WorldWideScience

Sample records for heat application projects

  1. US heat pump research and development projects, 1976-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, K.H.

    1987-04-01

    This document, which is an updated version of US Heat Pump Research and Development Projects, published in August 1982 by the US Department of Energy, is a compilation of one-page summaries and publication and patent information for 233 individual research and development projects on heat pumps covering the years 1976 through 1986. The majority of the projects refer to heat pumps in space-conditioning applications. The document is intended to include information on all projects in the United States for which results are publicly available. Ten different indexes are included to aid the reader in locating specific projects.

  2. Advances in Nuclear Power Process Heat Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    Following an IAEA coordinated research project, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities related to practical nuclear process heat applications. An overview of current progress on high temperature gas cooled reactors coupling schemes for different process heat applications, such as hydrogen production and desalination is included. The associated safety aspects are also highlighted. The summary report documents the results and conclusions of the project.

  3. Prospects of HTGR process heat application and role of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, S.; Miyamoto, Y.

    2000-01-01

    At Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, an effort on development of process heat application with high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) has been continued for providing a future clean alternative to the burning of fossil energy for the production of industrial process heat. The project is named 'HTTR Heat Utilization Project', which includes a demonstration of hydrogen production using the first Japanese HTGR of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). In the meantime, some countries, such as China, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa are trying to explore the HTGR process heat application for industrial use. One of the key issues for this application is economy. It has been recognized for a long time and still now that the HTGR heat application system is not economically competitive to the current fossil ones, because of the high cost of the HTGR itself. However, the recent movement on the HTGR development, as represented by South Africa Pebble Beds Modular Reactor (SA-PBMR) Project, has revealed that the HTGRs are well economically competitive in electricity production to fossil fuel energy supply under a certain condition. This suggests that the HTGR process heat application will also possibly get economical in the near future. In the present paper, following a brief introduction describing the necessity of the HTGRs for the future process heat application, Japanese activities and prospect of the development on the process heat application with the HTGRs are described in relation with the HTTR Project. In conclusion, the process heat application system with HTGRs is thought technically and economically to be one of the most promising applications to solve the global environmental issues and energy shortage which may happen in the future. However, the commercialization for the hydrogen production system from water, which is the final goal of the HTGR process heat application, must await the technology development to be completed in 2030's at the

  4. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  5. Survey of heat-pipe application under nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuyuzaki, Noriyoshi; Saito, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Hishida, Makoto; Negishi, Kanji.

    1986-11-01

    Heat pipes today are employed in a wide variety of special heat transfer applications including nuclear reactor. In this nuclear technology area in Japan, A headway speed of the heat pipe application technique is not so high because of safety confirmation and investigation under each developing step. Especially, the outline of space craft is a tendency to increase the size. Therefore, the power supply is also tendency to increase the outlet power and keep the long life. Under SP-100 project, the development of nuclear power supply system which power is 1400 - 1600 KW thermal and 100 KW electric power is steadily in progress. Many heat pipes are adopted for thermionic conversion and coolant system in order to construct more safety and light weight system for the project. This paper describes the survey of the heat pipe applications under the present and future condition for nuclear environment. (author)

  6. Geothermal Direct Heat Application Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J

    1989-01-01

    The geothermal direct-use industry growth trends, potential, needs, and how they can be met, are addressed. Recent investigations about the current status of the industry and the identification of institutional and technical needs provide the basis on which this paper is presented. Initial drilling risk is the major obstacle to direct-use development. The applications presented include space and district heating projects, heat pumps (heating and cooling), industrial processes, resorts and pools, aquaculture and agriculture.

  7. Soil as natural heat resource for very shallow geothermal application: laboratory and test site updates from ITER Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sipio, Eloisa; Bertermann, David

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays renewable energy resources for heating/cooling residential and tertiary buildings and agricultural greenhouses are becoming increasingly important. In this framework, a possible, natural and valid alternative for thermal energy supply is represented by soils. In fact, since 1980 soils have been studied and used also as heat reservoir in geothermal applications, acting as a heat source (in winter) or sink (in summer) coupled mainly with heat pumps. Therefore, the knowledge of soil thermal properties and of heat and mass transfer in the soils plays an important role in modeling the performance, reliability and environmental impact in the short and long term of engineering applications. However, the soil thermal behavior varies with soil physical characteristics such as soil texture and water content. The available data are often scattered and incomplete for geothermal applications, especially very shallow geothermal systems (up to 10 m depths), so it is worthy of interest a better comprehension of how the different soil typologies (i.e. sand, loamy sand...) affect and are affected by the heat transfer exchange with very shallow geothermal installations (i.e. horizontal collector systems and special forms). Taking into consideration these premises, the ITER Project (Improving Thermal Efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers, http://iter-geo.eu/), funded by European Union, is here presented. An overview of physical-thermal properties variations under different moisture and load conditions for different mixtures of natural material is shown, based on laboratory and field test data. The test site, located in Eltersdorf, near Erlangen (Germany), consists of 5 trenches, filled in each with a different material, where 5 helix have been installed in an horizontal way instead of the traditional vertical option.

  8. Applications of New Chemical Heat Sources Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, William

    2001-01-01

    Report developed under Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract. This project has examined the application of new chemical heat sources, with emphasis on portable heaters for military field rations...

  9. Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. This advanced materials technology is being developed in parallel and close coordination with the ongoing DOE and industry proof of concept engine development programs. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to U.S. industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. Abstracts prepared for appropriate papers.

  10. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  11. Heat pumps for geothermal applications: availability and performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.; Means, P.

    1980-05-01

    A study of the performance and availability of water-source heat pumps was carried out. The primary purposes were to obtain the necessary basic information required for proper evaluation of the role of water-source heat pumps in geothermal energy utilization and/or to identify the research needed to provide this information. The Search of Relevant Literature considers the historical background, applications, achieved and projected performance evaluations and performance improvement techniques. The commercial water-source heat pump industry is considered in regard to both the present and projected availability and performance of units. Performance evaluations are made for units that use standard components but are redesigned for use in geothermal heating.

  12. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  13. Survey of high-temperature nuclear heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirch, N.; Schaefer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear heat application at high temperatures can be divided into two areas - use of high-temperature steam up to 550 deg. C and use of high-temperature helium up to about 950 deg. C. Techniques of high-temperature steam and heat production and application are being developed in several IAEA Member States. In all these countries the use of steam for other than electricity production is still in a project definition phase. Plans are being discussed about using steam in chemical industries, oil refineries and for new synfuel producing plants. The use of nuclear generated steam for oil recovery from sands and shale is also being considered. High-temperature nuclear process heat production gives new possibilities for the application of nuclear energy - hard coals, lignites, heavy oils, fuels with problems concerning transport, handling and pollution can be converted into gaseous or liquid energy carriers with no loss of their energy contents. The main methods for this conversion are hydrogasification with hydrogen generated by nuclear heated steam reformers and steam gasification. These techniques will allow countries with large coal resources to replace an important part of their natural gas and oil consumption. Even countries with no fossil fuels can benefit from high-temperature nuclear heat - hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting, nuclear steel making, ammonia production and the chemical heat-pipe system are examples in this direction. (author)

  14. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Reports technical effort by AlliedSignal Engines in sixth year of DOE/NASA funded project. Topics include: gas turbine engine design modifications of production APU to incorporate ceramic components; fabrication and processing of silicon nitride blades and nozzles; component and engine testing; and refinement and development of critical ceramics technologies, including: hot corrosion testing and environmental life predictive model; advanced NDE methods for internal flaws in ceramic components; and improved carbon pulverization modeling during impact. ATTAP project is oriented toward developing high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication to carry forward to commercial production by 'bridging the gap' between structural ceramics in the laboratory and near-term commercial heat engine application. Current ATTAP project goal is to support accelerated commercialization of advanced, high-temperature engines for hybrid vehicles and other applications. Project objectives are to provide essential and substantial early field experience demonstrating ceramic component reliability and durability in modified, available, gas turbine engine applications; and to scale-up and improve manufacturing processes of ceramic turbine engine components and demonstrate application of these processes in the production environment.

  15. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-04-01

    The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. The intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding.

  16. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 , as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  17. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  18. District Heating Demonstration project. Bydgoszcz, Poland, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The project was finished in January 1999. The present final report outlines the activities of the pilot project. The activities of the project were: Development of a general model or a design strategy for the modernisation of group substations; Training of selected staff in updated design and latest technologies; Comparing experiences from the reconstructed heat exchanger station with alternative solutions; Investigation of potential sources of financing for the modernisation of the district heating system based on a revised feasibility study. The development of a general model for the future design of the heat exchanger station and the substations resulted in a design guideline which was used for the design of the heat exchanger station. KPEC selected the heat exchanger station CC02, located in area B1, as the object for the heat exchanger reconstruction. The station supplies 42 substations in 20 dwelling houses with a total heat demand of 11 MW. The design of the reconstruction began in the autumn of 1996. The equipment was procured during the spring of 1997 and the bulk of the installation work was finished by October 1997. The appointed design engineer participated in two study tours to Denmark. During the implementation the project was enlarged with an addendum. The addendum consisted of a modernisation of twelve building substations. The monitoring programme was enlarged accordingly and the efficiency of the two solutions were compared and evaluated through the monitoring programme. Even though some of the data are rather limited, the monitoring programme reveals a tendency towards the substation modernisation being twice as efficient as the heat exchanger modernisation. The reconstruction of the heat exchanger station has indicated a heat saving potential of 10% whereas the substation project has indicated a heat saving potential of 20%. The project further shows a huge potential for power savings in the main pumps due to the automatic control. (EHS)

  19. Development of heat pump technology in eco-energy city project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omata, Tomio [New Energy Development Organization (Japan); Ogisu, Yoshihiro [Office of Eco-Energy City Project, Energy Conservation Center (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the New Sunshine Project conducted by MITI Japan, Eco-Energy City-Project covers the research area of utilization of industrial and municipal waste heat. For the further utilization of waste heat, several research programs are carried out for recovery and conversion of waste heat, transportation and storage of waste heat and final use of rather low temperature heat transported. Various types of heat driven heat pumps are developed in the Eco-Energy City Project. Concept of the Project is to utilize industrial and municipal waste heat for the city where energy demand is increasing. These heat pumps will contribute for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emission. (orig.)

  20. Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, E. Bruce [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, Tim [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Mardiat, Ed [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc., Kansas City, MI (United States)

    2011-12-31

    outages. TECO's operation is the largest Chilled Water District Energy System in the United States. The company used DOE's funding to help install a new high efficiency CHP system consisting of a Combustion Turbine and a Heat Recovery Steam Generator. This CHP installation was just part of a larger project undertaken by TECO to ensure that it can continue to meet TMC's growing needs. The complete efficiency overhaul that TECO undertook supported more than 1,000 direct and indirect jobs in manufacturing, engineering, and construction, with approximately 400 of those being jobs directly associated with construction of the combined heat and power plant. This showcase industrial scale CHP project, serving a critical component of the nation's healthcare infrastructure, directly and immediately supported the energy efficiency and job creation goals established by ARRA and DOE. It also provided an unsurpassed model of a district energy CHP application that can be replicated within other energy intensive applications in the industrial, institutional and commercial sectors.

  1. Project No. 6 - Replacement of the heating and steam plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At present the Ignalina NPP facilities and Visaginas town are supplied with heat and steam from the district heating facility at Ignalina NPP. A back-up system, dating from 1979, supplies heat and steam when the district heating system is under repair or in case of outages of units 1 and 2. The existing back-up system does no longer meet with applicable technical and safety standards. A breakdown of the back-up system might result in the interruption of the supply to Ignalina NPP of heat and steam necessary for a number of processes, including waste management. Reconstruction of the existing boiler houses is not economically viable option, nor recommendable, for safety reasons, as it would mean the temporary closing of the back-up system. Project activities includes the design, construction and commissioning of the proposed facility, including all licensing documentation

  2. Dust as a Working Fluid for Heat Transfer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, James G.

    2015-01-01

    The project known as "Dust as a Working Fluid" demonstrates the feasibility of a dust-based system for transferring heat radiatively into space for those space applications requiring higher efficiency, lower mass, and the need to operate in extreme vacuum and thermal environments - including operating in low or zero gravity conditions in which the dust can be conveyed much more easily than on Earth.

  3. Investigations of Heat Recovery in Different Refrigeration System Solutions in Supermarkets. Effsys2 project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawalha, Same; Chen, Yang

    2010-07-01

    Supermarkets are intensive energy consumers with constantly increasing number of installations. About 50 % of the energy consumption in the supermarket is absorbed by the refrigeration system to cover the cooling demands. Simultaneously, heating is needed in the supermarket where the rejected heat from the refrigeration system is usually higher than the needs. It is an interesting possibility to utilize the rejected heat from the refrigeration system to cover the heating needs in supermarkets. The objective of this project is to investigate the heat recovery performance of the new refrigeration system solutions in supermarket applications. The focus is on environmentally friendly systems with natural working fluids, mainly CO{sub 2} trans-critical systems. The project analyzes the temperature levels and capacities of rejected heat from different system solutions and investigates its matching with the heating needs in supermarkets. Using simulation tools this project also aims at defining the system solution/s which has good energy efficiency for simultaneous cooling and heat recovery.

  4. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  5. Port Graham Community Building Biomass Heating Design Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Patrick [Port Graham Village Corporation, Anchorage, AK (United States); Sink, Charles [Chugachmiut, Anchorage, Alaska (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Native Village of Port Graham completed preconstruction activities to prepare for construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system to five or more community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Project Description Native Village of Port Graham (NVPG) completed preconstruction activities that pave the way towards reduced local energy costs through the construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system. NVPG plans include installation of a GARN WHS 3200 Boiler that uses cord wood as fuel source. Implementation of the 700,000 Btu per hour output biomass community building heat utility would heat 5-community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Heating system is estimated to displace 85% of the heating fuel oil or 5365 gallons of fuel on an annual basis with an estimated peak output of 600,000 Btu per hour. Estimated savings is $15,112.00 per year. The construction cost estimate made to install the new biomass boiler system is estimated $251,693.47 with an additional Boiler Building expansion cost estimated at $97,828.40. Total installed cost is estimated $349,521.87. The WHS 3200 Boiler would be placed inside a new structure at the old community Water Plant Building site that is controlled by NVPG. Design of the new biomass heat plant and hot water loop system was completed by Richmond Engineering, NVPG contractor for the project. A hot water heat loop system running off the boiler is designed to be placed underground on lands controlled by NVPG and stubbed to feed hot water to existing base board heating system in the following community buildings: 1. Anesia Anahonak Moonin Health and Dental Clinic 2. Native Village of Port Graham offices 3. Port Graham Public Safety Building/Fire Department 4. Port Graham Corporation Office Building which also houses the Port Graham Museum and Head Start Center 5. North Pacific Rim Housing Authority Workshop/Old Fire Hall Existing community buildings fuel oil heating systems are to be retro-fitted to

  6. The projective heat map

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a simple dynamical model for a planar heat map that is invariant under projective transformations. The map is defined by iterating a polygon map, where one starts with a finite planar N-gon and produces a new N-gon by a prescribed geometric construction. One of the appeals of the topic of this book is the simplicity of the construction that yet leads to deep and far reaching mathematics. To construct the projective heat map, the author modifies the classical affine invariant midpoint map, which takes a polygon to a new polygon whose vertices are the midpoints of the original. The author provides useful background which makes this book accessible to a beginning graduate student or advanced undergraduate as well as researchers approaching this subject from other fields of specialty. The book includes many illustrations, and there is also a companion computer program.

  7. Inventory of existing heat pump projects and the use of solar energy for heat pumps in the Dutch house construction sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the title inventory is to learn from the experiences with heat pump projects in the Netherlands. Descriptions are given of practical experiences with heat pump applications in the last 15 years in the housing sector. Possible and feasible heat pump system concepts are analyzed and energy balances and energy consumption are calculated. Special attention is paid to the use of solar energy in combination with electric (compression) heat pumps. One of the most important bottlenecks is the method and availability of heat extraction: the choice for the different options is determined by investment costs, permission, regulations, and local conditions. 14 refs., 4 appendices

  8. Application of the Bowring correlation for calculating the critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.; Freitas, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The evaluation of the critical heat flux is of great importance for the nuclear reactor project, because it permits the verification of the safety margin with respect to fuel rod damage. This work presents a comparison of the original critical heat flux correlation proposed by Bowring with an alternative form derived from it presented in several papers. Very different results have been encountered from the application of the two correlation forms. Therefore, a criterious choice of the correlation form must be done avoid the violation of the project's safety margin. (Author) [pt

  9. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment

  10. Accounting for adaptation and intensity in projecting heat wave-related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Nordio, Francesco; Nairn, John; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D

    2018-02-01

    How adaptation and intensity of heat waves affect heat wave-related mortality is unclear, making health projections difficult. We estimated the effect of heat waves, the effect of the intensity of heat waves, and adaptation on mortality in 209 U.S. cities with 168 million people during 1962-2006. We improved the standard time-series models by incorporating the intensity of heat waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and estimating adaptation empirically using interactions with yearly mean summer temperature (MST). We combined the epidemiological estimates for heat wave, intensity, and adaptation with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model dataset to project heat wave-related mortality by 2050. The effect of heat waves increased with its intensity. Adaptation to heat waves occurred, which was shown by the decreasing effect of heat waves with MST. However, adaptation was lessened as MST increased. Ignoring adaptation in projections would result in a substantial overestimate of the projected heat wave-related mortality (by 277-747% in 2050). Incorporating the empirically estimated adaptation into projections would result in little change in the projected heat wave-related mortality between 2006 and 2050. This differs regionally, however, with increasing mortality over time for cities in the southern and western U.S. but decreasing mortality over time for the north. Accounting for adaptation is important to reduce bias in the projections of heat wave-related mortality. The finding that the southern and western U.S. are the areas that face increasing heat-related deaths is novel, and indicates that more regional adaptation strategies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Compact heat exchanger technologies for the HTRs recuperator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thonon, B.; Breuil, E.

    2001-01-01

    Modern HTR nuclear power plants which are now under development (projects GT-MHR, PBMR) are based on the direct cycle concept. This concept leads to a more important efficiency compared to the steam cycle but requires the use of high performance components such as an helium/helium heat exchanger called recuperator to guarantee the cycle efficiency. Using this concept, a net plant efficiency of around 50% can be achieved in the case of an electricity generating plant. As geometric constraints are particularly important for such a gas reactor to limit the size of the primary vessels, compact heat exchangers operating at high pressure and high temperature are attractive potential solutions for the recuperator application. In this frame, Framatome and CEA have reviewed the various technologies of compact heat exchangers used in industry. The first part of the paper will give a short description of the heat exchangers technologies and their ranges of application. In a second part, a selection of potential compact heat exchangers technologies are proposed for the recuperator application. This selection will be based upon their capabilities to cope with the operating conditions parameters (pressure, temperature, flow rate) and with other parameters such as fouling, corrosion, compactness, weight, maintenance and reliability. (author)

  12. District heating demonstration project. Swiecie, Poland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    In January 1997 the district heating company in Swiecie, Poland, was donated DKK 1.3 Mio. as a part of the environmental related energy sector programme by the Danish government for a demonstration project. The Danish consultancy company Carl Bro a/s was appointed to conduct the work. The project was finished in January 1999. The present final report outlines the activities of the demonstration project. The activities of the project were several. Carl Bro a/s elaborated tender documents and procured 79 heat meters for all the substrations in the city in order to prepare for the new energy law and a changed tariff system which was introduced in January 1999. Carl Bro a/s further supported ZEC Swiecie in the development of their new tariff system through information from Danish district heating companies. The demonstration project was designed in the first phase of the project. During the design period one engineer from Swiecie participated in a study tour to Denmark to learn about technical solutions to present problems in Poland. The training course focused on preparation of hot tap water. The site for the demonstation project was in the centre of Swiecie in a housing society located in Wojska Polskiego. The blocks 75 and 75A were selected for modernisation of the substations, and block no. 73 was appointed as a reference block in which only a heat meter was installed. Further, block 75A was equipped with thermostatic valves at all the radiators in the flats. The registered savings during the monitoring period were between 7% and 14%, and an increased comfort in the flats was observed. The housing society`s board of directors were so pleased with the project that by their initiative block no. 77 was refurbished in the same way as the blocks covered by the demonstration project. However, the activities were extended with individual heat meters and the introduction of a new tariff system for the block. The energy savings from this project were substantial, and today

  13. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  14. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  15. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L. [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC Canada), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  16. Application of heat pipes in nuclear reactors for passive heat removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Z.; Yetisir, M., E-mail: haquez@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a number of potential heat pipe applications in passive (i.e., not requiring external power) nuclear reactor heat removal. Heat pipes are particularly suitable for small reactors as the demand for heat removal is significantly less than commercial nuclear power plants, and passive and reliable heat removal is required. The use of heat pipes has been proposed in many small reactor designs for passive heat removal from the reactor core. This paper presents the application of heat pipes in AECL's Nuclear Battery design, a small reactor concept developed by AECL. Other potential applications of heat pipes include transferring excess heat from containment to the atmosphere by integrating low-temperature heat pipes into the containment building (to ensure long-term cooling following a station blackout), and passively cooling spent fuel bays. (author)

  17. Experience and Prospects of Nuclear Heat Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woite, G.; Konishi, T.; Kupitz, J.

    1998-01-01

    Relevant technical characteristics of nuclear reactors and heat application facilities for district heating, process heat and seawater desalination are presented and discussed. The necessity of matching the characteristics of reactors and heat applications has consequences for their technical and economic viability. The world-wide operating experience with nuclear district heating, process heating, process heat and seawater desalination is summarised and the prospects for these nuclear heat applications are discussed. (author)

  18. Minewater heat recovery project. Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-01

    This report consists of three sections: (1) Design, experimental testing and performance analysis of the 20-ft long DBHE (Downhole Bundle Heat Exchanger); (2) Modified design of mine water heat exchanger; and (3) Performance tests on mine water heat exchanger. Appendices summarize design calculations, discuss the scope of the work tasks, and present a diary of the progress throughout the research and development project.

  19. European research and development on HTGR process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl; Lensa, Werner von

    2003-01-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor represents a suitable and safe concept of a future nuclear power plant with the potential to produce process heat to be utilized in many industrial processes such as reforming of natural gas, coal gasification and liquefaction, heavy oil recovery to serve for the production of the storable commodities hydrogen or energy alcohols as future transportation fuels. The paper will include a description of the broad range of applications for HTGR process heat and describe the results of the German long-term projects ''Prototype Nuclear Process Heat Reactor Project'' (PNP), in which the technical feasibility of an HTGR in combination with a chemical facility for coal gasification processes has been proven, and ''Nuclear Long-Distance Energy Transportation'' (NFE), which was the demonstration and verification of the closed-cycle, long-distance energy transmission system EVA/ADAM. Furthermore, new European research initiatives are shortly described. A particular concern is the safety of a combined nuclear/chemical facility requiring a concept against potential fire and explosion hazards. (author)

  20. Application of dynamic response analysis to JET heat pulse data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griguoli, A.; Sips, A.C.C.

    1993-09-01

    The plasma dynamic response can be used to study transport processes in a tokamak plasma. A method has been developed for the application of dynamic response analysis to study perturbations away from the plasma equilibrium. In this report perturbations on the electron temperature following a sawtooth collapse in the center of the plasma are considered. The method has been used to find mathematical description of a series of heat pulses at the Joint European Torus project (JET). From the plasma dynamic response, the time constants which characterise the heat pulse are obtained. These time constants are compared to the transport coefficients found in previous analysis of the JET heat pulse data. Various methods are discussed for applying dynamic response analysis to JET heat pulse data. (author)

  1. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project: Semiannual progress report for April through September 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    An assessment of needs was completed, and a five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. Objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  2. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project. Semiannual progress report, April-September 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An assessment of needs was completed, and a five-year project plan was developed with input from private industry. Objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. Focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. The work described in this report is organized according to the following WBS project elements: management and coordination; materials and processing (monolithics, ceramic composites, thermal and wear coatings, joining); materials design methodology (contact interfaces, new concepts); data base and life prediction (time-dependent behavior, environmental effects, fracture mechanics, NDE development); and technology transfer. This report includes contributions from all currently active project participants.

  3. Dielectric heating. Industrial applications; Chauffage dielectrique. Applications industrielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussy, G. [Nancy-1 Univ. Henri Poincare, Dir. de Recherche 54 (France); Rochas, J.F. [Societe Sairem, 75 - Paris (France); Oberlin, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. de Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-11-01

    The heating of insulating or badly power conducting products using high frequency (HF) electromagnetic waves and microwaves (MW) is used in several industrial applications. This article presents some examples of conventional or recent applications of dielectric heating in the industry: 1 - selection criteria between HF and MW heating systems; 2 - HF applications: traditional applications (wood forming and sticking, welding of thermoplastic materials, drying of textile materials, correction of the humidity profile in the paper industry, end-baking of biscuits in the food industry), recent applications (over-moulding of automotive glazing materials, gluing and moulding of plastic parts in the automotive industry, drying of the coating of textile ropes), innovative applications; 3 - microwave applications: traditional applications (moderating of frozen meat by 915 MHz microwaves, drying of coatings on polystyrene or sand core models for foundry, pre-vulcanization of rubber sections, 2450 MHz pasteurization of pumpable products with morsels), examples of recent applications (continuous dehydration in vacuum, MW assisted granulator-dryers in the pharmaceutical industry, decontamination of hospital wastes), examples of innovative applications in the chemical sector, applications in progress; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  4. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  5. Low-temperature nuclear heat applications: Nuclear power plants for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The IAEA reflected the needs of its Member States for the exchange of information in the field of nuclear heat application already in the late 1970s. In the early 1980s, some Member States showed their interest in the use of heat from electricity producing nuclear power plants and in the development of nuclear heating plants. Accordingly, a technical committee meeting with a workshop was organized in 1983 to review the status of nuclear heat application which confirmed both the progress made in this field and the renewed interest of Member States in an active exchange of information about this subject. In 1985 an Advisory Group summarized the Potential of Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Application; the relevant Technical Document reviewing the situation in the IAEA's Member States was issued in 1986 (IAEA-TECDOC-397). Programme plans were made for 1986-88 and the IAEA was asked to promote the exchange of information, with specific emphasis on the design criteria, operating experience, safety requirements and specifications for heat-only reactors, co-generation plants and power plants adapted for heat application. Because of a growing interest of the IAEA's Member States about nuclear heat employment in the district heating domaine, an Advisory Group meeting was organized by the IAEA on ''Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Application: Nuclear Power Plants for District Heating'' in Prague, Czechoslovakia in June 1986. The information gained up to 1986 and discussed during this meeting is embodied in the present Technical Document. 22 figs, 11 tabs

  6. District heating rehabilitation project in Kaerdla on Hiiumaa, Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Kaerdla Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system with Danish technology, and thereby support and make it possible for the Municipality of Kaerdla to develop the district heating sector in Kaerdla and thereby also to reduce emissions of harmful gases to the environment, as well as making a much more rational and energy efficient system. The project would further on demonstrate the use of pre-insulated pipes, which are fully sealed against penetration of water as well as demonstrate the use of compact units as substations including weather compensation control systems for regulation of heat and hot tap water supply for the district heating consumers. Besides the project gives significantly decreases in energy consumption's and in the pollution from the production of energy, the objective of the project was also to put great stress on providing technical assistance to Kaerdla DH company, in order to make them capable in operation and maintenance of the new district heating system, and also to train the local operational staff in operation of the complete district heating system. The project will have a high demonstration value towards other towns in Estonia with similar problems and configurations of their heating systems. (EG)

  7. District heating rehabilitation project in Kaerdla on Hiiumaa, Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Kaerdla Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system with Danish technology, and thereby support and make it possible for the Municipality of Kaerdla to develop the district heating sector in Kaerdla and thereby also to reduce emissions of harmful gases to the environment, as well as making a much more rational and energy efficient system. The project would further on demonstrate the use of pre-insulated pipes, which are fully sealed against penetration of water as well as demonstrate the use of compact units as substations including weather compensation control systems for regulation of heat and hot tap water supply for the district heating consumers. Besides the project gives significantly decreases in energy consumption`s and in the pollution from the production of energy, the objective of the project was also to put great stress on providing technical assistance to Kaerdla DH company, in order to make them capable in operation and maintenance of the new district heating system, and also to train the local operational staff in operation of the complete district heating system. The project will have a high demonstration value towards other towns in Estonia with similar problems and configurations of their heating systems. (EG)

  8. White Pine Co. Public School System Biomass Conversion Heating Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Johnson

    2005-11-01

    The White Pine County School District and the Nevada Division of Forestry agreed to develop a pilot project for Nevada using wood chips to heat the David E. Norman Elementary School in Ely, Nevada. Consideration of the project was triggered by a ''Fuels for Schools'' grant that was brought to the attention of the School District. The biomass project that was part of a district-wide energy retrofit, called for the installation of a biomass heating system for the school, while the current fuel oil system remained as back-up. Woody biomass from forest fuel reduction programs will be the main source of fuel. The heating system as planned and completed consists of a biomass steam boiler, storage facility, and an area for unloading and handling equipment necessary to deliver and load fuel. This was the first project of it's kind in Nevada. The purpose of the DOE funded project was to accomplish the following goals: (1) Fuel Efficiency: Purchase and install a fuel efficient biomass heating system. (2) Demonstration Project: Demonstrate the project and gather data to assist with further research and development of biomass technology; and (3) Education: Educate the White Pine community and others about biomass and other non-fossil fuels.

  9. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  10. Ohmic Heating: Concept and Applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Nimratbir; Singh, A K

    2016-10-25

    Ohmic heating, also known as Joule heating, electrical resistance heating, and direct electrical resistance heating, is a process of heating the food by passing electric current. In ohmic heating the energy is dissipated directly into the food. Electrical conductivity is a key parameter in the design of an effective ohmic heater. A large number of potential applications exist for ohmic heating, including blanching, evaporation, dehydration, fermentation, sterilization, pasteurization, and heating of foods. Beyond heating, applied electric field under ohmic heating causes electroporation of cell membranes, which increase extraction rates, and reduce gelatinization temperature and enthalpy. Ohmic heating results in faster heating of food along with maintenance of color and nutritional value of food. Water absorption index, water solubility index, thermal properties, and pasting properties are altered with the application of ohmic heating. Ohmic heating results in pre-gelatinized starches, which reduce energy requirement during processing. But its higher initial cost, lack of its applications in foods containing fats and oils, and less awareness limit its use.

  11. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadorn, J.-C.; Renaud, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  12. High-performance heat pipes for heat recovery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Methods to improve the performance of reflux heat pipes for heat recovery applications were examined both analytically and experimentally. Various models for the estimation of reflux heat pipe transport capacity were surveyed in the literature and compared with experimental data. A high transport capacity reflux heat pipe was developed that provides up to a factor of 10 capacity improvement over conventional open tube designs; analytical models were developed for this device and incorporated into a computer program HPIPE. Good agreement of the model predictions with data for R-11 and benzene reflux heat pipes was obtained.

  13. Final Report for Project titled High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low-Cost Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Alahyari, Abbas [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Heat exchangers (HXs) are critical components in a wide range of heat transfer applications, from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Cooling) to automobiles to manufacturing plants. They require materials capable of transferring heat at high rates while also minimizing thermal expansion over the usage temperature range. Conventionally, metals are used for applications where effective and efficient heat exchange is required, since many metals exhibit thermal conductivity over 100 W/m K. While metal HXs are constantly being improved, they still have some inherent drawbacks due to their metal construction, in particular corrosion. Polymeric material can offer solution to such durability issues and allow designs that cannot be afforded by metal construction either due to complexity or cost. A major drawback of polymeric material is their low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5? W/mK) that would lead to large system size. Recent improvements in the area of filled polymers have highlighted the possibility to greatly improve the thermal conductivity of polymeric materials while retaining their inherent manufacturing advantage, and have been applied to heat sink applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to develop a robust review of materials for the manufacturing of industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. This review consisted of material identification, literature evaluation, as well as empirical and model characterization, resulting in a database of relevant material properties and characteristics to provide guidance for future heat exchanger development.

  14. Future risk assessment by estimating historical heat wave trends with projected heat accumulation using SimCLIM climate model in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Wajid; Amin, Asad; Fahad, Shah; Awais, Muhammad; Khan, Naeem; Mubeen, Muhammad; Wahid, Abdul; Turan, Veysel; Rehman, Muhammad Habibur; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ahmad, Shakeel; Hussain, Sajjad; Mian, Ishaq Ahmad; Khan, Bushra; Jamal, Yousaf

    2018-06-01

    Climate change has adverse effects at global, regional and local level. Heat wave events have serious contribution for global warming and natural hazards in Pakistan. Historical (1997-2015) heat wave were analyzed over different provinces (Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan) of Pakistan to identify the maximum temperature trend. Heat accumulation in Pakistan were simulated by the General Circulation Model (GCM) combined with 3 GHG (Green House Gases) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) (RCP-4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) by using SimCLIM model (statistical downscaling model for future trend projections). Heat accumulation was projected for year 2030, 2060, and 2090 for seasonal and annual analysis in Pakistan. Heat accumulation were projected to increase by the baseline year (1995) was represented in percentage change. Projection shows that Sindh and southern Punjab was mostly affected by heat accumulation. This study identified the rising trend of heat wave over the period (1997-2015) for Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan (provinces of Pakistan), which identified that most of the meteorological stations in Punjab and Sindh are highly prone to heat waves. According to model projection; future trend of annual heat accumulation, in 2030 was increased 17%, 26%, and 32% but for 2060 the trends were reported by 54%, 49%, and 86% for 2090 showed highest upto 62%, 75%, and 140% for RCP-4.5, RCP-6.0, and RCP-8.5, respectively. While seasonal trends of heat accumulation were projected to maximum values for monsoon and followed by pre-monsoon and post monsoon. Heat accumulation in monsoon may affect the agricultural activities in the region under study.

  15. Research on Comprehensive Evaluation Method for Heating Project Based on Analytic Hierarchy Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shenchao; Yang, Yanchun; Liu, Yude; Zhang, Peng; Li, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    It is effective to reduce haze in winter by changing the distributed heat supply system. Thus, the studies on comprehensive index system and scientific evaluation method of distributed heat supply project are essential. Firstly, research the influence factors of heating modes, and an index system with multiple dimension including economic, environmental, risk and flexibility was built and all indexes were quantified. Secondly, a comprehensive evaluation method based on AHP was put forward to analyze the proposed multiple and comprehensive index system. Lastly, the case study suggested that supplying heat with electricity has great advantage and promotional value. The comprehensive index system of distributed heating supply project and evaluation method in this paper can evaluate distributed heat supply project effectively and provide scientific support for choosing the distributed heating project.

  16. FOLA - the district heat supply project for the Olten-Aarau region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utzinger, E.

    1986-01-01

    The FOLA project envisages supply of nuclear power station heat via pipe lines to communities in the Olten-Aarau region. The project is introduced with reference to environmental and oil saving advantages. Heat from the nuclear power station steam circuit converted via heat exchangers would be transmitted through pressurised hot water pipe line networks to user communities for extraction by heat exchangers at consumer installations. Some network details are discussed. The exact supply area is not yet finalised, but estimated heat loading is about 150 MW. Following further studies a construction and operating company could be formed, and heat delivery could commence in 1989. (H.V.H.)

  17. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-98 (October--December 1997). It describes 216 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps and material for high school debates, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, electric power and snow melting. Research activities include work on model construction specifications of lineshaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, a comprehensive aquaculture developer package and revisions to the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 4) which was devoted entirely to geothermal activities in South Dakota, dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  18. Projecting Future Heat-Related Mortality under Climate Change Scenarios: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard; Wang, Xiaoming; Vaneckova, Pavla; FitzGerald, Gerard; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heat-related mortality is a matter of great public health concern, especially in the light of climate change. Although many studies have found associations between high temperatures and mortality, more research is needed to project the future impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of research and methods for projecting future heat-related mortality under climate change scenarios. Data sources and extraction: A literature search was conducted in August 2010, using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 through July 2010. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most projections showed that climate change would result in a substantial increase in heat-related mortality. Projecting heat-related mortality requires understanding historical temperature–mortality relationships and considering the future changes in climate, population, and acclimatization. Further research is needed to provide a stronger theoretical framework for projections, including a better understanding of socioeconomic development, adaptation strategies, land-use patterns, air pollution, and mortality displacement. Conclusions: Scenario-based projection research will meaningfully contribute to assessing and managing the potential impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. PMID:21816703

  19. Status of the R+D programme in the field of the heat carrying and heat transfer components of the PNP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausbeck, H.; Jansing, W.

    1984-01-01

    The PNP Project (Project Nuclear Process Heat) is described. It covers the status of research and development in the field of heat exchange and heat exchanger components; concept of plant for coal gasification; description of large scale test facilities and its components; and the time schedule for the project development

  20. Nuclear heating - a review of projects in several countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vymetal, L.

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of projects and studies of nuclear heat generation and district heating in the USSR, France, Sweden, Finland, USA, FRG, and CSSR. Attention is primarily paid to the nuclear sources, i.e., nuclear power and heating plants and special reactors for nuclear heating plants. The questions of heat transmission and costs are also dealt with. The review is based on the literature published between 1976 and 1979. An important source were materials from the conference on the use of low-potential heat from nuclear reactors held in Otaniemi (Finland) in 1977. (author)

  1. Conception of a heat storage system for household applications. Category: New product innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thomas [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany); Rammelberg, Holger U.; Roennebeck, Thomas [and others

    2012-07-01

    Almost 90% of the energy consumption of private households in Germany is used for heating. Thus, an efficient, sustainable and reliable heat management is one of the main challenges in the future. Heat storage will become a key technology when considering the daily, weekly, seasonal and unpredictable fluctuations of energy production with renewables. The storage of heat is much more volume- and energy-efficient as well as more economical than electricity storage. However, transport of heat over long distances is coupled with high losses, compared with electricity transport. Therefore, we propose the use of micro CHP in combination with volume-efficient and nearly loss-free heat storage to counteract electricity fluctuations. Focus of this contribution the conception of the large-scale project ''Thermal Battery'', funded by the European Union and the Federal State of Lower Saxony. The underlying principle is the utilization of reversible thermochemical reactions, such as dehydration and rehydration of salt hydrates for heat storage. The main goal is the development of a prototypical storage tank, which is capable of storing 80 kWh of heat with a system volume of less than 1 m{sup 3}. Importantly, the Vattenfall New Energy Services as a collaboration partner will support the development of an application-oriented heat storage device. This project is being carried out by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, chemists, physicists and environmental scientists.

  2. Extreme heat event projections for a coastal megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, L. E.; Gonzalez, J.

    2017-12-01

    As summers become warmer, extreme heat events are expected to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration. Large urban centers may affect these projections by introducing feedbacks between the atmosphere and the built environment through processes involving anthropogenic heat, wind modification, radiation blocking, and others. General circulation models are often run with spatial resolutions in the order of 100 km, limiting their skill at resolving local scale processes and highly spatially varying features such as cities' heterogeneous landscape and mountain topography. This study employs climate simulations using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model coupled with a modified multi-layer urban canopy and building energy model to downscale CESM1 at 1 km horizontal resolution across three time slices (2006-2010, 2075-2079, and 2095-2099) and two projections (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). New York City Metropolitan area, with a population of over 20 million and a complex urban canopy, is used as a case study. The urban canopy model of WRF was modified to include a drag coefficient as a function of the building plant area fraction and the introduction of evaporative cooling systems at building roofs to reject the anthropogenic heat from the buildings, with urban canopy parameters computed from the New York City Property Land-Use Tax-lot Output (PLUTO). Model performance is evaluated against the input model and historical records from airport stations, showing improvement in the statistical characteristics in the downscaled model output. Projection results are presented as spatially distributed anomalies in heat wave frequency, duration, and maximum intensity from the 2006-2010 benchmark period. Results show that local sea-breeze circulations mitigate heat wave impacts, following a positive gradient with increasing distance from the coastline. However, end of century RCP 8.5 projections show the possibility of reversal of this pattern, sea surface temperatures increase

  3. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, John E. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States); McDonald, Roger [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  4. Development of Direct-Use Projects: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.

    2011-01-01

    A geothermal direct-use project utilizes a natural resource, a flow of geothermal fluid at elevated temperatures, which is capable of providing heat and/or cooling to buildings, greenhouses, aquaculture ponds, and industrial processes. Geothermal utilization requires matching the varied needs of the user and characteristics of the resource in order to development a successful project. Each application is unique; guidelines are provided for the logical steps required to implement a project. Recommended temperature and flows are suggested for spas and pools, space and district heating, greenhouse and aquaculture pond heating, and industrial applications. Guidelines are provided for selecting the necessary equipment for successfully implementing a direct-use project, including downhole pumps, piping, heat exchangers, and heat convectors. Additionally, the relationship between temperature, flow rate, and the use of heat exchangers to provide heat to a space with hot water or hot air is provided for a number of applications, with suggested 'rules of thumb'.

  5. Projected Heat Wave Characteristics over the Korean Peninsula During the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongsoo; Olson, Roman; An, Soon-Il

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperatures globally, and consequently more frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves are likely to occur. Ambiguity in defining heat waves appropriately makes it difficult to compare changes in heat wave events over time. This study provides a quantitative definition of a heat wave and makes probabilistic heat wave projections for the Korean Peninsula under two global warming scenarios. Changes to heat waves under global warming are investigated using the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and 8.5 (RCP8.5) experiments from 30 coupled models participating in phase five of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project. Probabilistic climate projections from multi-model ensembles have been constructed using both simple and weighted averaging. Results from both methods are similar and show that heat waves will be more intense, frequent, and longer lasting. These trends are more apparent under the RCP8.5 scenario as compared to the RCP4.5 scenario. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, typical heat waves are projected to become stronger than any heat wave experienced in the recent measurement record. Furthermore, under this scenario, it cannot be ruled out that Korea will experience heat wave conditions spanning almost an entire summer before the end of the 21st century.

  6. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially.

  7. FRG sealed isotopic heat sources project (C-229) project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, I.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Project Management Plan defines the cost, scope, schedule, organizational responsibilities, and work breakdown structure for the removal of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) Sealed Isotopic Heat Sources from the 324 Building and placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC)

  8. Projections of Heat Waves Events in the Intra-Americas Region Using Multimodel Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Angeles-Malaspina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant accelerated warming of the Sea Surface Temperature of 0.15°C per decade (1982–2012 was recently detected, which motivated the research for the present consequences and future projections on the heat index and heat waves in the intra-Americas region. Present records every six hours are retrieved from NCEP reanalysis (1948–2015 to calculate heat waves changes. Heat index intensification has been detected in the region since 1998 and driven by surface pressure changes, sinking air enhancement, and warm/weaker cold advection. This regional warmer atmosphere leads to heat waves intensification with changes in both frequency and maximum amplitude distribution. Future projections using a multimodel ensemble mean for five global circulation models were used to project heat waves in the future under two scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Massive heat waves events were projected at the end of the 21st century, particularly in the RCP8.5 scenario. Consequently, the regional climate change in the current time and in the future will require special attention to mitigate the more intense and frequent heat waves impacts on human health, countries’ economies, and energy demands in the IAR.

  9. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program quarterly project progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the third quarter of FY98 (April--June, 1998). It describes 231 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with included requests for general information including material for high school and university students, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, spacing heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, snow melting and electric power. Research activities include work on model construction specifications for line shaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, and a comprehensive aquaculture developers package. A brochure on Geothermal Energy in Klamath County was developed for state and local tourism use. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 19, No. 2) with articles on research at the Geo-Heat Center, sustainability of geothermal resources, injection well drilling in Boise, ID and a greenhouse project in the Azores. Other outreach activities include dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisitions and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  10. Liquid metal targets for high-power applications : pulsed heating and shock hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    2000-01-01

    Significant interest has recently focused on the use of liquid-metal targets flowing with high velocities for various high-power nuclear and high-energy physics applications such as fusion reactor first-walls, the Spallation Neutron Source, Isotope Separation On Line, and Muon Collider projects. This is because the heat generated in solid targets due to beam or plasma bombardment cannot be removed easily and the resulting thermal shock damage could be a serious lifetime problem for long-term operation. More recently, the use of free or open flying-liquid jets has been proposed for higher-power-density applications. The behavior of a free-moving liquid mercury or gallium jet subjected to proton beam deposition in a strong magnetic field has been modeled and analyzed for the Muon Collider project. Free-liquid-metal jets can offer significant advantages over conventional solid targets, particularly for the more demanding and challenging high-power applications. However, the use of free-moving liquid-metal targets raises a number of new and challenging problems such as instabilities of the jet in a strong magnetic field, induced eddy-current effects on jet shape, thermal-shock formation, and possible jet fragmentation. Problems associated with shock heating of liquid jets in a strong magnetic field are analyzed in this study

  11. Heat sources for heat pumps in the energetic and economic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, Franziska; Fisch, M. Norbert; Schlosser, Mathias; Peter, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Because of the growing application of heat pumps also the number of potentially usable low-temperature heat sources and corresponding heat exchangers for heat-pump systems present in the market increases. Thereby products like energy fences, high-power piles, ore ice reservoir come into applications without any knowledge ab out their power or the cost-profit ratio. The optimized lay-out of the coupling to the building are however essential conditions in order to reach an energy-efficient and durable operation of the facilities. The research project ''future heat pump'' sponsored by the BMWi is dedicated to the energetic and economic evaluation of heat sources for heat pumps. In this connection a pre-check-tool for the preliminary selection of low-temperature heat sources and connected, suitable heat-exchange systems is developed and their actual status of development presented. The holistic, comparing consideration of the different heat sources and heat-exchanger systems is related among others to the power numbers of the heat pumps, the entry and withdrawal services of the heat-exchangers, and the general performance of the systems. Additionally an estimation of economic and ecologic aspects (investment and operation costs, CO_2 emissions) is made. Aim is the determination of the plausibility of applications and essential boundary conditions of single source systems. For the qualitative comparison in a project-accompanying monitoring different facilities and source systems are measurement-technically comprehended.

  12. The ADAM and EVE project: Heat transfer at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltendahl, U.; Harth, R.

    1980-01-01

    In the nuclear research plant at Juelich a new heating system is at present being developed as part of the Nuclear Long-distance Heating Project. Helium is heated up in a high-temperature reactor. The heat chemically converts a gas mixture in a reformer plant (EVE). The gases 'charged' with energy can be transported through tubes over any distance required at ambient temperatures. In a methanisation plant (ADAM) the gases react with one another, releasing the energy in the form of heat which can be used for heating air or water. (orig.) [de

  13. High Heat Load Diamond Monochromator Project at ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van aerenbergh, P.; Detlefs, C.; Haertwig, J.; Lafford, T. A.; Masiello, F.; Roth, T.; Schmid, W.; Wattecamps, P.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its outstanding thermal properties, diamond is an attractive alternative to silicon as a monochromator material for high intensity X-ray beams. To date, however, the practical applications have been limited by the small size and relatively poor crystallographic quality of the crystals available. The ESRF Diamond Project Group has studied the perfection of diamonds in collaboration with industry and universities. The group has also designed and tested different stress-free mounting techniques to integrate small diamonds into larger X-ray optical elements. We now propose to develop a water-cooled Bragg-Bragg double crystal monochromator using diamond (111) crystals. It will be installed on the ESRF undulator beamline, ID06, for testing under high heat load. This monochromator will be best suited for the low energy range, typically from ∼3.4 keV to 15 keV, due to the small size of the diamonds available and the size of the beam footprint. This paper presents stress-free mounting techniques studied using X-ray diffraction imaging, and their thermal-mechanical analysis by finite element modelling, as well as the status of the ID06 monochromator project.

  14. Heating Augmentation Due to Compression Pad Cavities on the Project Orion CEV Heat Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion CEV heat-shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and Mach 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  15. Geothermal Direct Heat Applications Program Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-25

    Because of the undefined risk in the development and use of geothermal energy as a thermal energy source, the Department of Energy Division of Geothermal Energy solicited competitive proposals for field experiments in the direct use of geothermal energy. Twenty-two proposals were selected for cost-shared funding with one additional project co-funded by the State of New Mexico. As expected, the critical parameter was developing a viable resource. So far, of the twenty resources drilled, fourteen have proved to be useful resources. These are: Boise, Idaho; Elko heating Company in Nevada; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Philip School, Philip, South Dakota; St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota; Utah Roses near Salt Lake City; Utah State Prison, Utah; Warm Springs State Hospital, Montana; T-H-S Hospital, Marlin, Texas; Aquafarms International in the Cochella Valley, California; Klamath County YMCA and Klamath Falls in Oregon; Susanville, California and Monroe, utah. Monroe's 164 F and 600 gpm peak flow was inadequate for the planned project, but is expected to be used in a private development. Three wells encountered a resource insufficient for an economical project. These were Madison County at Rexburg, Idaho; Ore-Ida Foods at Ontario, Oregon and Holly Sugar at Brawley, California. Three projects have yet to confirm their resource. The Navarro College well in Corsicana, Texas is being tested; the Reno, Moana, Nevada well is being drilled and the El Centro, California well is scheduled to be drilled in January 1982. The agribusiness project at Kelly Hot Springs was terminated because a significant archeological find was encountered at the proposed site. The Diamond Ring Ranch in South Dakota, and the additional project, Carrie Tingley Hospital in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico both used existing wells. The projects that encountered viable resources have proceeded to design, construct, and in the most advanced projects, to operate geothermal systems for

  16. Anthropogenic Heat Flux Estimation from Space: Results of the second phase of the URBANFLUXES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-04-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model is employed to improve the estimation of the net all-wave radiation balance, whereas the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM), adjusted to satellite observations is used to improve the estimation the estimation of the net change in heat storage. Furthermore the estimation of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes is based on the Aerodynamic Resistance Method (ARM). Based on these outcomes, QF is estimated by regressing the sum of the turbulent heat fluxes versus the available energy. In-situ flux measurements are used to evaluate URBANFLUXES outcomes, whereas uncertainties are specified and analyzed. URBANFLUXES is expected to prepare the ground for further innovative exploitation of EO in scientific activities (climate variability studies at local and regional scales) and future and emerging applications (sustainable urban planning, mitigation technologies) to benefit climate change mitigation/adaptation. This study presents the results of the second phase of the project and detailed information on URBANFLUXES is available at: http://urbanfluxes.eu

  17. High heat flux tests of mock-ups for ITER divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giniatulin, R.; Gervash, A.; Komarov, V.L.; Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Litunovsky, N.; Yablokov, N.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks in fusion reactor development is the designing, fabrication and high heat flux testing of actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs). At present, for the ITER divertor project it is necessary to design and test components by using mock-ups which reflect the real design and fabrication technology. The cause of failure of the PFCs is likely to be through thermo-cycling of the surface with heat loads in the range 1-15 MW m -2 . Beryllium, tungsten and graphite are considered as the most suitable armour materials for the ITER divertor application. This work presents the results of the tests carried out with divertor mock-ups clad with beryllium and tungsten armour materials. The tests were carried out in an electron beam facility. The results of high heat flux screening tests and thermo-cycling tests in the heat load range 1-9 MW m -2 are presented along with the results of metallographic analysis carried out after the tests. (orig.)

  18. Development and application of soil coupled heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu

    2017-05-01

    Soil coupled heat pump technology is a new clean heating mode, is the world's most energy efficient heating one of the ways. And because of the use of renewable geothermal resources with high heating performance so more and more people's attention. Although the use of soil-coupled heat pumps has been in use for more than 50 years (the first application in the United States), the market penetration of this technology is still in its infancy. This paper will focus on the development, characteristics and application of the coupled heat pump.

  19. Application of combined heat and power in Malaysia Industrial Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaredah Hashim; Faridah Mohd Taha

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is still working on continuing its economic growth especially in the industrial sector in order to achieve vision 2020. The rapid industrialization process has caused increment in the energy demand, which simultaneously increases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Energy efficient technologies are strongly needed for reducing the energy requirement and to avoid the depleting of energy resources. This project focused on the application of integrated resource planning (IRP) in industrial sector using Combined Heat and Power (CHP), as a strategy for Demand Side Management (DSM). This approach is another way for meeting near and future energy requirement in Malaysia's industrial sector. Two scenarios which are Business As Usual (BAU) and CHP were developed using End Use Model EUM), to forecast the energy demand and CO 2 emission in Malaysia's industries. The effectiveness of the proposed method is then simulated using Long Range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAP) software and Comparative Model for Projects of Engineering Economics and Energy Environmental Development (COMPEED) analysis. Evaluations were based on the potential of energy saving and CO 2 reduction. Scope of research was limited to pulp and paper industrial sub sector. The research data were extracted from Energy Audit Reports conducted by Malaysia Energy Center (PTM). An engineering calculation was demonstrated. Two designs of CHP applications for the pulp and paper industrial sector are according to heating and electricity sizing. It was found that the most energy efficient and CO 2 reduction for Malaysia's industrial sector is the CHP based on heating requirement. The method was found to be able of save fuel and GHG emission compared to the reference case. (author)

  20. Hydrothermal research and development assessment. Task Force report: projections for direct-heat applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Low and moderate temperature hydrothermal resources suitable for direct-heat applications have been identified in 37 states. The extent to which three resources might be used over the next 20 years were evaluated and the probable impact of Federal programs on hydrothermal resource utilization was assessed. The use types that comprise the bulk of the market were determined. Representative firms and municipalities were interviewed to determine their willingness to use hydrothermal energy, and to determine the investment decision criteria that would influence their actions. (MHR)

  1. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor as the basis for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity, hydrogen production, and process heat applications. The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. An intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding. This report describes the preliminary results of a scoping study that evaluated the diffusion welding process parameters and the resultant mechanical properties of diffusion welded joints using Alloy 800H. The long-term goal of the program is to progress towards demonstration of small heat exchanger unit cells fabricated with diffusion welds. Demonstration through mechanical testing of the unit cells will support American Society of Mechanical Engineers rules and standards development, reduce technical risk, and provide proof of concept for heat exchanger fabrication methods needed to deploy heat exchangers in several potential NGNP configurations.1 Researchers also evaluated the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools (Thermo-Calc and Dictra) in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using 15 {micro}m nickel foil as joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved

  2. Air source absorption heat pump in district heating: Applicability analysis and improvement options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting; Wang, Baolong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Applicability of air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) district heating is studied. • Return temperature and energy saving rate (ESR) in various conditions are optimized. • ASAHP is more suitable for shorter distance or lower temperature district heating. • Two options can reduce the primary return temperature and improve the applicability. • The maximum ESR is improved from 13.6% to 20.4–25.6% by compression-assisted ASAHP. - Abstract: The low-temperature district heating system based on the air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) was assessed to have great energy saving potential. However, this system may require smaller temperature drop leading to higher pump consumption for long-distance distribution. Therefore, the applicability of ASAHP-based district heating system is analyzed for different primary return temperatures, pipeline distances, pipeline resistances, supplied water temperatures, application regions, and working fluids. The energy saving rate (ESR) under different conditions are calculated, considering both the ASAHP efficiency and the distribution consumption. Results show that ASAHP system is more suitable for short-distance district heating, while for longer-distance heating, lower supplied hot water temperature is preferred. In addition, the advantages of NH 3 /H 2 O are inferior to those of NH 3 /LiNO 3 , and the advantages for warmer regions and lower pipeline resistance are more obvious. The primary return temperatures are optimized to obtain maximum ESRs, after which the suitable distances under different acceptable ESRs are summarized. To improve the applicability of ASAHP, the integration of cascaded heat exchanger (CHX) and compression-assisted ASAHP (CASAHP) are proposed, which can reduce the primary return temperature. The integration of CHX can effectively improve the applicability of ASAHP under higher supplied water temperatures. As for the utilization of CASAHP, higher compression ratio (CR) is better in

  3. The New S-RAM Air Variable Compressor/Expander for Heat Pump and Waste Heat to Power Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Jestings, Lee [S-RAM Dynamics; Conde, Ricardo [S-RAM Dynamics

    2016-05-23

    S-RAM Dynamics (S-RAM) has designed an innovative heat pump system targeted for commercial and industrial applications. This new heat pump system is more efficient than anything currently on the market and utilizes air as the refrigerant instead of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, leading to lower operating costs, minimal environmental costs or concerns, and lower maintenance costs. The heat pumps will be manufactured in the United States. This project was aimed at determining the feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing to make the heat exchanger device for the new heat pump system. ORNL and S-RAM Dynamics collaborated on determining the prototype performance and subsequently printing of the prototype using additive manufacturing. Complex heat exchanger designs were fabricated using the Arcam electron beam melting (EBM) powder bed technology using Ti-6Al-4V material. An ultrasonic welding system was utilized in order to remove the powder from the small openings of the heat exchanger. The majority of powder in the small chambers was removed, however, the amount of powder remaining in the heat exchanger was a function of geometry. Therefore, only certain geometries of heat exchangers could be fabricated. SRAM Dynamics evaluated a preliminary heat exchanger design. Although the results of the additive manufacturing of the heat exchanger were not optimum, a less complex geometry was demonstrated. A sleeve valve was used as a demonstration piece, as engine designs from S-RAM Dynamics require the engine to have a very high density. Preliminary designs of this geometry were successfully fabricated using the EBM technology.

  4. Estimating the potential for solar thermal applications in the industrial process heat market 1990-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeter, C.P.; Gray, E.E.; Carwile, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary evaluation of the potential domestic market for solar thermal energy supply technologies matched to industrial process heat applications. The study estimates current and projects future industrial process heat demand to the year 2030 by two-digit standard industrial classification code for the manufacturing industrial sector and discusses the potential to displace conventional fossil fuel sources such as natural gas with alternative sources of supply. The PC Industrial Model, used by DOE's Energy Information Administration in support of the National Energy Strategy (NES) is used for forecast industrial energy demand. Demand is disaggregated by census region to account for geographic variations in solar insolation, and by heat medium and temperature to facilitate end-use matching with appropriate solar energy supply technologies. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for flat plate collectors for low- temperature preheat applications, parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat, and parabolic dish technologies for high-temperature, direct heat applications. LEC is also developed for a conventional natural gas-fueled Industrial Process Heat (IPH) supply source assuming natural gas price escalation consistent with NES forecasts to develop a relative figure of merit used in a market penetration model

  5. Heat pipe applications for future Air Force spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahefkey, T.; Barthelemy, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the envisioned, future usage of high and low temperature heat pipes in advanced Air Force spacecraft. Thermal control requirements for a variety of communications, surveillance, and space defense missions are forecast. Thermal design constraints implied by survivability to potential weapons effects are outlined. Applications of heat pipes to meet potential low and high power spacecraft mission requirements and envisioned design constraints are suggested. A brief summary of past Air Force sponsored heat pipe development efforts is presented and directions for future development outlined, including those applicable to advanced photovoltaic and nuclear power subsystem applications of heat pipes

  6. Technical review of process heat applications using the HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.

    1976-06-01

    The demand for process heat applications is surveyed. Those applications which can be served only by the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) are identified and the status of process heat applications in Europe, USA, and Japan in December 1975 is discussed. Technical problems associated with the HTGR for process heat applications are outlined together with an appraisal of the safety considerations involved. (author)

  7. Manual heat pumps. Planning and projecting; Handbuch Waermepumpen. Planung und Projektierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Juergen

    2009-07-01

    The special value of this publication for planning and projecting of heat pump devices lays in an information processing independent of manufacturers: specialists of civil engineering receive so a fact source to compare as much as possible systems and possibilities. Furthermore renewable energy sources to change heating systems are presented - which is from advantage during times of high energy cost. Main topics on overview: ecological and economical aspects, introduction in refrigerating engineering, water-water heat pump devices, brake-water- and air-water heat pump devices, projecting of all required components as well as projecting examples (tasks and solutions). (orig./GL) [German] Der besondere Wert dieser Publikation zur Planung und Projektierung von Waermepumpenanlagen liegt in einer markenneutral gehaltenen Informationsaufbereitung: Fachkraefte der Baubranche erhalten so eine Faktenquelle zum Vergleichen moeglichst vieler Systeme und Moeglichkeiten. Zudem werden alternative Energiequellen zur Heizungsumstellung vorgestellt - was gerade in Zeiten hoher Energiekosten von grossem Vorteil ist. Schwerpunkte im Ueberblick: Oekologische und wirtschaftliche Aspekte, Einfuehrung in die Kaeltetechnik, Wasser-Wasser-Waermepumpenanlagen, Sole-Wasser-Waermepumpenanlagen, Luft-Wasser-Waermepumpenanlagen, Projektierung aller erforderlichen Komponenten sowie Projektierungsbeispiele (Aufgaben und Loesungen). (orig.)

  8. Temporal Compounding of Heat Waves in the Present and Projected Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J. W.; Dessy, J.; Vecchi, G. A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    The hazard of heat waves is projected to increase significantly with global warming, motivating much recent research characterizing various aspects of these extreme events. One less examined aspect of heat waves is their temporal structure. Here we first modify existing heat wave duration definitions to flexibly account for a variety of possible heat wave temporal structures (sequences of hot and cooler days). We then examine past heat waves associated with high mortality using observational reanalysis data, and note that many past heat waves might be better described as series of hot days compounded together with short breaks of cooler days in between. We employ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global climate model (GCM) simulations to compare the frequency of these compound heat waves in the present and projected future with higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Our results indicate that temporally compound heatwaves will constitute a greater proportion of heat wave risk with global warming. Via examining synthetic autoregressive model data, we propose that this phenomenon is expected when shifting the mean of a time series with some memory and noise. Notably, an increased proportion of compound events implies that vulnerability from prior hot days will play an increasingly large role in heat wave risk, with possible implications for both heat wave-related policy and preparedness.

  9. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of research activities, concerning heating systems, which were carried out in Sweden during 1991. The main subject areas dealt with under the gas technology group within the area of heating systems were catalytic combustion, polyethylene materials, and gas applications within the paper and pulp industries. A list is given of the titles of project reports published during 1991 and of those begun during that year. Under the Swedish Centre for Gas Technology (SGC), the main areas of research regarding gas applications were polyethylene materials, industrial applications and the reduction of pollutant emissions. A detailed list is given of research projects which were in progress or proposed by March 1992 under the heating system gas technology research group in Sweden. This list also presents the aims and descriptions of the methods, etc. (AB)

  10. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  11. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  12. Technical project of complex fast cycle heat treatment of hydrogenous coal preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Moiseev, V. A.; Andrienko, V. G.; Pileckij, V. G.; Urvancev, A. I.; Gvozdyakov, Dmitry Vasilievich; Gubin, Vladimir Evgenievich; Matveev, Aleksandr Sergeevich; Savostiyanova, Ludmila Viktorovna

    2015-01-01

    Problems of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation site creation in leading fast cycle heat treatment complex were considered. Conditions for effective use of electrostatic methods of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation were set. Technical project of heat treatment of milled hydrogenous coal preparation site was developed including coupling of working equipment complex on fast heat treatment and experimental samples of equipment being designed for manufacturing. It was ...

  13. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  14. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  15. Heat pump dryers theory, design and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Filho, Odilio

    2015-01-01

    Explore the Social, Technological, and Economic Impact of Heat Pump Drying Heat pump drying is a green technology that aligns with current energy, quality, and environmental concerns, and when compared to conventional drying, delivers similar quality at a lower cost. Heat Pump Dryers: Theory, Design and Industrial Applications details the progression of heat pump drying-from pioneering research and demonstration work to an applied technology-and establishes principles and theories that can aid in the successful design and application of heat pump dryers. Based on the author's personal experience, this book compares heat pump dryers and conventional dryers in terms of performance, quality, removal rate, energy utilization, and the environmental effect of both drying processes. It includes detailed descriptions and layouts of heat pump dryers, outlines the principles of operation, and explains the equations, diagrams, and procedures used to form the basis for heat pump dryer dimensioning and design. The author ...

  16. The Apatity nuclear heating plant project: modern technical and economic issues of nuclear heat application in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Romenkov, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally Russia is a country with advanced structure of centralized heat supply. Many thermal plants and heating networks need technical upgrading to improve their technical and economic efficiency. Fossil fuelled heating capacities have a negative influence on ecology, which can be seen especially in the northern regions of Russia. Furthermore, fossil fuel prices are rising in Russia. The above factors tend to intensify the need for alternative heat sources being capable of solving the problem. Nuclear heat sources may be the alternative. In this paper, the main features of a proposed NHP in the Murmansk region are summarized. (author)

  17. Projection of Heat Waves over China under Different Global Warming Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Luo, Yong; Huang, Jianbin; Zhao, Zongci

    2015-04-01

    Global warming targets, which are determined in terms of global mean temperature increases relative to pre-industrial temperature levels, have been one of the heated issues recently. And the climate change (especially climate extremes) and its impacts under different targets have been paid extensive concerns. In this study, evaluation and projection of heat waves in China were carried out by five CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) with a 0.5°×0.5° horizontal resolution which were derived from EU WATCH project. A new daily observed gridded dataset CN05.1 (0.5°×0.5°) was also used to evaluate the GCMs. And four indices (heat waves frequency, longest heat waves duration, heat waves days and high temperature days) were adopted to analyze the heat waves. Compared with the observations, the five GCMs and its Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) have a remarkable capacity of reproducing the spatial and temporal characteristic of heat waves. The time correlation coefficients between MME and the observation results can all reach 0.05 significant levels. Based on the projection data of five GCMs, both the median year of crossing 1.5°C, 2°C, 2.5°, 3°C, 3.5°C, 4°C, 4.5°C and 5°C global warming targets and the corresponding climate change over China were analyzed under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively. The results show that when the global mean surface air temperature rise to different targets with respect to the pre-industrial times (1861-1880), the frequency and intensity of heat waves will increase dramatically. To take the high emission scenario RCP8.5 as an example, under the RCP8.5 scenario, the warming rate over China is stronger than that over the globe, the temperature rise(median year) over China projected by MME are 1.77°C(2025), 2.63°C(2039), 3.39°C(2050), 3.97°C(2060), 4.82°C(2070), 5.47°C(2079) and 6.2°C(2089) under 1.5°C, 2°C, 2.5°C, 3°C, 3.5°C, 4°C and 4.5°C global warming targets, respectively. With the increase of the global

  18. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.) [de

  19. Uses of geothermal energy in Jordan for heating greenhouses; project proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.; Masarwah, Rober; Elkarmi, Fawwaz

    1993-08-01

    A proposal for the exploration of geothermal energy in Jordan for heating greenhouses. The report gives some background information on geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and outlines some on-going uses of geothermal energy in various parts of Jordan. The proposal is modelled on the 2664 square meter Filclair Super 9 Multispan greenhouse from France. The overall cost of the project involves three variables, the cost of the borehole, the cost of the greenhouse, and the cost of engineering services. The total cost ranges between three to four million dollars depending on the quantity and quality of information to be collected from the borehole. The advantages of geothermal heating compared with oil heating are emphasized. The project will enable geothermal heating and horticultural production to be monitored throughout the year, will produce data enabling rational and reliable water resources management, and will produce environmentally clean and efficient energy. (A.M.H.). 1 tab. 1 map

  20. Nuclear heat sources for cryogenic refrigerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, B.; Schock, A.; King, W.G.; Kline, T.; Russo, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    Spacecraft cryogenic refrigerators require thermal inputs on the order of 1000 W. First, the characteristics of solar-electric and radioisotope heat source systems for supplying this thermal input are compared. Then the design of a 238 Pu heat source for this application is described, and equipment for shipping and handling the heat source is discussed. (LCL)

  1. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    vary in the range 20-30%. There are several technologies available for onshore gas turbines (and low/medium heat sources) to convert the waste heat into electricity. For offshore applications it is not economical and practical to have a steam bottoming cycle to increase the efficiency of electricity...... production, due to low gas turbine outlet temperature, space and weight restrictions and the need for make-up water. A more promising option for use offshore is organic Rankine cycles (ORC). Moreover, several oil and gas platforms are equipped with waste heat recovery units to recover a part of the thermal...... energy in the gas turbine off-gas using heat exchangers, and the recovered thermal energy acts as heat source for some of the heat loads on the platform. The amount of the recovered thermal energy depends on the heat loads and thus the full potential of waste heat recovery units may not be utilized...

  2. Annex to Solar heat storages in district heating networks. Comprehensive list of Danish literature and R and D projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This annex relates to the report 'Solar heat storages in district heating networks', which has been elaborated to inform about the Danish experiences and findings on the use of central solar heating plants in district heating networks, especially with the focus on the development of the storage part of the systems. The report has been funded as part of the IEE PREHEAT cooperation and by Energinet.dk, project no. 2006-2-6750. (au)

  3. Project Portfolio Management Applications Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2006-01-01

    Many IT companies are running project simultaneously. In order to achieve the best results, they have to group to the project in portfolios, and to use specific software that helps to manage them. Project portfolio management applications have a high degree of complexity and they are very important for the companies that are using it. This paper focuses on some characteristics of the testing process for project portfolio management applications

  4. HTR's role in process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    Advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors create a number of new opportunities for nuclear process heat applications. These opportunities are based on the high-temperature heat available, smaller reactor sizes, and enhanced safety features that allow siting close to process plants. Major sources of value include the displacement of premium fuels and the elimination of CO 2 emissions from combustion of conventional fuels and their use to produce hydrogen. High value applications include steam production and cogeneration, steam methane reforming, and water splitting. Market entry by advanced high-temperature reactor technology is challenged by the evolution of nuclear licensing requirements in countries targeted for early applications, by the development of a customer base not familiar with nuclear technology and related issues, by convergence of oil industry and nuclear industry risk management, by development of public and government policy support, by resolution of nuclear waste and proliferation concerns, and by the development of new business entities and business models to support commercialization. New HTR designs may see a larger opportunity in process heat niche applications than in power given competition from larger advanced light water reactors. Technology development is required in many areas to enable these new applications, including the commercialization of new heat exchangers capable of operating at high temperatures and pressures, convective process reactors and suitable catalysts, water splitting system and component designs, and other process-side requirements. Key forces that will shape these markets include future fuel availability and pricing, implementation and monetization of CO 2 emission limits, and the formation of international energy and environmental policy that will support initiatives to provide the nuclear licensing frameworks and risk distribution needed to support private investment. This paper was developed based on a plenary

  5. City/industry/utility partnership leads to innovative combined heat and power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J. [Savage and Associates, Quesnel, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a combined heat and power (CHP) project that was launched in Quesnel, British Columbia. The CHP is being developed in phases in which new components will enter the system, providing added benefits. Hot oil from a sawmill bioenergy system will be used to heat lumber kilns, generate electricity at an Organic Rankine Cycle co-generation plant, and heat water for a District Energy Loop (DEL) to heat up to 22 existing buildings in the city as well as sawmill and planer buildings. The DEL piping would comprise a 5 kilometre loop. The energy would come from recovered sawmill space heating, recovered stack energy, and additional biomass energy. All of the district heating and 41 per cent of the power would be from heat recovered from the existing industrial operation. This bio-economy vision ultimately involves incorporating a biogas digester into the system to process food, regional organic waste, and pulp mill residuals, relying on bio-solids and heat from the mill. The fertilizer from the digester would then be used in a biomass plantation, which would provide materials to industry for many products, including bio-refining. This project evolved in response to concerns about the ecological effects and long-term economics of aggressive utilization of forest biomass. 15 figs.

  6. Solar heating and cooling of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, R. D.; Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Solar energy has been used for space heating and water heating for many years. A less common application, although technically feasible, is solar cooling. This paper describes the techniques employed in the heating and cooling of buildings, and in water heating. The potential for solar energy to displace conventional energy sources is discussed. Water heating for new apartments appears to have some features which could make it a place to begin the resurgence of solar energy applications in the United States. A project to investigate apartment solar water heating, currently in the pilot plant construction phase, is described.

  7. Geothermal direct-heat study: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    Potential applications of geothermal energy which would be compatible with the agricultural activities in the county were identified and a plan to attract potential users to the area was developed. The intent of the first effort was to identify general classifications of industries which could utilize geothermal heat in production processes. Two levels of analyses were utilized for this effort. Initially, activities relying on previously developed engineering and industrial concepts were investigated to determine capital costs, employment, and potential energy savings. Second, innovative concepts not yet fully developed were investigated to determine their potential applicability to the agricultural base of the county. These investigations indicated that the major potential applications of geothermal heat would involve industries related to food processing or other direct agriculture-related uses of raw materials produced or imported to the county. An implementation plan which can be utilized by the county to market direct heat applications was developed. A socioeconomics analysis examined the potential effects on the county from development of direct heat projects. The county's planning and permitting requirements for dirct heat projects were also examined.

  8. Software requirements, design, and verification and validation for the FEHM application - a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Z.V.; Robinson, B.A.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1997-07-01

    The requirements, design, and verification and validation of the software used in the FEHM application, a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer computer code that can simulate nonisothermal multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media, are described. The test of the DOE Code Comparison Project, Problem Five, Case A, which verifies that FEHM has correctly implemented heat and mass transfer and phase partitioning, is also covered

  9. Project Portfolio Management Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many IT companies are running project simultaneously. In order to achieve the best results, they have to group to the project in portfolios, and to use specific software that helps to manage them. Project portfolio management applications have a high degree of complexity and they are very important for the companies that are using it. This paper focuses on some characteristics of the testing process for project portfolio management applications

  10. Applications of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification at Walt Disney World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.J.; Dinh, K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and application of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification purposes. In HVAC applications, a heat pipe is used as a heat exchanger that transfers heat from the return air directly to the supply air. The air is pre-cooled entering the cooling coil and reheated using the same heat removed from the return air. While consuming no energy, the heat pipe lets the evaporator coil operate at a lower temperature, increasing the moisture removal capabilities of the HVAC system by 50% to 100%. WALT DISNEY WORLD is currently testing several heat pipe applications ranging from 1 to 240 tons. The applications include (1) water attractions (2) museums/artifacts areas (3) resort guest rooms and (4) locker rooms. Actual energy usage and relative humidity reductions are shown to determine the effectiveness of the heat pipe as an energy efficient method of humidity control

  11. Thermodynamic analysis and performance assessment of an integrated heat pump system for district heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, Reza; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    A Rankine cycle-driven heat pump system is modeled for district heating applications with superheated steam and hot water as products. Energy and exergy analyses are performed, followed by parametric studies to determine the effects of varying operating conditions and environmental parameters on the system performance. The district heating section is observed to be the most inefficient part of system, exhibiting a relative irreversibility of almost 65%, followed by the steam evaporator and the condenser, with relative irreversibilities of about 18% and 9%, respectively. The ambient temperature is observed to have a significant influence on the overall system exergy destruction. As the ambient temperature decreases, the system exergy efficiency increases. The electricity generated can increase the system exergy efficiency at the expense of a high refrigerant mass flow rate, mainly due to the fact that the available heat source is low quality waste heat. For instance, by adding 2 MW of excess electricity on top of the targeted 6 MW of product heat, the refrigerant mass flow rate increases from 12 kg/s (only heat) to 78 kg/s (heat and electricity), while the production of 8 MW of product heat (same total output, but in form of heat) requires a refrigerant mass flow rate of only 16 kg/s. - Highlights: • A new integrated heat pump system is developed for district heating applications. • An analysis and assessment study is undertaken through exergy analysis methodology. • A comparative efficiency evaluation is performed for practical applications. • A parametric study is conducted to investigate how varying operating conditions and state properties affect energy and exergy efficiencies.

  12. Largest heat project in Almere Poort, Netherlands. Waste heat as a heat source; Almere Poort heeft grootste warmteproject van Nederland. Restwarmte als bron van warmte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, P. [Marketing en Communicatie, NUON, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    With about 46,000 connected dwellings and nearly 700 large users, Almere has the largest heating project in the Netherlands. To enable the connection of over 11,000 new dwellings from the new housing district Almere Poort, Nuon is conducting an extensive project. Next to installing the longest underwater heat distribution grid, a new energy plant is also being realised. [Dutch] Met ongeveer 46.000 aangesloten woningen en bijna zevenhonderd grootverbruikers heeft Almere het grootste warmteproject van Nederland. Om ook de ruim elfduizend aansluitingen in nieuwbouwwijk Almere Poort op stadswarmte aan te sluiten voert energiebedrijf Nuon een omvangrijk project uit. Naast de aanleg van de langste warmtetransportleiding onder water, realiseert het een nieuwe energiecentrale.

  13. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  14. Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines. (authors)

  15. Thermal power generation projects ``Large Scale Solar Heating``; EU-Thermie-Projekte ``Large Scale Solar Heating``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, R.; Fisch, M.N. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is the preparation of the ``Large-Scale Solar Heating`` programme for an Europe-wide development of subject technology. The following demonstration programme was judged well by the experts but was not immediately (1996) accepted for financial subsidies. In November 1997 the EU-commission provided 1,5 million ECU which allowed the realisation of an updated project proposal. By mid 1997 a small project was approved, that had been requested under the lead of Chalmes Industriteteknik (CIT) in Sweden and is mainly carried out for the transfer of technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist die Vorbereitung eines Schwerpunktprogramms `Large Scale Solar Heating`, mit dem die Technologie europaweit weiterentwickelt werden sollte. Das daraus entwickelte Demonstrationsprogramm wurde von den Gutachtern positiv bewertet, konnte jedoch nicht auf Anhieb (1996) in die Foerderung aufgenommen werden. Im November 1997 wurden von der EU-Kommission dann kurzfristig noch 1,5 Mio ECU an Foerderung bewilligt, mit denen ein aktualisierter Projektvorschlag realisiert werden kann. Bereits Mitte 1997 wurde ein kleineres Vorhaben bewilligt, das unter Federfuehrung von Chalmers Industriteknik (CIT) in Schweden beantragt worden war und das vor allem dem Technologietransfer dient. (orig.)

  16. Heat-Related Mortality in a Warming Climate: Projections for 12 U.S. Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta P. Petkova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat is among the deadliest weather-related phenomena in the United States, and the number of heat-related deaths may increase under a changing climate, particularly in urban areas. Regional adaptation planning is unfortunately often limited by the lack of quantitative information on potential future health responses. This study presents an assessment of the future impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality in 12 cities using 16 global climate models, driven by two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions. Although the magnitude of the projected heat effects was found to differ across time, cities, climate models and greenhouse pollution emissions scenarios, climate change was projected to result in increases in heat-related fatalities over time throughout the 21st century in all of the 12 cities included in this study. The increase was more substantial under the high emission pathway, highlighting the potential benefits to public health of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Nearly 200,000 heat-related deaths are projected to occur in the 12 cities by the end of the century due to climate warming, over 22,000 of which could be avoided if we follow a low GHG emission pathway. The presented estimates can be of value to local decision makers and stakeholders interested in developing strategies to reduce these impacts and building climate change resilience.

  17. Heat-Related Mortality in a Warming Climate: Projections for 12 U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Elisaveta P.; Bader, Daniel A.; Anderson, G. Brooke; Horton, Radley M.; Knowlton, Kim; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Heat is among the deadliest weather-related phenomena in the United States, and the number of heat-related deaths may increase under a changing climate, particularly in urban areas. Regional adaptation planning is unfortunately often limited by the lack of quantitative information on potential future health responses. This study presents an assessment of the future impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality in 12 cities using 16 global climate models, driven by two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions. Although the magnitude of the projected heat effects was found to differ across time, cities, climate models and greenhouse pollution emissions scenarios, climate change was projected to result in increases in heat-related fatalities over time throughout the 21st century in all of the 12 cities included in this study. The increase was more substantial under the high emission pathway, highlighting the potential benefits to public health of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Nearly 200,000 heat-related deaths are projected to occur in the 12 cities by the end of the century due to climate warming, over 22,000 of which could be avoided if we follow a low GHG emission pathway. The presented estimates can be of value to local decision makers and stakeholders interested in developing strategies to reduce these impacts and building climate change resilience.

  18. Potential of low-temperature nuclear heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    At present, more than one third of the fossil fuel currently used is being consumed to produce space heating and to meet industrial needs in many countries of the world. Imported oil still represents a large portion of this fossil fuel and despite its present relatively low price future market evolutions with consequent upward cost revisions cannot be excluded. Thus the displacement of the fossil fuel by cheaper low-temperature heat produced in nuclear power plants is a matter which deserves careful consideration. Technico-economic studies in many countries have shown that the use of nuclear heat is fully competitive with most of fossil-fuelled plants, the higher investment costs being offset by lower production cost. Another point in favour of heat generation by nuclear source is its indisputable advantage in terms of benefits to the environment. The IAEA activity plans for 1985-86 concentrate on information exchange with specific emphasis on the design criteria, operating experience, safety requirements and specifications of heat-only reactors, co-generation plants and existing power plants backfitted for additional heat applications. The information gained up to 1985 was discussed during the Advisory Group Meeting on the Potential of Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Applications held in the Federal Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen, Switzerland in September 1985 and, is included in the present Technical Document

  19. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  20. Application study of the heat pipe to the passive decay heat removal system of the modular HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, K.; Okamoto, F.; Hayakawa, H.; Hayashi, T.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the applicability of the heat pipe to the decay hat removal (DHR) system of the modular HTRs, preliminary study of the Heat Pipe DHR System was performed. The results show that the Heat Pipe DHR System is applicable to the modular HTRs and its heat removal capability is sufficient. Especially by applying the variable conductance heat pipe, the possibility of a fully passive DHR system with lower heat loss during normal operation is suggested. The experiments to obtain the fundamental characteristics data of the variable conductance heat pipe were carried out. The experimental results show very clear features of self-control characteristics. The experimental results and the experimental analysis results are also shown. (author)

  1. Basic study for development of nuclear heat application systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Fumizawa, Motoo; Hishida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-05-01

    We need to intensely investigate real possibilities of nuclear heat application systems which exploit high potential of nuclear energy as a promising candidate of the future energy resource in the world. In this report, special interest was placed on coal reforming systems because we thought a compact heat source of nuclear power with a very high energy density might compensate the environmental problem caused by burning a great amount of coal. First, we reviewed state-of-the-art technologies for coal reforming technology with a special attention on coal gasification technologies. Based on these basic data, we proposed several nuclear coal reforming systems and discussed advantages and disadvantages of the systems. We also explored a model with which we could analyze nuclear heat application systems all together. In addition, we investigated possibility and effects of nuclear heat utilization systems producing chemical materials from carbon dioxide in flue gas of fossil fuel power plant. As a result, we showed nuclear heat application systems were useful. (author).

  2. Air pollution prevention through urban heat island mitigation: An update on the urban heat island pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, V.; Taha, H.; Quattrochi, D.; Luvall, J.

    1998-07-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the metropolitan landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, using less energy leads to reductions in emission of CO{sub 2}--a greenhouse gas--as well as ozone (smog) precursors such as NOx and VOCs. Because ozone is created when NOx and VOCs photochemically combine with heat and solar radiation, actions taken to lower ambient air temperature can significantly reduce ozone concentrations in certain areas. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three US cities. As part of the pilot, NASA will use remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. This information will be used by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) along with other data as inputs to model various scenarios that will help quantify the potential benefits of urban heat island mitigation measures in terms of reduced energy use and pollution. This paper will briefly describe this pilot project and provide an update on the progress to date.

  3. Heat transfer applications for the practicing engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view. The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, inclu

  4. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more wide-spread than the higher temperature resources used for electricity generation. The major areas of direct utilization are: heating of swimming pools and for balneology; space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture applications (greenhouse heating and crop drying); aquaculture applications; industrial processing; and geothermal heat pumps. Direct utilization projects are reported in 72 countries with an installed capacity of 28,268 MWt and annual energy use of 273,372 TJ (75,943 GWh) reported in 2005. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent trends are to combined geothermal heat and power projects in order to maximize the use of the resource and improve the economics of the project. With the recent increases in fossil fuel prices, it is estimated that direct utilizations will more than double in the next 10 years.

  5. Theoretical Support of Heat Exchanger Experiments of the EU-CONGA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Palomo, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the work carried out within the Work Package 5 of the CONGA project under the auspices of the European Union has been presented. Primarily focused on studying from a theoretical perspective the degradation of heat exchangers to be used in next generation of European reactor containments under accident conditions, and particularly the effect of aerosols, the objective has been met quite satisfactorily and the results can be summed up in three specific items: - A mathematical model of a mechanistic nature that has been encapsulated into a FORTRAN code (HTCFOUL) capable of simulating condensation heat transfer to a horizontal finned tube internally cooled. - A theoretical correlation depending upon non-dimensional variables and numbers which embodies most of the HTCFOUL physics and gives results not beyond 20% of actual HTCFOUL estimates. - A reasonable interpretation of the major measurements and observations obtained in the heat exchanger experiments performed within the Work Package 2 of the CONGA project. (Author) 55 refs

  6. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  7. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Federal assistance program. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-96. It describes 90 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment and resources. Research activities are summarized on low-temperature resource assessment, geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, development of a webpage, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  8. Heat sources for heat pumps in the energetic and economic comparison; Waermequellen fuer Waermepumpen im energetischen und wirtschaftlichen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockelmann, Franziska; Fisch, M. Norbert; Schlosser, Mathias; Peter, Markus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik

    2016-07-01

    Because of the growing application of heat pumps also the number of potentially usable low-temperature heat sources and corresponding heat exchangers for heat-pump systems present in the market increases. Thereby products like energy fences, high-power piles, ore ice reservoir come into applications without any knowledge ab out their power or the cost-profit ratio. The optimized lay-out of the coupling to the building are however essential conditions in order to reach an energy-efficient and durable operation of the facilities. The research project ''future heat pump'' sponsored by the BMWi is dedicated to the energetic and economic evaluation of heat sources for heat pumps. In this connection a pre-check-tool for the preliminary selection of low-temperature heat sources and connected, suitable heat-exchange systems is developed and their actual status of development presented. The holistic, comparing consideration of the different heat sources and heat-exchanger systems is related among others to the power numbers of the heat pumps, the entry and withdrawal services of the heat-exchangers, and the general performance of the systems. Additionally an estimation of economic and ecologic aspects (investment and operation costs, CO{sub 2} emissions) is made. Aim is the determination of the plausibility of applications and essential boundary conditions of single source systems. For the qualitative comparison in a project-accompanying monitoring different facilities and source systems are measurement-technically comprehended.

  9. Technology, applications and modelling of ohmic heating: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, K Shiby; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2014-10-01

    Ohmic heating or Joule heating has immense potential for achieving rapid and uniform heating in foods, providing microbiologically safe and high quality foods. This review discusses the technology behind ohmic heating, the current applications and thermal modeling of the process. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of heat generation in the system, the electrical conductivity of the food, electrical field strength, residence time and the method by which the food flows through the system. Ohmic heating is appropriate for processing of particulate and protein rich foods. A vast amount of work is still necessary to understand food properties in order to refine system design and maximize performance of this technology in the field of packaged foods and space food product development. Various economic studies will also play an important role in understanding the overall cost and viability of commercial application of this technology in food processing. Some of the demerits of the technology are also discussed.

  10. Quality assurance program plan for FRG sealed isotopic heat sources project (C-229)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanke, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This QAPP implements the Quality Assurance Program Plan for the FRG Sealed Isotopic Heat Sources Project (C-229). The heat source will be relocated from the 324 Building and placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC)

  11. Application of transient analysis methodology to heat exchanger performance monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampall, I.; Soler, A.I.; Singh, K.P.; Scott, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    A transient testing technique is developed to evaluate the thermal performance of industrial scale heat exchangers. A Galerkin-based numerical method with a choice of spectral basis elements to account for spatial temperature variations in heat exchangers is developed to solve the transient heat exchanger model equations. Testing a heat exchanger in the transient state may be the only viable alternative where conventional steady state testing procedures are impossible or infeasible. For example, this methodology is particularly suited to the determination of fouling levels in component cooling water system heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. The heat load on these so-called component coolers under steady state conditions is too small to permit meaningful testing. An adequate heat load develops immediately after a reactor shutdown when the exchanger inlet temperatures are highly time-dependent. The application of the analysis methodology is illustrated herein with reference to an in-situ transient testing carried out at a nuclear power plant. The method, however, is applicable to any transient testing application

  12. Regional heating patterns of RF hyperthermia applicators in phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.; Ruggera, P.S.; Samulski, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    An elliptical phantom (20 cm by 30 cm cross-section and 40 cm long) with a 1 cm fat layer filled with muscle material was used to compare the induced heating patterns of the NCDRH helical coil, a Henry Medical Magnetrode coil, both with a diameter of 35.6 cm, and the BSD Annular Phased Array System (APAS). Temperature profiles were taken in the midplane cross-sectional slice along the major and minor axes of the phantom. These profiles were measured with a Vitek thermistor probe and the associated specific absorption rates (SAR) were determined from this data. SAR curves for each applicator were obtained along the major and minor axes of the phantom. The depths of heating of the Magnetrode applicator are considerably smaller than those for the helical applicator. Heating patterns for the APAS can be highly variable and asymmetric depending on the frequency of operation and the location of the phantom within the APAS aperture. While the APAS requires a water bolus for good coupling, the NCDRH and Magnetrode coils need only to be air coupled for good phantom coupling. Both the helical applicator and APAS can provide significant heating in the central region of the phantom. However, the heating of the helical coil does not critically depend on the phantom loading

  13. Nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Hohn, H.; Schad, M.; Schwarz, D.; Singh, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a system for the application of high temperature heat from the HTR one must distinguish between the current generation and the use of process heat. In this respect it is important that the current can be generated by dual purpose power plants. The process heat is used as sensible heat, vaporisation heat and as chemical energy at the chemical conversion for the conversion of raw materials, the refinement of fossil primary energy carriers and finally circuit processes for the fission of water. These processes supply the market for heat, fuels, motor fuels and basic materials. Fifteen examples of HTR heat processes from various projects and programmes are presented in form of energy balances, however in a rather short way. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume II. Options for capturing the waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Options for utilizing the heated SRP effluent are investigated. The temperature and availability characteristics of the heated effluent are analyzed. Technical options for energy recovery are discussed. A number of thermodynamic cycles that could generate electrical power using the energy in the heated SRP effluent are described. Conceptual designs for SRP application of two attractive options are presented. Other direct uses for the heated effluent, as heat sources for agriculture and aquaculture options are discussed

  15. Waste-heat boiler application for the Vresova combined cycle plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicek, Z. [Energoprojekt Praha, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This report describes a project proposal and implementation of two combined-cycle units of the Vresova Fuel Complex (PKV) with 2 x 200 MWe and heat supply. Participation of ENERGOPROJECT Praha a.s., in this project.

  16. Climate change projections of heat stress in Europe: From meteorological variables to impacts on productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Ana; Kotlarski, Sven; Liniger, Mark A.

    2017-04-01

    Future climate change is likely to have important impacts in many socio-economic sectors. In particular, higher summer temperatures or more prolonged heat waves may be responsible for health problems and productivity losses related to heat stress, especially affecting people exposed to such situations (e.g. working under outside settings or in non-acclimatized workplaces). Heat stress on the body under work load and consequently their productivity loss can be described through heat stress indices that are based on multiple meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind and radiation. Exploring the changes of these variables under a warmer climate is of prime importance for the Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability communities. In particular, the H2020 project HEAT-SHIELD aims at analyzing the impact of climate change on heat stress in strategic industries in Europe (manufacturing, construction, transportation, tourism and agriculture) within an inter-sectoral framework (climate scientists, biometeorologists, physiologists and stakeholders). In the present work we explore present and future heat stress over Europe using an ensemble of the state-of-the-art RCMs from the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Since RCMs cannot be directly used in impact studies due to their partly substantial biases, a standard bias correction method (empirical quantile mapping) is applied to correct the individual variables that are then used to derive heat stress indices. The objectives of this study are twofold, 1) to test the ability of the separately bias corrected variables to reproduce the main characteristics of heat stress indices in present climate conditions and 2) to explore climate change projections of heat stress indices. We use the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) as primary heat stress index, considering two different versions for indoor (or in the shade, based on temperature and humidity conditions) and outdoor settings (including also wind and radiation). The WBGT

  17. State of the Art of helium heat exchanger development for future HTR-projects - HTR2008-58146

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, M.; Juergens, B.; Hurtado, A.; Knoche, D.; Tietsch, W.

    2008-01-01

    In Germany two HTR nuclear power plants had been built and operated, the AVR-15 and the THTR-300. Also various projects for different purposes in a large power range had been developed, The AVR-15, an experimental reactor with a power output of 15 MWel was operated for more than 20 years with excellent results. The THTR-300 was designed as a prototype demonstration plant with 300 MWel and should be the technological basis for the entire future reactor line. The THTR-300 was prematurely shut down and decommissioned because of political reasons. But because of the accompanying comprehensive R and D program and the operation time of about 5 years, the technology was proved and essential operational results were gained. The AVR steam generator was installed above the reactor core. The six THTR heat exchangers were arranged circularly around the reactor core, Both heat exchanger systems have been operated successfully and furthermore acted as a residual heat removal system. The technology knowledge and experience gained on these existing HTR plants is still available at Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH since Westinghouse is one of the legal successors of the former German HTR companies. As a follow-up project of THTR, the HTR-500 was developed and designed up to the manufacturing stage. For this plant additionally to the 8 steam generators, two residual heat removal heat exchangers were foreseen. These were to be installed in a ring around the reactor core. All these HTRs were designed for the generation of electricity using a steam cycle. Extensive research work has also been done for advanced applications of HTR technology e.g. using a direct cycle within the HHT project or generating process heat within the framework of the PNP project, Because of the critical attitude of the German government to the nuclear power in the past 20 years in Germany there was only a very limited interest in the further development of the HTR technology. As a consequence of the German

  18. Hybrid compression/absorption type heat utilization system (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimata, T.; Susami, S.; Ogawa, Y. [Research and Development Dept., EBARA Corp., Kanagawa pref. (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This research is intended to develop a 'hybrid compression/absorption type heat utilization system' by combining an absorption process with a compression process in one circulation cycle. This system can produce chilling heat for ice thermal storage by utilizing low-temperature waste heat (lower than 100 C) which is impossible to treat with a conventional absorption chiller. It means that this system will be able to solve the problem of a timing mismatch between waste heat and heat demand. The working fluid used in this proposed system should be suitable for producing ice, be safe, and not damage the ozone layer. In this project, new working fluids were searched as substitutes for the existing H{sub 2}O/LiBr or NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O. The interim results of this project in 1997, a testing unit using NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O was built for demonstration of the system and evaluation of its characteristics, and R134a/E181 was found to be one of the good working fluid for this system. The COP (ratio of energy of ice produced to electric power provided) of this system using R134a/E181 is expected to achieve 5.5 by computer simulation. The testing unit with this working fluid was built recently and prepared for the tests to confirm the result of the simulation. (orig.)

  19. A new impetus for developing industrial process heat applications of HTR in europe - HTR2008-58259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittner, D.; De Groot, S.; Griffay, G.; Yvon, P.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruer, J.; Angulo, C.; Laquaniello, G.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its high operating temperature (up to 850 deg. C with present technologies, possibly higher in the longer term), and its power range (a few hundred MW), the modular HTR could address a larger scope of industrial process heat needs than other present nuclear systems. Even if HTR can contribute to competitive electricity generation, this potential for industrial heat applications is the main incentive for developing this type of reactor, as it could open to nuclear energy a large non-electricity market. However several issues must be addressed and solved successfully for HTR to actually enter the market of industrial process heat: 1) as an absolute prerequisite, to develop a strategic alliance of nuclear industry and R and D with process heat user industries. 2) to solve some key technical issues, as for instance the design of a reactor and of a coupling system flexible enough to reconcile a single reactor design with multiple applications and versatile requirements for the heat source, and the development of special adaptations of the application processes or even of new processes to fit with the assets and constraints of HTR heat supply, 3) to solve critical industrial issues such as economic competitiveness, availability and 4) to address the licensing issues raised by the conjunction of nuclear and industrial risks. In line with IAEA initiatives for supporting non-electric applications of nuclear energy and with the orientations of the SET-Plan of the European Commission, the (European) HTR Technology Network (HTR-TN) proposes a new project, together with industrial process heat user partners, to provide a first impetus to the strategic alliance between nuclear and non-nuclear industries. End user requirements will be expressed systematically on the basis of inputs from industrial partners on various types of process heat applications. These requirements will be confronted with the capabilities of the HTR heat source, in order to point out possible

  20. Climate variability of heat wave and projection of warming scenario in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. Y.; Chien, Y. Y.; Su, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the climate variability of heat wave (HW) according to air temperature and relative humidity to determine trends of variation and stress threshold in three major cities of Taiwan, Taipei (TP), Taichung (TC) and Kaohsiung (KH), during in the past four decades (1971-2010). According to data available, the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) heat stress for the three studied cities was also calculated for the past (2003-2012) and simulated under the projected warming scenario for the end of this century (2075-2099) using ECHAM5/MPIOM-WRF (ECW) dynamic downscaling 5-km resolution Analysis showed that past decade (2001-2010) saw increase not only in number of HW days in all three cities but also the duration of each HW event in TP and KH. Simulation results revealed that ECW captures well the characteristics of data distribution in these three cities during 2003-2012. Under the A1B projection, ECW yielded higher WBGT in all three cities for 2075-2099. The WBGT in TP indicated that the heat stress for 50% of the days in July and August by 2075-2099 will be at danger level (WBGT ³ 31 °C). Even the median WBGT in TC and KH (30.91°C and 30.88°C, respectively), are close to 31°C. Hence, the heat stress in all three cities will either exceed or approach the danger level by the end of this century. Such projection under the global warming trend would necessitate adaptation and mitigation, and the huge impact of dangerous heat stress on public health merits urgent attention for Taiwan.

  1. DOE Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) Project is a multiphase undertaking seeking to demonstrate one or more operational HP-ICES by the end of 1983. The seven phases include System Development, Demonstration Design, Design Completion, HP-ICES Construction, Operation and Data Acquisition, HP-ICES Evaluation, and Upgraded Continuation. This project is sponsored by the Community Systems Branch, Office of Buildings and Community Systems, Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applicaions, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is part of the Community Systems Program and is managed by the Energy and Environmental Systems Division of Argonne Natinal Laboratory.

  2. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF HIGH FREQUENCY INVERTER FOR INDUCTION HEATING APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    SACHIN S. BANKAR; Dr. PRASAD M. JOSHI

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents modelling and simulation of high frequency inverter for induction heating applications. Induction heating has advantages like higher efficiency, controlled heating, safety and pollution free therefore this technology is used in industrial, domestic and medical applications. The high frequency full bridge inverter is used for induction heating, also MOSFET is used as a switching device for inverter and the control strategy used for inverter is Bipolar PWM control. The size ...

  3. Seminar on heat pump research and applications: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R.V. Jr. (ed.)

    1984-11-01

    This volume is a compilation of papers prepared by speakers at a seminar on heat pumps. The seminar was organized by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with Louisiana Power and Light Company and New Orleans Public Service, Inc. The seminar's purpose was to inform utility managers and engineers of the most recent developments in residential heat pump technology and applications. Statements by invited panelists on the outlook for heat pump technology are also included. The speakers, who represented key organizations in the heat pump area, including utilities, industry associations, manufacturers, independent research institutes, government, and EPRI, addressed the following topics: status of heat pump research and development, heat pump testing and rating; field monitoring of heat pumps; heat pump water heaters; heat pump reliability; and marketing programs for pumps. All papers, total of sixteen have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  4. Small reactors for low-temperature nuclear heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    In accordance with the Member States' calls for information exchange in the field of nuclear heat application (NHA) two IAEA meetings were organized already in 1976 and 1977. After this ''promising period'', the development of relevant programmes in IAEA Member States was slowed down and therefore only after several years interruption a new Technical Committee Meeting with a Workshop was organized in late 1983, to review the status of NHA, after a few new specific plans appeared in some IAEA Member States in the early 1980's for the use of heat from existing or constructed NPPs and for developing nuclear heating plants (NHP). In June 1987 an Advisory Group Meeting was convened in Winnipeg, Canada, to discuss and formulate a state-of-the-art review on ''Small Reactors for Low Temperature Nuclear Heat Application''. Information on this subject gained up to 1987 in the Member States whose experts attended this meeting is embodied in the present Technical Report. Figs and tabs

  5. 30 CFR 402.10 - Research-project applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... project title, project objectives, background information, research tasks, methodology to conduct the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research-project applications. 402.10 Section... PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Application, Evaluation, and Management...

  6. The Sydvaerme project: District heating from the Barsebeck nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, L.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a summary report of a study on district heating from Barsebeck Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden, prepared cooperatively by the cities of Malmoe, Lund, Helsingborg, Landskrona and the electric power company Sydkraft. A future number 3 generating set at the Barsebeck nuclear power station could be designed for combined production of heat and electric power. The generating set could be completed after 1983, and could then supply about 65% of total district heating requirements. The first stage of the investigation includes a proposal for a technically feasible solution, sufficiently detailed to permit both technical and economic evaluation of the project. (author)

  7. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  8. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

  9. Heat pipes. Design and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semeria, R.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipes are thermosiphons with vaporization where we can distinguish a boiler, a condenser, and eventually an adiabatic zone. To insure the returning liquid flow from the condenser to the boiler, surface tension forces, associated with the gravity forces, if need be, are used. For this, the condensing liquid is sucked by a capillary structure, generally situated against the inner wall. The review of the design methods, and particularly the prediction of the maximal performances shows the advantages and limitations of such devices. The main difficulties are technological for the heat pipes with high temperature liquid metals. The thermohydrodynamical limitations are: the maximum power which can be calculated by a balance between the friction forces and the active ones, the maximum heat flux leading to the dry-out of the evaporator, the critical conditions for the start up associated with the sonic conditions in the vapour phase. The description of heat pipes designed for some industrial applications (mainly for space) is given [fr

  10. Heat pipe thermodynamic cycle and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic cycle originating from extended application of the heat pipe principle is proposed and its thermal cycle is discussed from the viewpoint of theoretical thermal efficiency and Coefficient of Performance. An idealized structure that will meet the basic function for thermal systems is also suggested. A significant advantage of these systems is their use with lowtemperature energy sources found in nature or heat rejected from industrial sites

  11. Heat Mining or Replenishable Geothermal Energy? A Project for Advanced-Level Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Pam

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of low enthalpy geothermal (LEG) energy schemes, whereby heated water is extracted from sandstone aquifers for civic heating projects. While prevalent in countries with volcanic activity, a recently proposed scheme for Manchester offered the perfect opportunity to engage students in the viability of this form…

  12. Solar energy for process heat: Design/cost studies of four industrial retrofit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. L.; Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Five specific California plants with potentially attractive solar applications were identified in a process heat survey. These five plants were visited, process requirements evaluated, and conceptual solar system designs were generated. Four DOE (ERDA) sponsored solar energy system demonstration projects were also reviewed and compared to the design/cost cases included in this report. In four of the five cases investigated, retrofit installations providing significant amounts of thermal energy were found to be feasible. The fifth was rejected because of the condition of the building involved, but the process (soap making) appears to be an attractive potential solar application. Costs, however, tend to be high. Several potential areas for cost reduction were identified including larger collector modules and higher duty cycles.

  13. Optimisation of heat transformers for an economical utilisation of waste heat. Project Pt. C: Investigation of appropriate application possibilities for heat transforming processes including the characterisation of waste heat potentials. Final report; Optimierung von Waermetransformatoren zur wirtschaftlichen Nutzung von Abwaerme. Teilprojekt C: Untersuchung geeigneter Einsatzmoeglichkeiten fuer Waermetransformationsprozesse einschliesslich der Charakterisierung von Abwaermepotentialen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-27

    The aim of this project was to carry out energetic analysis of typical technical processes in the industrial field, in which low-temperature heat is used. In the frame of these experiments waste heat potentials of the production process were discovered. Furthermore the possibilities of refeeding the waste heat by means of heat transformation plants was investigated. The application of absorption heat transformers or absorption heat pumps is linked to technical marginal conditions, which have to be clarified in the frame of an energetic analysis. The waste heat resulting from processes between 60 and 100 C can be heated to temperatures between 100 and 140 C especially by absorption circuit processes. The incorporation of this enhanced waste heat into the technology was a further aim of the experiments, which is demonstrated by several examples. By means of an absorption heat transformer (performance number {epsilon} = 0,49) a reduction of heating steam of approx. 40% and an amortisation time of five years were achieved. The same result was achieved at the sugar crystallisation in a sugar factory. In the fruit juice industry the exhaust vapours can be used to heat the fruit juice by means of an absorption circuit for heat recovery. Thus it was possible to save energy costs of 360000 DM during one fruit harvest. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Ein Ziel des bearbeiteten Projektes war es, energetische Analysen typischer technologischer Prozesse in der Industrie durchzufuehren, bei denen Niedertemperaturwaerme eingesetzt wird. Innerhalb dieser Untersuchungen wurden Abwaermepotentiale des Produktionsprozesses aufgedeckt. Im weiteren sollten Moeglichkeiten der Wiedereinkopplung von Abwaerme mit Hilfe von Waermetransformationsanlagen ermittelt werden. Der Einsatz von Absorptionswaermetransformatoren oder Absorptionswaermepumpen ist an technologische Randbedingungen geknuepft, die im Rahmen einer energetischen Analyse geklaert werden muessen. Die anfallende Abwaerme der Prozesse

  14. Heat pumps: Industrial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, and applications of heat pumps for industrial processes. Included are thermal energy exchanges based on air-to-air, ground-coupled, air-to-water, and water-to-water systems. Specific applications include industrial process heat, drying, district heating, and waste processing plants. Other Published Searches in this series cover heat pump technology and economics, and heat pumps for residential and commercial applications. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Heat pumps: Industrial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, and applications of heat pumps for industrial processes. Included are thermal energy exchanges based on air-to-air, ground-coupled, air-to-water, and water-to-water systems. Specific applications include industrial process heat, drying, district heating, and waste processing plants. Other Published Searches in this series cover heat pump technology and economics, and heat pumps for residential and commercial applications. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. District heating for Switzerland - Project development; Projektentwicklung Fernwaerme Schweiz - Abwaermenutzung aus (de)zentralen Quellen der Industrie und Umwelt (Schlussbericht Projektphase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppermann, G. [Verband Fernwaerme Schweiz, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland); Gutzwiller, S. [Eicher und Pauli AG, Planer fuer Energie- und Gebaeudetechnik, Liestal (Switzerland); Mueller, E. A. [EnergieSchweiz fuer Infrastrukturanlagen, Berne (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This final report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the achievements of the first phase of a project concerning district heating systems in Switzerland. The Swiss District Heating Association (VFS) aims to initiate district heating projects using a four-phase project. Phase 1 involved the identification of potential projects: Locations for the use of waste heat, environmental heat, wood and biomass were identified. The further phases will involve possible investors, the development of concrete projects and, finally, their realisation. The report describes work to be done, the project organisation, presents basic data needed for the project phases, discusses regional planning aspects, reviews aids such as GPS data and 'excel' spread sheets and geographic aspects. Further topics addressed in the report include results achieved, the search for investors and external communication. The report is completed with recommendations and four appendices.

  17. Expert system application education project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  18. Projection scheme for a reflected stochastic heat equation with additive noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Arturo Kohatsu; Pettersson, Roger

    2005-02-01

    We consider a projection scheme as a numerical solution of a reflected stochastic heat equation driven by a space-time white noise. Convergence is obtained via a discrete contraction principle and known convergence results for numerical solutions of parabolic variational inequalities.

  19. Application of intensified heat transfer for the retrofit of heat exchanger network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufei; Pan, Ming; Bulatov, Igor; Smith, Robin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Novel design approach for the retrofit of HEN based on intensified heat transfer. → Development of a mathematical model to evaluate shell-and-tube heat exchanger performances. → Identification of the most appropriate heat exchangers requiring heat transfer enhancements in the heat exchanger network. -- Abstract: A number of design methods have been proposed for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks (HEN) during the last three decades. Although considerable potential for energy savings can be identified from conventional retrofit approaches, the proposed solutions have rarely been adopted in practice, due to significant topology modifications required and resulting engineering complexities during implementation. The intensification of heat transfer for conventional shell-and-tube heat exchangers can eliminate the difficulties of implementing retrofit in HEN which are commonly restricted by topology, safety and maintenance constraints, and includes high capital costs for replacing equipment and pipelines. This paper presents a novel design approach to solve HEN retrofit problems based on heat transfer enhancement. A mathematical model has been developed to evaluate shell-and-tube heat exchanger performances, with which heat-transfer coefficients and pressure drops for both fluids in tube and shell sides are obtained. The developed models have been compared with the Bell-Delaware, simplified Tinker and Wills-Johnston methods and tested with the HTRI (registered) and HEXTRAN (registered) software packages. This demonstrates that the new model is much simpler but can give reliable results in most cases. For the debottlenecking of HEN, four heuristic rules are proposed to identify the most appropriate heat exchangers requiring heat transfer enhancements in the HEN. The application of this new design approach allows a significant improvement in energy recovery without fundamental structural modifications to the network.

  20. The process behind the project 'houses without heating system' in Goeteborg, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). The Tema Inst., Dept. of Technology and Social Change

    2003-07-01

    In the outskirts of Goeteborg, Sweden, twenty terrace houses were constructed throughout 2001. The spectacular thing about these houses is that no traditional heating systems were installed. The commercial's catch phrase is: 'Houses without heating systems'. Following this project from the beginning and through the whole process, including the long planning procedure (between 1997-1999), the professional actors (the initiator, the building proprietor, the contractor and the researchers), come into focus. This is a unique project in Sweden and has not yet had any follow-up developments. The evaluation, mainly including measurements, is being conducted by a research Inst. and will be finalised in 2003. The theoretical approach is as described in socio-technical system and focuses on social and technical components. The point of departure for the study is the social subsystem and the process behind the project which is important in understanding the final outcome. The study focuses on how and why this project was conducted. Initially, one person's ideas, inspired by building projects abroad were crucial. These ideas were then spread to a network constituting of researchers, the building proprietor, the contractor and the builders, and other consultants. The process can be described as a social innovation since a new concept for heating in buildings is introduced by focusing on the planning process and new participating actors.

  1. Application of induction heating in food processing and cooking: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction heating is an electromagnetic heating technology that has several advantages such as high safety, scalability, and high energy efficiency. It has been applied for a long time in metal processing, medical applications, and cooking. However, the application of this technology in the food pro...

  2. Research on application of carbon fiber heating material in clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanhong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of society, the way of keeping warm clothing is also developing. Carbon fiber has the advantages of high efficiency, safety, mobility and comfort. As a heating element, it has good application prospect. In this paper, the main technology, application issues and design method of carbon fiber heating garment are analyzed, and the key problems in industrialization are also put forward.

  3. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankins, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

  4. Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argabright, T.A.

    1982-02-01

    The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

  5. Projection of heat waves over China for eight different global warming targets using 12 CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci; Xu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Simulation and projection of the characteristics of heat waves over China were investigated using 12 CMIP5 global climate models and the CN05.1 observational gridded dataset. Four heat wave indices (heat wave frequency, longest heat wave duration, heat wave days, and high temperature days) were adopted in the analysis. Evaluations of the 12 CMIP5 models and their ensemble indicated that the multi-model ensemble could capture the spatiotemporal characteristics of heat wave variation over China. The inter-decadal variations of heat waves during 1961-2005 can be well simulated by multi-model ensemble. Based on model projections, the features of heat waves over China for eight different global warming targets (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 °C) were explored. The results showed that the frequency and intensity of heat waves would increase more dramatically as the global mean temperature rise attained higher warming targets. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the four China-averaged heat wave indices would increase from about 1.0 times/year, 2.5, 5.4, and 13.8 days/year to about 3.2 times/year, 14.0, 32.0, and 31.9 days/year for 1.5 and 5.0 °C warming targets, respectively. Those regions that suffer severe heat waves in the base climate would experience the heat waves with greater frequency and severity following global temperature rise. It is also noteworthy that the areas in which a greater number of severe heat waves occur displayed considerable expansion. Moreover, the model uncertainties exhibit a gradual enhancement with projected time extending from 2006 to 2099.

  6. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  7. Application of ground-to-air heat exchanger for preheating of supply air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokins, Juris; Borodinecs, Anatolijs; Zemitis, Jurgis

    2017-10-01

    This study focuses on assessing the contribution of the passive ground-coupled air heat exchanger system to decreasing the energy consumption of air conditioning and ventilation systems for office buildings in the Latvian climate conditions. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with methods of office building ventilation, supply air preheating and heat recovery as well as particularities of using ground-coupled air heat exchangers, their design parameters and their joint impact on the thermal performance. The engineering project part includes a ventilation system for an office building with an integrated ground-coupled air heat exchanger. By simulating energy consumption of the ventilation system for a duration of one year, the thesis analyzes the contribution of the heat exchanger to the overall energy consumption, which totals 9.53 MWh and 4.02 MWh a year, according to the desired parameters of the indoor climate. The possible alternative heat recovery solutions are investigated to reach by European Regional Development Fund project Nr.1.1.1.1/16/A/048 “NEARLY ZERO ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR UNCLASSIFIED BUILDINGS”.

  8. District heat production by means of a heat-pump operated by natural gas. Draft design of a 1 MW heat pump operated by a gas engine. Project sponsored by energy research program 1981 of the Danish Ministry of Energy. Fjernvarmeproduktion med naturgasdrevet varmepumpe. Skitseprojektering af 1 MW gasmotordrevet varmepumpe. Udfoert under Energiministeriets energiforskningsprogram 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evald, A.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this project is an investigation of the technical and economic aspects of using natural gas in a gas engine driven heat pump for heat production in district heating nets and large housing blocks. The gas engine is a turbocharged spark-ignition gas engine with a performance of 35%. The heat produced by the engine in cylinderjackets, exhaust gas etc. is utilized in the heating system. The engine drives a screw-, piston- or turbocompressor heat pump, applicated with a heat exchanger for liquid refrigerant from the condenser and an economizer for flashing off vapour at an intermediate pressure. Waste water, seawater, ground water or even outdoor air can be used as heat source for the evaporator. The COP for the heat pump is calculated to 3.1 to 3.3 under normal operating conditions. For the total system containing gas engine and heat pump, the primary energy ratio - defined as the ratio of heat production to heat of combustion of the gas - is calculated to be 1.61 to 1.66. The size of the plant is 1 MW heat production. The economy seems to be reasonable good with a payback period of 4 years and a payout period of 5 years wich should be compared with the expected life time of 15 years for the plant. The projected plant shows several advantages as regards the environmental considerations compared with heat production in a boiler based on oil or coal.

  9. Case study on natural gas application for district heating and cooling in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair Arone [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (IE/PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Energia; Akiyama, Junichi [Mitsui Gas e Energia do Brasil Ltda., Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The distributed cogeneration applying natural gas consists in an excellent alternative to use this source, but it is limited by a compatible heat demand that must be found in its application. District heating and cooling solutions can overcome this hurdle, especially in Brazil, a tropical country, where new industrial and commercial enterprises usually install central air conditioning systems. By 2020 natural gas demand shall reach a value of more than 200 MM m{sup 3} per day, accordingly to the Brazilian Energy Research Office (EPE, 2011). An expressive part of it could be consumed in cogeneration systems like the one described in this paper. This project had a special taxes exception rule applied. The chilled water and heated thermal oil produced were not taxed at all. But these two DHC utilities could obtain a different treatment if someone considers this is a tricky way of power and heat trading, which should be taxed as electricity and natural gas normally are. A bolder legislation with respect to the export of energy surplus would facilitate the project and operation of this kind of system, because the basic premise would be to attend the thermal demand with the electrical power installed, maximizing the global efficiency of the installation. An average 8 GW of Brazilian power demand, with roughly 50 MMm{sup 3}/day of natural gas consumption, could be attended by distributed energy gas cogeneration enterprises. If this prediction were totally accomplished it would bring the Brazilian participation of distributed energy in total power generation to values close to 10% in 2020, value already reached in average by the world biggest electricity's consumer countries (WADE, 2006). This also would mean an equivalent investment economy of approximately 11,000 MW in transmission and distribution lines capacity (author)

  10. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Experimental results of a 3 k Wh thermochemical heat storage module for space heating application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.J.; Henquet, E.M.R.; Soest, C.F.L. van; Oversloot, H.P.; Jong, A.J. de; Cuypers, R.; Spijker, J.C. van 't

    2014-01-01

    A 3 kWh thermochemical heat storage (TCS) module was built as part of an all-in house system implementation focusing on space heating application at a temperature level of 40 ºC and a temperature lift of 20 K. It has been tested and measurements showed a maximum water circuit temperature span

  12. Project Integration Architecture: Inter-Application Propagation of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    A principal goal of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is to facilitate the meaningful inter-application transfer of application-value-added information. Such exchanging applications may be largely unrelated to each other except through their applicability to an overall project; however, the PIA effort recognizes as fundamental the need to make such applications cooperate despite wide disparaties either in the fidelity of the analyses carried out, or even the disciplines of the analysis. This paper discusses the approach and techniques applied and anticipated by the PIA project in treating this need.

  13. An application of the gas-fired chilling and heating units to domestic houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.; Yang, Y.M.; Chae, J.M.; Bang, H.S.; Kwon, O.B.; Yoo, S.I.; Kim, T.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co. (Korea); Lee, T.W.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hwang, I.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, C.D.; Park, S.J. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Following researches and considerations were performed in this study for an efficient application of gas-fired chilling and heating units to the residential buildings. (1) Status of domestic cooling and heating for residential building. (2) Various introduction schemes of outdoor unit. (3) Design exclusive area for the gas appliance and installation of it. (4) Ventilation of exhaust gas and heat. (5) Prepare the installation specifications or standards for gas-fired chilling and heating units. (6) Design technique of plumbing for cooling and heating. (7) Evaluation of unit's capacity considering the thermal load of domestic buildings. (8) Cooling and heating system with the unit. (9) Fundamental test for evaluation of applicability. (10) Actual design and construction of experimental house for an application and a demonstration of the developed gas units. (11) Field test for cooling and heating. (12) Evaluation of economic efficiency. (13) Establish a business potential. (14) Establishment of legal and systematic support, energy rate. (15) Troubleshooting in the course of development and application of the new gas appliance. 41 refs., 214 figs., 52 tabs.

  14. Present status of HTGR projects and their heat applications in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.; Kukharkin, N.E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the main technical decision and parameters of the HTGR of different power and considers a few schemes of HTGR plants with a gas turbine cycle. Also, the future prospects on heat utilization of HTGR in Russia is presented. (J.P.N.)

  15. Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat and waste heat recovery in the iron and steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katter, L. B.; Peterson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The system identified operates from the primary arc furnace evacuation system as a heat source. Energy from the fume stream is stored as sensible energy in a solid medium (packed bed). A steam-driven turbine is arranged to generate power for peak shaving. A parametric design approach is presented since the overall system design, at optimum payback is strongly dependent upon the nature of the electric pricing structure. The scope of the project was limited to consideration of available technology so that industry-wide application could be achieved by 1985. A search of the literature, coupled with interviews with representatives of major steel producers, served as the means whereby the techniques and technologies indicated for the specific site are extrapolated to the industry as a whole and to the 1985 time frame. The conclusion of the study is that by 1985, a national yearly savings of 1.9 million barrels of oil could be realized through recovery of waste heat from primary arc furnace fume gases on an industry-wide basis. Economic studies indicate that the proposed system has a plant payback time of approximately 5 years.

  16. Analysis of the impact of the Dutch Heat Act on projects and an inventory of stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budding, B.; Gerrits, W.; Grootscholten, C.

    2010-08-01

    The Dutch Heat Act was adopted by the Dutch Lower Chamber in February 2009. The main aim of the Act is reliable delivery of heat at reasonable prices and conditions to protect the consumer. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs commissioned a study on the effect of the Heat Act on investment decisions for new heat projects, encompassing a quantitative and a qualitative assessment. [nl

  17. Lauric and palmitic acids eutectic mixture as latent heat storage material for low temperature heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncbilek, Kadir; Sari, Ahmet; Tarhan, Sefa; Erguenes, Gazanfer; Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2005-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA, 59.8 deg. C) and lauric acid (LA, 42.6 deg. C) are phase change materials (PCM) having quite high melting temperatures which can limit their use in low temperature solar applications such as solar space heating and greenhouse heating. However, their melting temperatures can be tailored to appropriate value by preparing a eutectic mixture of the lauric and the palmitic acids. In the present study, the thermal analysis based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique shows that the mixture of 69.0 wt% LA and 31 wt% PA forms a eutectic mixture having melting temperature of 35.2 deg. C and the latent heat of fusion of 166.3 J g -1 . This study also considers the experimental determination of the thermal characteristics of the eutectic mixture during the heat charging and discharging processes. Radial and axial temperature distribution, heat transfer coefficient between the heat transfer fluid (HTF) pipe and the PCM, heat recovery rate and heat charging and discharging fractions were experimentally established employing a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe energy storage system. The changes of these characteristics were evaluated with respect to the effect of inlet HTF temperature and mass flow rate. The DSC thermal analysis and the experimental results indicate that the LA-PA eutectic mixture can be a potential material for low temperature thermal energy storage applications in terms of its thermo-physical and thermal characteristics

  18. Geothermal project will predetermine future of the Kosice heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2003-01-01

    Geoterm, a.s. manager O. Halas describes economic and technical parameters of geothermal energy source by village Durkov near Kosice. It is planned to exploitate geothermal energy source for Kosicka heating plant (TEKO). Three basic variants of technical connecting to geothermal source are developed. Temperature at TEKO entrance should reach 125 degrees, annual heating energy supply will reach 2100 TJ and source output will reach 100 MWt, while admissible deviation at all indicators reaches 10%. The first geothermal energy should by supplied to TEKO in 2007. The investments overlapping 3 billions Slovak crowns are necessary to realize whole project. According to O. Halas a credit from World Bank guaranteed by state is crucial

  19. Status of non-electric nuclear heat applications: Technology and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy plays an important role in electricity generation, producing 16% of the world's electricity at the beginning of 1999. It has proven to be safe, reliable, economical and has only a minimal impact on the environment. Most of the world's energy consumption, however, is in the form of heat. The market potential for nuclear heat was recognized early. Some of the first reactors were used for heat supply, e.g. Calder Hall (United Kingdom), Obninsk (Russian Federation), and Agesta (Sweden). Now, over 60 reactors are supplying heat for district heating, industrial processes and seawater desalination. But the nuclear option could be better deployed if it would provide a larger share of the heat market. In particular, seawater desalination using nuclear heat is of increasing interest to some IAEA Member States. In consideration of the growing experience being accumulated, the IAEA periodically reviews the progress and new developments in the field of nuclear heat applications. This publication summarizes the recent activities among Member States presented at a Technical Committee meeting in April 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for the exchange of up to date information on the prospect, design, safety and licensing aspects, and development of non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. This mainly included seawater desalination and hydrogen production

  20. Near-term viability of solar heat applications for the federal sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. A.

    1991-12-01

    Solar thermal technologies are capable of providing heat across a wide range of temperatures, making them potentially attractive for meeting energy requirements for industrial process heat applications and institutional heating. The energy savings that could be realized by solar thermal heat are quite large, potentially several quads annually. Although technologies for delivering heat at temperatures above 100 C currently exist within industry, only a fairly small number of commercial systems have been installed to date. The objective of this paper is to investigate and discuss the prospects for near term solar heat sales to federal facilities as a mechanism for providing an early market niche to the aid the widespread development and implementation of the technology. The specific technical focus is on mid-temperature (100 to 350 C) heat demands that could be met with parabolic trough systems. Federal facilities have several features relative to private industry that may make them attractive for solar heat applications relative to other sectors. Key features are specific policy mandates for conserving energy, a long term planning horizon with well defined decision criteria, and prescribed economic return criteria for conservation and solar investments that are generally less stringent than the investment criteria used by private industry. Federal facilities also have specific difficulties in the sale of solar heat technologies that are different from those of other sectors, and strategies to mitigate these difficulties will be important. For the baseline scenario developed in this paper, the solar heat application was economically competitive with heat provided by natural gas. The system levelized energy cost was $5.9/MBtu for the solar heat case, compared to $6.8/MBtu for the life cycle fuel cost of a natural gas case. A third-party ownership would also be attractive to federal users, since it would guarantee energy savings and would not need initial federal funds.

  1. Thermochemical heat storage for high temperature applications. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felderhoff, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Urbanczyk, Robert; Peil, Stefan [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Heat storage for high temperature applications can be performed by several heat storage techniques. Very promising heat storage methods are based on thermochemical gas solid reactions. Most known systems are metal oxide/steam (metal hydroxides), carbon dioxide (metal carbonates), and metal/hydrogen (metal hydrides) systems. These heat storage materials posses high gravimetric and volumetric heat storage densities and because of separation of the reaction products and their storage in different locations heat losses can be avoided. The reported volumetric heat storage densities are 615, 1340 and 1513 [ kWh m{sup -3}] for calcium hydroxide Ca(OH){sub 2}, calcium carbonate CaCO{sub 3} and magnesium iron hydride Mg{sub 2}FeH{sub 6} respectively. Additional demands for gas storage decrease the heat storage density, but metal hydride systems can use available hydrogen storage possibilities for example caverns, pipelines and chemical plants. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J'Tia Patrice; Shropshire, David E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system

  3. Plasma heating - a comparative overview for future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of D-T burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating system with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various functions of heating, which are: Plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, non-inductive, steady-state current drive, plasma profile control, neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alfven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (orig.)

  4. An ecofriendly graphene-based nanofluid for heat transfer applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Akhiani, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    including chemical stability, viscosity, wettability, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were investigated in a comprehensive manner. A significant thermal conductivity enhancement amounting to 45.1% was obtained for a volume fraction of 4%. In addition, the convective heat transfer...... that the generated nanofluid will open a new avenue in the pursuit of ecofriendly thermal conductors for heat transfer applications....... coefficient of the nanofluid in a laminar flow regime with uniform wall heat flux was investigated to estimate its cooling capabilities. These results, firmly confirm that the generated graphene-based nanofluid is a formidable transporter of heat and yet ecofriendly. Therefore, it's anticipate...

  5. A new market risk model for cogeneration project financing---combined heat and power development without a power purchase agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Timothy A.

    Federal legislative changes in 2006 no longer entitle cogeneration project financings by law to receive the benefit of a power purchase agreement underwritten by an investment-grade investor-owned utility. Consequently, this research explored the need for a new market-risk model for future cogeneration and combined heat and power (CHP) project financing. CHP project investment represents a potentially enormous energy efficiency benefit through its application by reducing fossil fuel use up to 55% when compared to traditional energy generation, and concurrently eliminates constituent air emissions up to 50%, including global warming gases. As a supplemental approach to a comprehensive technical analysis, a quantitative multivariate modeling was also used to test the statistical validity and reliability of host facility energy demand and CHP supply ratios in predicting the economic performance of CHP project financing. The resulting analytical models, although not statistically reliable at this time, suggest a radically simplified CHP design method for future profitable CHP investments using four easily attainable energy ratios. This design method shows that financially successful CHP adoption occurs when the average system heat-to-power-ratio supply is less than or equal to the average host-convertible-energy-ratio, and when the average nominally-rated capacity is less than average host facility-load-factor demands. New CHP investments can play a role in solving the world-wide problem of accommodating growing energy demand while preserving our precious and irreplaceable air quality for future generations.

  6. Copper alloys for high heat flux structure applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of copper alloys are reviewed and compared with the requirements for high heat flux structural applications in fusion reactors. High heat flux structural materials must possess a combination of high thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. The three most promising copper alloys at the present time are oxide dispersion-strengthened copper (Cu-Al 2 O 3 ) and two precipitation-hardened copper alloys (Cu-Cr-Zr and Cu-Ni-Be). These three alloys are capable of room temperature yield strengths >400 MPa and thermal conductivities up to 350 W/m-K. All of these alloys require extensive cold working to achieve their optimum strength. Precipitation-hardened copper alloys such Cu-Cr-Zr are susceptible to softening due to precipitate overaging and recrystallization during brazing, whereas the dislocation structure in Cu-Al 2 O 3 remains stabilized during typical high temperature brazing cycles. All three alloys exhibit good resistance to irradiation-induced softening and void swelling at temperatures below 300 degrees C. The precipitation-strengthened allows typically soften during neutron irradiation at temperatures above about 300 degrees C and therefore should only be considered for applications operating at temperatures 2 O 3 ) is considered to be the best candidate for high heat flux structural applications

  7. The PRINCE Project and its Applications (clone)

    OpenAIRE

    Bescos, Sylvie; Bisière, Christophe; Gailly, Pierre-Joseph; Krautter, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The Esprit project Prince aims at development of an industrial Constraint Logic Programing environment based on the Prolog III language. In parallel, the current technology is being validated within the project on representative real-world examples. This paper describes the current status of the three application domains which were Selected to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of CLP. These applications deal with industrial systems engineering, medium term banking planning and jobs...

  8. Applications of artificial neural networks for thermal analysis of heat exchangers - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanraj, M.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been widely used for thermal analysis of heat exchangers during the last two decades. In this paper, the applications of ANN for thermal analysis of heat exchangers are reviewed. The reported investigations on thermal analysis of heat exchangers are categorized into four major groups, namely (i) modeling of heat exchangers, (ii) estimation of heat exchanger parameters, (iii) estimation of phase change characteristics in heat exchangers and (iv) control of heat exchangers. Most of the papers related to the applications of ANN for thermal analysis of heat exchangers are discussed. The limitations of ANN for thermal analysis of heat exchangers and its further research needs in this field are highlighted. ANN is gaining popularity as a tool, which can be successfully used for the thermal analysis of heat exchangers with acceptable accuracy. (authors)

  9. Polymeric film application for phase change heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Hans-Jörg; Dreiser, Christian

    2018-06-01

    The paper gives a concise review on polymer film heat exchangers (PFHX) with a focus on polyether ether ketone (PEEK) foil as heat transfer element, mechanically supported by a grid structure. In order to promote PFHX applications, heat transfer performance and wetting behavior are studied in detail. Surface modifications to improve wetting are discussed and correlations are presented for critical Reynolds numbers to sustain a stable liquid film. Scaling phenomena related to surface properties and easily adaptable cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures are further content. The contribution of the foil thickness and material selection on thermal performance is quantified and a correlation for enhanced aqueous film heat transfer for the grid supported PFHX is given. The basic research results and the design criteria enable early stage material selection and conceptual apparatus design.

  10. Polymeric film application for phase change heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Hans-Jörg; Dreiser, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The paper gives a concise review on polymer film heat exchangers (PFHX) with a focus on polyether ether ketone (PEEK) foil as heat transfer element, mechanically supported by a grid structure. In order to promote PFHX applications, heat transfer performance and wetting behavior are studied in detail. Surface modifications to improve wetting are discussed and correlations are presented for critical Reynolds numbers to sustain a stable liquid film. Scaling phenomena related to surface properties and easily adaptable cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures are further content. The contribution of the foil thickness and material selection on thermal performance is quantified and a correlation for enhanced aqueous film heat transfer for the grid supported PFHX is given. The basic research results and the design criteria enable early stage material selection and conceptual apparatus design.

  11. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Thomas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, Rebecca [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, George [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worek, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  12. Geothermal district heating applications in Turkey: a case study of Izmir-Balcova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepbasli, A. [Ege Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Canakci, C. [Izmir-Balcova Geothermal Energy Inc., Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-05-01

    Turkey is located on the Mediterranean sector of the Alpine-Himalayan Tectonic Belt and is among the first seven countries in abundance of geothermal resources around the world. However, the share of its potential used is only about 2%. This means that considerable studies on geothermal energy could be conducted in order to increase the energy supply and to reduce atmospheric pollution in Turkey. The main objective in doing the present study is twofold, namely: (a) to overview the status and future aspects of geothermal district heating applications in Turkey and (b) to present the Izmir-Balcova geothermal district heating system, which is one example of the high temperature district heating applications in Turkey. The first geothermal heating application was applied in 1981 to the Izmir-Balcova thermal facilities, where the downhole heat exchanger was also used for the first time. Besides this, the first city based geothermal district heating system has been operated in Balikesir-Gonen since 1987. Recently, the total installed capacity has reached 820 MW{sub t} for direct use. An annual average growth of 23% of the residences connected to geothermal district heating systems has been achieved since 1983 in the country, representing a decrease of 5% in the last three years. Present applications have shown that in Turkey, geothermal energy is much cheaper than the other energy sources, like fossil fuels, and can make a significant contribution towards reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. (Author)

  13. Urban district heating using nuclear heat - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresovski, T.; Oliker, I.

    1979-01-01

    The use of heat from nuclear power plants is of great interest in connection with projected future expansions of large urban district heating systems. Oil price escalation and air pollution from increased burning of fossil fuels are substantial incentivers for the adoption of nuclear heat and power plants. The cost of the hot water piping system from the nuclear plant to the city is a major factor in determining the feasibility of using nuclear heat. To achieve reasonable costs, the heat load should be at least 1500 MW(th), transport temperatures 125-200 0 C and distances preferably 50 km or less. Heat may be extracted from the turbines of conventional power reactors. Alternatively, some special-purpose smaller reactors are under development which are specially suited to production of heat with little or no power coproduct. Many countries are conducting studies of future expansions of district heating systems to use nuclear heat. Several countries are developing technology suitable for this application. Actual experience with the use of nuclear heat for district heating is currently being gained only in the USSR, however. While district heating appears to be a desirable technology at a time of increasing fossil-fuel costs, the use of nuclear heat will require siting of nuclear plants within transmission radius of cities. The institutional barries toward use of nuclear heating will have to be overcome before the energy conservation potential of this approach can be realized on a significant scale. (author)

  14. Potential applications of helium-cooled high-temperature reactors to process heat use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTRs) permit nuclear energy to be applied to a number of processes presently utilizing fossil fuels. Promising applications of HTRs involve cogeneration, thermal energy transport using molten salt systems, steam reforming of methane for production of chemicals, coal and oil shale liquefaction or gasification, and - in the longer term - energy transport using a chemical heat pipe. Further, HTRs might be used in the more distant future as the energy source for thermochemical hydrogen production from water. Preliminary results of ongoing studies indicate that the potential market for Process Heat HTRs by the year 2020 is about 150 to 250 GW(t) for process heat/cogeneration application, plus approximately 150 to 300 GW(t) for application to fossil conversion processes. HTR cogeneration plants appear attractive in the near term for new industrial plants using large amounts of process heat, possibly for present industrial plants in conjunction with molten-salt energy distribution systems, and also for some fossil conversion processes. HTR reformer systems will take longer to develop, but are applicable to chemicals production, a larger number of fossil conversion processes, and to chemical heat pipes

  15. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  16. Investigation of Heat Sink Efficiency for Electronic Component Cooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Research and optimisation of cooling of electronic components using heat sinks becomes increasingly important in modern industry. Numerical methods with experimental real-world verification are the main tools to evaluate efficiency of heat sinks or heat sink systems. Here the investigation...... of relatively simple heat sink application is performed using modeling based on finite element method, and also the potential of such analysis was demonstrated by real-world measurements and comparing obtained results. Thermal modeling was accomplished using finite element analysis software COMSOL and thermo...

  17. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J' Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated

  18. Prototype Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This report is the Project Report for the Rail Crossing Violation Warning (RCVW) safety application developed for the project on Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application and Infrastructure Connection, providing a means for equipped connected vehic...

  19. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...

  20. Irreducible projective representations and their physical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Liu, Zheng-Xin

    2018-01-01

    An eigenfunction method is applied to reduce the regular projective representations (Reps) of finite groups to obtain their irreducible projective Reps. Anti-unitary groups are treated specially, where the decoupled factor systems and modified Schur’s lemma are introduced. We discuss the applications of irreducible Reps in many-body physics. It is shown that in symmetry protected topological phases, geometric defects or symmetry defects may carry projective Rep of the symmetry group; while in symmetry enriched topological phases, intrinsic excitations (such as spinons or visons) may carry projective Rep of the symmetry group. We also discuss the applications of projective Reps in problems related to spectrum degeneracy, such as in search of models without sign problem in quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Application of EoEP principle with variable heat transfer coefficient in minimizing entropy production in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkan, F.

    2005-01-01

    A more realistic application of the entropy minimization principle EoEP is presented. This principle dictates uniform local entropy generations along the heat exchanger in order to minimize the total entropy generation rate due only to heat transfer. For a certain heat duty and area of an existing exchanger, this is done by changing the temperatures of one fluid while the temperatures of the other fluid are held constant. Since the heat duty is fixed, the change in the temperatures of the fluid after the change, however, may sometimes cause a drastic change in its flow rate. This may cause considerable changes in the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and, consequently, in the entropy generation rate. Depending on the choice of the fluid for changing, the new entropy generation rates may be higher or lower than those based on constant U as is the case in papers recently published. So, the classical application of the EoEP principle needs to be modified to achieve more realistic entropy generation rates. In this study, the principle of EoEP with variable U is applied to some cases of heat exchange, and a simple method is presented as a criterion for the proper choice of the fluid to be changed

  2. Biomass gasification to heat, electricity and biofuels. HighBio project publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassi, U.; Wikman, B. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Renewable energy and the use of biomass in energy production promotes sustainable development and decreases the use of fossil fuels. Biomass, e.g. wood chips can be used in the production of heat and electricity, as well as being used as a biofuel component and novel product for the chemical industry. Efficient utilisation of biomass requires a high level of knowledge and the development of new processes to create a new way of thinking. In this process, international co-operation plays a significant role. The aim of the HighBio project was to produce new information on biomass gasification and the utilisation opportunities of product gas in biofuel and biochemicals production. The project was also aimed at studying utilisation properties of biogasification ashes in distributed energy production. Small-scaled CHP plants can be used for simultaneous heat and power production by gasifying wood chips and by burning energy intensive product gas. Compared with thermal combustion, particulate emissions from gasification are lower, which also contributes to the EU's ever tightening emission legislation. Several small and middle scale companies in the Northern part of Finland and Sweden have worked with biomass gasification, and during the project, the birth of new ones has been seen. In this development stage, researchers of the HighBio project have also been strongly involved. Increased use of renewable energy opens up new possibilities for entrepreneurship and the birth of new companies, especially in rural areas. In order to enable these opportunities, we need research data from the universities, novel innovations, and especially their successful commercialisation. The HighBio project has also contributed to tackling those challenges by arranging research seminars and meetings to companies and other interest groups, as well as by establishing research activities and collaborations. Regional collaboration combined with national and international research networks

  3. Application of Project Portfolio Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    The main goal of the chapter is the presentation of the application project portfolio management approach to support development of e-Municipality and public administration information systems. The models of how people publish and utilize information on the web have been transformed continually. Instead of simply viewing on static web pages, users publish their own content through blogs and photo- and video-sharing slides. Analysed in this chapter, ICT (Information Communication Technology) projects for municipalities cover the mixture of the static web pages, e-Government information systems, and Wikis. So, for the management of the ICT projects' mixtures the portfolio project management approach is proposed.

  4. Solar-assisted heat pump – A sustainable system for low-temperature water heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Gagrani, V.D.; Abdel-Salam, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • DX-SAHP water heaters systems are economical as well as energy conserving. • The economic analysis is performed using the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. • LCC can be optimized with respect to the collector area at a specific temperature. • For high load temperature range a two stage heat pump system is more appropriate. - Abstract: Direct expansion solar assisted heat pump systems (DX-SAHP) have been widely used in many applications including water heating. In the DX-SAHP systems the solar collector and the heat pump evaporator are integrated into a single unit in order to transfer the solar energy to the refrigerant. The present work is aimed at studying the use of the DX-SAHP for low temperature water heating applications. The novel aspect of this paper involves a detailed long-term thermo-economic analysis of the energy conservation potential and economic viability of these systems. The thermal performance is simulated using a computer program that incorporates location dependent radiation, collector, economic, heat pump and load data. The economic analysis is performed using the life cycle cost (LCC) method. Results indicate that the DX-SAHP water heaters systems when compared to the conventional electrical water heaters are both economical as well as energy conserving. The analysis also reveals that the minimum value of the system life cycle cost is achieved at optimal values of the solar collector area as well as the compressor displacement capacity. Since the cost of SAHP system presents a barrier to mass scale commercialization, the results of the present study indicating that the SAHP life cycle cost can be minimized by optimizing the collector area would certainly be helpful in lowering, if not eliminating, the economic barrier to these systems. Also, at load temperatures higher than 70 °C, the performance of the single stage heat pump degrades to the extent that its cost and efficiency advantages over the electric only system are

  5. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  6. Usage of Heat Pump Dryer in Food Drying Process and Apple Drying Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Gürlek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, drying is achieved natural method by spreading out the material on the ground. In this way, there are many disadvantages like low quality and hygienic problems. The resulting loss of food quality in the dried products may have effect negatively trade potential and economical worth. For preventing the deterioration of the materials different types of drying methods have been developed. Low energy consumption applications are important for drying industry besides high product quality. For this purpose, heat pump dryer is gaining importance day by day in drying applications. In this study, the working principle of the heat pump dryer, heat pump types in the drying process and the heat pump dryer performance criteria will be considered. An example of application will be described using obtained results from apple drying operation that is conducted in the heat pump dryer.

  7. High Efficiency Heat Exchanger for High Temperature and High Pressure Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    CompRex, LLC (CompRex) specializes in the design and manufacture of compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for high temperature and high pressure applications. CompRex’s proprietary compact technology not only increases heat exchange efficiency by at least 25 % but also reduces footprint by at least a factor of ten compared to traditional shell-and-tube solutions of the same capacity and by 15 to 20 % compared to other currently available Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) solutions. As a result, CompRex’s solution is especially suitable for Brayton cycle supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) systems given its high efficiency and significantly lower capital and operating expenses. CompRex has already successfully demonstrated its technology and ability to deliver with a pilot-scale compact heat exchanger that was under contract by the Naval Nuclear Laboratory for sCO2 power cycle development. The performance tested unit met or exceeded the thermal and hydraulic specifications with measured heat transfer between 95 to 98 % of maximum heat transfer and temperature and pressure drop values all consistent with the modeled values. CompRex’s vision is to commercialize its compact technology and become the leading provider for compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for various applications including Brayton cycle sCO2 systems. One of the limitations of the sCO2 Brayton power cycle is the design and manufacturing of efficient heat exchangers at extreme operating conditions. Current diffusion-bonded heat exchangers have limitations on the channel size through which the fluid travels, resulting in excessive solid material per heat exchanger volume. CompRex’s design allows for more open area and shorter fluid proximity for increased heat transfer efficiency while sustaining the structural integrity needed for the application. CompRex is developing a novel improvement to its current heat exchanger design where fluids are directed to alternating

  8. Worsening of Heat Stress Due To Global Warming in South Korea Based on Multi-RCM Ensemble Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses the future changes in summer (June-July-August; JJA) heat stress over South Korea under global warming. To better resolve the region-specific changes in terms of geographical patterns and severity of heat stress in the Korean peninsula, four regional climate models (RCMs) are used for dynamical downscaling of Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2—Atmosphere and Ocean global projections forced by two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Dynamically downscaled simulations (horizontal resolution of 12.5 km and output interval of 3 h) facilitate in-depth analysis of diurnal variation and extremes over South Korea, as well as focusing on the particular location, Daegu, that is characterized by high vulnerability to rising temperature. Both maximum temperature and heat stress indices such as wet bulb globe temperature and apparent temperature, which include the effect of humidity, are examined in order to comprehensively interpret the behaviors of heat stress in response to anthropogenic climate change. Ensemble projections reveal robust patterns of temperature and resultant humidity increases that are roughly constrained by the approximate 7%/K increase in the moisture holding capacity. The changes in temperature and humidity are directly transmitted to the heat stress indices, showing a significant increase. The heat stress is exacerbated in a differentiated way, with more intensification in diurnal variation at nighttime and in regional variation at low-elevation basins. Both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios project the statistical likelihood of a notable increase of extreme heat stress indices, much stronger and more extended heat waves, and the emergence of a long period of consecutive tropical nights.

  9. High-efficiency heat pump technology using metal hydrides (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Y.; Harada, T.; Niikura, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, J. [Human Environmental Systems Development Center, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Gamo, T. [Corporate Environmental Affairs Div., Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Metal hybrides are effective materials for utilizing hydrogen as a clean energy medium. That is, when the metal hydrides absorb or desorb the hydrogen, a large heat output of reaction occurs. So, the metal hydrides can be applied to a heat pump. We have researched on a high efficiency heat pump technology using their metal hydrides. In this report, a double effect type metal hydride heat pump configuration is described in which the waste heat of 160 C is recovered in a factory cite and transported to areas far distant from the industrial district. In the heat recovery unit, a low pressure hydrogen is converted into highly effective high pressure hydrogen by applying the metal hydrides. Other metal hydrides perform the parts of heating by absorbing the hydrogen and cooling by desorbing the hydrogen in the heat supply unit. One unit scale of the system is 3 kW class as the sum of heating and cooling. This system using the hydrogen absorbing alloy also has good energy storage characteristics and ambient hydrogen pressure self-safety control ability. Furthermore, this heating and cooling heat supply system is not harmful to the natural environment because it is a chlorofluorocarbon-free, and low noise type system. We have developed in the following element technologies to attain the above purposes, that is development of hydrogen absorbing alloys with high heat outputs and technologies to construct the heat pump system. This study is proceeded at present as one of the programs in New Sunshine Project, which aims for development of ingenious energy utilization technology to achieve reduction of primary energy consumption with keeping cultural and wealthy life and preventing deterioration of global environment. (orig.)

  10. Perspectives of heat transfer enhancement in nuclear reactors toward nanofluids applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Marcelo S.; Cabral, Eduardo L.L.; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2013-01-01

    Nanofluids are colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a base fluid with interesting physical properties and large potential for heat transfer enhancement in thermal systems among other applications. There are an increasing number of nanofluids investigations concerning many aspects of synthesis and fabrication technologies, physical properties, and special applications. Results demonstrate that physical properties like high thermal conductivities and high critical heat flux (CHF) of some nanofluids classifies them as potential working fluids for high heat flux transportation in special systems, including thermal management of microelectronic devices (MEMS) and nuclear reactors. Understanding the importance of such investigations for the knowledge development of nuclear engineering a new research is being conducted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN) of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) to analyze the application potentiality of some nanofluids in nuclear systems for heat transfer enhancement under ionizing radiation influence. In this work a revision of theoretical and experimental studies of nanofluids is performed and its potentiality for using in future generations of nuclear reactors is highlighted showing the status of the research at present. (author)

  11. Direct application of geothermal energy in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin

    1995-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy for balneology purposes has a history of many centuries. There is also a more than 30 years tradition for heating greenhouses. So called energy crisis of 70-ties and 80-ties provoked geology investigations in order to find possible energy sources, and development of systems for application of low-temperature geothermal water. Tere are a list of projects with direct application of geothermal energy for heating greenhouses, drying agricultural products. heating of public buildings and industrial projects, swimming pools , sanitary warm water preparation, industrial uses, etc. The essential energetic characteristics of different projects are presented in the paper. For the main projects a technical description of characteristics of the heating systems is given, and good technical solutions are underlined. Also the mistakes presented in some projects are listed. (Original)

  12. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN HOUSES HEATING SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Mingaleva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is widely used around the world for electricity generation and heating systems in municipal services. But its use is complicated in the number of territories with uneven receipts of solar radiation on the earth’s surface and large number of cloudy days during a year. A hypothesis on the possibility of application of individual solar collectors for heating of houses in the number of cities of Russia has been tested. The existing designs of solar collectors and checking the possibility of their application in northern territories of Russia are investigated. The analysis was carried out taking into account features of relief and other climatic conditions of the Perm and Sverdlovsk regions. As the result of research, the basic recommended conditions for application of solar batteries in houses of the northern Russian cities have been resumed.

  13. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  14. A fundamental numerical analysis for noninvasive thermometry integrated in a heating applicator based on the reentrant cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwada, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Yasutoshi

    2010-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment, a novel method of noninvasive measurement of body temperature change is proposed. The proposed technology, thermometry, is based on changes in the electromagnetic field distribution inside the heating applicator with temperature changes and the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. In addition, an image of the temperature change distribution inside a body is reconstructed by applying a computed tomography (CT) algorithm. The proposed thermometry method can serve as a possible noninvasive method to monitor the temperature change distribution inside the body without the use of enormous thermometers such as in the case of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, this temperature monitoring method can be easily combined with a heating applicator based on a cavity resonator, and the novel integrated treatment system can possibly be used to treat cancer effectively while noninvasively monitoring the heating effect. In this paper, the phase change distributions of the electromagnetic field with temperature changes are simulated by numerical analysis using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Moreover, to estimate the phase change distributions inside a target body, the phase change distributions with temperature changes are reconstructed by a filtered back-projection. In addition, the reconstruction accuracy of the converted temperature change distribution from the phase change is evaluated. (author)

  15. Flexibility analysis of main primary heat transport system : Narora Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents flexibility analysis problem of main primary heat transport system and the approximate analysis that has been made to estimate the loads coming on major equipments. The primary heat transport system for Narora Atomic Power Project is adopting vertical steam generators and pumps equally divided on either side of the reactor with inter-connecting pipes and feeders. Since the system is mainly spring supported with movement of a few points in certain direction defined but no anchorage, it represents a good problem for flexibility analysis which can only be solved in one step by developing a good computer programme. (author)

  16. Computer simulation of heat pump application in distillation towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedram, B.; Kharrat, R.

    2000-01-01

    Distillation columns rank among the largest industrial energy users today. Almost 30-60% of the total energy demand in the chemical and petrochemical industry is needed to heat distillation columns. Hence, researchers decided to optimize energy consumption to make its application more efficient. One of the recommended way is to use heat pumps. Several works have been reported in the literature in which comparisons of energy consumption between conventional and heat pump distillation for two or three component systems have been investigated. However, the concluded results are not sufficient. In this work, a case study was considered in which different heat pump configurations were applied and the optimum configuration was selected. The cost of each configuration was found to be depending on the cold temperature approach of the heat pump. Therefore, an optimum value was found for each configuration. In addition, the cost of the heat pump was found to be sensitive to the compression and condensation of the process fluid

  17. Towards More Comprehensive Projections of Urban Heat-Related Mortality: Estimates for New York City Under Multiple Population, Adaptation, and Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Elisaveta P.; Vink, Jan K.; Horton, Radley M.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Bader, Daniel A.; Francis, Joe D.; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    High temperatures have substantial impacts on mortality and, with growing concerns about climate change, numerous studies have developed projections of future heat-related deaths around the world. Projections of temperature-related mortality are often limited by insufficient information necessary to formulate hypotheses about population sensitivity to high temperatures and future demographics. This study has derived projections of temperature-related mortality in New York City by taking into account future patterns of adaptation or demographic change, both of which can have profound influences on future health burdens. We adopt a novel approach to modeling heat adaptation by incorporating an analysis of the observed population response to heat in New York City over the course of eight decades. This approach projects heat-related mortality until the end of the 21st century based on observed trends in adaptation over a substantial portion of the 20th century. In addition, we incorporate a range of new scenarios for population change until the end of the 21st century. We then estimate future heat-related deaths in New York City by combining the changing temperature-mortality relationship and population scenarios with downscaled temperature projections from the 33 global climate models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs).The median number of projected annual heat-related deaths across the 33 GCMs varied greatly by RCP and adaptation and population change scenario, ranging from 167 to 3331 in the 2080s compared to 638 heat-related deaths annually between 2000 and 2006.These findings provide a more complete picture of the range of potential future heat-related mortality risks across the 21st century in New York, and highlight the importance of both demographic change and adaptation responses in modifying future risks.

  18. Multi-scale transport in the DIII-D ITER baseline scenario with direct electron heating and projection to ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, B. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.; McKee, G. R.; Holland, C.; Austin, M.; Marinoni, A.; Schmitz, L.; Pinsker, R. I.; DIII-D Team

    2018-02-01

    Multi-scale fluctuations measured by turbulence diagnostics spanning long and short wavelength spatial scales impact energy confinement and the scale-lengths of plasma kinetic profiles in the DIII-D ITER baseline scenario with direct electron heating. Contrasting discharge phases with ECH + neutral beam injection (NBI) and NBI only at similar rotation reveal higher energy confinement and lower fluctuations when only NBI heating is used. Modeling of the core transport with TGYRO using the TGLF turbulent transport model and NEO neoclassical transport reproduces the experimental profile changes upon application of direct electron heating and indicates that multi-scale transport mechanisms are responsible for changes in the temperature and density profiles. Intermediate and high-k fluctuations appear responsible for the enhanced electron thermal flux, and intermediate-k electron modes produce an inward particle pinch that increases the inverse density scale length. Projection to ITER is performed with TGLF and indicates a density profile that has a finite scale length due to intermediate-k electron modes at low collisionality and increases the fusion gain. For a range of E × B shear, the dominant mechanism that increases fusion performance is suppression of outward low-k particle flux and increased density peaking.

  19. DEAP actuator and its high voltage driver for heating valve application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Nørmølle, L. F.; Sarban, R.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the advantages of DEAP (Dielectric Electro Active Polymer) material, such as light weight, noise free operation, high energy and power density and fast response speed, it can be applied in a variety of applications to replace the conventional transducers or actuators. This paper introduces...... DEAP actuator to the heating valve system and conducts a case study to discuss the feasible solution in designing DEAP actuator and its driver for heating valve application. First of all, the heating valves under study are briefly introduced. Then the design and the development for DEAP actuator...... is illustrated in detail, and followed by the detailed investigation of the HV driver for DEAP actuator. In order to verify the implementation, the experimental measurements are carried out for DEAP actuator, its HV driver as well as the entire heating valve system....

  20. High temperature reactor and application to nuclear process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulten, R; Kugeler, K [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-01-01

    The principle of high temperature nuclear process heat is explained and the main applications (hydrogasification of coal, nuclear chemical heat pipe, direct reduction of iron ore, coal gasification by steam and water splitting) are described in more detail. The motivation for the introduction of nuclear process heat to the market, questions of cost, of raw material resources and environmental aspects are the next point of discussion. The new technological questions of the nuclear reactor and the status of development are described, especially information about the fuel elements, the hot gas ducts, the contamination and some design considerations are added. Furthermore the status of development of helium heated steam reformers, the main results of the work until now and the further activities in this field are explained.

  1. Handbook to guide the measurement and monitoring of project effectiveness and impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-15

    This handbook demonstrates the application of a tool for measuring and monitoring the impact of a development project in the Department of Quezaltenango, Guatemala. That project itself presently is a demonstration. It explores the technical feasibility and the commercial possibilities of direct geothermal heat applications to the processing of agricultural produce - with the eventual purpose of expanding agricultural exports from Guatemala. The handbook focuses on an early stage of the geothermal initiative and guides preparations for future impact measurement and monitoring of geothermal projects. Primarily, guidance is for projects in agricultural applications of geothermal heat - and basically in Quezaltenango. But the exercise and the handbook are relevant in broad outline to other, industrial applications projects as well which may be based in other departments and have immediate impact across the whole country. This handbook attempts to prepare geothermal energy planners in Guatemala for that juncture when geothermal projects can be managed by objectives. It promotes and facilitates thinking about defining specific objectives for projects that result from the demonstration at Zunil (in Quezaltenango Department); and it prompts preparations for obtaining baseline measurements and for making rational projections on the achievements of future projects.

  2. User's Manual for the FEHM Application-A Finite-Element Heat- and Mass-Transfer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George A. Zyvoloski; Bruce A. Robinson; Zora V. Dash; Lynn L. Trease

    1997-07-07

    This document is a manual for the use of the FEHM application, a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer computer code that can simulate nonisothermal multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media. The use of this code is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and groundwater flow. A primary use of the FEHM application will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields and mass transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones below the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The equations of heat and mass transfer for multiphase flow in porous and permeable media are solved in the FEHM application by using the finite-element method. The permeability and porosity of the medium are allowed to depend on pressure and temperature. The code also has provisions for movable air and water phases and noncoupled tracers; that is, tracer solutions that do not affect the heat- and mass-transfer solutions. The tracers can be passive or reactive. The code can simulate two-dimensional, two-dimensional radial, or three-dimensional geometries. In fact, FEHM is capable of describing flow that is dominated in many areas by fracture and fault flow, including the inherently three-dimensional flow that results from permeation to and from faults and fractures. The code can handle coupled heat and mass-transfer effects, such as boiling, dryout, and condensation that can occur in the near-field region surrounding the potential repository and the natural convection that occurs through Yucca Mountain due to seasonal temperature changes. The code is also capable of incorporating the various adsorption mechanisms, ranging from simple linear relations to nonlinear isotherms, needed to describe the very complex transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This report outlines the uses and capabilities of the FEHM application, initialization of code variables, restart procedures, and error processing. The report describes all the data files, the input data

  3. Exergy analysis of heating, refrigerating and air conditioning methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Improve and optimize efficiency of HVAC and related energy systems from an exergy perspective. From fundamentals to advanced applications, Exergy Analysis of Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration provides readers with a clear and concise description of exergy analysis and its many uses. Focusing on the application of exergy methods to the primary technologies for heating, refrigerating, and air conditioning, Ibrahim Dincer and Marc A. Rosen demonstrate exactly how exergy can help improve and optimize efficiency, environmental performance, and cost-effectiveness. The book also discusses the analysis tools available, and includes many comprehensive case studies on current and emerging systems and technologies for real-world examples. From introducing exergy and thermodynamic fundamentals to presenting the use of exergy methods for heating, refrigeration, and air conditioning systems, this book equips any researcher or practicing engineer with the tools needed to learn and master the application of exergy...

  4. Analysis on Operating Parameter Design to Steam Methane Reforming in Heat Application RDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibyo, Sukmanto; Sunaryo, Geni Rina; Bakhri, Syaiful; Zuhair; Irianto, Ign. Djoko

    2018-02-01

    The high temperature reactor has been developed with various power capacities and can produce electricity and heat application. One of heat application is used for hydrogen production. Most hydrogen production occurs by steam reforming that operated at high temperature. This study aims to analyze the feasibility of heat application design of RDE reactor in the steam methane reforming for hydrogen production using the ChemCAD software. The outlet temperature of cogeneration heat exchanger is analyzed to be applied as a feed of steam reformer. Furthermore, the additional heater and calculating amount of fuel usage are described. Results show that at a low mass flow rate of feed, its can produce a temperature up to 480°C. To achieve the temperature of steam methane reforming of 850°C the additional fired heater was required. By the fired heater, an amount of fuel usage is required depending on the Reformer feed temperature produced from the heat exchanger of the cogeneration system.

  5. RF heating systems evolution for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, R.; Achard, J.; Armitano, A.; Argouarch, A.; Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J. M.; Bouquey, F.; Charabot, N.; Colas, L.; Corbel, E.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Guilhem, D.; Hillairet, J.; Jacquot, J.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Lombard, G.; Mollard, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2014-02-12

    Tore Supra is dedicated to long pulse operation at high power, with a record in injected energy of 1 GJ (2.8 MW × 380 s) and an achieved capability of 12 MW injected power delivered by 3 RF systems: Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD), Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The new WEST project (W [tungsten] Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) aims at fitting Tore Supra with an actively cooled tungsten coated wall and a bulk tungsten divertor. This new device will offer to ITER a test bed for validating the relevant technologies for actively cooled metallic components, with D-shaped H-mode plasmas. For WEST operation, different scenarii able to reproduce ITER relevant conditions in terms of steady state heat loads have been identified, ranging from a high RF power scenario (15 MW, 30 s) to a high fluence scenario (10 MW, 1000 s). This paper will focus on the evolution of the RF systems required for WEST. For the ICRH system, the main issues are its ELM resilience and its CW compatibility, three new actively cooled antennas are being designed, with the aim of reducing their sensitivity to the load variations induced by ELMs. The LH system has been recently upgraded with new klystrons and the PAM antenna, the possible reshaping of the antenna mouths is presently studied for matching with the magnetic field line in the WEST configuration. For the ECRH system, the device for the poloidal movement of the mirrors of the antenna is being changed for higher accuracy and speed.

  6. Heat pipes and solid sorption transformations fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, LL

    2013-01-01

    Developing clean energy and utilizing waste energy has become increasingly vital. Research targeting the advancement of thermally powered adsorption cooling technologies has progressed in the past few decades, and the awareness of fuel cells and thermally activated (heat pipe heat exchangers) adsorption systems using natural refrigerants and/or alternatives to hydrofluorocarbon-based refrigerants is becoming ever more important. Heat Pipes and Solid Sorption Transformations: Fundamentals and Practical Applications concentrates on state-of-the-art adsorption research and technologies for releva

  7. The PRINCE Project and its Applications- VERSION2

    OpenAIRE

    Bescos, Sylvie; Bisière, Christophe; Gailly, Pierre-Joseph; Krautter, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The Esprit project Prince aims at development of an industrial Constraint Logic Programing environment based on the Prolog III language. In parallel, the current technology is being validated within the project on representative real-world examples. This paper describes the current status of the three application domains which were Selected to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of CLP. These applications deal with industrial systems engineering, medium term banking planning and jobs...

  8. Climate Adaptivity and Field Test of the Space Heating Used Air-Source Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yulong; Ye, Zuliang; Cao, Feng

    2017-08-01

    In this study, an innovation of air-sourced transcritical CO2 heat pump which was employed in the space heating application was presented and discussed in order to solve the problem that the heating performances of the transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater deteriorated sharply with the augment in water feed temperature. An R134a cycle was adopted as a subcooling device in the proposed system. The prototype of the presented system was installed and supplied hot water for three places in northern China in winter. The field test results showed that the acceptable return water temperature can be increased up to 55°C, while the supply water temperature was raised rapidly by the presented prototype to up to 70°C directly, which was obviously appropriate to the various conditions of heating radiator in space heating application. Additionally, though the heating capacity and power dissipation decreased with the decline in ambient temperature or the augment in water temperature, the presented heat pump system performed efficiently whatever the climate and water feed temperature were. The real time COP of the presented system was generally more than 1.8 in the whole heating season, while the seasonal performance coefficient (SPC) was also appreciable, which signified that the economic efficiency of the presented system was more excellent than other space heating approaches such as fuel, gas, coal or electric boiler. As a result, the novel system will be a promising project to solve the energy issues in future space heating application.

  9. Process Integration Study of Cache Valley Cheese Plant [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, A.

    1991-10-01

    This work has carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  10. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  11. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system; 1974 nendo taiyonetsu reidanbo kyuto system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system. This 3- year project from fiscal 1974 to 1976 aims to predict the share of solar energy in future cooling/heating and hot water supply energy demand, and develop simulation technology. The project surveys and analyzes current domestic and overseas development states, and studies various systems to obtain characteristics of every system, pursuit an optimum implementation, and establish a diffusion plan. Future energy consumptions and prices are predicted in relation to energy saving, and the utilization impact of solar energy is analyzed. Study is also made on diffusion plan, profitability and performance evaluation method. Among these schedules, in fiscal 1974 based on the survey and analysis on previous domestic and overseas development states, features and problems were arranged every system and application. The basic study on system simulation, and rough feasibility study on solar heat systems by conventional technique were carried out. The basic data on performance evaluation standards were also prepared. (NEDO)

  12. Solar Heating/Cooling of Buildings: Current Building Community Projects. An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Building Research Advisory Board.

    Projects being carried out by the private sector involving the use of solar energy for heating and cooling buildings are profiled in this report. A substantial portion of the data were collected from a broad cross-section of the building community. Data collection efforts also involved the canvassing of the nearly 200 trade and professional…

  13. Equipment sizing in a coal-fired municipal heating plant modernisation project with support for renewable energy and cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sizing of biomass fired cogeneration block is performed for existing heating plant. • Mathematical model for cogeneration block optimisation is presented. • Impact of financial support mechanisms on optimal solution is discussed. • Influence of short term variations of prices and support intensity is presented. • Different design parameters are suggested by economic and technical quality indices. - Abstract: The paper presents results of design parameters optimisation of a wood chips fired steam boiler based heat and power block in a sample project of coal fired municipal heating plant modernisation. The project assumes the conversion of the heating plant into a dual fuel heat and power plant. The problem that is presented is selection of cogeneration block structure and thermodynamic parameters taking into account financial support mechanisms for cogeneration and renewable energy technologies. There are examined energy conversion and financial performances of the project. The results show that without the financial support the project is not profitable although it generates savings of primary energy of fossil fuels. If an administrative incentives are applied the optimal technical solution is different than suggested by energy conversion efficiency or fossil fuel savings. Financial calculations were performed for Polish marked conditions in the years 2011 and 2014 showing the impact of relatively short term variations of prices and support intensity on optimal plant design parameters

  14. Potential application of glazed transpired collectors to space heating in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Lixin; Bai, Hua; Mao, Shufeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) is developed. • Glazing results in optical loss, but it decreases convective heat loss effectively. • Thermal performance of GTC shows considerable improvement on flat-plate collectors. • GTC using recirculated air is applicable to space heating in cold climates. - Abstract: Although unglazed transpired collectors (UTC) succeed in industrial ventilation applications, solar fraction is very low when they are used in space heating in cold climates due to the lower exit air temperature. Considering the potential for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) using recirculated air for space heating applications in cold climates, a mathematical model is developed for predicting the thermal performance of GTC. Simulation results show that although glazing results in optical loss, it could decrease convective heat loss resulted from high crosswind velocities effectively. For a solar radiation of 400 W/m 2 , an ambient temperature of −10 °C, and a suction velocity of 0.01 m/s, the exit air temperature of GTC is higher than that of UTC for crosswind velocities exceeding 3.0 m/s. By comparison with a conventional flat-plate solar air collector operating under the same conditions, the thermal performance of GTC shows a significant improvement. For a five-storey hotel building located in the severe cold climate zone of China, case study shows that the annual solar fraction of the GTC-based solar air heating system is about 20%, which is two times higher than that of the flat-plate collector-based system and nearly nine times higher than that of the UTC-based system respectively. Hence, an enormous amount of energy will be saved with the application of GTC to space heating in cold climates

  15. High-temperature process heat applications with an HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.; Vrable, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    An 842-MW(t) HTGR-process heat (HTGR-PH) design and several synfuels and energy transport processes to which it could be coupled are described. As in other HTGR designs, the HTGR-PH has its entire primary coolant system contained in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) which provides the necessary biological shielding and pressure containment. The high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. With a capability to produce hot helium in the secondary loop at 800 0 C (1472 0 F) with current designs and 900 0 C (1652 0 F) with advanced designs, a large number of process heat applications are potentially available. Studies have been performed for coal liquefaction and gasification using nuclear heat

  16. Heat recovery in compost piles for building applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Edouard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an estimation of the possible heat recovery of self-heating compost piles for building applications. The energy released during the aerobic composting of lignin and cellulose-based materials is computed by solving an inverse problem. The method consists first in an experimental phase with measurement of the temperature within the heap, then a numerical procedure allows for the inverse identification of the heat production due to the chemical reaction of composting. The simulation results show a good accordance with the experiments for the chosen source-term model. Comparing the results to the theoretical values for the energy released by aerobic composting provides an estimate for the efficiency of the reaction. The reached temperatures and recovered energy fit with the order of magnitude of building needs.

  17. Feasibility improvement project of a district heat supply system in Dalian, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on energy saving possibilities at two medium-sized heat and power supplying plants in the city of Dalian in China. The project will improve the operation methods of the heat and power plants so that the energy cost can be minimized, and attempt to improve the boiler heat efficiency and save the energy by means of heat recovery and utilization. The draft modification plan for energy conservation has planned operation optimization for energy conservation, control of boiler operation under variable pressure, modification of the external boiler heat converter, use of inverters for the large capacity motors for boilers, and recovery of heat from the boiler blow-down water. In the analysis, models were structured from the operation data, and the effects of applying the energy saving measures were derived from simulation. As a result, the energy saving effect was found to be about 13,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 7,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually (converted to oil). The reduction in greenhouse gas emission was found to be about 40,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 20,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually. The number of years for investment payback is about 4.1 years at the Chunhai plant, and about 4.9 years at the Pulandian plant, wherein good profitability can be estimated. (NEDO)

  18. Experience in the use of wind energy for greenhouse heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flaherty, T; Kocsis, K; Petersen, H [eds.

    1987-05-01

    Study of the appliction of wind energy for greenhouse heating began at Kinsealy Research Centre in 1980 with the installation of a multi-blade 6m diamter wind turbine. This produced electricity which was used to provide root zone warming for a glasshouse tomato crop. The application worked well and the wind turbine is still in operation, although it has been out of service for substantial periods and has required major refurbishment. In July 1985 a new wind turbine was commissioned as an EEC Wind Energy Demonstration Project. This is an 11m diameter grid-connected unit, and the project involves using its output to power a heat pump which in turn supplies heat to a greenhouse. The system is operating well and initial performance results have been obtained during the 1985-'86 heating season. The paper summarises the experience to data with both of these projects.

  19. Demonstration project in Volgograd on transfer of know-how from the district heating sector in Denmark to Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    A demonstration project on district heating know-how has been financed by the Danish Technical Assistance Programme administrated by the Danish Energy Agency. A demonstration project in Volgograd was approved, with a budget of only 200.000 DKK (180.000 Rbl). The administration of the project, from fact finding to the final report, has been very efficient in particular to other technical assistance programmes. Although the total budget is low only around 15% of the manpower has been used on administration. The transfer of specific technical experience can be summarized in the following: Installation of small decentralized heat exchanger units for preparation of hot water; Construction of low-cost decentralized heat exchanger installations for preparation of hot water; Installation of thermostatic valves; Installation of small substations for heating and hot water; Use of drain pumps for draining under constructions of district heating pipes to prevent outside corrosion; Design principles for construction and rehabilitation of concrete duct systems with internal and outside draining; Design principles for preinsulated pipes; Principles for monitoring the quality of supply in a local district heating network at the lowest costs by monitoring the critical differential pressure. (EG)

  20. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1996--September 1996. Federal Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-96. It describes 152 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  1. Renewable heating: how thinking big works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, C. [SOLID (Austria)

    2005-10-01

    The Austrian company, SOLID, offers energy service contracts (ESCOs) and guaranteed results schemes to potential users of large solar thermal projects. Examples of its projects are used to demonstrate the benefits of such an approach. The solar collector (1407 m{sup 2}) at the Schwarzenegger Stadium in Graz is an example of the provision of district heating from solar power in combination with fossil fuel and run on an ESCO model. Several examples of the application of the guaranteed results scheme to multi-family housing illustrate how this model works; the projects use solar collectors ranging from 100 m{sup 2} to 430 m{sup 2}. SOLID supplies similar solar units to hotels and hospitals for domestic hot water (DHW) and space heating. A recent development by SOLID is the installation of solar cooling projects in a nine-storey office building in Kosovo (227 m{sup 2}) and a winery in Styria, Austria (100 m{sup 2}).

  2. New application of plate-fin heat exchanger with regenerative cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Gwak, Kyung Hyun

    2015-09-01

    A design idea is newly proposed and investigated for the application of plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHX) with regenerative cryocoolers. The role of this heat exchanger is to effectively absorb heat from the stream of coolant and deliver it to the cold-head of a cryocooler. While various types of tubular HX's have been developed so far, a small PFHX could be more useful for this purpose by taking advantage of compactness and design flexibility. In order to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness, a prototype of aluminum-brazed PFHX is designed, fabricated, and tested with a single-stage GM cryocooler in experiments for subcooling liquid nitrogen from 78 K to 65-70 K. The results show that the PFHX is 30-50% more effective in cooling rate than the tubular HX's. Several potential applications of PFHX are presented and discussed with specific design concepts.

  3. Large-scale heat pumps in sustainable energy systems: System and project perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blarke Morten B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps (HP with existing combined heat and power (CHP plants, is critically sensitive to the operational mode of the HP vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance, mainly given by the temperature level of the heat source. When using ground source for low-temperature heat source, heat production costs increases by about 10%, while partial use of condensed flue gasses for low-temperature heat source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the analysis shows that when a large-scale HP is integrated with an existing CHP plant, the projected spot market situation in The Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool towards 2025, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-supply constrained power generation electricity, further reduces the operational hours of the CHP unit over time, while increasing the operational hours of the HP unit. In result, an HP unit at half the heat production capacity as the CHP unit in combination with a heat-only boiler represents as a possibly financially feasible alternative to CHP operation, rather than a supplement to CHP unit operation. While such revised operational strategy would have impacts on policies to promote co-generation, these results indicate that the integration of large-scale HP may jeopardize efforts to promote co-generation. Policy instruments should be designed to promote the integration of HP with lower than half of the heating capacity of the CHP unit. Also it is found, that CHP-HP plant designs should allow for the utilization of heat recovered from the CHP unit’s flue gasses for both concurrent (CHP unit and HP unit and independent operation (HP unit only. For independent operation, the recovered heat is required to be stored. .

  4. Education & Collection Facility GSHP Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joplin, Jeff [Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-03-28

    The Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS) designed and implemented an innovative ground source heat pump (GSHP) system for heating and cooling its new Education and Collection Facility (ECF) building addition. The project goal was to successfully design and install an open-loop GSHP system that utilized water circulating within an underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water system as the heat sink/source as a demonstration project. The expected results were to significantly reduce traditional GSHP installation costs while increasing system efficiency, reduce building energy consumption, require significantly less area and capital to install, and be economically implemented wherever access to a recycled water system is available. The project added to the understanding of GSHP technology by implementing the first GSHP system in the United States utilizing a municipal recycled water system as a heat sink/source. The use of this fluid through a GSHP system has not been previously documented. This use application presents a new opportunity for local municipalities to develop and expand the use of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems. The installation costs for this type of technology in the building structure would be a cost savings over traditional GSHP costs, provided the local municipal infrastructure was developed. Additionally, the GSHP system functions as a viable method of heat sink/source as the thermal characteristics of the fluid are generally consistent throughout the year and are efficiently exchanged through the GSHP system and its components. The use of the recycled water system reduces the area required for bore or loop fields; therefore, presenting an application for building structures that have little to no available land use or access. This GSHP application demonstrates the viability of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems as technically achievable, environmentally supportive, and an efficient

  5. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Mario J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Givler, Richard C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  6. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  7. A gamma heating calculation methodology for research reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; David, J.C.; Carcreff, H.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma heating is an important issue in research reactor operation and fuel safety. Heat deposition in irradiation targets and temperature distribution in irradiation facility should be determined so as to obtain the optimal irradiation conditions. This paper presents a recently developed gamma heating calculation methodology and its application on the research reactors. Based on the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code under the continuous-energy option, this new calculation methodology was validated against calorimetric measurements realized within a large ex-core irradiation facility of the 70 MWth OSIRIS materials testing reactor (MTR). The contributions from prompt fission neutrons, prompt fission γ-rays, capture γ-rays and inelastic γ-rays to heat deposition were evaluated by a coupled (n, γ) transport calculation. The fission product decay γ-rays were also considered but the activation γ-rays were neglected in this study. (author)

  8. Application of nanofluids in plate heat exchanger: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Tiwari, Arun Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of nanofluid improves the heat transfer performance of plate heat exchanger. • Thermo-physical properties of the nanofluid have been discussed. • Optimum particle concentrations for maximum heat transfer is found to exist. - Abstract: Writing, or even making an attempt to write anything on or about Plate Heat Exchangers (Henceforth, PHE) would be no more than a futile effort to reassert and glorify an already stronghold state of PHEs, as is evident with the kind of multilayered and multi-tasked functions it performs, obviously in different forms, in various domains of work & walks of life, since a good long time. Nonetheless, in a bid to bring about a certain makeshift in the way the PHE has been functioning and sustaining, there was a need to revisit the structural pattern and the fluids that contribute to the performance of PHE. Summarily, this brings the researcher and designers to shift the focus not only from the conventional design but also to introduce a new substance which could further contribute to enhance the performance of the PHE. That is why, in recent times, the miniaturization of PHE and energy efficiency have become focal point of attention, discourse and research. While exploring for better alternates, the nanofluids have surfaced as probable (replaceable) substitutes. The Nanofluid is a relatively recent (in contrast with the PHEs) finding that promises, pronouncedly, greater heat absorbing and heat transport ability. The review article attempts to take a sneak peak into some of the important published articles that deal with the function and performance of PHEs using nanofluids. The first section of the paper presents observations by several authors on experimental and numerical results regarding thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat and heat transfer coefficients. The second section talks of application of nanofluids in plate heat exchangers. It has also examined the utility of nanofluids, particularly in PHEs

  9. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  10. Demonstration of Efficient Core Heating of Magnetized Fast Ignition in FIREX project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johzaki, Tomoyuki

    2017-10-01

    Extensive theoretical and experimental research in the FIREX ``I project over the past decade revealed that the large angular divergence of the laser generated electron beam is one of the most critical problems inhibiting efficient core heating in electron-driven fast ignition. To solve this problem, beam guiding using externally applied kilo-tesla class magnetic field was proposed, and its feasibility has recently been numerically demonstrated. In 2016, integrated experiments at ILE Osaka University demonstrated core heating efficiencies reaching > 5 % and heated core temperatures of 1.7 keV. In these experiments, a kilo-tesla class magnetic field was applied to a cone-attached Cu(II) oleate spherical solid target by using a laser-driven capacitor-coil. The target was then imploded by G-XII laser and heated by the PW-class LFEX laser. The heating efficiency was evaluated by measuring the number of Cu-K- α photons emitted. The heated core temperature was estimated by the X-ray intensity ratio of Cu Li-like and He-like emission lines. To understand the detailed dynamics of the core heating process, we carried out integrated simulations using the FI3 code system. Effects of magnetic fields on the implosion and electron beam transport, detailed core heating dynamics, and the resultant heating efficiency and core temperature will be presented. I will also discuss the prospect for an ignition-scale design of magnetized fast ignition using a solid ball target. This work is partially supported by JSPA KAKENHI Grant Number JP16H02245, JP26400532, JP15K21767, JP26400532, JP16K05638 and is performed with the support and the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS12KUGK057, NIFS15KUGK087).

  11. APPLICATION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AT A SMALL BUSINESSES ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Rajewski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the types of organizational structures of project management and their application in project management in small and medium-sized enterprises. Among the approaches and methods to organize projects emphasizing project management as part of the existing functional structure of the enterprise. Analyzed the most relevant organizational tools of project management in small business: a network schedule; matrix distribution of administrative and management tasks of the project; schedule of the project plan; information and technological methods and models used in the process of project management; software applications for project management, used in the sphere of small business.

  12. Results from the European Integrated Project '' New Materials for Extreme Environments (ExtreMat) ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Baluc, N.; Garcia-Rosales, G.; Gualco, G. C.; Simancik, F.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the European Integrated Project '' ExtreMat '' is to provide and to industrialize new materials and their compounds for applications in extreme environments that are beyond reach with incremental materials development only. The R(and)D activities in this project aim to provide a) self-passivating protection materials for sensitive structures operated in physico-chemically aggressive environments at high temperatures; b) new heat sink materials with the capability of very efficient heat removal, often at very high temperature level; c) radiation resistant materials for very high operation temperatures; d) new processing routes for complex heterogeneous compounds that can be operated in extreme environments. Key applications for these new materials are in the sectors of fusion, advanced fission, space, and electronic applications. Further use of these materials is expected in spin-off fields, such as brake applications and energy conversion. The project started in December 2004 for a duration of five years and is supported by the European Community. The 37 project participants are from 13 EU member states and include 6 universities, 7 research institutes, 10 research centres and 14 industrial companies. Research results regarding the development of materials for application in nuclear fusion, especially on protection, heat sink, and radiation resistant materials will be presented. A view to other applications of these materials in the fields of fission, space and electronics will be given in the presentation. ExtreMat Project Partners: see http://www.extremat.org/. (author)

  13. Projected health impacts of heat events in Washington State associated with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael; Hom, Elizabeth; Fenske, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and duration of extreme-heat events and associated health outcomes. This study used data from the historical heat-health outcome relationship, and a unique prediction model, to estimate mortality for 2025 and 2045. For each one degree change in humidex above threshold, we find a corresponding 1.83% increase in mortality for all ages, all non-traumatic causes of death in King County, Washington. Mortality is projected to increase significantly in 2025 and 2045 for the 85 and older age group (2.3-8.0 and 4.0-22.3 times higher than baseline, respectively).

  14. A new graphical method for Pinch Analysis applications: Heat exchanger network retrofit and energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A.

    2015-01-01

    Energy integration is a key solution in chemical process and crude refining industries to minimise external fuel consumption and to face the impact of growing energy crises. Typical energy integration projects can reach a reduction of heating fuels and cold utilities by up to 40% compared with original designs or existing installations. Pinch Analysis is a leading tool and regarded as an efficient method to increase energy efficiency and minimise fuel flow consumptions. It is valid for both natures of design, grassroots and retrofit situations. It can practically be applied to synthesise a HEN (heat exchanger network) or modify an existing preheat train for minimum energy consumption. Heat recovery systems or HENs are networks for exchanging heat between hot and cold process sources. All heat transferred from hot process sources into cold process sinks represent the scope for energy integration. On the other hand, energies required beyond this integrated amount are to be satisfied by external utilities. Graphical representations of Pinch Analysis, such as Composite and Grand Composite Curves are very useful for grassroots designs. Nevertheless, in retrofit situation the analysis is not adequate and besides it is graphically tedious to represent existing exchangers on such graphs. This research proposes a new graphical method for the analysis of heat recovery systems, applicable to HEN retrofit. The new graphical method is based on plotting temperatures of process hot streams versus temperatures of process cold streams. A new graph is constructed for representing existing HENs. For a given network, each existing exchanger is represented by a straight line, whose slope is proportional to the ratio of heat capacities and flows. Further, the length of each exchanger line is related to the heat flow transferred across this exchanger. This new graphical representation can easily identify exchangers across the pinch, Network Pinch, pinching matches and improper placement

  15. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radermacher, Reinhard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bacellar, Daniel [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Aute, Vikrant [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Huang, Zhiwei [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hwang, Yunho [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Ling, Jiazhen [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Muehlbauer, Jan [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tancabel, James [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Mingkan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Air-to-refrigerant Heat eXchangers (HX) are an essential component of Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems, serving as the main heat transfer component. The major limiting factor to HX performance is the large airside thermal resistance. Recent literature aims at improving heat transfer performance by utilizing enhancement methods such as fins and small tube diameters; this has lead to almost exhaustive research on the microchannel HX (MCHX). The objective of this project is to develop a miniaturized air-to-refrigerant HX with at least 20% reduction in volume, material volume, and approach temperature compared to current state-of-the-art multiport flat tube designs and also be capable of production within five years. Moreover, the proposed HX’s are expected to have good water drainage and should succeed in both evaporator and condenser applications. The project leveraged Parallel-Parametrized Computational Fluid Dynamics (PPCFD) and Approximation-Assisted Optimization (AAO) techniques to perform multi-scale analysis and shape optimization with the intent of developing novel HX designs whose thermal-hydraulic performance exceeds that of state-of-the-art MCHX. Nine heat exchanger geometries were initially chosen for detailed analysis, selected from 35+ geometries which were identified in previous work at the University of Maryland, College Park. The newly developed optimization framework was exercised for three design optimization problems: (DP I) 1.0kW radiator, (DP II) 10kW radiator and (DP III) 10kW two-phase HX. DP I consisted of the design and optimization of 1.0kW air-to-water HX’s which exceeded the project requirements of 20% volume/material reduction and 20% better performance. Two prototypes for the 1.0kW HX were prototyped, tested and validated using newly-designed airside and refrigerant side test facilities. DP II, a scaled version DP I for 10kW air-to-water HX applications, also yielded optimized HX designs

  16. Projections of rising heat stress over the western Maritime Continent from dynamically downscaled climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Kang, Suchul; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2018-06-01

    This study assesses the future changes in heat stress in response to different emission scenarios over the western Maritime Continent. To better resolve the region-specific changes and to enhance the performance in simulating extreme events, the MIT Regional Climate Model with a 12-km horizontal resolution is used for the dynamical downscaling of three carefully selected CMIP5 global projections forced by two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Daily maximum wet-bulb temperature (TWmax), which includes the effect of humidity, is examined to describe heat stress as regulated by future changes in temperature and humidity. An ensemble of projections reveals robust pattern in which a large increase in temperature is accompanied by a reduction in relative humidity but a significant increase in wet-bulb temperature. This increase in TWmax is relatively smaller over flat and coastal regions than that over mountainous region. However, the flat and coastal regions characterized by warm and humid present-day climate will be at risk even under modest increase in TWmax. The regional extent exposed to higher TWmax and the number of days on which TWmax exceeds its threshold value are projected to be much higher in RCP8.5 scenario than those in RCP4.5 scenario, thus highlighting the importance of controlling greenhouse gas emissions to reduce the adverse impacts on human health and heat-related mortality.

  17. Application of solar radiation for heating and preparation of warm water in an individual house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Tadeeusz; Majchrzycka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The paper is aimed at analysis of application of the solar collectors array for preparing of warm water and space heating in an individual house. Keywords: application of solar radiation, preparation of warm water, heating

  18. Progress on conformal microwave array applicators for heating chestwall disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, P. R.; Maccarini, P. F.; Juang, T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Gaeta, C. J.; Schlorff, J. L.; Milligan, A. J.

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have reported the computer modeling, CAD design, and theoretical performance of single and multiple antenna arrays of Dual Concentric Conductor (DCC) square slot radiators driven at 915 and 433 MHz. Subsequently, practical CAD designs of microstrip antenna arrays constructed on thin and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) material were reported which evolved into large Conformal Microwave Array (CMA) sheets that could wrap around the surface of the human torso for delivering microwave energy to large areas of superficial tissue. Although uniform and adjustable radiation patterns have been demonstrated from multiple element applicators radiating into simple homogeneous phantom loads, the contoured and heterogeneous tissue loads typical of chestwall recurrent breast cancer have required additional design efforts to achieve good coupling and efficient heating from the increasingly larger conformal array applicators used to treat large area contoured patient anatomy. Thus recent work has extended the theoretical optimization of DCC antennas to improve radiation efficiency of each individual aperture and reduce mismatch reflections, radiation losses, noise, and cross coupling of the feedline distribution network of large array configurations. Design improvements have also been incorporated into the supporting bolus structure to maintain effective coupling of DCC antennas into contoured anatomy and to monitor and control surface temperatures under the entire array. New approaches for non-invasive monitoring of surface and sub-surface tissue temperatures under each independent heat source are described that make use of microwave radiometry and flexible sheet grid arrays of thermal sensors. Efforts to optimize the clinical patient interface and move from planar rectangular shapes to contoured vest applicators that accommodate entire disease in a larger number of patients are summarized. By applying heat more uniformly to large areas of contoured anatomy

  19. Design of the steam reformer for the HTR-10 high temperature process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Huaiming; Xu Yuanhui; Jia Haijun

    2000-01-01

    The 10 MW High Temperature Reactor Test Module (HTR-10) is being constructed now and planned to be operational in 2000. One of the objectives is to develop the high temperature process heat application. The methane steam reformer is one of the key-facilities for the nuclear process heat application system. The paper describes the conceptual design of the HTR-10 Steam Reformer with He heating, and the design optimization computer code. It can be used to perform sensitivity analysis for parameters, and to improve the design. Principal parameters and construction features of the HTR-10 reformer heated by He are introduced. (author)

  20. Phase change heat transfer device for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Patterson, Mike; Utgikar, Vivek; Gunnerson, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ∼1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (≥50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+ m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via 'pumping a fluid', a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  1. Assessment of very high-temperature reactors in process applications. Appendix II. VHTR process heat application studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Gambill, W.R.; Cooper, R.H.; Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Littlefield, C.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-06-01

    A critical review is presented of the technology and economics for coupling a very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor to a variety of process applications. It is concluded that nuclear steam reforming of light hydrocarbons for coal conversion could be a near-term alternative and that direct nuclear coal gasification could be a future consideration. Thermochemical water splitting appears to be more costly and its availability farther in the future than the coal-conversion systems. Nuclear steelmaking is competitive with the direct reduction of iron ore from conventional coal-conversion processes but not competitive with the reforming of natural gas at present gas prices. Nuclear process heat for petroleum refining, even with the necessary backup systems, is competitive with fossil energy sources. The processing with nuclear heat of oil shale and tar sands is of marginal economic importance. An analysis of peaking power applications using nuclear heat was also made. It is concluded that steam reforming methane for energy storage and production of peaking power is not a viable economic alternative, but that energy storage with a high-temperature heat transfer salt (HTS) is competitive with conventional peaking systems. An examination of the materials required in process heat exchangers is made

  2. Heat and cold accumulators in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauranen, P.; Wikstroem, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, Tampere (Finland)); Heikkinen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Services and Indoor Environment, Espoo (Finland)); Laurikko, J.; Elonen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Emission Control, Espoo (Finland)); Seppaelae, A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, Espoo (Finland)). Email: ari.seppala@tkk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Material (PCM) based heat and cold accumulators have been tailored for transport applications including a mail delivery van as well as the cold chains of foodstuff and blood products. The PCMs can store relative large amount of thermal energy in a narrow temperature interval as latent heat of fusion of their melting and crystallization processes. Compact heat and cold accumulators can be designed using PCMs. The aim of the project has been to reduce the exhaust gas and noise emissions and improve the fuel economy of the transport systems and to improve the reliability of the cold chains studied by storing thermal energy in PCM accumulators. (orig.)

  3. Application of sorption heat pumps for increasing of new power sources efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, L.; Filatova, O.; Tsitovich, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the 21st century the way to increase the efficiency of new sources of energy is directly related with extended exploration of renewable energy. This modern tendency ensures the fuel economy needs to be realized with nature protection. The increasing of new power sources efficiency (cogeneration, trigeneration systems, fuel cells, photovoltaic systems) can be performed by application of solid sorption heat pumps, regrigerators, heat and cold accumulators, heat transformers, natural gas and hydrogen storage systems and efficient heat exchangers.

  4. Pre-project study on a demonstration plant for seawater desalination using a nuclear heating reactor in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achour, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives in the first part detailed information on the pre-project study on a demonstration plant for seawater desalination using heating reactor implemented by both Moroccan and Chinese sides. The main findings of the pre-project study are given in the second part. (author)

  5. Ohmic Heating Technology and Its Application in Meaty Food: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rishi Richa; N. C. Shahi; Anupama Singh; U. C. Lohani; P. K. Omre; Anil Kumar; T. K. Bhattacharya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current review paper is to investigate and analyze about the effects of ohmic heating (OH) different application in the field of fish, meat and its product and compare it with other conventional thermal methods of food processing such as thawing, heating, cooking etc. Food quality, food safety, convenience, freshness, healthy food, natural flavor and taste with extended shelf-life are the main criteria for the demand made by today’s consumers. Ohmic heating is a substitute ...

  6. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  7. Thermophysical Properties of Heat Resistant Shielding Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    This project was aimed at determining thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal expansion of a heat resistant shielding material for neutron absorption applications. These data are critical in predicting the structural integrity of the shielding under thermal cycling and mechanical load. The measurements of thermal conductivity and specific heat were conducted in air at five different temperatures (-31 F, 73.4 F, 140 F, 212 F and 302 F). The transient plane source (TPS) method was used in the tests. Thermal expansion tests were conducted using push rod dilatometry over the continuous range from -40 F (-40 C) to 302 F (150 C)

  8. Energy source completion for geothermal district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal district heating systems differs from the others mainly in the part of energy source completion and its connection to the heat distribution systems rather known problem. Even rather known problematic in the countries where geothermal energy is in wide application, new appearances of mistakes are always present due to the fact that necessary literature is difficult to be found. Essentials of the geothermal well completion and connection of geothermal source to the district heating distribution system are summarized in the paper and several examples of geothermal projects in flow are presented. (Author)

  9. Solar hot water systems application to the solar building test facility and the Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, R. L.; Jensen, R. N.; Basford, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Projects which relate to the current national thrust toward demonstrating applied solar energy are discussed. The first project has as its primary objective the application of a system comprised of a flat plate collector field, an absorption air conditioning system, and a hot water heating system to satisfy most of the annual cooling and heating requirements of a large commercial office building. The other project addresses the application of solar collector technology to the heating and hot water requirements of a domestic residence. In this case, however, the solar system represents only one of several important technology items, the primary objective for the project being the application of space technology to the American home.

  10. Implementing CDIO project-based learning in training of Heat and Power engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, E. A.; Shishmarev, P. V.; Karabarin, D. I.; Yanov, S. R.; Pikalova, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the experience and current results of CDIO standards implementation in training of bachelors in Heat and Power Engineering at Thermal Power Stations academic department in Siberian Federal University. It provides information on methodology of modernization of educational programs, curricula and programs of disciplines in transition to CDIO project-based learning technology. Preliminary assessment and analysis of lessons learned and scaling perspectives are given.

  11. Analysis of non simultaneous common mode failures. Application to the reliability assessment of the decay heat removal of the RNR 1500 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natta, M.; Bloch, M.

    1991-01-01

    The experience with the LMFBR PHENIX has shown many cases of failures on identical and redundant components, which were close in time but not simultaneous and due to the same causes such as a design error, an unappropriate material, corrosion, ... Since the decay heat removal (DHR) must be assured for a long period after shutdown of the reactor, the overall reliability of the DHR system depends much on this type of successive failures by common mode causes, for which the usual β factor methods are not appropriate since they imply that the several failures are simultaneous. In this communication, two methods will be presented. The first one was used to assess the reliability of the DHR system of the RNR 1500 project. In this method, one modelize the occurrence of successive failures on n identical files by a sudden jump of the failure rate from the value λ attributed to the first failure to the value λ' attributed to the (n-1) still available files. This method leads to a quite natural quantification of the interest of diversity for highly redundant systems. For the RNR 1500 project where, in case of the loss of normal DHR path through the steam generators, the decay heat is removed by four separated sodium loops of 26 MW unit capacity in forced convection, the probabilistic assessment shows that it is necessary to diversify the sodium-sodium heat exchanger in order to fullfil the upper limit of 10 -7 /year for the probability of failure of DHR. A separate assessment for the main sequence leading to DHR loss was performed using a different method in which the successive failures are interpreted as a premature end of life, the lifetimes being directly used as random variables. This Monte-Carlo type method, which can be applied to any type of lifetime distribution, leads to results consistent to those obtained with the first one

  12. Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Kurth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Distributed temperature sensing (DTS is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater–surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site, issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.

  13. A review of waste heat recovery technologies for maritime applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dig Vijay; Pedersen, Eilif

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Major waste heat sources available on ships have been reviewed. • A review of suitable waste heat recovery systems was conducted for marine vessels. • Technologies have been compared for their potential and suitability for marine use. • Kalina cycle offers the highest potential for marine waste heat recovery. • Turbo compound system most suitable for recovering diesel exhaust pressure energy. - Abstract: A waste heat recovery system produces power by utilizing the heat energy lost to the surroundings from thermal processes, at no additional fuel input. For marine vessels, about 50 percent of the total fuel energy supplied to diesel power-plant aboard is lost to the surroundings. While the total amount of wasted energy is considerable, the quality of this energy is quite low due to its low temperature and has limited potential for power production. Effective waste heat recovery systems use the available low temperature waste heat to produce mechanical/electrical power with high efficiency value. In this study a review of different waste heat recovery systems has been conducted, to lay out the potential recovery efficiencies and suitability for marine applications. This work helps in identifying the most suitable heat recovery technologies for maritime use depending on the properties of shipboard waste heat and achievable recovery efficiencies, whilst discussing the features of each type of system.

  14. Industrial heat pumps for high temperatures - a pilot project; Industrielle varmepumper for hoeje temperaturer - et forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Weel, M.; Mikkelsen, J. [Weel and Sandvig, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    This project investigates the possibility of using mass produced and inexpensive turbo compressor technology for heat pumping in the industry. The compressors are designed for the compression of air and used by the automotive industry in connection with turbo-chargers. The heat pumps are primarily intended to use water as the working medium, which in addition to having no environmental loads, is suitable for the heat pumping at temperatures above about 60 deg. C and up to about 200 deg. C, a temperature level which is considerably higher than what has previously been observed covered with heat pumping. In this project, a Danish-produced high-speed gear (Rotrex) is used, which has just been developed to said compressor technology. In cooperation with Rotrex, the modifications relevant to a standard unit were analyzed and assessed. The project identified some areas of industry where heat pumping using this technology is considered to be attractive. A pilot plant operating with steam in a total of 12 hours is demonstrated. In more than 3 hours, the pilot plant was coupled so that it delivered useful heat supply to the evaporator. The plant has during the tests worked satisfactorily, and there is no evidence of problems with leaks in the compressor shaft sealings, neither in relation to the leakage of oil or steam, which was one of the central issues to clarify with the demonstration. In the limited testing period no problems were detected that could not be immediately resolved, i.e. the transmission in the form of a belt drive with high speed from the engine to the friction gear. In the determination of the performance of the compressor during the trial operation with steam as a working medium, it is shown that the conversion efficiency are within the expected range when taking into account the uncertainties in the measurements and the calculation method. In the experiment, no measurement of steam flow through the compressor was made, because of a greatly reduced

  15. An application program for fission product decay heat calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Ngoc Son; Katakura, Jun-ichi

    2007-10-01

    The precise knowledge of decay heat is one of the most important factors in safety design and operation of nuclear power facilities. Furthermore, decay heat data also play an important role in design of fuel discharges, fuel storage and transport flasks, and in spent fuel management and processing. In this study, a new application program, called DHP (Decay Heat Power program), has been developed for exact decay heat summation calculations, uncertainty analysis, and for determination of the individual contribution of each fission product. The analytical methods were applied in the program without any simplification or approximation, in which all of linear and non-linear decay chains, and 12 decay modes, including ground state and meta-stable states, are automatically identified, and processed by using a decay data library and a fission yield data file, both in ENDF/B-VI format. The window interface of the program is designed with optional properties which is very easy for users to run the code. (author)

  16. Heat and work integration: Fundamental insights and applications to carbon dioxide capture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Chao; Gundersen, Truls

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The problem definition of heat and work integration is introduced. • The fundamental insights of heat and work integration are presented. • The design methodology is illustrated with two small test examples. • Applications of to three carbon dioxide capture processes are presented. - Abstract: The integration of heat has achieved a notable success in the past decades. Pinch Analysis is a well-established methodology for heat integration. Work is an equally important thermodynamic parameter. The enthalpy of a process stream can be changed by the transfer of heat and/or work. Heat and work are actually interchangeable and can thus be integrated. For example, compression processes consume more work at higher temperatures, however, the compression heat may be upgraded and utilized; expansion processes produce more work at higher temperatures, however, more heat may be required. The classical heat integration problem is thus extended to a new research topic about the integration of both heat and work. The aim of this paper is to present the problem definition, fundamental thermodynamic insights and industrial applications of heat and work integration. The results from studies on the three carbon dioxide capture processes show that significant energy savings can be achieved by proper heat and work integration. In the oxy-combustion process, the work consumption for cryogenic air separation is reduced by 10.1%. In the post-combustion membrane separation process, the specific work consumption for carbon dioxide separation is reduced by 12.9%. In the membrane air separation process, the net work consumption (excluding heat consumption) is reduced by 90%.

  17. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  18. Evaluation and Design of Downhole Heat Exchangers for Direct Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, G [Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, Oregon; Reistad, G M [Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon

    0000-12-30

    Over 400 wells with downhole heat exchangers are in use in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Some have been in use for nearly 30 years. Despite the large number and the long experience, the exact nature of the mechanism of heat exchange and, therefore, the maximum output was not known, except that it had been theorized that convection cells were established in the well. Oregon Institute of Technology and Oregon State University are jointly involved in a project to study the heat exchange process and economics of the downhole heat exchanger system. The existence of significant convection cell circulation has been established and measured using a “spinner,” hot film anemometer, and by energy balance calculations. Based on these measurements, analytical models have been developed which predict heat extraction rates within 15% of actual measured values. The existence of significant mixing of “new” and circulating well fluid has been established and can be calculated, although at this time not accurately predicted before testing a well. Based on the analytical models, multi-tube heat exchangers have been designed and very recently tested with outputs within 15% of predicted values. Economic analyses shows that for small to moderate extraction rates, about 300 kW thermal, and shallow wells, DHEs may be more economical than pumped systems when surface discharge is not acceptable.

  19. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003; Programme 'Solaire actif - Chaleur et Stockage de chaleur'. Activites et projets en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadorn, J.-C. [Base Consultants, Geneva (Switzerland); Renaud, P. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD

  20. 40 CFR 463.10 - Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contact cooling and heating water subcategory. 463.10 Section 463.10 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating Water Subcategory § 463.10 Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants from...

  1. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  2. LTO License Application Project NPP Borssele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, A.E. de; Blom, F.J.; Leilich, J.

    2012-01-01

    Borssele NPP plans to extend its operating life with 20 years until 2034. Borssele has started the project LTO 'bewijsvoering' (LTO 'Justification') in order to meet the requirements of the Dutch regulator. The outline of the project is based on IAEA safety guide 57 'Safe Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants'. This paper describes the contents and coherence of the different parts in the project and how these respond to the IAEA guidelines on LTO. The goal of the project LTO 'bewijsvoering' is to ensure that safety and safety relevant systems, structures and components continue to perform their intended functions during long term operation. The outcome of the project LTO 'bewijsvoering' will be used for a license change application and this will be submitted to the Dutch regulator KFD for approval of prolonged operation of Borssele NPP after 2013. (author)

  3. Single-phase heat transfer enhancement in micro/minichannels using nanofluids: Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, Ahmed A.; Abdullah, Mohd Z.; Al-Nimr, Moh’d A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Review recent experimental and numerical studies on heat transfer in micro/minichannels and nanofluids. • Display the new applications of using nanofluids and micro/minichannels to enhance thermal performance. • Explain the factors affecting the thermal conductivity enhancement ratio of nanofluids. • The challenges of using the mini/microchannels and nanofluids. - Abstract: New cooling techniques are being explored for the dissipation of heat fluxes. Many recent studies on heat transfer in micro/minichannels (M/MCs) with nanofluids have focused on combining the advantages of both, for the purpose of obtaining higher single-phase enhancement of heat transfer. Developing of many applications such as cooling electronic device, solar cell, and automotive technology is highly demanded now a day to obtain high efficiency and reduce the operating cost. This review article summarizes recent studies, with a focus on two main topics: The first part contains the main concepts such as scaling effects of M/MCs, physical properties and convective heat transfer. The second part displays the main recent applications of M/MCs with nanofluids with the challenges to be widely used. The purpose of this article to provide exhaustive and comprehensive review of updated works published in this new area, with general conclusions.

  4. Geothermal Heat Pump System for New Student Housing Project at the University at Albany Main Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lnu, Indumathi [Univ. of Albany, NY (United States)

    2015-08-27

    University at Albany successfully designed, constructed and is operating a new student housing building that utilizes ground source heat pump (GSHP) for heating and cooling the entire 191,500SF building. The installed system consists of a well field with 150 bores, 450 feet deep and (189) terminal heat pump units for a total capacity of 358 Tons cooling and 4,300 MBtu/h heating. The building opened in Fall 2012. The annual energy use and cost intensity of the building, after the changes made during the first 2 years’ of operation is 57kBtu/SF/Year and $1.30/SF/Year respectively. This is approximately 50% lower than the other residential quads on campus, despite the fact that the quads are not air-conditioned. The total project cost from design through 3-years of operations is approximately $6 Million, out of which $5.7 Million is for construction of the GSHP system including the well field. The University received a $2.78 Million grant from the Department of Energy. The estimated utility cost savings, compared to a baseline building with conventional HVAC system, is approximately $185,000. The estimated simple payback, after grant incentives, is 15 years. Additionally, the project has created 8.5FTE equivalent jobs.

  5. U-PHOS Project: Development of a Large Diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe Experiment on board REXUS 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannipieri, P; Anichini, M; Barsocchi, L; Becatti, G; Buoni, L; Celi, F; Catarsi, A; Di Giorgio, P; Fattibene, P; Ferrato, E; Guardati, P; Mancini, E; Meoni, G; Nesti, F; Piacquadio, S; Pratelli, E; Quadrelli, L; Viglione, A S; Zanaboni, F; Mameli, M

    2017-01-01

    U-PHOS Project aims at analysing and characterising the behaviour of a large diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) on board REXUS 22 sounding rocket. A PHP is a passive thermal control device where the heat is efficiently transported by means of the self-sustained oscillatory fluid motion driven by the phase change phenomena. Since, in milli-gravity conditions, buoyancy forces become less intense, the PHP diameter may be increased still maintaining the slug/plug typical flow pattern. Consequently, the PHP heat power capability may be increased too. U-PHOS aims at proving that a large diameter PHP effectively works in milli-g conditions by characterizing its thermal response during a sounding rocket flight. The actual PHP tube is made of aluminum (3 mm inner diameter, filled with FC-72), heated at the evaporator by a compact electrical resistance, cooled at the condenser by a Phase Change Material (PCM) embedded in a metallic foam. The tube wall temperatures are recorded by means of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors; the local fluid pressure is acquired by means of a pressure transducer. The present work intends to report the actual status of the project, focusing in particular on the experiment improvements with respect to the previous campaign. (paper)

  6. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  7. The ANGSTREM project: present status and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, V.S.; Legyuenko, S.K.; Grigoriev, O.G.; Gromov, B.F.; Dedul, A.V.; Leonchyk, M.P.; Pashkin, Yu.G.; Pankratov, D.V.; Chekunov, V.V.; Skorikov, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The project ANGSTREM of a modular-transportable nuclear power-and-heating station with assured safety for remote areas is described. The station is based on fast nuclear reactor cooling by a lead-bismuth eutectic. The possible evolution of the project is mentioned in relation to possible new application - sea water desalination or refrigeration plants. (author)

  8. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  9. Study and Application of Forced Convection in Road Bus Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheila Sandi Biazus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a replacing the heating system of intercity buses, made by long heat exchangers distributed on the sides of the passenger saloon by small and compact ones that use forced convection to heat dissipation. At the beginning the calculation was made of the heat capacity of a heat exchanger with the parameters defined by the supplier, and then conducted an analysis of change in these parameters in order to improve its efficiency. The method for examining the heat exchanger is based on the correlations available in the convection flow inside and outside to determine the respective convective coefficients, and therefore the overall coefficient of heat transfer. Following, the heat exchanger in its original form, was tested on bench. Thus, from the thermal load of the bus model studied, the amount of exchangers required has been defined to satisfy the thermal comfort of passengers. Field tests of the heating systems with new heat exchangers were performed to obtain actual data of the proposed system. The original factory system showed to be efficient in meeting the needs thermal load and economically viable, such that the critical thermal load can be met with ten heaters installed along the body. Furthermore, this system offers the possibility of varying the parameters to best fit to the project, where the flow variation of the fans or the spacing between the fins of the heat exchanger decreases the amount of heaters required. At the same time, the system showed the need for further study to assess its distribution along the passenger saloon in order to meet a best uniformity temperature distribution.

  10. Combined heat pump for sanitary hot water and space heating with CO{sub 2} as refrigerant; Kombineret brugsvands- og rumvarmepumpe med CO{sub 2} som koelemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen Poulsen, C. [Teknologisk Institut (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    This project report describes the implementation of the Danish project called 'Combined heat pump for sanitary hot water and space heating with CO{sub 2} as refrigerant'. In the course of the project, a combined heat pump has been developed for heating sanitary hot water and producing domestic space heating. The project shows that CO2 has excellent properties in systems where a high temperature is desired on the gas cooler side and that it is possible to combine the production of sanitary hot water with the production of domestic space heating. During the project, a number of system solutions have been analysed and at the end of the project a prototype was built. It was tested in the laboratory according to a current Dutch standard for heat pumps for sanitary hot water. The prototype was constructed without the space heat part which solely has been analysed according to calculations. The reason is that there currently are no applicable European standards for the testing of combined systems and as the total efficiency of the system mainly depends on the temperature out of the gas cooler it was decided not to spend resources on the construction of the combined system in the prototype version of the unit. Instead, a number of proposals have been submitted to how the system with a space heat section could be constructed. The main components used in the prototype (compressor, exchangers, valve, control and tank) are all partly commercially available and therefore focus has been on the system construction. During the project, a number of CFD calculations have been carried out on the gas cooler in the hot water tank and the results show how important it is that the gas cooler is designed and placed correctly. The laboratory tests carried out on the unit show that the COP of the heat pump plant in connection with sanitary hot water tapping (according to Dutch standard) is 1.4 1.5 which is not immediately satisfactory. But when it is considered that the unit is a

  11. Heat-related mortality projections for cardiovascular and respiratory disease under the changing climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-08-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4%, 47.8%, and 69.0% in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6%,73.8% and 134% in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  12. Nuclear heat for industrial purposes and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the various possibilities for the application of heat from nuclear reactors in the form of district heat or process steam for industrial purposes had been made long before the present energy crisis. Although these studies have indicated technical feasibility and economical justification of such utilization, the availability of relatively cheap oil and difficulties in locating a nuclear heat source inside industrial areas did not stimulate much further development. Since the increase of oil prices, the interest in nuclear heat application is reawakened, and a number of new potential areas have been identified. It now seems generally recognized that the heat from nuclear reactors should play an important role in primary energy supply, not only for electricity production but also as direct heat. At present three broad areas of nuclear heat application are identified: Direct heat utilization in industrial processing requiring a temperature above 800 deg. C; Process steam utilization in various industries, requiring a temperature mainly in the range of 200-300 deg. C; Low temperature and waste heat utilization from nuclear power plants for desalination of sea water and district heating. Such classification is mainly related to the type and characteristics of the heat source or nuclear reactor which could be used for a particular application. Modified high temperature reactor types (HTR) are the candidates for direct heat application, while the LWR reactors can satisfy most of the demands for process steam. Production of waste heat is a characteristic of all thermal power plants, and its utilization is a major challenge in the field of power production

  13. Intermediate heat exchanger for HTR process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crambes, M.

    1980-01-01

    In the French study on the nuclear gasification of coal, the following options were recommended: Coal hydrogenation, the hydrogen being derived from CH 4 reforming under the effects of HTR heat; the use of an intermediate helium circuit between the nuclear plant and the reforming plant. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the heat exchanger designed to transfer heat from the primary to the intermediate circuit

  14. Proceedings of the solar industrial process heat symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the progress of various solar energy systems currently under design for supplying industrial process heat. Formal presentations consisted of a review of solar energy applications in industrial process heat as well as several on-going project reviews. An Open Forum was held to solicit the comments of the participants. The recommendations of this Open Forum are included in these proceedings. Eighteen papers were included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper.

  15. Field Demonstration of Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reducing energy consumption in buildings is key to reducing or limiting the negative environmental impacts from the building sector. According to the United States (U.S.) Energy Information Administration (EIA), in 2013, commercial buildings consumed 18.1 quads of primary energy, which was 18.6% of the total U.S. primary energy consumption. The primary energy consumption in the commercial sector is projected to increase by 2.8 quads from 2013 to 2040, the second largest increase after the industrial sector. Further space heating, space cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) services accounted for 31% of the energy consumption in commercial buildings. The technical objective of this project is to demonstrate the capability of the new GS-IHP system to reduce overall energy use for space heating, space cooling, and water heating by at least 45% vs. a conventional electric RTU and electric WH in a light commercial building application. This project supports the DOE-Building Technologies Office (BTO) goals of reducing HVAC energy use by 20% and water heating by 60% by 2030.

  16. Radiant heat transfers in turbojet engines. Two applications, three levels of modeling; Transferts radiatifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs. Deux applications, trois niveaux de modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J L; Desaulty, M [SNECMA, Centre de Villaroche, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Taine, J [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1997-12-31

    Several applications linked with the dimensioning of turbojet engines require the use of modeling of radiant heat transfers. Two different applications are presented in this study: the modeling of heat transfers in the main combustion chamber, and modeling of the infrared signature of the post-combustion chamber of a military engine. In the first application, two types of radiant heat transfer modeling are presented: a global modeling based on empirical considerations and used in rapid pre-dimensioning methods, and a modeling based on a grey gases concept and combined to a ray shooting type technique allowing the determination of local radiant heat flux values. In the second application, a specific modeling of the radiant heat flux is used in the framework of a ray shooting method. Each model represents a different level of successive approximations of the radiant heat transfer adapted to flow specificities and to the performance requested. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  17. Radiant heat transfers in turbojet engines. Two applications, three levels of modeling; Transferts radiatifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs. Deux applications, trois niveaux de modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.L.; Desaulty, M. [SNECMA, Centre de Villaroche, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Taine, J. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1996-12-31

    Several applications linked with the dimensioning of turbojet engines require the use of modeling of radiant heat transfers. Two different applications are presented in this study: the modeling of heat transfers in the main combustion chamber, and modeling of the infrared signature of the post-combustion chamber of a military engine. In the first application, two types of radiant heat transfer modeling are presented: a global modeling based on empirical considerations and used in rapid pre-dimensioning methods, and a modeling based on a grey gases concept and combined to a ray shooting type technique allowing the determination of local radiant heat flux values. In the second application, a specific modeling of the radiant heat flux is used in the framework of a ray shooting method. Each model represents a different level of successive approximations of the radiant heat transfer adapted to flow specificities and to the performance requested. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  18. On the optimal design of shell and tube heat exchanger for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rabbo, F.M.M.; Fatb Allab, A.; El-Fawal, M.

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear industry, heat exchanger plays an important role in the transfer of heat from reactor core, where heat is generated, to the ultimate heat sink UHS, and then is dissipated. The actual design of heat exchanger not only relies on thermohydraulic considerations but also on economical aspects and radiological safety considerations. For optimal design of heat exchanger for a specific application a compromise should be made for determining the important factors affecting the design. In this paper, an optimization model is presented for shell and tube heat exchanger, which could be considered as a tool for computer aided design. A case study is presented to explore the present adopted model. 3 figs

  19. Vapordynamic thermosyphon - heat transfer two-phase device for wide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard; Vasiliev, Leonid; Zhuravlyov, Alexander; Shapovalov, Aleksander; Rodin, Aleksei

    2015-12-01

    Vapordynamic thermosyphon (VDT) is an efficient heat transfer device. The two-phase flow generation and dynamic interaction between the liquid slugs and vapor bubbles in the annular minichannel of the VDT condenser are the main features of such thermosyphon, which allowed to increase its thermodynamic efficiency. VDT can transfer heat in horizontal position over a long distance. The condenser is nearly isothermal with the length of tens of meters. The VDT evaporators may have different forms. Some practical applications of VDT are considered.

  20. Nuclear heat applications: design aspects and operating experience. Proceedings of four technical meetings held between December 1995 and April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    Proven to be safe, reliable, economic and having minimum impact on the environment, nuclear energy is playing an important role in electricity generation producing 175 of the world's electricity. But since most of the world's energy consumption is in the form of heat the market for nuclear heat has already been recognised. Considering the growing experience in application of power reactors for district heating, industrial processes and water desalination IAEA is periodically reviewing progress and new developments of nuclear heat applications. This proceedings includes the papers presented at the following four meetings: Advisory group meeting and consultancy on experience with nuclear heat applications: district heating, process heat and desalination, 13-15 December 1995 and 7-9 february 1996; Advisory group meeting on technology, design and safety aspects of non-electrical application of nuclear energy, 20-24 October 1997; Advisory group meeting on operational modes of nuclear desalination plants, 3-5 November 1997; Advisory group meeting on materials and equipment for the coupling interfaces of nuclear reactors with desalination and district heating plants, 21-23 April 1998. It is structured according to the subject areas: (1) design an safety aspects of nuclear heat application, (2) operational and material aspects of nuclear heat application and (3) operational experience with nuclear heat application. Each paper is described by a separate abstract

  1. Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  2. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system’s map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°, Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6° and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  3. Optimized application of systems engineering to nuclear waste repository projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Shepard, M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe a fully optimized application of systems engineering methods and philosophy to the management of a large nuclear waste repository project. Knowledge gained from actual experience with the use of the systems approach on two repository projects is incorporated in the material presented. The projects are currently evaluating the isolation performance of different geologic settings and are in different phases of maturity. Systems engineering methods were applied by the principal author at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the form of a functional analysis. At the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), the authors assisted the intergrating contractor with the development and application of systems engineering methods. Based on this experience and that acquired from other waste management projects, an optimized plan for applying systems engineering techniques was developed. The plan encompasses the following aspects: project organization, developing and defining requirements, assigning work responsibilities, evaluating system performance, quality assurance, controlling changes, enhancing licensability, optimizing project performance, and addressing regulatory issues. This information is presented in the form of a roadmap for the practical application of system engineering principles to a nuclear waste repository project

  4. Construction Project Performance Improvement through Radio Frequency Identification Technology Application on a Project Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Construction project productivity typically lags other industries and it has been the focus of numerous studies in order to improve the project performance. This research investigated the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology on construction projects' supply chain and determined that RFID technology can improve the…

  5. Technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Torres Ten, Alonso; Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Fuetes lombá, Osmanys; Massipe Hernández, J. Raúl; Gonzalez, Wagner Roberto

    2017-01-01

    It is presented the technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 20 Cabannas type tourism and a one of 2 square meter flat solar collector will be used, with a storage tank of 200 liters capacity, that is to say one system per cabin. (author)

  6. Application of heat-balance integral method to conjugate thermal explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novozhilov Vasily

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate thermal explosion is an extension of the classical theory, proposed and studied recently by the author. The paper reports application of heat-balance integral method for developing phase portraits for systems undergoing conjugate thermal explosion. The heat-balance integral method is used as an averaging method reducing partical differential equation problem to the set of first-order ordinary differential equations. The latter reduced problem allows natural interpretation in appropriately chosen phase space. It is shown that, with the help of heat-balance integral technique, conjugate thermal explosion problem can be described with a good accuracy by the set of non-linear first-order differential equations involving complex error function. Phase trajectories are presented for typical regimes emerging in conjugate thermal explosion. Use of heat-balance integral as a spatial averaging method allows efficient description of system evolution to be developed.

  7. Nuclear heating solutions. Realizations and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Monica; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2009-01-01

    Considering the present situation of thermal energy in Romania and having in view the fact that Romania is a Kyoto protocol signatory state one estimates that the development of the nuclear energy will have a promising growth. According with the statement of the National Energetic Observer, Romania became a net energy resource importer for the past 30 years and the estimations about the future are not optimistic. The finite reserves of fossil fuel (coal and natural gas), the gradual reduction of their share in the national energy balance with a tendency to become insignificant after 2025, as well as the present situation of the thermal power plants which are already beyond their operation life, all these indicate the nuclear energy as being the most reliable and sustainable future source for thermal energy production. Having in view these circumstances the paper aims at a short presentation of the existing nuclear solutions for district heating. Also, reviewed are the reactor projects that are under different development stage in the world, as well as the best nuclear solutions to be possibly implemented in Romania. The article represents a synthesis of the documentation made by PhD student Monica Dumitrescu in her preparation stage. (authors)

  8. Gasification with nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    The energy-political ultimate aims for the introduction of nuclear coal gasification and the present state of technology concerning the HTR reactor, concerning gasification and heat exchanging components are outlined. Presented on the plans a) for hydro-gasification of lignite and for steam gasification of pit coal for the production of synthetic natural gas, and b) for the introduction of a nuclear heat system. The safety and environmental problems to be expected are portrayed. The main points of development, the planned prototype plant and the schedule of the project Pototype plant Nuclear Process heat (PNP) are specified. In a market and economic viability study of nuclear coal gasification, the application potential of SNG, the possible construction programme for the FRG, as well as costs and rentability of SNG production are estimated. (GG) [de

  9. Temperature and humidity based projections of a rapid rise in global heat stress exposure during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, Ethan D.; Horton, Radley M.; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2018-01-01

    As a result of global increases in both temperature and specific humidity, heat stress is projected to intensify throughout the 21st century. Some of the regions most susceptible to dangerous heat and humidity combinations are also among the most densely populated. Consequently, there is the potential for widespread exposure to wet bulb temperatures that approach and in some cases exceed postulated theoretical limits of human tolerance by mid- to late-century. We project that by 2080 the relative frequency of present-day extreme wet bulb temperature events could rise by a factor of 100-250 (approximately double the frequency change projected for temperature alone) in the tropics and parts of the mid-latitudes, areas which are projected to contain approximately half the world’s population. In addition, population exposure to wet bulb temperatures that exceed recent deadly heat waves may increase by a factor of five to ten, with 150-750 million person-days of exposure to wet bulb temperatures above those seen in today’s most severe heat waves by 2070-2080. Under RCP 8.5, exposure to wet bulb temperatures above 35 °C—the theoretical limit for human tolerance—could exceed a million person-days per year by 2080. Limiting emissions to follow RCP 4.5 entirely eliminates exposure to that extreme threshold. Some of the most affected regions, especially Northeast India and coastal West Africa, currently have scarce cooling infrastructure, relatively low adaptive capacity, and rapidly growing populations. In the coming decades heat stress may prove to be one of the most widely experienced and directly dangerous aspects of climate change, posing a severe threat to human health, energy infrastructure, and outdoor activities ranging from agricultural production to military training.

  10. Aging Will Amplify the Heat-related Mortality Risk under a Changing Climate: Projection for the Elderly in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Liang, Xudong; Ban, Jie; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-06-01

    An aging population could substantially enhance the burden of heat-related health risks in a warming climate because of their higher susceptibility to extreme heat health effects. Here, we project heat-related mortality for adults 65 years and older in Beijing China across 31 downscaled climate models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Under a scenario of medium population and RCP8.5, by the 2080s, Beijing is projected to experience 14,401 heat-related deaths per year for elderly individuals, which is a 264.9% increase compared with the 1980s. These impacts could be moderated through adaptation. In the 2080s, even with the 30% and 50% adaptation rate assumed in our study, the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 1.3 times larger than in the 1980s respectively under a scenario of high population and RCP8.5. These findings could assist countries in establishing public health intervention policies for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. Examples could include ensuring facilities with large elderly populations are protected from extreme heat (for example through back-up power supplies and/or passive cooling) and using databases and community networks to ensure the home-bound elderly are safe during extreme heat events.

  11. Advanced Reactor Technology/Energy Conversion Project FY17 Accomplishments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the ART Energy Conversion (EC) Project is to provide solutions to convert the heat from an advanced reactor to useful products that support commercial application of the reactor designs.

  12. Automation of heating system with heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdin, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Because of high prices of energy, we are upgrading our heating systems with newer, more fuel efficient heating devices. Each new device has its own control system, which operates independently from other devices in a heating system. With a relatively low investment costs in automation, we can group devices in one central control system and increase the energy efficiency of a heating system. In this project, we show how to connect an oil furnace, a sanitary heat pump, solar panels and a heat p...

  13. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1993-06-01

    Technical assistance was provided to 60 requests from 19 states. R&D progress is reported on: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Two presentations and one tour were conducted, and three technical papers were prepared. The Geothermal Progress Monitor reported: USGS Forum on Mineral Resources, Renewable Energy Tax Credits Not Working as Congress Intended, Geothermal Industry Tells House Panel, Newberry Pilot Project, and Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Nevada.

  14. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  15. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  16. Application of Waste Heat Recovery Energy Saving Technology in Reform of UHP-EAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. H.; Zhang, S. X.; Yang, W.; Yu, T.

    2017-08-01

    The furnace waste heat of a company’s existing 4 × 100t ultra-high-power electric arc furnaces is not used and discharged directly of the situation has been unable to meet the national energy-saving emission reduction requirements, and also affected their own competitiveness and sustainable development. In order to make full use of the waste heat of the electric arc furnace, this paper presents an the energy-saving transformation program of using the new heat pipe boiler on the existing ultra-high-power electric arc furnaces for recovering the waste heat of flue gas. The results show that after the implementation of the project can save energy equivalent to 42,349 tons of standard coal. The flue gas waste heat is fully utilized and dust emission concentration is accorded with the standard of Chinese invironmental protection, which have achieved good results.

  17. Procedures for selecting and buying district heating equipment. Sofia district heating. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this Final Report, prepared for the project `Procedures for Selecting and Buying DistRict Heating Equipment - Sofia District Heating Company`, is to establish an overview of the activities accomplished, the outputs delivered and the general experience gained as a result of the project. The main objective of the project is to enable Sofia District Heating Company to prepare specifications and tender documents, identify possible suppliers, evaluate offers, etc. in connection with purchase of district heating equipment. This objective has been reached by using rehabilitation of sub-stations as an example requested by Sofia DH. The project was originally planned to be finalized end of 1995, but due to the extensions of the scope of work, the project has been prolonged until end 1997. The following main activities were accomplished: Preparation of a detailed work plan; Collection of background information; Discussion and advice about technical specifications and tender documents for sub-station rehabilitation; Input to terms of reference for a master plan study; Input to technical specification for heat meters; Collection of ideas for topics and examples related to dissemination of information to consumers about matters related to district heating consumption. (EG)

  18. Heat-Related Mortality Projections for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Under the Changing Climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4 percent, 47.8 percent, and 69.0 percent in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6 percent, 73.8 percent and 134 percent in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP 8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  19. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  20. Preliminary project concerning the straw-fueled combined power-heat plant to be constructed at Glamsbjerg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Koch, T.

    1994-06-01

    Power and heat generation based on biomass gasification is of great importance due to its beneficial environmental effects and good economy. This report concerns a preliminary project on feasibility and problems of implementing a dual-purpose power plant, supplying both power and district heating to several schools, swimming pools and other public facilities at Glamsbjerg (Funen). The plant is to be based on thermal gasification (pyrolysis) of straw and use of the gas in a diesel engine. The diesels operate the power generator, and their waste heat should be utilized in the local district heating network. In order to establish a stable and flexible straw supply to the plant an evaluation of resources in the area has been carried out. Apart from straw-derived fuel the plant is planned to use natural gas for start and maintenance of the process. The prices of the combined plant and of the fuel processing are estimated in the report. (EG)

  1. Determination and Application of Comprehensive Specific Frictional Resistance in Heating Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the deficiencies of specific frictional resistance in heating engineering. Based on economic specific frictional resistance, we put forward the concept of comprehensive specific frictional resistance, which considers the multiple factors of technology, economy, regulation modes, pipe segment differences, and medium pressure. Then, we establish a mathematical model of a heating network across its lifespan in order to develop a method for determining the comprehensive specific frictional resistance. Relevant conclusions can be drawn from the results. As an application, we have planned the heating engineering for Yangyuan County in China, which demonstrates the feasibility and superiority of the method.

  2. High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Scoping Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Project has the objective of developing the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology to supply high temperature process heat to industrial processes as a substitute for burning of fossil fuels, such as natural gas. Applications of the HTGR technology that have been evaluated by the NGNP Project for supply of process heat include supply of electricity, steam and high-temperature gas to a wide range of industrial processes, and production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in petrochemical, refining, coal to liquid fuels, chemical, and fertilizer plants.

  3. Research Applications for Teaching (RAFT) Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, James R., Jr.; Handley, Herbert M.

    A report is given of the development and progress of the Research Applications for Teaching (RAFT) project, developed at Mississippi State University. Based upon research findings relative to effective teaching and effective schooling, five curriculum modules were prepared and implemented in instruction. In the second year of the project the…

  4. Application of value engineering technique in construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changbing

    2003-01-01

    The author introduces how to apply the theories and methods of the value engineering in construction project. In the construction of a test device of the thermal hydrodynamic process, the authors have greatly reduced the construction cost and shortened the construction period by using the value engineering analyzing method. The application of value engineering in the project management is innovative. This practice indicates that the value engineering is important in many construction projects

  5. Status of projects using reject heat for aquaculture and horticulture at power plants in the EEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Data collected mainly from an inventory of waste heat projects in the EEC prepared by Potentiel Energie of Paris covers 46 projects approximately half of which are fish farms and half horticultural projects mainly in the form of greenhouses. About a half of the projects are run on a commercial basis while the other half are Research and Development (R and D) or demonstrations. At least 18 species of fish and 18 species of plant are produced at the various projects but eels and potted plants are grown at more of the commercially orientated projects than any other produce. There has been a significant increase in the number of commercially run projects during the past 10-15 years and this trend is likely to continue in view of the considerable savings that can be made on fuel. The size and number of commercial projects in the UK compares favourably with those in other EEC countries. (author)

  6. The Automation Control System Design of Walking Beam Heating Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Yu LIU; Jun-Qing LIU; Jun-Jie XI

    2014-01-01

    Combining the transformation project of certain strip steel rolling production line, the techniques process of walking beam heating furnace was elaborated in this paper. The practical application of LOS-T18-2ZC1 laser detector was elaborated. The network communication model of walking beam heating furnace control system was designed. The realization method of production process automation control was elaborated. The entire automation control system allocation picture and PLC power distributio...

  7. Project HEAT: Temperature as an Organizing Theme for Inquiry-Based Learning in the Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, T. P.; Howard, K. L.; Ewing-Taylor, J.

    2014-12-01

    Professionals in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields do not reflect the diversity of the US population. Among the most effective ways to attract and retain underrepresented students in STEM disciplines is to provide opportunities for participation in the scientific process and interaction with practicing scientists. Project HEAT (Hot Environments, Animals, & Temperature) is "boot-camp"-style workshop aimed at increasing interest in STEM topics among underrepresented, first-generation, college-bound middle school students. Linking to our NASA-funded research project "Desert Birds in a Warming World", we focused on how surprisingly variable temperature is in space and time, why temperature is important to plants, animals, and people, and how we measure temperature in the field and from space. Perhaps more importantly, this theme was a vehicle for students to experience science as a process: field observations, brainstorming questions and hypotheses, designing experiments to test them, and analyzing and reporting their data. The centerpiece was a set of experiments with small temperature sensors and radiation shields that teams of students designed, executed at a local park, analyzed, and reported. Two years of pre and post assessments revealed that Project HEAT participants increased understanding in content areas and showed slight increases in STEM interest. Year two results were markedly stronger than year one in both assessments as well as our perception. We attribute this to earlier summer timing of the workshop, a change from two half-day weeks to one full-day week, and a more age-homogeneous selection of students. In comments, participants expressed their special enjoyment of the hands-on nature of the program and the outdoor learning. Though providing such opportunities can be challenging, our experience here suggests that it can be worth while. Project HEAT also benefited our cadre of graduate student mentors by providing exposure

  8. Aging Will Amplify the Heat-Related Mortality Risk Under a Changing Climate: Projection for the Elderly in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Liang, Xudong; Ban, Jie; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    An aging population could substantially enhance the burden of heat-related health risks in a warming climate because of their higher susceptibility to extreme heat health effects. Here, we project heatrelated mortality for adults 65 years and older in Beijing China across 31 downscaled climate models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Under a scenario of medium population and RCP8.5, by the 2080s, Beijing is projected to experience 14,401 heat-related deaths per year for elderly individuals, which is a 264.9% increase compared with the 1980s. These impacts could be moderated through adaptation. In the 2080s, even with the 30% and 50% adaptation rate assumed in our study, the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 1.3 times larger than in the 1980s respectively under a scenario of high population and RCP8.5. These findings could assist countries in establishing public health intervention policies for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. Examples could include ensuring facilities with large elderly populations are protected from extreme heat (for example through back-up power supplies and/or passive cooling) and using databases and community networks to ensure the home-bound elderly are safe during extreme heat events.

  9. Study of non-domestic applications for active solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammers, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    The UK Department of Trade and Industry (through ETSU) commissioned this study as part of its active solar programme. It was carried out from October 1996 to June 1997. The objective was to assess the potential for the use of active solar heating in non-domestic applications. The study was carried out by searching the literature, carrying out case studies and interviewing members of the solar industry and experts in other fields. There are currently about 45-50 active solar non-domestic schemes in operation in the UK, mostly for heating tap water in buildings of different types. The biggest potential for future non-domestic sales also lies in solar water heating for buildings. Most of the opportunities seem to be in the following building types: ablutions blocks in caravan and holiday camps, sheltered flats and hostels, nursing homes, office buildings, hotels and guest houses, and schools occupied during the summer. There are some other building types which might present niche markets for solar water heating. The market for active solar systems in space heating and cooling appears to be negligible. There is one other market for active solar heating in the non-domestic building sector. This is for warming water used to maintain stand-by generators at a temperature which allows them to kick in without delay in the event of a mains power failure. The main market is in buildings housing computers which control the provision of vital services, e.g. electricity, water and gas. (author)

  10. Development program on HTTR heat application systems at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, M.; Inagaki, Y.; Nishihara, T.; Shimizu, S.; Shiozawa, S.; Miyamoto, Y.

    2000-01-01

    using nuclear heat. Stable hydrogen production of 0.001 Nm 3 /hr has been successfully demonstrated for 48 hours in a laboratory scale experiment. The study has been just started to head for the next engineering step aiming at 0.05 Nm 3 /hr from this year. After the demonstration test of the steam reforming process, the steam reforming process is planned to be replaced with the IS process in the HTTR. The research and development on the nuclear heat application systems was consigned by Science and Technology Agency since January in 1997. In the presentation, an overview of the HTTR heat application systems at JAERI is described with an emphasis of technical subjects to be solved for commercialization as well as technical achievement obtained so far. (author)

  11. Localizing intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from cone-beam CT x-ray projections via a novel iterative forward projection matching algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J.; Todor, Dorin A.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel method for reconstructing the 3D pose (position and orientation) of radio-opaque applicators of known but arbitrary shape from a small set of 2D x-ray projections in support of intraoperative brachytherapy planning. Methods: The generalized iterative forward projection matching (gIFPM) algorithm finds the six degree-of-freedom pose of an arbitrary rigid object by minimizing the sum-of-squared-intensity differences (SSQD) between the computed and experimentally acquired autosegmented projection of the objects. Starting with an initial estimate of the object's pose, gIFPM iteratively refines the pose parameters (3D position and three Euler angles) until the SSQD converges. The object, here specialized to a Fletcher-Weeks intracavitary brachytherapy (ICB) applicator, is represented by a fine mesh of discrete points derived from complex combinatorial geometric models of the actual applicators. Three pairs of computed and measured projection images with known imaging geometry are used. Projection images of an intrauterine tandem and colpostats were acquired from an ACUITY cone-beam CT digital simulator. An image postprocessing step was performed to create blurred binary applicators only images. To quantify gIFPM accuracy, the reconstructed 3D pose of the applicator model was forward projected and overlaid with the measured images and empirically calculated the nearest-neighbor applicator positional difference for each image pair. Results: In the numerical simulations, the tandem and colpostats positions (x,y,z) and orientations (α,β,γ) were estimated with accuracies of 0.6 mm and 2 deg., respectively. For experimentally acquired images of actual applicators, the residual 2D registration error was less than 1.8 mm for each image pair, corresponding to about 1 mm positioning accuracy at isocenter, with a total computation time of less than 1.5 min on a 1 GHz processor. Conclusions: This work describes a novel, accurate, fast, and completely

  12. Localizing intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from cone-beam CT x-ray projections via a novel iterative forward projection matching algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J.; Todor, Dorin A.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To present a novel method for reconstructing the 3D pose (position and orientation) of radio-opaque applicators of known but arbitrary shape from a small set of 2D x-ray projections in support of intraoperative brachytherapy planning. Methods: The generalized iterative forward projection matching (gIFPM) algorithm finds the six degree-of-freedom pose of an arbitrary rigid object by minimizing the sum-of-squared-intensity differences (SSQD) between the computed and experimentally acquired autosegmented projection of the objects. Starting with an initial estimate of the object's pose, gIFPM iteratively refines the pose parameters (3D position and three Euler angles) until the SSQD converges. The object, here specialized to a Fletcher-Weeks intracavitary brachytherapy (ICB) applicator, is represented by a fine mesh of discrete points derived from complex combinatorial geometric models of the actual applicators. Three pairs of computed and measured projection images with known imaging geometry are used. Projection images of an intrauterine tandem and colpostats were acquired from an ACUITY cone-beam CT digital simulator. An image postprocessing step was performed to create blurred binary applicators only images. To quantify gIFPM accuracy, the reconstructed 3D pose of the applicator model was forward projected and overlaid with the measured images and empirically calculated the nearest-neighbor applicator positional difference for each image pair. Results: In the numerical simulations, the tandem and colpostats positions (x,y,z) and orientations ({alpha},{beta},{gamma}) were estimated with accuracies of 0.6 mm and 2 deg., respectively. For experimentally acquired images of actual applicators, the residual 2D registration error was less than 1.8 mm for each image pair, corresponding to about 1 mm positioning accuracy at isocenter, with a total computation time of less than 1.5 min on a 1 GHz processor. Conclusions: This work describes a novel, accurate

  13. Localizing intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from cone-beam CT x-ray projections via a novel iterative forward projection matching algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J; Todor, Dorin A; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F

    2011-02-01

    To present a novel method for reconstructing the 3D pose (position and orientation) of radio-opaque applicators of known but arbitrary shape from a small set of 2D x-ray projections in support of intraoperative brachytherapy planning. The generalized iterative forward projection matching (gIFPM) algorithm finds the six degree-of-freedom pose of an arbitrary rigid object by minimizing the sum-of-squared-intensity differences (SSQD) between the computed and experimentally acquired autosegmented projection of the objects. Starting with an initial estimate of the object's pose, gIFPM iteratively refines the pose parameters (3D position and three Euler angles) until the SSQD converges. The object, here specialized to a Fletcher-Weeks intracavitary brachytherapy (ICB) applicator, is represented by a fine mesh of discrete points derived from complex combinatorial geometric models of the actual applicators. Three pairs of computed and measured projection images with known imaging geometry are used. Projection images of an intrauterine tandem and colpostats were acquired from an ACUITY cone-beam CT digital simulator. An image postprocessing step was performed to create blurred binary applicators only images. To quantify gIFPM accuracy, the reconstructed 3D pose of the applicator model was forward projected and overlaid with the measured images and empirically calculated the nearest-neighbor applicator positional difference for each image pair. In the numerical simulations, the tandem and colpostats positions (x,y,z) and orientations (alpha, beta, gamma) were estimated with accuracies of 0.6 mm and 2 degrees, respectively. For experimentally acquired images of actual applicators, the residual 2D registration error was less than 1.8 mm for each image pair, corresponding to about 1 mm positioning accuracy at isocenter, with a total computation time of less than 1.5 min on a 1 GHz processor. This work describes a novel, accurate, fast, and completely automatic method to

  14. Abstracting application deployment on Cloud infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiftimiei, D. C.; Fattibene, E.; Gargana, R.; Panella, M.; Salomoni, D.

    2017-10-01

    Deploying a complex application on a Cloud-based infrastructure can be a challenging task. In this contribution we present an approach for Cloud-based deployment of applications and its present or future implementation in the framework of several projects, such as “!CHAOS: a cloud of controls” [1], a project funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Research and Education) to create a Cloud-based deployment of a control system and data acquisition framework, “INDIGO-DataCloud” [2], an EC H2020 project targeting among other things high-level deployment of applications on hybrid Clouds, and “Open City Platform”[3], an Italian project aiming to provide open Cloud solutions for Italian Public Administrations. We considered to use an orchestration service to hide the complex deployment of the application components, and to build an abstraction layer on top of the orchestration one. Through Heat [4] orchestration service, we prototyped a dynamic, on-demand, scalable platform of software components, based on OpenStack infrastructures. On top of the orchestration service we developed a prototype of a web interface exploiting the Heat APIs. The user can start an instance of the application without having knowledge about the underlying Cloud infrastructure and services. Moreover, the platform instance can be customized by choosing parameters related to the application such as the size of a File System or the number of instances of a NoSQL DB cluster. As soon as the desired platform is running, the web interface offers the possibility to scale some infrastructure components. In this contribution we describe the solution design and implementation, based on the application requirements, the details of the development of both the Heat templates and of the web interface, together with possible exploitation strategies of this work in Cloud data centers.

  15. High performance passive solar heating system with heat pipe energy transfer and latent heat storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.A.L.; Galen, van E; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminar results are reported from a current project on the development of a high performance passive solar heating system. Two special components are introduced: a. A heat pipe as a thermal diode tube for the efficient transfer of collected solar heat from the absorber plate to behind an

  16. On Helical Projection and Its Application in Screw Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riliang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As helical surfaces, in their many and varied forms, are finding more and more applications in engineering, new approaches to their efficient design and manufacture are desired. To that end, the helical projection method that uses curvilinear projection lines to map a space object to a plane is examined in this paper, focusing on its mathematical model and characteristics in terms of graphical representation of helical objects. A number of interesting projective properties are identified in regard to straight lines, curves, and planes, and then the method is further investigated with respect to screws. The result shows that the helical projection of a cylindrical screw turns out to be a Jordan curve, which is determined by the screw's axial profile and number of flights. Based on the projection theory, a practical approach to the modeling of screws and helical surfaces is proposed and illustrated with examples, and its possible application in screw manufacturing is discussed.

  17. HeatBar Final Report 2010, Basement Heat Generation and Heat Flow in the western Barents Sea - importance for hydrocarbon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Christophe; Balling, Niels; Barrere, Cecile; Davidsen, Boerre; Ebbing, Joerg; Elvebakk, Harald; Mesli, Melani; Roberts, David; Slagstad, Trond; Willemoes-Wissing, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    The HeatBar project aimed to determine the relative proportion of heat originating in the basement of the western Barents Sea and, as such, followed the methodologies and scientific approach developed in the course of the 2005-2008 Kontiki Project. We proposed to shed new lights on the thermal state of the basins of the western Barents Sea by (1) determining the heat flow and the relative content in heat-producing elements of the basement onshore northern Norway, (2) building 3D structural models of the basement offshore based on extensive geophysical information and (3) building 3D thermal models of the basins offshore. The present report summarizes the work accomplished in the framework of the project since 2006.(Au)

  18. Organic Rankine cycle unit for waste heat recovery on ships (PilotORC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    The project PilotORC was aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the use of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units to recover low-temperature waste heat sources (i.e. exhaust gases, scavenge air, engine cooling system, and lubricant oil system) on container vessels. The project...... included numerical simulations and experimental tests on a 125 kW demonstration ORC unit that utilizes the waste heat of the main engine cooling system on board one of Mærsk's container vessels. During the design of the demonstration ORC unit, different alternatives for the condenser were analyzed in order...... of using ORC units for maritime applications, and the relevance of this technology for new-building projects. Firstly, an evaluation of the waste heat resources available on board Mærsk containers fleet, and an estimation of the potential energy recovery by means of the ORC technology was performed...

  19. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Lauer, M.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness

  20. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness. (author)

  1. Detection-Guided Fast Affine Projection Channel Estimator for Speech Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In various adaptive estimation applications, such as acoustic echo cancellation within teleconferencing systems, the input signal is a highly correlated speech. This, in general, leads to extremely slow convergence of the NLMS adaptive FIR estimator. As a result, for such applications, the affine projection algorithm (APA or the low-complexity version, the fast affine projection (FAP algorithm, is commonly employed instead of the NLMS algorithm. In such applications, the signal propagation channel may have a relatively low-dimensional impulse response structure, that is, the number m of active or significant taps within the (discrete-time modelled channel impulse response is much less than the overall tap length n of the channel impulse response. For such cases, we investigate the inclusion of an active-parameter detection-guided concept within the fast affine projection FIR channel estimator. Simulation results indicate that the proposed detection-guided fast affine projection channel estimator has improved convergence speed and has lead to better steady-state performance than the standard fast affine projection channel estimator, especially in the important case of highly correlated speech input signals.

  2. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  3. Thermal mechanical analysis of applications with internal heat generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Srisharan Garg

    control blade, spatial variations in temperature within the control blade occur from the non-uniform heat generation within the BORAL as a result of the non-uniform thermal neutron flux along the longitudinal direction when the control blade is partially withdrawn. There is also variation in the heating profile through the thickness and about the circumferential width of the control blade. Mathematical curve-fits are generated for the non-uniform volumetric heat generation profile caused by the thermal neutron absorption and the functions are applied as heating conditions within a finite element model of the control blade built using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. The finite element model is solved as a fully coupled thermal mechanical problem as in the case of the annular target. The resulting deflection is compared with the channel gap to determine if there is a significant risk of the control blade binding during reactor operation. Hence, this dissertation will consist of two sections. The first section will seek to present the thermal and structural safety analyses of the annular targets for the production of molybdenum-99. Since there hasn't been any detailed, documented, study on these annular targets in the past, the work complied in this dissertation will help to understand the thermal-mechanical behavior and failure margins of the target during in-vessel irradiation. As the work presented in this dissertation provides a general performance analysis envelope for the annular target, the tools developed in the process can also be used as useful references for future analyses that are specific to any reactor. The numerical analysis approach adopted and the analytical models developed, can also be applied to other applications, outside the Mo-99 project domain, where internal heat generation exists such as in electronic components and nuclear reactor control blades. The second section will focus on estimating the thermally induced deflection and hence

  4. Nanofluid application: liquid sublayer structure and heat transfer mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, In Cheol; Chang, Soon Heung

    2005-01-01

    Boiling has important modern applications for macroscopic heat transfer exchangers, such as those in nuclear and fossil power plants, and for microscopic heat transfer devices, such as heat pipes and microchannels for cooling electronic chips. The use of boiling is limited by critical heat flux which is characterized by both its highest efficient heat transport capability and the initiation of surface damage caused by suddenly deteriorating heat transfer. For instance, damage can be directly related to the physical burnout of the materials of a heat exchanger. However, the physical mechanism of this limitation has not been understood clearly. In relation to the mechanisms, there is a general consensus that fully developed nucleate boiling on a heated solid surface is characterized by the existence of a liquid film on the heated solid surface. The occurrence of the boiling limitation, the so-called critical heat flux (CHF) has been linked closely to the behavior of the liquid film. This liquid film is generally referred to as the 'thin liquid layer' or the 'macrolayer' to distinguish it from the microlayer that exists under the base of discrete nucleating bubbles. The question to be answered is whether a stable thin liquid layer under a vapor boiling environment could actually exist. If so, what precisely is the role of such a liquid film in relation to the boiling limitation? Reliable answers will depend on direct experimental observations. Currently, there has been no direct observation of the liquid layer. Numerous subsequent studies have failed to provide a direct confirmation of a stable thin liquid layer under a vapor boiling environment. In 1977, Yu and Mesler offered a hypothesis of the existence of the layer, as illustrated in Figure 1. Katto and Yokoya demonstrated the importance of Yu and Mesler's hypothesis; they used it to show that it is possible to approach the very complicated boiling limitation phenomenon with a relatively simple liquid layer

  5. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume III. Preferred utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The technical, economic, environmental, and institutional considerations that must be resolved before implementing options to recover energy from the heated SRP effluent are examined. Detailed hypothetical siting options and expected economic returns are examined for power generation, prawn production, and one industrial park scenario. The likely indirect effects on regional population, income, taxes, and infrastructure requirements if the industrial park scenario is implemented are also projected. Recommendations for follow-on studies to make possible an informed go/no-go decision for implementing attractive waste heat options using reject SRP effluent are included

  6. Heat-flow and lateral seismic-velocity heterogeneities near Deep Sea Drilling Project-Ocean Drilling Program Site 504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Robert P.; Stephen, Ralph A.

    1991-11-01

    Both conductive heat-flow and seismic-velocity data contain information relating to the permeability of the oceanic crust. Deep Sea Drilling Project-Ocean Drilling Program Site 504 is the only place where both detailed heat-flow and seismic-velocity field studies have been conducted at the same scale. In this paper we examine the correlation between heat flow and lateral heterogeneities in seismic velocity near Site 504. Observed heterogeneities in seismic velocity, which are thought to be related to variations in crack density in the upper 500 m of the basaltic crust, show little correlation with the heat-flow pattern. This lack of correlation highlights some of the current difficulties in using seismic-velocity data to infer details of spatial variations in permeability that are significant in controlling hydrothermal circulation.

  7. Project Management Methodology for the Development of M-Learning Web Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian VISOIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available M-learning web based applications are a particular case of web applications designed to be operated from mobile devices. Also, their purpose is to implement learning aspects. Project management of such applications takes into account the identified peculiarities. M-learning web based application characteristics are identified. M-learning functionality covers the needs of an educational process. Development is described taking into account the mobile web and its influences over the analysis, design, construction and testing phases. Activities building up a work breakdown structure for development of m-learning web based applications are presented. Project monitoring and control techniques are proposed. Resources required for projects are discussed.

  8. OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor project is an agreement between OECD member countries. It was first signed in 1958 and since then regularly renewed every third year. The activities at the Project is centred around the Halden heavy water rector, the HBWR. The reseach programme comprizes studies of fuel performance under various operating conditions, and the application of computers for process control. The HBWR is equipped for exposing fuel rods to temperatures and pressures, and at heat ratings met in modern BWR's and PWR's. A range of in-core instruments are available, permitting detailed measurements of the reactions of the fuel, including mechanical deformations, thermal behaviour, fission gas release, and corrosion. In the area of computer application, the studies of the communication between operator and process, and the surveillance and control of the reactor core, are of particular interst for reactor operation. 1988 represents the 30th year since the Project was started, and this publication is produced to mark this event. It gives and account of the activities and achievements of the Project through the years 1958-1988

  9. The direct heat measurement of mechanical energy storage metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julien; Beurroies, Isabelle; Loiseau, Thierry; Denoyel, Renaud; Llewellyn, Philip L

    2015-04-07

    In any process, the heat exchanged is an essential property required in its development. Whilst the work related to structural transitions of some flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been quantified and linked with potential applications such as molecular springs or shock absorbers, the heat related to such transitions has never been directly measured. This has now been carried out with MIL-53(Al) using specifically devised calorimetry experiments. We project the importance of these heats in devices such as molecular springs or dampers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A support system in virtual reality for effective hyperthermia treatments. Heating properties of needle applicator for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Yasuhiro; Iseki, Yuya; Nakane, Kazuya; Mimoto, Naoki; Kubo, Mitsunori; Kato, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Uzuka, Takeo; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the effectiveness of the developed simulator system for performing an effective hyperthermia treatment with a needle applicator in virtual reality (VR). The human brain is protected by the skull, which makes it difficult to non-invasively heat deep brain tumors with electromagnetic energy. Generally, needle applicators were used in clinical practice to heat brain tumors. However, some problems exist. One is that this heating method has a small heating area around the needle. In order to expand the heating area of a needle applicator, we developed a new type of needle applicator made from a shape memory alloy (SMA). The thermal properties of the SMA were checked experimentally using the developed heating system. As a result, the proposed needle applicator made of SMA is useful to create a wider heating area inside a tumor. Another problem is that medical doctors find it difficult to put a needle applicator into a target point inside of tumors. Therefore, a support system for performing an effective hyperthermia treatment is required in the clinic. In this paper, first, we constructed an anatomical 3-D model from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) images by using 3-D computer aided design (CAD) software. Second, we presented the finite element method (FEM) model which is divided into non-linear elements on 3-D computer graphics (CG). Finally, we calculated temperature distributions using the 3-D FEM model with blood perfusion during hyperthermia treatments. From these results, it was found that the proposed VR system is effective for performing hyperthermia treatments. (author)

  11. Heat transfer in Rockwool modelling and method of measurement. Modelling radiative heat transfer in fibrous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyrboel, Susanne

    1998-05-01

    Fibrous materials are some of the most widely used materials for thermal insulation. In this project the focus of interest has been on fibrous materials for building application. Interest in improving the thermal properties of insulation materials is increasing as legislation is being tightened to reduce the overall energy consumption. A knowledge of the individual heat transfer mechanisms - whereby heat is transferred within a particular material is an essential tool to improve continuously the thermal properties of the material. Heat is transferred in fibrous materials by four different transfer mechanisms: conduction through air, conduction through fibres, thermal radiation and convection. In a particular temperature range the conduction through air can be regarded as a constant, and conduction through fibres is an insignificant part of the total heat transfer. Radiation, however, constitutes 25-40% of the total heat transfer in light fibrous materials. In Denmark and a number of other countries convection in fibrous materials is considered as non-existent when calculating heat transmission as well as when designing building structures. Two heat transfer mechanisms have been the focus of the current project: radiation heat transfer and convection. The radiation analysis serves to develop a model that can be used in further work to gain a wider knowledge of the way in which the morphology of the fibrous material, i.e. fibre diameter distribution, fibre orientation distribution etc., influences the radiation heat transfer under different conditions. The convection investigation serves to examine whether considering convection as non-existent is a fair assumption to use in present and future building structures. The assumption applied in practically is that convection makes a notable difference only in very thick insulation, at external temperatures below -20 deg. C, and at very low densities. For lager thickness dimensions the resulting heat transfer through the

  12. Application of the Theory of Constraints in Project Based Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Martynas Sarapinas; Vytautas Pranas Sūdžius

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the application of the Theory of Constraints (TOC) in project management. This article involves a short introduction to TOC as a project management method and deep analysis of project management specialties using the TOC: TOC based project planning, timetable management, tasks synchronization, project control and “relay runner work ethic”. Moreover, the article describes traditional and TOC based project management theories in their comparison, and emphasize the main be...

  13. Detailed Urban Heat Island Projections for Cities Worldwide: Dynamical Downscaling CMIP5 Global Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Lauwaet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new dynamical downscaling methodology to analyze the impact of global climate change on the local climate of cities worldwide is presented. The urban boundary layer climate model UrbClim is coupled to 11 global climate models contained in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 archive, conducting 20-year simulations for present (1986–2005 and future (2081–2100 climate conditions, considering the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 climate scenario. The evolution of the urban heat island of eight different cities, located on three continents, is quantified and assessed, with an unprecedented horizontal resolution of a few hundred meters. For all cities, urban and rural air temperatures are found to increase strongly, up to 7 °C. However, the urban heat island intensity in most cases increases only slightly, often even below the range of uncertainty. A potential explanation, focusing on the role of increased incoming longwave radiation, is put forth. Finally, an alternative method for generating urban climate projections is proposed, combining the ensemble temperature change statistics and the results of the present-day urban climate.

  14. Projected heat-related mortality under climate change in the metropolitan area of Skopje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sanchez Martinez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital and largest city of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper attempts to forecast the impact of heat on mortality in Skopje in two future periods under climate change and compare it with a historical baseline period. Methods After ascertaining the relationship between daily mean ambient air temperature and daily mortality in Skopje, we modelled the evolution of ambient temperatures in the city under a Representative Concentration Pathway scenario (RCP8.5 and the evolution of the city population in two future time periods: 2026–2045 and 2081–2100, and in a past time period (1986–2005 to serve as baseline for comparison. We then calculated the projected average annual mortality attributable to heat in the absence of adaptation or acclimatization during those time windows, and evaluated the contribution of each source of uncertainty on the final impact. Results Our estimates suggest that, compared to the baseline period (1986–2005, heat-related mortality in Skopje would more than double in 2026–2045, and more than quadruple in 2081–2100. When considering the impact in 2081–2100, sampling variability around the heat–mortality relationship and climate model explained 40.3 and 46.6 % of total variability. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of a long-term perspective in the public health prevention of heat exposure, particularly in the context of a changing climate.

  15. Modelling of thermoacoustic phenomena in an electrically heated Rijke tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beke, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability plays an important role in various technical applications, for instance in jet or rocket motors, thermoacoustic engines, pulse combustors and industrial burners. The main objective of this paper is to present the theory of thermoacoustic oscillations, and for this purpose a Rijke-type thermal device was built. The Rijke tube is a simple device open at both ends with a mean airflow and a concentrated heat source (a heated wire grid). It serves as a convenient prototypical example to understand thermoacoustic effects since it is a simplified thermoacoustic resonator; once excited, under certain conditions, it is capable of creating a sustained sound when thermal energy is added. In this paper we present a project that includes physical measuring, examination and modelling. We have employed electrically heated Rijke tubes in our thermoacoustic school project work, and present a numerical algorithm to predict the transition to instability; in this model the effects of the main system parameters are demonstrated. The aim of our project is to help our students enhance their knowledge about thermoacoustics and develop their applied information technology skills.

  16. Modelling of thermoacoustic phenomena in an electrically heated Rijke tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beke, Tamas, E-mail: tamasbe@gmail.co [Our Lady Catholic Institute, Kalocsa (Hungary)

    2010-11-15

    Thermoacoustic instability plays an important role in various technical applications, for instance in jet or rocket motors, thermoacoustic engines, pulse combustors and industrial burners. The main objective of this paper is to present the theory of thermoacoustic oscillations, and for this purpose a Rijke-type thermal device was built. The Rijke tube is a simple device open at both ends with a mean airflow and a concentrated heat source (a heated wire grid). It serves as a convenient prototypical example to understand thermoacoustic effects since it is a simplified thermoacoustic resonator; once excited, under certain conditions, it is capable of creating a sustained sound when thermal energy is added. In this paper we present a project that includes physical measuring, examination and modelling. We have employed electrically heated Rijke tubes in our thermoacoustic school project work, and present a numerical algorithm to predict the transition to instability; in this model the effects of the main system parameters are demonstrated. The aim of our project is to help our students enhance their knowledge about thermoacoustics and develop their applied information technology skills.

  17. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Investigations on modification and improvement project for Potoshani district heating and heat supplying facilities in Romania; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Romania koku Potoshani chiiki danbo netsukyokyu setsubi no kaishu oyobi kaizen keikaku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Discussions have been given on the improvement and modification project intended of saving energies and reducing greenhouse gas emission in the Potoshani district heating and heat supplying facilities in Romania. Thirty years have elapsed since the building of the Potoshani district heating and heat supplying facilities, whereas noticeable energy loss has occurred due to aged deterioration, such as thermal efficiency decrease, performance decrease, and hot water leakage due to piping corrosion. The present project is intended to improve the heat production and power generation facility efficiencies, and reduce the heat loss in heat transportation and distribution to less than 5%. The improvements will be implemented by replacing and rehabilitating the existing boilers, replacing the turbine generators, and replacing the transportation and distribution pipelines and heat exchangers. As a result of the discussions, the present project is estimated to result in annual fuel conservation of 35,820 tons of crude oil equivalent, and annual reduction of the greenhouse gas emission of 110,835 t-CO2. The total amount of the initial investment for the project would be 11.369 billion yen, and the payback period would be 12 years. The project will produce profit of 31.358 billion yen in 20 years, thus the project is financially feasible. (NEDO)

  18. Optimization and Thermoeconomics Research of a Large Reclaimed Water Source Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-ping Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a large reclaimed water source heat pump system (RWSHPS and elaborates on the composition of the system and its design principles. According to the characteristics of the reclaimed water and taking into account the initial investment, the project is divided into two stages: the first stage adopts distributed heat pump heating system and the second adopts the combination of centralized and decentralized systems. We analyze the heating capacity of the RWSHPS, when the phase II project is completed, the system can provide hydronic heating water with the supply and return water temperature of 55°C/15°C and meet the hydronic heating demand of 8 million square meters of residential buildings. We make a thermal economics analysis by using Thermal Economics theory on RWSHPS and gas boiler system, it is known that the RWSHPS has more advantages, compared with the gas boiler heating system; both its thermal efficiency and economic efficiency are relatively high. It provides a reference for future applications of the RWSHPS.

  19. Heat pipe heat exchanger for heat recovery in air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Baky, Mostafa A.; Mohamed, Mousa M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minufiya University, Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

    2007-03-15

    The heat pipe heat exchangers are used in heat recovery applications to cool the incoming fresh air in air conditioning applications. Two streams of fresh and return air have been connected with heat pipe heat exchanger to investigate the thermal performance and effectiveness of heat recovery system. Ratios of mass flow rate between return and fresh air of 1, 1.5 and 2.3 have been adapted to validate the heat transfer and the temperature change of fresh air. Fresh air inlet temperature of 32-40{sup o}C has been controlled, while the inlet return air temperature is kept constant at about 26{sup o}C. The results showed that the temperature changes of fresh and return air are increased with the increase of inlet temperature of fresh air. The effectiveness and heat transfer for both evaporator and condenser sections are also increased to about 48%, when the inlet fresh air temperature is increased to 40{sup o}C. The effect of mass flow rate ratio on effectiveness is positive for evaporator side and negative for condenser side. The enthalpy ratio between the heat recovery and conventional air mixing is increased to about 85% with increasing fresh air inlet temperature. The optimum effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger is estimated and compared with the present experimental data. The results showed that the effectiveness is close to the optimum effectiveness at fresh air inlet temperature near the fluid operating temperature of heat pipes. (author)

  20. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  1. Diamond-based heat spreaders for power electronic packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemet, Thomas

    As any semiconductor-based devices, power electronic packages are driven by the constant increase of operating speed (higher frequency), integration level (higher power), and decrease in feature size (higher packing density). Although research and innovation efforts have kept these trends continuous for now more than fifty years, the electronic packaging technology is currently facing a challenge that must be addressed in order to move toward any further improvements in terms of performances or miniaturization: thermal management. Thermal issues in high-power packages strongly affect their reliability and lifetime and have now become one of the major limiting factors of power modules development. Thus, there is a strong need for materials that can sustain higher heat flux levels while safely integrating into the electronic package architecture. In such context, diamond is an attractive candidate because of its outstanding thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and high electrical resistivity. Its low heat capacity relative to metals such as aluminum or copper makes it however preferable for heat spreading applications (as a heat-spreader) rather than for dissipating the heat flux itself (as a heat sink). In this study, a dual diamond-based heat-spreading solution is proposed. Polycrystalline diamond films were grown through laser-assisted combustion synthesis on electronic substrates (in the U.S) while, in parallel, diamond-reinforced copper-matrix composite films were fabricated through tape casting and hot pressing (in France). These two types of diamond-based heat-spreading films were characterized and their microstructure and chemical composition were related to their thermal performances. Particular emphasize was put on the influence of interfaces on the thermal properties of the materials, either inside a single material (grain boundaries) or between dissimilar materials (film/substrate interface, matrix/reinforcement interface). Finally, the packaging

  2. APPLICATION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AT A SMALL BUSINESSES ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Rajewski

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the types of organizational structures of project management and their application in project management in small and medium-sized enterprises. Among the approaches and methods to organize projects emphasizing project management as part of the existing functional structure of the enterprise. Analyzed the most relevant organizational tools of project management in small business: a network schedule; matrix distribution of administrative and management tasks of the projec...

  3. Development of a new distillation unit combined with compressed heat pump (heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC)) (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Toshinari; Aso, Kazumasa [Kimura Chemical Plants Co., Ltd., Amagasaki City, Hyogo (Japan); Takamatsu, Takeichiro [Research Inst. of Industrial Technology, Suita-City, Osaka (Japan); Nakaiwa, Masaru [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Noda, Hideo; Kuratani, Nobuyuki [Kansai Chemical Engineearing Co., Ltd., Amagasaki-city, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshida, Kazufumi [Maruzen Petrochemical Co., Ltd., 25-10, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    To reduce the irreversible loss the Heat Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) is proposed by application of heat-pump technology. (Distillation column, which is an energy consuming separation unit, has been widely used in oil refinery and the other chemical-related plants. The reason why it is a major energy consumer is that a large amount of irreversible loss occurs in heat transfer within the process.) In this paper, current results on the study of HIDiC in both simulations and experiments are shown. HIDiC must be operated at a higher pressure in the rectifying section so as to make its temperature higher than that of the stripping section which stands parallel with the rectifying section. That makes heat transfer from the rectifying section to the stripping section. Because of vaporization in the stripping section and condensation in the rectifying section, the energy for the reboiler can be saved. The degree of energy saving can be expected to be much more than 30%, although the exact value depends on the characteristics of mixture to be separated. (The degree of energy saving is higher than the above, if the exhaust vapor from the HIDiC is used to heat the feed or the other processes.) To save energy by the HIDiC, high separation performances and heat transfer capabilities are required. It has been found out that the HIDiC, whose shape is like vertical shell and tube heat exchanger was enough to be practical use of the HIDiC from the static design principle points of view. (orig.)

  4. Thermal properties variations in unconsolidated material for very shallow geothermal application (ITER project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipio, Eloisa Di; Bertermann, David

    2018-04-01

    In engineering, agricultural and meteorological project design, sediment thermal properties are highly important parameters, and thermal conductivity plays a fundamental role when dimensioning ground heat exchangers, especially in very shallow geothermal systems. Herein, the first 2 m of depth from surface is of critical importance. However, the heat transfer determination in unconsolidated material is difficult to estimate, as it depends on several factors, including particle size, bulk density, water content, mineralogy composition and ground temperature. The performance of a very shallow geothermal system, as a horizontal collector or heat basket, is strongly correlated to the type of sediment at disposal and rapidly decreases in the case of dry-unsaturated conditions. The available experimental data are often scattered, incomplete and do not fully support thermo-active ground structure modeling. The ITER project, funded by the European Union, contributes to a better knowledge of the relationship between thermal conductivity and water content, required for understanding the very shallow geothermal systems behaviour in saturated and unsaturated conditions. So as to enhance the performance of horizontal geothermal heat exchangers, thermally enhanced backfilling material were tested in the laboratory, and an overview of physical-thermal properties variations under several moisture and load conditions for different mixtures of natural material was here presented.

  5. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  6. MINERGIE modules: heat pump - heat pump/solar - wood - wood/solar; Minergie-Module Waermepumpe - Waermepumpe/Solar - Holz - Holz/Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallati, J. [Seecon GmbH, Lucerne (Switzerland); Portmann, M. [Buero Markus Portmann, Kriens (Switzerland); Zurfluh, B. [Zurfluh Lottenbach, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This research report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the feasibility of setting up 'MINERGIE' low-energy-consumption module standards for the production of heat in small residential buildings. The aims of the standards and the basic idea behind the MINERGIE-modules are discussed. The concepts of the modules for heat pumps and wood-fired heating systems and their combination with solar installations are examined, as are their areas of application. The requirements placed on the modules are listed. System concepts, including simple schematics for typical installations, are presented for wood-log, wood-chippings and pellets-fired systems as well as for ground-loop and air-water heat pump systems as well as their solar-aided counterparts. The results of cost-benefit analyses are presented and questions regarding system guarantee and liability are examined.

  7. Experimental Studies of the Aerothermal Characteristics of the Project Orion CEV heat Shield in High Speed Transitional and Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, T.P.; MacLean, M.; Holden, M.S.; Cassady, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental program has been completed by CUBRC exploring laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows over a 7.0% scale model of the Project ORION CEV geometry. This program was executed primarily to answer questions concerning the increase in heat transfer on the windward, or "hot shoulder" of the CEV heat shield from laminar to turbulent flow. To answer these questions CUBRC constructed and instrumented a 14.0 inch diameter Project ORION CEV model and ran a range of Reynolds numbers based on diameter from 1.0 to over 40 million at a Mach number of 8.0. These Reynolds numbers were selected to cover laminar to turbulent heating data on the "hot shoulder". Data obtained during these runs will be used to guide design decisions as they apply to heat shield thickness and extent. Several experiments at higher enthalpies were achieved to obtain data for code validation with real gas effects and transition. CUBRC also performed computation studies of these experiments to aid in the data reduction process and study turbulence modeling.

  8. QFD Application to a Software - Intensive System Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD), adapted to requirements engineering for a software-intensive system development project, and sysnthesizes the lessons learned from the application of QFD to the Network Control System (NCS) pre-project of the Deep Space Network.

  9. Quantifying Projected Heat Mortality Impacts under 21st-Century Warming Conditions for Selected European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrovski, Vladimir; Baccini, Michela; Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Wolf, Tanja; Paunovic, Elizabet; Menne, Bettina

    2017-07-05

    Under future warming conditions, high ambient temperatures will have a significant impact on population health in Europe. The aim of this paper is to quantify the possible future impact of heat on population mortality in European countries, under different climate change scenarios. We combined the heat-mortality function estimated from historical data with meteorological projections for the future time laps 2035-2064 and 2071-2099, developed under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. We calculated attributable deaths (AD) at the country level. Overall, the expected impacts will be much larger than the impacts we would observe if apparent temperatures would remain in the future at the observed historical levels. During the period 2071-2099, an overall excess of 46,690 and 117,333 AD per year is expected under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively, in addition to the 16,303 AD estimated under the historical scenario. Mediterranean and Eastern European countries will be the most affected by heat, but a non-negligible impact will be still registered in North-continental countries. Policies and plans for heat mitigation and adaptation are needed and urgent in European countries in order to prevent the expected increase of heat-related deaths in the coming decades.

  10. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  11. Multiphase numerical analysis of heat pipe with different working fluids for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswath, S.; Netaji Naidu, V. H.; Padmanathan, P.; Raja Sekhar, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Energy crisis is a prognosis predicted in many cases with the indiscriminate encroachment of conventional energy sources for applications on a massive scale. This prediction, further emboldened by the marked surge in global average temperatures, attributed to climate change and global warming, the necessity to conserve the environment and explore alternate sources of energy is at an all-time high. Despite being among the lead candidates for such sources, solar energy is utilized far from its vast potential possibilities due to predominant economic constraints. Even while there is a growing need for solar panels at more affordable rates, the other options to harness better out of sun’s energy is to optimize and improvise existing technology. One such technology is the heat pipe used in Evacuated Tube Collectors (ETC). The applications of heat pipe have been gaining momentum in various fields since its inception and substantial volumes of research have explored optimizing and improving the technology which is proving effective in heat recovery and heat transfer better than conventional systems. This paper carries out a computational analysis on a comparative simulation between two working fluids within heat pipe of same geometry. It further endeavors to study the multiphase transitions within the heat pipe. The work is carried out using ANSYS Fluent with inputs taken from solar data for the location of Vellore, Tamil Nadu. A wickless, gravity-assisted heat pipe (GAHP) is taken for the simulation. Water and ammonia are used as the working fluids for comparative multiphase analysis to arrive at the difference in heat transfer at the condenser section. It is demonstrated that a heat pipe ETC with ammonia as working fluid showed higher heat exchange (temperature difference) as against that of water as working fluid. The multiphase model taken aided in study of phase transitions within both cases and supported the result of ammonia as fluid being a better candidate.

  12. Experimental investigations on solar heating/heat pump systems for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Perers, Bengt

    In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer in the combi...

  13. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  14. Feasibility study on the St. Petersburg City heat and electric cogeneration plant No.2, etc. scrap and build project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions in line with the Joint Implementation, a survey was made of the scrap and build project for the superannuated Central Heat Power Station in St. Petersburg City. The survey team visited the relevant sites twice during 1999. The team drafted an improvement plan afterwards and presented it to the Russian counterpart, LENENEGRO. Based on the discussions with LENENEGRO, it was determined that the proposed combined cycle cogeneration plant would contain three 67MW-class gas turbines, three heat recovery steam generators and one back pressure turbine to achieve the generation capacity of approximately 200MW and heat supply capacity of 200G cal/hr. The total investment required for this project is about 140 million dollars. The term of the construction work is estimated at 36 months. It is estimated that the implementation of the project will reduce 1,481,979 tons of CO2 per year, or a total of 40,013,434 tons in 27 years after the commencement of operation. In addition, the terminal power generation efficiency will be improved from the current 18.68% to 41%, which leads to an annual fuel saving of 546,301 tons of crude oil or its equivalent. (NEDO)

  15. A Quick Overview of Compact Air-Cooled Heat Sinks Applicable for Electronic Cooling—Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview regarding enhancement of an air-cooled heat sink applicable for electronic cooling subject to cross-flow forced convection. Some novel designs and associated problems in air-cooled heat sinks are discussed, including the drawback of adding surfaces, utilization of porous surfaces such as metal foam or carbon foam, problems and suitable applicable range of highly interrupted surfaces (louver or slit and longitudinal vortex generator. Though the metal foam may accommodate significant surface area, it is comparatively ineffective for air-cooling application due to its much lower fin efficiency, and this shortcoming can be improved by integrating with solid fin. For highly dense fin spacing (e.g., <1.0 mm, cannelure or grooved surface may be a better choice, and fin structure with periodic contraction and expansion may not be suitable for it introduces additional pressure drop penalty. The partial bypass concept, which manipulates a larger temperature difference at the trailing part of heat sink, can be implemented to significantly reduce the pressure drop. Through some certain niche operation, t the thermal resistance of the partial bypass heat sink may be superior to the conventional heat sink. The trapezoid fin surface featuring easier manufacturing and a smaller weight is shown to have competitive performance against traditional rectangular fin geometry. The IPFM (Interleaved Parallelogram Fin Module design which combines two different geometrical fins with the odd number fins being rectangular shape, and parallelogram shape in even fin numbers, shows 8%–12% less surface than conventional design but still offers a lower thermal resistance than the conventional rectangular heat sink in lower flowrate operation. The cross-cut design shows appreciable improvements as compared to the conventional plate fin design especially in high velocity regime and the single cross-cut heat sinks are superior to multiple cross

  16. Application of project management in technology improvement of Qinshan III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaonian

    2008-01-01

    During the operation of Qinshan III, many engineering modifications and renovation projects are being carried out. Advanced international project management methodologies accustomed to the policy and organizational characteristics of TQNPC were applied to the management of these projects. After practical application and development of these methodologies, the company finally sets up its own classification of project management system. The project management system is introduced and discussed for its evolving direction in this paper. (authors)

  17. The application of project management in operations preparation of nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhixiong; Tang Zhengrong

    2000-01-01

    The author first presents a brief introduction of the concept, history, characteristics of project management. Analysis is performed on the suitability of application of project management approach in nuclear power station operations preparation. Then the application of project management is detailed in order to present the readers authors' study and practice. Theory and practice indicate that the project management is a useful management tool for operations preparation of nuclear power station to achieve a good performance

  18. A review of large-scale solar heating systems in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, M.N.; Guigas, M.; Dalenback, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    Large-scale solar applications benefit from the effect of scale. Compared to small solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems for single-family houses, the solar heat cost can be cut at least in third. The most interesting projects for replacing fossil fuels and the reduction of CO 2 -emissions are solar systems with seasonal storage in combination with gas or biomass boilers. In the framework of the EU-APAS project Large-scale Solar Heating Systems, thirteen existing plants in six European countries have been evaluated. lie yearly solar gains of the systems are between 300 and 550 kWh per m 2 collector area. The investment cost of solar plants with short-term storage varies from 300 up to 600 ECU per m 2 . Systems with seasonal storage show investment costs twice as high. Results of studies concerning the market potential for solar heating plants, taking new collector concepts and industrial production into account, are presented. Site specific studies and predesign of large-scale solar heating plants in six European countries for housing developments show a 50% cost reduction compared to existing projects. The cost-benefit-ratio for the planned systems with long-term storage is between 0.7 and 1.5 ECU per kWh per year. (author)

  19. Analysis of a Hybrid PV/Thermal Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System for Sports Center Water Heating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the TRNSYS 16 computation environment and the energy performance was evaluated based on year round simulation results. The results show that the system COP can reach 4.1 under the subtropical climate of Hong Kong, and as compared to the conventional heating system, a high fractional factor of energy saving at 67% can be obtained. The energy performances of the same system under different climatic conditions, that include three other cities in France, were analyzed and compared. Economic implications were also considered in this study.

  20. Experimental investigation of a pulsating heat pipe for hybrid vehicle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burban, G.; Ayel, V.; Alexandre, A.; Lagonotte, P.; Bertin, Y.; Romestant, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental results of an unlooped pulsating heat pipe (PHP) developed and tested in an electronic thermal management field with hybrid vehicle applications in mind. The 2.5 mm inner tube diameter device was cooled by an air heat exchanger to replicate the environment of a vehicle. In order to characterize this pulsating heat pipe, four working fluids have been tested. They are acetone, methanol, water, and n-pentane, with applied thermal power ranging from 25 W to 550 W, air temperature ranging from 10 °C to 60 °C and air velocity ranging from 0.25 m s −1 to 2 m s −1 . Three inclinations have also been tested according to their horizontal positions: +45° (condenser above the evaporator), 0° and −45° (condenser below the evaporator). Among the different results, some of the most revelatory were obtained with regard to unfavourable inclination (−45°), for which the performances were very interesting considering a terrestrial application. On the other hand, one also observed low temperature limitations for water as a working fluid and degradation of performances for n-pentane tested at 60 °C air temperature. On an overall basis, however, it should be noted that the PHP functioned with high reliability and reproducibility and without any failure during the start-up or working stage. - Highlights: ► An unlooped pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has been tested varying heat power, air velocity and temperature, inclination and fluid. ► Four working fluids have been tested and classified into two groups according to the performances of the PHP. ► Interesting water phenomena have been highlighted in this study. ► The PHP worked with a good reliability and reproducibility.

  1. Thermal performance of a PCB embedded pulsating heat pipe for power electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Daniel J.; Suleman, Omar; Griffin, Justin; Mavrakis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Planar, compact PCB embedded pulsating heat pipe for heat spreading applications. • Embedded heat pipe operates at sub-ambient pressure with environmentally. • Compatible fluids. • Range of optimum operating conditions, orientations and fill ratios identified. - Abstract: Low voltage power electronics applications (<1.2 kV) are pushing the design envelope towards increased functionality, better reliability, low profile and reduced cost. One packaging method to enable these constraints is the integration of active power electronic devices into the printed circuit board improving electrical and thermal performance. This development requires a reliable passive thermal management solution to mitigate hot spots due to the increased heat flux density. To this end, a 44 channel open looped pulsating heat pipe (OL-PHP) is experimentally investigated for two independent dielectric working fluids – Novec"T"M 649 and Novec"T"M 774 – due to their lower pressure operation and low global warming potential compared to traditional two-phase coolants. The OL-PHP is investigated in vertical (90°) orientation with fill ratios ranging from 0.30 to 0.70. The results highlight the steady state operating conditions for each working fluid with instantaneous plots of pressure, temperature, and thermal resistance; the minimum potential bulk thermal resistance for each fill ratio and the effective thermal conductivity achievable for the OL-PHP.

  2. Two-Axis Solar Heat Collection Tracker System for Solar Thermal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chieh Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using a continuous operation two-axes tracking on the solar heat energy collected. This heat-collection sun tracking which LDR (light dependent resistor sensors installed on the Fersnel lens was used to control the tracking path of the sun with programming method of control with a closed loop system. The control hardware was connected to a computer through Zigbee wireless module and it also can monitor the whole tracking process information on a computer screen. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using two-axes tracking on the solar heat energy collected. The results indicate that sun tracking systems are being increasingly employed to enhance the efficiency of heat collection by polar-axis tracking of the sun. Besides, the heating power was also measured by designed power measurement module at the different focal length of Fresnel lens, and the design of shadow mask of LDR sensors is an important factor for solar photothermal applications. Moreover, the results also indicated that the best time to obtain the largest solar irradiation power is during 11:00 –13:00  in Taiwan.

  3. Wallboard with Latent Heat Storage for Passive Solar Applications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedl, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional wallboard impregnated with octadecane paraffin[melting point-23 C (73.5 F)] is being developed as a building material with latent heat storage for passive solar and other applications. Impregnation was accomplished simply by soaking the wallboard in molten wax. Concentrations of wax in the combined product as high as 35% by weight can be achieved. Scale-up of the soaking process, from small laboratory samples to full-sized 4- by 8-ft sheets, has been successfully accomplished. The required construction properties of wallboard are maintained after impregnation, that is, it can be painted and spackled. Long-term, high-temperature exposure tests and thermal cycling tests showed no tendency of the paraffin to migrate within the wallboard, and there was no deterioration of thermal energy storage capacity. In support of this concept, a computer model was developed to handle thermal transport and storage by a phase change material (PCM) dispersed in a porous media. The computer model was confirmed by comparison with known analytical solutions and also by comparison with temperatures measured in wallboard during an experimentally generated thermal transient. Agreement between the model and known solution was excellent. Agreement between the model and thermal transient was good, only after the model was modified to allow the PCM to melt over a temperature range, rather than at a specific melting point. When the melting characteristics of the PCM (melting point, melting range, and heat of fusion), as determined from a differential scanning calorimeter plot, were used in the model, agreement between the model and transient data was very good. The confirmed computer model may now be used in conjunction with a building heating and cooling code to evaluate design parameters and operational characteristics of latent heat storage wallboard for passive solar applications

  4. Analysis of different adsorption heat transformation applications and working pairs for climatic regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekova, A. D.; Gordeeva, L. G.

    2018-04-01

    Adsorption heat transformation is an energy and environment saving technology for cooling/heating driven by renewable energy sources. Each specific cycle of adsorption heat transformer (AHT) makes particular requirements to the properties of the sorption material, depending on the climatic zone in which the AHT is used, the type of application (cooling, heating and heat storage), and energy source used for regenerating the sorbent. Therefore, the effective operation of AHT can be realized only if the working pair "adsorbent-adsorbate" is intelligently selected in accordance with the requirements of a particular working cycle. One of the most important factors influencing the choice of a working pair is the climatic conditions in which the AHT will operate. In this paper, the climatic conditions of various regions of Russian Federation (RF) were analyzed. For each considered zone, the boundary potentials of Polanyi corresponding to different AHT cycles are calculated. The sorption equilibrium data of various sorbents with water and methanol presented in the literature are summarized, and characteristic sorption curves are plotted in coordinates "sorption - the Polanyi potential". The characteristic adsorption curves found are approximated by analytic expressions, which allow the analysis of working pairs applicability for different AHT cycles. The recommendations of using the discussed sorption pairs under conditions of determined climatic zones are given for the AHT applications.

  5. Feasibility study on rehabilitation and improvement of thermal power plants, district heating and heat supply system in Botosani City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Discussions have been given on the improvement and modification project intended of saving energies and reducing greenhouse gas emission in the Botosani district heating and heat supplying facilities in Romania. Thirty years have elapsed since the building of the Botosani district heating and heat supplying facilities, whereas noticeable energy loss has occurred due to aged deterioration, such as thermal efficiency decrease, performance decrease, and hot water leakage due to piping corrosion. The present project is intended to improve the heat production and power generation facility efficiencies, and reduce the heat loss in heat transportation and distribution to less than 5%. The improvements will be implemented by replacing and rehabilitating the existing boilers, replacing the turbine generators, and replacing the transportation and distribution pipelines and heat exchangers. As a result of the discussions, the present project is estimated to result in annual fuel conservation of 35,820 tons of crude oil equivalent, and annual reduction of the greenhouse gas emission of 110,835 t-CO2. The total amount of the initial investment for the project would be 11.369 billion yen, and the payback period would be 12 years. The project will produce profit of 31.358 billion yen in 20 years, thus the project is financially feasible. (NEDO)

  6. The ARCHER project (Advanced High-Temperature Reactors for Cogeneration of Heat and Electricity R&D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knol, S., E-mail: knol@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fütterer, M.A. [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, F. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kohtz, N. [TÜV Rheinland, Köln (Germany); Laurie, M. [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Buckthorpe, D. [UMAN, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Scheuermann, W. [IKE, Stuttgart University, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    The European HTR R&D project ARCHER (Advanced High-Temperature Reactors for Cogeneration of Heat and Electricity R&D) builds on a solid HTR technology foundation in Europe, established through former national UK and German HTR programs and in European framework programs. ARCHER runs from 2011 to 2015 and targets selected HTR R&D subjects that would specifically support demonstration, with a focus on experimental effort. In line with the R&D and deployment strategy of the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) ARCHER contributes to maintaining, strengthening and expanding the HTR knowledge base in Europe to lay the foundations for demonstration of nuclear cogeneration with HTR systems. The project consortium encompasses conventional and nuclear industry, utilities, Technical Support Organizations, R&D organizations and academia. ARCHER shares results with international partners in the Generation IV International Forum and collaborates directly with related projects in the US, China, Japan, the Republic of Korea and South Africa. The ARCHER project has finished, and the paper comprises an overview of the achievements of the project.

  7. The Science and Applications Tethered Platform (SATP) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlina, P.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of tether systems in orbit are going to be demonstrated by the first planned flights of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS). These test flights will investigate the properties of tether systems as low altitude atmospheric research facilities and as electric power generators. Studies are being conducted with the purpose of testing a variety of concepts and approaches. A comparative analysis of results will allow the choosing of the most promising ideas for further development. The broad range of applications presently under study include applications in electrodynamics, transportation, microgravity in addition to basic research. The SATP project definition study is now about midway through its first phase. The analyses conducted have led to an appraisal of users interest in the project and to a deeper understanding of the problems associated with large, long-lived tether systems in space. In addition, two specialized platform designs, devoted to microgravity and precise pointing applications, are being studied because of their potential usefulness and the promise of technical feasibility.

  8. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrabrant, Michael [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States); Keinath, Christopher [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Gas-fired residential space heating in the U.S is predominantly supplied by furnaces and boilers. These technologies have been approaching their thermodynamic limit over the past 30 years and improvements for high efficiency units have approached a point of diminishing return. Electric heat pumps are growing in popularity but their heating performance at low ambient temperatures is poor. The development of a low-cost gas absorption heat pump would offer a significant improvement to current furnaces and boilers, and in heating dominated climate zones when compared to electric heat pumps. Gas absorption heat pumps (GAHP) exceed the traditional limit of thermal efficiency encountered by typical furnaces and boilers, and maintain high levels of performance at low ambient temperatures. The project team designed and demonstrated two low-cost packaged prototype GAHP space heating systems during the course of this investigation. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, 8× scaling of a compact solution pump, combustion system development, breadboard evaluation, fabrication of two packaged prototype units, third party testing of the first prototype, and the evaluation of cost and energy savings compared to high and minimum efficiency gas options. Over the course of the project and with the fabrication of two Alpha prototypes it was shown that this technology met or exceeded most of the stated project targets. At ambient temperatures of 47, 35, 17 and -13°F the prototypes achieved gas based coefficients of performance of 1.50, 1.44, 1.37, and 1.17, respectively. Both units operated with parasitic loads well below the 750 watt target with the second Alpha prototype operating 75-100 watts below the first Alpha prototype. Modulation of the units at 4:1 was achieved with the project goal of 2:1 modulation

  9. Colorado State Capitol Geothermal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Lance [Colorado Department of Personnel and Adminstration, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Colorado State Capitol Geothermal Project - Final report is redacted due to space constraints. This project was an innovative large-scale ground-source heat pump (GSHP) project at the Colorado State Capitol in Denver, Colorado. The project employed two large wells on the property. One for pulling water from the aquifer, and another for returning the water to the aquifer, after performing the heat exchange. The two wells can work in either direction. Heat extracted/added to the water via a heat exchanger is used to perform space conditioning in the building.

  10. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1979-12-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed hear are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues

  11. Application of the Theory of Constraints in Project Based Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Sarapinas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the application of the Theory of Constraints (TOC in project management. This article involves a short introduction to TOC as a project management method and deep analysis of project management specialties using the TOC: TOC based project planning, timetable management, tasks synchronization, project control and “relay runner work ethic”. Moreover, the article describes traditional and TOC based project management theories in their comparison, and emphasize the main benefits we received as the results of the study. Article in Lithuanian

  12. Design and manufacture of ceramic heat pipes for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, Peter; Jobst, Matthias; Lippmann, Wolfgang; Hurtado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Heat exchangers based on ceramic heat pipes were designed for use under highly abrasive and corrosive atmospheres at temperatures in the range of 800–1200 °C for high-temperature power-engineering applications. The presented heat pipes are gravity assisted and based on a multi-layer concept comprising a ceramic cladding and an inner metal tube that contains sodium as the working fluid. Hermetical encapsulation of the working fluid was achieved by electron-beam welding of the inner metal tube. Subsequently, closure of the surrounding ceramic tube was performed by laser brazing technology using a glass solder. Temperature resistance and functionality of the manufactured ceramic thermosyphons could be confirmed experimentally in a hot combustion gas atmosphere at temperatures up to 1100 °C. The ceramic tubes used had an outer diameter of 22 mm and a total length of 770 mm. The measured axial heat transfer of the ceramic gravity assisted heat pipes at the stationary operating point with cold/hot gas temperature of 100 °C/900 °C was 400 W. The result of the calculation using the created mathematical model amounted to 459 W. - Highlights: • Heat-pipe design consists of a ceramic shell and an inner metallic tube. • Laser brazing technology is suitable to seal ceramic heat-pipes. • Thermal characteristic of double wall thermosyphon was modelled using FEM code. • Experimental investigations demonstrated functionality of double wall thermosyphons

  13. Adaptations and mechanisms of human heat acclimation: Applications for competitive athletes and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, J D; Racinais, S; Sawka, M N

    2015-06-01

    Exercise heat acclimation induces physiological adaptations that improve thermoregulation, attenuate physiological strain, reduce the risk of serious heat illness, and improve aerobic performance in warm-hot environments and potentially in temperate environments. The adaptations include improved sweating, improved skin blood flow, lowered body temperatures, reduced cardiovascular strain, improved fluid balance, altered metabolism, and enhanced cellular protection. The magnitudes of adaptations are determined by the intensity, duration, frequency, and number of heat exposures, as well as the environmental conditions (i.e., dry or humid heat). Evidence is emerging that controlled hyperthermia regimens where a target core temperature is maintained, enable more rapid and complete adaptations relative to the traditional constant work rate exercise heat acclimation regimens. Furthermore, inducing heat acclimation outdoors in a natural field setting may provide more specific adaptations based on direct exposure to the exact environmental and exercise conditions to be encountered during competition. This review initially examines the physiological adaptations associated with heat acclimation induction regimens, and subsequently emphasizes their application to competitive athletes and sports. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 21st Century Heat Stress Projections and their Effects on US Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, E.; Buzan, J. R.; Krishnan, S.; Huber, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this study we aim to determine future yield changes in the United States for livestock caused by heat stress, under the high greenhouse gas emissions scenario, representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). We use CMIP5 output and the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM LENS), produced by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We apply the HumanIndexMod, a diagnostic heat stress package, to calculate Temperature Humidity Index for Comfort (THIC) and wet bulb temperature (Buzan et al., 2015). THIC is used to assess an animal's behavioral changes as it is subjected to discomfort. Using output from our simulations with the HumanIndexMod, we utilized the agricultural livestock model of St. Pierre et al. (2003). THIC and wet bulb temperatures are all projected by climate models to increase by the end of the century. We found that increases in THIC and heat stress are caused by both temperature and humidity increases. We show the differences for dry matter intake loss and milk loss for the Dairy Cow Model as well as other yield related variables. These variables are estimated to decrease overall production for dairy cattle, finishing hogs, poultry and various livestock. By the end of the 21st century (2071-2100), dairy cow milk production decreases by 14%, and food intake decreases by 11% compared to the beginning of the century (2005-2034). 35% less weight is gained and 19% less food is consumed by hogs the end of the century compared to the beginning of the century. We estimate and discuss resulting yield losses for the livestock industries and the implications of these losses in the United States. These results indicate that the effect of heat stress on livestock production will be highest for dairy cows, finishing hogs, and poultry.References:Buzan, J.R., K. Oleson, and M. Huber. 2015. Implementation and comparison of a suite of heat stress metrics within the Community Land Model version 4.5. Geoscien. Model Devel. 8(2): 151-170. St

  15. Feasibility study for Tashkent Heat and Power Plant Modernizing Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was carried out of the project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction by introducing the newest and most powerful gas turbine cogeneration facilities to the Tashkent cogeneration plant in Uzbekistan. At the Tashkent cogeneration plant, each of the facilities is being superannuated, which leads to lowering of operational reliability and increase in cost of repairs. In the project, studied was the introduction of the newest and most powerful gas turbine cogeneration facilities with heat output of 100 Gcal/h equivalent to that of one can of the existing hot water boiler and with generated output of 80MW. As a result of the study, obtained were the energy conservation amount of 83.9 ktoe/y and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount of 179.7 kt-CO2/y. The initial investment amount was 10.003 billion yen. Expenses vs. effects were 8.39 toe/y-million yen in energy conservation amount and 18.0 t-CO2/y-million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction amount. In the study of profitability, the internal earning rate was 9.24% after tax, the return yield of capital was 41.26%, and the period of ROI was 16.9 years. (NEDO)

  16. Modeling and optimization of a heat-pump-assisted high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell micro-combined-heat-and-power system for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    In this study a micro-combined-heat-and-power (micro-CHP) system is coupled to a vapor-compression heat pump to fulfill the residential needs for heating (space heating and water heating) and electricity in detached single-family households in Denmark. Such a combination is assumed to be attractive...... for application, since both fuel cell technology and electric heat pumps are found to be two of the most efficient technologies for generation/conversion of useful energy. The micro-CHP system is fueled with natural gas and includes a fuel cell stack, a fuel processor and other auxiliary components. The micro......-CHP system assumes heat-led operation, to avoid dumping of heat and the use of complicated thermal energy storage. The overall system is grid-interconnected to allow importing and exporting of electricity as necessary. In this study emphasis is given on the operational characterization of the system...

  17. Modelling the occurrence of heat waves in maximum and minimum temperatures over Spain and projections for the period 2031-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaurrea, J.; Asín, J.; Cebrián, A. C.

    2018-02-01

    The occurrence of extreme heat events in maximum and minimum daily temperatures is modelled using a non-homogeneous common Poisson shock process. It is applied to five Spanish locations, representative of the most common climates over the Iberian Peninsula. The model is based on an excess over threshold approach and distinguishes three types of extreme events: only in maximum temperature, only in minimum temperature and in both of them (simultaneous events). It takes into account the dependence between the occurrence of extreme events in both temperatures and its parameters are expressed as functions of time and temperature related covariates. The fitted models allow us to characterize the occurrence of extreme heat events and to compare their evolution in the different climates during the observed period. This model is also a useful tool for obtaining local projections of the occurrence rate of extreme heat events under climate change conditions, using the future downscaled temperature trajectories generated by Earth System Models. The projections for 2031-60 under scenarios RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 are obtained and analysed using the trajectories from four earth system models which have successfully passed a preliminary control analysis. Different graphical tools and summary measures of the projected daily intensities are used to quantify the climate change on a local scale. A high increase in the occurrence of extreme heat events, mainly in July and August, is projected in all the locations, all types of event and in the three scenarios, although in 2051-60 the increase is higher under RCP8.5. However, relevant differences are found between the evolution in the different climates and the types of event, with a specially high increase in the simultaneous ones.

  18. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  19. Ceramic Technology Project, semiannual progress report for October 1993 through March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1994-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was originally developed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990, the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The original objective of the project was to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. During the course of the Ceramic Technology Project, remarkable progress has been made in the development of reliable structural ceramics. The direction of the Ceramic Technology Project is now shifting toward reducing the cost of ceramics to facilitate commercial introduction of ceramic components for near-term engine applications. In response to extensive input from industry, the plan is to extend the engine types which were previously supported (advanced gas turbine and low-heat-rejection diesel engines) to include near-term (5-10 years) applications in conventional automobile and diesel truck engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to U.S. industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. A systematic approach to reducing the cost of components is envisioned.

  20. Heat transfer in a thermoacoustic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beke, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis aimed at determining the stability–instability border of the thermoacoustic system. In this paper, we present a project type of physical examination and modelling task. We employed an electrically heated Rijke tube in our thermoacoustic project work. The aim of our project is to help our students enlarge their knowledge about thermodynamics, mainly about thermoacoustics, and develop their applied information technology and mathematical skills. (paper)

  1. Lattice QCD Application Development within the US DOE Exascale Computing Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Richard [Boston U.; Christ, Norman [Columbia U.; DeTar, Carleton [Utah U.; Edwards, Robert [Jefferson Lab; Mackenzie, Paul [Fermilab

    2017-10-30

    In October, 2016, the US Department of Energy launched the Exascale Computing Project, which aims to deploy exascale computing resources for science and engineering in the early 2020's. The project brings together application teams, software developers, and hardware vendors in order to realize this goal. Lattice QCD is one of the applications. Members of the US lattice gauge theory community with significant collaborators abroad are developing algorithms and software for exascale lattice QCD calculations. We give a short description of the project, our activities, and our plans.

  2. Lattice QCD Application Development within the US DOE Exascale Computing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Richard; Christ, Norman; DeTar, Carleton; Edwards, Robert; Mackenzie, Paul

    2018-03-01

    In October, 2016, the US Department of Energy launched the Exascale Computing Project, which aims to deploy exascale computing resources for science and engineering in the early 2020's. The project brings together application teams, software developers, and hardware vendors in order to realize this goal. Lattice QCD is one of the applications. Members of the US lattice gauge theory community with significant collaborators abroad are developing algorithms and software for exascale lattice QCD calculations. We give a short description of the project, our activities, and our plans.

  3. Lattice QCD Application Development within the US DOE Exascale Computing Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brower Richard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In October, 2016, the US Department of Energy launched the Exascale Computing Project, which aims to deploy exascale computing resources for science and engineering in the early 2020’s. The project brings together application teams, software developers, and hardware vendors in order to realize this goal. Lattice QCD is one of the applications. Members of the US lattice gauge theory community with significant collaborators abroad are developing algorithms and software for exascale lattice QCD calculations. We give a short description of the project, our activities, and our plans.

  4. Design and calculation of low infrared transmittance and low emissivity coatings for heat radiative applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Da-Hai; Fan, Jin-Peng

    2012-02-01

    The infrared transmittance and emissivity of heat-insulating coatings pigmented with various structural particles were studied using Kubelka-Munk theory and Mie theory. The primary design purpose was to obtain the low transmittance and low emissivity coatings to reduce the heat transfer by thermal radiation for high-temperature applications. In the case of silica coating layers constituted with various structural titania particles (solid, hollow, and core-shell spherical), the dependence of transmittance and emissivity of the coating layer on the particle structure and the layer thickness was investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the coating pigmented with core-shell titania particles exhibits a lower infrared transmittance and a lower emissivity value than that with other structural particles and is suitable to radiative heat-insulating applications.

  5. A Feasibility Study on District Heating and Cooling Business Using Urban Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byoung Youn; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae In; Yoon, Jae Ho; Oh, Myung Do; Park, Moon Su; Kang, Han Kee; Yoo, Kyeoung Hoon; Bak, Jong Heon; Kim, Sun Chang; Park, Heong Kee; Bae, Tae Sik [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Investigation of papers related to waste heat utilization using heat pump. Estimate of various kinds of urban waste heat in korea. Investigation and study on optimal control of district heating and cooling system. Prediction of energy saving and environmental benefits when the urban waste heat will be used as heat source and sink of heat pump for district heating and cooling. Estimation of economic feasibility on district heating and cooling project utilizing urban waste heat. (author). 51 refs., figs

  6. Validation of ANSYS CFX for gas and liquid metal flows with conjugate heat transfer within the European project THINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papukchiev, A., E-mail: angel.papukchiev@grs.de; Buchholz, S.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • ANSYS CFX is validated for gas and liquid metal flows. • L-STAR and TALL-3D experiments are simulated. • Complex flow and heat transfer phenomena are modelled. • Conjugate heat transfer has to be considered in CFD analyses. - Abstract: Within the FP7 European project THINS (Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems), numerical tools for the simulation of the thermal-hydraulics of next generation rector systems were developed, applied and validated for innovative coolants. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH participated in THINS with activities related to the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) – CFD codes. High quality measurements from the L-STAR and TALL-3D experiments were used to assess the numerical results. Two-equation eddy viscosity and scale resolving turbulence models were used in the validation process of ANSYS CFX for gas and liquid metal flows with conjugate heat transfer. This paper provides a brief overview on the main results achieved at GRS within the project.

  7. Hydration of Magnesium Carbonate in a Thermal Energy Storage Process and Its Heating Application Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Erlund

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available First ideas of applications design using magnesium (hydro carbonates mixed with silica gel for day/night and seasonal thermal energy storage are presented. The application implies using solar (or another heat source for heating up the thermal energy storage (dehydration unit during daytime or summertime, of which energy can be discharged (hydration during night-time or winter. The applications can be used in small houses or bigger buildings. Experimental data are presented, determining and analysing kinetics and operating temperatures for the applications. In this paper the focus is on the hydration part of the process, which is the more challenging part, considering conversion and kinetics. Various operating temperatures for both the reactor and the water (storage tank are tested and the favourable temperatures are presented and discussed. Applications both using ground heat for water vapour generation and using water vapour from indoor air are presented. The thermal energy storage system with mixed nesquehonite (NQ and silica gel (SG can use both low (25–50% and high (75% relative humidity (RH air for hydration. The hydration at 40% RH gives a thermal storage capacity of 0.32 MJ/kg while 75% RH gives a capacity of 0.68 MJ/kg.

  8. Industrial waste heat utilization for low temperature district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hao; Xia, Jianjun; Zhu, Kan; Su, Yingbo; Jiang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of low grade waste heat are discharged into the environment, mostly via water evaporation, during industrial processes. Putting this industrial waste heat to productive use can reduce fossil fuel usage as well as CO 2 emissions and water dissipation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic approach to the integrated and efficient utilization of low-grade industrial waste heat. Recovering industrial waste heat for use in district heating (DH) can increase the efficiency of the industrial sector and the DH system, in a cost-efficient way defined by the index of investment vs. carbon reduction (ICR). Furthermore, low temperature DH network greatly benefits the recovery rate of industrial waste heat. Based on data analysis and in-situ investigations, this paper discusses the potential for the implementation of such an approach in northern China, where conventional heat sources for DH are insufficient. The universal design approach to industrial-waste-heat based DH is proposed. Through a demonstration project, this approach is introduced in detail. This study finds three advantages to this approach: (1) improvement of the thermal energy efficiency of industrial factories; (2) more cost-efficient than the traditional heating mode; and (3) CO 2 and pollutant emission reduction as well as water conservation. -- Highlights: •We review situation of industrial waste heat recovery with a global perspective. •We present a way to analyze the potential to utilize industrial waste heat for DH. •Northern China has huge potential for using low-grade industrial waste heat for DH. •A demonstration project is introduced using the universal approach we propose. •It proves huge benefits for factories, heat-supply companies and the society

  9. Systems for apartment buildings heat pumps. Final report; System foer fastighetsvaermepumpar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakervall, Daniel (WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rogstam, Joergen; Grotherus, Maarten (Sveriges Energi- och Kylcentrum, Katrineholm (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    A fast growing segment of the heat pump business is the apartment building applications. Historically the experience base related to such installations is limited. However, this application is more complex than the much more widely spread domestic applications. The core idea of the project was to generate and collect information to avoid mistakes and to encourage the heat pump technology. By interviewing the 'market' and compiling the information good recommendations has been achieved. It is of great importance to convey the best available recommendations to the installers on the market to avoid pit holes and highlight the opportunities for installers and end consumers. A website has been design and built, www.sfvp.se, which contains useful tools for installers and potential system customers. A number of calculation tools to estimate heat requirement, cost of different heating systems, primary energy need, LCC, etc. are all available. The core of the site is the database containing heat pump installations with related data of importance. The data available is such key data as performance figures, cost of installation, etc. Today 104 system installations are collected in the database and these are marked in a colour coding to indicate the quality of the input data. Installations verified with measurement are given higher significance. It has been an unexpected challenge to find documented systems, so one of the conclusions of the project is that there is a great need for further measurement on the field. More information should be directed to the customers to request such equipment when systems are installed. The database enables statistical analysis of the key figures and it can be seen that the average seasonal COP is 3.2 and there are small differences between exhaust air and ground source heat pumps. It should be emphasised that the number of installations do not give statistical confidence for all kinds of analysis yet. Field measurements in apartment

  10. 78 FR 53712 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Program Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... application, and discussion of classes of multimodal projects that may be best handled on a case-by-case basis... submissions; a paragraph discussing the joint application process; and a paragraph authorizing the Agencies to... early enough to allow for a joint application of the Secretary's responsibilities before the...

  11. An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J H; Tunnell, J W; Pikkula, B M; Anvari, B

    2001-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is a method used to protect the epidermis from non-specific thermal injury that may occur as a result of various dermatological laser procedures. However, better understanding of cryogen deposition and skin thermal response to CSC is needed to optimize the technique. Temperature measurements and video imaging were carried out on an epoxy phantom as well as human skin during CSC with and without simultaneous application of airflow which was intended to accelerate cryogen evaporation from the substrate surface. An inverse thermal conduction model was used to estimate heat flux and total heat removed. Lifetime of the cryogen film deposited on the surface of skin and epoxy phantom lasted several hundred milliseconds beyond the spurt, but could be reduced to the spurt duration by application of airflow. Values over 100 J/cm(3) were estimated for volumetric heat removed from the epidermis using CSC. "Film cooling" instead of "evaporative cooling" appears to be the dominant mode of CSC on skin. Estimated values of heat removed from the epidermis suggest that a cryogen spurt as long as 200 milliseconds is required to counteract heat generated by high laser fluences (e.g., in treatment of port wine stains) in patients with high concentration of epidermal melanin. Additional cooling beyond spurt termination can be avoided by simultaneous application of airflow, although it is unclear at the moment if avoiding the additional cooling would be beneficial in the actual clinical situation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. CarbAl Heat Transfer Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of power electronics, such as high-current semiconductor devices and modules, within space vehicles is driving the need to develop specialty thermal management materials in both the packaging of these discrete devices and the packaging of modules consisting of these device arrays. Developed by Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI), CarbAl heat transfer material is uniquely characterized by its low density, high thermal diffusivity, and high thermal conductivity. Its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to most power electronic materials, making it an effective base plate substrate for state-of-the-art silicon carbide (SiC) super junction transistors. The material currently is being used to optimize hybrid vehicle inverter packaging. Adapting CarbAl-based substrates to space applications was a major focus of the SBIR project work. In Phase I, ANI completed modeling and experimentation to validate its deployment in a space environment. Key parameters related to cryogenic temperature scaling of CTE, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. In Phase II, the company concentrated on improving heat sinks and thermally conductive circuit boards for power electronic applications.

  13. Effective geothermal heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelsen, Atle

    2006-01-01

    Scandinavia's currently largest geothermal heating project: the New Ahus hospital, is briefly presented. 300-400 wells on a field outside the hospital are constructed to store energy for both heating and cooling purposes

  14. Intermediate heat exchanger project for Super Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumailhac, J.; Desir, D.

    1975-01-01

    The Super Phenix (1200 MWe) intermediate heat exchangers are derived directly from those of Phenix (250 MWe). The intermediate exchangers are housed in the reactor vessel annulus: as this annulus must be of the smallest volume possible, these IHX are required to work at a high specific rating. The exchange surface is calculated for nominal conditions. A range is then defined, consistent with the above requirements and throughout which the ratio between bundle thickness and bundle length remains acceptable. Experimental technics and calculations were used to determine the number of tube constraint systems required to keep the vibration amplitude within permissible limits. From a knowledge of this number, the pressure drop produced by the primary flow can be calculated. The bundle geometry is determined together with the design of the corresponding tube plates and the way in which these plates should be joined to the body of the IHX. The experience (technical and financial) acquired in the construction of Phenix is then used to optimize the design of the Super Phenix project. An approximate definition of the structure of the IHX is obtained by assuming a simplified load distribution in the calculations. More sophisticated calculations (e.g. finite element method) are then used to determine the behaviour of the different points of the IHX, under nominal and transient conditions

  15. Fiscal 1999 report on result of the model project for waste heat recovery in hot blast stove; 1999 nendo netsufuro hainetsu kaishu model jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    For the purpose of curtailing energy consumption of the steel industry, a heavy energy consuming industry in China, a model project was carried out for waste heat recovery in a hot blast stove, with the fiscal 1999 results reported. In the process of this project, a heat exchanger for recovering heat is installed in the exhaust gas flue of a hot blast stove in ironworks, with sensible heat recovered through a heating medium. The heat exchanger for recovering heat and the preheating heat exchanger, which was installed in the main pipe for blast furnace gas and for combustion air, were connected by pressure piping, with the blast furnace gas and the combustion air preheated. In addition, a heating medium circulating pump for transporting the heating medium is installed, as are an expansion tank for absorbing expansion/contraction due to change in temperature, a heating medium storage tank for accepting the entire heating medium in the system for the maintenance of the equipment, and heating medium feeding pump, for example. This year, on the basis of the 'Agreement Annex', basic designs and detailed designs were performed for each equipment in the waste heat recovering equipment for the hot blast stove. Further, procurement and manufacturing were implemented for various component parts and devices of the waste heat recovering equipment. (NEDO)

  16. Energy performance of air-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps in hotel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Chan, Wilco W.

    2003-01-01

    We present work on measurement of the energy performance of heat pumps for hotel operations in subtropical climates. Two city hotels in Hong Kong were investigated. The first case was an application of an air-to-water heat pump to provide heating for an outdoor swimming pool during the heating season. The second case was the installation of three water-to-water heat pumps to complement an existing boiler system for hot water supply. The heating energy output and corresponding electricity use were measured. The heat pump energy efficiency was evaluated in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP), defined as the heating energy output to the electrical energy use. The air-to-water heat pump provided 49.1 MW h heating while consuming 24.6 MW h electricity during the 6((1)/(2))-month heating season from mid-October to April. For the water-to-water heat pumps, the estimated annual heating output and the electricity use were 952 and 544 MW h, respectively. It was found that the heat pumps generally operated in a COP range of 1.5-2.4, and the payback period was about two years, which was considered financially attractive

  17. Improving district heating in Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The district heating modernisation project currently under way in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is the largest project of its type financed by the World Bank. The budget for the five-year project is some USD 250 million of which USD 200 million is financed by the World Bank loan. The target of the project is to improve the city's district heating system, which is owned and operated by Kyivenergo. Consultancy services for the Project Implementation Unit are being provided by Electrowatt-Ekono and financed by the Finnish government

  18. Numerical and experimental study of heat transfers in an arc plasma. Application to TIG arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The arc welding is used for many industrial applications, especially GTA welding. Given the excellent quality of the produced welds, GTA welding is used for the majority of the interventions (repairs, joined sealing) on the French nuclear park. This work is part of a project carried out by EDF R and D which aims to simulate the whole process and builds a tool able to predict the welds quality. In this study, we focus on the development of a predictive model of the exchanged heat flux at the arc - work piece interface, responsible of the work piece fusion. The modeling of the arc plasma using the electric module of the hydrodynamics software Code Saturne R developed by EDF R and D is required. Two types of experimental tests are jointly carried out to validate this numerical model: i) on density and temperature measurements of plasma by atomic emission spectroscopy and ii) on the evaluation of the heat transfers on the work piece surface. This work also aims at demonstrate that the usual method of using an equivalent thermal source to model the welding process, can be replaced by our plasma model, without the numerous trials inherent to the usual method. (author)

  19. Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document.

  20. Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document

  1. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  2. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  3. Project Assessment Skills Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Samuel J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to utilize Ruby on Rails to create a web application that will replace a spreadsheet keeping track of training courses and tasks. The goal is to create a fast and easy to use web application that will allow users to track progress on training courses. This application will allow users to update and keep track of all of the training required of them. The training courses will be organized by group and by user, making readability easier. This will also allow group leads and administrators to get a sense of how everyone is progressing in training. Currently, updating and finding information from this spreadsheet is a long and tedious task. By upgrading to a web application, finding and updating information will be easier than ever as well as adding new training courses and tasks. Accessing this data will be much easier in that users just have to go to a website and log in with NDC credentials rather than request the relevant spreadsheet from the holder. In addition to Ruby on Rails, I will be using JavaScript, CSS, and jQuery to help add functionality and ease of use to my web application. This web application will include a number of features that will help update and track progress on training. For example, one feature will be to track progress of a whole group of users to be able to see how the group as a whole is progressing. Another feature will be to assign tasks to either a user or a group of users. All of these together will create a user friendly and functional web application.

  4. Sandia photovoltaic systems definition and application experiment projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.

    1983-04-01

    A compilation is given of the abstracts and visual material used in presentation at the Fourth Photovoltaic Systems Definition and Applications Projects Integration Meeting held at the Marriott Hotel, April 12-14, 1983, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting provided a forum for detailed analyses on recently completed and current activities. These activities include systems research, balance-of-system technology development, residential experimentation, and evaluation of intermediate-sized applications.

  5. Analysis of a thermal energy storage system for air cooling–heating application through cylindrical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisur, M.R.; Kibria, M.A.; Mahfuz, M.H.; Saidur, R.; Metselaar, I.H.S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Some design parameters of TES system for air cooling–heating application are studied. • Allowable inner radius and thickness of the tube for air flow should be considered. • Better COP is observed by decreasing the PCM container diameter. - Abstract: In order to reduce building energy consumption, thermal energy storage (TES) system has been explored as an alternative solution for air cooling–heating application. Different types of phase change materials (PCMs) along with the different geometries of TES system have been investigated for this application. In this work, a theoretical model was used to analyse the TES system for air cooling–heating application. The heat transfer phenomena in a phase change material (PCM) outside a double wall circular tube with heat transfer fluid (HTF) as air inside the tube were studied. Potassium fluoride tetrahydrate was used as a PCM for the TES system. Laminar forced convection with varying wall temperature was considered to analyse this system. Here, some important design parameters like inner radius and thickness of the tube for HTF flow were also investigated. It was found that an optimum inner radius and thickness of the tube should be considered to design a TES system. Since, significant change in outlet air temperature from the system was observed for reducing inner radius and increasing the thickness of the tube. The coefficients of performances (COPs) for cooling were found 8.79 and 7.20 for 15 mm and 25 mm inner radiuses of the PCM container respectively. Hence, the system can be optimized by reducing the volume of the PCM container. Furthermore, better COP was observed for higher inlet air temperature while the outlet air temperature was almost identical

  6. High-heat-flux testing of helium-cooled heat exchangers for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youchison, D.L.; Izenson, M.G.; Baxi, C.B.; Rosenfeld, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    High-heat-flux experiments on three types of helium-cooled divertor mock-ups were performed on the 30-kW electron beam test system and its associated helium flow loop at Sandia National Laboratories. A dispersion-strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) was used in the manufacture of all the mock-ups. The first heat exchanger provides for enhanced heat transfer at relatively low flow rates and much reduced pumping requirements. The Creare sample was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 5.8 MW/m 2 . The second used low pressure drops and high mass flow rates to achieve good heat removal. The GA specimen was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 9 MW/m 2 while maintaining a surface temperature below 400 degree C. A second experiment resulted in a maximum absorbed heat flux of 34 MW/m 2 and surface temperatures near 533 degree C. The third specimen was a DSCu, axial flow, helium-cooled divertor mock-up filled with a porous metal wick which effectively increases the available heat transfer area. Low mass flow and high pressure drop operation at 4.0 MPa were characteristic of this divertor module. It survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 16 MW/m 2 and reached a surface temperature of 740 degree C. Thermacore also manufactured a follow-on, dual channel porous metal-type heat exchanger, which survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 14 MW/m 2 and reached a maximum surface temperature of 690 degree C. 11refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  7. HTGR Application Economic Model Users' Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandrik, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Application Economic Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Application Economic Model calculates either the required selling price of power and/or heat for a given internal rate of return (IRR) or the IRR for power and/or heat being sold at the market price. The user can generate these economic results for a range of reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for up to 16 reactor modules; and for module ratings of 200, 350, or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Application Economic Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Application Economic Model. This model was designed for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel and engineering economics. Modification of the HTGR Application Economic Model should only be performed by users familiar with the HTGR and its applications, Excel, and Visual Basic.

  8. Ziar nad Hronom will be heated by an underground heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiegel, J.

    1999-01-01

    The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are concerned in co-participation in funding a project for utilising geothermal ground water in heating premises in Ziar nad Hronom. The project implementations costs will be running at U.S.$18 million, of which the two bank institutions would provide for a non-specified part in the form of credit. In heating residential houses, production and commercial infrastructure of Ziar nad Hronom, 72 thousand tonnes of coal are consumed annually to generate 810 TJ heat. By implementing the new project there will be over 100 TJ savings, with a new more efficient distribution hot water network and 39 reconstructed heat exchange station making for effective consumption of heat. The current heat plant will only serve as an auxiliary source under extremely chilly weather conditions with an expected coal consumption of at most 9 thousand tonnes. In addition to cost implications, the geothermal water heating will make a significant contribution through environmental impact. Ecologists calculated that by shutting down the solid fuel burning heat plant the air burden will be reduced by 59 thousand tonnes of carbon dioxide, 290 tonnes of sulfur dioxide, 48 tonnes of nitrogen oxide, 230 tonnes of dust and nearly 12 tonnes of ash. The implementer of the project scheduled to complete in 2001 is a subsidiary of the joint-stock company Zavod SNP - Geothermal, Ltd, Ziar nad Hronom. Aimed at geothermal water sampling in the depth of some 2,500 meters, a trial drill at Ziarska kotlina - site Varticka will last roughly till April 9 1999. The drilling set of Nafta Gbely erected on December 21, 1998 is technically capable of reaching the depth 2,800 meter, just in case that the geothermal water level is lower than the expected 2,500 m. In all In all Nafta Gbely staffs will carry out two production and two reinjection drills. (author)

  9. 75 FR 352 - Enloe Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of... Utility District No. 1 of Okanogan County. e. Name of Project: Enloe Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...

  10. THE PROPERTIES OF HOUSES IN TERMS OF GEOTHERMAL CENTRAL HEATING AND THE APPROACH OF DENIZLI TO GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil KARAHAN

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the geothermal fluid, which is discharged into Büyük Menderes River after electric generation at Kızıldere Geothermal power plant, has been considered as a solution the air pollution problem of Denizli province, there has been no work carried out to determine the number of house, the area of house, the type of heating, coal consumption for each house, heat isolation, and centrally heated houses. The existing works includes only the applications at local places comparing to Denizli. In order to get maximum benefit from the planned project, it is necessary to collect data for Denizli and evaluate the data at the feasibility and application phases of the project. For this purpose questionnaire forms have been given to 15000 houses and offices at the different places in Denizli. The questionnaire forms were collected and the results have been evaluated and presented in graphics.

  11. Aspects of nuclear process heat application of very high temperature reactors (VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansing, W.T.; Kugeler, K.

    2014-01-01

    The different processes of high temperature process application require new concepts for heat exchangers to carry out key process like steam reforming of light hydrocarbons, gasification of coal or biomass, or thermo-chemical cycles for hydrogen production. These components have been tested in the German projects for high temperature development. The intention was always to test at original conditions of temperatures, pressures and gas atmospheres. Furthermore the time of testing should be long as possible, to be able to carry out extrapolations to the real lifetime of components. Partly test times of around 20 000 hours have been reached. Key components, which are discussed in this paper, are: Intermediate heat exchangers to separate the primary reactor side and the secondary process side. Here two components with a power of 10 MW have been tested with the result, that all requirements of a nuclear component with larger power (125 MW) can be fulfilled. The max. primary helium temperature was 950°C, the maximal secondary temperature was 900°C. These were components with helical wounded tubes and U-tubes. In the test facility KVK, which had been built to carry out many special tests on components for helium cycles, furthermore hot gas ducts (with large dimensions), hot gas valves (with large dimensions), steam generators (10 MW), helium circulators, the helium gas purification and special measurements installations for helium cycle have been tested. All these tests delivered a broad know how for the urther development of technologies using helium as working fluid. The total test time of KVK was longer than 20 000 h. In a large test facility for steam reforming (EVAⅡ10 MW, T He =950°C, p He =40 bar, T Reform =800°C) all technical details of the conversion process have been investigated and today the technical feasibility of this process is valuated as given. Two reformer bundles, one with baffles and one with separate guiding tubes for each reformer tube have

  12. Ionic liquids as heat transfer fluids: comparison with known systems, possible applications, advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikova, E A; Glukhov, L M; Krasovskiy, V G; Kustov, L M; Vorobyeva, M G; Koroteev, A A

    2015-01-01

    The practical aspects and prospects of application of ionic liquids as heat transfer fluids are discussed. The physicochemical properties of ionic liquids (heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal and radiation stability, viscosity, density, saturated vapour pressure and corrosion activity) are compared with the properties of some commercial heat transfer fluids. The issues of toxicity of ionic liquids are considered. Much attention is paid to known organosilicon heat transfer fluids, which are considered to have much in common with ionic liquids in the set of properties and are used in the review as reference materials. The bibliography includes 132 references

  13. Heat Transfer Analysis of Localized Heat-Treatment for Grade 91 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jacob D.

    Many of the projects utilizing Grade 91 steel are large in scale, therefore it is necessary to assemble on site. The assembly of the major pieces requires welding in the assembly; this drastically changes the superior mechanical properties of Grade 91 steel that it was specifically developed for. Therefore, because of the adverse effects of welding on the mechanical properties of Grade 91, it is necessary to do a localized post weld heat treatment. As with most metallic materials grade 91 steel requires a very specific heat treatment process. This process includes a specific temperature and duration at that temperature to achieve the heat treatment desired. Extensive research has been done to determine the proper temperatures and duration to provide the proper microstructure for the superior mechanical properties that are inherent to Grade 91 steel. The welded sections are typically large structures that require local heat treatments and cannot be placed in an oven. The locations of these structures vary from indoors in a controlled environment to outdoors with unpredictable environments. These environments can be controlled somewhat, however in large part the surrounding conditions are unchangeable. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods to accurately apply the surrounding conditions and geometries to a theoretical model in order to provide the proper requirements for the local heat treatment procedure. Within this requirement is the requirement to define unknowns used in the heat transfer equations so that accurate models can be produced and accurate results predicted. This study investigates experimentally and numerically the heat transfer and temperature fields of Grade 91 piping in a local heat treatment. The objective of this thesis research is to determine all of the needed heat transfer coefficients. The appropriate heat transfer coefficients are determined through the inverse heat conduction method utilizing a ceramic heat blanket. This will be done

  14. Users Manual for the FEHMN application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyvoloski, G.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Dash, Z.V.; Trease, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    The user's manual documents the use of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Projects Finite element heat and mass transfer code (FEHMN) application. The manual covers: Program considerations, data files, input data, output, system interface, and examples

  15. Material Research on Salt Hydrates for Seasonal Heat Storage Application in a Residential Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchaud, C.J.; Zondag, H.A.; De Boer, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Water vapor sorption in salt hydrates is a promising method to realize seasonal solar heat storage in the residential sector. Several materials already showed promising performance for this application. However, the stability of these materials needs to be improved for long-term (30 year) application in seasonal solar heat storages. The purpose of this article is to identify the influence of the material properties of the salt hydrates on the performance and the reaction kinetics of the sorption process. The experimental investigation presented in this article shows that the two salt hydrates Li2SO4.H2O and CuSO4.5H2O can store and release heat under the operating conditions of a seasonal solar heat storage in a fully reversible way. However, these two materials show differences in terms of energy density and reaction kinetics. Li2SO4.H2O can release heat with an energy density of around 0.80 GJ/m{sup 3} within 4 hours of rehydration at 25C, while CuSO4.5H2O needs around 130 hours at the same temperature to be fully rehydrated and reaches an energy density of 1.85 GJ/m{sup 3}. Since the two salts are dehydrated and hydrated under the same conditions, this difference in behavior is directly related to the intrinsic properties of the materials.

  16. A high performance cocurrent-flow heat pipe for heat recovery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    By the introduction of a plate-and-tube separator assembly into a heat pipe vapor core, it has been demonstrated that axial transport capacity in reflux mode can be improved by up to a factor of 10. This improvement is largely the result of eliminating the countercurrent shear that commonly limits reflux heat pipe axial capacity. With benzene, axial heat fluxes up to 1800 W/sq cm were obtained in the temperature range 40 to 80 C, while heat flux densities up to 3000 W/sq cm were obtained with R-11 over the temperature range 40 to 80 C. These very high axial capacities compare favorably with liquid metal limits; the sonic limit for liquid sodium, for example, is 3000 W/sq cm at 657 C. Computational models developed for these cocurrent flow heat pipes agreed with experimental data within + or - 25%.

  17. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Preliminary Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2011-08-01

    This paper summarizes the potential market for process heat produced by a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the environmental benefits reduced CO2 emissions will have on these markets, and the typical economics of projects using these applications. It gives examples of HTGR technological applications to industrial processes in the typical co-generation supply of process heat and electricity, the conversion of coal to transportation fuels and chemical process feedstock, and the production of ammonia as a feedstock for the production of ammonia derivatives, including fertilizer. It also demonstrates how uncertainties in capital costs and financial factors affect the economics of HTGR technology by analyzing the use of HTGR technology in the application of HTGR and high temperature steam electrolysis processes to produce hydrogen.

  18. Biomass gasification--a substitute to fossil fuel for heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasappa, S.; Sridhar, H.V.; Sridhar, G.; Paul, P.J.; Mukunda, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses case studies of a low temperature and a high temperature industrial heat requirement being met using biomass gasification. The gasification system for these applications consists of an open top down draft reburn reactor lined with ceramic. Necessary cooling and cleaning systems are incorporated in the package to meet the end use requirements. The other elements included are the fuel conveyor, water treatment plant for recirculating the cooling water and adequate automation to start, shut down and control the operations of the gasifier system. Drying of marigold flower, a low temperature application is considered to replace diesel fuel in the range of 125-150 l h -1 . Gas from the 500 kg h -1 , gasifier system is piped into the producer gas burners fixed in the combustion chamber with the downstream process similar to the diesel burner. The high temperature application is for a heat treatment furnace in the temperature range of 873-1200 K. A 300 kg h -1 of biomass gasifier replaces 2000 l of diesel or LDO per day completely. The novelty of this package is the use of one gasifier to energize 16 burners in the 8 furnaces with different temperature requirements. The system operates over 140 h per week on a nearly nonstop mode and over 4000 h of operation replacing fossil fuel completely. The advantage of bioenergy package towards the economic and environmental considerations is presented

  19. TRIAM-1 turbulent heating experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagao, Akihiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1983-02-01

    The experimental studies on the containment of high temperature plasma and turbulent heating using the tokamak device with strong magnetic field (TRIAM-1) started in 1977 have achieved much results up to fiscal 1979, and the anticipated objectives were almost attained. The results of these studies were summarized in the ''Report of the results of strong magnetic field tokamak TRIAM-1 experiment''. In this report, the results obtained by the second stage project of the TRIAM-1 project are summarized. The second stage was the two-year project for fiscal 1980 and 81. In the second stage project, by the complete preparation of measuring instrument and the improvement of the experimental setup, the carefully planned experiment on turbulent heating was performed, in particular, the clarification of the mechanism of turbulent heating was the central theme. As the important results obtained, the detection of ion sound waves at the time of turbulent heating, the formation of high energy ions by wave-particle interaction and the clarification of the process of their energy relaxation, and the verification of the effectiveness of double pulse turbulent heating are enumerated.

  20. TRIAM-1 turbulent heating experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagao, Akihiro

    1983-01-01

    The experimental studies on the containment of high temperature plasma and turbulent heating using the tokamak device with strong magnetic field (TRIAM-1) started in 1977 have achieved much results up to fiscal 1979, and the anticipated objectives were almost attained. The results of these studies were summarized in the ''Report of the results of strong magnetic field tokamak TRIAM-1 experiment''. In this report, the results obtained by the second stage project of the TRIAM-1 project are summarized. The second stage was the two-year project for fiscal 1980 and 81. In the second stage project, by the complete preparation of measuring instrument and the improvement of the experimental setup, the carefully planned experiment on turbulent heating was performed, in particular, the clarification of the mechanism of turbulent heating was the central theme. As the important results obtained, the detection of ion sound waves at the time of turbulent heating, the formation of high energy ions by waveparticle interaction and the clarification of the process of their energy relaxation, and the verification of the effectiveness of double pulse turbulent heating are enumerated. (Kako, I.)

  1. Discussion on the applicability of entropy generation minimization and entransy theory to the evaluation of thermodynamic performance for heat pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, XueTao; Liang, XinGang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Seven parameters are applied to the analyses of heat pump systems. • Applicability of entropy generation minimization and entransy theory is discussed. • All concepts except for entransy increase rate (EI) decreases with increasing COP. • Only EI increases with increasing heat flow into the high temperature heat sink. • Applicability of both theories is conditional, depending on the objectives. - Abstract: Based on the entropy generation minimization and entransy theory, we discuss the applicability of the concepts of entropy generation rate, entropy generation number, revised entropy generation number, exergy efficiency, entransy increase rate, entransy increase coefficient and entransy efficiency to the analyses of heat pump systems in this paper. The theoretical analyses show that all the concepts except for the entransy increase rate decrease monotonically with increasing COP, while only the entransy increase rate increases monotonically with increasing heat flow pumped into the high temperature heat sink. It is shown that the entransy increase rate is not as convenient as the other concepts for the COP analyses, while it is suitable for the analyses of the heat flow into the high temperature heat sources. Some numerical examples are also presented, and the results have verified the theoretical analyses. Therefore, the applicability of entropy generation minimization and entransy theory to the analyses of heat pump systems is conditional, depending on the design objectives

  2. Heat transfer in Rockwool modelling and method of measurement. The effect of natural convection on heat transfer in fibrous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyrboel, Susanne

    1998-05-01

    Fibrous materials are some of the most widely used materials for thermal insulation. In this project the focus of interest has been on fibrous materials for building application. Interest in improving the thermal properties of insulation materials is increasing as legislation is being tightened to reduce the overall energy consumption. A knowledge of the individual heat transfer mechanisms - whereby heat is transferred within a particular material is an essential tool to improve continuously the thermal properties of the material. Heat is transferred in fibrous materials by four different transfer mechanisms: conduction through air, conduction through fibres, thermal radiation and convection. In a particular temperature range the conduction through air can be regarded as a constant, and conduction through fibres is an insignificant part of the total heat transfer. Radiation, however, constitutes 25-40% of the total heat transfer in light fibrous materials. In Denmark and a number of other countries convection in fibrous materials is considered as non-existent when calculating heat transmission as well as when designing building structures. Two heat transfer mechanisms have been the focus of the current project: radiation heat transfer and convection. The radiation analysis serves to develop a model that can be used in further work to gain a wider knowledge of the way in which the morphology of the fibrous material, i.e. fibre diameter distribution, fibre orientation distribution etc., influences the radiation heat transfer under different conditions. The convection investigation serves to examine whether considering convection as non-existent is a fair assumption to use in present and future building structures. The assumption applied in practically is that convection makes a notable difference only in very thick insulation, at external temperatures below -20 deg. C, and at very low densities. For large thickness dimensions the resulting heat transfer through the

  3. Assessment of SMART Capability for Multiple Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo; Zee, Sung Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Cogeneration has become an attractive for a wide range of non-electric application, including seawater desalination, district heating, district cooling, and other industrial process heat applications. From 2009 to 2012, the SMART Technology Validation and the Standard Design Approval Project was carried out. After one and half years of intensive licensing review, the SDA for SMART was officially issued on July 4{sup th}, 2012 by the NSSC, in compliance with Article 12 of the Nuclear Safety Act. This is the first license for an integral reactor in the world. SMART has beneficial advantages of a reactor safety and economics by an easy implementation of advanced design concepts and technology. Owing to its native characteristics, the SMART can be easily applicable not only to a small scale electricity generation but also to non-electricity applications such as sea water desalination and a district heating. The capability of SMART for the application of sea water desalination and a district heating are assessed through modifying the existing secondary system for electricity generation in this study. SMART can be a good engine for seawater desalination and district heating. Power generation system can be safely and effectively coupled with MEDTVC desalination system using steam transformer. District heating application will increase the cycle efficiency of SMART significantly. Introduction of desalination system doesn't have adverse effect on reactor safety.

  4. A new fractional derivative without singular kernel: Application to the modelling of the steady heat flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a new fractional derivative without singular kernel. We consider the potential application for modeling the steady heat-conduction problem. The analytical solution of the fractional-order heat flow is also obtained by means of the Laplace transform.

  5. Heat transfer analysis of ZnO-water nanofluid for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanayak, Bikash; Mund, Abhishek; Jayakumar, J.S.; Chaudhuri, P.; Parashar, Kajal; Parashar, S.K.S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of traditional heat transfer fluids is inherently low. Metals or metal oxide in ultra-fine form have orders of magnitudes higher thermal conductivity of those of fluids. So it is a need to understand the fundamental behavior of the metals or metal oxides nanoparticles in base fluids. ZnO is a semiconductor but has a wide range of application. In this study the thermal conductivity and viscosity will be discussed in details with experimental and theoretical models. The application of ZnO based nanofluids will be very much useful in nuclear fusion

  6. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  7. Conventional heating systems is heating with geothermal water, v. 15(60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhimishev, Dimitar; Gashteovski, Ljupcho; Shami, Jotso

    2007-01-01

    The Geothermal Energy (GE) is a new renewable energy source with many advantages and specifics. Present mainly application of GE is in agriculture. In Geothermal System Kochani the GE uses for district heating and industrial uses also. There are many problems to solve before using the geothermal energy for district heating: direct application feasibility for heating rooms and industrial using existing heating installation system (90/70°C); the level of heating needs covering without installation reconstruction; techno-economical justification of this reconstruction ; covering of pike heating needs. The answers of these enigmas you have in this written effort. The results were practically justified in about ten object in Kochani. (Author)

  8. Conventional heating systems is heating with geothermal water, v. 15(59)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhimishev, Dimitar; Gashteovski, Ljupcho; Shami, Jotso

    2007-01-01

    The Geothermal Energy (GE) is a new renewable energy source with many advantages and specifics. Present mainly application of GE is in agriculture. In Geothermal System Kochani the GE uses for district heating and industrial uses also. There are many problems to solve before using the geothermal energy for district heating: direct application feasibility for heating rooms and industrial using existing heating installation system (90/70°C); the level of heating needs covering without installation reconstruction; techno-economical justification of this reconstruction ; covering of pike heating needs. The answers of these enigmas you have in this written effort. The results were practically justified in about ten object in Kochani. (Author)

  9. Use of process steam in vapor absorption refrigeration system for cooling and heating applications: An exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in cost of conventional fuels shifts the interest toward the use of alternative as well waste energy sources for the operation of refrigeration and air-conditioning units. The present study therefore analyzes the performance of a process steam-operated vapor absorption system for cooling and heating applications using ammonia and water as working fluids based on first and second laws of thermodynamics. A mathematical model has been developed based on exergy analysis to investigate the performance of the system. The different performance parameters such as coefficient of performance (COP and exergetic efficiency of absorption system for cooling and heating applications are also calculated under different operating conditions. The results obtained show that cooling and heating COP along with second law efficiency (exergy efficiency increases with the heat source temperature at constant evaporator, condenser, and absorber temperature. Also, COP as well as exergy efficiency increases with an increase in the evaporator temperature at constant generator, condenser, and absorber temperature. The effect of ambient temperature on the exergetic efficiency for cooling and heating applications is also studied. The results obtained from the simulation studies can be used to optimize different components of the system so that the performance can be improved significantly.

  10. Users of electric heating rewarded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    When the building industry plunged into the deep recession of the early 1990s this did not paralyse research and development work on electric heating. In fact, IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically Heated Homes in the New Millennium` project in 1992. Its purpose was to verify the efficiency, energy economy and residential comfort of model systems using state-of-the-art electric heating technology. The research project launched six years ago is now nearing completion. Its findings indicate that electricity brings ever more unparalleled benefits when it is used for heating. These benefits involve residential comfort, ease of use and economy

  11. General Motors LLC Final Project Report: Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozeman, Jeffrey [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Chen, Kuo-Huey [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-12-09

    On November 3, 2009, General Motors (GM) accepted U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement award number DE-EE0000014 from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). GM was selected to execute a three-year cost shared research and development project on Solid State Energy Conversion for Vehicular Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) and for Waste Heat Recovery.

  12. Seon heats with geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the combined use of ground water for the supply of drinking water for the municipality of Seon, Switzerland and as the basis for a district heating system. The use of the water, pumped up from a depth of 300 meters and exhibiting a temperature of 19.5 o C, as the heat source for heat pumps is described. The history of the project is discussed and figures are given on the district heating system that provides heat for an indoor swimming pool complex, industry and living accommodation in the village. Operational strategies used to make optimum use of tariff structures are described. The role played by local initiative in this innovative project is emphasised

  13. Telecommunication Technologies for Smart Grid Projects with Focus on Smart Metering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Andreadou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a study of the smart grid projects realised in Europe and presents their technological solutions with a focus on smart metering Low Voltage (LV applications. Special attention is given to the telecommunications technologies used. For this purpose, we present the telecommunication technologies chosen by several European utilities for the accomplishment of their smart meter national roll-outs. Further on, a study is performed based on the European Smart Grid Projects, highlighting their technological options. The range of the projects analysed covers the ones including smart metering implementation as well as those in which smart metering applications play a significant role in the overall project success. The survey reveals that various topics are directly or indirectly linked to smart metering applications, like smart home/building, energy management, grid monitoring and integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. Therefore, the technological options that lie behind such projects are pointed out. For reasons of completeness, we also present the main characteristics of the telecommunication technologies that are found to be used in practice for the LV grid.

  14. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-01-01

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water ((le) 0.1% by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m 2 s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  15. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-07-31

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤ 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  16. The targeted heating and current drive applications for the ITER electron cyclotron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M.; Darbos, C.; Gandini, F.; Gassmann, T.; Loarte, A.; Omori, T.; Purohit, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Saibene, G.; Gagliardi, M. [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Farina, D.; Figini, L. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, 20125 Milano (Italy); Hanson, G. [US ITER Project Office, ORNL, 1055 Commerce Park, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Poli, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Takahashi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    A 24 MW Electron Cyclotron (EC) system operating at 170 GHz and 3600 s pulse length is to be installed on ITER. The EC plant shall deliver 20 MW of this power to the plasma for Heating and Current Drive (H and CD) applications. The EC system is designed for plasma initiation, central heating, current drive, current profile tailoring, and Magneto-hydrodynamic control (in particular, sawteeth and Neo-classical Tearing Mode) in the flat-top phase of the plasma. A preliminary design review was performed in 2012, which identified a need for extended application of the EC system to the plasma ramp-up, flattop, and ramp down phases of ITER plasma pulse. The various functionalities are prioritized based on those applications, which can be uniquely addressed with the EC system in contrast to other H and CD systems. An initial attempt has been developed at prioritizing the allocated H and CD applications for the three scenarios envisioned: ELMy H-mode (15 MA), Hybrid (∼12 MA), and Advanced (∼9 MA) scenarios. This leads to the finalization of the design requirements for the EC sub-systems.

  17. Industrial Application of Topology Optimization for Combined Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Alexandersen, Joe; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an industrial application of topology optimization for combined conductive and convective heat transfer problems. The solution is based on a synergy of computer aided design and engineering software tools from Dassault Systemes. The considered physical problem of steady......-state heat transfer under convection is simulated using SIMULIA-Abaqus. A corresponding topology optimization feature is provided by SIMULIA-Tosca. By following a standard workflow of design optimization, the proposed solution is able to accommodate practical design scenarios and results in efficient...

  18. Investment appraisal of heat and power plants within an emissions trading scheme. Final Report of the INVIS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurikka, H.; Pirilae, P.

    2005-04-01

    The opportunity cost for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions has become a new factor influencing investments in heat and power production capacity globally, and in particular in countries with a greenhouse gas emissions trading system, such as the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). There is a considerable power capacity investment need in the coming decades in Finland, in Europe and globally. As the economic lifetime of an investment in heat and power capacity typically ranges from 20-40 years, 'carbon finance' and the EU ETS therefore introduce a considerable and fundamental price risk to the investment problem. In Europe, the price risk is present in all investments and divestments of power production licences or capacity, be it a green-field plant, a retrofit of an existing plant or an acquisition. The objective of the INVIS research project was to extend the knowledge on strategic implications of emissions trading in investments into heat and power generation. This report gives an overview on the main findings of the project. The focus of INVIS project was on (1) quantitative investment appraisal and (2) methods rather than tools or parameter values. Particular attention in the INVIS project was paid to the incorporation of emissions trading in new methods of investment appraisal, which aim at taking into account the value of real options, rights to postpone or revise decisions. The EU ETS modifies the quantitative investment appraisal of heat and power plants directly through the emission allowance price and the number of free allowances and indirectly through impacts on output prices, input prices, taxation, and subsidies. From the risk perspective, the most problematic impact seems to be the regulatory uncertainty in the number of free allowances, which can turn out to be a barrier for investment in fossil-fuel-fired thermal power plants - even combined-cycle gas turbines. The emission allowance price is a stochastic variable, which implies it is

  19. Regulatory aspects, an important factor for geothermal energy application for district heating development. European insurance scheme to cover geological risk related to geothermal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    District heating is one of the most interesting fields of geothermal energy application development in Europe. However, besides the technical/technological/economical and organizational aspects of the problem in question, the related legal and regulatory aspects influence very much the real possibilities for wider introduction of this energy source in the state energy balances in most of the countries. Based on the official EU report for the State-of-the-art of the problem of the insurance to cover geological risks and necessary aspects to be developed and resolved in a better and 'common' way in order to enable higher investments in bigger projects (district heating) development, the paper presents the situation in different European countries in relation to the Macedonian one. Conclusions extracted should give a positive contribution to the process of the Macedonian laws accommodation to the common EU practice. (Author)

  20. Studies on cycle characteristics and application of split heat pipe adsorption ice maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.J.; Wang, R.Z.; Wang, L.W.; Lu, Z.S.

    2007-01-01

    A split heat pipe adsorption ice maker, which uses a solidified compound adsorbent (calcium chloride and activated carbon)-ammonia as working pair, is studied. The application of split heat pipe technology in this system (ice maker for fishing boat powered by waste heat of exhaust gases from diesel engine) solves the corrosion problem caused by using seawater to cool the adsorber directly. Therefore, the adsorbers can be cooled or heated by the working substance of the heat pipe in the adsorption or desorption state, respectively. There are two adsorbers in the adsorption ice maker, and each adsorber contains 2.35 kg compound adsorbent in which the mass of calcium chloride is 1.88 kg. The mass transfer performance and volume cooling density of the chemical adsorbent are greatly improved by the use of the compound adsorbent. Water is chosen as the working substance of the heat pipe due to its high cooling power in comparison with the experiments performed using acetone as working substance. When the cycle time is 70 min, the average SCP of ice making is about 329.8-712.8 W/kg calcium chloride with heat and mass recovery, which is approximately 1.6-3.5 times that of the best results of a conventional chemical adsorption ice maker

  1. Electron spin resonance and its application to heat treated carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, Francisco Guilherme

    1993-01-01

    This work presents the basic characteristics of the electron spin resonance technique, also called paramagnetic resonance, being discussed its application to heat treated carbonaceous materials. In the low heat treatment temperature (HTT) range (below 700 deg C) the organic free radical are the predominant unpaired spin center, which play a key role in the process of carbonization and meso phase formation. At higher temperatures, it is possible to make correlations between the low H T T range and the high HTT range (above 130 deg C), where the predominant unpaired spin center are the free charge carriers (free electrons) of the graphite like crystallites of the material, which are formed by the carbonization process. (author)

  2. The effectiveness of absorption heat pumps application for the increase of economic efficiency of CHP operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzhkovoy Dmitriy S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative analysis of CHP operational efficiency in various working modes before and after the absorption heat pumps installation. The calculation was performed using a mathematical model of the extraction turbine PT- 80/100-130/13. Absorption heat pumps of LLC “OKB Teplosibmash” were used as AHP models for the analysis. The most effective way of absorption lithium-bromide heat pumps application as a part of the turbine PT-80/100-130/13 turned out to be their usage in a heat-producing mode during a non-heating season with a load of hot water supply. For this mode the dependence of the turbine heat efficiency on the heat load of the external consumer at a given throttle flow was analyzed.

  3. 76 FR 9340 - Mill Town Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13995-000] Mill Town Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 4, 2011, Mill Town Power Project filed an application for a...

  4. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  5. HTGR Application Economic Model Users' Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Application Economic Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Application Economic Model calculates either the required selling price of power and/or heat for a given internal rate of return (IRR) or the IRR for power and/or heat being sold at the market price. The user can generate these economic results for a range of reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for up to 16 reactor modules; and for module ratings of 200, 350, or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Application Economic Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Application Economic Model. This model was designed for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel and engineering economics. Modification of the HTGR Application Economic Model should only be performed by users familiar with the HTGR and its applications, Excel, and Visual Basic.

  6. The magnetic fluid for heat transfer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, K.; Jeyadevan, B.; Neveu, S.; Koganezawa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Real-time visual observation of boiling water-based and ionic magnetic fluids (MFs) and heat transfer characteristics in heat pipe using ionic MF stabilized by citrate ions (JC-1) as working liquid are reported. Irrespective of the presence or absence of magnetic field water-based MF degraded during boiling. However, the degradation of JC-1 was avoided by heating the fluid in magnetic field. Furthermore, the heat transfer capacity of JC-1 heat pipe under applied magnetic field was enhanced over the no field case

  7. Industrial space heating and cooling from stored spent nuclear power plant fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, B.O.; Doman, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Projections by the Department of Energy indicate that some 5800 metric tons of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors are now in storage and that some 33000 metric tons are expected to be in storage in 1990. The bulk of the spent fuel is currently stored in water-filled basins at the reactor sites from which the material was discharged. The thermal energy in the fuel is dissipated to atmospheres via a pumped water-to-air heat exchanger system. This paper describes a feasibility study of potential methods for the use of the heat. Also, potential applications of heat recovery systems at larger AFR storage facilities were investigated

  8. Results from transient transport experiments in Rijnhuizen tokamak project: Heat convection, transport barriers and 'non-local' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P.; Gorini, G.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Kloe, J. de; Lopez Cardozo, N.J.; Schilham, A.M.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of experimental transport studies performed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) using transient transport techniques in both Ohmic and ECH dominated plasmas is presented. Modulated Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) and oblique pellet injection (OPI) have been used to induce electron temperature (T e ) perturbations at different radial locations. These were used to probe the electron transport barriers observed near low order rational magnetic surfaces in ECH dominated steady-state RTP plasmas. Layers of inward electron heat convection in off-axis ECH plasmas were detected with modulated ECH. This suggests that RTP electron transport barriers consist of heat pinch layers rather than layers of low thermal diffusivity. In a different set of experiments, OPI triggered a transient rise of the core T e due to an increase of the T e gradient in the 1< q<2 region. These transient transport barriers were probed with modulated ECH and found to be due to a transient drop of the electron heat diffusivity, except for off-axis ECH plasmas, where a transient inward pinch is also observed. Transient transport studies in RTP could not solve this puzzling interplay between heat diffusion and convection in determining an electron transport barrier. They nevertheless provided challenging experimental evidence both for theoretical modelling and for future experiments. (author)

  9. Heat Roadmap Europe 3 (STRATEGO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Drysdale, David

    Heat Roadmap Europe 3 is from work package 2 of the STRATEGO project (http://stratego-project.eu/). It quantifies the impact of implementing various energy efficiency measures in the heating and cooling sectors of five EU Member States: Czech Republic, Croatia, Italy, Romania, and the United...... of approximately €1.1 trillion in energy efficiency measures across all five of these countries, between 2010 and 2050, will save enough fuel to reduce the costs of their energy systems. After considering both the initial investment and the resulting savings, the total annual cost of the heating, cooling......, and electricity sectors is reduced by an average of ~15% in each country. These initial investments are primarily required in heat savings for the buildings, district heating in urban areas, and electric heat pumps in rural areas. In essence, energy efficiency measures in the heating sector will enable EU Member...

  10. Application of Markovian model to school enrolment projection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Markovian model to school enrolment projection process. VU Ekhosuehi, AA Osagiede. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 9-16. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. The application of TINA in the MESH project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Plagemann, Thomas; Goebel, Vera

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of TINA concepts, architectures and related design paradigms in the MESH project. MESH adopted TINA as a means to facilitate the design and implementation of a flexible platform for developing and providing interactive multimedia services. This paper reports on

  12. The economics of supplying the supplementary heat in a closed loop water source heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Bartkus, V.E.; Singh, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the details of a research and demonstration project that will be completed in August 1992 at a healthcare facility in northeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of the project is to compare the economics of several methods of supplying the supplementary heating in a facility served by a closed loop water source heat pump system. The systems being tested include a storage hot water tank with electric resistance heaters and three air source heat pumps that have the ability to supply the same heat during on-peak hours as well as off-peak hours. The paper compares the projected operating costs of the following: (1) Gas boiler supplying the supplementary heat. (2) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat which is generated and stored during off-peak hours using resistance heat on PP ampersand L's offpeak rate. (3) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat generated during off-peak hours using the air source heat pumps on PP ampersand L's off-peak rate. (4) Hot water generated by the air source heat pumps supplying the supplementary loop heating on PP ampersand L's general service and time-of-day electric rates. It is generally known in the HVAC industry that a closed loop water source heat pump system can provide one of the most efficient means of space conditioning to a building with high internal gains by transferring the excess heat available in one part of the building to another part of the building where it may be needed for heating. The following flow diagram depicts the relationship of the air source heat pumps with the storage tanks and the building closed water loop

  13. Commercial effectiveness assessment of implementation the energy efficiency raising of the building project due to introduction of automatic heat consumption control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonareva Yu.N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of the automated metering stations and regulation (AUU located directly in the heated building besides creation of comfortable conditions indoors leads to decrease in consumption of thermal energy. The annual expected effect of realization of the offered actions (installation of metering stations and automatic control can make up to 22% consumed and that isn–t less important, the paid thermal energy. In general, efficiency of implementation of the project on introduction of AUU can be characterized by considerable decrease in heat consumption of the building and, respectively, reduction of a payment for the consumed energy resources. In this paper we evaluated the effectiveness of implementation of increase of energy efficiency of the building investment project (hereinafter SP. We calculated the ratio of expenses and the results considered actions for inhabitants of an apartment house located in Kazan after installation of a weather-dependent regulation. As a result of calculation of the imitating model created on the basis of basic data and the investment project plan the main results of determination of economic efficiency of the Project have been received. For the analysis and increase of reliability of a settlement assessment of efficiency of the investment project calculations at different options of a set of basic data are executed.

  14. Application of Delphi expert panel in joint venture projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, H.; Rosman, M. R.; Rashid, Z. Z. Ahmad; Mohamad Yusuwan, N.; Bakhary, N. A.

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted with the aim to identify the application of the Delphi Technique in validating findings obtained from questionnaire surveys and interviews done in- depth on the subject of joint venture projects in Malaysia. The Delphi technique aims to achieve a consensus of opinion amongst expert panellist that were selected on the primary factors in JV projects. To achieve research objectives, a progressive series of questions was designed where a selected panel of expert to confirm and validate the final findings. The rationale, benefits, limitations and recommendations for the use of Delphi were given in this study. From the literature review done, twenty-one factors were identified as critical factors to the making any joint venture project successful. Detail information from contractors were obtained by using the questionnaire survey method and forty-three in-depth interviews were carried out. Trust between partners, mutual understanding, partner selection criteria, agreement of contract, objective compatibility, conflict, and commitment were confirmed by the Delphi panel to be the critical success factors besides another fourteen factors which were found to be the Failure Reduction Criteria. Delphi techniques has proven to successfully assist in recognising the main factors and would be beneficial in supplementing the success of joint venture arrangements application for construction projects in Malaysia.

  15. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  16. Study on creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel using theta projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Facai; Tang, Xiaoying

    2017-10-01

    Creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel used for steam cooler was characterized using the theta projection method. Creep tests were conducted at the temperature of 923K under the stress ranging from 100-150MPa. Based on the creep curve results, four theta parameters were established using a nonlinear least square fitting method. Four theta parameters showed a good linearity as a function of stress. The predicted curves coincided well with the experimental data and creep curves were also modeled to the low stress level of 60MPa.

  17. Programme and activities on nuclear desalination in Morocco. Pre-project study on demonstration plant for seawater desalination using nuclear heating reactor in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, M.

    1998-01-01

    The first part of this paper gives the general information on the pre-project study of a demonstration plant for seawater desalination using a heating reactor being assessed jointly by Morocco and China. The progress of the pre-project study is elaborated in the second part. (author)

  18. Development of a nonazeotropic heat pump for crew hygiene water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David H.; Deming, Glenn I.

    1991-01-01

    A heat pump system is currently under development to produce hot water for crew hygiene on future manned space missions. The heat pump uses waste heat sources and a nonazeotropic working fluid in a highly efficient cycle. The potential benefits include a reduction in peak power draw from 2 to 5 kW for electric cartridge heaters to just more than 100 W for the heat pump. As part of the heat pump development project, a unique high efficiency compressor was developed to maintain lubrication in a zero-gravity environment.

  19. Cost-benefit analysis for combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdovski, Ace; Fushtikj, Vangel

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology and practical application of Cost-Benefit Analysis for Combined Heat and Power Plant (Cogeneration facility). Methodology include up-to-date and real data for cogeneration plant in accordance with the trends ill development of the CHP technology. As a case study a CHP plant that could be built-up in Republic of Macedonia is analyzed. The main economic parameters for project evaluation, such as NPV and IRR are calculated for a number of possible scenarios. The analyze present the economic outputs that could be used as a decision for CHP project acceptance for investment. (Author)

  20. Nuclear heat generating plants - technical concepts and market potentials. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenkopf, O.; Erhard, W.D.; Nonnenmacher, A.; Hanselmann, M.

    1988-01-01

    Within the framework of a case study under the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology project 'Nuclear heat generating plants - technological concepts and market potentials', the possible applications of such plants were studied giving the district heat supply network of the Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart AG (Technical Works of the City of Stuttgart, Inc.) as an example. The use of district heating systems concentrated specifically on areas identified for economical supply because of their topographical position, existing heat density, distance from power plants, and a reasonable delimination from the available gas network. Based on the results of optimization calculations made by the Stuttgart Institute for Nuclear Technology and Energy Conversion, the required investment capital can be estimated as a function of the amount of fuel savings under the Stuttgart case study. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Modular control of fusion power heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment

  2. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  3. Application of quasi-steady-state plasma streams for simulation of ITER transient heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Marchenko, A.K.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Trubchaninov, S.A.; Tsarenko, A.V.; Landman, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents experimental investigations of energy characteristics of the plasma streams generated with quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50 and adjustment of plasma parameters from the point of view its applicability for simulation of transient plasma heat loads expected for ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Possibility of generation of high-power magnetized plasma streams with ion impact energy up to 0.6 keV, pulse length of 0.25 ms and heat loads varied in wide range from 0.5 to 30 MJ/m 2 has been demonstrated and some features of plasma interaction with tungsten targets in dependence on plasma heat loads are discussed. (author)

  4. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  5. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  6. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  7. The analysis of financial risk management application for NPP project in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam Bastori; Moch Djoko Birmano

    2012-01-01

    NPP Project is one of full dynamic, risky and challenging business. Application of financial risk management t in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) project becomes one alternative to be considered carefully. This paper explains an analysis to make a decision in the risk management application so that it can be applied in the NPP's construction in Indonesia. As case study, is NPP of conventional PWR type of class 1150 MWe. To calculate the economics and financing of NPP is used Spreadsheet INOVASI, further the decision of financial risk management were analyzed using a Model of Cash Flow Adjustment, which developed by Richard Fairchild. The analysis showed that the Method of Cash Flow Adjustment developed by Richard Fairchild is better than the method of NPV Adjustment on a NPP project, because it have included the aspects of financial risk management. NPP project can only be executed if the NPV 2 0 and decision to execute the financial risk management should be based on NPVrm > NPV. The application of financial risk management in NPP project is not needed if an insurance premium more expensive than all costs of financial distress, unless the insurance company can give discount of at least 20%. (author)

  8. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  9. Applications and Prospects of Modularization Technology in HTR Project Starting from Primary Loop Cavity Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guokang; Chen Jing; Huang Wen; Lin Lizhi; Sun Yunlun; Chen Yan; Mao Jiaxin; Wang Yougang; Wang Jinwen; Lin Mingfeng; Yang Mingshan

    2014-01-01

    Primary loop cavity is one of the key areas and major difficulties in HTR-PM project construction. In order to shorten the construction schedule and improve the construction quality, researches on modular design and construction of primary loop cavity has been carried out and the results have been applied in HTR-PM project construction, and got significant application benefit. This paper summarizes the modularization technology application research and project implementation results of primary loop cavity, and analyzes the application and prospects of modularization technology in the HTR project construction. (author)

  10. Heat-pipe transient model for space applications

    International Nuclear Inform