
Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G.L.
1983-09-01
The magnetic coupling during a disruption between the plasma and the various coil systems on the PDX tokamak has been modeled. Using measured coil currents, the model indicates that dissipation of magnetic energy in the plasma equal to 75 % of the energy stored in the poloidal field of the plasma current does occur and that coupling between the plasma and the coil systems can reduce such dissipation. In the case of PDX ohmic discharges, bolometric measurements of radiation and charge exchange, integrated over a disruption, account for 90 % of the calculated energy dissipation. (author)
Skyrmionic spin Seebeck effect via dissipative thermomagnonic torques
Kovalev, Alexey A.
2014-06-01
We derive thermomagnonic torque and its "β-type" dissipative correction from the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The β-type dissipative correction describes viscous coupling between magnetic dynamics and magnonic current and it stems from spin mistracking of the magnetic order. We show that thermomagnonic torque is important for describing temperature gradient induced motion of skyrmions in helical magnets while dissipative correction plays an essential role in generating transverse Magnus force. We propose to detect such skyrmionic motion by employing the transverse spin Seebeck effect geometry.
Influence of queue propagation and dissipation on route travel times
Raovic, Nevena
into account (Bliemer, 2008). Yperman (2007) indicates that there is a significant difference in queue-propagation and queue-dissipation between the LTM and DQM. This results in different route travel times, and can further affect route choice. In this paper, different approaches to represent queue propagation...... and dissipation through the CTM, LTM and DQM are studied. A simple network allows to show how these approaches influence route travel time. Furthermore, the possibility of changing the existing DQM is considered in order to more realistically represent queue propagation and dissipation, which would lead to more...... accurate route travel times....
Engineering high-order nonlinear dissipation for quantum superconducting circuits
Mundhada, S. O.; Grimm, A.; Touzard, S.; Shankar, S.; Minev, Z. K.; Vool, U.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.
Engineering nonlinear driven-dissipative processes is essential for quantum control. In the case of a harmonic oscillator, nonlinear dissipation can stabilize a decoherence-free manifold, leading to protected quantum information encoding. One possible approach to implement such nonlinear interactions is to combine the nonlinearities provided by Josephson circuits with parametric pump drives. However, it is usually hard to achieve strong nonlinearities while avoiding undesired couplings. Here we propose a scheme to engineer a four-photon drive and dissipation in a harmonic oscillator by cascading experimentally demonstrated two-photon processes. We also report experimental progress towards realization of such a scheme. Work supported by: ARO, ONR, AFOSR and YINQE.
Particle Acceleration in Dissipative Pulsar Magnetospheres
Kazanas, Z.; Kalapotharakos, C.; Harding, A.; Contopoulos, I.
2012-01-01
Pulsar magnetospheres represent unipolar inductor-type electrical circuits at which an EM potential across the polar cap (due to the rotation of their magnetic field) drives currents that run in and out of the polar cap and close at infinity. An estimate ofthe magnitude of this current can be obtained by dividing the potential induced across the polar cap V approx = B(sub O) R(sub O)(Omega R(sub O)/c)(exp 2) by the impedance of free space Z approx eq 4 pi/c; the resulting polar cap current density is close to $n {GJ} c$ where $n_{GJ}$ is the Goldreich-Julian (GJ) charge density. This argument suggests that even at current densities close to the GJ one, pulsar magnetospheres have a significant component of electric field $E_{parallel}$, parallel to the magnetic field, a condition necessary for particle acceleration and the production of radiation. We present the magnetic and electric field structures as well as the currents, charge densities, spin down rates and potential drops along the magnetic field lines of pulsar magnetospheres which do not obey the ideal MHD condition $E cdot B = 0$. By relating the current density along the poloidal field lines to the parallel electric field via a kind of Ohm's law $J = sigma E_{parallel}$ we study the structure of these magnetospheres as a function of the conductivity $sigma$. We find that for $sigma gg OmegaS the solution tends to the (ideal) Force-Free one and to the Vacuum one for $sigma 11 OmegaS. Finally, we present dissipative magnetospheric solutions with spatially variable $sigma$ that supports various microphysical properties and are compatible with the observations.
Scattering of traveling spots in dissipative systems
Nishiura, Yasumasa; Teramoto, Takashi; Ueda, Kei-Ichi
2005-12-01
One of the fundamental questions for self-organization in pattern formation is how spatial periodic structure is spontaneously formed starting from a localized fluctuation. It is known in dissipative systems that splitting dynamics is one of the driving forces to create many particle-like patterns from a single seed. On the way to final state there occur many collisions among them and its scattering manner is crucial to predict whether periodic structure is realized or not. We focus on the colliding dynamics of traveling spots arising in a three-component system and study how the transition of scattering dynamics is brought about. It has been clarified that hidden unstable patterns called "scattors" and their stable and unstable manifolds direct the traffic flow of orbits before and after collisions. The collision process in general can be decomposed into several steps and each step is controlled by such a scattor, in other words, a network among scattors forms the backbone for scattering dynamics. A variety of input-output relations comes from the complexity of the network as well as high Morse indices of the scattor. The change of transition manners is caused by the switching of the network from one structure to another, and such a change is caused by the singularities of scattors. We illustrate a typical example of the change of transition caused by the destabilization of the scattor. A new instability of the scattor brings a new destination for the orbit resulting in a new input-output relation, for instance, Hopf instability for the scattor of peanut type brings an annihilation.
A dissipative model of solar system
Vladimir, V. G.
2009-04-01
rotation of planets, and the small tidal deformations arising under influence of gradients of gravitational forces. The method of division of movements receives the equations describing movements of the centers of weights of planets and their own rotations. In the offered model takes place a dissipation of the energy which source are internally viscous forces of each planet. The system supposes the first integral - the law of preservation of the kinetic moment concerning the centre of weights of system. As a result of deformations of planets in the law of the universal gravitation which has been written down for material points, there are small conservative amendments. The equations of movement describe movement of the centers of weights of planets and their rotation around of the centers of weights in view of the tidal phenomena and the dissipative forces. The connected system of the equations consists of 3N the vector equations of the second order representing the theorems of movement of the centers of weights of planets, and N the vector equations of the first order determining changes of the own kinetic moments of each planet. Stationary values of full mechanical energy on the variety set in integral of the kinetic moment, correspond to stationary movements - to rotations of system as firm body with constant angular speed around of the centre of weights of all system. Angular speed of stationary rotation is directed along a constant vector of the kinetic moment, and the axis of rotation is the main central axis of inertia of system. We shall notice, that deformations of planets in stationary movement are constant, as in system of coordinates rotating with constant angular speed centrifugal forces and forces of gravitational interaction of planets are constant. Stationary configurations of system are determined according to Routh`s technique as stationary points of the changed potential energy submitted by the sum potential energies of centrifugal and gravitational
The effects of dissipation on topological mechanical systems
Xiong, Ye; Wang, Tianxiang; Tong, Peiqing
2016-09-01
We theoretically study the effects of isotropic dissipation in a topological mechanical system which is an analogue of Chern insulator in mechanical vibrational lattice. The global gauge invariance is still conserved in this system albeit it is destroyed by the dissipation in the quantum counterpart. The chiral edge states in this system are therefore robust against strong dissipation. The dissipation also causes a dispersion of damping for the eigenstates. It will modify the equation of motion of a wave packet by an extra effective force. After taking into account the Berry curvature in the wave vector space, the trace of a free wave packet in the real space should be curved, feinting to break the Newton’s first law.
Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems
Mavrommatis, K.T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)
1996-12-31
Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)
Nonoscillatory shock capturing scheme using flux limited dissipation
Jameson, A.
1985-01-01
A method for modifying the third order dissipative terms by the introduction of flux limiters is proposed. The first order dissipative terms can then be eliminated entirely, and in the case of a scalar conservation law the scheme is converted into a total variation diminishing scheme provided that an appropriate value is chosen for the dissipative coefficient. Particular attention is given to: (1) the treatment of the scalar conservation law; (2) the treatment of the Euler equations for inviscid compressible flow; (3) the boundary conditions; and (4) multistage time stepping and multigrid schemes. Numerical results for transonic flows suggest that a central difference scheme augmented by flux limited dissipative terms can lead to an effective nonoscillatory shock capturing method. 20 references
On the quantization of sectorially Hamiltonian dissipative systems
Castagnino, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Rosario, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correos 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gadella, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Rosario, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: manuelgadella@yahoo.com.ar; Lara, L.P. [Instituto de Fisica de Rosario, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Rosario, UTN, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)
2009-10-15
We present a theoretical discussion showing that, although some dissipative systems may have a sectorial Hamiltonian description, this description does not allow for canonical quantization. However, a quantum Liouville counterpart of these systems is possible, although it is not unique.
On the quantization of sectorially Hamiltonian dissipative systems
Castagnino, M.; Gadella, M.; Lara, L.P.
2009-01-01
We present a theoretical discussion showing that, although some dissipative systems may have a sectorial Hamiltonian description, this description does not allow for canonical quantization. However, a quantum Liouville counterpart of these systems is possible, although it is not unique.
Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems
Mavrommatis, K T [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)
1997-12-31
Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)
Dissipation in a Quantum Wire: Fact and Fantasy
Das, Mukunda P.; Green, Frederick
2008-01-01
Where, and how, does energy dissipation of electrical energy take place in a ballistic wire? Fully two decades after the advent of the transmissive phenomenology of electrical conductance, this deceptively simple query remains unanswered. We revisit the quantum kinetic basis of dissipation and show its power to give a definitive answer to our query. Dissipation leaves a clear, quantitative trace in the non-equilibrium current noise of a quantum point contact; this signature has already been observed in the laboratory. We then highlight the current state of accepted understandings in the light of well-known yet seemingly contradictory measurements. The physics of mesoscopic transport rests not in coherent carrier transmission through a perfect and dissipationless metallic channel, but explicitly in their dissipative inelastic scattering at the wire's interfaces and adjacent macroscopic leads.
Quantum dynamics in nanoscale magnets in dissipative environments
Miyashita, S; Saito, K; Kobayashi, H.; de Raedt, H.A.
2000-01-01
In discrete energy structure of nanoscale magnets, nonadiabatic transitions at avoided level crossings lead to fundamental processes of dynamics of magnetizations. The thermal environment causes dissipative effects on these processes. In this paper we review the features of the nonadiabatic
Dissipative Structures of the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky Equation
N. A. Kudryashov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, we study the features of dissipative structures formation described by the periodic boundary value problem for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. The numerical algorithm which is based on the pseudospectral method is presented. We prove the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed numerical method on the exact solution of the equation considered. Using this approach, we performed the numerical simulation of dissipative structure formations described by the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation. The influence of the problem parameters on these processes are studied. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dissipative structure formations are described. We have shown that there is a value of the control parameter at which the processes of dissipative structure formation are observed. In particular, using the cyclic convolution we define the average value of this parameter. Also, we find the dependence of the amplitude of the structures on the value of control parameter.
Reversible dissipative processes, conformal motions and Landau damping
Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Ibáñez, J.
2012-01-01
The existence of a dissipative flux vector is known to be compatible with reversible processes, provided a timelike conformal Killing vector (CKV) χ α =(V α )/T (where V α and T denote the four-velocity and temperature respectively) is admitted by the spacetime. Here we show that if a constitutive transport equation, either within the context of standard irreversible thermodynamics or the causal Israel–Stewart theory, is adopted, then such a compatibility also requires vanishing dissipative fluxes. Therefore, in this later case the vanishing of entropy production generated by the existence of such CKV is not actually associated to an imperfect fluid, but to a non-dissipative one. We discuss also about Landau damping. -- Highlights: ► We review the problem of compatibility of dissipation with reversibility. ► We show that the additional assumption of a transport equation renders such a compatibility trivial. ► We discuss about Landau damping.
Beam-to-Column Connections with Demountable Energy Dissipative Plates
Vasile-Mircea Venghiac
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The behavior of steel structures subjected to seismic actions depends directly on the connections behavior. There are two current tendencies for ensuring the structural ductility: allowing the formation of plastic hinges in the beams by using reduced beam sections or reduced web sections or by ensuring the plastic hinge formation in the connection by using dissipative elements. This paper presents a new perspective regarding the energy dissipation mechanism formation within the beam-to-column connection. The design of connections capable of dissipating large amounts of energy, with an acceptable strength and ductile behavior is a real challenge for engineers. Sustainability is a big advantage for these connections. Another big advantage is the possibility of restoring the functionality of the damaged construction in a short time interval and with reduced costs. The introduction of connections with demountable energy dissipative plates can be a step forward in designing new beam-to-column connections for steel structures.
Dissipation-driven quantum phase transitions in collective spin systems
Morrison, S; Parkins, A S
2008-01-01
We consider two different collective spin systems subjected to strong dissipation-on the same scale as interaction strengths and external fields-and show that either continuous or discontinuous dissipative quantum phase transitions can occur as the dissipation strength is varied. First, we consider a well-known model of cooperative resonance fluorescence that can exhibit a second-order quantum phase transition, and analyse the entanglement properties near the critical point. Next, we examine a dissipative version of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick interacting collective spin model, where we find that either first- or second-order quantum phase transitions can occur, depending only on the ratio of the interaction and external field parameters. We give detailed results and interpretation for the steady-state entanglement in the vicinity of the critical point, where it reaches a maximum. For the first-order transition we find that the semiclassical steady states exhibit a region of bistability. (fast track communication)
Dissipative phenomena in deep inelastic heavy ion collisions
Gross, D.H.E.; Krappe, H.J.; Lindenberger, K.H.; Lipperheide, R.; Moehring, K.
1978-01-01
During this meeting the following theoretical concepts for deep-inelastic heavy ion reactions were discussed: the energy transfer and friction, direct or statistical mechanisms, dissipation and fluctuation. (WL) [de
Bifurcations and Patterns in Nonlinear Dissipative Systems
Guenter Ahlers
2005-05-27
This project consists of experimental investigations of heat transport, pattern formation, and bifurcation phenomena in non-linear non-equilibrium fluid-mechanical systems. These issues are studies in Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection, using both pure and multicomponent fluids. They are of fundamental scientific interest, but also play an important role in engineering, materials science, ecology, meteorology, geophysics, and astrophysics. For instance, various forms of convection are important in such diverse phenomena as crystal growth from a melt with or without impurities, energy production in solar ponds, flow in the earth's mantle and outer core, geo-thermal stratifications, and various oceanographic and atmospheric phenomena. Our work utilizes computer-enhanced shadowgraph imaging of flow patterns, sophisticated digital image analysis, and high-resolution heat transport measurements.
Properties of two-temperature dissipative accretion flow around black holes
Dihingia, Indu K.; Das, Santabrata; Mandal, Samir
2018-04-01
We study the properties of two-temperature accretion flow around a non-rotating black hole in presence of various dissipative processes where pseudo-Newtonian potential is adopted to mimic the effect of general relativity. The flow encounters energy loss by means of radiative processes acted on the electrons and at the same time, flow heats up as a consequence of viscous heating effective on ions. We assumed that the flow is exposed with the stochastic magnetic fields that leads to Synchrotron emission of electrons and these emissions are further strengthen by Compton scattering. We obtain the two-temperature global accretion solutions in terms of dissipation parameters, namely, viscosity (α) and accretion rate ({\\dot{m}}), and find for the first time in the literature that such solutions may contain standing shock waves. Solutions of this kind are multitransonic in nature, as they simultaneously pass through both inner critical point (xin) and outer critical point (xout) before crossing the black hole horizon. We calculate the properties of shock-induced global accretion solutions in terms of the flow parameters. We further show that two-temperature shocked accretion flow is not a discrete solution, instead such solution exists for wide range of flow parameters. We identify the effective domain of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that parameter space shrinks as the dissipation is increased. Since the post-shock region is hotter due to the effect of shock compression, it naturally emits hard X-rays, and therefore, the two-temperature shocked accretion solution has the potential to explain the spectral properties of the black hole sources.
Particle Acceleration in Multiple Dissipation Regions
Arzner, Kaspar; Vlahos, Loukas
2004-01-01
The sharp magnetic discontinuities which naturally appear in solar magnetic flux tubes driven by turbulent photospheric motions are associated with intense currents. \\citet{Par83} proposed that these currents can become unstable to a variety of microscopic processes, with the net result of dramatically enhanced resistivity and heating (nanoflares). The electric fields associated with such ``hot spots'' are also expected to enhance particle acceleration. We test this hypothesis by exact relati...
Dissipative light-bullets in the filamentation of femtosecond pulses
Porras, M.A.; Gonzalo, I.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. With the growing interest in filamentation in solid and liquid media, the regime of filamentation with anomalous dispersion is receiving more attention. In this work we show that basics aspects of the filament dynamics in this regime can be explained in terms of a novel type of light-bullet, which is not of solitary or of conical types, but a wave-packet that maximizes the energy dissipation into the medium while remaining localized and stationary in propagation. We first show that a nonlinear optical medium at a given carrier wave length at which dispersion is anomalous, supports 'dissipative' light-bullets, i.e., waves localized in space and time and that propagate without change as a result of a balance between nonlinear compression and nonlinear absorption. Among them, the particular dissipative light-bullet with the highest possible dissipation is unique in a given medium, in the sense that all its properties are fixed by the properties of the medium at the carrier wave length. In this light-bullet, self-focusing continuously transports energy towards the pulse center by an amount that just compensates for the nonlinear losses. Figure 1(a) shows the radial profiles of the dissipative light-bullets that maximizes energy dissipation for several orders of multi-photon absorption responsible for the nonlinear losses. We have also found that this dissipative light-bullet tends to be spontaneously formed in the filamentary dynamics in media with anomalous dispersion. Figure 1(b) shows the peak intensity, the total energy and losses of a pulse that undergoes self-focusing and filamentation in an ideal medium with only Kerr nonlinearity and multi-photon absorption. This simple model reproduces the particularly long filament 'segments' and the 'burst' observed in experiments and in more accurate simulations. The peak intensity in the filament is identical to that of the dissipative light-bullet with maximum dissipation, and the
Transitions in the Communication Capacity of Dissipative Qubit Channels
Daems, D.
2009-05-01
The information transmission is studied for quantum channels in which the noise includes dissipative effects, more specifically, nonunitality. Noise is usually a nuisance but can sometimes be helpful. For these channels, the communication capacity is shown to increase with the dissipative component of the noise and may exhibit transitions beyond which it increases faster. The optimal states are constructed analytically as well as the pertaining “phase” diagram.
Transport theory of dissipative heavy-ion collisions
Norenberg, W.
1979-01-01
The lectures present the formulation of a transport theory, the derivation of a practicable transport equation (Fokker-Planck equation) and the evaluation of transport coefficients for dissipative (or deeply inelastic) heavy-ion collisions. The applicability of the theoretical concept is tested with remarkable success in the analyses of various experimental information (mass transfer, angular-momentum dissipation and energy loss). Some critical remarks on the present situation of transport theories are added. Future developments are outlined. (author)
Research on Characteristics of New Energy Dissipation With Symmetrical Structure
Ming, Wen; Huang, Chun-mei; Huang, Hao-wen; Wang, Xin-fang
2018-03-01
Utilizing good energy consumption capacity of arc steel bar, a new energy dissipation with symmetrical structure was proposed in this article. On the base of collection experimental data of damper specimen Under low cyclic reversed loading, finite element models were built by using ANSYS software, and influences of parameter change (Conduction rod diameter, Actuation plate thickness, Diameter of arc steel rod, Curved bars initial bending) on energy dissipation performance were analyzed. Some useful conclusions which can lay foundations for practical application were drawn.
Quench dynamics of a disordered array of dissipative coupled cavities.
Creatore, C; Fazio, R; Keeling, J; Türeci, H E
2014-09-08
We investigate the mean-field dynamics of a system of interacting photons in an array of coupled cavities in the presence of dissipation and disorder. We follow the evolution of an initially prepared Fock state, and show how the interplay between dissipation and disorder affects the coherence properties of the cavity emission, and show that these properties can be used as signatures of the many-body phase of the whole array.
New results from dissipative diabatic dynamics and nuclear elastoplasticity
Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt
1986-10-01
I present new results about dissipative diabatic dynamics and nuclear elastoplasticity, in particular on a self-consistent diabatic formulation, on first numerical calculations of dissipative diabatic dynamics in two collective degrees of freedom, on quasi-elastic recoil in central nucleus-nucleus collisions, on the diabatic hindrance of fusion reactions and on the diabatic emission of nucleons in central nucleus-nucleus collisions. (orig./HSI)
Energy dissipation in a finite volume of magnetic fluid
Bashtovoi, V.; Motsar, A.; Reks, A., E-mail: alexfx20@yandex.ru
2017-06-01
This study is devoted to investigation of energy dissipation processes which happen in a magnetic fluid drop with compound magnet during its motion in cylindrical non magnetic container. The possibility of energy dissipation control by means of electromagnetic field is examined. It's found that a change of magnetic field of compound magnet can lead to both increase and decrease of oscillation decay time and relative damping factor can be varied in a range of ±35%.
Transport theory of dissipative heavy-ion collisions
Noerenberg, W.
1979-03-01
The lectures present the formulation of a transport theory, the derivation of a practicable transport equation (Fokker-Planck equation) and the evaluation of transport coefficients for dissipative (or deeply inelastic) heavyion collisions. The applicability of the theoretical concept is tested with remarkable success in the analyses of various experimental informations (mass transfer, angular-momentum dissipation and energy loss). Some critical remarks on the present situation of transport theories are added. Future developments are outlined. (orig.) [de
Kinetic energy dissipation in heavy-ion collisions
Fedotov, S.I.; Jolos, R.V.; Kartavenko, V.G.
1979-01-01
Kinetic energy dissipation mechanism is considered in deep inelastic heavy-ion collisions. It is shown that the significant part of the kinetic energy loss can be explained by the excitation of the nuclear matter multipole vibrations. The main contribution of the energy dissipation is given by the time dependent heavy-ion interaction potential renormalized due to the nuclear excitations, rather than by the velocity proportional frictional forces
Dissipation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in brain dynamics
Freeman, Walter J; Vitiello, Giuseppe
2008-01-01
We compare the predictions of the dissipative quantum model of the brain with neurophysiological data collected from electroencephalograms resulting from high-density arrays fixed on the surfaces of primary sensory and limbic areas of trained rabbits and cats. Functional brain imaging in relation to behavior reveals the formation of coherent domains of synchronized neuronal oscillatory activity and phase transitions predicted by the dissipative model
Heat rejection efficiency research of new energy automobile radiators
Ma, W. S.; Shen, W. X.; Zhang, L. W.
2018-03-01
The driving system of new energy vehicle has larger heat load than conventional engine. How to ensure the heat dissipation performance of the cooling system is the focus of the design of new energy vehicle thermal management system. In this paper, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the hybrid electric vehicle is taken as the research object, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the new energy vehicle is studied through the multi-working-condition enthalpy difference test. In this paper, the test method in the current standard QC/T 468-2010 “automobile radiator” is taken, but not limited to the test conditions specified in the standard, 5 types of automobile radiator are chosen, each of them is tested 20 times in simulated condition of different wind speed and engine inlet temperature. Finally, regression analysis is carried out for the test results, and regression equation describing the relationship of radiator heat dissipation heat dissipation efficiency air side flow rate cooling medium velocity and inlet air temperature is obtained, and the influence rule is systematically discussed.
Inertial-dissipation methods and turbulent fluxes at the air-ocean interface
Fairall, C. W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1986-01-01
The use of high frequency atmospheric turbulence properties (inertial subrange spectra, structure function parameters or dissipation rates) to infer surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat is more practical for most ocean going platforms than direct covariance measurement....... The relationships required to deduce the fluxes from such data are examined in detail in this paper and several ambiguities and uncertainties are identified. It is noted that, over water, data on water vapor properties (the dimensionless functions for the mean profile, the structure function parameter...... and the variance transport term) are extremely sparse and the influence of sea spray is largely unknown. Special attention is given to flux estimation on the basis of the structure function formalism. Existing knowledge about the relevant similarity functions is summarized and discussed in light of the ambiguities...
The TKE dissipation rate in the northern South China Sea
Lozovatsky, Iossif; Liu, Zhiyu; Fernando, Harindra Joseph S.; Hu, Jianyu; Wei, Hao
2013-12-01
The microstructure measurements taken during the summer seasons of 2009 and 2010 in the northern South China Sea (between 18°N and 22.5°N, and from the Luzon Strait to the eastern shelf of China) were used to estimate the averaged dissipation rate in the upper pycnocline of the deep basin and on the shelf. Linear correlation between and the estimates of available potential energy of internal waves, which was found for this data set, indicates an impact of energetic internal waves on spatial structure and temporal variability of . On the shelf stations, the bottom boundary layer depth-integrated dissipation reaches 17-19 mW/m2, dominating the dissipation in the water column below the surface layer. In the pycnocline, the integrated dissipation was mostly ˜10-30 % of . A weak dependence of bin-averaged dissipation on the Richardson number was noted, according to , where ɛ 0 + ɛ m is the background value of for weak stratification and Ri cr = 0.25, pointing to the combined effects of shear instability of small-scale motions and the influence of larger-scale low frequency internal waves. The latter broadly agrees with the MacKinnon-Gregg scaling for internal-wave-induced turbulence dissipation.
Jean, Ming-Der; Lei, Peng-Da; Kong, Ling-Hua; Liu, Cheng-Wu
2018-05-01
This study optimizes the thermal dissipation ability of aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramics to increase the thermal performance of light-emitting diode (LED) modulus. AlN powders are deposited on heat sink as a heat interface material, using an electrostatic spraying process. The junction temperature of the heat sink is developed by response surface methodology based on Taguchi methods. In addition, the structure and properties of the AlN coating are examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the XPS analysis, the AlN sub-peaks are observed at 72.79 eV for Al2p and 398.88 eV for N1s, and an N1s sub-peak is assigned to N-O at 398.60eV and Al-N bonding at 395.95eV, which allows good thermal properties. The results have shown that the use of AlN ceramic material on a heat sink can enhance the thermal performance of LED modules. In addition, the percentage error between the predicted and experimental results compared the quadric model with between the linear and he interaction models was found to be within 7.89%, indicating that it was a good predictor. Accordingly, RSM can effectively enhance the thermal performance of an LED, and the beneficial heat dissipation effects for AlN are improved by electrostatic spraying.
Thermometry, calorimetry, and mean body temperature during heat stress.
Kenny, Glen P; Jay, Ollie
2013-10-01
Heat balance in humans is maintained at near constant levels through the adjustment of physiological mechanisms that attain a balance between the heat produced within the body and the heat lost to the environment. Heat balance is easily disturbed during changes in metabolic heat production due to physical activity and/or exposure to a warmer environment. Under such conditions, elevations of skin blood flow and sweating occur via a hypothalamic negative feedback loop to maintain an enhanced rate of dry and evaporative heat loss. Body heat storage and changes in core temperature are a direct result of a thermal imbalance between the rate of heat production and the rate of total heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. The derivation of the change in body heat content is of fundamental importance to the physiologist assessing the exposure of the human body to environmental conditions that result in thermal imbalance. It is generally accepted that the concurrent measurement of the total heat generated by the body and the total heat dissipated to the ambient environment is the most accurate means whereby the change in body heat content can be attained. However, in the absence of calorimetric methods, thermometry is often used to estimate the change in body heat content. This review examines heat exchange during challenges to heat balance associated with progressive elevations in environmental heat load and metabolic rate during exercise. Further, we evaluate the physiological responses associated with heat stress and discuss the thermal and nonthermal influences on the body's ability to dissipate heat from a heat balance perspective.
Heating of the solar chromosphere by ionization pumping
Lindsey, C.A.
1981-01-01
A new theory is proposed to explain the heating of the solar chromosphere, and possibly the corona, by the dissipation of hydrodynamic compression waves. The basis of the disspative mechanism, here referred to as ''ionization pumping,'' is hysteresis caused by irresversible relaxation of the chromospheric medium to ionization equilibrium following pressure perturbations. In the middle chromosphere, where hydrogen is partially ionized, it is shown that ionization pumping will cause strong dissipation of waves whose periods are approx.200 s or less. This could cause heating of the chromosphere sufficient to compensate for the radiative losses. The mechanism retains a high efficiency for waves of arbitrarily small amplitude and, thus, can be more efficient than shock dissipation for small perturbations in pressure. The formation of shocks therefore is not required for the dissipation of waves whose periods are several minutes or less
Pielke, R
1976-01-01
The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.
Free convection effects and radiative heat transfer in MHD Stokes ...
The present note deals with the effects of radiative heat transfer and free convection in MHD for a ﬂow of an electrically conducting, incompressible, dusty viscous ﬂuid past an impulsively started vertical non-conducting plate, under the inﬂuence of transversely applied magnetic ﬁeld. The heat due to viscous dissipation and ...
Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere Wolfgang Kalkofen
Abstract. The nonmagnetic interior of supergranulation cells has been thought since the 1940s to be heated by the dissipation of acoustic waves. But all attempts to measure the acoustic flux have failed to show suffi- cient energy for chromospheric heating. Recent space observations with. TRACE, for example, have found ...
Cycling in the heat: performance perspectives and cerebral challenges
Nybo, Lars
2010-01-01
for heat dissipation when the environmental temperature increases. Accordingly, large sweat rates are required, which may challenge the cyclists' electrolyte and water balance. Furthermore, the cooling capacity of the environment may become a limiting factor for the ability to maintain heat balance...
The heat budget of the Ross drainage basin
Oerlemans, J.
1987-01-01
Integration of the thermodynamic equation over an entire drainage basin yields a fairly simple expression for the steady-state heat balance. This stems from the fact that dissipative heating can be calculated directly from the release of gravitational energy. When mass balance, surface
Containment heat removal system
Wade, G.E.; Barbanti, G.; Gou, P.F.; Rao, A.S.; Hsu, L.C.
1992-01-01
This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined pressure within the nuclear reactor pressure vessel; means for reducing a pressure of steam in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a value less than the predetermined pressure in the event of a nuclear accident, the means including a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel, the means further including steam heat dissipating means such dissipating means including a suppression pool; a supply of water in the suppression pool, there being a headspace in the suppression pool above the water supply; a substantial amount of air in the head space; means for feeding pressurized steam from the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a location under a surface of the supply of water, the supply of water being effective to absorb heat sufficient to reduce steam pressure below the predetermined pressure; and a check valve for communicating the headspace with the containment, the check valve being oriented to vent air in the headspace to the containment when a pressure in the headspace exceeds a pressure in the containment by a predetermined pressure differential
Estimates of anelastic dissipation in the Earth's torsional modes
M. CAPUTO
1966-06-01
Full Text Available The decay of the amplitude of the free modes of the
Earth is a potential source of information on the mechanism of dissipation
of the elastic energy of the Earth.
However there are serious difficulties in the interpretation of the decay;
they are caused by several facts. One is the limited length of the significant
part of the record which prohibits to identify the splitting of all the modes
caused by the Earth rotation and also to follow the pattern in its rotation;
another reason is the coupling between modes, caused by the inhomogenities
and the flattening of the Earth, which can transfer energy from one mode
to another. The results available are therefore very few and of poor accuracy.
In order to seek new information on the mechanism of dissipation of
the elastic energy we solve a generalized form of the equation of elastodynamic
in which we have introduced some unspecified operators to represent
the dissipation of the elastic energy. By confronting these operators with
the observations we would hope to find informations on the mechanism
of dissipation. Unfortunately the laws of variation of Q with frequency,
found by various authors who were using different observations, are not in
agreement and are very uncertain. Therefore we can only estimate the
average values of the parameters of the supposed mechanisms of dissipation.
We analyze also the dissipation of energy due to viscous frictions at
the core mantle boundary. This dissipation would be negligible even for
viscosities of the core up to 1010 poise
EFFECTS OF LOCAL DISSIPATION PROFILES ON MAGNETIZED ACCRETION DISK SPECTRA
Tao, Ted; Blaes, Omer
2013-01-01
We present spectral calculations of non-LTE accretion disk models appropriate for high-luminosity stellar mass black hole X-ray binary systems. We first use a dissipation profile based on scaling the results of shearing box simulations of Hirose et al. to a range of annuli parameters. We simultaneously scale the effective temperature, orbital frequency, and surface density with luminosity and radius according to the standard α-model. This naturally brings increased dissipation to the disk surface layers (around the photospheres) at small radii and high luminosities. We find that the local spectrum transitions directly from a modified blackbody to a saturated Compton scattering spectrum as we increase the effective temperature and orbital frequency while decreasing midplane surface density. Next, we construct annuli models based on the parameters of a L/L Edd = 0.8 disk orbiting a 6.62 solar mass black hole using two modified dissipation profiles that explicitly put more dissipation per unit mass near the disk surface. The new dissipation profiles are qualitatively similar to the one found by Hirose et al., but produce strong near power-law spectral tails. Our models also include physically motivated magnetic acceleration support based once again on scaling the Hirose et al. results. We present three full-disk spectra, each based on one of the dissipation prescriptions. Our most aggressive dissipation profile results in a disk spectrum that is in approximate quantitative agreement with certain observations of the steep power-law spectral states from some black hole X-ray binaries.
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong
2013-06-01
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a system situated in a sustained environment with influx and efflux is usually treated as a subsystem in a larger, closed "universe." A question remains with regard to what the minimally required description for the surrounding of such an open driven system is so that its nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be established solely based on the internal stochastic kinetics. We provide a solution to this problem using insights from studies of molecular motors in a chemical nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) with sustained external drive through a regenerating system or in a quasisteady state (QSS) with an excess amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We introduce the key notion of minimal work that is needed, W(min), for the external regenerating system to sustain a NESS (e.g., maintaining constant concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi for a molecular motor). Using a Markov (master-equation) description of a motor protein, we illustrate that the NESS and QSS have identical kinetics as well as the second law in terms of the same positive entropy production rate. The heat dissipation of a NESS without mechanical output is exactly the W(min). This provides a justification for introducing an ideal external regenerating system and yields a free-energy balance equation between the net free-energy input F(in) and total dissipation F(dis) in an NESS: F(in) consists of chemical input minus mechanical output; F(dis) consists of dissipative heat, i.e. the amount of useful energy becoming heat, which also equals the NESS entropy production. Furthermore, we show that for nonstationary systems, the F(dis) and F(in) correspond to the entropy production rate and housekeeping heat in stochastic thermodynamics and identify a relative entropy H as a generalized free energy. We reach a new formulation of Markovian nonequilibrium thermodynamics based on only the internal kinetic equation without further
STRONG TIDAL DISSIPATION IN SATURN AND CONSTRAINTS ON ENCELADUS' THERMAL STATE FROM ASTROMETRY
Lainey, Valéry; Desmars, Josselin; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Emelyanov, Nicolai; Remus, Françoise; Karatekin, Özgür; Charnoz, Sébastien; Mathis, Stéphane; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe; Tobie, Gabriel; Zahn, Jean-Paul
2012-01-01
Tidal interactions between Saturn and its satellites play a crucial role in both the orbital migration of the satellites and the heating of their interiors. Therefore, constraining the tidal dissipation of Saturn (here the ratio k 2 /Q) opens the door to the past evolution of the whole system. If Saturn's tidal ratio can be determined at different frequencies, it may also be possible to constrain the giant planet's interior structure, which is still uncertain. Here, we try to determine Saturn's tidal ratio through its current effect on the orbits of the main moons, using astrometric data spanning more than a century. We find an intense tidal dissipation (k 2 /Q = (2.3 ± 0.7) × 10 –4 ), which is about 10 times higher than the usual value estimated from theoretical arguments. As a consequence, eccentricity equilibrium for Enceladus can now account for the huge heat emitted from Enceladus' south pole. Moreover, the measured k 2 /Q is found to be poorly sensitive to the tidal frequency, on the short frequency interval considered. This suggests that Saturn's dissipation may not be controlled by turbulent friction in the fluid envelope as commonly believed. If correct, the large tidal expansion of the moon orbits due to this strong Saturnian dissipation would be inconsistent with the moon formations 4.5 Byr ago above the synchronous orbit in the Saturnian subnebulae. But it would be compatible with a new model of satellite formation in which the Saturnian satellites formed possibly over a longer timescale at the outer edge of the main rings. In an attempt to take into account possible significant torques exerted by the rings on Mimas, we fitted a constant rate da/dt on Mimas' semi-major axis as well. We obtained an unexpected large acceleration related to a negative value of da/dt = –(15.7 ± 4.4) × 10 –15 AU day –1 . Such acceleration is about an order of magnitude larger than the tidal deceleration rates observed for the other moons. If not coming from an
Zhou, F.; Tian, X.; Ma, G. [Beijing Univ. of Technology, Beijing (China). College of Environmental and Energy Engineering
2010-07-01
The energy consumption of the air-conditioning system at the Internet Data Center (IDC) in Beijing comprises 40 per cent of the building's total energy consumption. Of all the energy energy management strategies available at the IDC, the most unique one is the use of ambient energy to cool the IDC by the thermosyphon heat exchanger. Atmospheric energy can reduce the air conditioner's running time while maintaining the humidity and cleanliness of the IDC. In this study, an IDC test model was set up to analyze the heat dissipating characteristics and the energy consumption of the thermosyphon heat exchanger and the air conditioner in the IDC for winter conditions. The heat dissipating capacity of the building envelope was measured and calculated. The energy consumption of the air conditioner was compared under different indoor and outdoor temperatures. The study showed that the heat dissipating need of the IDC cannot be met just by the heat dissipation of the building envelope in winter conditions. The heat dissipating capacity of the IDC building envelope comprises 19.5 per cent of the total heat load. The average energy consumption of the air conditioner is 3.5 to 4 kWh per day. The temperature difference between indoor and outdoor temperature in the IDC with the thermosyphon heat exchanger was less than 20 degrees C, and the energy consumption of the thermosyphon heat exchanger comprised only 41 per cent of that of the air conditioner. 8 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.
Castejon, F.; Pavlov, S.S.; Swanson, D. G.
2002-01-01
Negative dissipation appears when ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating at first harmonic in a thermal plasma is estimated using some numerical schemes. The causes of the appearance of such a problem are investigated analytically and numerically in this work showing that the problem is connected with the accuracy with which the absorption coefficient at the first ICR harmonic is estimated. The corrections for the absorption estimation are presented for the case of quasiperpendicular propagation of fast wave in this frequency range. A method to solve the problem of negative dissipation is presented and, as a result, an enhancement of absorption is found for reactor-size plasmas
Diffusion phenomenon for linear dissipative wave equations
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2012-01-01
In this paper we prove the diffusion phenomenon for the linear wave equation. To derive the diffusion phenomenon, a new method is used. In fact, for initial data in some weighted spaces, we prove that for {equation presented} decays with the rate {equation presented} [0,1] faster than that of either u or v, where u is the solution of the linear wave equation with initial data {equation presented} [0,1], and v is the solution of the related heat equation with initial data v 0 = u 0 + u 1. This result improves the result in H. Yang and A. Milani [Bull. Sci. Math. 124 (2000), 415-433] in the sense that, under the above restriction on the initial data, the decay rate given in that paper can be improved by t -γ/2. © European Mathematical Society.
Observation-based input and dissipation version of WAVEWATCH III
Zieger, Stefan; Babanin, Alexander; Rogers, Erick; Young, Ian
2013-04-01
Measurements collected at Lake George, Australia, resulted in new insights on the processes of wind wave interaction and white-capping dissipation and consequently new parameterisations of these source terms. The new nonlinear wind input source term accounts for dependence of the growth increment on wave steepness, for airflow separation which leads to a relative reduction of the growth under extreme wind conditions, and for negative growth rate under adverse winds. The new wave breaking and whitecapping dissipation source function features two separate terms: the inherent breaking term and a cumulative dissipation term due to influences of longer waves on wave breaking of shorter waves. Another novel feature of this dissipation is the threshold in terms of spectral density: below this threshold breaking stops and whitecapping becomes zero. In such conditions dissipation due to wave interaction with water turbulence takes over, which regime is particularly relevant for decaying seas and for swell. This paper describes these source terms implemented in WAVEWATCH III and evaluates the performance against existing source terms in duration-limited simulations and against buoy measurements for windsea-dominated conditions. Results show agreement by means of growth curves and integral parameters in the simulations and hindcast. The paper also introduces wave breaking probability as model output, along with standard wind-wave metrics.
Power injected in dissipative systems and the fluctuation theorem
Aumaître, S.; Fauve, S.; McNamara, S.; Poggi, P.
We consider three examples of dissipative dynamical systems involving many degrees of freedom, driven far from equilibrium by a constant or time dependent forcing. We study the statistical properties of the injected and dissipated power as well as the fluctuations of the total energy of these systems. The three systems under consideration are: a shell model of turbulence, a gas of hard spheres colliding inelastically and excited by a vibrating piston, and a Burridge-Knopoff spring-block model. Although they involve different types of forcing and dissipation, we show that the statistics of the injected power obey the ``fluctuation theorem" demonstrated in the case of time reversible dissipative systems maintained at constant total energy, or in the case of some stochastic processes. Although this may be only a consequence of the theory of large deviations, this allows a possible definition of ``temperature" for a dissipative system out of equilibrium. We consider how this ``temperature" scales with the energy and the number of degrees of freedom in the different systems under consideration.
Evaluation of turbulent dissipation rate retrievals from Doppler Cloud Radar
M. D. Shupe
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Turbulent dissipation rate retrievals from cloud radar Doppler velocity measurements are evaluated using independent, in situ observations in Arctic stratocumulus clouds. In situ validation data sets of dissipation rate are derived using sonic anemometer measurements from a tethered balloon and high frequency pressure variation observations from a research aircraft, both flown in proximity to stationary, ground-based radars. Modest biases are found among the data sets in particularly low- or high-turbulence regimes, but in general the radar-retrieved values correspond well with the in situ measurements. Root mean square differences are typically a factor of 4–6 relative to any given magnitude of dissipation rate. These differences are no larger than those found when comparing dissipation rates computed from tethered-balloon and meteorological tower-mounted sonic anemometer measurements made at spatial distances of a few hundred meters. Temporal lag analyses suggest that approximately half of the observed differences are due to spatial sampling considerations, such that the anticipated radar-based retrieval uncertainty is on the order of a factor of 2–3. Moreover, radar retrievals are clearly able to capture the vertical dissipation rate structure observed by the in situ sensors, while offering substantially more information on the time variability of turbulence profiles. Together these evaluations indicate that radar-based retrievals can, at a minimum, be used to determine the vertical structure of turbulence in Arctic stratocumulus clouds.
Signatures of a dissipative phase transition in photon correlation measurements
Fink, Thomas; Schade, Anne; Höfling, Sven; Schneider, Christian; Imamoglu, Ataç
2018-04-01
Understanding and characterizing phase transitions in driven-dissipative systems constitutes a new frontier for many-body physics1-8. A generic feature of dissipative phase transitions is a vanishing gap in the Liouvillian spectrum9, which leads to long-lived deviations from the steady state as the system is driven towards the transition. Here, we show that photon correlation measurements can be used to characterize the corresponding critical slowing down of non-equilibrium dynamics. We focus on the extensively studied phenomenon of optical bistability in GaAs cavity polaritons10,11, which can be described as a first-order dissipative phase transition12-14. Increasing the excitation strength towards the bistable range results in an increasing photon-bunching signal along with a decay time that is prolonged by more than nine orders of magnitude as compared with that of single polaritons. In the limit of strong polariton interactions leading to pronounced quantum fluctuations, the mean-field bistability threshold is washed out. Nevertheless, the functional form with which the Liouvillian gap closes as the thermodynamic limit is approached provides a signature of the emerging dissipative phase transition. Our results establish photon correlation measurements as an invaluable tool for studying dynamical properties of dissipative phase transitions without requiring phase-sensitive interferometric measurements.
Analysis of Forced Convection Heat Transfer for Axial Annular Flow of Giesekus Viscoelastic Fluid
Mohseni, Mehdi Moayed; Rashidi, Fariborz; Movagar, Mohammad Reza Khorsand [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-02-15
Analytical solutions for the forced convection heat transfer of viscoelastic fluids obeying the Giesekus model are obtained in a concentric annulus under laminar flow for both thermal and hydrodynamic fully developed conditions. Boundary conditions are assumed to be (a) constant fluxes at the walls and (b) constant temperature at the walls. Temperature profiles and Nusselt numbers are derived from dimensionless energy equation. Subsequently, effects of elasticity, mobility parameter and viscous dissipation are discussed. Results show that by increasing elasticity, Nusselt number increases. However, this trend is reversed for constant wall temperature when viscous dissipation is weak. By increasing viscous dissipation, the Nusselt number decreases for the constant flux and increases for the constant wall temperature. For the wall cooling case, when the viscous dissipation exceeds a critical value, the generated heat overcomes the heat which is removed at the walls, and fluid heats up longitudinally.
Heat pipe heat storage performance
Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)
1989-01-01
Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).
Renaud, Joe P.; Henning, Wade G.
2018-04-01
The advanced rheological models of Andrade and Sundberg & Cooper are compared to the traditional Maxwell model to understand how each affects the tidal dissipation of heat within rocky bodies. We find both Andrade and Sundberg–Cooper rheologies can produce at least 10× the tidal heating compared to a traditional Maxwell model for a warm (1400–1600 K) Io-like satellite. Sundberg–Cooper can cause even larger dissipation around a critical temperature and frequency. These models allow cooler planets to stay tidally active in the face of orbital perturbations—a condition we term “tidal resilience.” This has implications for the time evolution of tidally active worlds and the long-term equilibria they fall into. For instance, if Io’s interior is better modeled by the Andrade or Sundberg–Cooper rheologies, the number of possible resonance-forming scenarios that still produce a hot, modern Io is expanded, and these scenarios do not require an early formation of the Laplace resonance. The two primary empirical parameters that define the Andrade anelasticity are examined in several phase spaces to provide guidance on how their uncertainties impact tidal outcomes, as laboratory studies continue to constrain their real values. We provide detailed reference tables on the fully general equations required for others to insert the models of Andrade and Sundberg–Cooper into standard tidal formulae. Lastly, we show that advanced rheologies can greatly impact the heating of short-period exoplanets and exomoons, while the properties of tidal resilience could mean a greater number of tidally active worlds among all extrasolar systems.
Estimating Half-Lives for Pesticide Dissipation from Plants
Fantke, Peter; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Juraske, Ronnie
2014-01-01
Pesticide risk and impact assessment models critically rely on and are sensitive to information describing dissipation from plants. Despite recent progress, experimental data are not available for all relevant pesticide−plant combinations, and currently no model predicting plant dissipation...... accounts for the influence of substance properties, plant characteristics, temperature, and study conditions. In this study, we propose models to estimate half-lives for pesticide dissipation from plants and provide recommendations for how to use our results. On the basis of fitting experimental...... under field conditions. Half-lives range from 0.2 days for pyrethrins to 31 days for dalapon. Parameter estimates are provided to correct for specific plant species, temperatures, and study conditions. Finally, we propose a predictive regression model for pesticides without available measured...
Memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision
Yadav, H.L.; Agarwal, K.C.
2002-01-01
A macroscopic dynamical model within the framework of a multidimensional Fokker-Planck equation is employed for a theoretical description of low-energy dissipative collisions between two heavy nuclei. The effect of two-body collisions leading to intrinsic equilibrium has been treated phenomenologically using the basic concepts of dissipative diabatic dynamics. The heavy-ion reaction 86 Kr(8.18 MeV/u) + 166 Er has been as a prototype to study and demonstrate the memory effects for dissipation and diffusion processes. Our calculated results for the deflection angle, angular distributions dσ/dθ cm , energy distributions dσ/dΔΕ, and element distributions dσ/dΖ illustrate a remarkable dependence on the memory effects and are consistent with the experimental data
Memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision
Yadav, H L
2002-01-01
A macroscopic dynamical model within the framework of a multidimensional Fokker-Planck equation is employed for a theoretical description of low-energy dissipative collisions between two heavy nuclei. The effect of two-body collisions leading to intrinsic equilibrium has been treated phenomenologically using the basic concepts of dissipative diabatic dynamics. The heavy-ion reaction sup 8 sup 6 Kr(8.18 MeV/u) + sup 1 sup 6 sup 6 Er has been as a prototype to study and demonstrate the memory effects for dissipation and diffusion processes. Our calculated results for the deflection angle, angular distributions d sigma/d theta sub c sub m , energy distributions d sigma/d DELTA EPSILON, and element distributions d sigma/d ZETA illustrate a remarkable dependence on the memory effects and are consistent with the experimental data
Log-Normal Turbulence Dissipation in Global Ocean Models
Pearson, Brodie; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
2018-03-01
Data from turbulent numerical simulations of the global ocean demonstrate that the dissipation of kinetic energy obeys a nearly log-normal distribution even at large horizontal scales O (10 km ) . As the horizontal scales of resolved turbulence are larger than the ocean is deep, the Kolmogorov-Yaglom theory for intermittency in 3D homogeneous, isotropic turbulence cannot apply; instead, the down-scale potential enstrophy cascade of quasigeostrophic turbulence should. Yet, energy dissipation obeys approximate log-normality—robustly across depths, seasons, regions, and subgrid schemes. The distribution parameters, skewness and kurtosis, show small systematic departures from log-normality with depth and subgrid friction schemes. Log-normality suggests that a few high-dissipation locations dominate the integrated energy and enstrophy budgets, which should be taken into account when making inferences from simplified models and inferring global energy budgets from sparse observations.
Dissipative elastic metamaterial with a low-frequency passband
Yongquan Liu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We design and experimentally demonstrate a dissipative elastic metamaterial structure that functions as a bandpass filter with a low-frequency passband. The mechanism of dissipation in this structure is well described by a mass-spring-damper model that reveals that the imaginary part of the wavenumber is non-zero, even in the passband of dissipative metamaterials. This indicates that transmittance in this range can be low. A prototype for this viscoelastic metamaterial model is fabricated by 3D printing techniques using soft and hard acrylics as constituent materials. The transmittance of the printed metamaterial is measured and shows good agreement with theoretical predictions, demonstrating its potential in the design of compact waveguides, filters and other advanced devices for controlling mechanical waves.
Logarithmic scaling in the near-dissipation range of turbulence
Sreenivasan, K.R.; Bershadskii, A.
2006-12-01
A logarithmic scaling for structure functions, in the form S p ∼ [ln(r/η)] ζp , where η is the Kolmogorov dissipation scale and ζ p are the scaling exponents, is suggested for the statistical description of the near-dissipation range for which classical power-law scaling does not apply. From experimental data at moderate Reynolds numbers, it is shown that the logarithmic scaling, deduced from general considerations for the near-dissipation range, covers almost the entire range of scales (about two decades) of structure functions, for both velocity and passive scalar fields. This new scaling requires two empirical constants, just as the classical scaling does, and can be considered the basis for extended self-similarity. (author)
Transport behavior in superconductors at extreme dissipation levels
Kunchur, M.N.
1996-09-01
A number of fundamental physical phenomena unfold in the mixed state of superconductor, when subjected to enormous current and power-dissipation levels. A sufficiently large current can destroy the superconducting state itself--the so-called pair-breaking effect. At intermediate current densities, below the onset of pair-breaking, one expects to see the free viscous flow of flux vortices. In the present work a pulsed-current technique was used to explore this dissipative regime of high-T c superconductors, verifying both free flux flow and the pair-breaking effect, as predicted by traditional theories. This paper concentrates on the dissipation and Hall behavior in the free flux flow state
Dissipative optomechanics in a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer.
Xuereb, André; Schnabel, Roman; Hammerer, Klemens
2011-11-18
Dissipative optomechanics studies the coupling of the motion of an optical element to the decay rate of a cavity. We propose and theoretically explore a realization of this system in the optical domain, using a combined Michelson-Sagnac interferometer, which enables a strong and tunable dissipative coupling. Quantum interference in such a setup results in the suppression of the lower motional sideband, leading to strongly enhanced cooling in the non-sideband-resolved regime. With state-of-the-art parameters, ground-state cooling and low-power quantum-limited position transduction are both possible. The possibility of a strong, tunable dissipative coupling opens up a new route towards observation of such fundamental optomechanical effects as nonlinear dynamics. Beyond optomechanics, the suggested method can be readily transferred to other setups involving nonlinear media, atomic ensembles, or single atoms.
Nanomechanical dissipation at a tip-induced Kondo onset
Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Fabrizio, Michele; Tosatti, Erio
2017-08-01
The onset or demise of Kondo effect in a magnetic impurity on a metal surface can be triggered, as sometimes observed, by the simple mechanical nudging of a tip. Such a mechanically driven quantum phase transition must reflect in a corresponding mechanical dissipation peak; yet, this kind of signature has not been focused upon so far. Aiming at the simplest theoretical modeling, we treat the impurity as an Anderson impurity model, the tip action as a hybridization switching, and solve the problem by numerical renormalization group. Studying this model as function of temperature and magnetic field we are able to isolate the Kondo contribution to dissipation. While that is, reasonably, of the order of the Kondo energy, its temperature evolution shows a surprisingly large tail even above the Kondo temperature. The detectability of Kondo mechanical dissipation in atomic force microscopy is also discussed.
Modeling compaction-induced energy dissipation of granular HMX
Gonthier, K.A. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)
1998-12-31
A thermodynamically consistent model is developed for the compaction of granular solids. The model is an extension of the single phase limit of two-phase continuum models used to describe Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) experiments. The focus is on the energetics and dissipation of the compaction process. Changes in volume fraction are partitioned into reversible and irreversible components. Unlike conventional DDT models, the model is applicable from the quasi-static to dynamic compaction regimes for elastic, plastic, or brittle materials. When applied to the compaction of granular HMX (a brittle material), the model predicts results commensurate with experiments including stress relaxation, hysteresis, and energy dissipation. The model provides a suitable starting point for the development of thermal energy localization sub-scale models based on compaction-induced dissipation.
Spherical Magnetic Vortex in an External Potential Field: A Dissipative Contraction
Solov'ev, A. A.
2013-09-01
We consider the dissipative evolution of a spherical magnetic vortex with a force-free internal structure, located in a resistive medium and held in equilibrium by the potential external field. The magnetic field inside the sphere is force-free (the model of Chandrasekhar in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 42, 1, 1956). Topologically, it is a set of magnetic toroids enclosed in spherical layers. A new exact MHD solution has been derived, describing a slow, uniform, radial compression of a magnetic spheroid under the pressure of an ambient field, when the plasma density and pressure are growing inside it. There is no dissipation in the potential field outside the sphere, but inside the sphere, where the current density can be high enough, the magnetic energy is continuously converted into heat. Joule dissipation lowers the magnetic pressure inside the sphere, which balances the pressure of the ambient field. This results in radial contraction of the magnetic sphere with a speed defined by the conductivity of the plasma and the characteristic spatial scale of the magnetic field inside the sphere. Formally, the sphere shrinks to zero within a finite time interval (magnetic collapse). The time of compression can be relatively small, within a day, even for a sphere with a radius of about 1 Mm, if the magnetic helicity trapped initially in the sphere (which is proportional to the number of magnetic toroids in the sphere) is quite large. The magnetic system is open along its axis of symmetry. On this axis, the magnetic and electric fields are strictly radial and sign-variable along the radius, so the plasma will be ejected along the axis of magnetic sphere outwards in both directions (as jets) at a rate much higher than the diffusive one, and the charged particles will be accelerated unevenly, in spurts, creating quasi-regular X-ray spikes. The applications of the solution to solar flares are discussed.
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.
Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...
EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.
Dissipation, intermittency, and singularities in incompressible turbulent flows
Debue, P.; Shukla, V.; Kuzzay, D.; Faranda, D.; Saw, E.-W.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.
2018-05-01
We examine the connection between the singularities or quasisingularities in the solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation (INSE) and the local energy transfer and dissipation, in order to explore in detail how the former contributes to the phenomenon of intermittency. We do so by analyzing the velocity fields (a) measured in the experiments on the turbulent von Kármán swirling flow at high Reynolds numbers and (b) obtained from the direct numerical simulations of the INSE at a moderate resolution. To compute the local interscale energy transfer and viscous dissipation in experimental and supporting numerical data, we use the weak solution formulation generalization of the Kármán-Howarth-Monin equation. In the presence of a singularity in the velocity field, this formulation yields a nonzero dissipation (inertial dissipation) in the limit of an infinite resolution. Moreover, at finite resolutions, it provides an expression for local interscale energy transfers down to the scale where the energy is dissipated by viscosity. In the presence of a quasisingularity that is regularized by viscosity, the formulation provides the contribution to the viscous dissipation due to the presence of the quasisingularity. Therefore, our formulation provides a concrete support to the general multifractal description of the intermittency. We present the maps and statistics of the interscale energy transfer and show that the extreme events of this transfer govern the intermittency corrections and are compatible with a refined similarity hypothesis based on this transfer. We characterize the probability distribution functions of these extreme events via generalized Pareto distribution analysis and find that the widths of the tails are compatible with a similarity of the second kind. Finally, we make a connection between the topological and the statistical properties of the extreme events of the interscale energy transfer field and its multifractal properties.
Dissipation of Turbulence in the Wake of a Wind Turbine
Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.
2015-02-01
The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.
Heat Exchange with Air and Temperature Profile of a Moving Oversize Tire
Grinchuk, P. S.; Fisenko, S. P.
2016-11-01
A one-dimensional mathematical model of heat transfer in a tire with account for the deformation energy dissipation and heat exchange of a moving tire with air has been developed. The mean temperature profiles are calculated and transition to a stationary thermal regime is considered. The influence of the rate of energy dissipation and of effective thermal conductivity of rubber on the temperature field is investigated quantitatively.
Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression
Urban, Jesper
2002-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...
Entanglement generation through local field and quantum dissipation
Stockburger, Jürgen T; Schmidt, Rebecca; Ankerhold, Joachim
2015-01-01
Entanglement in a Gaussian two-mode system can be generated by local driving if additional non-local features are introduced to the dynamics. We demonstrate that weak to moderate ohmic friction arising from a dissipative environment can enable entanglement generation in a driven system. This synergy of driving and dissipation is highly sensitive to the pulse shape; several simple pulse shapes fail to produce this effect at all or deposit large amounts of energy in the system as a side effect. Complex pulse shapes, determined by optimal control techniques, however, are effective without detrimental side effects. (paper)
ΛCDM model with dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter
Gimenes, H. S.; Viswanathan, G. M.; Silva, R.
2018-03-01
Many models in cosmology typically assume the standard bulk viscosity. We study an alternative interpretation for the origin of the bulk viscosity. Using nonadditive statistics proposed by Tsallis, we propose a bulk viscosity component that can only exist by a nonextensive effect through the nonextensive/dissipative correspondence (NexDC). In this paper, we consider a ΛCDM model for a flat universe with a dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter component, following the Eckart theory of bulk viscosity, without any perturbative approach. In order to analyze cosmological constraints, we use one of the most recent observations of Type Ia Supernova, baryon acoustic oscillations and cosmic microwave background data.
Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)
2016-06-08
The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T{sub h} and inside cold T{sub c} temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.
New Measure of the Dissipation Region in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Kuznetsova, Masha
2011-01-01
A new measure to identify a small-scale dissipation region in collisionless magnetic reconnection is proposed. The energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron's rest frame is formulated as a Lorentz-invariant scalar quantity. The measure is tested by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in typical configurations: symmetric and asymmetric reconnection, with and without the guide field. The innermost region surrounding the reconnection site is accurately located in all cases. We further discuss implications for nonideal MHD dissipation.
New Measure of the Dissipation Region in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Kuznetsova, Masha
2012-01-01
A new measure to identify a small-scale dissipation region in collisionless magnetic reconnection is proposed. The energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron s rest frame is formulated as a Lorentz-invariant scalar quantity. The measure is tested by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in typical configurations: symmetric and asymmetric reconnection, with and without the guide field. The innermost region surrounding the reconnection site is accurately located in all cases. We further discuss implications for nonideal MHD dissipation.
An exact solution for quantum tunneling in a dissipative system
Yu, L.H.
1996-01-01
Applying a technique developed recently for a harmonic oscillator coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators, we present an exact solution for the tunneling problem in an Ohmic dissipative system with inverted harmonic potential. The result shows that while the dissipation tends to suppress the tunneling, the Brownian motion tends to enhance the tunneling. Whether the tunneling rate increases or not would then depend on the initial conditions. We give a specific formula to calculate the tunneling probability determined by various parameters and the initial conditions
Energy Dissipation Rate in an Agitated Crucible Containing Molten Metal
Li, Tao; Shimasaki, Shin-ichi; Narita, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Shoji
2017-10-01
The energy dissipation rate (EDR) is an important parameter for characterizing the behavior of inclusion coagulation in agitated molten metal. To clarify the inclusion coagulation mechanism, we review previous water model studies by particularly focusing on the relation between the impeller torque and the EDR of the fluid, which indicates the ratio of energy dissipated in the viscous medium to the energy inputted by the rotating impeller. In the present study, simulations coupled with experiments were performed to determine the relation between the torque and the effective EDR for water and liquid Al in crucibles with and without baffles.
Spectral signatures for swash on reflective, intermediate and dissipative beaches
Hughes, Michael G; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom E
2014-01-01
(reflective, intermediate and dissipative), with beach gradients ranging from approximately 1:6 to 1:60 exposed to offshore significant wave heights of 0.5–3.0 m. The ratio of swash energy in the short-wave (f > 0.05 Hz) to long-wave (f ... the three beach types. Swash energy at short-wave frequencies is dominant on reflective and intermediate beaches and swash at long-wave frequencies is dominant on dissipative beaches; consistent with previously reported spectral signatures for the surf zone on these beach types. The available swash spectra...
Construction of Lyapunov Function for Dissipative Gyroscopic System
Xu Wei; Ao Ping; Yuan Bo
2011-01-01
We introduce a force decomposition to construct a potential function in deterministic dynamics described by ordinary differential equations in the context of dissipative gyroscopic systems. Such a potential function serves as the corresponding Lyapunov function for the dynamics, hence it gives both quantitative and qualitative descriptions for stability of motion. As an example we apply our force decomposition to a four-dimensional dissipative gyroscopic system. We explicitly obtain the potential function for all parameter regimes in the linear limit, including those regimes where the Lyapunov function was previously believed not to exist. (general)
Dissipation and fluctuation of quantum fields in expanding universes
Morikawa, M.
1990-01-01
A stochastic dynamics of a long-wavelength part of a scalar field in an expanding universe is derived by using the influence functional method. Dissipation as well as fluctuation are derived for general parameters: a mass, a coupling to the scalar curvature, and a cutoff scale parameter. A dissipation-fluctuation relation is found with a temperature which is proportional to the Hawking temperature, but system dependent. The method is further applied to an expanding universe with a power law and yields the dispersion which agrees with that obtained by the regularization method. The back reaction to the background de Sitter space itself is also obtained
Evolution of wave function in a dissipative system
Yu, Li-Hua; Sun, Chang-Pu
1994-01-01
For a dissipative system with Ohmic friction, we obtain a simple and exact solution for the wave function of the system plus the bath. It is described by the direct product in two independent Hilbert space. One of them is described by an effective Hamiltonian, the other represents the effect of the bath, i.e., the Brownian motion, thus clarifying the structure of the wave function of the system whose energy is dissipated by its interaction with the bath. No path integral technology is needed in this treatment. The derivation of the Weisskopf-Wigner line width theory follows easily.
Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Quadir, G. A.
2016-01-01
The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T h and inside cold T c temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.
Heat treatment regularity for viscose products in plate scrapers heat exchanger
K. A. Rashkin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The current work describesthe construction of scraperplate-typeheat exchangerscurrently usedin industryand thetraffic patternof the productin it. Ananalytical model is represented and it is also posed the problemofthe analyticaldetermination ofthe requiredarea of heat exchangewith the use ofdifferential equations ofheat transfer in amovingliquid media, written in cylindrical coordinates, for symmetrical temperature distribution,without taking into accountthe energy dissipation.
Industrial waste heat utilization for low temperature district heating
Fang, Hao; Xia, Jianjun; Zhu, Kan; Su, Yingbo; Jiang, Yi
2013-01-01
Large quantities of low grade waste heat are discharged into the environment, mostly via water evaporation, during industrial processes. Putting this industrial waste heat to productive use can reduce fossil fuel usage as well as CO 2 emissions and water dissipation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic approach to the integrated and efficient utilization of low-grade industrial waste heat. Recovering industrial waste heat for use in district heating (DH) can increase the efficiency of the industrial sector and the DH system, in a cost-efficient way defined by the index of investment vs. carbon reduction (ICR). Furthermore, low temperature DH network greatly benefits the recovery rate of industrial waste heat. Based on data analysis and in-situ investigations, this paper discusses the potential for the implementation of such an approach in northern China, where conventional heat sources for DH are insufficient. The universal design approach to industrial-waste-heat based DH is proposed. Through a demonstration project, this approach is introduced in detail. This study finds three advantages to this approach: (1) improvement of the thermal energy efficiency of industrial factories; (2) more cost-efficient than the traditional heating mode; and (3) CO 2 and pollutant emission reduction as well as water conservation. -- Highlights: •We review situation of industrial waste heat recovery with a global perspective. •We present a way to analyze the potential to utilize industrial waste heat for DH. •Northern China has huge potential for using low-grade industrial waste heat for DH. •A demonstration project is introduced using the universal approach we propose. •It proves huge benefits for factories, heat-supply companies and the society
Juno, J.; Hakim, A.; TenBarge, J.; Dorland, W.
2015-12-01
We present for the first time results for the turbulence dissipation challenge, with specific focus on the linear wave portion of the challenge, using a variety of continuum kinetic models: hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell, gyrokinetic, and full Vlasov-Maxwell. As one of the goals of the wave problem as it is outlined is to identify how well various models capture linear physics, we compare our results to linear Vlasov and gyrokinetic theory. Preliminary gyrokinetic results match linear theory extremely well due to the geometry of the problem, which eliminates the dominant nonlinearity. With the non-reduced models, we explore how the subdominant nonlinearities manifest and affect the evolution of the turbulence and the energy budget. We also take advantage of employing continuum methods to study the dynamics of the distribution function, with particular emphasis on the full Vlasov results where a basic collision operator has been implemented. As the community prepares for the next stage of the turbulence dissipation challenge, where we hope to do large 3D simulations to inform the next generation of observational missions such as THOR (Turbulence Heating ObserveR), we argue for the consideration of hybrid Vlasov and full Vlasov as candidate models for these critical simulations. With the use of modern numerical algorithms, we demonstrate the competitiveness of our code with traditional particle-in-cell algorithms, with a clear plan for continued improvements and optimizations to further strengthen the code's viability as an option for the next stage of the challenge.
Tully-Fisher relation, galactic rotation curves and dissipative mirror dark matter
Foot, R., E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 Australia (Australia)
2014-12-01
If dark matter is dissipative then the distribution of dark matter within galactic halos can be governed by dissipation, heating and hydrostatic equilibrium. Previous work has shown that a specific model, in the framework of mirror dark matter, can explain several empirical galactic scaling relations. It is shown here that this dynamical halo model implies a quasi-isothermal dark matter density, ρ(r) ≅ ρ{sub 0}r{sub 0}{sup 2}/(r{sup 2}+r{sub 0}{sup 2}), where the core radius, r{sub 0}, scales with disk scale length, r{sub D}, via r{sub 0}/kpc ≈ 1.4(r{sub D}/kpc). Additionally, the product ρ{sub 0}r{sub 0} is roughly constant, i.e. independent of galaxy size (the constant is set by the parameters of the model). The derived dark matter density profile implies that the galactic rotation velocity satisfies the Tully-Fisher relation, L{sub B}∝v{sup 3}{sub max}, where v{sub max} is the maximal rotational velocity. Examples of rotation curves resulting from this dynamics are given.
Direct approach for the fluctuation-dissipation theorem under nonequilibrium steady-state conditions
Komori, Kentaro; Enomoto, Yutaro; Takeda, Hiroki; Michimura, Yuta; Somiya, Kentaro; Ando, Masaki; Ballmer, Stefan W.
2018-05-01
The test mass suspensions of cryogenic gravitational-wave detectors such as the KAGRA project are tasked with extracting the heat deposited on the optics. These suspensions have a nonuniform temperature, requiring the calculation of thermal noise in nonequilibrium conditions. While it is not possible to describe the whole suspension system with one temperature, the local temperature at every point in the system is still well defined. We therefore generalize the application of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to mechanical systems, pioneered by Saulson and Levin, to nonequilibrium conditions in which a temperature can only be defined locally. The result is intuitive in the sense that the thermal noise in the observed degree of freedom is given by averaging the temperature field, weighted by the dissipation density associated with that particular degree of freedom. After proving this theorem, we apply the result to examples of increasing complexity: a simple spring, the bending of a pendulum suspension fiber, and a model of the KAGRA cryogenic suspension. We conclude by outlining the application to nonequilibrium thermoelastic noise.
Heat pump system with selective space cooling
Pendergrass, J.C.
1997-05-13
A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.
Reversible dissipative processes, conformal motions and Landau damping
Herrera, L., E-mail: laherrera@cantv.net.ve [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao (Spain); Di Prisco, A., E-mail: adiprisc@fisica.ciens.ucv.ve [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao (Spain); Ibáñez, J., E-mail: j.ibanez@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao (Spain)
2012-02-06
The existence of a dissipative flux vector is known to be compatible with reversible processes, provided a timelike conformal Killing vector (CKV) χ{sup α}=(V{sup α})/T (where V{sup α} and T denote the four-velocity and temperature respectively) is admitted by the spacetime. Here we show that if a constitutive transport equation, either within the context of standard irreversible thermodynamics or the causal Israel–Stewart theory, is adopted, then such a compatibility also requires vanishing dissipative fluxes. Therefore, in this later case the vanishing of entropy production generated by the existence of such CKV is not actually associated to an imperfect fluid, but to a non-dissipative one. We discuss also about Landau damping. -- Highlights: ► We review the problem of compatibility of dissipation with reversibility. ► We show that the additional assumption of a transport equation renders such a compatibility trivial. ► We discuss about Landau damping.
Nonlinear von Neumann equations for quantum dissipative systems
Messer, J.; Baumgartner, B.
1978-01-01
For pure states nonlinear Schroedinger equations, the so-called Schroedinger-Langevin equations are well-known to model quantum dissipative systems of the Langevin type. For mixtures it is shown that these wave equations do not extend to master equations, but to corresponding nonlinear von Neumann equations. Solutions for the damped harmonic oscillator are discussed. (Auth.)
Nonlinear von Neumann equations for quantum dissipative systems
Messer, J.; Baumgartner, B.
For pure states nonlinear Schroedinger equations, the so-called Schroedinger-Langevin equations are well-known to model quantum dissipative systems of the Langevin type. For mixtures it is shown that these wave equations do not extend to master equations, but to corresponding nonlinear von Neumann equations. Solutions for the damped harmonic oscillator are discussed. (Author)
Mathematical Modeling for Energy Dissipation Behavior of Velocity ...
The developed oil-pressure damper is installed with an additional Relief Valve parallel to the Throttle Valve. This is intended to obtain an adaptive control by changing the damping coefficient of this damper using changeable orifice size. In order to simulate its actual energy-dissipating behavior, a serial friction model and a ...
Towards better integrators for dissipative particle dynamics simulations
Besold, Gerhard; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Karttunen, Mikko
2000-01-01
Coarse-grained models that preserve hydrodynamics provide a natural approach to study collective properties of soft-matter systems. Here, we demonstrate that commonly used integration schemes in dissipative particle dynamics give rise to pronounced artifacts in physical quantities such as the com...
The Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation with dissipative memory
Dell'Oro, Filippo; Mammeri, Y.; Pata, V.
2015-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 899-910 ISSN 1021-9722 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation * dissipative memory * exponential stability * nonlinear contraction semigroup Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.797, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00030-014-0308-8
Tracking the attenuation and nonbreaking dissipation of swells using altimeters
Jiang, Haoyu; Stopa, Justin E.; Wang, He; Husson, Romain; Mouche, Alexis; Chapron, Bertrand; Chen, Ge
2016-02-01
A method for systematically tracking swells across oceanic basins is developed by taking advantage of high-quality data from space-borne altimeters and wave model output. The evolution of swells is observed over large distances based on 202 swell events with periods ranging from 12 to 18 s. An empirical attenuation rate of swell energy of about 4 × 10-7 m-1 is estimated using these observations, and the nonbreaking energy dissipation rates of swells far away from their generating areas are also estimated using a point source model. The resulting acceptance range of nonbreaking dissipation rates is -2.5 to 5.0 × 10-7 m-1, which corresponds to a dissipation e-folding scales of at least 2000 km for steep swells, to almost infinite for small-amplitude swells. These resulting rates are consistent with previous studies using in-situ and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. The frequency dispersion and angular spreading effects during swell propagation are discussed by comparing the results with other studies, demonstrating that they are the two dominant processes for swell height attenuation, especially in the near field. The resulting dissipation rates from these observations can be used as a reference for ocean engineering and wave modeling, and for related studies such as air-sea and wind-wave-turbulence interactions.
Modeling the Thermosphere as a Driven-Dissipative Thermodynamic System
2013-03-01
8 Figure 2: Illustration of the geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinate system............15 Figure 3: Diagram of the...to test new methods of modeling the thermospheric environment. Thermosphere as a Driven-Dissipative Thermodynamic System One approach for modeling... approach uses empirical coupling and relaxation constants to model the 4 input of energy to the thermosphere from the solar wind during
On the dissipative Lax-Phillips scattering theory
Neidhardt, H.
1987-01-01
The paper is devoted to the characterization of all possible scattering matrices occurring in a dissipative Lax-Phillips scattering theory. The characterization is obtained in terms of an analytically unitary synthesis of a strongly measurable contraction-valued function which generalizes the notion of Darlingtom synthesis
Chaotic neoclassical separatrix dissipation in parametric drift-wave decay.
Kabantsev, A A; Tsidulko, Yu A; Driscoll, C F
2014-02-07
Experiments and theory characterize a parametric decay instability between plasma drift waves when the nonlinear coupling is modified by an electrostatic barrier. Novel mode coupling terms representing enhanced dissipation and mode phase shifts are caused by chaotic separatrix crossings on the wave-ruffled separatrix. Experimental determination of these coupling terms is in broad agreement with new chaotic neoclassical transport analyses.
The dissipative flow of superfluid helium-3 through capillaries
Kopnin, N.B.
1986-01-01
The equations are obtained which describe the behaviour of the chemical potential (pressure) of the superfluid helium-3 flowing through a narrow capillary, diffusively scattering boundaries being taken into consideration. The possibility is discussed whether the dissipation experimentally observed by Manninen and Pekola can be understood in terms of the phase-slip process
Fluctuation and dissipation in nonequilibrium quantum field theory
Ramos, Rudnei O.
1994-01-01
The nonequilibrium dynamics of a scalar field is studied using perturbation theory and a real time finite temperature formulation. The evolution equation for the scalar field is explicitly obtained, and terms responsible for noise (fluctuations) and dissipation are identified and studied in the high temperature limit. (author)