WorldWideScience

Sample records for heart size fitness

  1. Sizing up the Grinch's Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dana C.; Edwards, Michael Todd

    2012-01-01

    The opening lines of "How the Grinch Stole Christmas!" (Geisel 1957) set the tone for an inspiring change-of-heart story about a grumpy creature that comes to value humanity and the Christmas spirit. Although the book is often considered inspirational for other reasons, the authors were particularly moved by Dr. Seuss's interesting conjecture…

  2. An assessment of the physical fitness and coronary heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and fitness clubs play an important role in addressing the causes of hypokinetic diseases and coronary heart disease (CHD). In order to be well prepared, service providers should be aware of the health and fitness profiles of their clients when they join their clubs. In the current study 243 white female subjects ...

  3. HEART SIZE IN PRIMARY MYOCARDIAL DISEASE*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-10

    Jul 10, 1971 ... such as heart size can be measured on a standard 6-foot postero-anterior and lateral ... posture, phasing of the cardiac cycle and occasionally by imperfect ... in whom there was no evidence of systemic hypertension, coronary ...

  4. Health Activities Project (HAP): Heart Fitness and Action Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within the Heart Fitness and Action Module are teacher and student folios describing five activities which involve students in…

  5. Offspring fitness and individual optimization of clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, C.; Tinbergen, J. M.; Noordwijk, A. J. van

    1998-01-01

    Within-year variation in clutch size has been claimed to be an adaptation to variation in the individual capacity to raise offspring. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating brood size to one common size, and predicted that if clutch size is individually optimized, then birds with originally large clutches have a higher fitness than birds with originally small clutches. No evidence was found that fitness was related to the original clutch size, and in this population clutch size is thus not related to the parental capacity to raise offspring. However, offspring from larger original clutches recruited better than their nest mates that came from smaller original clutches. This suggests that early maternal or genetic variation in viability is related to clutch size.

  6. Exercise videogames for physical activity and fitness: Design and rationale of the Wii Heart Fitness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Thind, Herpreet; Dunsiger, Shira I; Serber, Eva R; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Cobb, Victoria; Palmer, Kathy; Abernathy, Sean; Marcus, Bess H

    2015-05-01

    Despite numerous health benefits, less than half of American adults engage in regular physical activity. Exercise videogames (EVG) may be a practical and attractive alternative to traditional forms of exercise. However there is insufficient research to determine whether EVG play alone is sufficient to produce prolonged engagement in physical activity or improvements in cardiovascular fitness and overall health risk. The goal of the present study is to test the efficacy of exercise videogames to increase time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and to improve cardiovascular risk indices among adults. Wii Heart Fitness is a rigorous 3-arm randomized controlled trial with adults comparing three 12-week programs: (1) supervised EVGs, (2) supervised standard exercise, and (3) a control condition. Heart rate is monitored continuously throughout all exercise sessions. Assessments are conducted at baseline, end of intervention (week 12), 6 and 9 months. The primary outcome is time spent in MVPA physical activity. Secondary outcomes include changes in cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood lipid profiles and maintenance of physical activity through six months post-treatment. Changes in cognitive and affective constructs derived from Self Determination and Social Cognitive Theories will be examined to explain the differential outcomes between the two active treatment conditions. The Wii Heart Fitness study is designed to test whether regular participation in EVGs can be an adequate source of physical activity for adults. This study will produce new data on the effect of EVGs on cardiovascular fitness indices and prolonged engagement with physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Moral hazard contracts: Does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloic

    2008-01-01

    We show that firms' practice of anonymous contracts ("one-size-fits-all") can be reconciled with standard agency theory if careers are marked by frequent transitions between employers, and agents have career concerns because complete long-term contracts are not feasible.......We show that firms' practice of anonymous contracts ("one-size-fits-all") can be reconciled with standard agency theory if careers are marked by frequent transitions between employers, and agents have career concerns because complete long-term contracts are not feasible....

  8. Multidisciplinary Teamwork in Autism: Can One Size Fit All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenburger, Karola; Röttgers, Hanns-Rüdiger; Dounavi, Katerina; Sparkman, Coleen; Keenan, Mickey; Thyer, Bruce; Nikopoulos, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Multidisciplinary practice has become an accepted approach in many education and social and health care fields. In fact, the right to a multidisciplinary assessment is enshrined in the United Nations Convention of the Rights for Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2007). In order to avert a "one size fits all" response to…

  9. The linear sizes tolerances and fits system modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Grinevich, V. A.; Shalay, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    The study is carried out on the urgent topic for technical products quality providing in the tolerancing process of the component parts. The aim of the paper is to develop alternatives for improving the system linear sizes tolerances and dimensional fits in the international standard ISO 286-1. The tasks of the work are, firstly, to classify as linear sizes the elements additionally linear coordinating sizes that determine the detail elements location and, secondly, to justify the basic deviation of the tolerance interval for the element's linear size. The geometrical modeling method of real details elements, the analytical and experimental methods are used in the research. It is shown that the linear coordinates are the dimensional basis of the elements linear sizes. To standardize the accuracy of linear coordinating sizes in all accuracy classes, it is sufficient to select in the standardized tolerance system only one tolerance interval with symmetrical deviations: Js for internal dimensional elements (holes) and js for external elements (shafts). The main deviation of this coordinating tolerance is the average zero deviation, which coincides with the nominal value of the coordinating size. Other intervals of the tolerance system are remained for normalizing the accuracy of the elements linear sizes with a fundamental change in the basic deviation of all tolerance intervals is the maximum deviation corresponding to the limit of the element material: EI is the lower tolerance for the of the internal elements (holes) sizes and es is the upper tolerance deviation for the outer elements (shafts) sizes. It is the sizes of the material maximum that are involved in the of the dimensional elements mating of the shafts and holes and determine the fits type.

  10. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In veterinary diagnostic radiology, determination of heart size is necessary in the assessment of patients with clinical signs of cardiac anomaly. In this study, heart sizes were compared with lengths of mid-thoracic vertebrae in 12 clinically normal West African Dwarf Goats (WADGs) (8 females, 4 males). The aim of the ...

  11. Competitive electricity markets: One size should fit all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Various market models have been used to try to create competition in the electricity industry in various parts of the world, with varying degrees of success. But every electricity market that has produced reasonably effective and efficient competition has been based on some version of the same generic model. And most of the problems encountered by these markets--apart from problems due to structural flaws such as too few competitors--can be attributed to inconsistent or incomplete application of this basic model concept. In this sense, one size of market model really does fit all--or at least one size should fit all if the objective is to create effective and efficient competition for the benefit of consumers. Effort to slow or reverse the movement to an open spot market integrated with physical dispatch will create complexities and inefficiencies that benefit oligopolists and middlemen at the expense of smaller producers and final consumers

  12. Competitive electricity markets: One size should fit all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, L.E.

    1999-11-01

    Various market models have been used to try to create competition in the electricity industry in various parts of the world, with varying degrees of success. But every electricity market that has produced reasonably effective and efficient competition has been based on some version of the same generic model. And most of the problems encountered by these markets--apart from problems due to structural flaws such as too few competitors--can be attributed to inconsistent or incomplete application of this basic model concept. In this sense, one size of market model really does fit all--or at least one size should fit all if the objective is to create effective and efficient competition for the benefit of consumers. Effort to slow or reverse the movement to an open spot market integrated with physical dispatch will create complexities and inefficiencies that benefit oligopolists and middlemen at the expense of smaller producers and final consumers.

  13. Vertebral scale system to measure canine heart size in radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.W.; Bucheler, J.

    1995-01-01

    A method for measuring canine heart size in radiographs was developed on the basis that there is a good correlation between heart size and body length regardless of the conformation of the thorax. The lengths of the long and short axes of the heart of 100 clinically normal dogs were determined with calipers, and the dimensions were scaled against the length of vertebrae dorsal to the heart beginning with T4. The sum of the long and short axes of the heart expressed as vertebral heart size was 9.7 +/- 0.5 vertebrae. The differences between dogs with a wide or deep thorax, males and females, and right or left lateral recumbency were not significant. The caudal vena cava was 0.75 vertebrae +/- 0.13 in comparison to the length of the vertebra over the tracheal bifurcation

  14. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  15. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  16. The environmental Kuznets curve. Does one size fit all?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, J.A.; Gallet, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a new panel data set on state-level sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from 1929-1994 to test the appropriateness of the 'one size fits all' reduced-form regression approach commonly used in the environmental Kuznets curve literature. Empirical results provide initial evidence that an inverted-U shape characterizes the relationship between per capita emissions and per capita incomes at the state level. Parameter estimates suggest, however, that previous studies, which restrict cross-sections to undergo identical experiences over time, may be presenting statistically biased results. 25 refs

  17. Body size, performance and fitness in galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-07-01

    Complex organismal traits such as body size are influenced by innumerable selective pressures, making the prediction of evolutionary trajectories for those traits difficult. A potentially powerful way to predict fitness in natural systems is to study the composite response of individuals in terms of performance measures, such as foraging or reproductive performance. Once key performance measures are identified in this top-down approach, we can determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and gain predictive power over long-term evolutionary processes. Here we use marine iguanas as a model system where body size differs by more than one order of magnitude between island populations. We identified foraging efficiency as the main performance measure that constrains body size. Mechanistically, foraging performance is determined by food pasture height and the thermal environment, influencing intake and digestion. Stress hormones may be a flexible way of influencing an individual's response to low-food situations that may be caused by high population density, famines, or anthropogenic disturbances like oil spills. Reproductive performance, on the other hand, increases with body size and is mediated by higher survival of larger hatchlings from larger females and increased mating success of larger males. Reproductive performance of males may be adjusted via plastic hormonal feedback mechanisms that allow individuals to assess their social rank annually within the current population size structure. When integrated, these data suggest that reproductive performance favors increased body size (influenced by reproductive hormones), with an overall limit imposed by foraging performance (influenced by stress hormones). Based on our mechanistic understanding of individual performances we predicted an evolutionary increase in maximum body size caused by global warming trends. We support this prediction using specimens collected during 1905. We also show in a common

  18. Questioning a “One Size Fits All” City Brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenker, Sebastian; Braun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    practice in many places. The paper proposes that city branding involves much more complexity than is commonly thought and outlines a strategy that enables urban policy-makers, marketing researchers and (place) marketers alike to better deal with city branding. Design/methodology/approach: The authors...... integrate insights from literature on place branding, brand architecture and customer-focused marketing. Findings: The article argues that place brands (in general and communicated place brands in particular) are by definition very complex, due to their different target groups, diverse place offerings......Purpose: City branding has gained popularity as governance strategy. However, the academic underpinning is still poor, and city branding needs a more critical conceptualization, as well as more complex management systems. This paper the use of a “one size fits all” city brand, which is still common...

  19. Heart size in new born infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Won; Yu, Yun Jeong; Chung, Hye Kyung [Eul-ji General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Cardiac size of 291 new-bone infants was measured using the method illustrated on Fig 1. Among the 291 infants, 53 were asphyxiated, and asphyxia was only regarded from Apgar score below 6 on 1 min. and 5 min. Remaining 238 infants were normal, and classified to group with lung abnormalities and without lung abnormalities on chest A-P film. The results are as follows; 1. The average CTR. of normal group was 52.37. (C/T1; 54.89, C/T2; 49.43, C/T3; 49.15, C/T4;55.97) 2. The average CTR. of asphyxiated group was 54.91 (C/T1; 57.13, C/T2; 51.69, C/T3; 51.94, C/T4;58.25) 3. Consequently, asphyxiated infants revealed larger cardiac size than normal infant group.

  20. Combining heart rate and accelerometer data to estimate physical fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tönis, Thijs; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in physical fitness is relevant in many conditions and groups of patients, but its determination demands substantial effort from the person, personnel and equipment. Besides that, present (sub) maximal exercise tests give a momentary fitness score, which depends on many (external)

  1. Combining heart rate and accelerometer data to estimate physical fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tönis, Thijs; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring changes in physical fitness is relevant in many conditions and groups of patients, but its estimation demands substantial effort from the person, personnel and equipment. Besides that, present (sub) maximal exercise tests give a momentary fitness score, which depends on many (external)

  2. Welding of large-size embelled fittings in NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, N.A.; Savinov, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    Drawbacks of the accepted technology for peoducing embedded fittings are considered. Activities on modernization of the standard ADF-2001 automatic welding machine are described. Results of testing the samples of welded joints performed using the modernized automatic welding machine, and economic effect caused by its introduction at the balakovo NPP second unit construction are presented

  3. Health-related fitness profiles in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Wetterslev, Jørn; Søndergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigates whether subgroups of different health-related fitness (HrF) profiles exist among girls and boys with complex congenital heart disease (ConHD) and how these are associated with lifestyle behaviors. METHODS: We measured the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength...... in the Robust clusters reported leading a physically active lifestyle and participants in the Less robust cluster reported leading a sedentary lifestyle. Diagnoses were evenly distributed between clusters. CONCLUSIONS: The cluster analysis attributed some of the variability in cardiorespiratory fitness among...

  4. Fitness cost of incubation in great tits (Parus major) is related to clutch size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heij, Maaike E.; van den Hout, Piet J.; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that parents produce the number of offspring that maximizes their fitness. In birds, natural selection on parental decisions regarding clutch size may act during egg laying, incubation or nestling phase. To study the fitness consequences of clutch size during the

  5. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  6. French Sizing of Medical Devices is not Fit for Purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibriya, Nabil; Hall, Rebecca; Powell, Steven; How, Thien; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study is to quantify the variation in the metric equivalent of French size in a range of medical devices, from various manufacturers, used in interventional radiology.MethodsThe labelling of a range of catheters, introducers, drains, balloons, stents, and endografts was examined. Products were chosen to achieve a broad range of French sizes from several manufacturers. To assess manufacturing accuracy, eight devices were selected for measurement using a laser micrometer. The external diameters of three specimens of each device were measured at centimeter intervals along the length of the device to ensure uniformity.ResultsA total of 200 labels of interventional radiology equipment were scrutinized. The results demonstrate a wide variation in the metric equivalent of French sizing. Labelled products can vary in diameter across the product range by up to 0.79 mm.The devices selected for measurement with the non-contact laser micrometer demonstrate acceptable manufacturing consistency. The external diameter differed by 0.05 mm on average.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale by different manufacturers of medical devices. This has the potential to lead to problems using coaxial systems especially when the products are from different manufacturers. It is recommended that standard labelling should be employed by all manufacturers conveying specific details of the equipment. Given the wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale, our opinion is that this scale either needs to be abandoned or be strictly defined and followed

  7. Interaction between age and aerobic fitness in determining heart rate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNarry, M A; Lewis, M J

    2012-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) estimates of heart rate dynamics are diminished in older people compared with younger people. However, it is not fully elucidated whether these differences are related to age per se or to the concomitant influence of aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake, gas exchange threshold, oxygen uptake kinetics, exercise economy) was assessed in 70 healthy adults (41 male) aged 18–57 years. Participants also underwent a 24 h, ambulatory ECG for the derivation of HRV and PRSA variables. HRV was most sensitive to age and aerobic fitness when measured during the morning period (6 am–12 pm). HRV and PRSA were both diminished with age and were higher in aerobically superior participants. The decline in HRV with age was predominantly attributable to age itself (33%), with aerobic fitness representing an additional modulating factor. The present study also provides tentative evidence that assessment of the influence of aerobic fitness should not rely on .VO 2peak alone. These findings demonstrate that age per se is an important factor in determining HRV. However, given the clinical importance of diminished HRV and the immutable nature of aging, the potential significance of physical activity/training to enhance cardiac regulatory function should not be underestimated. (paper)

  8. Effects of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex on offspring fitness in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Damme, van J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    1 Male steriles (MS) must have a fitness advantage relative to hermaphrodites (H) if they are to be maintained in gynodioecious species. We report experiments in which we disentangle the relative contributions of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex to the fitness advantage of male steriles in

  9. One size fits all: palliative care for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Regnard, Claud

    2010-01-01

    The End of Life Care Strategy takes as inclusive an approach as possible, but can it make a difference for people with learning disabilities who are dying? Therefore we must ask ourselves 'Does one size fit all?'

  10. Interactive effects of obesity and physical fitness on risk of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, C; Sundquist, J; Winkleby, M A; Sundquist, K

    2017-02-01

    Obesity and low physical fitness are known risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD), but their interactive effects are unclear. Elucidation of interactions between these common, modifiable risk factors may help inform more effective preventive strategies. We examined interactive effects of obesity, aerobic fitness and muscular strength in late adolescence on risk of IHD in adulthood in a large national cohort. We conducted a national cohort study of all 1 547 407 military conscripts in Sweden during 1969-1997 (97-98% of all 18-year-old males each year). Aerobic fitness, muscular strength and body mass index (BMI) measurements were examined in relation to IHD identified from outpatient and inpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximum age 62 years). There were 38 142 men diagnosed with IHD in 39.7 million person years of follow-up. High BMI or low aerobic fitness (but not muscular strength) was associated with higher risk of IHD, adjusting for family history and socioeconomic factors. The combination of high BMI (overweight/obese vs normal) and low aerobic fitness (lowest vs highest tertile) was associated with highest IHD risk (incidence rate ratio, 3.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.91-3.31; P<0.001). These exposures had no additive and a negative multiplicative interaction (that is, their combined effect was less than the product of their separate effects). Low aerobic fitness was a strong risk factor even among those with normal BMI. In this large cohort study, low aerobic fitness or high BMI at age 18 was associated with higher risk of IHD in adulthood, with a negative multiplicative interaction. Low aerobic fitness appeared to account for a similar number of IHD cases among those with normal vs high BMI (that is, no additive interaction). These findings suggest that interventions to prevent IHD should begin early in life and include not only weight control but aerobic fitness, even among persons of normal weight.

  11. Comparison of energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, James B; Mullen, Nicholas J; Whyte, Douglas G; Cannon, Jack

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes (group resistance exercise [PUMP]; indoor stationary cycling [RIDE]; and step aerobics [STEP]). One-Way Repeated Measures incorporating a Latin Square Design for class randomisation. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed each group fitness class in random order with energy expenditure and heart rate determined using an Actiheart monitor. STEP and RIDE produced significantly (pheart rates (HR avg ) (85.8±5.1% and 86.4±4.3% of HR max , respectively) compared to PUMP (73.7±7% of HR max ). HR peak was also significantly (pexpenditure (TEE), both absolute and relative, were significantly (pexpenditure was highly comparable between RIDE and STEP, which suggests these group fitness classes are more effective for developing cardiovascular fitness and assisting with weight management compared with group resistance exercise classes when performed on a regular basis. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fitness cost of incubation in great tits (Parus major) is related to clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heij, Maaike E; van den Hout, Piet J; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that parents produce the number of offspring that maximizes their fitness. In birds, natural selection on parental decisions regarding clutch size may act during egg laying, incubation or nestling phase. To study the fitness consequences of clutch size during the incubation phase, we manipulated the clutch sizes during this phase only in three breeding seasons and measured the fitness consequences on the short and the long term. Clutch enlargement did not affect the offspring fitness of the manipulated first clutches, but fledging probability of the subsequent clutch in the same season was reduced. Parents incubating enlarged first clutches provided adequate care for the offspring of their first clutches during the nestling phase, but paid the price when caring for the offspring of their second clutch. Parents that incubated enlarged first clutches had lower local survival in the 2 years when the population had a relatively high production of second clutches, but not in the third year when there was a very low production of second clutches. During these 2 years, the costs of incubation were strong enough to change positive selection, as established by brood size manipulations in this study population, into stabilizing selection through the negative effect of incubation on parental fitness. PMID:16928638

  13. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength and obesity in relation to risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-11-01

    Low physical fitness and obesity have been associated with higher risk of developing heart failure (HF), but their interactive effects are unknown. Elucidation of interactions among these common modifiable factors may help facilitate more effective primary prevention. We conducted a national cohort study to examine the interactive effects of aerobic fitness, muscular strength and body mass index (BMI) among 1 330 610 military conscripts in Sweden during 1969-1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men) on risk of HF identified from inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximum age 62 years). There were 11 711 men diagnosed with HF in 37.8 million person-years of follow-up. Low aerobic fitness, low muscular strength and obesity were independently associated with higher risk of HF, after adjusting for each other, socioeconomic factors, other chronic diseases and family history of HF. The combination of low aerobic fitness and low muscular strength (lowest vs highest tertiles) was associated with a 1.7-fold risk of HF (95% CI 1.6 to 1.9; pfitness, low muscular strength and obesity at the age of 18 years were independently associated with higher risk of HF in adulthood, with interactive effects between aerobic fitness and muscular strength. These findings suggest that early-life interventions may help reduce the long-term risk of HF and should include both aerobic fitness and muscular strength, even among persons with normal BMI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Human Fitting Studies of Cleveland Clinic Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Steffen, Robert J.; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Cruz, Vincent; Golding, Leonard A.R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Moazami, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices is challenging, especially in patients with a small chest cavity. We evaluated how well the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) fit the anatomy of patients about to receive a heart transplant. A mock pump model of the CFTAH was rapid-prototyped using biocompatible materials. The model was brought to the operative table, and the direction, length, and angulation of the inflow/outflow ports and outflow conduits were evaluated after the recipient's ventricles had been resected. Thoracic cavity measurements were based on preoperative computed tomographic data. The CFTAH fit well in all five patients (height, 170 ± 9 cm; weight, 75 ± 24 kg). Body surface area was 1.9 ± 0.3 m2 (range, 1.6-2.1 m2). The required inflow and outflow port orientation of both the left and right housings appeared consistent with the current version of the CFTAH implanted in calves. The left outflow conduit remained straight, but the right outflow direction necessitated a 73 ± 22 degree angulation to prevent potential kinking when crossing over the connected left outflow. These data support the fact that our design achieves the proper anatomical relationship of the CFTAH to a patient's native vessels. PMID:25806613

  15. Physical Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Children with Repaired Congenital Heart Disease Compared with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Michels, Nathalie; Bove, Thierry; François, Katrien; De Wolf, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are as fit as their peers. We studied 66 children (6-14 years) who underwent surgery for ventricular septal defect (n = 19), coarctation of aorta (n = 10), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 15), and transposition of great arteries (n = 22); and 520 healthy children (6-12 years). All children performed physical fitness tests: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, balance, flexibility, and speed. Metabolic score was assessed through z-score standardization using 4 components: waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin resistance. Assessment also included self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Linear regression analyses with group (CHD vs control) as a predictor were adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity, and parental education. Measured physical activity level, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, and total metabolic score did not differ between children with CHD and controls, whereas reported physical activity was greater in the CHD group than control group. Boys with CHD were less strong in upper muscular strength, speed, and balance, whereas girls with CHD were better in lower muscular strength and worse in balance. High-density lipoprotein was greater in boys and girls with CHD, whereas boys with CHD showed unhealthier glucose homeostasis. Appropriate physical fitness was achieved in children after surgery for CHD, especially in girls. Consequently, children with CHD were not at increased total metabolic risk. Lifestyle counseling should be part of every patient interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sizing and fit research at grassroots level A methodology for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    bution of body shapes and sizes within a target popu- lation, it becomes necessary ... veloping countries such as Kenya also face apparel-fit problems. Dimensions .... used, the measurements to be taken and the different views required for the ...

  17. Handover training: does one size fit all? The merits of mass customisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kicken, Wendy; Van der Klink, Marcel; Barach, Paul; Boshuizen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Kicken, W., Van der Klink, M., Barach, P., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012). Handover training: does one size fit all? The merits of mass customisation. British Medical Journal Quality & Safety, 21, i84-i88. doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001164

  18. Intraspecific variation in egg size and egg composition in birds: effects on offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T D

    1994-02-01

    1. There is little unequivocal evidence to date in support of a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness in birds. Although 40 studies (of 34 species) have considered the effect of variation in egg size on chick growth and/or survival up to fledgling only 12 studies have controlled for other characters potentially correlated both with egg size and offspring fitness. Of these only two have reported a significant residual effect of egg size on chick growth (in the roseate tern and European blackbird) and three a residual effect on chick survival (all in seabirds: common tern, lesser black-backed gull and kittiwake). 2. More consistent evidence exists, though from fewer studies, for a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness early in the chick-rearing period; chick growth and chick survival being dependent on egg size in 8 of 10 studies and 4 of 5 studies respectively. It is suggested that the most important effect of variation in egg size might be in determining the probability of offspring survival in the first few days after hatching. 3. Egg size explains on average 66% of the variation in chick mass at hatching (n = 35 studies) but only 30% of the variation in chick body size (n = 18). When effects of hatching body size are controlled for chick mass remains significantly correlated with egg size, though the reverse is not true. This supports the hypothesis that large eggs give rise to heavier chicks at hatching, i.e., chicks with more nutrient (yolk) reserves, rather than structurally larger chicks. 4. Egg composition increased isometrically with increasing egg size in about half the studies so far reported (n equals approximately 20). However, in seabirds, and some passerines, larger eggs contain disproportionately more albumen, whilst in some waterfowl percentage yolk content increases with increasing egg size. Changes in albumen content largely reflect variation in the water content of eggs, but changes in yolk content

  19. Standard heart and vessel size on plain films of normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.

    1986-01-01

    Standards of heart size, i.e. heart diameters and heart volume of normal children aged 4-15 years were obtained. In all cases requiring exact heart size determination, heart volume calculation is mandatory in children as well as in adults. Statistical work to date has provided precise calculation of heart volume plain films in the upright position. Additional plain films in prone position are unnecessary because no evident orthostatic influence on heart volume in children can be found. Percentiles of normal heart volume related to body weight representing the best correlation to the individual data are given as well as percentiles related to age. Furthermore ratios of normal vessel size to the height of the 8sup(th) thoracic vertebral body, measured on the same plain film, are given. In addition the ratio of upper to lower lung vessel size is calculated. These ratios are useful criteria in estimating normal vessel size and also in cases with increased pulmonary venous pressure. (orig.) [de

  20. The feasibility of exercise videogames for cardiovascular risk reduction among adults: a pilot for "Wii heart fitness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serber, Eva R; Ciccolo, Joseph; Palmer, Kathy; Cobb, Victoria; Tilkemeier, Peter L; Bock, Beth C

    2016-03-01

    More than 30% of the U.S. population is prehypertensive, and the recommended treatment of lifestyle modification includes increased physical activity. Exercise videogames (EVG) are widely marketed to Americans as a means of increasing fitness. This study aimed to examine EVG among a sample of prehypertensive adults, to determine (1) feasibility and acceptability of EVG for physical activity, and (2) assess changes in (1) estimates of cardiovascular fitness and risk indices, and psychosocial constructs. Participants with prehypertension completed a 12-week program including; 36, 1-hour sessions; supervised EVG program using Nintendo Wii platform and games. Assessments were at baseline and 13 weeks. Paired t-tests were conducted. Fourteen adults (84% female; mean age=53 years; 93% Caucasian; 87% employed) completed the study. The study retention rate was 74% and all participants reported satisfaction and enjoyment in the intervention and using the Wii for exercise. Despite the small sample size, significant improvements were seen in: physical activity minutes (P<0.01), peak heart rate (P=0.02), resting systolic blood pressure (P=0.02), and hip circumference (P=0.03). Significant improvements were also seen in the 36-item short-form survey (SF-36) as for general health (P=0.05), role limitations due to emotional problems (P=0.04), and vitality (P=0.01). Findings support that an EVG program is feasible, acceptable, and promising in promoting benefit to cardiovascular fitness and psychosocial health. These data provide pilot data for the necessary randomized clinical trials to examine efficacy and sustainability of EVG for adult engagement in physical activity for cardiovascular health promotion.

  1. One Size Does Not Fit All: Best Practices for Data Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Data Governance defines roles and responsibilities for the management and use of corporate data. While the need for Data Governance is undoubted, companies often encounter difficulties in designing Data Governance in their organization. There is no one size fits all solution. As companies are different in terms of their business strategy, their diversification breadth, their industry, IT strategy and application system landscape, Data Governance must take into account this diversity. What wor...

  2. “One-size-fits-all”? Differentiation in destinations’ marketing goals and strategies to achieve them

    OpenAIRE

    Avraham, Eli; Ketter, Eran

    2015-01-01

    While tourism marketing literature tends to present marketing as a ‘one-size-fits-all’ process, the current study suggests various destination marketing goals. Until today, the literature mainly concentrated on analyzing marketing strategies, tactics, tools and initiatives for enhancing and perceiving tourism, while other marketing goals were neglected, such as marketing unfamiliar destinations or promoting tourism during and after tourism crises. The purpose of this study is to propose the m...

  3. One size fits all electronics for insole-based activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Bries, Matthew; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Footwear based wearable sensors are becoming prominent in many areas of monitoring health and wellness, such as gait and activity monitoring. In our previous research we introduced an insole based wearable system SmartStep, which is completely integrated in a socially acceptable package. From a manufacturing perspective, SmartStep's electronics had to be custom made for each shoe size, greatly complicating the manufacturing process. In this work we explore the possibility of making a universal electronics platform for SmartStep - SmartStep 3.0, which can be used in the most common insole sizes without modifications. A pilot human subject experiments were run to compare the accuracy between the one-size fits all (SmartStep 3.0) and custom size SmartStep 2.0. A total of ~10 hours of data was collected in the pilot study involving three participants performing different activities of daily living while wearing SmartStep 2.0 and SmartStep 3.0. Leave one out cross validation resulted in a 98.5% average accuracy from SmartStep 2.0, while SmartStep 3.0 resulted in 98.3% accuracy, suggesting that the SmartStep 3.0 can be as accurate as SmartStep 2.0, while fitting most common shoe sizes.

  4. Translation of First North American 50 and 70 cc Total Artificial Heart Virtual and Clinical Implantations: Utility of 3D Computed Tomography to Test Fit Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferng, Alice S; Oliva, Isabel; Jokerst, Clinton; Avery, Ryan; Connell, Alana M; Tran, Phat L; Smith, Richard G; Khalpey, Zain

    2017-08-01

    Since the creation of SynCardia's 50 cc Total Artificial Hearts (TAHs), patients with irreversible biventricular failure now have two sizing options. Herein, a case series of three patients who have undergone successful 50 and 70 cc TAH implantation with complete closure of the chest cavity utilizing preoperative "virtual implantation" of different sized devices for surgical planning are presented. Computed tomography (CT) images were used for preoperative planning prior to TAH implantation. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of preoperative chest CT images were generated and both 50 and 70 cc TAHs were virtually implanted into patients' thoracic cavities. During the simulation, the TAHs were projected over the native hearts in a similar position to the actual implantation, and the relationship between the devices and the atria, ventricles, chest wall, and diaphragm were assessed. The 3D reconstructed images and virtual modeling were used to simulate and determine for each patient if the 50 or 70 cc TAH would have a higher likelihood of successful implantation without complications. Subsequently, all three patients received clinical implants of the properly sized TAH based on virtual modeling, and their chest cavities were fully closed. This virtual implantation increases our confidence that the selected TAH will better fit within the thoracic cavity allowing for improved surgical outcome. Clinical implantation of the TAHs showed that our virtual modeling was an effective method for determining the correct fit and sizing of 50 and 70 cc TAHs. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

  7. High-Impact Aerobic and Zumba Fitness on Increasing VO2MAX, Heart Rate Recovery and Skinfold Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminar, T. J.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wiriawan, O.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to determine the significant effect of high-impact aerobics exercise, and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, decreasing of heart rate recovery, and decreasing of skinfold thickness. A sample of this study is 30 members aerobics of student activity unit. Type of this study was quantitative by using a quasi-experimental design method. The design of this study used Matching-Only Design. Data were Analyzed by using the t test (paired t-test). The samples divided into three groups consisted of experimental group I, experimental group II, and control group. They were given a treatment for 8 weeks or 24 meeting. For the data, retrieval is done by MFT test, heart rate recovery test, and skinfold thickness test. Furthermore, the result was analyzed by using SPSS 21 series. In conclusion, significant effect of high-impact aerobics and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, heart rate recovery, skinfold thickness.

  8. Characterization of ambient particles size in workplace of manufacturing physical fitness equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIN, Chih-Chung; CHEN, Mei-Ru; CHANG, Sheng-Lang; LIAO, Wei-Heng; CHEN, Hsiu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing of fitness equipment involves several processes, including the cutting and punching of iron tubes followed by welding. Welding operations produce hazardous gases and particulate matter, which can enter the alveolar, resulting in adverse health effects. This study sought to verify the particle size distribution and exposure concentrations of atmospheric air samples in various work areas of a fitness equipment manufacturing industry. Observed particle concentrations are presented by area and in terms of relative magnitude: painting (15.58 mg/m3) > automatic welding (0.66 mg/m3) > manual welding (0.53 mg/m3) > punching (0.18 mg/m3) > cutting (0.16 mg/m3). The concentrations in each of the five work areas were Cinh>Cthor>Cresp. In all areas except the painting area, extra-fine particles produced by welding at high temperatures, and further those coagulated to form larger particles. This study observed bimodal distribution in the size of welding fume in the ranges of 0.7–1 µm and 15–21 µm. Meanwhile, the mass concentrations of particles with different sizes were not consistent across work areas. In the painting area, the mass concentration was higher in Chead>Cth>Calv, but in welding areas, it was found that Calv>Chead>Cth. Particles smaller than 1µm were primarily produced by welding. PMID:25327301

  9. One size does not fit all: The impact of primary vaccine container size on vaccine distribution and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Wahl, Brian; Brown, Shawn T; Privor-Dumm, Lois; Wallman-Stokes, Cecily; Gorham, Katie; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Schreiber, Benjamin; Dicko, Hamadou; Jaillard, Philippe; Avella, Melanie; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-06-22

    While the size and type of a vaccine container (i.e., primary container) can have many implications on the safety and convenience of a vaccination session, another important but potentially overlooked consideration is how the design of the primary container may affect the distribution of the vaccine, its resulting cost, and whether the vial is ultimately opened. Using our HERMES software platform, we developed a simulation model of the World Health Organization Expanded Program on Immunization supply chain for the Republic of Benin and used the model to explore the effects of different primary containers for various vaccine antigens. Replacing vaccines with presentations containing fewer doses per vial reduced vaccine availability (proportion of people arriving for vaccines who are successfully immunized) by as much as 13% (from 73% at baseline) and raised logistics costs by up to $0.06 per dose administered (from $0.25 at baseline) due to increased bottlenecks, while reducing total costs by as much as $0.15 per dose administered (from $2.52 at baseline) due to lower open vial wastage. Primary containers with a greater number of doses per vial each improved vaccine availability by 19% and reduced logistics costs by $0.05 per dose administered, while reducing the total costs by up to $0.25 per dose administered. Changes in supply chain performance were more extreme in departments with greater constraints. Implementing a vial opening threshold reversed the direction of many of these effects. Our results show that one size may not fit all when choosing a primary vaccine container. Rather, the choice depends on characteristics of the vaccine, the vaccine supply chain, immunization session size, and goals of decision makers. In fact, the optimal vial size may vary among locations within a country. Simulation modeling can help identify tailored approaches to improve availability and efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perspectives for development friendly financial markets - No one-size fits all approach!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper argues against the usual "one size fits all" approach of the IFIs that all economies must follow the same financial policy. It is necessary to take into consideration a contextual and historical approach in order to enable more considerations  for different local political, economic...... and cultural circumstances. It was furthermore noted that the current deep crisis of the IFIs is associated with both lack of legitimacy and loss of liquidity. Following this the Brettonwoods institutions must either be reformed or abolished...

  11. Associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawlor, Debbie A.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Bain, Chris; Davey Smith, George; Irwin, Amanda; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the developmental origins of cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods: We examined the associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at the 9 year follow-up examination in 3612 participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We used physical work capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per minute (PWC 170 ) as our assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. This was estimated using standard regression methods from parameters measured using an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Results: Birth weight, length and ponderal index were all positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in both sexes, with no strong evidence of a difference in effect between girls and boys. Work capacity increased by 1.12 W (95% CI: 0.83, 1.40) on average per 1 standard deviation (SD) greater birth weight. This association was not affected by adjustment for socioeconomic position and maternal smoking during pregnancy; there was some attenuation with adjustment for both maternal and paternal height and body mass index and more marked attenuation with adjustment for the child's height and body mass index. In the fully adjusted model work capacity increased by 0.51 W (95% CI: 0.21, 0.81) per SD birth weight. Whether an individual had been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding were not associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in any models. Conclusion: Our results provide some support for a role of intrauterine factors in determining cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood

  12. Innervating sympathetic neurons regulate heart size and the timing of cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipke, R E; Birren, S J

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic drive to the heart is a key modulator of cardiac function and interactions between heart tissue and innervating sympathetic fibres are established early in development. Significant innervation takes place during postnatal heart development, a period when cardiomyocytes undergo a rapid transition from proliferative to hypertrophic growth. The question of whether these innervating sympathetic fibres play a role in regulating the modes of cardiomyocyte growth was investigated using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to abolish early sympathetic innervation of the heart. Postnatal chemical sympathectomy resulted in rats with smaller hearts, indicating that heart growth is regulated by innervating sympathetic fibres during the postnatal period. In vitro experiments showed that sympathetic interactions resulted in delays in markers of cardiomyocyte maturation, suggesting that changes in the timing of the transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes could underlie changes in heart size in the sympathectomized animals. There was also an increase in the expression of Meis1, which has been linked to cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal, suggesting that sympathetic signalling suppresses cell cycle withdrawal. This signalling involves β-adrenergic activation, which was necessary for sympathetic regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. The effect of β-adrenergic signalling on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy underwent a developmental transition. While young postnatal cardiomyocytes responded to isoproterenol (isoprenaline) with a decrease in cell size, mature cardiomyocytes showed an increase in cell size in response to the drug. Together, these results suggest that early sympathetic effects on proliferation modulate a key transition between proliferative and hypertrophic growth of the heart and contribute to the sympathetic regulation of adult heart size. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  13. Physical work demands and physical fitness in low social classes--30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the copenhagen male study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Investigate whether high physical work demands increase risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men of low social class with low physical fitness.......Investigate whether high physical work demands increase risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men of low social class with low physical fitness....

  14. Physical fitness and perceived psychological pressure at work: 30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure.......Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure....

  15. Fluctuating fitness shapes the clone-size distribution of immune repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desponds, Jonathan; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2016-01-12

    The adaptive immune system relies on the diversity of receptors expressed on the surface of B- and T cells to protect the organism from a vast amount of pathogenic threats. The proliferation and degradation dynamics of different cell types (B cells, T cells, naive, memory) is governed by a variety of antigenic and environmental signals, yet the observed clone sizes follow a universal power-law distribution. Guided by this reproducibility we propose effective models of somatic evolution where cell fate depends on an effective fitness. This fitness is determined by growth factors acting either on clones of cells with the same receptor responding to specific antigens, or directly on single cells with no regard for clones. We identify fluctuations in the fitness acting specifically on clones as the essential ingredient leading to the observed distributions. Combining our models with experiments, we characterize the scale of fluctuations in antigenic environments and we provide tools to identify the relevant growth signals in different tissues and organisms. Our results generalize to any evolving population in a fluctuating environment.

  16. X-ray diffraction from thin films : Size/strain analysis and whole pattern fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardi, P [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Line Profile Analysis (LPA) and whole pattern fitting may be used with success for the characterization of thin films from XRD data collected with the traditional Bragg-Brentano geometry. The size/strain analysis was conducted by an integrated procedure of profile modelling-assisted Fourier analysis, in order to measure the content of lattice imperfections and crystalline domain size along the growth direction in heteroepitaxial thin films. The microstructure of these films is typical of several PVD processes for the production of highly textured and low-defect thin crystalline layers. The same analysis could be conducted on random thin films as well, and in this case it is possible to determine an average crystallite size and shape. As will be shown in the paper, structural and microstructural parameters obtained by these methods may be correlated with thin film properties of technological interest. The whole pattern analysis may be used to obtain the information contained in a wide region of the diffraction pattern. This approach, currently used for the quantitative analysis of phase mixtures in traditional powder samples, was modified to account both for the size/strain effects, according to a simplified LPA, and for the structure of thin films and multi-layer systems. In this way, a detailed analysis based on a structural model for the present phases can be performed considering the real geometry of these samples. In particular, the quantitative phase analysis could be conducted in terms of layer thickness instead of volume or weight fractions.

  17. X-ray diffraction from thin films : Size/strain analysis and whole pattern fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Line Profile Analysis (LPA) and whole pattern fitting may be used with success for the characterization of thin films from XRD data collected with the traditional Bragg-Brentano geometry. The size/strain analysis was conducted by an integrated procedure of profile modelling-assisted Fourier analysis, in order to measure the content of lattice imperfections and crystalline domain size along the growth direction in heteroepitaxial thin films. The microstructure of these films is typical of several PVD processes for the production of highly textured and low-defect thin crystalline layers. The same analysis could be conducted on random thin films as well, and in this case it is possible to determine an average crystallite size and shape. As will be shown in the paper, structural and microstructural parameters obtained by these methods may be correlated with thin film properties of technological interest. The whole pattern analysis may be used to obtain the information contained in a wide region of the diffraction pattern. This approach, currently used for the quantitative analysis of phase mixtures in traditional powder samples, was modified to account both for the size/strain effects, according to a simplified LPA, and for the structure of thin films and multi-layer systems. In this way, a detailed analysis based on a structural model for the present phases can be performed considering the real geometry of these samples. In particular, the quantitative phase analysis could be conducted in terms of layer thickness instead of volume or weight fractions

  18. Exercise Capacity and the Obesity Paradox in Heart Failure: The FIT (Henry Ford Exercise Testing) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Paul A; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Dardari, Zeina A; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Whelton, Seamus P; Blaha, Michael J

    2018-05-03

    To assess the influence of exercise capacity and body mass index (BMI) on 10-year mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and to synthesize these results with those of previous studies. This large biracial sample included 774 men and women (mean age, 60±13 years; 372 [48%] black) with a baseline diagnosis of HF from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project. All patients completed a symptom-limited maximal treadmill stress test from January 1, 1991, through May 31, 2009. Patients were grouped by World Health Organization BMI categories for Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and stratified by exercise capacity (<4 and ≥4 metabolic equivalents [METs] of task). Associations of BMI and exercise capacity with all-cause mortality were assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. During a mean follow-up of 10.1±4.6 years, 380 patients (49%) died. Kaplan-Meier survival plots revealed a significant positive association between BMI category and survival for exercise capacity less than 4 METs (log-rank, P=.05), but not greater than or equal to 4 METs (P=.76). In the multivariable-adjusted models, exercise capacity (per 1 MET) was inversely associated, but BMI was not associated, with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94; P<.001 and hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P=.16, respectively). Maximal exercise capacity modified the relationship between BMI and long-term survival in patients with HF, upholding the presence of an exercise capacity-obesity paradox dichotomy as observed over the short-term in previous studies. Copyright © 2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between aerobic and muscular fitness and cardiovascular disease risk : the northern Ireland young hearts study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, T.; Boreham, Colin A; Murray, Liam J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear what the relative contribution is of specific components of physical fitness (aerobic and muscular) to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated associations between aerobic fitness (endurance) and muscular fitness (power) and CVD risk factors. METHODS: Data were

  20. The globalization of training in adolescent health and medicine: one size does not fit all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent medicine across the globe is practiced within a variety of healthcare models, with the shared vision of the promotion of optimal health outcomes for adolescents. In the past decade, there has been a call for transformation in how health professionals are trained, with recommendations that there be adoption of a global outlook, a multiprofessional perspective and a systems approach that considers the connections between education and health systems. Many individuals and groups are now examining how best to accomplish this educational reform. There are tensions between the call for globally accepted standards of education models and practice (a one-size fits all approach) and the need to promote the ability for education practices to be interpreted and transformed to best suit local contexts. This paper discusses some of the key considerations for 'importing' training program models for adolescent health and medicine, including the importance of cultural alignment and the utilization of best evidence and practice in health professions education.

  1. Family history tools in primary care: does one size fit all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B J; Carroll, J C; Allanson, J; Little, J; Etchegary, H; Avard, D; Potter, B K; Castle, D; Grimshaw, J M; Chakraborty, P

    2012-01-01

    Family health history (FHH) has potential value in many health care settings. This review discusses the potential uses of FHH information in primary care and the need for tools to be designed accordingly. We developed a framework in which the attributes of FHH tools are mapped against these different purposes. It contains 7 attributes mapped against 5 purposes. In considering different FHH tool purposes, it is apparent that different attributes become more or less important, and that tools for different purposes require different implementation and evaluation strategies. The context in which a tool is used is also relevant to its effectiveness. For FHH tools, it is unlikely that 'one size fits all', although appreciation of different purposes, users and contexts should facilitate the development of different applications from single FHH platforms. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Job Design and Innovative Work Behavior: One Size Does Not Fit All Types of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan De Spiegelaere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As innovative employees become imperative for an organizations’ success, research identified job design as a crucial variable in promoting innovative work behavior (IWB (Hammond et al., 2011. Using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model of Bakker & Demerouti (2007, this article contributes to the literature as it uses recent insights on the distinction between job challenges and job hindrances (Van den Broeck et al., 2010 and distinguishes between blue- and white-collar employees. Using survey data of 893 employees of various organizations the findings generally confirm the JD-R model, although important differences were found between blue-collar and white-collar employees regarding the relation of organizing and routine tasks with IWB. Job content insecurity further was found to be very detrimental for blue-collar IWB. These findings have important HR and political implications as they show that there is no ‘one size fits all’ HR solution for innovation.

  3. Riociguat reduces infarct size and post-infarct heart failure in mouse hearts: insights from MRI/PET imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Methner

    Full Text Available Stimulation of the nitric oxide (NO--soluble guanylate (sGC--protein kinase G (PKG pathway confers protection against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury, but more chronic effects in reducing post-myocardial infarction (MI heart failure are less defined. The aim of this study was to not only determine whether the sGC stimulator riociguat reduces infarct size but also whether it protects against the development of post-MI heart failure.Mice were subjected to 30 min ischaemia via ligation of the left main coronary artery to induce MI and either placebo or riociguat (1.2 µmol/l were given as a bolus 5 min before and 5 min after onset of reperfusion. After 24 hours, both, late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI and (18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET were performed to determine infarct size. In the riociguat-treated mice, the resulting infarct size was smaller (8.5 ± 2.5% of total LV mass vs. 21.8% ± 1.7%. in controls, p = 0.005 and LV systolic function analysed by MRI was better preserved (60.1% ± 3.4% of preischaemic vs. 44.2% ± 3.1% in controls, p = 0.005. After 28 days, LV systolic function by echocardiography treated group was still better preserved (63.5% ± 3.2% vs. 48.2% ± 2.2% in control, p = 0.004.Taken together, mice treated acutely at the onset of reperfusion with the sGC stimulator riociguat have smaller infarct size and better long-term preservation of LV systolic function. These findings suggest that sGC stimulation during reperfusion therapy may be a powerful therapeutic treatment strategy for preventing post-MI heart failure.

  4. Lack of association between PCK1 polymorphisms and obesity, physical activity, and fitness in European Youth Heart Study (EYHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Franks, Paul W; Brage, Soren

    2010-01-01

    genetic variation in the PCK1 gene influences obesity-related traits, PA, and fitness, and to examine whether PA and fitness attenuate the influence of the PCK1 polymorphisms on obesity in children. Analyses were undertaken on data from Danish and Estonian children (958 boys and 1,104 girls) from...... the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS), a school-based, cross-sectional study of children (mean ± s.d. age: 9.6 ± 0.4 years) and adolescents (15.5 ± 0.5 years). We genotyped eight polymorphisms that captured the common genetic variations in the PCK1 gene. The association between the PCK1 polymorphisms and BMI......, waist circumference (WC), sum of four skinfolds, PA, and fitness was tested using an additive model adjusted for age, age-group, gender, maturity, and country. Interactions were tested by including interaction terms in the model. None of the polymorphisms were significantly associated with BMI, WC, sum...

  5. Comparison of three methods of measuring vertebral heart size in German Shepherd dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic-Kosic, Lj.; Krstic, N.; Trailovic, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    The method of measuring the heart size in thoracic radiography by comparing it to the length of thoracic vertebrae is marked as vertebral heart size (VHS). Besides of the original VHS measurement suggested by Buchanan and Buecheler, there are modifications of these measurements in literature. With the aim to evaluate differences between different methods of VHS measurement, we compared radiographs of six clinically healthy dogs of the same breed and age (German Shepherd dogs, 3 years of age), whose heart size was measured according to three different methods of VHS measurement. There were not significant differences between the values obtained by different methods of VHS measurement. In our study, we also compared findings of radiographs subjective assessment and VHS measurements. The second and third method of measurement were much more consistent to subjective assessment than the first method. Diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities in dgs should not be based solely on the measuremet of vertebral heart size. However, VHS measurement is very suitable for clinical practice. According to the study reported here, the second method of VHS measurement described in this paper, was recommended

  6. Measures of effect size for chi-squared and likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janis E; Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke, Paul W

    2006-10-01

    A fundamental shift in editorial policy for psychological journals was initiated when the fourth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994) placed emphasis on reporting measures of effect size. This paper presents measures of effect size for the chi-squared and the likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit statistic tests.

  7. Association of Physical Activity or Fitness With Incident Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Butler, Javed; Yancy, Clyde W; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that high levels of physical activity are associated with lower risk of risk factors for heart failure (HF), such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. However, the effects of physical activity or fitness on the incidence of HF remain unclear. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched until November 30, 2014. Prospective cohort studies reporting measures of the association of physical activity (n=10) or fitness (n=2) with incident HF were included. Extracted effect estimates from the eligible studies were pooled using a random-effects model meta-analysis, with heterogeneity assessed with the I(2) statistic. Ten cohort studies on physical activity eligible for meta-analysis included a total of 282 889 participants followed for 7 to 30 years. For the physical activity studies, maximum versus minimal amount of physical activity groups were used for analyses; with a total number of participants (n=165 695). The pooled relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) for HF among those with a regular exercise pattern was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.67-0.79). Findings were similar for men (0.71 [95% CI, 0.61-0.83]) and women (0.72 [95% CI, 0.67-0.77]) and by type of exercise. There was no evidence of publication bias (P value for Egger test=0.34). The pooled associated effect of physical fitness on incident HF was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.75-0.83) for each unit increase in metabolic equivalent of oxygen consumption. Published literature support a significant association between increased physical activity or fitness and decreased incidence of HF. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Radio Astronomers Lift "Fog" on Milky Way's Dark Heart: Black Hole Fits Inside Earth's Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    -emitting object would fit neatly just inside the path of the Earth's orbit around the Sun, the astronomers said. The black hole itself, they calculate, is about 14 million miles across, and would fit easily inside the orbit of Mercury. Black holes are concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their powerful gravity. The new VLBA observations provided astronomers their best look yet at a black hole system. "We are much closer to seeing the effects of a black hole on its environment here than anywhere else," Bower said. The Milky Way's central black hole, like its more-massive cousins in more-active galactic nuclei, is believed to be drawing in material from its surroundings, and in the process powering the emission of the radio waves. While the new VLBA observations have not provided a final answer on the nature of this process, they have helped rule out some theories, Bower said. Based on the latest work, he explained, the top remaining theories for the nature of the radio- emitting object are jets of subatomic particles, similar to those seen in radio galaxies; and some theories involving matter being accelerated near the edge of the black hole. As the astronomers studied Sagittarius A* at higher and higher radio frequencies, the apparent size of the object became smaller. This fact, too, Bower said, helped rule out some ideas of the object's nature. The decrease in observed size with increasing frequency, or shorter wavelength, also gives the astronomers a tantalizing target. "We think we can eventually observe at short enough wavelengths that we will see a cutoff when we reach the size of the black hole itself," Bower said. In addition, he said, "in future observations, we hope to see a 'shadow' cast by a gravitational lensing effect of the very strong gravity of the black hole." In 2000, Falcke and his colleagues proposed such an observation on theoretical grounds, and it now seems feasible. "Imaging the shadow of the black hole's event horizon is now

  9. Cardiothoracic ratio and vertebral heart size (VHS to standardize the heart size of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758 in computerized radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio J. Rocha-Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The VHS and CTR were assessed using computerized thoracic radiographs of ten clinically healthy tufted capuchin monkeys (five males and five females from the Wild Animal Screening Center in São Luís (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de São Luís-MA-CETAS. Radiographs were taken in laterolateral and dorsoventral projections to calculate the cardiothoracic ratio (VHS and vertebral heart size (CTR. The VHS showed mean values of 9.34±0.32v (males and 9.16±0.34v (females and there was no statistical difference between males and females (p>0.05. The CTR showed mean values of 0.55±0.04 (males and 0.52±0.03 (females and there was no statistical difference between the sexes (p>0.05. There was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.78. The thoracic and heart diameters showed mean values of 5.70±0.48cm and 2.16±0.40cm in the males, respectively. In the females they measured 5.32±0.39cm and 2.94±0.32cm. There was no statistical difference between the sexes. Our results show that the high correlation found between VHS and CTR permitted the verification with similar clinical precision between the two methods to estimate alterations in the heart silhouette by radiographic examination of tufted capuchin, making it an easy technique to apply that can be considered in the investigation of heart problems for this wild species.

  10. Design of a Reconfigurable Robotic System for Flexoextension Fitted to Hand Fingers Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Felipe Aguilar-Pereyra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing demand for assistance in rehabilitation therapies for hand movements, a robotic system is proposed to mobilize the hand fingers in flexion and extension exercises. The robotic system is composed by four, type slider-crank, mechanisms that have the ability to fit the user fingers length from the index to the little finger, through the adjustment of only one link for each mechanism. The trajectory developed by each mechanism corresponds to the natural flexoextension path of each finger. The amplitude of the rotations for metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP and proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP varies from 0 to 90° and the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP varies from 0 to 60°; the joint rotations are coordinated naturally. The four R-RRT mechanisms orientation allows a 15° abduction movement for index, ring, and little fingers. The kinematic analysis of this mechanism was developed in order to assure that the displacement speed and smooth acceleration into the desired range of motion and the simulation results are presented. The reconfiguration of mechanisms covers about 95% of hand sizes of a group of Mexican adult population. Maximum trajectory tracking error is less than 3% in full range of movement and it can be compensated by the additional rotation of finger joints without injury to the user.

  11. Division site positioning in bacteria: one size does not fit all.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Graham Monahan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial regulation of cell division in bacteria has been a focus of research for decades. It has been well studied in two model rod-shaped organisms, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, with the general belief that division site positioning occurs as a result of the combination of two negative regulatory systems, Min and nucleoid occlusion. These systems influence division by preventing the cytokinetic Z ring from forming anywhere other than midcell. However, evidence is accumulating for the existence of additional mechanisms that are involved in controlling Z ring positioning both in these organisms and in several other bacteria. In some cases the decision of where to divide is solved by variations on a common evolutionary theme, and in others completely different proteins and mechanisms are involved. Here we review the different ways bacteria solve the problem of finding the right place to divide. It appears that a one-size-fits-all model does not apply, and that individual species have adapted a division-site positioning mechanism that best suits their lifestyle, environmental niche and mode of growth to ensure equal partitioning of DNA for survival of the next generation.

  12. Design of a Reconfigurable Robotic System for Flexoextension Fitted to Hand Fingers Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pereyra, J Felipe; Castillo-Castaneda, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing demand for assistance in rehabilitation therapies for hand movements, a robotic system is proposed to mobilize the hand fingers in flexion and extension exercises. The robotic system is composed by four, type slider-crank, mechanisms that have the ability to fit the user fingers length from the index to the little finger, through the adjustment of only one link for each mechanism. The trajectory developed by each mechanism corresponds to the natural flexoextension path of each finger. The amplitude of the rotations for metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) varies from 0 to 90° and the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) varies from 0 to 60°; the joint rotations are coordinated naturally. The four R-RRT mechanisms orientation allows a 15° abduction movement for index, ring, and little fingers. The kinematic analysis of this mechanism was developed in order to assure that the displacement speed and smooth acceleration into the desired range of motion and the simulation results are presented. The reconfiguration of mechanisms covers about 95% of hand sizes of a group of Mexican adult population. Maximum trajectory tracking error is less than 3% in full range of movement and it can be compensated by the additional rotation of finger joints without injury to the user.

  13. One Size Does Not Fit All: Older Adults Benefit From Redundant Text in Multimedia Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eFenesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The multimedia design of presentations typically ignores that younger and older adults have varying cognitive strengths and weaknesses. We examined whether differential instructional design may enhance learning in these populations. Younger and older participants viewed one of three computer-based presentations: Audio only (narration, Redundant (audio narration with redundant text, or Complementary (audio narration with non–redundant text and images. Younger participants learned better when audio narration was paired with relevant images compared to when audio narration was paired with redundant text. However, older participants learned best when audio narration was paired with redundant text. Younger adults, who presumably have a higher working memory capacity, appear to benefit more from complementary information that may drive deeper conceptual processing. In contrast, older adults learn better from presentations that support redundant coding across modalities, which may help mitigate the effects of age-related decline in working memory capacity. Additionally, several misconceptions of design quality appeared across age groups: both younger and older participants positively rated less effective designs. Findings suggest that one-size does not fit all, with older adults requiring unique multimedia design tailored to their cognitive abilities for effective learning.

  14. One size does not fit all: older adults benefit from redundant text in multimedia instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Barbara; Vandermorris, Susan; Kim, Joseph A; Shore, David I; Heisz, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    The multimedia design of presentations typically ignores that younger and older adults have varying cognitive strengths and weaknesses. We examined whether differential instructional design may enhance learning in these populations. Younger and older participants viewed one of three computer-based presentations: Audio only (narration), Redundant (audio narration with redundant text), or Complementary (audio narration with non-redundant text and images). Younger participants learned better when audio narration was paired with relevant images compared to when audio narration was paired with redundant text. However, older participants learned best when audio narration was paired with redundant text. Younger adults, who presumably have a higher working memory capacity (WMC), appear to benefit more from complementary information that may drive deeper conceptual processing. In contrast, older adults learn better from presentations that support redundant coding across modalities, which may help mitigate the effects of age-related decline in WMC. Additionally, several misconceptions of design quality appeared across age groups: both younger and older participants positively rated less effective designs. Findings suggest that one-size does not fit all, with older adults requiring unique multimedia design tailored to their cognitive abilities for effective learning.

  15. Assessing Statistical Competencies in Clinical and Translational Science Education: One Size Does Not Fit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsell, Christopher J.; Welty, Leah J.; Mazumdar, Madhu; Thurston, Sally W.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Carter, Rickey E.; Pollock, Bradley H.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Jovanovic, Borko D.; Enders, Felicity T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Statistics is an essential training component for a career in clinical and translational science (CTS). Given the increasing complexity of statistics, learners may have difficulty selecting appropriate courses. Our question was: what depth of statistical knowledge do different CTS learners require? Methods For three types of CTS learners (principal investigator, co‐investigator, informed reader of the literature), each with different backgrounds in research (no previous research experience, reader of the research literature, previous research experience), 18 experts in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design proposed levels for 21 statistical competencies. Results Statistical competencies were categorized as fundamental, intermediate, or specialized. CTS learners who intend to become independent principal investigators require more specialized training, while those intending to become informed consumers of the medical literature require more fundamental education. For most competencies, less training was proposed for those with more research background. Discussion When selecting statistical coursework, the learner's research background and career goal should guide the decision. Some statistical competencies are considered to be more important than others. Baseline knowledge assessments may help learners identify appropriate coursework. Conclusion Rather than one size fits all, tailoring education to baseline knowledge, learner background, and future goals increases learning potential while minimizing classroom time. PMID:25212569

  16. Physician behavioral adaptability: A model to outstrip a "one size fits all" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Valérie; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2015-10-01

    Based on a literature review, we propose a model of physician behavioral adaptability (PBA) with the goal of inspiring new research. PBA means that the physician adapts his or her behavior according to patients' different preferences. The PBA model shows how physicians infer patients' preferences and adapt their interaction behavior from one patient to the other. We claim that patients will benefit from better outcomes if their physicians show behavioral adaptability rather than a "one size fits all" approach. This literature review is based on a literature search of the PsycINFO(®) and MEDLINE(®) databases. The literature review and first results stemming from the authors' research support the validity and viability of parts of the PBA model. There is evidence suggesting that physicians are able to show behavioral flexibility when interacting with their different patients, that a match between patients' preferences and physician behavior is related to better consultation outcomes, and that physician behavioral adaptability is related to better consultation outcomes. Training of physicians' behavioral flexibility and their ability to infer patients' preferences can facilitate physician behavioral adaptability and positive patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mandatory communication skills training for cancer and palliative care staff: does one size fit all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mary; Payne, Sheila; O'Brien, Terri

    2011-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of good communication between healthcare professionals and patients facing cancer or end of life. In England, a new national 3-day training programme called 'Connected' has been developed and is now mandatory for all cancer and palliative care professionals. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of staff in one region to undertaking this training. A survey questionnaire was developed through a series of discussions with experts and semi-structured interviews with five healthcare professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to 200 cancer and palliative care staff; 109 were completed and returned. There were significant differences between doctors' and nurses' attitudes to communication skills training, with doctors demonstrating more negative attitudes. More nurses than doctors felt that communication skills training should be mandatory for cancer and palliative care professionals (p ≤ 0.001), whilst more doctors felt that these staff should already be skilled communicators and not require further training (p ≤ 0.001). Nurses also self-rated their communication skills more highly than doctors. The current 'one size fits all' approach being taken nationally to advanced communication skills training does not meet the training preferences of all healthcare professionals, and it is recommended that tailoring courses to individuals' needs should be considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Body size evolution in an old insect order: No evidence for Cope's Rule in spite of fitness benefits of large size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, John T; Svensson, Erik I

    2017-09-01

    We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates ("dragonflies and damselflies"). Fossil evidence for "Cope's Rule" in odonates is weak or nonexistent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) over several generations have consistent fitness benefits both in terms of survival and mating success. Additionally, there was no evidence for stabilizing or conflicting selection between fitness components within the adult life-stage. This lack of stabilizing selection during the adult life-stage was independently supported by a literature survey on different male and female fitness components from several odonate species. We did detect several significant body size shifts among extant taxa using comparative methods and a large new molecular phylogeny for odonates. We suggest that the lack of Cope's rule in odonates results from conflicting selection between fitness advantages of large adult size and costs of long larval development. We also discuss competing explanations for body size stasis in this insect group. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Fitness to Fly Testing in Patients with Congenital Heart and Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Mandy E; van den Oord, Marieke H A H; Meeuwsen, Ted; Takken, Tim

    2016-01-01

    During commercial air travel passengers are exposed to a low ambient cabin pressure, comparable to altitudes of 5000 to 8000 ft (1524 to 2438 m). In healthy passengers this causes a fall in partial pressure of oxygen, which results in relative hypoxemia, usually without symptoms. Patients with congenital heart or lung disease may experience more severe hypoxemia during air travel. This systematic review provides an overview of the current literature focusing on whether it is safe for patients with congenital heart or lung disease to fly. The Pubmed database was searched and all studies carried out at an (simulated) altitude of 5000-8000 ft (1524-2438 m) for a short time period (several hours) and related to patients with congenital heart or lung disease were reviewed. Included were 11 studies. These studies examined patients with cystic fibrosis, neonatal (chronic) lung disease and congenital (a)cyanotic heart disease during a hypoxic challenge test, in a hypobaric chamber, during commercial air travel, or in the mountains. Peripheral/arterial saturation, blood gases, lung function, and/or the occurrence of symptoms were listed. Based on the current literature, it can be concluded that air travel is safe for most patients. However, those at risk of hypoxia can benefit from supplemental in-flight oxygen. Therefore, patients with congenital heart and lung disease should be evaluated carefully prior to air travel to select the patients at risk for hypoxia using the current studies and guidelines.

  20. Fitness decline under osmotic stress in Caenorhabditis elegans populations subjected to spontaneous mutation accumulation at varying population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katju, Vaishali; Packard, Lucille B; Keightley, Peter D

    2018-04-01

    The consequences of mutations for population fitness depends on their individual selection coefficients and the effective population size. An earlier study of Caenorhabditis elegans spontaneous mutation accumulation lines evolved for 409 generations at three population sizes found that N e   = 1 populations declined significantly in fitness whereas the fitness of larger populations (N e   = 5, 50) was indistinguishable from the ancestral control under benign conditions. To test if larger MA populations harbor a load of cryptic deleterious mutations that are obscured under benign laboratory conditions, we measured fitness under osmotic stress via exposure to hypersaline conditions. The fitness of N e   = 1 lines exhibited a further decline under osmotic stress compared to benign conditions. However, the fitness of larger populations remained indistinguishable from that of the ancestral control. The average effects of deleterious mutations in N e   = 1 lines were estimated to be 22% for productivity and 14% for survivorship, exceeding values previously detected under benign conditions. Our results suggest that fitness decline is due to large effect mutations that are rapidly removed via selection even in small populations, with implications for conservation practices. Genetic stochasticity may not be as potent and immediate a threat to the persistence of small populations as other demographic and environmental stochastic factors. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Left ventricular mechanics in humans with high aerobic fitness: adaptation independent of structural remodelling, arterial haemodynamics and heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Eric J; McDonnell, Barry; Thompson, Jane; Stone, Keeron; Bull, Tom; Houston, Rory; Cockcroft, John; Shave, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with high aerobic fitness have lower systolic left ventricular strain, rotation and twist (‘left ventricular (LV) mechanics’) at rest, suggesting a beneficial reduction in LV myofibre stress and more efficient systolic function. However, the mechanisms responsible for this functional adaptation are not known and the influence of aerobic fitness on LV mechanics during dynamic exercise has never been studied. We assessed LV mechanics, LV wall thickness and dimensions, central augmentation index (AIx), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), blood pressure and heart rate in 28 males (age: 21 ± 2 years SD) with a consistent physical activity level (no change >6 months). Individuals were examined at rest and during exercise (40% peak exercise capacity) and separated post hoc into a moderate and high aerobic fitness group (: 49 ± 5 and 63 ± 7 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively, P 0.05). However, for the same AIx, the high group had significantly lower LV apical rotation (P = 0.002) and LV twist (P = 0.003) while basal rotation and strain indices did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). We conclude that young males with high aerobic fitness have lower LV apical rotation at rest and during submaximal exercise that can occur without changes in gross LV structure, arterial haemodynamics or heart rate. The findings suggest a previously unknown type of physiological adaptation of the left ventricle that may have important implications for exercise training in older individuals and patient populations in which exercise training has previously failed to show clear benefits for LV function. PMID:22431336

  2. Do telemonitoring projects of heart failure fit the Chronic Care Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Evi; Adriaenssens, Jef; Dilles, Tinne; Remmen, Roy

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the characteristics of extramural and transmural telemonitoring projects on chronic heart failure in Belgium. It describes to what extent these telemonitoring projects coincide with the Chronic Care Model of Wagner. The Chronic Care Model describes essential components for high-quality health care. Telemonitoring can be used to optimise home care for chronic heart failure. It provides a potential prospective to change the current care organisation. This qualitative study describes seven non-invasive home-care telemonitoring projects in patients with heart failure in Belgium. A qualitative design, including interviews and literature review, was used to describe the correspondence of these home-care telemonitoring projects with the dimensions of the Chronic Care Model. The projects were situated in primary and secondary health care. Their primary goal was to reduce the number of readmissions for chronic heart failure. None of these projects succeeded in a final implementation of telemonitoring in home care after the pilot phase. Not all the projects were initiated to accomplish all of the dimensions of the Chronic Care Model. A central role for the patient was sparse. Limited financial resources hampered continuation after the pilot phase. Cooperation and coordination in telemonitoring appears to be major barriers but are, within primary care as well as between the lines of care, important links in follow-up. This discrepancy can be prohibitive for deployment of good chronic care. Chronic Care Model is recommended as basis for future.

  3. Hypoxic Challenge Testing (Fitness to Fly) in children with complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nitha; Doughty, Victoria L; Starling, Luke; Franklin, Rodney C; Ward, Simon; Daubeney, Piers E F; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M

    2018-02-14

    Commercial airplanes fly with an equivalent cabin fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.15, leading to reduced oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in passengers. How this affects children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) is unknown. We conducted Hypoxic Challenge Testing (HCT) to assess need for inflight supplemental oxygen. Children aged heart rate, QT interval corrected for heart rate and partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured transcutaneously (PtcCO 2 ). A test failed when children with (1) normal baseline SpO 2 desaturated to 85%, (2) baseline SpO 2 85%-94% desaturated by 15% of baseline; and (3) baseline SpO 2 75%-84% desaturated to 70%. There were 68 children, mean age 3.3 years (range 10 weeks-14.5 years). Children with normal (n=36) baseline SpO 2 desaturated from median 99% to 91%, Pheart rate and QT interval corrected for heart rate were unaffected by the hypoxic state. This is the first evidence to help guide which children with CHD need a preflight HCT. We suggest all children with an actual or potential R-L shunt should be tested. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF

  5. Size of Left Cardiac Chambers Correlates with Cerebral Microembolic Load in Open Heart Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Z. Golukhova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microemboli are a widely recognized etiological factor of cerebral complications in cardiac surgery patients. The present study was aimed to determine if size of left cardiac chambers relates to cerebral microembolic load in open heart operations. Methods. Thirty patients participated in the study. Echocardiography was performed in 2-3 days before surgery. A transcranial Doppler system was used for registering intraoperative microemboli. Results. Preoperative left atrium and left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic sizes significantly correlated with intraoperative microembolic load (s=0.48, 0.57 and 0.53, s≺.01, resp.. The associations between left ventricular diameters and number of cerebral microemboli remained significant when cardiopulmonary bypass time was included as a covariate into the analysis. Conclusions. The present results demonstrate that increased size of left heart chambers is an influential risk factor for elevated cerebral microembolic load during open heart operations. Mini-invasive surgery and carbon dioxide insufflation into wound cavity may be considered as neuroprotective approaches in patients with high risk of cerebral microembolism.

  6. ABCC-NIH adult health study, Hiroshima 1958-1960. Cardiovascular project report Number 6, heart size norm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Shoichi, Russell, W.J.; Yano, Katsuhiko

    1962-05-01

    Utilizing the information obtained from the detailed clinical examinations of subjects seen at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, standard heart size determinations in the Hiroshima population are provided. A formula has been devised to express the normal transverse cardiac diameter, obtained from the routine posteroanterior chest roentgenogram, in relation to weight, height, and age. The analysis was made for each sex separately. Values computed by using this formula are regarded as standard heart size. Deviations from the standard are interpreted as individual variability in the normal group, with a standard deviation of 9 mm. When this standard was applied to abnormal subjects, a high correlation between the relative heart size and the blood pressure or the presence of overt heart disease was evident. For this reason, the relative heart size for this standard should prove useful, together with other related factors, in the diagnosis and investigation of cardiovascular disease. A nomograph has been devised for practical use. 12 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Questioning a “one size fits all” city brand: Developing a branded house strategy for place brand management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zenker (Sebastian); E. Braun (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: City branding has gained popularity as governance strategy. However, the academic underpinning is still poor, and city branding needs a more critical conceptualization, as well as more complex management systems. This paper the use of a “one size fits all” city brand, which is

  8. A customised cold-water immersion protocol favours one-size-fits-all protocols in improving acute performance recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, Coen S.; de Zwart, Jelmer R.; van Keeken, Brenda L.; Viroux, Patrick J.F.; Tiemessen, Ivo J.H.

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a customised cold-water immersion (CWIc) protocol was more effective in enhancing acute performance recovery than a one-size-fits-all CWI (CWIs) or active recovery (AR) protocol. On three separate testing days, 10 healthy, physically

  9. To pluck or not to pluck: scientific methodologies should be carefully chosen, not 'one size fits all'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd E. Katzner; Maria Wheeler; Juan Jose Negro; Yula Kapetanakos; J. Andrew DeWoody; Horvath Marton; Irby. Lovette

    2012-01-01

    McDonald and Griffith (2011) raise important points in their critique of reliance on feathers as a source of DNA for scientific research. Although those authors are right about many details, their one-size-fits all approach (i.e. prescribing blood draws for avian DNA analyses) obscures bigger picture issues that are of extraordinary relevance to avian biology. We...

  10. Pediatric art preferences: countering the "one-size-fits-all" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Upali; Chanaud, Cheryl M; Brown, Linda; Hart, Robyn; Hathorn, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    three operational stages, so one should be careful before using the "one-size-fits-all" approach. Child art, typically used in pediatric wards, is better suited for younger children than for older children.

  11. Numerical model of total artificial heart hemodynamics and the effect of its size on stress accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Gil; Chiu, Wei-Che; Slepian, Marvin J; Bluestein, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a bi-ventricular mechanical circulatory support device that replaces the heart in patients with end-stage congestive heart failure. The device acts as blood pump via pneumatic activation of diaphragms altering the volume of the ventricular chambers. Flow in and out of the ventricles is controlled by mechanical heart valves. The aim of this study is to evaluate the flow regime in the TAH and to estimate the thrombogenic potential during systole. Toward that goal, three numerical models of TAHs of differing sizes, that include the deforming diaphragm and the blood flow from the left chamber to the aorta, are introduced. A multiphase model with injection of platelet particles is employed to calculate their trajectories. The shear stress accumulation in the three models are calculated along the platelets trajectories and their probability density functions, which represent the `thrombogenic footprint' of the device are compared. The calculated flow regime successfully captures the mitral regurgitation and the flows that open and close the aortic valve during systole. Physiological velocity magnitudes are found in all three models, with higher velocities and increased stress accumulation predicted for smaller devices.

  12. Nintendo Wii Fit as an adjunct to physiotherapy following lower limb fractures: preliminary feasibility, safety and sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, S M; O'Hara, M; Gane, E; Tonks, P; Bullock-Saxton, J; Kuys, S S

    2016-06-01

    The Nintendo Wii Fit integrates virtual gaming with body movement, and may be suitable as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy following lower limb fractures. This study examined the feasibility and safety of using the Wii Fit as an adjunct to outpatient physiotherapy following lower limb fractures, and reports sample size considerations for an appropriately powered randomised trial. Ambulatory patients receiving physiotherapy following a lower limb fracture participated in this study (n=18). All participants received usual care (individual physiotherapy). The first nine participants also used the Wii Fit under the supervision of their treating clinician as an adjunct to usual care. Adverse events, fracture malunion or exacerbation of symptoms were recorded. Pain, balance and patient-reported function were assessed at baseline and discharge from physiotherapy. No adverse events were attributed to either the usual care physiotherapy or Wii Fit intervention for any patient. Overall, 15 (83%) participants completed both assessments and interventions as scheduled. For 80% power in a clinical trial, the number of complete datasets required in each group to detect a small, medium or large effect of the Wii Fit at a post-intervention assessment was calculated at 175, 63 and 25, respectively. The Nintendo Wii Fit was safe and feasible as an adjunct to ambulatory physiotherapy in this sample. When considering a likely small effect size and the 17% dropout rate observed in this study, 211 participants would be required in each clinical trial group. A larger effect size or multiple repeated measures design would require fewer participants. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of Heart size by mass chest X-ray in Medical students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Khin San; Mon, Khin Aye [Department of Physiology, Institute of Medicine, Mandalay (Myanmar)

    1971-07-01

    Mass miniature P-A view chest X-ray films of 83 students were taken at the TB clinic and were used for measuring the heart size. Measurements taken on 70 mm film were changed to the equivalent values for standard 6 foot chest films, by multiplying with a factor 5.23 which is the ratio between 70 mm mass miniature X-ray film and 6 foot chest film. Frontal cardiac area was also calculated. The mean heart diameters and frontal cardiac area for 54 male students were transverse diameter-11.30 cm, length-11.98 cm, breadth-10.32 cm, frontal area-106.50 sq cm and aortic diameter-5.31 cm. Those for 28 female students were:transverse diameter-10.27 cm, length-11.56, breadth-9.45 cm, frontal area-88.70 sq cm and aortic diameter-4.75 cm.

  14. Measurement of Heart size by mass chest X-ray in Medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin San Wai; Khin Aye Mon

    1971-01-01

    Mass miniature P-A view chest X-ray films of 83 students were taken at the TB clinic and were used for measuring the heart size. Measurements taken on 70 mm film were changed to the equivalent values for standard 6 foot chest films, by multiplying with a factor 5.23 which is the ratio between 70 mm mass miniature X-ray film and 6 foot chest film. Frontal cardiac area was also calculated. The mean heart diameters and frontal cardiac area for 54 male students were transverse diameter-11.30 cm, length-11.98 cm, breadth-10.32 cm, frontal area-106.50 sq cm and aortic diameter-5.31 cm. Those for 28 female students were:transverse diameter-10.27 cm, length-11.56, breadth-9.45 cm, frontal area-88.70 sq cm and aortic diameter-4.75 cm

  15. Biomarkers of cardio-renal damage in chronic kidney disease: one size cannot fit all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolignano, Davide; Coppolino, Giuseppe

    2014-04-17

    Biomarkers are useful tools for diagnosis and risk assessment of acute kidney injury and acute heart failure, particularly in ICU patients. Most biomarkers are produced or cleared by the kidney, so the presence of chronic kidney disease may affect their clinical reliability, particularly if the putative diagnosis of acute kidney injury or acute heart failure is based on a single measurement/single threshold approach. Better alternatives, such as establishing different diagnostic cutoff values per different chronic kidney disease strata or evaluating the diagnostic performance of a delta value (change from baseline levels) instead of a single threshold, should be carefully considered in critically ill patients with renal impairment and other co-morbidities.

  16. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  17. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Hearts and minds: linking vascular rigidity and aerobic fitness with cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Claudine Joëlle; Lefort, Muriel; Mekary, Saïd; Desjardins-Crépeau, Laurence; Skimminge, Arnold; Iversen, Pernille; Madjar, Cécile; Desjardins, Michèle; Lesage, Frédéric; Garde, Ellen; Frouin, Frédérique; Bherer, Louis; Hoge, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Human aging is accompanied by both vascular and cognitive changes. Although arteries throughout the body are known to become stiffer with age, this vessel hardening is believed to start at the level of the aorta and progress to other organs, including the brain. Progression of this vascular impairment may contribute to cognitive changes that arise with a similar time course during aging. Conversely, it has been proposed that regular exercise plays a protective role, attenuating the impact of age on vascular and metabolic physiology. Here, the impact of vascular degradation in the absence of disease was investigated within 2 groups of healthy younger and older adults. Age-related changes in executive function, elasticity of the aortic arch, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cerebrovascular reactivity were quantified, as well as the association between these parameters within the older group. In the cohort studied, older adults exhibited a decline in executive functions, measured as a slower performance in a modified Stroop task (1247.90 ± 204.50 vs. 898.20 ± 211.10 ms on the inhibition and/or switching component, respectively) than younger adults. Older participants also showed higher aortic pulse wave velocity (8.98 ± 3.56 vs. 3.95 ± 0.82 m/s, respectively) and lower VO₂ max (29.04 ± 6.92 vs. 42.32 ± 7.31 mL O2/kg/min, respectively) than younger adults. Within the older group, faster performance of the modified Stroop task was associated with preserved aortic elasticity (lower aortic pulse wave velocity; p = 0.046) and higher cardiorespiratory fitness (VO₂ max; p = 0.036). Furthermore, VO₂ max was found to be negatively associated with blood oxygenation level dependent cerebrovascular reactivity to CO₂ in frontal regions involved in the task (p = 0.038) but positively associated with cerebrovascular reactivity in periventricular watershed regions and within the postcentral gyrus. Overall, the results of this study support the hypothesis that cognitive

  19. VA FitHeart, a Mobile App for Cardiac Rehabilitation: Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Alexis L; Magnusson, Sara L; Fortney, John C; Sayre, George G; Whooley, Mary A

    2018-01-15

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves outcomes for patients with ischemic heart disease or heart failure but is underused. New strategies to improve access to and engagement in CR are needed. There is considerable interest in technology-facilitated home CR. However, little is known about patient acceptance and use of mobile technology for CR. The aim of this study was to develop a mobile app for technology-facilitated home CR and seek to determine its usability. We recruited patients eligible for CR who had access to a mobile phone, tablet, or computer with Internet access. The mobile app includes physical activity goal setting, logs for tracking physical activity and health metrics (eg, weight, blood pressure, and mood), health education, reminders, and feedback. Study staff demonstrated the mobile app to participants in person and then observed participants completing prespecified tasks with the mobile app. Participants completed the System Usability Scale (SUS, 0-100), rated likelihood to use the mobile app (0-100), questionnaires on mobile app use, and participated in a semistructured interview. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and the Theory of Planned Behavior informed the analysis. On the basis of participant feedback, we made iterative revisions to the mobile app between users. We conducted usability testing in 13 participants. The first version of the mobile app was used by the first 5 participants, and revised versions were used by the final 8 participants. From the first version to revised versions, task completion success rate improved from 44% (11/25 tasks) to 78% (31/40 tasks; P=.05), SUS improved from 54 to 76 (P=.04; scale 0-100, with 100 being the best usability), and self-reported likelihood of use remained high at 76 and 87 (P=.30; scale 0-100, with 100 being the highest likelihood). In interviews, patients expressed interest in tracking health measures ("I think it'll be good to track my exercise and to see what I'm doing

  20. The validity of the BioForce Heart Rate Variability System and the use of heart rate variability and recovery to determine the fitness levels of a cohort of university-level rugby players / Christo Alfonzo Bisschoff

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschoff, Christo Alfonzo

    2013-01-01

    The potential to track changes in training status and fitness levels of especially team sport participants by making use of more time efficient and accessible methods such as heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) cannot be overlooked and needs to be considered. However, studies that have investigated this aspect in team sport participants are scarce. It is against this background that the main objectives of this study were firstly, to determine the relation...

  1. Dietary red palm oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in an isolated perfused rat heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterhuyse Adriaan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that dietary red palm oil (RPO supplementation improves functional recovery following ischaemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RPO supplementation on myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of dietary RPO supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 activation and PKB/Akt phosphorylation were also investigated. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a standard rat chow diet (SRC, a SRC supplemented with RPO, or a SRC supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, for a five week period, respectively. After the feeding period, hearts were excised and perfused on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. Hearts were subjected to thirty minutes of normothermic global ischaemia and two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was collected for the first ten minutes of reperfusion in order to measure MMP2 activity by gelatin zymography. Results Dietary RPO-supplementation decreased myocardial infarct size significantly when compared to the SRC-group and the SFO-supplemented group (9.1 ± 1.0% versus 30.2 ± 3.9% and 27.1 ± 2.4% respectively. Both dietary RPO- and SFO-supplementation were able to decrease MMP2 activity when compared to the SRC fed group. PKB/Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308 was found to be significantly higher in the dietary RPO supplemented group when compared to the SFO supplemented group at 10 minutes into reperfusion. There was, however, no significant changes observed in ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions Dietary RPO-supplementation was found to be more effective than SFO-supplementation in reducing myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Both dietary RPO and SFO were able to reduce MMP2 activity, which suggests that MMP2 activity does not play a major role in

  2. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savage J Maurice

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. Methods Males (n 245 and females (n 231 were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD age 22 (1.6 y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%, 'medium' (M1; middle 50% or 'high' (H1; highest 25% categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2 were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (κ statistics. Results Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (κ ≤ 0.20 in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (κ 0.202, but was poor in females (κ 0.021. In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (κ 0.540, κ 0.307, κ 0.357 respectively than in males (κ 0.337, κ 0.199, κ 0.216 respectively. Conclusions The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In

  3. Lipoprotein(a) levels, apo(a) isoform size, and coronary heart disease risk in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], Lp(a) cholesterol, and of apo(a) isoform size to prospective coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma Lp(a) and Lp(a) cholesterol levels, and apo(a) isoform size were measured at examinati...

  4. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD)....

  5. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A; Bonomi, Alberto G; Moore, Jonathan P; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  6. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sartor

    Full Text Available Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9, 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30. The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI, which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40, but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91. The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93. It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42 than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29. In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  7. One size will never fit all: the future of research in pediatric transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Cassandra D; Mondoro, Traci Heath; Ambruso, Daniel R; Sanchez, Rosa; Sloan, Steven R; Luban, Naomi L C; Widness, John A

    2014-11-01

    There is concern at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and among transfusion medicine specialists regarding the small number of investigators and studies in the field of pediatric transfusion medicine (PTM). Accordingly, the objective of this article is to provide a snapshot of the clinical and translational PTM research considered to be of high priority by pediatricians, neonatologists, and transfusion medicine specialists. Included is a targeted review of three research areas of importance: (i) transfusion strategies, (ii) short- and long-term clinical consequences, and (iii) transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases. The recommendations by PTM and transfusion medicine specialists represent opportunities and innovative strategies to execute translational research, observational studies, and clinical trials of high relevance to PTM. With the explosion of new biomedical knowledge and increasingly sophisticated methodologies over the past decade, this is an exciting time to consider transfusion medicine as a paradigm for addressing questions related to fields such as cell biology, immunology, neurodevelopment, outcomes research, and many others. Increased awareness of PTM as an important, fertile field and the promotion of accompanying opportunities will help establish PTM as a viable career option and advance basic and clinical investigation to improve the health and wellbeing of children.

  8. Physical work demands and physical fitness in low social classes--30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann; Søgaard, Karen; Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul

    2011-11-01

    Investigate whether high physical work demands increase risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men of low social class with low physical fitness. Thirty-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study of 5249 men aged 40 to 59 years without cardiovascular disease. Physical fitness was estimated using the Åstrand cycling test, and physical work demands determined by two self-reported questions. Among 2707 low social class men, multiple-adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios showed an almost threefold increased risk of IHD mortality among men with high physical work demands and low physical fitness, but not among men with a high physical fitness, referencing men with low physical work demands. These findings among low social class men support that high physical work demands increases the risk of IHD mortality among those with low physical fitness.

  9. One size may not fit all: anti-aging therapies and sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Burks, Tyesha N.; Cohn, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia refers to age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Several age-related changes occur in skeletal muscle including a decrease in myofiber size and number and a diminished ability of satellite cells to activate and proliferate upon injury leading to impaired muscle remodeling. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are unknown, it is tempting to hypothesize that interplay between biological and environmental factors cooperate in a positive feedback cycle contrib...

  10. Using pupil size and heart rate to infer affective states during behavioral neurophysiology and neuropsychology experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitz, Andrew R; Chacko, Ravi V; Putnam, Philip T; Rudebeck, Peter H; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2017-03-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a valuable research model because of their behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical similarities to humans. In the absence of language, autonomic activity can provide crucial information about cognitive and affective states during single-unit recording, inactivation and lesion studies. Methods standardized for use in humans are not easily adapted to NHPs and detailed guidance has been lacking. We provide guidance for monitoring heart rate and pupil size in the behavioral neurophysiology setting by addressing the methodological issues, pitfalls and solutions for NHP studies. The methods are based on comparative physiology to establish a rationale for each solution. We include examples from both electrophysiological and lesion studies. Single-unit recording, pupil responses and heart rate changes represent a range of decreasing temporal resolution, a characteristic that impacts experimental design and analysis. We demonstrate the unexpected result that autonomic measures acquired before and after amygdala lesions are comparable despite disruption of normal autonomic function. Species and study design differences can render standard techniques used in human studies inappropriate for NHP studies. We show how to manage data from small groups typical of NHP studies, data from the short behavioral trials typical of neurophysiological studies, issues associated with longitudinal studies, and differences in anatomy and physiology. Autonomic measurement to infer cognitive and affective states in NHP is neither off-the-shelf nor onerous. Familiarity with the issues and solutions will broaden the use of autonomic signals in NHP single unit and lesion studies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Sample Size and Statistical Conclusions from Tests of Fit to the Rasch Model According to the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model (Rumm) Program in Health Outcome Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagell, Peter; Westergren, Albert

    Sample size is a major factor in statistical null hypothesis testing, which is the basis for many approaches to testing Rasch model fit. Few sample size recommendations for testing fit to the Rasch model concern the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models (RUMM) software, which features chi-square and ANOVA/F-ratio based fit statistics, including Bonferroni and algebraic sample size adjustments. This paper explores the occurrence of Type I errors with RUMM fit statistics, and the effects of algebraic sample size adjustments. Data with simulated Rasch model fitting 25-item dichotomous scales and sample sizes ranging from N = 50 to N = 2500 were analysed with and without algebraically adjusted sample sizes. Results suggest the occurrence of Type I errors with N less then or equal to 500, and that Bonferroni correction as well as downward algebraic sample size adjustment are useful to avoid such errors, whereas upward adjustment of smaller samples falsely signal misfit. Our observations suggest that sample sizes around N = 250 to N = 500 may provide a good balance for the statistical interpretation of the RUMM fit statistics studied here with respect to Type I errors and under the assumption of Rasch model fit within the examined frame of reference (i.e., about 25 item parameters well targeted to the sample).

  12. One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broitman, Dani, E-mail: danib@techunix.technion.ac.il [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Ayalon, Ofira [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Kan, Iddo [Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste management schemes are generally implemented at national or regional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local conditions characteristics and constraints are often neglected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed an economic model able to compare multi-level waste management options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A detailed test case with real economic data and a best-fit scenario is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most efficient schemes combine clear National directives with local level flexibility. - Abstract: As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly

  13. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  14. Reduced size liver transplantation from a donor supported by a Berlin Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, M V; Smithers, C J; Krawczuk, L E; Jenkins, R L; Linden, B C; Weldon, C B; Kim, H B

    2009-11-01

    Patients on cardiac assist devices are often considered to be high-risk solid organ donors. We report the first case of a reduced size liver transplant performed using the left lateral segment of a pediatric donor whose cardiac function was supported by a Berlin Heart. The recipient was a 22-day-old boy with neonatal hemochromatosis who developed fulminant liver failure shortly after birth. The transplant was complicated by mild delayed graft function, which required delayed biliary reconstruction and abdominal wall closure, as well as a bile leak. However, the graft function improved quickly over the first week and the patient was discharged home with normal liver function 8 weeks after transplant. The presence of a cardiac assist device should not be considered an absolute contraindication for abdominal organ donation. Normal organ procurement procedures may require alteration due to the unusual technical obstacles that are encountered when the donor has a cardiac assist device.

  15. One size may not fit all: anti-aging therapies and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Tyesha N; Cohn, Ronald D

    2011-12-01

    Sarcopenia refers to age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Several age-related changes occur in skeletal muscle including a decrease in myofiber size and number and a diminished ability of satellite cells to activate and proliferate upon injury leading to impaired muscle remodeling. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are unknown, it is tempting to hypothesize that interplay between biological and environmental factors cooperate in a positive feedback cycle contributing to the progression of sarcopenia. Indeed many essential biological mechanisms such as apoptosis and autophagy and critical signaling pathways involved in skeletal muscle homeostasis are altered during aging and have been linked to loss of muscle mass. Moreover, the environmental effects of the sedentary lifestyle of older people further promote and contribute the loss of muscle mass. There are currently no widely accepted therapeutic strategies to halt or reverse the progression of sarcopenia. Caloric restriction has been shown to be beneficial as a sarcopenia and aging antagonist. Such results have made the search for caloric restriction mimetics (CRM) a priority. However given the mechanisms of action, some of the currently investigated CRMs may not combat sarcopenia. Thus, sarcopenia may represent a unique phenotypic feature of aging that requires specific and individually tailored therapeutic strategies.

  16. One Size Fits All: Evaluation of the Transferability of a New "Learning" Histologic Image Analysis Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Janine; Homeyer, André; Sänger, Constanze; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of histologic slides is of importance for pathology and also to address surgical questions. Recently, a novel application was developed for the automated quantification of whole-slide images. The aim of this study was to test and validate the underlying image analysis algorithm with respect to user friendliness, accuracy, and transferability to different histologic scenarios. The algorithm splits the images into tiles of a predetermined size and identifies the tissue class of each tile. In the training procedure, the user specifies example tiles of the different tissue classes. In the subsequent analysis procedure, the algorithm classifies each tile into the previously specified classes. User friendliness was evaluated by recording training time and testing reproducibility of the training procedure of users with different background. Accuracy was determined with respect to single and batch analysis. Transferability was demonstrated by analyzing tissue of different organs (rat liver, kidney, small bowel, and spleen) and with different stainings (glutamine synthetase and hematoxylin-eosin). Users of different educational background could apply the program efficiently after a short introduction. When analyzing images with similar properties, accuracy of >90% was reached in single images as well as in batch mode. We demonstrated that the novel application is user friendly and very accurate. With the "training" procedure the application can be adapted to novel image characteristics simply by giving examples of relevant tissue structures. Therefore, it is suitable for the fast and efficient analysis of high numbers of fully digitalized histologic sections, potentially allowing "high-throughput" quantitative "histomic" analysis.

  17. Reducing sample size by combining superiority and non-inferiority for two primary endpoints in the Social Fitness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkers, Hanneke; Graff, Maud; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Teerenstra, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In randomized controlled trials, two endpoints may be necessary to capture the multidimensional concept of the intervention and the objectives of the study adequately. We show how to calculate sample size when defining success of a trial by combinations of superiority and/or non-inferiority aims for the endpoints. The randomized controlled trial design of the Social Fitness study uses two primary endpoints, which can be combined into five different scenarios for defining success of the trial. We show how to calculate power and sample size for each scenario and compare these for different settings of power of each endpoint and correlation between them. Compared to a single primary endpoint, using two primary endpoints often gives more power when success is defined as: improvement in one of the two endpoints and no deterioration in the other. This also gives better power than when success is defined as: improvement in one prespecified endpoint and no deterioration in the remaining endpoint. When two primary endpoints are equally important, but a positive effect in both simultaneously is not per se required, the objective of having one superior and the other (at least) non-inferior could make sense and reduce sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does a variation in self-reported physical activity reflect variation in objectively measured physical activity, resting heart rate, and physical fitness? Results from the Tromso study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Degerstrøm, Jorid; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between self-reported physical activity (PA) and objectively measured PA, resting heart rate, and physical fitness. METHODS: During 2007-08, 5017 men and 5607 women aged 30-69 years attended the sixth survey of the Tromsø study. Self-reported PA during leisure......-time and work were assessed and resting heart rate was measured. In a sub-study, the activity study, PA (Actigraph LLC) and physical fitness (VO₂(max)) were objectively measured among 313 healthy men and women aged 40-44 years. RESULTS: Self-reported leisure PA was significantly correlated with VO₂(max) (ml...... women than men met the international recommendations of 10,000 step counts/day (27% vs. 22%) and the recommendation of at least 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous intensities (30% vs. 22 %). CONCLUSIONS: The Tromsø physical activity questionnaire has acceptable validity and provides valid estimates...

  19. Impact of lipoprotein(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) isoform size on risk of coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopewell, J. C.; Seedorf, U.; Farrall, M.; Parish, S.; Kyriakou, T.; Goel, A.; Hamsten, A.; Collins, R.; Watkins, H.; Clarke, R.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.

    Objectives. Observational and genetic studies have shown that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and apolipoprotein( a) [apo(a)] isoform size are both associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but the relative independence of these risk factors remains unclear. Clarification of this uncertainty

  20. One Size Fits All? The Validity of a Composite Poverty Index Across Urban and Rural Households in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Janina Isabel; Cluver, Lucie Dale; Melendez-Torres, G J; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Composite indices have been prominently used in poverty research. However, validity of these indices remains subject to debate. This paper examines the validity of a common type of composite poverty indices using data from a cross-sectional survey of 2477 households in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Multiple-group comparisons in structural equation modelling were employed for testing differences in the measurement model across urban and rural groups. The analysis revealed substantial variations between urban and rural respondents both in the conceptualisation of poverty as well as in the weights and importance assigned to individual poverty indicators. The validity of a 'one size fits all' measurement model can therefore not be confirmed. In consequence, it becomes virtually impossible to determine a household's poverty level relative to the full sample. Findings from our analysis have important practical implications in nuancing how we can sensitively use composite poverty indices to identify poor people.

  1. One Size Fits All?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Bugge, Markus; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø

    2010-01-01

    to examine whether Florida’s theory proves fruitful in a context different from the US. Based on qualitative data, the paper analyses the role of people climate and business climate for the location of the creative class and firms in three different kinds of regions in four Nordic countries. The analyses...... demonstrate that the people climate tends to be of secondary importance to the business climate in explaining the location of the Nordic creative class. This should be seen as a result of the urban hierarchy within the Nordic countries as well as a strong welfare policy, which ensures an equal distribution...... of public provision and supports dual career households. Together, these factors diminish the role of people climate for location choices. The study also finds that the notion of people climate has different meanings in various places, and what attracts or repels the creative class depends on the life...

  2. Left Atrial Size and Function in a Canine Model of Chronic Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Adam; Kusunose, Kenya; Qamruddin, Salima; Rodriguez, L. Leonardo; Mazgalev, Todor N.; Griffin, Brian P.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Zhang, Youhua; Popović, Zoran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Our aim was to assess how atrial fibrillation (AF) induction, chronicity, and RR interval irregularity affect left atrial (LA) function and size in the setting of underlying heart failure (HF), and to determine whether AF effects can be mitigated by vagal nerve stimulation (VNS). Methods HF was induced by 4-weeks of rapid ventricular pacing in 24 dogs. Subsequently, AF was induced and maintained by atrial pacing at 600 bpm. Dogs were randomized into control (n = 9) and VNS (n = 15) groups. In the VNS group, atrioventricular node fat pad stimulation (310 μs, 20 Hz, 3–7 mA) was delivered continuously for 6 months. LA volume and LA strain data were calculated from bi-weekly echocardiograms. Results RR intervals decreased with HF in both groups (p = 0.001), and decreased further during AF in control group (p = 0.014), with a non-significant increase in the VNS group during AF. LA size increased with HF (p<0.0001), with no additional increase during AF. LA strain decreased with HF (p = 0.025) and further decreased after induction of AF (p = 0.0001). LA strain decreased less (p = 0.001) in the VNS than in the control group. Beat-by-beat analysis showed a curvilinear increase of LA strain with longer preceding RR interval, (r = 0.45, p <0.0001) with LA strain 1.1% higher (p = 0.02) in the VNS-treated animals, independent of preceding RR interval duration. The curvilinear relationship between ratio of preceding and pre-preceding RR intervals, and subsequent LA strain was weaker, (r = 0.28, p = 0.001). However, VNS-treated animals again had higher LA strain (by 2.2%, p = 0.002) independently of the ratio of preceding and pre-preceding RR intervals. Conclusions In the underlying presence of pacing-induced HF, AF decreased LA strain, with little impact on LA size. LA strain depends on the preceding RR interval duration. PMID:26771573

  3. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    , smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, physical work demands, leisure-time physical activity, and social class - showed a substantially reduced risk for IHD mortality among employees who were intermediately fit [VO (2)Max range 25-36; hazard ratio (HR) 0.54, 95% confidence......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHOD: We carried out a 30-year...... physical work demands and leisure-time physical activity using a self-reported questionnaire. Results Among 274 men with a history of CVD, 93 men died from IHD. Using male employees with a history of CVD and a low level of fitness as the reference group, our Cox analyses - adjusted for age, blood pressure...

  4. Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, U; Anderssen, S A; Froberg, K

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with a favourable metabolic risk profile. However, there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contributions of cardiorespiratory fitness and subcomponents of activity (total PA...... the association between activity and clustered risk is independent of adiposity. Our results suggest that fitness and activity affect metabolic risk through different pathways....

  5. The effect of progressive resistance training on aerobic fitness and strength in adults with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Matthew; Mavros, Yorgi; Freeston, Jonathan; Fiatarone Singh, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Design We aimed to evaluate the effect of progressive resistance training on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength in coronary heart disease, when compared to control or aerobic training, and when combined with aerobic training. Secondary aims were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of progressive resistance training on other physiological and clinical outcomes. Methods and results Electronic databases were searched from inception until July 2016. Designs included progressive resistance training vs control, progressive resistance training vs aerobic training, and combined training vs aerobic training. From 268,778 titles, 34 studies were included (1940 participants; 71.9% male; age 60 ± 7 years). Progressive resistance training was more effective than control for lower (standardized mean difference 0.57, 95% confidence interval (0.17-0.96)) and upper (1.43 (0.73-2.13)) body strength. Aerobic fitness improved similarly after progressive resistance training (16.9%) or aerobic training (21.0%); (standardized mean difference -0.13, 95% confidence interval (-0.35-0.08)). Combined training was more effective than aerobic training for aerobic fitness (0.21 (0.09-0.34), lower (0.62 (0.32-0.92)) and upper (0.51 (0.27-0.74)) body strength. Twenty studies reported adverse event information, with five reporting 64 cardiovascular complications, 63 during aerobic training. Conclusion Isolated progressive resistance training resulted in an increase in lower and upper body strength, and improved aerobic fitness to a similar degree as aerobic training in coronary heart disease cohorts. Importantly, when progressive resistance training was added to aerobic training, effects on both fitness and strength were enhanced compared to aerobic training alone. Reporting of adverse events was poor, and clinical gaps were identified for women, older adults, high intensity progressive resistance training and long-term outcomes, warranting future trials to confirm safety and

  6. One Size May Not Fit All: How Obesity Among Mexican-Origin Youth Varies by Generation, Gender, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Michelle L; Quiros, Susana; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Immigrants' health (dis)advantages are increasingly recognized as not being uniform, leading to calls for studies investigating whether immigrant health outcomes are dependent on factors that exacerbate health risks. We answer this call, considering an outcome with competing evidence about immigrants' vulnerability versus risk: childhood obesity. More specifically, we investigate obesity among three generations of Mexican-origin youth relative to one another and to U.S.-born whites. We posit that risk is dependent on the intersection of generational status, gender, and age, which all influence exposure to U.S. society and weight concerns. Analyses of National Health and Nutrition Examination Studies (NHANES) data suggest that accounting for ethnicity and generation alone misses considerable gender and age heterogeneity in childhood obesity among Mexican-origin and white youth. For example, second-generation boys are vulnerable to obesity, but the odds of obesity for first-generation girls are low and on par with those of white girls. Findings also indicate that age moderates ethnic/generational differences in obesity among boys but not among girls. Overall, ethnic/generational patterns of childhood obesity do not conform to a "one size fits all" theory of immigrant health (dis)advantage, leading us to join calls for more research considering how immigrants' characteristics and contexts differentially shape vulnerability to disease and death.

  7. Particulate face masks for protection against airborne pathogens - one size does not fit all: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Susan; Thomas, Jane H; Stephens, Dianne P; Davis, Joshua S

    2010-03-01

    To determine the proportion of hospital staff who pass fit tests with each of three commonly used particulate face masks, and factors influencing preference and fit test results. Observational study. 50 healthy hospital staff volunteers in an 18-bed general intensive care unit in an Australian teaching hospital. Participants were administered a questionnaire about mask use and their preferred mask and underwent qualitative fit-testing with each of three different particulate masks: Kimberly-Clark Tecnol FluidShield N95 particulate filter respirator (KC), 3M Flat Fold 9320 particulate respirator and 3M 8822 particulate respirator with exhalation valve. Participants who failed fittesting were trained in correct mask donning, and fittesting was repeated. Proportion of participants who passed the fit test for each mask and the effect of training. The proportion of participants who passed a fit test was low for all three masks tested (KC, 16%; flat fold, 28%; and valved, 34%). Rates improved after training: the first mask tested fitted in 18% of participants pre-training and 40% post-training (P = 0.02). None of the masks fitted for 28% of participants. There were no significant predictors of fit-test results. A large proportion of individuals failed a fit test with any given mask, and we were not able to identify any factors that predicted mask fit in individuals. Training on mask use improved the rates of adequate fit. Hospitals should carry a range of P2 masks, and should conduct systematic P2 mask training and fit-testing programs for all staff potentially exposed to airborne pathogens.

  8. Long work hours and physical fitness: 30-year risk of ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among middle-aged Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann; Søgaard, Karen; Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul

    2010-10-01

    No previous long-term studies have examined if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to long work hours. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. The study comprised 30-year follow-up of a cohort of 5249 gainfully employed men aged 40-59years in the Copenhagen Male Study. 274 men with cardiovascular disease were excluded from the follow-up. Physical fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, Vo(2)max) was estimated using the Åstrand bicycle ergometer test, and number of work hours was obtained from questionnaire items; 4943 men were eligible for the incidence study. 587 men (11.9%) died because of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Cox analyses adjusted for age, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, physical work demands, and social class, showed that working more than 45h/week was associated with an increased risk of IHD mortality in the least fit (Vo(2)max range 15-26; HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.73), but not intermediate (Vo(2)max range 27-38; HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.51) and most fit men (Vo(2)max range 39-78; HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.02) referencing men working less than 40h/week. The findings indicate that men with low physical fitness are at increased risk for IHD mortality from working long hours. Men working long hours should be physically fit.

  9. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  10. Diabetes Increases Cryoinjury Size with Associated Effects on Cx43 Gap Junction Function and Phosphorylation in the Mouse Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinus, Joseph A; Gourdie, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients develop larger myocardial infarctions and have an increased risk of death following a heart attack. The poor response to myocardial injury in the diabetic heart is likely related to the many metabolic derangements from diabetes that create a poor substrate in general for wound healing, response to injury and infection. Studies in rodents have implicated a role for the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in regulating the injury response in diabetic skin wounds. In this study, we sought to determine whether diabetes alters Cx43 molecular interactions or intracellular communication in the cryoinjured STZ type I diabetic mouse heart. We found that epicardial cryoinjury size is increased in diabetic mice and this increase is prevented by preinjury insulin administration. Consistent with these findings, we found that intercellular coupling via gap junctions is decreased after insulin administration in diabetic and nondiabetic mice. This decrease in coupling is associated with a concomitant increase in phosphorylation of Cx43 at serine 368, a residue known to decrease channel conductance. Taken together, our results suggest that insulin regulates both gap junction-mediated intercellular communication and injury propagation in the mouse heart.

  11. A 45-second self-test for cardiorespiratory fitness: heart rate-based estimation in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, F.; Bonato, M.; Papini, G.; Bosio, A.; Mohammed, R.; Bonomi, A.G.; Moore, J.P.; Merati, G.; Della Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up

  12. Heart rate response and fitness effects of various types of physical education for 8- to 9-year-old schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Williams, Craig A; Hornstrup, Therese

    2014-01-01

    -to-moderate aerobic intensity. HR was recorded during small-sided indoor soccer (SO), basketball (BB), unihockey (UH), circuit training (CT), walking (W) and Nintendo Wii Boxing (NWB) and Nintendo Wii Tennis (NWT). Maximal HR (HRmax) and physical fitness was determined by the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1...

  13. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  14. Investigation of Positional Differences in Fitness of Male University Ice Hockey Players and the Frequency, Time Spent and Heart Rate of Movement Patterns during Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Men’s university ice hockey has received little scientific attention over the past 30 years, a time in which the traits of the players and the demands of the game have evolved.  Objectives: This study compared the physiological characteristics of university ice hockey players and examined the frequency and duration of the different movement patterns and heart rate (HR responses during competition. Methods: Twenty male ice hockey players from the same team ( age ± SD = 22±2 years underwent a fitness evaluation and were filmed and HR monitored during regular season games. Results: Forwards and defense had similar fitness and only differed on % fatigue index and peak heart during on-ice sprinting (P<0.05. Defense stood, glided and skated backwards more than forwards and forwards skated at a moderate intensity and glided forward more than defense (P<0.05. All players spent the majority of game time gliding forward (60% of the time followed by skating forward at a moderate intensity (17% and standing with little movement (9%. Average HR during the game reached 96 and 92 % and peak HR was 100 and 96 % of maximum in forwards and defense, respectively. Conclusions: Male university hockey players present with a high level of physical fitness in a variety of categories with few differences between forwards and defense. Movement patterns during games suggest that players are performing low to moderate intensity on-ice activities the majority of the time. Paradoxically, HR continues to climb to near maximum during on ice shifts.

  15. ROC generated thresholds for field-assessed aerobic fitness related to body size and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M Boddy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1. to investigate whether 20 m multi-stage shuttle run performance (20mSRT, an indirect measure of aerobic fitness, could discriminate between healthy and overweight status in 9-10.9 yr old schoolchildren using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis; 2. Investigate if cardiometabolic risk differed by aerobic fitness group by applying the ROC cut point to a second, cross-sectional cohort. DESIGN: Analysis of cross-sectional data. PARTICIPANTS: 16,619 9-10.9 year old participants from SportsLinx project and 300 11-13.9 year old participants from the Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study. OUTCOME MEASURES: SportsLinx; 20mSRT, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, subscapular and superilliac skinfold thicknesses. Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study; 20mSRT performance, waist circumference, and clustered cardiometabolic risk. ANALYSES: Three ROC curve analyses were completed, each using 20mSRT performance with ROC curve 1 related to BMI, curve 2 was related to waist circumference and 3 was related to skinfolds (estimated % body fat. These were repeated for both girls and boys. The mean of the three aerobic fitness thresholds was retained for analysis. The thresholds were subsequently applied to clustered cardiometabolic risk data from the Welsh Schools study to assess whether risk differed by aerobic fitness group. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of the ROC generated thresholds was higher than would be expected by chance (all models AUC >0.7. The mean thresholds were 33 and 25 shuttles for boys and girls respectively. Participants classified as 'fit' had significantly lower cardiometabolic risk scores in comparison to those classed as unfit (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The use of the ROC generated cut points by health professionals, teachers and coaches may provide the opportunity to apply population level 'risk identification and stratification' processes and plan for "at-risk" children to be referred onto intervention

  16. Variability of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes with quantitative gated SPECT: influence of algorithm, pixel size and reconstruction parameters in small and normal-sized hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambye, Anne-Sophie; Vervaet, Ann; Dobbeleir, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Several software packages are commercially available for quantification of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes from myocardial gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), all of which display a high reproducibility. However, their accuracy has been questioned in patients with a small heart. This study aimed to evaluate the performances of different software and the influence of modifications in acquisition or reconstruction parameters on LVEF and volume measurements, depending on the heart size. In 31 patients referred for gated SPECT, 64 2 and 128 2 matrix acquisitions were consecutively obtained. After reconstruction by filtered back-projection (Butterworth, 0.4, 0.5 or 0.6 cycles/cm cut-off, order 6), LVEF and volumes were computed with different software [three versions of Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS), the Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECT) and the Stanford University (SU-Segami) Medical School algorithm] and processing workstations. Depending upon their end-systolic volume (ESV), patients were classified into two groups: group I (ESV>30 ml, n=14) and group II (ESV 2 to 128 2 were associated with significantly larger volumes as well as lower LVEF values. Increasing the filter cut-off frequency had the same effect. With SU-Segami, a larger matrix was associated with larger end-diastolic volumes and smaller ESVs, resulting in a highly significant increase in LVEF. Increasing the filter sharpness, on the other hand, had no influence on LVEF though the measured volumes were significantly larger. (orig.)

  17. Hip Hip Hurrah! Hip size inversely related to heart disease and total mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Lissner, L

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a series of published reports have examined the value of studying the relation between hip circumferences and cardiovascular end points. Specifically, in a series of recent studies the independent effects of hip circumference have been studied after adjustment for general o...... for women than men, but is evident in both genders. In this 'viewpoint', we wish to draw attention to the emerging body of evidence and to encourage researchers to continue collecting measures of lower body size in their surveys....... obesity and/or waist circumference. These studies have been remarkable in terms of their consistency, and in the unexpected finding of an adverse effect of small hip size, after statistically correcting for differences in general and abdominal size. The hazard related to a small hip size may be stronger...

  18. Dietary Fat, Sugar Consumption, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Carbone, MS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is associated with obesity and, indirectly, with unhealthy diet. The role of dietary components in HFpEF is, however, largely unknown. In this study, the authors showed that in obese HFpEF patients, consumption of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness, and UFA consumption correlated with better diastolic function and with greater fat-free mass. Similarly, mice fed with a high-fat diet rich in UFA and low in sugars had preserved myocardial function and reduced weight gain. Randomized clinical trials increasing dietary UFA consumption and reducing sugar consumption are warranted to confirm and expand our findings.

  19. Targets for parathyroid hormone in secondary hyperparathyroidism: is a “one-size-fits-all” approach appropriate? A prospective incident cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Laurain, Emmanuelle; Ayav, Carole; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Kessler, Michèle; Briançon, Serge; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) consider that a “one-size-fits-all” target enables efficacy of care. In routine clinical practice, SHPT continues to pose diagnosis and treatment challenges. One hypothesis that could explain these difficulties is that dialysis population with SHPT is not homogeneous. Methods EPHEYL is a prospective, multicenter, pharmacoepidemiological study including chronic dialysis patients (≥3 months) with newly SHPT diagnosis, i.e. para...

  20. Supra-annular structure assessment for self-expanding transcatheter heart valve size selection in patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbao; He, Yuxin; Zhu, Qifeng; Gao, Feng; He, Wei; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Qijing; Kong, Minjian; Wang, Jian'an

    2018-04-01

    To explore assessment of supra-annular structure for self-expanding transcatheter heart valve (THV) size selection in patients with bicuspid aortic stenosis (AS). Annulus-based device selection from CT measurement is the standard sizing strategy for tricuspid aortic valve before transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Because of supra-annular deformity, device selection for bicuspid AS has not been systemically studied. Twelve patients with bicuspid AS who underwent TAVR with self-expanding THVs were included in this study. To assess supra-annular structure, sequential balloon aortic valvuloplasty was performed in every 2 mm increments until waist sign occurred with less than mild regurgitation. Procedural results and 30 day follow-up outcomes were analyzed. Seven patients (58.3%) with 18 mm; three patients (25%) with sequential 18 mm, 20 mm; and only two patients (16.7%) with sequential 18 mm, 20 mm, and 22 mm balloon sizing were performed, respectively. According to the results of supra-annular assessment, a smaller device size (91.7%) was selected in all but one patient compared with annulus based sizing strategy, and the outcomes were satisfactory with 100% procedural success. No mortality and 1 minor stroke were observed at 30 d follow-up. The percentage of NYHA III/IV decreased from 83.3% (9/12) to 16.7% (2/12). No new permanent pacemaker implantation and no moderate or severe paravalvular leakage were found. A supra-annular structure based sizing strategy is feasible for TAVR in patients with bicuspid AS. © 2018 The Authors Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Peer mentoring is associated with positive change in physical activity and aerobic fitness of grades 4, 5, and 6 students in the heart healthy kids program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca A; Bower, Jenna; Kirk, Sara F L; Hancock Friesen, Camille

    2014-11-01

    Only 7% of Canadian children achieve activity recommendations, contributing to obesity and preventable disease. The Heart Healthy Kids (H2K) program was designed to test the relationship between peer mentoring, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness. Participants from 10 schools (5 control, 5 intervention) were enrolled in the program. In control schools, H2K included a physical activity challenge and education sessions. Intervention schools included the addition of a peer-mentoring component. Physical activity was measured through daily pedometer recording. Cardiovascular fitness was evaluated using the PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) protocol to calculate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Participants included 808 children (average age 9.9 ± 1.0 years). Although control and intervention schools did not differ at baseline, participants with peer mentoring logged significantly more steps per school day, on average, than those in control schools (6,785 ± 3,011 vs. 5,630 ± 2,586; p peer mentoring shows promise for application in health promotion interventions. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Cyclosporine A at reperfusion fails to reduce infarct size in the in vivo rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paulis, Damien; Chiari, Pascal; Teixeira, Geoffrey; Couture-Lepetit, Elisabeth; Abrial, Maryline; Argaud, Laurent; Gharib, Abdallah; Ovize, Michel

    2013-09-01

    We examined the effects on infarct size and mitochondrial function of ischemic (Isch), cyclosporine A (CsA) and isoflurane (Iso) preconditioning and postconditioning in the in vivo rat model. Anesthetized open-chest rats underwent 30 min of ischemia followed by either 120 min (protocol 1: infarct size assessment) or 15 min of reperfusion (protocol 2: assessment of mitochondrial function). All treatments administered before the 30-min ischemia (Pre-Isch, Pre-CsA, Pre-Iso) significantly reduced infarct as compared to control. In contrast, only Post-Iso significantly reduced infarct size, while Post-Isch and Post-CsA had no significant protective effect. As for the postconditioning-like interventions, the mitochondrial calcium retention capacity significantly increased only in the Post-Iso group (+58 % vs control) after succinate activation. Only Post-Iso increased state 3 (+177 and +62 %, for G/M and succinate, respectively) when compared to control. Also, Post-Iso reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production (-46 % vs control) after complex I activation. This study suggests that isoflurane, but not cyclosporine A, can prevent lethal reperfusion injury in this in vivo rat model. This might be related to the need for a combined effect on cyclophilin D and complex I during the first minutes of reperfusion.

  3. Radiographic evaluation of caudal vena cava size as a useful parameter for the diagnosis of heart disease in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilintai; Hashiyama, S.; Gonda, Y.; Ishikawa, H.; Sato, M.; Miyahara, K.

    2006-01-01

    To quantify the radiographic parameters of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in healthy cattle and demonstrate their clinical usefulness, the present study compared the ratios of the diameter of the thoracic CVC to the diameter of the aorta (Ao) and length of the thoracic vertebrae (VL), which are all positioned in the same intercostal space, in 81 healthy control cattle (43 growing, 38 adult) and 10 cattle with heart disease. The average diameter of the CVC (CVCave) was correlated with the size of the Ao and VL in the control cows. Although the diameter and pulsation index of the CVC differed significantly between the growing and adult cows, the ratios of CVC/Ao and CVC/VL were fixed values for both the growing and mature cattle. However, in the cattle with heart disease, the pulsation index of the CVC was significantly lower or there was absence of pulsation due to a dilated CVC, and the ratio of CVCave/Ao and CVCave/VL were significantly higher than those in the healthy cattle

  4. Sexual size dimorphism, canine dimorphism, and male-male competition in primates: where do humans fit in?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcan, J Michael

    2012-03-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is generally associated with sexual selection via agonistic male competition in nonhuman primates. These primate models play an important role in understanding the origins and evolution of human behavior. Human size dimorphism is often hypothesized to be associated with high rates of male violence and polygyny. This raises the question of whether human dimorphism and patterns of male violence are inherited from a common ancestor with chimpanzees or are uniquely derived. Here I review patterns of, and causal models for, dimorphism in humans and other primates. While dimorphism in primates is associated with agonistic male mate competition, a variety of factors can affect male and female size, and thereby dimorphism. The causes of human sexual size dimorphism are uncertain, and could involve several non-mutually-exclusive mechanisms, such as mate competition, resource competition, intergroup violence, and female choice. A phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolution of dimorphism, including fossil hominins, indicates that the modern human condition is derived. This suggests that at least some behavioral similarities with Pan associated with dimorphism may have arisen independently, and not directly from a common ancestor.

  5. Auxotonic to isometric contraction transitioning in a beating heart causes myosin step-size to down shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Burghardt

    Full Text Available Myosin motors in cardiac ventriculum convert ATP free energy to the work of moving blood volume under pressure. The actin bound motor cyclically rotates its lever-arm/light-chain complex linking motor generated torque to the myosin filament backbone and translating actin against resisting force. Previous research showed that the unloaded in vitro motor is described with high precision by single molecule mechanical characteristics including unitary step-sizes of approximately 3, 5, and 8 nm and their relative step-frequencies of approximately 13, 50, and 37%. The 3 and 8 nm unitary step-sizes are dependent on myosin essential light chain (ELC N-terminus actin binding. Step-size and step-frequency quantitation specifies in vitro motor function including duty-ratio, power, and strain sensitivity metrics. In vivo, motors integrated into the muscle sarcomere form the more complex and hierarchically functioning muscle machine. The goal of the research reported here is to measure single myosin step-size and step-frequency in vivo to assess how tissue integration impacts motor function. A photoactivatable GFP tags the ventriculum myosin lever-arm/light-chain complex in the beating heart of a live zebrafish embryo. Detected single GFP emission reports time-resolved myosin lever-arm orientation interpreted as step-size and step-frequency providing single myosin mechanical characteristics over the active cycle. Following step-frequency of cardiac ventriculum myosin transitioning from low to high force in relaxed to auxotonic to isometric contraction phases indicates that the imposition of resisting force during contraction causes the motor to down-shift to the 3 nm step-size accounting for >80% of all the steps in the near-isometric phase. At peak force, the ATP initiated actomyosin dissociation is the predominant strain inhibited transition in the native myosin contraction cycle. The proposed model for motor down-shifting and strain sensing involves ELC N

  6. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  7. Matching Ge detector element geometry to sample size and shape: One does not fit all exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, R.M.; Twomey, T.R.; Sangsingkeow, P.

    1998-01-01

    For 25 yr, coaxial germanium detector performance has been specified using the methods and values specified in Ref. 1. These specifications are the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), FW.1M, FW.02M, peak-to-Compton ratio, and relative efficiency. All of these measurements are made with a 60 Co source 25 cm from the cryostat endcap and centered on the axis of the detector. These measurements are easy to reproduce, both because they are simple to set up and use a common source. These standard tests have been useful in guiding the user to an appropriate detector choice for the intended measurement. Most users of germanium gamma-ray detectors do not make measurements in this simple geometry. Germanium detector manufacturers have worked over the years to make detectors with better resolution, better peak-to-Compton ratios, and higher efficiency--but all based on measurements using the IEEE standard. Advances in germanium crystal growth techniques have made it relatively easy to provide detector elements of different shapes and sizes. Many of these different shapes and sizes can give better results for a specific application than other shapes and sizes. But, the detector specifications must be changed to correspond to the actual application. Both the expected values and the actual parameters to be specified should be changed. In many cases, detection efficiency, peak shape, and minimum detectable limit for a particular detector/sample combination are valuable specifications of detector performance. For other situations, other parameters are important, such as peak shape as a function of count rate. In this work, different sample geometries were considered. The results show the variation in efficiency with energy for all of these sample and detector geometries. The point source at 25 cm from the endcap measurement allows the results to be compared with the currently given IEEE criteria. The best sample/detector configuration for a specific measurement requires more and

  8. Fat is fashionable and fit: A comparative content analysis of Fatspiration and Health at Every Size® Instagram images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Vinoski, Erin R; Bonar, Adrienne S; Davies, Alexandria E; Etzel, Lena

    2017-09-01

    In step with the proliferation of Thinspiration and Fitspiration content disseminated in popular web-based media, the fat acceptance movement has garnered heightened visibility within mainstream culture via the burgeoning Fatosphere weblog community. The present study extended previous Fatosphere research by comparing the shared and distinct strategies used to represent and motivate a fat-accepting lifestyle among 400 images sourced from Fatspiration- and Health at Every Size ® -themed hashtags on Instagram. Images were systematically analyzed for the socio-demographic and body size attributes of the individuals portrayed alongside content reflecting dimensions of general fat acceptance, physical appearance pride, physical activity and health, fat shaming, and eating and weight loss-related themes. #fatspiration/#fatspo-tagged images more frequently promoted fat acceptance through fashion and beauty-related activism; #healthateverysize/#haes posts more often featured physically-active portrayals, holistic well-being, and weight stigma. Findings provide insight into the common and unique motivational factors and contradictory messages encountered in these fat-accepting social media communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of a transdiagnostic Internet intervention for individuals with panic and phobias - One size fits all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johanna; Jelinek, Lena; Moritz, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    Many individuals with anxiety disorders do not receive professional treatment. Internet interventions have shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety. The present randomized controlled trial was designed to examine the effectiveness of a short-term (4-week) Internet intervention in treating panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias ('ConfID'). We addressed the questions of whether this transdiagnostic program would affect these disorders to varying degrees and whether there would be moderators of effectiveness. Adults who were recruited in online forums for anxiety underwent an online baseline assessment (N = 179) and were randomized either to the intervention group (ConfID) or the control group (care as usual). Online post-assessment took place 4 weeks later. The primary outcome was assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI); the secondary outcomes targeted the disorder-specific symptoms, depression, and somatization. Participants in the intervention group showed a significantly stronger anxiety reduction compared to participants receiving care as usual (small-to-medium effect size between groups in intention-to-treat analysis). The treatment effect was similar for the different disorders and was moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Secondary outcomes yielded effect sizes in the medium range. Moderate treatment adherence, lack of measures beyond online self-reports, and unavailability of long-term results. The study provides further evidence that transdiagnostic Internet interventions are promising in reducing the existing treatment gap in individuals with panic disorder and phobias. Results extend previous findings by showing that significant effects can also be reached by comprehensive short-term programs and that the effects might be moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. When one size does not fit all: a simple statistical method to deal with across-individual variations of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindras, Philippe; Desmurget, Michel; Baraduc, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In science, it is a common experience to discover that although the investigated effect is very clear in some individuals, statistical tests are not significant because the effect is null or even opposite in other individuals. Indeed, t-tests, Anovas and linear regressions compare the average effect with respect to its inter-individual variability, so that they can fail to evidence a factor that has a high effect in many individuals (with respect to the intra-individual variability). In such paradoxical situations, statistical tools are at odds with the researcher's aim to uncover any factor that affects individual behavior, and not only those with stereotypical effects. In order to go beyond the reductive and sometimes illusory description of the average behavior, we propose a simple statistical method: applying a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess whether the distribution of p-values provided by individual tests is significantly biased towards zero. Using Monte-Carlo studies, we assess the power of this two-step procedure with respect to RM Anova and multilevel mixed-effect analyses, and probe its robustness when individual data violate the assumption of normality and homoscedasticity. We find that the method is powerful and robust even with small sample sizes for which multilevel methods reach their limits. In contrast to existing methods for combining p-values, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has unique resistance to outlier individuals: it cannot yield significance based on a high effect in one or two exceptional individuals, which allows drawing valid population inferences. The simplicity and ease of use of our method facilitates the identification of factors that would otherwise be overlooked because they affect individual behavior in significant but variable ways, and its power and reliability with small sample sizes (<30-50 individuals) suggest it as a tool of choice in exploratory studies.

  11. When one size does not fit all: a simple statistical method to deal with across-individual variations of effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Vindras

    Full Text Available In science, it is a common experience to discover that although the investigated effect is very clear in some individuals, statistical tests are not significant because the effect is null or even opposite in other individuals. Indeed, t-tests, Anovas and linear regressions compare the average effect with respect to its inter-individual variability, so that they can fail to evidence a factor that has a high effect in many individuals (with respect to the intra-individual variability. In such paradoxical situations, statistical tools are at odds with the researcher's aim to uncover any factor that affects individual behavior, and not only those with stereotypical effects. In order to go beyond the reductive and sometimes illusory description of the average behavior, we propose a simple statistical method: applying a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess whether the distribution of p-values provided by individual tests is significantly biased towards zero. Using Monte-Carlo studies, we assess the power of this two-step procedure with respect to RM Anova and multilevel mixed-effect analyses, and probe its robustness when individual data violate the assumption of normality and homoscedasticity. We find that the method is powerful and robust even with small sample sizes for which multilevel methods reach their limits. In contrast to existing methods for combining p-values, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has unique resistance to outlier individuals: it cannot yield significance based on a high effect in one or two exceptional individuals, which allows drawing valid population inferences. The simplicity and ease of use of our method facilitates the identification of factors that would otherwise be overlooked because they affect individual behavior in significant but variable ways, and its power and reliability with small sample sizes (<30-50 individuals suggest it as a tool of choice in exploratory studies.

  12. Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisala, Tiina; Mutikainen, Sara; Tolvanen, Asko; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26-40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed.

  13. Effects of timolol maleate, levobunolol and apraclonidine on intraocular pressure, pupil size, blood pressure and heart rate in beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R.M. Padua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in intraocular pressure (IOP, pupil size (PS, blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, and ECG variables (Pms wave PmV, PR interval, QRS complex, RMV wave and QT intervals over time during the instillation of 0.5% timolol, 0.5% levobunolol and 0.5% apraclonidine in clinically normal dogs. Ten adult beagles were used. Baseline values were measured at 8a.m., 2p.m. and 8p.m., for three consecutive days. A waiting period of 10 days between the administrations of each drug was established. For 15 consecutive days, the drug being tested was instilled in one eye of each dog twice a day (7a.m. and 7p.m.. The parameters were evaluated at the aforementioned times on days 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15. Data were statistically compared using the Bonferroni test and one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (P<0.05. The Pearson test was used to evaluate any correlation between QT interval, HR and BP. The tested drugs did not find a decrease in IOP. A significant decreased in PS was observed in almost all dogs following levobunolol administration, relative to the control eye. A significant decrease in HR was observed on day 3 following levobunolol treatment, while apraclonidine induced an increase on day 15. Blood pressure was reduced in all measurement time points following apraclonidine treatment. A negative correlation between QT interval and HR was only observed in dogs treated with timolol. In conclusion, levobunolol was the only drug that induced significant alterations in PS. Apraclonidine was the only drug that induced systemic hypotension. Timolol was the only drug to that induced a negative correlation between QT and HR.

  14. Competitive fitness in coronaviruses is not correlated with size or number of double-membrane vesicles under reduced-temperature growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hawaa M N; Turrell, Lauren; Smith, Nicola M; Payne, Luke; Baliji, Surendranath; Züst, Roland; Thiel, Volker; Baker, Susan C; Siddell, Stuart G; Neuman, Benjamin W

    2014-04-01

    Positive-stranded viruses synthesize their RNA in membrane-bound organelles, but it is not clear how this benefits the virus or the host. For coronaviruses, these organelles take the form of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) interconnected by a convoluted membrane network. We used electron microscopy to identify murine coronaviruses with mutations in nsp3 and nsp14 that replicated normally while producing only half the normal amount of DMVs under low-temperature growth conditions. Viruses with mutations in nsp5 and nsp16 produced small DMVs but also replicated normally. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed that the most strongly affected of these, the nsp3 mutant, produced more viral RNA than wild-type virus. Competitive growth assays were carried out in both continuous and primary cells to better understand the contribution of DMVs to viral fitness. Surprisingly, several viruses that produced fewer or smaller DMVs showed a higher fitness than wild-type virus at the reduced temperature, suggesting that larger and more numerous DMVs do not necessarily confer a competitive advantage in primary or continuous cell culture. For the first time, this directly demonstrates that replication and organelle formation may be, at least in part, studied separately during infection with positive-stranded RNA virus. IMPORTANCE The viruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), poliomyelitis, and hepatitis C all replicate in double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). The big question about DMVs is why they exist in the first place. In this study, we looked at thousands of infected cells and identified two coronavirus mutants that made half as many organelles as normal and two others that made typical numbers but smaller organelles. Despite differences in DMV size and number, all four mutants replicated as efficiently as wild-type virus. To better understand the relative importance of replicative organelles, we carried out competitive fitness experiments. None

  15. The cardioprotective effect of vanillic acid on hemodynamic parameters, malondialdehyde, and infarct size in ischemia-reperfusion isolated rat heart exposed to PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Radmanesh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Particulate matter (PM exposure can promote cardiac ischemia and myocardial damage. The effects of PM10 on hemodynamic parameters, lipid peroxidation, and infarct size induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury and the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA in isolated rat heart were investigated. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats (250–300 g were divided into 8 groups (n=10: Control, Sham, VAc, VA, PMa (0.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMb (2.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMc (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, and PMc + VA (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation; and 10 mg/kg vanillic acid, gavage for 10 days. PM10 was instilled into the trachea in two stages, within 48 hr. After isolating the hearts and transfer to a Langendorff apparatus, hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters (±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP, and RPP, production of lipid peroxidation (MDA, and infarct size were assessed. Results: A significant decrease in ±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP and RPP occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in MDA and myocardial infarct size occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in LVDP, LVSP, ±dp/dt, RPP and decrease in infarct size, MDA, and myocardial dysfunction was observed in groups that received vanillic acid after ischemia–reperfusion. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that PM10 increases MDA, as well as the percentage of cardiac infarct size, and has negative effects on hemodynamic parameters. This study suggests that vanillic acid may serve as an adjunctive treatment in delaying the progression of ischemic heart disease.

  16. Getting a New Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be able to replace it with an artificial (man-made) valve. Cardiac size reduction . During this procedure, your doctor removes a piece of the heart muscle from an enlarged heart. This makes your heart ...

  17. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  18. Transient severe tricuspid regurgitation after transplantation of an extremely oversized donor heart in a child-Does size matter? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, J; Ulrich, S M; Schramm, R; Hagl, C; Lehner, A; Fischer, M; Haas, N A; Heineking, B

    2017-02-01

    In pediatric heart transplantation, the size of the donor organ is an important criterion for organ allocation. Oversized donor hearts are often accepted with good results, but some complications in relation to a high donor-recipient ratio have been described. Our patient was transplanted for progressive heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy. The donor-to-recipient weight ratio was 3 (donor weight 65 kg, recipient weight 22 kg). The intra-operative echocardiography before chest closure showed excellent cardiac function, no tricuspid valve regurgitation, and a normal central venous pressure. After chest closure, central venous pressure increased substantially and echocardiography revealed a severe tricuspid insufficiency. As other reasons for right ventricular dysfunction, that is, myocardial ischemia, pulmonary hypertension, and rejection, were excluded, we assumed that the insufficiency was caused by an alteration of the right ventricular geometry. After 1 week, the valve insufficiency regressed to a minimal degree. In pediatric heart transplant patients with a high donor-to-recipient weight ratio, the outlined complication may occur. If other reasons for right ventricular heart failure can be ruled out, this entity is most likely caused by an acute and transient alteration of the right ventricular geometry that may disappear over time. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clinical assessment of heart chamber size and valve motion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by two-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, S; Wix, H L; Shapiro, E P

    1981-09-01

    It has been generally accepted that enhanced blood flow during closed-chest CPR is generated from compression of the heart between the sternum and the spine. To visualize the heart during closed-chest massage, we performed two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) during resuscitation efforts in four patients who had cardiac arrest. 2DE analysis showed that (1) the LV internal dimensions did not change appreciably with chest compression; (2) the mitral and aortic valves were open simultaneously during the compression phase; (3) blood flow into the right heart, as evidenced by saline bubble contrast, occurred during the relaxation phase; and (4) compression of the right ventricle and LA occurred in varying amounts in all patients. We conclude that stroke volume from the heart during CPR does not result from compression of the LV. Rather, CPR-induced improved cardiocirculatory dynamics appear to be principally the result of changes in intrathoracic pressure created by sternal compression.

  20. Experimental method to reveal the effect of rotor magnet size and air gap on artificial heart driving motor torque and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K X; Yuan, H Y; Ru, W M; Zeng, P

    2002-01-01

    To investigate experimentally the effect of rotor magnet design on artificial heart driving motor performance, seven rotors with different magnet lengths or thicknesses, as well as different peripheral angles, were manufactured and tested in the same motor stator with different rotating speeds. The input power (voltage and current) and output torque were measured and the motor efficiency was computed. The results demonstrated that the reduction of rotor magnet size and the enlargement of the air gap between the rotor magnets and the stator coil core have no significant effect on motor efficiency, but will reduce the torque value on which the motor achieves the highest efficiency; it could be remedied however by increasing the rotating speed, because the torque at the high efficiency point will increase along with the rotating speed. These results may provide a basis for developing small rotor magnets, large air gap and high efficiency motors for driving an artificial heart pump.

  1. Long work hours and physical fitness: 30-year risk of ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among middle-aged Caucasian men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    No previous long-term studies have examined if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to long work hours. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis....

  2. Physical demands at work, physical fitness, and 30-year ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    No previous long-term prospective studies have examined if workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to high physical work demands. We tested this hypothesis.......No previous long-term prospective studies have examined if workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to high physical work demands. We tested this hypothesis....

  3. Long work hours and physical fitness: 30-year risk of ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among middle-aged Caucasian men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    No previous long-term studies have examined if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to long work hours. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis.......No previous long-term studies have examined if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to long work hours. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis....

  4. Clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of palm-held, mini-sized ultrasonocardiographic scanner in congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Hung Lo

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: The diagnostic sensitivity of palm-held scanner in detecting CHD was very good. Despite both instruments having a high diagnostic score in detecting CHD, standard echocardiography had better quality. Traditional echocardiography is still the standard tool for CHD evaluation. However, the palm-held scanner can support physical examination for initial screening and follow-up, and offer cardiologists an opportunity to visualize and listen to the heart at any time.

  5. Implantation technique of the 50-cm3 SynCardia Total Artificial Heart: does size make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Guersoy, Dilek; Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Despite downsizing, implantation technique of the 50-cm(3) SynCardia Total Artificial Heart and settings of the Companion driver remain unchanged. Owing to the absence of de-airing nipples, de-airing procedure is even more crucial and has to be performed carefully. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and Outcomes by Gender and Body Size Dissatisfaction during Fitness in High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Sullivan, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background: Noteworthy proportions of adolescents--particularly females--report negatively about their experiences regarding fitness and the testing of it during physical education (PE). These accounts often coincide with lower levels of body image, fitness, motivation, and physical activity and higher rates of attrition from optional PE. Purpose:…

  7. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  8. Do physical activity and aerobic fitness moderate the association between birth weight and metabolic risk in youth? The European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Soren; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2011-01-01

    (MTI Actigraph) for >600 minutes/day for ≥3 days, and expressed as 'average activity' (counts per minute) and time spent in above moderate intensity activity (MVPA, >2000 cpm). Aerobic fitness was assessed using a maximal cycle ergometry test (watts/kg FFM). Results: Higher birth weight was associated...

  9. Physical demands at work, physical fitness, and 30-year ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen male study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: No previous long-term prospective studies have examined if workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to high physical work demands. We tested this hypothesis. Method: We carried out a 30-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study...

  10. Gestão de projetos em empresas no Brasil: abordagem "tamanho único"? Project management in companies in Brazil: a "one size fits all" approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Marques Junior

    2011-01-01

    approaches focused on a rational and normative view of project management are predominant. On the other hand, the data also indicated the presence of adaptive approach practices in the management of strategic projects suggesting that there is no "one size fits all" approach to manage projects in the companies studied.

  11. Advancements in artificial heart valve disks using nano-sized thin films deposited by CVD and sol-gel techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousar, Y.; Ali, N.; Neto, V.F.; Mei, S.; Gracio, J.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is widely used in manufacturing commercial artificial heart valve disks (HVD). Although, PyC is commonly used in HVD, it is not the best material for this application since its blood compatibility is not ideal for prolonged clinical use. As a result thrombosis often occurs and the patients are required to take anti- coagulation drugs on a regular basis in order to minimise the formation of thrombosis. However, the anti-coagulation therapy gives rise to some detrimental side effects in patients. Therefore, it is extremely urgent that newer and more technically advanced materials with better surface and bulk properties are developed. In this paper, we report the mechanical properties of PyC-HVD, namely, strength, wear resistance and coefficient of friction. The strength of the material was assessed using Brinell indentation tests. Furthermore, wear resistance and the coefficient of friction values were obtained from the pin-on-disk testing. The micro-structural properties of PyC were characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis. Also, in this paper we report the preparation of free standing nanocrystalline diamond films (FSND) using the time-modulated chemical vapor deposition (TMCVD) process. Furthermore, the sol-gel technique was used to uniformly coat PyC-HVD with dense, nanocrystalline-titanium oxide (nc-TiO/sub 2/) coatings. The as-grown nc-TiO/sub 2/ coatings were characterized for microstructure using SEM and XRD analysis. (author)

  12. UTP reduces infarct size and improves mice heart function after myocardial infarct via P2Y2 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, A; Shainberg, Asher; Hochhauser, E

    2011-01-01

    Pyrimidine nucleotides are signaling molecules, which activate G protein-coupled membrane receptors of the P2Y family. P2Y(2) and P2Y(4) receptors are part of the P2Y family, which is composed of 8 subtypes that have been cloned and functionally defined. We have previously found that uridine-5......'-triphosphate (UTP) reduces infarct size and improves cardiac function following myocardial infarct (MI). The aim of the present study was to determine the role of P2Y(2) receptor in cardiac protection following MI using knockout (KO) mice, in vivo and wild type (WT) for controls. In both experimental groups...... used (WT and P2Y(2)(-/-) receptor KO mice) there were 3 subgroups: sham, MI, and MI+UTP. 24h post MI we performed echocardiography and measured infarct size using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on all mice. Fractional shortening (FS) was higher in WT UTP-treated mice than the MI group...

  13. The use of Yo-Yo IR1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6-10 yr old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    ; grade 2, n=16) and six weeks apart by 9-10 year olds (grade 3, n=49). Grade (G) 0-2's also performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT). G2's had a better (pSD) vs 536±218 m) and Andersen test performance (10%; 1050±71 vs 955±56 m) than G0's. For G0-2's YYIR1C......-10 year old children. Additionally, submaximal YYIR1C testing can be used for frequent non-exhaustive fitness assessments....

  14. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  15. What Is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon? Page Content Article Body If your ... require heart surgery. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Heart Surgeons Have? Pediatric heart surgeons are medical ...

  16. Super, red palm and palm oleins improve the blood pressure, heart size, aortic media thickness and lipid profile in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Chee-Meng; Ng, Mei-Han; Choo, Yuen-May; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Oleic acid has been shown to lower high blood pressure and provide cardiovascular protection. Curiosity arises as to whether super olein (SO), red palm olein (RPO) and palm olein (PO), which have high oleic acid content, are able to prevent the development of hypertension. Four-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed 15% SO, RPO or PO supplemented diet for 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SHR treated with SO, RPO and PO were 158.4±5.0 mmHg (prats were not different from those of WKY controls. The SO and PO significantly reduced the increased heart size and thoracic aortic media thickness observed in untreated SHR but RPO reduced only the latter. No such differences, however, were observed between the treated and untreated WKY rats. Oil Red O enface staining of thoracic-abdominal aorta did not show any lipid deposition in all treated rats. The SO and RPO significantly raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the SHR while body weight and renal biochemical indices were unaltered in both strains. Serum lipid profiles of treated SHR and WKY rats were unchanged, with the exception of a significant reduction in LDL-C level and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (atherogenic index) in SO and RPO treated SHR compared with untreated SHR. The SO, RPO and PO attenuate the rise in blood pressure in SHR, accompanied by bradycardia and heart size reduction with SO and PO, and aortic media thickness reduction with SO, RPO and PO. The SO and RPO are antiatherogenic in nature by improving blood lipid profiles in SHR.

  17. Super, Red Palm and Palm Oleins Improve the Blood Pressure, Heart Size, Aortic Media Thickness and Lipid Profile in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Chee-Meng; Ng, Mei-Han; Choo, Yuen-May; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Background Oleic acid has been shown to lower high blood pressure and provide cardiovascular protection. Curiosity arises as to whether super olein (SO), red palm olein (RPO) and palm olein (PO), which have high oleic acid content, are able to prevent the development of hypertension. Methodology/Principal Findings Four-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed 15% SO, RPO or PO supplemented diet for 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SHR treated with SO, RPO and PO were 158.4±5.0 mmHg (p<0.001), 178.9±2.7 mmHg (p<0.001) and 167.7±2.1 mmHg (p<0.001), respectively, compared with SHR controls (220.9±1.5 mmHg). Bradycardia was observed with SO and PO. In contrast, the SBP and heart rate of treated WKY rats were not different from those of WKY controls. The SO and PO significantly reduced the increased heart size and thoracic aortic media thickness observed in untreated SHR but RPO reduced only the latter. No such differences, however, were observed between the treated and untreated WKY rats. Oil Red O enface staining of thoracic-abdominal aorta did not show any lipid deposition in all treated rats. The SO and RPO significantly raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the SHR while body weight and renal biochemical indices were unaltered in both strains. Serum lipid profiles of treated SHR and WKY rats were unchanged, with the exception of a significant reduction in LDL-C level and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (atherogenic index) in SO and RPO treated SHR compared with untreated SHR. Conclusion The SO, RPO and PO attenuate the rise in blood pressure in SHR, accompanied by bradycardia and heart size reduction with SO and PO, and aortic media thickness reduction with SO, RPO and PO. The SO and RPO are antiatherogenic in nature by improving blood lipid profiles in SHR. PMID:23409085

  18. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  19. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  20. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  1. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  2. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  3. Why do the Karo Batak prefer women with big feet? Flexible mate preferences and the notion that one size fits all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnick, Geoff

    2013-09-01

    Men may find women with small feet relative to body size more attractive because foot size reliably indexes nubility-i.e., age and parity. I collected judgments of attractiveness in response to drawings of women with varying foot sizes from a sample of 159 Karo Batak respondents from North Sumatra, Indonesia, as part of a collaborative project on foot size and attractiveness. The data revealed a contrarian preference among the Karo Batak for women with big feet. The judgments were compared with the results of an existing cross-cultural study that found a preference for women with small feet in aggregate, but a mix of small- and large-foot preferences in the societies taken individually. Using contingency table analysis, I found that ecology and less exposure to Western media were associated with a preference for women with big feet; patriarchal values were not. The findings suggest that human mating preferences may arise in response to local ecological conditions, and may persist and spread via cultural transmission. This has implications for the concept of universality espoused in some versions of evolutionary psychology.

  4. Evidenced-based, practical food portion sizes for preschool children and how they fit into a well balanced, nutritionally adequate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, J A; Emmett, P M

    2015-04-01

    Healthy eating guidelines for 1-4-year-old children are available but evidence-based portion sizes have not been specified. Parents and early-years providers are concerned about under- or over-feeding young children. The present study aimed to report detailed information about appropriate average portion size ranges and suggest a practical food plan for feeding preschool children, providing adequate nutrient intakes within energy requirements. Two sources of information were used to obtain an appropriate portion size range for the types of foods normally eaten by this age group. Median portions of a variety of foods were combined into a food plan fulfilling healthy eating guidelines regarding the number of servings from each food group. The nutrient and energy content of the plan was assessed and compared with recommended adequate nutrient intakes and percentage energy contributions from macronutrients. UK children, aged 1-4 years, taking part in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and National Diet and Nutrition Survey, were used in the present study. Portion size ranges were developed for 164 foods. The theoretical food plan using foods with high to medium nutrient density was shown to provide an adequate intake of all nutrients, except vitamin D, for which there are very few food sources. These practical food portion size ranges could be used both in early years settings and in advice to parents. The food plan emphasises the need to include a variety of nutrient-dense foods if a balanced diet is to be achieved for preschool children. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  6. Cardiovascular effects of music by entraining cardiovascular autonomic rhythms music therapy update: tailored to each person, or does one size fit all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, P

    2013-02-01

    Music goes back a very long way in human experience. Music therapy is now used in many disparate areas-from coronary care units to rehabilitation after a stroke. But its widespread adoption has a poor scientific evidence base, founded more on enthusiasm than on proper evaluation in any controlled way. This has led to a lack of clarity about whether any particular type of music is superior, or whether different types of music should be tailored to differing individuals. We therefore conducted a series of controlled studies in which we examined the effects of different styles of music-from raga to jazz-presented in random order to normal young subjects (both musically trained or not). We found that contrary to many beliefs the effect of a style of music was similar in all subjects, whatever their individual music taste. We also found that this effect appeared to operate at a sub-conscious level through the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, musical or verbal phrases of a 10 s duration (which coincided with the normal circulatory 'Mayer' waves) induced bigger excursions in blood pressure and heart rate (reciprocal of pulse interval) and so triggered more vagal slowing and feelings of calm. These findings need to now be tested in the clinical setting since, if confirmed, this would greatly simplify the practical use of this promising tool.

  7. Heat production and storage are positively correlated with measures of body size/composition and heart rate drift during vigorous running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresh, Robert; Berg, Kris; Noble, John

    2005-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the relationships between: (a) measures of body size/composition and heat production/storage, and (b) heat production/storage and heart rate (HR) drift during running at 95% of the velocity that elicited lactate threshold, which was determined for 20 healthy recreational male runners. Subsequently, changes in skin and tympanic temperatures associated with a vigorous 20-min run, HR, and VO2 data were recorded. It was found that heat production was significantly correlated with body mass (r = .687), lean mass (r = .749), and body surface area (BSA, r = .699). Heat storage was significantly correlated with body mass (r = .519), fat mass (r = .464), and BSA (r = .498). The percentage of produced heat stored was significantly correlated with body mass (r = .427), fat mass (r = .455), and BSA (r = .414). Regression analysis showed that the sum of body mass, percentage of body fat, BSA, lean mass, and fat mass accounted for 30% of the variability in heat storage. It was also found that HR drift was significantly correlated with heat storage (r = .383), percentage of produced heat stored (r = .433), and core temperature change (r = .450). It was concluded that heavier runners experienced greater heat production, heat storage, and core temperature increases than lighter runners during vigorous running.

  8. SURVEY ON THE EMPLOYEES’ FITNESS CONDITION AND THE EMPLOYERS’ HEALTH PRESERVATION POSSIBILITIES IN CASE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás MADARÁSZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of the employees’ health preservation results in direct cost savings at corporate level by decreasing the measure of sick leave and ensuring the continuous and smooth production. Nowadays, ensuring the health of labour force has already become an employer interest, of course, in addition to that it is also the interest of everyone. In our research, we have asked employees of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises in the framework of questionnaire survey. It was clearly apparent that the physical activity of workers has to be enhanced and their sporting activities have to be supported. According to the results of our research, these types of organizations support the health protection of their employees, moreover in financing form of allowances primarily.

  9. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  10. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  11. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  12. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  13. Locomotor and Heart Rate Responses of Floaters During Small-Sided Games in Elite Soccer Players: Effect of Pitch Size and Inclusion of Goal Keepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Simpson, Ben M; Cholley, Yannick; Buchheit, Martin

    2017-09-27

    To (1) compare the locomotor and heart rate responses between floaters and regular players during both small and large small sided games (SSGs) and (2) examine whether the type of game (i.e., game simulation vs possession game) affects the magnitude of the difference between floaters and regular players. Data were collected in 41 players belonging to an elite French football team during three consecutive seasons (2014-2017). 5-Hz GPS were used to collect all training data, with the Athletic Data Innovation analyser (v5.4.1.514, Sydney, Australia) used to derive total distance (m), high-speed distance (> 14.4 km.h -1 , m) and external mechanical load (MechL, a.u). All SSGs included exclusively one floater, and were divided into two main categories, according to the participation of goal-keepers (GK) (game simulation, GS) or not (possession games, PO) and then further divided into small and large (>100 m2/player) SSGs based on the area per player ratio. Locomotor activity and mechanical load performed were likely-to-most likely lower (moderate to large magnitude) in floaters compared with regular players, while differences in HR responses were unclear to possibly higher (small) in floaters. The magnitude of the difference in locomotor activity and MechL between floaters and regular players was substantially greater during GS compared with PO. Compared with regular players, floaters present decreased external load (both locomotor and MechL) despite unclear to possibly slightly higher HR responses during SSGs. Moreover, the responses of floaters compared with regular players are not consistent across different sizes of SSGs, with greater differences during GS than PO.

  14. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  15. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  16. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  17. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  18. Screening Tests for Women Who Have Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Based Toolkit Logo Campaign Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women FOR WOMEN WHO HAVE HEART DISEASE ... taken up by the heart muscle. Echocardiography changes sound waves into pictures that show the heart's size, ...

  19. One size fits one: pharmacogenetics in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porayette, Prashanth; Flockhart, David; Gupta, Sandeep K

    2014-04-01

    Individual variability in response and development of adverse effects to drugs is a major challenge in clinical practice. Pharmacogenomics refers to the aspect of personalized medicine where the patient's genetic information instructs the selection and dosage of therapy while also predicting its adverse effects profile. Sequencing of the entire human genome has given us the opportunity to study commonly used drugs as well as newer therapeutic agents in a new light, opening up opportunities for better drug efficacy and decreased adverse effects. This article highlights developments in pharmacogenomics, relates these to practice of gastroenterology, and outlines roadblocks in translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Student Facing Dashboards: One Size Fits All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Stephanie D.

    2017-01-01

    This emerging technology report reviews a new development in educational technology, student-facing dashboards, which provide comparative performance feedback to students calculated by Learning Analytics-based algorithms on data generated from university students' use of educational technology. Instructor- and advisor-facing dashboards emerged as…

  1. One size doesn’t fit all

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Over several decades, there has accumulated a large body of research on active labor market policies (ALMP). In particular, numerous programs designed to encourage welfare recipients to move into work and off benefits have been evaluated in western countries such as Denmark. The results of the re...

  2. Innovation - a one size fits all concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langergaard, Luise Li; Hansen, Anne Vorre

    drawn the attention of innovation research: the operational service sector, and the public sector. It is argued that we need to address fundamental meta-theoretical questions for the concept to be useful to innovation managers. Lastly, it is argued that we need a differentiated, context-specific rather...

  3. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  4. Eat for a Healthy Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods you buy. “Product labels give consumers the power to compare foods quickly and easily so they can judge which products best fit into a heart healthy diet or meet other dietary needs,” Schneeman says. “ ...

  5. Physical Work Demands and Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj

    . The effects were evaluated with objective physiological or diurnal data in an intention-to-treat analysis using multi-adjusted mixed models. The results indicated that the intervention led to several improvements in risk factors for cardiovascular disease, e.g. enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced...... exposed to high relative aerobic workloads obtained more pronounced increases of resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, an unaltered cardiorespiratory fitness and a reduced sleeping heart rate. The enhanced resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure may be explained as a potential...

  6. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  7. Optimized Heart Sampling and Systematic Evaluation of Cardiac Therapies in Mouse Models of Ischemic Injury: Assessment of Cardiac Remodeling and Semi-Automated Quantification of Myocardial Infarct Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Mariana; Araújo, Ana; Esteves, Tiago; Laundos, Tiago L; Freire, Ana G; Quelhas, Pedro; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua; Nascimento, Diana S

    2015-12-02

    Cardiac therapies are commonly tested preclinically in small-animal models of myocardial infarction. Following functional evaluation, post-mortem histological analysis is essential to assess morphological and molecular alterations underlying the effectiveness of treatment. However, non-methodical and inadequate sampling of the left ventricle often leads to misinterpretations and variability, making direct study comparisons unreliable. Protocols are provided for representative sampling of the ischemic mouse heart followed by morphometric analysis of the left ventricle. Extending the use of this sampling to other types of in situ analysis is also illustrated through the assessment of neovascularization and cellular engraftment in a cell-based therapy setting. This is of interest to the general cardiovascular research community as it details methods for standardization and simplification of histo-morphometric evaluation of emergent heart therapies. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  9. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  10. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  11. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  12. Radiographic evaluation of the cardiac silluet using the VHS method (Vertebral Heart Size in young and adults coatis (Nasua nasua, Linneaus 1766 living in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Cássia Martini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiographic examination of the toracic cavity is an usefull noninvasive method for assessment, monitoring the progress of heart disease, suggesting prognosis and guiding the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac silhouette of young and adults coatis and evaluate its relationship to the number of thoracic vertebrae (VHS, the method proposed by Buchanam and Buchele (1995 for small animals. We evaluated a group of 20 coatis, divided by age: I (GI and 8 animals aged between 4 and 5 months and group II (GII with 12 animals over 12 months old. Based in chest radiographs and VD laterolateral right projections for determining the major axis (L and short axis (Y being the sum of L and S is the value obtained by ESR, the relative depth/width (D / L chest were obtained and the results determined the type of conformation of the thorax, which results greater than 1.25 cm denote chest type deep, 0.75 to 1.25 cm chest intermediate and inferior results will 0.75cm wide chest. It was observed that the heart is alocated between the fourth and seventh pair of ribs, VHS average coatis healthy adults was 9.36 ± 0.75 and 8.06 ± 0 youth, 595 units thoracic vertebrae and the predominant conformation found was of intermediate type when compared to dogs. The mean values in this study serve as a basis for interpretation of the VHS type, however, a larger number may be required animals to determine the physiological limits of the cardiac silhouette in coati.

  13. TCT-670 Optimal Transcatheter Heart Valve Sizing in Aortic Valve in Valve Implantation: Insights from the Valve in Valve International Data (VIVID) Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnasser, Sami; Cheema, Asim N; Horlick, Eric

    2016-01-01

    : For each surgical type and label size, the two commonly used THV sizes, a given THV “standard” vs. a size larger “oversized” were compared among patients undergoing aortic ViV within VIVID Registry. The degree of THV perimeter oversizing was calculated as: (THV nominal size – surgical valve true ID...... group received a larger THV (25.5± 1.4 mm vs. 23.3 ± 1.0 mm, pvs. 20% ± 9.5, p=group achieved a larger EOA (1.54±0.4cm2 vs. 1.37± 0.5cm2, p....1±8.1mmHg vs. 17.4±8.5mmHg, p=0.002) in comparison to the standard cohort. The oversized group however, had a higher rate of moderate to severe AI (6.9% vs. 2.7%, p=0.001) and second THV requirement (5.5%vs. 2.2%, p=0.04). THV mal-positioning, coronary obstruction and postoperative pacemaker requirement...

  14. Mitral regurgitation in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both: prognostic significance and relation to ventricular size and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amigoni, Maria; Meris, Alessandra; Thune, Jens Jakob

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Mitral regurgitation (MR) confers independent risk in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We utilized data from the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion echo study to relate baseline MR to left ventricular (LV) size, shape, and function, and to assess the relationship between...

  15. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...... on heart rate data sharing between users in real-time. Through an empirical study conducted in the gym, we show that sharing biometric data in real-time can strengthen so- cial relations between participants, increase motivation, and improve the en- joyment of the fitness activity. Nevertheless, we found...

  16. The two-pore domain potassium channel, TWIK-1, has a role in the regulation of heart rate and atrial size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Alex Hørby; Chatelain, Franck C; Huttner, Inken G

    2016-01-01

    distribution with predominant localization in the endosomal compartment. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments using Xenopus oocytes showed that both zebrafish and wild-type human TWIK-1 channels produced K(+) currents that are sensitive to external K(+) concentration as well as acidic pH. There were......The two-pore domain potassium (K(+)) channel TWIK-1 (or K2P1.1) contributes to background K(+) conductance in diverse cell types. TWIK-1, encoded by the KCNK1 gene, is present in the human heart with robust expression in the atria, however its physiological significance is unknown. To evaluate......-coding regions in two independent cohorts of patients (373 subjects) and identified three non-synonymous variants, p.R171H, p.I198M and p.G236S, that were all located in highly conserved amino acid residues. In transfected mammalian cells, zebrafish and wild-type human TWIK-1 channels had a similar cellular...

  17. One size does not fit all: a qualitative content analysis of the importance of existing quality improvement capacity in the implementation of Releasing Time to Care: the Productive Ward™ in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica; Verrall, Tanya; Maben, Jill; Griffiths, Peter; Avis, Kyla; Baker, G Ross; Teare, Gary

    2014-12-19

    Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward™ (RTC) is a method for conducting continuous quality improvement (QI). The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health mandated its implementation in Saskatchewan, Canada between 2008 and 2012. Subsequently, a research team was developed to evaluate its impact on the nursing unit environment. We sought to explore the influence of the unit's existing QI capacity on their ability to engage with RTC as a program for continuous QI. We conducted interviews with staff from 8 nursing units and asked them to speak about their experience doing RTC. Using qualitative content analysis, and guided by the Organizing for Quality framework, we describe the existing QI capacity and impact of RTC on the unit environment. The results focus on 2 units chosen to highlight extreme variation in existing QI capacity. Unit B was characterized by a strong existing environment. RTC was implemented in an environment with a motivated manager and collaborative culture. Aided by the structural support provided by the organization, the QI capacity on this unit was strengthened through RTC. Staff recognized the potential of using the RTC processes to support QI work. Staff on unit E did not have the same experience with RTC. Like unit B, they had similar structural supports provided by their organization but they did not have the same existing cultural or political environment to facilitate the implementation of RTC. They did not have internal motivation and felt they were only doing RTC because they had to. Though they had some success with RTC activities, the staff did not have the same understanding of the methods that RTC could provide for continuous QI work. RTC has the potential to be a strong tool for engaging units to do QI. This occurs best when RTC is implemented in a supporting environment. One size does not fit all and administrative bodies must consider the unique context of each environment prior to implementing large-scale QI projects. Use of an

  18. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-06-20

    Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9-10 years) of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in the UK. 1625 children (aged 9-10 years) of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, pAfrican-Caribbeans were higher than those in white Europeans (mean difference 0.60 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.17, p=0.04); these patterns were similar in boys and girls. The lower estimated VO2 max in South Asians, compared to white Europeans, was consistent among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children and was attenuated by 78% after adjustment for objectively measured physical activity (average daily steps). South Asian children have lower levels of physical fitness than white Europeans and black African-Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  20. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be caused by diseases, such as connective tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments. Causes of heart infection A heart infection, ...

  1. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  2. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation; Artificial pacemaker; Permanent pacemaker; Internal pacemaker; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; CRT; Biventricular pacemaker; Arrhythmia - pacemaker; Abnormal heart ...

  3. Changes in Cross-Sectional Area and Transverse Diameter of the Heart on Inspiratory and Expiratory Chest CT: Correlation with Changes in Lung Size and Influence on Cardiothoracic Ratio Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Tomita

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physiological changes in cardiac area and diameters between inspiratory and expiratory chest computed tomography (CT, and to assess their correlation with lung size change and influence on cardiothoracic ratio (CTR measurements.The institutional review board of our institution approved this study, and informed consent was waived. Forty-three subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest CT as part of routine clinical care. On both inspiratory and expiratory scans, lung volumes and maximum lung diameters (transverse and vertical directions were measured. The maximum cardiac cross-sectional area (CSA and the maximum transverse cardiac diameter were measured on both scans, and the CT-based CTR was calculated. Changes in the lung and cardiac measurements were expressed as the expiratory/inspiratory (E/I ratios. Comparisons between inspiratory and expiratory measurements were made by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Correlations between the E/I ratios of lung and heart measurements were evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation analysis.Cardiac CSA and transverse cardiac diameter was significantly larger on expiratory than on inspiratory CT (p < 0.0001. Significant negative correlations were found between the E/I ratios of these cardiac measurements and the E/I ratios of lung volume and vertical lung diameter (p < 0.01. CT-based CTR was significantly larger on expiration than on inspiration (p < 0.0001.Heart size on chest CT depends on the phase of ventilation, and is correlated with changes in lung volume and craniocaudal lung diameter. The CTR is also significantly influenced by ventilation.

  4. The use of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6- to 10-year-old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Ahler, Thomas; Clausen, Helle

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We evaluated a sub-maximal and maximal version of the Yo-Yo IR1 childrens test (YYIR1C) and the Andersen test for fitness and maximal HR assessments of children aged 6-10. Two repetitions of the YYIR1C and Andersen tests were carried out within one week by 6-7 and 8-9 year olds (grade 0...

  5. Portion Size Versus Serving Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  6. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  7. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  8. Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Porzecanski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management (AM promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC and apply it to twelve diverse watersheds in order to determine their AM "fitness"; that is, the degree to which favorable adaptive management conditions are in place in a watershed.

  9. Physical fitness and health risk assessment of urban black females ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whereas coronary heart disease was not a major cause of death among black populations of South Africa in the past, the situation is fast changing. Health and fitness providers should give special attention to the modifiable risk factors of coronary heart disease for all populations. The aim of the present study was to identify ...

  10. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, John; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure.

  12. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  13. Employee Fitness and Wellness Programs in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Deborah L.; Crump, Carolyn E.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews literature on worksite fitness and health promotion programs. Examines their impact on employees and the sponsoring organization. Discusses beneficial effects such as increased fitness, and reduction in health care costs, risk factors of heart disease, absenteeism, and turnover. Addresses issues related to participation rates, program…

  14. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  15. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  16. Fit-To-Fight: Waist vs Waist/Height Measurements to Determine an Individual's Fitness Level - A Study in Statistical Regression and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swiderski, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    .... The abdominal measurement is a "one-size-fits-all" fitness standard. This research determines that a person's waist-to-height ratio is a better measurement than the waist measurement to estimate an individual's fitness level...

  17. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  18. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  19. The Explanatory Value of Inclusive Fitness for Evolutionary Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of evolutionary theory is the concept of 'fitness', which is, standardly, an organism's reproductive success. Many evolutionary theorists argue, however, that to explain the evolution of social traits, such as altruism, we must use a different notion of fitness. This 'inclusive fitness', which includes the reproductive success of relatives, is seen as indispensable for studying social evolution. Recently, however, both biologists and philosophers have critically scrutinized its s...

  20. Investigation into the Factors that Dtermine Shoe Fitting Using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 宏昭

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to purchase suitable shoes that fit the size of users' feet in order to prevent foot injuries in daily life. Although shoe fitting significantly affects the performance of shoes, there are few studies that have either investigated the factors that control shoe fitting or established a method to evaluate shoe fitting. While, the shape of each foot and shoe was measured to estimate shoe fitting in previous studies, the deformation of feet when wearing shoes had not been taken in...

  1. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

  2. Give your heart a workout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your health care provider before starting an exercise program. The Benefits of Exercise Exercise helps your heart in several ways. Burns ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Benefits of Exercise Exercise and Physical Fitness How to Lower Cholesterol ...

  3. From Curve Fitting to Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zielesny, Achim

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data is at heart of science from its beginnings. But it was the advent of digital computers that allowed the execution of highly non-linear and increasingly complex data analysis procedures - methods that were completely unfeasible before. Non-linear curve fitting, clustering and machine learning belong to these modern techniques which are a further step towards computational intelligence. The goal of this book is to provide an interactive and illustrative guide to these topics. It concentrates on the road from two dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clus

  4. Physical correlates of radiologic heart volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, D.

    1978-01-01

    Radiologic heart volume was calculated on a 10 per cent random sample of subjects examined in the London Civil Service Health Survey. Data were available for 1 188 men over the age of 40, and the importance of correcting radiologic heart volume for body size, age and heart rate was demonstrated. After these variables were taken into account, the most important association found was with blood pressure. Radiologic heart volume has potential value in cardiovascular screening programmes. (Auth.)

  5. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  6. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  7. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  8. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  9. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other diseases. Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, HIV, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or ... transplantation or support with a ventricular assist device. Prevention The key to preventing heart failure is to ...

  10. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... properly causes your body's blood sugar levels to rise, increasing your risk of heart attack. Metabolic syndrome. This occurs when you have obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Having metabolic ...

  11. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  12. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  13. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  14. The Palm-Heart Diameter: A Prospective Simple Screening Tool for Identifying Heart Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya

    2017-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study establishes the correlation between the palm and heart diameters. Since the heart tissue and the upper limb share a similar embryonic origin, being the mesoderm, this study prospects the fact that heart enlargement could be preliminarily identified by measuring the size of the hand.

  15. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  16. Direct fitness of group living mammals varies with breeding strategy, climate and fitness estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebensperger, Luis A; Rivera, Daniela S; Hayes, Loren D

    2012-09-01

    1. Understanding how variation in fitness relates to variation in group living remains critical to determine whether this major aspect of social behaviour is currently adaptive. 2. Available evidence in social mammals aimed to examine this issue remains controversial. Studies show positive (i.e. potentially adaptive), neutral or even negative fitness effects of group living. 3. Attempts to explain this variation rely on intrinsic and extrinsic factors to social groups. Thus, relatively more positive fitness effects are predicted in singularly breeding as opposed to plural breeding species. Fitness effects of sociality in turn may depend on ecological conditions (i.e. extrinsic factors) that influence associated benefits and costs. 4. We used meta-analytic tools to review how breeding strategy or ecological conditions influence the effect size associated with direct fitness-sociality relationships reported in the mammalian literature. Additionally, we determined how taxonomic affiliation of species studied, different fitness and sociality measures used, and major climatic conditions of study sites explained any variation in direct fitness effect size. 5. We found group living had modest, yet positive effects on direct fitness. This generally adaptive scenario was contingent not only upon breeding strategy and climate of study sites, but also on fitness measures examined. Thus, positive and significant effects characterized singular as opposed to plural breeding strategies. 6. We found more positive fitness effects on studies conducted in tropical as opposed to temperate or arid climates. More positive and significant effects were noted on studies that relied on group fecundity, male fecundity and offspring survival as measures of fitness. 7. To conclude, direct fitness consequences of mammalian group living are driven by interspecific differences in breeding strategy and climate conditions. Other factors not examined in this study, namely individual variation in

  17. Crossing fitness canyons by a finite population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander S.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2017-06-01

    We consider the Wright-Fisher model of the finite population evolution on a fitness landscape defined in the sequence space by a path of nearly neutral mutations. We study a specific structure of the fitness landscape: One of the intermediate mutations on the mutation path results in either a large fitness value (climbing up a fitness hill) or a low fitness value (crossing a fitness canyon), the rest of the mutations besides the last one are neutral, and the last sequence has much higher fitness than any intermediate sequence. We derive analytical formulas for the first arrival time of the mutant with two point mutations. For the first arrival problem for the further mutants in the case of canyon crossing, we analytically deduce how the mean first arrival time scales with the population size and fitness difference. The location of the canyon on the path of sequences has a crucial role. If the canyon is at the beginning of the path, then it significantly prolongs the first arrival time; otherwise it just slightly changes it. Furthermore, the fitness hill at the beginning of the path strongly prolongs the arrival time period; however, the hill located near the end of the path shortens it. We optimize the first arrival time by applying a nonzero selection to the intermediate sequences. We extend our results and provide a scaling for the valley crossing time via the depth of the canyon and population size in the case of a fitness canyon at the first position. Our approach is useful for understanding some complex evolution systems, e.g., the evolution of cancer.

  18. The future of breast cancer radiotherapy: From one size fits all to taylor-made treatment; L'avenir de la radiotherapie du cancer du sein: de la taille unique au sur-mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75475 Paris (France); Azria, D. [Departement de cancerologie radiotherapie, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Universite de Montpellier I, 5, boulevard Henri-IV, CS 19044, 34967 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Inserm U896, institut de recherche en cancerologie de Montpellier, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Various subgroups of breast tumours have been identified during the last 10 years according to the risk of local relapse. Prognostic factors for local relapse are age, surgical margins, tumour size, Her2 expression and hormonal receptors status. For tumours with a high risk of local relapse, an increased in boost dose or the addition of new drugs (trastuzumab, anti-angiogenics, PARP inhibitors) could be considered. For low risk tumours, hypo-fractionated, accelerated partial breast and intraoperative radiotherapy are being evaluated. The classical schedule (45-50 Gy to the whole gland followed by a boost dose of 16 Gy) is no longer the universal rule. Treatment individualization, according to clinical and biological characteristics of the tumour and - possibly - to the radiobiological profile of the patient, is likely to be the future of breast cancer radiotherapy. (authors)

  19. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  20. Staying Fit with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  1. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  2. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  3. Malignant Tumors Of The Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, J.

    2007-01-01

    Autoptic prevalence of the heart tumors is 0,01 – 0,3 %. 12 – 25 % of them are malignant tumors and 75 – 88 % are benign. Malignancies are more frequently found in the right heart. Metastatic tumors occur 20 – 40-times more frequently than primary neoplasms. Even 94 % of primary malignant tumors are sarcomas. Most frequent of them are angio sarcomas. Heart metastases are only found in extensive dissemination. Highest prevalence of heart metastases is observed in melanoma, followed by malignant germ cell tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer. The clinical presentation is due to the combination of heart failure, embolism, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion or tamponade. The symptoms depend on anatomical localization and the tumor size but not on the histological type. Prognosis of the heart malignancies is poor. Untreated patients die within several weeks to 2 years after the diagnosis was determined. Whenever possible the heart tumor should be resected, despite the surgery is usually neither definite nor sufficiently effective therapy. The patients with completely resectable sarcomas have better prognosis (median of survival 12 – 24 months) than the patients with incomplete resection (3 – 10 months). Complete excision is possible in only less than half of the patients. In some patients chemotherapy, radiotherapy, heart transplantation or combination of them prolonged the survival up to 2 years. Despite of this treatment median of the survival is only 1 year. (author)

  4. Heart valve surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves; Prosthetic valves ... surgery. Your heart valve has been damaged by infection ( endocarditis ). You have received a new heart valve ...

  5. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  6. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  7. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  8. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  9. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  10. The Langley Fitness Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  11. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter ... most common heart attack symptom in men and women is chest pain or discomfort. However, women also ...

  12. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  13. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  14. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  15. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  16. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  17. Heart failure - home monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000113.htm Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on ... your high blood pressure Fast food tips Heart failure - discharge Heart failure - fluids and diuretics Heart failure - what to ...

  18. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular or abnormal ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  19. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  20. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  1. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  2. Sex-specific determinants of fitness in a social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Sophie; Allainé, Dominique; Bonenfant, Christophe; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Sociality should evolve when the fitness benefits of group living outweigh the costs. Theoretical models predict an optimal group size maximizing individual fitness. However, beyond the number of individuals present in a group, the characteristics of these individuals, like their sex, are likely to affect the fitness payoffs of group living. Using 20 years of individually based data on a social mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), we tested for the occurrence of an optimal group size and composition, and for sex-specific effects of group characteristics on fitness. Based on lifetime data of 52 males and 39 females, our findings support the existence of an optimal group size maximizing male fitness and an optimal group composition maximizing fitness of males and females. Additionally, although group characteristics (i.e., size, composition and instability) affecting male and female fitness differed, fitness depended strongly on the number of same-sex subordinates within the social group in the two sexes. By comparing multiple measures of social group characteristics and of fitness in both sexes, we highlighted the sex-specific determinants of fitness in the two sexes and revealed the crucial role of intrasexual competition in shaping social group composition.

  3. Distinct phases of cardiomyocyte differentiation regulate growth of the zebrafish heart.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pater, E.M.; Clijsters, L.; Marques, S.R.; Lin, Y.F.; Garavito-Aguilar, Z.V.; Yelon, D.; Bakkers, J.

    2009-01-01

    Amongst animal species, there is enormous variation in the size and complexity of the heart, ranging from the simple one-chambered heart of Ciona intestinalis to the complex four-chambered heart of lunged animals. To address possible mechanisms for the evolutionary adaptation of heart size, we

  4. Pediatric heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  5. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  6. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  7. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    TAD Temporary Additional Duty TFMMS Total Force Manpower Management System UIC Unit Identification Code USFFC United States Fleet Forces Command...not include sailors on temporary additional duty ( TAD ). In addition, for class average Fit, we excluded units that had billets but no onboard

  8. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  9. Where Does Inflammation Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasucci, Luigi M; La Rosa, Giulio; Pedicino, Daniela; D'Aiello, Alessia; Galli, Mattia; Liuzzo, Giovanna

    2017-09-01

    This review focuses on the complex relationship between inflammation and the onset of acute coronary syndrome and heart failure. In the last few years, two important lines of research brought new and essential information to light in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome: a) the understanding of the immune mediate mechanisms of inflammation in Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and b) evidence that the inflammatory mechanisms associated with atherosclerosis and its complications can be modulated by anti-inflammatory molecules. A large amount of data also suggests that inflammation is a major component in the development and exacerbation of heart failure (HF), in a symbiotic relationship. In particular, recent evidence underlies peculiar aspects of the phenomenon: oxidative stress and autophagy; DAMPS and TLR-4 signaling activation; different macrophages lineage and the contribution of NLRP-3 inflammasome; adaptive immune system. A possible explanation that could unify the pathogenic mechanism of these different conditions is the rising evidence that increased bowel permeability may allow translation of gut microbioma product into the circulation. These findings clearly establish the role of inflammation as the great trigger for two of the major cardiovascular causes of death and morbidity. Further studies are needed, to better clarify the issue and to define more targeted approaches to reduce pathological inflammation while preserving the physiological one.

  10. Move! Eat better: try the FIT formula

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2013-01-01

    In the physics world, some formulas lead to a Nobel prize. In the world of health and physical activity, the Medical Service also has a winning formula...   FIT (physical activity) =       Frequency x Intensity x Time Frequency = more than 3 times per week. Intensity = physical activity which slightly increases your heart rate and breathing rate. Time = more than 30 minutes (per session). As part of our Move! Eat better campaign, the Medical Service is still offering the use of a pedometer (available on loan from the infirmary), which is a really useful tool to help you reach the winning FIT formula. Interested in borrowing a CERN pedometer?  Click here!

  11. Physiological Responses of Senior Adults Running a Fit Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegren, Herberta; And Others

    In this 1977 study the heart rates of 51 men and women ranging in age from 22-72 were continuously monitored while the subjects walked or ran a modified parcour fitness trail. The length of the course, its gradient, the distance between exercise stations, and the elevation of the course were measured. Mean percentage max HR (Karvonen) values were…

  12. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  13. Application of a marketing concept to patient-centered care: co-producing health with heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Robert P; Walker, Charles A; Curry, Linda Cox; Agee, Elizabeth J

    2012-04-03

    Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for heart failure each year. One out of four of the heart failure patients who receives care in a hospital is readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge. Effective discharge instruction is critical to prevent these patient readmissions. Co-production is a marketing concept whereby the customer is a partner in the delivery of a good or service. For example, a patient and nurse may partner to co-produce a patient-centered health regimen to improve patient outcomes. In this article we review the cost of treating heart failure patients and current strategies to decrease hospital readmissions for these patients along with the role of the nurse and the concept of co-producing health as related to heart failure patients. Next we describe our study assessing the degree to which discharge processes were co-produced on two hospital units having a preponderance of heart failure patients, and present our findings indicating minimal evidence of co-production. A discussion of our findings, along with clinical implications of these findings, recommendations for change, and suggestions for future research are offered. We conclude that standardized discharge plans lead to a mindset of 'one size fits all,' a mindset inconsistent with the recent call for patient-centered care. We offer co-production as a patient-centered strategy for customizing discharge teaching and improving health outcomes for heart failure patients.

  14. Factorial structure of aerobics athletes’ fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Shepelenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop an algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics and to define factorial structure of athletes’ fitness. Material : in the research sport aerobics’ athletes (n=19 participated. All athletes are members of Kharkiv national team (Ukraine. All athletes underwent complete medical examination. The functional condition of an organism (arterial blood pressure, indicators of a variability of the rhythm of the heart, treadbahn testing, psycho-physiological state (time’s determination of simple and complex reaction were defined. The physical development and physical fitness and stability of vestibular system were also defined. The factorial and cluster analysis were used. Results : The algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics is developed for performances in various competitive categories. The algorithm contains all stages of standard procedure of the factorial and cluster analysis. In the factorial analysis the individual factorial values were also defined. Conclusions : The obtained data are recommended to be used at teams’ formation for performances in various competitive categories: team formation for pair and group performances. The general and individual factorial structure of athletes’ complex fitness is defined. It is possible to select athletes with similar qualities and with different qualities for the mixed performances. The determination of individual factorial structure of fitness permits to estimate objectively variants of athletes’ formation in groups.

  15. Individual transferable quotas, does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Grete E.; Rathje, Iben Wiene; Højrup, Mathilde

    2018-01-01

    using six ecological and socio-economic indicators: 1), discards (food web), 2), by-catch incidences (food web/biodiversity), 3), seabed impacts, 4), fuel use efficiency, 5), quality of fish landed (food provision), and 6), social and cultural gains and drawbacks (social and cultural features). Except....... The results and lessons learned are discussed in the context of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management and the current reform of the common fisheries policy of the European Union...

  16. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition: does one size fits all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary lipids significantly contribute to preserve the efficiency of human metabolism and restore it during disease. Therefore, in the absence of absolute contraindications, it would not appear reasonable to exclude lipid emulsions when prescribing parenteral nutrition (PN). The metabolic role of lipids has been elucidated, ...

  17. Government interventions and default risk: Does one size fit all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the financial sector rescue packages provided by the national governments during the 2008 financial crisis. This study questions the implicit assumption that government interventions have an uniform effect on the default risk of individual banks. After testing the

  18. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition: does one size fits all?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and need to be supplied by the diet to prevent clinically relevant ... production of potent mediators of inflammation, whereas omega-3 fatty acids promote the synthesis of .... able to enhance the energy efficiency of its wing muscles by acutely.

  19. Social HRI for people with dementia : one size fits all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perugia, G.; Díaz Boladeras, M.; Barakova, E.I.; Catal Mallofré, A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Motivational and emotional disorders (i.e. apathy and depression) are very frequent in dementia and might greatly affect the positive psychological state experienced during social HRI. We conducted a six-weeks study in two nursing homes comparing the affective states that two playful activities,

  20. Health care data security: one size does not fit all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, R

    2001-11-01

    In the wake of the Internet, E-commerce, and particularly the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, data security has risen to the top of health care information technology priorities. What is the correct mix of data security tools, policies, and technologies for the doctor, the hospital, the insurer, the vendor, and everyone else who does business in the health care industry?

  1. One Size Fits All? Slow Cortical Potentials Neurofeedback: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah N.; Strehl, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The intent of this manuscript was to review all published studies on slow cortical potentials (SCP) neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD, with emphasis on neurophysiological rationale, study design, protocol, outcomes, and limitations. Method: For review, PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Google Scholar searches identified six studies and…

  2. Drivers of close supply chain collaboration : one size fits all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de S.L.J.M.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of close supply chain collaboration and to develop a multi-variable conceptual model of factors that drive the need for close supply chain collaboration. Design/methodology/approach – A multi-variable conceptual model is developed

  3. Drivers of close supply chain collaboration: one size fits all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of close supply chain collaboration and to develop a multi-variable conceptual model of factors that drive the need for close supply chain collaboration. Design/methodology/approach - A multi-variable conceptual model is developed

  4. Mathematics Anxiety: One Size Does Not Fit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoehr, Kathleen Jablon

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics educators agree elementary teachers should possess confidence and competence in teaching mathematics. Many prospective elementary teachers (particularly women) pursue careers in elementary teaching despite personal repeated experiences of mathematics anxiety. Previous studies of mathematics anxiety have tended to focus on physical…

  5. One Size Does Not Fit All: A System Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    Postgraduate School in Monterey, CA. LCDR LaSalle graduated with an Associate of Science degree in nutrition and culinary arts from Johnson & Wales...designs throughout the project. 10. Simplicity is the art of maximizing work done: Simplicity is essential. As Cockburn (2002) stated, “Simplicity...The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Doubleday/Currency. Sengupta, K., Van Oorschot, K. E., & Van

  6. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, College of Science and Health (United States); Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2010-04-15

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  7. Platelet function and activation in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Linda J; Hosgood, Giselle L; French, Anne T; Irwin, Peter J; Shiel, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess platelet closure time (CT), mean platelet component (MPC) concentration, and platelet component distribution width (PCDW) in dogs with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease. ANIMALS 89 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and 39 control dogs (not CKCSs). PROCEDURES Platelet count, MPC concentration, PCDW, and Hct were measured by use of a hematology analyzer, and CT was measured by use of a platelet function analyzer. Murmur grade and echocardiographic variables (mitral valve regurgitant jet size relative to left atrial area, left atrial-to-aortic diameter ratio, and left ventricular internal dimensions) were recorded. Associations between explanatory variables (sex, age, murmur grade, echocardiographic variables, platelet count, and Hct) and outcomes (CT, MPC concentration, and PCDW) were examined by use of multivariate regression models. RESULTS A model with 5 variables best explained variation in CT (R(2), 0.74), with > 60% of the variance of CT explained by mitral valve regurgitant jet size. The model of best fit to explain variation in MPC concentration included only platelet count (R(2), 0.24). The model of best fit to explain variation in PCDW included platelet count and sex (R(2), 0.25). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, a significant effect of mitral valve regurgitant jet size on CT was consistent with platelet dysfunction. However, platelet activation, as assessed on the basis of the MPC concentration and PCDW, was not a feature of subclinical chronic valvular heart disease in CKCSs.

  8. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beat faster. Examples include running, swimming, walking, and biking. Over time, regular aerobic activity makes your heart ... The activity level that is best for your health uses 50–75 percent of your maximum heart ...

  9. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Gabriel E A; Hicks, James W; Manzani, Paulo R; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias; Secor, Stephen M; Garland, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of all animals is affected by gravitational pressure gradients, the intensity of which varies according to organismic features, behavior, and habitat occupied. A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures-found the heart located 15%-25% of total body length from the head in terrestrial and arboreal species but 25%-45% in aquatic species. It was hypothesized that a more anterior heart in arboreal species served to reduce the hydrostatic blood pressure when these animals adopt vertical postures during climbing, whereas an anterior heart position would not be needed in aquatic habitats, where the effects of gravity are less pronounced. We analyzed a new data set of 155 species from five major families of Alethinophidia (one of the two major branches of snakes, the other being blind snakes, Scolecophidia) using both conventional and phylogenetically based statistical methods. General linear models regressing log(10) snout-heart position on log(10) snout-vent length (SVL), as well as dummy variables coding for habitat and/or clade, were compared using likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike Information Criterion. Heart distance to the tip of the snout scaled isometrically with SVL. In all instances, phylogenetic models that incorporated transformation of the branch lengths under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution (to mimic stabilizing selection) better fit the data as compared with their nonphylogenetic counterparts. The best-fit model predicting snake heart position included aspects of both habitat and clade and indicated that arboreal snakes in our study tend to have hearts placed more posteriorly, opposite the trend identified in previous studies. Phylogenetic signal in relative heart position was apparent both within and among clades. Our results suggest that overcoming gravitational pressure gradients in snakes most likely involves the combined action of several cardiovascular and

  10. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist devices - heart failure ... problem may cause heart failure or make heart failure worse. Heart valve surgery may be needed to repair or ...

  11. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  12. Fit-for-Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  13. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  14. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  15. Valvular Heart Disease in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe MC Rosano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural valvular heart disease may be the cause of heart failure or may worsen the clinical status of patients with heart failure. Heart failure may also develop in patients treated with valve surgery. Patients with heart failure with valvular heart disease are at increased risk of events including sudden cardiac death. Before considering intervention (surgical or percutaneous all patients should receive appropriate medical and device therapy taking into account that vasodilators must be used with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Numerous percutaneous and/or hybrid procedures have been introduced in the past few years and they are changing the management of valvular heart disease. In patients with heart failure and valvular heart disease, either primary or functional, the whole process of decision-making should be staged through a comprehensive evaluation of the risk– benefit ratio of different treatment strategies and should be made by a multidisciplinary ‘heart team’ with a particular expertise in valvular heart disease. The heart team should include heart failure cardiologists, cardiac surgeons/structural valve interventionists, imaging specialists, anaesthetists, geriatricians and intensive care specialists. This article will review recent developments and distill practical guidance in the management of this important heart failure co-morbidity.

  16. Music in CrossFit®—Influence on Performance, Physiological, and Psychological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Brupbacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaining increasing popularity within the fitness sector, CrossFit® serves as an appealing and efficient high intensity training approach to develop strength and endurance on a functional level; and music is often utilized to produce ergogenic effects. The present randomized, controlled, crossover study aimed at investigating the effects of music vs. non-music on performance, physiological and psychological outcomes. Thirteen (age: 27.5, standard deviation (SD 6.2 years, healthy, moderately trained subjects performed four identical workouts over two weeks. The order of the four workouts (two with, and two without music, 20 min each was randomly assigned for each individual. Acute responses in work output, heart rate, blood lactate, rate of perceived exertion, perceived pain, and affective reaction were measured at the 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th min during the training sessions. Training with music resulted in a significantly lower work output (460.3 repetitions, SD 98.1 vs. 497.8 repetitions, SD 103.7; p = 0.03. All other parameters did not differ between both music conditions. This is partly in line with previous findings that instead of providing ergogenic effects, applying music during CrossFit® may serve as a more distractive stimulus. Future studies should separate the influence of music on a more individual basis with larger sample sizes.

  17. Sizing for ethnicity in multi-cultural societies: development of size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... years, and fell in the size 6/10 to size 14/38 size range. The findings of the study suggest that young South African women of African descent with a triangular body shape may experience loose fit in the upper body of garments sized according to the size specifications currently used in the South African apparel industry.

  18. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Lulofs, Kris

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must be diffused more rapidly and on a larger market scale. Markets develop gradually however, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the innovators and early adopters (the early market), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations: the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream markets actors from a behavioural change point of view, and (2) in what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analysed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviour, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasise communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings, and present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrelhead'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  19. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, C.; Jonkers, R.; Kok, G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must diffuse more rapidly into a larger market. However, markets develop gradually, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the early market (innovators and early adopters), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations; the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream market actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream market actors from a behavioural-change point of view? (2) In what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analyzed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviours, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasize communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings. Furthermore, they should present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrel-head'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  20. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  1. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study aims to determine if A. tortilis subsp. raddiana populations suffer reduced fitness and its correlation or association with genetic diversity and mating parameters. Correlations and association between fitness, population size, genetic variation, and mating system parameters were tested using Spearman ...

  2. Revealing Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Falck; Pattison, George; Lindgren, Peter

    2014-01-01

    with reference to Tillich’s account of the meaning of revelation through culture and art, summed up in the statement that “(...) revelation is the manifestation of the ground of being for human knowledge” (Tillich, 1951, p.94), which, we argue, can be extended to everyday experiences, for example, in business......Some small business owners want to balance personal values as well as economic values. “I have to follow my heart” or “it must be meaningful” some of them say. But how might they be able to know what gives meaning to the heart? The philosophical theologian Paul Tillich finds that the problem...... life. In Tillich’s own terms, even preliminary concerns may point at an ultimate concern (Tillich, 1964), which can also be understood as ‘knowledge of the heart’. Our account is also connected to wider discussions concerning the nature of intuition....

  3. The clinical importance of radiological determination of the heart volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaedicke, W.; Ong, T.S.; Barmeyer, J.

    1982-01-01

    The size of the heart is an autonomous, important parameter of its functional state, i.e. in the radiologic heart diagnostics, the measurement of the heart volume is of equal value as the shape analysis. A size determination which must be exact enough for course controls and differentiation from the normal picture makes sense only if the measurement is carriet out in 3 dimensions and not in only one as is done when determining the heart-lung-quotient. The heart volume measurement carried out in lying or sitting position is considerably more reliable than in standing position as too many extracardiac factors influence the heart volume when the patient is standing. The echo cardiogram is a nearly ideal supplement but no competitor of radiological heart volume measurement and can be of the same value as or superior to heart volume measurement for functional diagnostics only in diseases limited to nearly exclusively to the left ventricle as in coronary diseases. (orig.) [de

  4. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, Ronald R.; Jandrasits, Walter G.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitg is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  5. Heart-Health Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools For Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Subscribe to Heart Insight magazine and monthly ... in Spanish . Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  6. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  7. Open heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002950.htm Open heart surgery To use the sharing features on this ... large arteries connected to the heart. The term "open heart surgery" means that you are connected to a ...

  8. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  9. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  10. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  11. Hypertensive heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  12. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  13. Congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Fraser CD, Kane LC. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM Jr, ... Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern ...

  14. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Home About Heart Disease Coronary Artery Disease Heart Attack Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  15. Influence of aerobic fitness on vasoreactivity in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Preston L; Kelley, Edward T; McCoy, Stephanie M; Credeur, Daniel P

    2017-10-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a direct relationship between aerobic fitness and vasodilatory function (i.e., flow-mediated dilation; FMD); however, the relation between aerobic fitness and vasoconstrictor responsiveness (i.e., low flow-mediated constriction; L-FMC), and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) is unclear. To test the hypothesis that L-FMC and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) will be related to aerobic fitness in young, healthy men. Twenty men (age: 23 ± 5 years) were recruited, and divided evenly into a higher (HF) vs. lower (LF) aerobic fitness group, quantified via YMCA cycle ergometry (VO 2 peak extrapolation), and a 3-min step test (1-min heart rate recovery). Duplex Doppler-ultrasound was used to assess brachial artery FMD and L-FMC. Estimated VO 2 peak (HF = 55 ± 10 vs. LF = 38 ± 5 mL/kg/min) and heart rate recovery (HF = 36 ± 10 vs. LF = 25 ± 8 beats) were greater in the HF group (P aerobic fitness in young, healthy men. Longitudinal or interventional studies are warranted to support causality, and to distinguish whether L-FMC is more sensitive to changes in aerobic fitness than FMD.

  16. Target Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  17. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  18. Caffeine and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  19. Protein and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  20. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  1. Effect of test exercises and mask donning on measured respirator fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, C D; Fairbank, E O; Greenstein, S L

    1999-12-01

    Quantitative respirator fit test protocols are typically defined by a series of fit test exercises. A rationale for the protocols that have been developed is generally not available. There also is little information available that describes the effect or effectiveness of the fit test exercises currently specified in respiratory protection standards. This study was designed to assess the relative impact of fit test exercises and mask donning on respirator fit as measured by a controlled negative pressure and an ambient aerosol fit test system. Multiple donnings of two different sizes of identical respirator models by each of 14 test subjects showed that donning affects respirator fit to a greater degree than fit test exercises. Currently specified fit test protocols emphasize test exercises, and the determination of fit is based on a single mask donning. A rationale for a modified fit test protocol based on fewer, more targeted test exercises and multiple mask donnings is presented. The modified protocol identified inadequately fitting respirators as effectively as the currently specified Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) quantitative fit test protocol. The controlled negative pressure system measured significantly (p < 0.0001) more respirator leakage than the ambient aerosol fit test system. The bend over fit test exercise was found to be predictive of poor respirator fit by both fit test systems. For the better fitting respirators, only the talking exercise generated aerosol fit factors that were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than corresponding donning fit factors.

  2. Optimization of Fit for Mass Customized Apparel Ordering Using Fit Preference and Self Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    in significance and definition for both consumers and manufacturers. Fit preference involves an individualized bias toward a particular look, size...Committee. Bishton, D. (1984). The sweatshop report. Birmingham: AFFOR. 268 269 Bjerve, S. & Doksum, K. (1993). Correlation curves: Measures of...anthropometry methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Rosenbaum, R. & Schilling D. (1997). In sweatshops , wages are the issue. The Corporate Examiner

  3. Dance your way to fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  4. Competency profile of Fitness Instructor

    OpenAIRE

    Peterová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Title: COMPETENCY PROFILE OF FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Objectives: The aim of this work is to find out competencies of fitness instructor and make a competency profile, containing competencies, which are important for excellent fitness instructor. Methods: I applied the method of interview and the method of research in my thesis. The interview was used to make a list of competencies of fitness instructor. The research was applied in the final part of making competency profile, for an attestation of ...

  5. Take heart!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Recently, ten new semi-automatic defibrillators were installed at various locations around CERN. This is a preventive measure intended to provide cardiac arrest victims with the best possible response. The first responder could be you!   The Director-General has welcomed the initiative of the Medical Service and Fire Brigade for the installation of ten new semi-automatic defibrillators. You have probably seen them on your way to the restaurant, for example:  brand new semi-automatic defibrillators, ready for an emergency. Housed in a white wall-mounted case, the bright red defibrillators are marked with a white heart symbol crossed by a lightning bolt (see photo). The defibrillator is designed so that anyone can use it. “Anyone can use it, you don’t need to be a health professional,” says Dr Reymond from CERN's Medical Service. Together with the CERN Fire Brigade, he is behind the initiative to have these units put in place. And with good reason, as the unit...

  6. F-35 Protective Equipment Fit Assessment: Light Weight Coverall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    preferences (Waist and Hip) between men and women or very different body sizes relative to the garment size (Neck). Females preferred a tighter fit. When...constructing the final concept of fit, the pass/fail range for ease or line measures were calculated separately for men and women where necessary...11.5 Stature Class 4,5 3 6.5~10 13.5 Table 4. Fit ranges for Ease Measurements Unit: cm Tight Good Loose Chest Ease around the Chest at nipple

  7. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  8. Fitness for duty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Matney, C.

    1991-01-01

    A Fitness For Duty training program was developed to satisfy the requirements of the NRC, 10 CFR 26, 10 CFR 707 and to meet requirements at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Interactive videodisc technology was selected as the training medium using the TenCore authoring language. Computer-based training was chosen because of the large number of trainees, the advantages of the reduced overall cost, and the increased trainee retention of course material compared to traditional instruction. The resulting training program utilizes extensive role playing exercises in which employees and supervisors are exposed to real life situations. Extensive interactions by the trainees are required in that they must answer questions concerning the behav ior of individuals, random and for-cause drug testing, and the employee assistance program. Feedback is given in each case. Emphasis is placed on recognition of deteriorating job performance

  9. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  10. RATES OF FITNESS DECLINE AND REBOUND SUGGEST PERVASIVE EPISTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfeito, L; Sousa, A; Bataillon, T; Gordo, I

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling the factors that determine the rate of adaptation is a major question in evolutionary biology. One key parameter is the effect of a new mutation on fitness, which invariably depends on the environment and genetic background. The fate of a mutation also depends on population size, which determines the amount of drift it will experience. Here, we manipulate both population size and genotype composition and follow adaptation of 23 distinct Escherichia coli genotypes. These have previously accumulated mutations under intense genetic drift and encompass a substantial fitness variation. A simple rule is uncovered: the net fitness change is negatively correlated with the fitness of the genotype in which new mutations appear—a signature of epistasis. We find that Fisher's geometrical model can account for the observed patterns of fitness change and infer the parameters of this model that best fit the data, using Approximate Bayesian Computation. We estimate a genomic mutation rate of 0.01 per generation for fitness altering mutations, albeit with a large confidence interval, a mean fitness effect of mutations of −0.01, and an effective number of traits nine in mutS− E. coli. This framework can be extended to confront a broader range of models with data and test different classes of fitness landscape models. PMID:24372601

  11. Advanced Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:May 9,2017 When heart failure (HF) ... Making This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  12. Does fitness improve the cardiovascular risk profile in obese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, H; Lønnebakken, M T; Saeed, S; Midtbø, H; Cramariuc, D; Gerdts, E

    2017-06-01

    Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. We explored the association of fitness with the prevalences of major cardiovascular risk factor like hypertension (HT), diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight and obese subjects. Clinical data from 491 participants in the FAT associated CardiOvasculaR dysfunction (FATCOR) study were analyzed. Physical fitness was assessed by ergospirometry, and subjects with at least good level of performance for age and sex were classified as fit. HT subtypes were identified from clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in combination. Diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The participants were on average 48 years old (60% women), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 32 kg/m 2 . 28% of study participants were classified as fit. Fitness was not associated with lower prevalences of HT or HT subtypes, diabetes, MetS or individual MetS components (all p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, being fit was characterized by lower waist circumference, BMI risk factors like HT, diabetes or MetS. Given the strong association of cardiovascular risk factor burden with risk of clinical cardiovascular disease, these findings challenge the notion that fitness alone is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CARS Spectral Fitting with Multiple Resonant Species using Sparse Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Magnotti, Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    The dual pump CARS technique is often used in the study of turbulent flames. Fast and accurate algorithms are needed for fitting dual-pump CARS spectra for temperature and multiple chemical species. This paper describes the development of such an algorithm. The algorithm employs sparse libraries, whose size grows much more slowly with number of species than a conventional library. The method was demonstrated by fitting synthetic "experimental" spectra containing 4 resonant species (N2, O2, H2 and CO2), both with noise and without it, and by fitting experimental spectra from a H2-air flame produced by a Hencken burner. In both studies, weighted least squares fitting of signal, as opposed to least squares fitting signal or square-root signal, was shown to produce the least random error and minimize bias error in the fitted parameters.

  14. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.

  15. Betydning af fysisk aktivitet og fitness for fedmens komplikationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina; Madsbad, Sten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2006-01-01

    is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, which is independent of low fitness level, and obesity affects other risk factors adversely than inactivity does. However, physical activity does reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. It is concluded that both inactivity and obesity have an adverse effect......We have reviewed whether the complications of obesity can be attributed to low levels of physical activity and fitness, or if fatness per se has adverse effects on health. In both observational and interventional studies, fatness and inactivity seem to be independent risk factors. Abdominal obesity...

  16. Betydning af fysisk aktivitet og fitness for fedmens komplikationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina; Madsbad, Sten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2006-01-01

    We have reviewed whether the complications of obesity can be attributed to low levels of physical activity and fitness, or if fatness per se has adverse effects on health. In both observational and interventional studies, fatness and inactivity seem to be independent risk factors. Abdominal obesity...... is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, which is independent of low fitness level, and obesity affects other risk factors adversely than inactivity does. However, physical activity does reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. It is concluded that both inactivity and obesity have an adverse effect...

  17. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion

  18. Automated ligand fitting by core-fragment fitting and extension into density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Klei, Herbert; Adams, Paul D.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Cohn, Judith D.

    2006-01-01

    An automated ligand-fitting procedure has been developed and tested on 9327 ligands and (F o − F c )exp(iϕ c ) difference density from macromolecular structures in the Protein Data Bank. A procedure for fitting of ligands to electron-density maps by first fitting a core fragment of the ligand to density and then extending the remainder of the ligand into density is presented. The approach was tested by fitting 9327 ligands over a wide range of resolutions (most are in the range 0.8-4.8 Å) from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) into (F o − F c )exp(iϕ c ) difference density calculated using entries from the PDB without these ligands. The procedure was able to place 58% of these 9327 ligands within 2 Å (r.m.s.d.) of the coordinates of the atoms in the original PDB entry for that ligand. The success of the fitting procedure was relatively insensitive to the size of the ligand in the range 10–100 non-H atoms and was only moderately sensitive to resolution, with the percentage of ligands placed near the coordinates of the original PDB entry for fits in the range 58–73% over all resolution ranges tested

  19. Pediatric anthropometrics are inconsistent with current guidelines for assessing rider fit on all-terrain vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Andrew C; Mullineaux, David R; Auxier, James T; Forman, Jennifer L; Shapiro, Robert; Pienkowski, David

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to establish objective anthropometric measures of fit or misfit for young riders on adult and youth-sized all-terrain vehicles and use these metrics to test the unproved historical reasoning that age alone is a sufficient measure of rider-ATV fit. Male children (6-11 years, n=8; and 12-15 years, n=11) were selected by convenience sampling. Rider-ATV fit was quantified by five measures adapted from published recommendations: (1) standing-seat clearance, (2) hand size, (3) foot vs. foot-brake position, (4) elbow angle, and (5) handlebar-to-knee distance. Youths aged 12-15 years fit the adult-sized ATV better than the ATV Safety Institute recommended age-appropriate youth model (63% of subjects fit all 5 measures on adult-sized ATV vs. 20% on youth-sized ATV). Youths aged 6-11 years fit poorly on ATVs of both sizes (0% fit all 5 parameters on the adult-sized ATV vs 12% on the youth-sized ATV). The ATV Safety Institute recommends rider-ATV fit according to age and engine displacement, but no objective data linking age or anthropometrics with ATV engine or frame size has been previously published. Age alone is a poor predictor of rider-ATV fit; the five metrics used offer an improvement compared to current recommendations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fit assessment of slopers for women with disproportionate figures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zwane, PEL

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available -made clothing, or alter garments after purchasing in order to achieve proper fit and satisfaction with the apparel, or still end up purchasing two different sizes of the same style for top and skirt. Currently, basic blocks of different sizes are designed based...

  1. Determining the Relationship Between Physical Fitness, Gender, and Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Busing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested a positive effect of physical activity on life satisfaction. Little research exists that has investigated the relationship between physical fitness and life satisfaction. For this purpose, this research was done to determine the relationship between physical fitness and life satisfaction in a sample of university men and women. Participants (N = 28, Mage = 22.18 completed multiple indicators of physical fitness including cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness, body composition and flexibility, and life satisfaction (SWLS. Descriptive and one-way between-groups ANOVAs were performed to determine gender differences on measures of life satisfaction and measures of fitness. In addition, the relationship between the five health-related components of fitness and life satisfaction were investigated using Pearson’s product–moment correlation coefficient. Analyses indicated there were no significant correlations between any of the health-related components of fitness and scores on the SWLS. There were significant gender differences on all physical fitness measures, except partial curl-ups, but no significant gender differences on life satisfaction. Our findings suggest that improved physical fitness does not have a relationship with higher life satisfaction measures. Further tests, utilizing larger sample sizes, are recommended.

  2. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  3. Epidemia de fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanja Bastos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre uma condição naturalizada e disseminada principalmente pelo campo da nova promoção à saúde e reforçada nos espaços de atuação da educação física, a que se denominou epidemia de fitness. O termo refere-se a hábitos e comportamentos obsessivos com a saúde, beleza e vitalidade, tornando-se alvo de exercício de controle por parte de especialistas. Para discuti-la realizou-se um estudo de caso em que foram submetidos à análise semiótica, por meio do método de leitura isotópica, 59 materiais de divulgação, impressos, coletados na Expo Wellness Rio 2009, uma feira de negócios inserida no Congresso Wellness Rio 2009. As categorias isotópicas que emergiram a partir da análise são as seguintes: saúde/beleza e tecnologia, saúde/beleza e especialidade e saúde/beleza e longevidade. Elas apontam para a potencialização da vitalidade humana como mola propulsora das estratégias discursivas, assim como valor recorrente que embasa ações voltadas para a melhoria das condições de saúde, imbricadas à ideia de longevidade e beleza.

  4. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  5. The size parameters of heart rate in the final round standard style of dance sports and selected characteristics and indicators of body for example steam World Champions as the basis for individualized sports training

    OpenAIRE

    Pilewska, Wiesława; Tichoniuk, Marcin; Zukow, Walery

    2013-01-01

    The sport dance, and other artistic disciplines, it is important similarities in the construction of the somatic partner and the partner. The size of individual features of somatic built are of great importance in sports, such as high body height is typical for sports such as basketball or volleyball, but never meet with a very high player in gymnastics, where there is a rather stocky, athletic body. Among the players in dance sports meet most of the similarities in the construction of somati...

  6. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    professional fighting force. Numerous studies indicate physical fitness improves cognitive function, the ability to handle stress, injury recovery...4 ―What is Fitness?‖ The CrossFit Journal (October 2002) http://www.crossfit.com (accessed 11 February, 2011). An excellent article beyond the...scope of this paper. Although our definition was derived from Crossfit , it is our position that Crossfit is not, and should not be, the only method to

  7. Physical Fitness in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    in fitness as the absence of disease or injury . The coach defines fitness as §l’Jse factors responsible for success in a sport. The leader is...lower back and legs to gradually increase your body’s level of activity. This will reduce the risk of injury and prevent unnecessary soreness. Also, a...flexibility. Let’s discuss the importance of muscular fitness and how we can achieve this kind of fitneas through weightlifting or calisthenics. Remember

  8. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  9. Random-growth urban model with geographical fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Masanobu; Akimoto, Keigo; Doi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    This paper formulates a random-growth urban model with a notion of geographical fitness. Using techniques of complex-network theory, we study our system as a type of preferential-attachment model with fitness, and we analyze its macro behavior to clarify the properties of the city-size distributions it predicts. First, restricting the geographical fitness to take positive values and using a continuum approach, we show that the city-size distributions predicted by our model asymptotically approach Pareto distributions with coefficients greater than unity. Then, allowing the geographical fitness to take negative values, we perform local coefficient analysis to show that the predicted city-size distributions can deviate from Pareto distributions, as is often observed in actual city-size distributions. As a result, the model we propose can generate a generic class of city-size distributions, including but not limited to Pareto distributions. For applications to city-population projections, our simple model requires randomness only when new cities are created, not during their subsequent growth. This property leads to smooth trajectories of city population growth, in contrast to other models using Gibrat’s law. In addition, a discrete form of our dynamical equations can be used to estimate past city populations based on present-day data; this fact allows quantitative assessment of the performance of our model. Further study is needed to determine appropriate formulas for the geographical fitness.

  10. Size matter!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    trash bags according to size of plates and weighed in bulk. Results Those eating from smaller plates (n=145) left significantly less food to waste (aver. 14,8g) than participants eating from standard plates (n=75) (aver. 20g) amounting to a reduction of 25,8%. Conclusions Our field experiment tests...... the hypothesis that a decrease in the size of food plates may lead to significant reductions in food waste from buffets. It supports and extends the set of circumstances in which a recent experiment found that reduced dinner plates in a hotel chain lead to reduced quantities of leftovers....

  11. Obesity, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Inhibition Function: An Electrophysiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Fen Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine how obesity and cardiovascular fitness are associated with the inhibition aspect of executive function from behavioral and electrophysiological perspectives. One hundred college students, aged 18 to 25 years, were categorized into four groups of equal size on the basis of body mass index and cardiovascular fitness: a normal-weight and high-fitness (NH group, an obese-weight and high-fitness (OH group, a normal-weight and low-fitness (NL group, and an obese-weight and low-fitness (OL group. Behavioral measures of response time and number of errors, as well as event-related potential (ERP measures of P3 and N1, were assessed during the Stroop Task. The results revealed that, in general, the NH group exhibited shorter response times and larger P3 amplitudes relative to the OH, NL, and OL groups, wherein the OL group exhibited the longest response time in the incongruent condition. No group differences in N1 indices were also revealed. These findings suggest that the status of being both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness is associated with better behavioral and later stages of electrophysiological indices of inhibition. However, these benefits in inhibition function would be lost in an individual who is obese or has low cardiovascular fitness, reflecting the importance keeping both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness.

  12. The heart and hypothyroidism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... influenced by the thyroid disorder and vice versa. We recenrly ... hypothyroidism is a rare cause of heart failure other causes of heart failure must be excluded ... signs of cardiac tamponade and echocardiographic features of a.

  13. Valvular heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gelson, E; Gatzoulis, M; Johnson, M

    2007-01-01

    Valvular disease may be unmasked in pregnancy when physiological changes increase demands on the heart. Women with valvular heart disease require close follow-up during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum

  14. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  15. Menopause and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 23,2017 Heart ... can become more evident after the onset of menopause. Menopause does not cause cardiovascular diseases . However, certain ...

  16. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  17. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  18. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  19. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often DO NOT consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  20. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 13,2017 Understand the risks of ... inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...

  1. Heart disease and intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000540.htm Heart disease and intimacy To use the sharing features on ... Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Aspirin and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000092.htm Aspirin and heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... healthy people who are at low risk for heart disease. You provider will consider your overall medical condition ...

  3. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  4. Heart bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass; OPCAB; Beating heart surgery; Bypass surgery - heart; CABG; Coronary artery bypass graft; Coronary artery bypass surgery; Coronary bypass surgery; Coronary artery disease - CABG; CAD - CABG; Angina - ...

  5. Vestibular schwannoma and fitness to fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Hunkemöller, Iris; Lepage, Pierre; Kossowski, Michel

    2010-10-01

    When a pilot is referred for vestibular schwannoma (VS), his or her fitness to fly may be questioned. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe a series of VS cases in a pilot population and to discuss their fitness to fly options. Between September 2002 and March 2010, the ENT/Head and Neck Surgery Department of the National Pilot Expertise Center conducted nearly 120,000 expert consultations for 40,000 pilots. We examined the files of 10 pilots who were referred to our 2 national experts for VS. At the time of the expert consultation, hypoacusis was present in nine cases (four with total deafness), tinnitus in one case, and vertigo in nine cases. In our series, only 2 of the 10 pilots experienced a negative impact on their fitness to fly. Decisions on fitness to fly were based on several factors: minimally disturbed audition, i.e., less than a 35-dB hearing loss with a good speech discrimination score; good balance, i.e., no reported difficulties; no spontaneous nystagmus recorded on videonystagmography (VNG); no postural deviation; and a normal head-shaking test. The delay and the VS's evolution between diagnosis and expert consultation are important because the selection of a treatment to control VS is critical in minimizing the possible associated complications. When a pilot is referred for VS, his or her fitness to fly is determined by the size of the tumor, balance, auditory status, and the follow-up results of these findings. The complications that may arise from VS treatments must also be considered.

  6. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  7. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  8. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  9. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  10. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more......-based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...

  11. Chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Ingrid; Easton, Kellie

    2017-01-01

    1. The common symptoms and signs of chronic heart failure are dyspnoea, ankle swelling, raised jugular venous pressure and basal crepitations. Other conditions may be confused with chronic heart failure, including dependent oedema or oedema due to renal or hepatic disease. Shortness of breath may be due to respiratory disease or severe anaemia. Heart failure secondary to lung disease (cor pulmonale) should be distinguished from congestive cardiac failure. Heart failure may also present with l...

  12. Broad-spectrum physical fitness benefits of recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim

    2018-01-01

    , narrative reviews have demonstrated beneficial effects of recreational football on physical fitness and health status. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the magnitude of effects of recreational football on blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile...... and muscular fitness with reference to age, gender and health status. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Google Scholar were searched prior to 1 February 2017. In addition...... to a recreational football group or any other type of exercises or passive control group were included. Training programmes had to last at least 2 weeks to meet the inclusion criteria. The primary outcome measures were blood pressure, resting heart rate, body composition, muscular fitness, and blood lipids...

  13. Health-related physical fitness in healthy untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups...... weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body...... improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training...

  14. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  15. Heart valve surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: executive summary: a report of the American College ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Heart Valve Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  16. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  17. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  18. Heart Valve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

  19. The Heart of Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheff, Dennis M.; Gerdes, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges coaches to address the more personal, human elements of coaching--the HEART of coaching. While there is much research on numerous aspects of coaching, this article provides ideas that make a lasting impact on the hearts of athletes. Using HEART as an acronym, five elements of effective coaching are presented: Humility,…

  20. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  1. Congenital Heart Defects and Coronary Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are a well recognized feature of many cardiac malformations and have been catalogued in a number of reviews. This overview concentrates on 1) the interplay between congenital heart defects and coronary morphogenesis, examining how some of the embryology fits with the experiments of nature encountered in clinical practice; and 2) the influence of coronary anatomy on patient management. This overview uses, as examples, pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, ...

  2. Limited-Access Heart Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the side of the chest. With traditional open heart surgery, the incision is usually 6 to 8 ... attached to a heart-lung machine. In traditional open heart surgery, patients would be connected to the heart- ...

  3. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media for Heart.org Heart and Stroke Association Statistics Each year, the American Heart Association, in conjunction ... health and disease in the population. Heart & Stroke Statistics FAQs What is Prevalence? Prevalence is an estimate ...

  4. Managing Feelings about Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Heart Failure Module 6: Managing Feelings About Heart Failure Download Module Order Hardcopy Heart failure can cause ... professional help for emotional problems. Common Feelings About Heart Failure It is common for people to feel depressed ...

  5. Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease Updated:May 3,2018 Most illegal drugs can ... www.dea.gov/druginfo/factsheets.shtml Alcohol and Heart Disease Caffeine and Heart Disease Tobacco and Heart Disease ...

  6. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke About 1.5 million heart attacks and ... can’t change some of your risks for heart disease and stroke, but you can manage many of ...

  7. Fitting of hadron spectrum in 5-dimensional conformal relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Acosta, G.A.

    1984-11-01

    There is no well known kinematic theory of masses which can be used to compute masses of observed particles. The theory of mass of Conformal Relativity in 5-dimensions does promise to fulfill this need. Here we apply its theoretical results to hadrons and successfully fit their masses with a universal length l (the size of the 5th dimension) of 1.36 Fermi. Our fitting scheme shows a trend from which we can predict the observed masses. We conjecture about reasons our fitting distinguishes between hadrons in terms of their quark composition. The value of l suggests physical interpretations and possible means of detection. (author)

  8. Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The shakeout in the solar cell and module industry is in full swing. While the number of companies and production locations shutting down in the Western world is increasing, the capacity expansion in the Far East seems to be unbroken. Size in combination with a good sales network has become the key to success for surviving in the current storm. The trade war with China already looming on the horizon is adding to the uncertainties. (orig.)

  9. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  10. The Danish Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. STUDY POPULATION: All adult (≥15 years) patients...... undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. MAIN VARIABLES: The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR...

  11. Engineered Heart Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, B; Zimmermann, W-H

    2017-08-01

    There is a pressing need for the development of advanced heart failure therapeutics. Current state-of-the-art is protection from neurohumoral overstimulation, which fails to address the underlying cause of heart failure, namely loss of cardiomyocytes. Implantation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes via tissue-engineered myocardium is being advanced to realize the remuscularization of the failing heart. Here, we discuss pharmacological challenges pertaining to the clinical translation of tissue-engineered heart repair with a focus on engineered heart muscle (EHM). © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  12. Fluctuations in email size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Musashi, Yasuo

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain fluctuations in email size. We have previously investigated the long-term correlations between email send requests and data flow in the system log of the primary staff email server at a university campus, finding that email size frequency follows a power-law distribution with two inflection points, and that the power-law property weakens the correlation of the data flow. However, the mechanism underlying this fluctuation is not completely understood. We collected new log data from both staff and students over six academic years and analyzed the frequency distribution thereof, focusing on the type of content contained in the emails. Furthermore, we obtained permission to collect "Content-Type" log data from the email headers. We therefore collected the staff log data from May 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015, creating two subdistributions. In this paper, we propose a model to explain these subdistributions, which follow log-normal-like distributions. In the log-normal-like model, email senders -consciously or unconsciously- regulate the size of new email sentences according to a normal distribution. The fitting of the model is acceptable for these subdistributions, and the model demonstrates power-law properties for large email sizes. An analysis of the length of new email sentences would be required for further discussion of our model; however, to protect user privacy at the participating organization, we left this analysis for future work. This study provides new knowledge on the properties of email sizes, and our model is expected to contribute to the decision on whether to establish upper size limits in the design of email services.

  13. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Redzal Abu; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie; Su, Tin Tin; Nahar, Azmi Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age.

  14. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...

  16. Fitting theories of nuclear binding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G.F.; Sabbey, B.; Uusnaekki, M.

    2005-01-01

    In developing theories of nuclear binding energy such as density-functional theory, the effort required to make a fit can be daunting because of the large number of parameters that may be in the theory and the large number of nuclei in the mass table. For theories based on the Skyrme interaction, the effort can be reduced considerably by using the singular value decomposition to reduce the size of the parameter space. We find that the sensitive parameters define a space of dimension four or so, and within this space a linear refit is adequate for a number of Skyrme parameters sets from the literature. We find no marked differences in the quality of the fit among the SLy4, the BSk4, and SkP parameter sets. The root-mean-square residual error in even-even nuclei is about 1.5 MeV, half the value of the liquid drop model. We also discuss an alternative norm for evaluating mass fits, the Chebyshev norm. It focuses attention on the cases with the largest discrepancies between theory and experiment. We show how it works with the liquid drop model and make some applications to models based on Skyrme energy functionals. The Chebyshev norm seems to be more sensitive to new experimental data than the root-mean-square norm. The method also has the advantage that candidate improvements to the theories can be assessed with computations on smaller sets of nuclei

  17. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  18. Improving health-related fitness in children: the fit-4-Fun randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eather Narelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Declining levels of physical fitness in children are linked to an increased risk of developing poor physical and mental health. Physical activity programs for children that involve regular high intensity physical activity, along with muscle and bone strengthening activities, have been identified by the World Health Organisation as a key strategy to reduce the escalating burden of ill health caused by non-communicable diseases. This paper reports the rationale and methods for a school-based intervention designed to improve physical fitness and physical activity levels of Grades 5 and 6 primary school children. Methods/Design Fit-4-Fun is an 8-week multi-component school-based health-related fitness education intervention and will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. Primary schools from the Hunter Region in NSW, Australia, will be invited to participate in the program in 2011 with a target sample size of 128 primary schools children (age 10-13. The Fit-4-Fun program is theoretically grounded and will be implemented applying the Health Promoting Schools framework. Students will participate in weekly curriculum-based health and physical education lessons, daily break-time physical activities during recess and lunch, and will complete an 8-week (3 × per week home activity program with their parents and/or family members. A battery of six health-related fitness assessments, four days of pedometery-assessed physical activity and a questionnaire, will be administered at baseline, immediate post-intervention (2-months and at 6-months (from baseline to determine intervention effects. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation and statistical analyses are described. Discussion The Fit-4-Fun program is an innovative school-based intervention targeting fitness improvements in primary school children. The program will

  19. Improving health-related fitness in children: the Fit-4-Fun randomized controlled trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2011-12-05

    Declining levels of physical fitness in children are linked to an increased risk of developing poor physical and mental health. Physical activity programs for children that involve regular high intensity physical activity, along with muscle and bone strengthening activities, have been identified by the World Health Organisation as a key strategy to reduce the escalating burden of ill health caused by non-communicable diseases. This paper reports the rationale and methods for a school-based intervention designed to improve physical fitness and physical activity levels of Grades 5 and 6 primary school children. Fit-4-Fun is an 8-week multi-component school-based health-related fitness education intervention and will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. Primary schools from the Hunter Region in NSW, Australia, will be invited to participate in the program in 2011 with a target sample size of 128 primary schools children (age 10-13). The Fit-4-Fun program is theoretically grounded and will be implemented applying the Health Promoting Schools framework. Students will participate in weekly curriculum-based health and physical education lessons, daily break-time physical activities during recess and lunch, and will complete an 8-week (3 × per week) home activity program with their parents and/or family members. A battery of six health-related fitness assessments, four days of pedometery-assessed physical activity and a questionnaire, will be administered at baseline, immediate post-intervention (2-months) and at 6-months (from baseline) to determine intervention effects. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation and statistical analyses are described. The Fit-4-Fun program is an innovative school-based intervention targeting fitness improvements in primary school children. The program will involve a range of evidence-based behaviour change strategies to

  20. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  1. Desirable design of hose fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the primary functionality of a hose fitting. There has been made a discussion about the different parts of the hose assembly - the nipple, the hose and the outer compression parts. The last subject covered is which criteria should be put up for determining what is a good hose...... fittings. There has been made an uncompleted list of 'Voice of Customer' to this respect. Observations and interviews in industry should expand this list....

  2. The 'fitting problem' in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.F.R.; Stoeger, W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers the best way to fit an idealised exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe model to a realistic ('lumpy') universe; whether made explicit or not, some such approach of necessity underlies the use of the standard Robertson-Walker models as models of the real universe. Approaches based on averaging, normal coordinates and null data are presented, the latter offering the best opportunity to relate the fitting procedure to data obtainable by astronomical observations. (author)

  3. Broad-spectrum physical fitness benefits of recreational football: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-25

    A previous meta-analysis showed that maximal oxygen uptake increased by 3.51 mL/kg/min (95% CI 3.07 to 4.15) during a recreational football programme of 3-6 months in comparison with continuous moderate-intensity running, strength training or a passive control group. In addition, narrative reviews have demonstrated beneficial effects of recreational football on physical fitness and health status. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the magnitude of effects of recreational football on blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile and muscular fitness with reference to age, gender and health status. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Google Scholar were searched prior to 1 February 2017. In addition, Google Scholar alerts were set up in January 2012 to identify potential papers with the following key terms: recreational football, recreational soccer, street football and street soccer. Randomised and matched controlled trials with participants allocated to a recreational football group or any other type of exercises or passive control group were included. Training programmes had to last at least 2 weeks to meet the inclusion criteria. The primary outcome measures were blood pressure, resting heart rate, body composition, muscular fitness, and blood lipids and glucose tolerance. A total of 31 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included. The effect of recreational football on systolic blood pressure (SBP) versus no-exercise controls was most likely extremely largely beneficial (effect size (ES)=4.20 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.87 to 6.53). In addition, a most likely very large beneficial (ES=3.89 mm Hg; 95% CI 2.33 to 5.44) effect was observed for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), when compared with non-active groups. Furthermore, a most likely extremely large beneficial effect was shown for SBP and DBP in

  4. Effects of population outcrossing on rotifer fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Outcrossing between populations can exert either positive or negative effects on offspring fitness. Cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, like other continental zooplankters, show high genetic differentiation despite their high potential for passive dispersal. Within this context, the effects of outcrossing may be relevant in modulating gene flow between populations through selection for or against interpopulation hybrids. Nevertheless, these effects remain practically unexplored in rotifers. Here, the consequences of outcrossing on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were investigated. Cross-mating experiments were performed between a reference population and three alternative populations that differed in their genetic distance with regard to the former. Two offspring generations were obtained: F1 and BC ('backcross'). Fitness of the outcrossed offspring was compared with fitness of the offspring of the reference population for both generations and for three different between-population combinations. Four fitness components were measured throughout the rotifer life cycle: the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, clone viability (for the clones originating from diapausing eggs), initial net growth rate R for each viable clone, and the proportion of male-producing clones. Additionally, both the parental fertilisation proportion and a compound fitness measure, integrating the complete life cycle, were estimated. Results In the F1 generation, hybrid vigour was detected for the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, while R was lower in the outcrossed offspring than in the offspring of the reference population. Despite these contrasting results, hybrid vigour was globally observed for the compound measure of fitness. Moreover, there was evidence that this vigour could increase with the genetic differentiation of the outcrossed populations. In the BC generation, the hybrid vigour detected for the egg-hatching proportion in the F1 generation reverted to outbreeding

  5. Effects of population outcrossing on rotifer fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcrossing between populations can exert either positive or negative effects on offspring fitness. Cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, like other continental zooplankters, show high genetic differentiation despite their high potential for passive dispersal. Within this context, the effects of outcrossing may be relevant in modulating gene flow between populations through selection for or against interpopulation hybrids. Nevertheless, these effects remain practically unexplored in rotifers. Here, the consequences of outcrossing on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were investigated. Cross-mating experiments were performed between a reference population and three alternative populations that differed in their genetic distance with regard to the former. Two offspring generations were obtained: F1 and BC ('backcross'. Fitness of the outcrossed offspring was compared with fitness of the offspring of the reference population for both generations and for three different between-population combinations. Four fitness components were measured throughout the rotifer life cycle: the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, clone viability (for the clones originating from diapausing eggs, initial net growth rate R for each viable clone, and the proportion of male-producing clones. Additionally, both the parental fertilisation proportion and a compound fitness measure, integrating the complete life cycle, were estimated. Results In the F1 generation, hybrid vigour was detected for the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, while R was lower in the outcrossed offspring than in the offspring of the reference population. Despite these contrasting results, hybrid vigour was globally observed for the compound measure of fitness. Moreover, there was evidence that this vigour could increase with the genetic differentiation of the outcrossed populations. In the BC generation, the hybrid vigour detected for the egg-hatching proportion in the F1

  6. Rhizosphere size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  7. Measured, modeled, and causal conceptions of fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes partial answers to the following questions: in what senses can fitness differences plausibly be considered causes of evolution?What relationships are there between fitness concepts used in empirical research, modeling, and abstract theoretical proposals? How does the relevance of different fitness concepts depend on research questions and methodological constraints? The paper develops a novel taxonomy of fitness concepts, beginning with type fitness (a property of a genotype or phenotype), token fitness (a property of a particular individual), and purely mathematical fitness. Type fitness includes statistical type fitness, which can be measured from population data, and parametric type fitness, which is an underlying property estimated by statistical type fitnesses. Token fitness includes measurable token fitness, which can be measured on an individual, and tendential token fitness, which is assumed to be an underlying property of the individual in its environmental circumstances. Some of the paper's conclusions can be outlined as follows: claims that fitness differences do not cause evolution are reasonable when fitness is treated as statistical type fitness, measurable token fitness, or purely mathematical fitness. Some of the ways in which statistical methods are used in population genetics suggest that what natural selection involves are differences in parametric type fitnesses. Further, it's reasonable to think that differences in parametric type fitness can cause evolution. Tendential token fitnesses, however, are not themselves sufficient for natural selection. Though parametric type fitnesses are typically not directly measurable, they can be modeled with purely mathematical fitnesses and estimated by statistical type fitnesses, which in turn are defined in terms of measurable token fitnesses. The paper clarifies the ways in which fitnesses depend on pragmatic choices made by researchers. PMID:23112804

  8. Humeral head size in shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaesel, M T; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1998-01-01

    Changes in kinematics after hemiarthroplasty of the glenohumeral joint were investigated in nine cadaveric specimens. During experiments the influence of the humeral head size on glenohumeral kinematics was evaluated. A modular prosthesis with five different head sizes and press-fit stems was use...

  9. Comparing Person Organization Fit and Person Job Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ardıç

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies conducted to analyze the effects of person-organization fit (POF and person-job fit (PJF on individual outcomes, little is known about which of these fit associates stronger with individual variables (i.e., intention to quit job, IQJ, and perceived individual performance, PIP. Therefore the purpose of the study is to compare the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP. The sample of the study consists of security guards working at a private company's civil aviation safety department. Totally 98 security guards participated to the research. Results indicated that, the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP were not significantly different. Consequently the results indicate that POF and PJF associate similarly with critical individual outcomes.

  10. "The Heart Game"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Marcus; Rasmussen, Jack Ord; Grönvall, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this article is to describe the development and testing of a prototype application (“The Heart Game”) using gamification principles to assist heart patients in their telerehabilitation process in the Teledialog project. Materials and Methods: A prototype game was developed via...... (interviews, participant observations, focus group interviews, and workshop) was used. Interviews with three healthcare professionals and 10 patients were carried out over a period of 2 weeks in order to evaluate the use of the prototype. Results: The heart patients reported the application to be a useful...... activities. Conclusions: “The Heart Game” concept presents a new way to motivate heart patients by using technology as a social and active approach to telerehabilitation. The findings show the potential of using gamification for heart patients as part of a telerehabilitation program. The evaluation indicated...

  11. Heart Failure in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Biykem; Khalaf, Shaden

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in women, and they tend to develop it at an older age compared to men. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is more common in women than in men and accounts for at least half the cases of heart failure in women. When comparing men and women who have heart failure and a low left ventricular ejection fraction, the women are more symptomatic and have a similarly poor outcome. Overall recommendations for guideline-directed medical therapies show no differences in treatment approaches between men and women. Overall, women are generally underrepresented in clinical trials for heart failure. Further studies are needed to shed light into different mechanisms, causes, and targeted therapies of heart failure in women. PMID:29744014

  12. Experimental Rugged Fitness Landscape in Protein Sequence Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuuki; Aita, Takuyo; Toyota, Hitoshi; Husimi, Yuzuru; Urabe, Itaru; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    The fitness landscape in sequence space determines the process of biomolecular evolution. To plot the fitness landscape of protein function, we carried out in vitro molecular evolution beginning with a defective fd phage carrying a random polypeptide of 139 amino acids in place of the g3p minor coat protein D2 domain, which is essential for phage infection. After 20 cycles of random substitution at sites 12–130 of the initial random polypeptide and selection for infectivity, the selected phage showed a 1.7×104-fold increase in infectivity, defined as the number of infected cells per ml of phage suspension. Fitness was defined as the logarithm of infectivity, and we analyzed (1) the dependence of stationary fitness on library size, which increased gradually, and (2) the time course of changes in fitness in transitional phases, based on an original theory regarding the evolutionary dynamics in Kauffman's n-k fitness landscape model. In the landscape model, single mutations at single sites among n sites affect the contribution of k other sites to fitness. Based on the results of these analyses, k was estimated to be 18–24. According to the estimated parameters, the landscape was plotted as a smooth surface up to a relative fitness of 0.4 of the global peak, whereas the landscape had a highly rugged surface with many local peaks above this relative fitness value. Based on the landscapes of these two different surfaces, it appears possible for adaptive walks with only random substitutions to climb with relative ease up to the middle region of the fitness landscape from any primordial or random sequence, whereas an enormous range of sequence diversity is required to climb further up the rugged surface above the middle region. PMID:17183728

  13. Experimental rugged fitness landscape in protein sequence space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuuki; Aita, Takuyo; Toyota, Hitoshi; Husimi, Yuzuru; Urabe, Itaru; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2006-12-20

    The fitness landscape in sequence space determines the process of biomolecular evolution. To plot the fitness landscape of protein function, we carried out in vitro molecular evolution beginning with a defective fd phage carrying a random polypeptide of 139 amino acids in place of the g3p minor coat protein D2 domain, which is essential for phage infection. After 20 cycles of random substitution at sites 12-130 of the initial random polypeptide and selection for infectivity, the selected phage showed a 1.7x10(4)-fold increase in infectivity, defined as the number of infected cells per ml of phage suspension. Fitness was defined as the logarithm of infectivity, and we analyzed (1) the dependence of stationary fitness on library size, which increased gradually, and (2) the time course of changes in fitness in transitional phases, based on an original theory regarding the evolutionary dynamics in Kauffman's n-k fitness landscape model. In the landscape model, single mutations at single sites among n sites affect the contribution of k other sites to fitness. Based on the results of these analyses, k was estimated to be 18-24. According to the estimated parameters, the landscape was plotted as a smooth surface up to a relative fitness of 0.4 of the global peak, whereas the landscape had a highly rugged surface with many local peaks above this relative fitness value. Based on the landscapes of these two different surfaces, it appears possible for adaptive walks with only random substitutions to climb with relative ease up to the middle region of the fitness landscape from any primordial or random sequence, whereas an enormous range of sequence diversity is required to climb further up the rugged surface above the middle region.

  14. Experimental rugged fitness landscape in protein sequence space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Hayashi

    Full Text Available The fitness landscape in sequence space determines the process of biomolecular evolution. To plot the fitness landscape of protein function, we carried out in vitro molecular evolution beginning with a defective fd phage carrying a random polypeptide of 139 amino acids in place of the g3p minor coat protein D2 domain, which is essential for phage infection. After 20 cycles of random substitution at sites 12-130 of the initial random polypeptide and selection for infectivity, the selected phage showed a 1.7x10(4-fold increase in infectivity, defined as the number of infected cells per ml of phage suspension. Fitness was defined as the logarithm of infectivity, and we analyzed (1 the dependence of stationary fitness on library size, which increased gradually, and (2 the time course of changes in fitness in transitional phases, based on an original theory regarding the evolutionary dynamics in Kauffman's n-k fitness landscape model. In the landscape model, single mutations at single sites among n sites affect the contribution of k other sites to fitness. Based on the results of these analyses, k was estimated to be 18-24. According to the estimated parameters, the landscape was plotted as a smooth surface up to a relative fitness of 0.4 of the global peak, whereas the landscape had a highly rugged surface with many local peaks above this relative fitness value. Based on the landscapes of these two different surfaces, it appears possible for adaptive walks with only random substitutions to climb with relative ease up to the middle region of the fitness landscape from any primordial or random sequence, whereas an enormous range of sequence diversity is required to climb further up the rugged surface above the middle region.

  15. Texas Heart Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of seminars and conferences. Resources Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources Resources for Physicians Fellowships & Residencies School of Perfusion Technology THI Spotlight Check out the ...

  16. Nutrition in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Reci Meseri

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is defined as decreased ability of heart due to various reasons. It%u2019s seen 2-3% but the prevalence increases sharply after the age of seventy. The objectives of nutrition therapy in heart failure are to prevent from water retention and edema, to avoid from hard digestion and to offer a balanced diet. In order to avoid fluid retention and edema, daily sodium and fluid intake must be monitored carefully. Main dilemma of the heart failure patients is the obesity-cachexia dilem...

  17. Predicting sample size required for classification performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Rosa L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervised learning methods need annotated data in order to generate efficient models. Annotated data, however, is a relatively scarce resource and can be expensive to obtain. For both passive and active learning methods, there is a need to estimate the size of the annotated sample required to reach a performance target. Methods We designed and implemented a method that fits an inverse power law model to points of a given learning curve created using a small annotated training set. Fitting is carried out using nonlinear weighted least squares optimization. The fitted model is then used to predict the classifier's performance and confidence interval for larger sample sizes. For evaluation, the nonlinear weighted curve fitting method was applied to a set of learning curves generated using clinical text and waveform classification tasks with active and passive sampling methods, and predictions were validated using standard goodness of fit measures. As control we used an un-weighted fitting method. Results A total of 568 models were fitted and the model predictions were compared with the observed performances. Depending on the data set and sampling method, it took between 80 to 560 annotated samples to achieve mean average and root mean squared error below 0.01. Results also show that our weighted fitting method outperformed the baseline un-weighted method (p Conclusions This paper describes a simple and effective sample size prediction algorithm that conducts weighted fitting of learning curves. The algorithm outperformed an un-weighted algorithm described in previous literature. It can help researchers determine annotation sample size for supervised machine learning.

  18. The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dina Christina Janse van Rensburg

    d Institute for Sports Research, Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria, South Africa e Institute for Food ... The American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for health/fitness .... It is important to stress that the focus of this study was not.

  19. Kinetic Behaviors of a Competitive Population and Fitness System in Exchange-Driven Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ke; Lin Zhenquan; Sun Yunfei

    2008-01-01

    We proposed an aggregation model of two species aggregates of fitness and population to study the interaction between the two species in their exchange-driven processes of the same species by introducing the monomer birth of fitness catalyzed by the population, where the fitness aggregates perform self-death process and the population aggregates perform self-birth process. The kinetic behaviors of the aggregate size distributions of the fitness and population were analyzed by the rate equation approach with their exchange rate kernel K 1 (k,j) = K 1 kj and K 2 (k,j) = K 2 kj, the fitness aggregate's self-death rate kernel J 1 (k) = J 1 k, population aggregate's self-birth rate kernel J 2 (k) = J 2 k and population-catalyzed fitness birth rate kernel I(k,j) = Ikj v . The kinetic behavior of the fitness was found depending crucially on the parameter v, which reflects the dependence of the population-catalyzed fitness birth rate on the size of the catalyst (population) aggregate. (i) In the v ≤ 0 case, the effect of catalyzed-birth of fitness is rather weak and the exchange-driven aggregation and self-death of the fitness dominate the process, and the fitness aggregate size distribution a k (t) does not have scale form. (ii) When v > 0, the effect of the population-catalyzed birth of fitness gets strong enough, and the catalyzed-birth and self-death of the fitness aggregates, together with the self-birth of the population aggregates dominate the evolution process of the fitness aggregates. The aggregate size distribution a k (t) approaches a generalized scaling form

  20. On the expected relationship between inbreeding, fitness, and extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couvet Denis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We assessed the expected relationship between the level and the cost of inbreeding, measured either in terms of fitness, inbreeding depression or probability of extinction. First, we show that the assumption of frequent, slightly deleterious mutations do agree with observations and experiments, on the contrary to the assumption of few, moderately deleterious mutations. For the same inbreeding coefficient, populations can greatly differ in fitness according to the following: (i population size; larger populations show higher fitness (ii the history of population size; in a population that recovers after a bottleneck, higher inbreeding can lead to higher fitness and (iii population demography; population growth rate and carrying capacity determine the relationship between inbreeding and extinction. With regards to the relationship between inbreeding depression and inbreeding coefficient, the population size that minimizes inbreeding depression depends on the level of inbreeding: inbreeding depression can even decrease when population size increases. It is therefore clear that to infer the costs of inbreeding, one must know both the history of inbreeding (e.g. past bottlenecks and population demography.

  1. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  2. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (pfit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23....... Researchers should be aware of the amount of noise in indirect tests that estimate aerobic fitness....

  3. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  4. Resonance of about-weekly human heart rate rhythm with solar activity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F; Wendt, H W; Bingham, C; Sothern, R B; Haus, E; Kleitman, E; Kleitman, N; Revilla, M A; Revilla, M; Breus, T K; Pimenov, K; Grigoriev, A E; Mitish, M D; Yatsyk, G V; Syutkina, E V

    1996-12-01

    In several human adults, certain solar activity rhythms may influence an about 7-day rhythm in heart rate. When no about-weekly feature was found in the rate of change in sunspot area, a measure of solar activity, the double amplitude of a circadian heart rate rhythm, approximated by the fit of a 7-day cosine curve, was lower, as was heart rate corresponds to about-weekly features in solar activity and/or relates to a sunspot cycle.

  5. Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

  6. Healthy Body, Happy Heart: Improve Your Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... November 2017 Print this issue Healthy Body, Happy Heart Improve Your Heart Health En español Send us your comments Every moment of the day, your heart is pumping blood throughout your body. In silent ...

  7. The hippo pathway in heart development, regeneration, and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Li, Li; Zhao, Bin; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2015-04-10

    The heart is the first organ formed during mammalian development. A properly sized and functional heart is vital throughout the entire lifespan. Loss of cardiomyocytes because of injury or diseases leads to heart failure, which is a major cause of human morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, regenerative potential of the adult heart is limited. The Hippo pathway is a recently identified signaling cascade that plays an evolutionarily conserved role in organ size control by inhibiting cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, regulating fates of stem/progenitor cells, and in some circumstances, limiting cell size. Interestingly, research indicates a key role of this pathway in regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart size. Inactivation of the Hippo pathway or activation of its downstream effector, the Yes-associated protein transcription coactivator, improves cardiac regeneration. Several known upstream signals of the Hippo pathway such as mechanical stress, G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, and oxidative stress are known to play critical roles in cardiac physiology. In addition, Yes-associated protein has been shown to regulate cardiomyocyte fate through multiple transcriptional mechanisms. In this review, we summarize and discuss current findings on the roles and mechanisms of the Hippo pathway in heart development, injury, and regeneration. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving; Exercise; does exercise help quit smoking; exercises after quitting smoking; exercise after smoking; exercise and quitting smoking; exercise and smoking; smoking articles; articles about smoking; articles on smoking; articles about smoking; article on smoking; health articles on smoking; smoking article; benefits of physical activity; benefits for physical activity; benefit of physical activity; benefits to physical activity; daily physical activities; daily physical activity; healthy physical activities; healthy physical activity; health activities; activity for health; exercise physical activity and health; health activities; health activities for kids; health and fitness activities; health benefits for physical activity; health benefits from physical activity; health benefits of physical activity; health benefits physical activity; health promotion activities; physical exercise; exercise and physical activity; exercise and physical health; exercise for physical fitness; health benefits of physical fitness; how to do physical exercise; physical activity and exercise; physical activity exercise; physical health; physical health and fitness; physical health and wellness; physical health benefits; physical Health fitness; what are the benefits of physical fitness; physical fitness; about physical fitness; benefits of physical fitness; how to improve physical fitness; physical fitness; physical fitness article; fitness; fitness article; fitness articles; fitness plans; health and fitness; exercise; benefits of regular exercise on health; exercise plan; exercise tips; routine; best work out routine for overweight women

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the effect of an affect-guided physical activity prescription: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin S; Kangas, Julie L; Denman, Deanna C; Smits, Jasper A J; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions have a clear role in promoting mental health. Current PA guidelines directed toward specific PA intensities may have negative effects on affective response to exercise, and affective response is an important determinant of PA adherence. In this randomized trial of 67 previously inactive adults, we compared the effects of a PA prescription emphasizing the maintenance of positive affect to one emphasizing a target heart rate, and tested the extent to which the effect of the affect-guided prescription on PA is moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). We found the effect of an affect-guided prescription was significantly moderated by CRF. At one week, for participants with lower CRF (i.e. poor conditioning), the affect-guided prescription resulted in significantly greater change in PA minutes (M = 240.8) than the heart rate-guided prescription (M = 165.7), reflecting a moderate-sized effect (d = .55). For those with higher CRF (i.e. good conditioning), the means were in the opposite direction but not significantly different. At one month, the same pattern emerged but the interaction was not significant. We discuss the implications of these findings for the type of PA prescriptions offered to individuals in need.

  10. Human heart by art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Abraham

    2012-11-01

    Heart is of great importance in maintaining the life of the body. Enough to stop working for a few minutes to cause death, and hence the great importance in physiology, medicine, and research. This fact was already emphasized in the Bible in the Book of Proverbs, chapter 4 verse 23: "Keep your heart with all diligence, for out of it is the wellspring of life." Art was able to demonstrate the heart from various aspects; realistically, as done by Leonardo de Vinci who demonstrated the halves of the heart and its blood vessels. Symbolically, as a source of life, the heart was demonstrated by the artist Mrs. Erlondeiel, as a caricature by Salvador Dali, as an open heart by Sawaya, etc. Finally, it should be emphasized that different demonstrations of the human heart by many artworks make this most important organ of our body (that cannot be seen from outside) more familiar and clearer to us. And this is the purpose of this article-to demonstrate the heart through a large number of artworks of different kinds.

  11. Hyperthyroidism and the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Patricia Mejia; Udovcic, Maja; Sharma, Morali D

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have a significant impact on cardiac function and structure. Excess thyroid hormone affects cardiovascular hemodynamics, leading to high-output heart failure and, in late stages, dilated cardiomyopathy. In this review, we discuss how hyperthyroidism affects cardiovascular pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms and examine the complications caused by excess thyroid hormone, such as heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

  12. Hypothyroidism and the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovcic, Maja; Pena, Raul Herrera; Patham, Bhargavi; Tabatabai, Laila; Kansara, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a commonly encountered clinical condition with variable prevalence. It has profound effects on cardiac function that can impact cardiac contractility, vascular resistance, blood pressure, and heart rhythm. With this review, we aim to describe the effects of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism on the heart. Additionally, we attempt to briefly describe how hypothyroid treatment affects cardiovascular parameters. PMID:28740582

  13. How the Heart Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... direction that blood flows through your heart. The light blue arrow shows that blood enters the right atrium of your heart from ... to your lungs through the pulmonary arteries. The light red arrow shows oxygen-rich blood coming from your lungs through the pulmonary veins ...

  14. Ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg Hansen, Louise; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Correct prehospital diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) may accelerate and improve the treatment. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of prehospital diagnoses of ischemic heart diseases assigned by physicians. Methods. The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark...

  15. World Heart Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    For World Heart Day, learn more about what heart-healthy steps you can take in the workplace.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  16. Hypothyroidism and the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovcic, Maja; Pena, Raul Herrera; Patham, Bhargavi; Tabatabai, Laila; Kansara, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a commonly encountered clinical condition with variable prevalence. It has profound effects on cardiac function that can impact cardiac contractility, vascular resistance, blood pressure, and heart rhythm. With this review, we aim to describe the effects of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism on the heart. Additionally, we attempt to briefly describe how hypothyroid treatment affects cardiovascular parameters.

  17. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  18. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  19. Heart Rate Monitors Promote Physical Education for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Jan; Sander, Allan N.

    2004-01-01

    National health and fitness data suggests that a significant percentage of children are not on a pathway to leading healthy, physically active lifestyles. Many children are leading sedentary lifestyles due to a lack of opportunity, success, or self-motivation in physical activity. Programs that highlight the use of heart rate monitors offer a…

  20. Reirradiation tolerance of the rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, Jan; Ravels, Frank J.M. van; Reijnart, Ivonne W.C.; Strootman, Erwin G.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of reirradiation on the tolerance of the heart after a previous irradiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Female Wistar rats were locally irradiated to the thorax. Development of cardiac function loss was studied with the ex vivo working rat heart preparation. To compare the retreatment experiments, initial, and reirradiation doses were expressed as the percentage of the extrapolated tolerance dose (ETD). Results: Local heart irradiation with a single dose led to a dose-dependent and progressive decrease in cardiac function. The progressive nature of irradiation-induced heart disease is shown to affect the outcome of the retreatment, depending on both the time interval between subsequent doses and the size of the initial dose. The present data demonstrate that hearts are capable of repairing a large part of the initial dose of 10 Gy within the first 24 h. However, once biological damage as a result of the first treatment is fixed, the heart does not show any long-term recovery. At intervals up to 6 months between an initial treatment with 10 Gy and subsequent reirradiation, the reirradiation tolerance dose slightly decreased from 74% of the ETD ref (at 24-h interval) to 68% of the ETD ref (at 6-month interval). Between 6 and 9 months, reirradiation tolerance dose dropped more even to 43% of the ETD ref . Treatment of the heart with an initial dose of 17.5 Gy, instead of 10 Gy, 6 months prior to reirradiation, also led to a further decrease of the reirradiation tolerance dose ( ref ). Conclusions: The outcome of the present study shows a decreased tolerance of the heart to reirradiation at long time intervals (interval > 6 months). This has clinical implications for the estimation of reirradiation tolerance in patients whose mediastinum has to be reirradiated a long time after a first irradiation course

  1. Recommended aerobic fitness level for metabolic health in children and adolescents: a study of diagnostic accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Froberg, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the optimal cut-off for low aerobic fitness and to evaluate its accuracy to predict clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. Design Study of diagnostic accuracy using a cross-sectional database. Setting European Youth Heart Study...... would be expected by chance (AUC >0.5) for all cut-offs. Conclusions Aerobic fitness is easy to measure, and is an accurate tool for screening children with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Promoting physical activity in children with aerobic fitness level lower than the suggested cut...

  2. Sports Potentials for Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This report, one of a series on research into specific physical activities and their efficacy in improving and maintaining physical fitness, examines sport participation and the potential it has for developing muscular strength, muscular endurance, and circulatory-respiratory endurance. The activities consist primarily of the following twelve…

  3. Civilian Fitness: A Readiness Enabler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-24

    bonus to make working out convenient and facilitate work / life balance . This was secondary to the hope that a fitness program would produce healthier...workforce; and 3) become an employer of choice and promote work life balance .88 34 Strategic plans and supporting objectives of the Army Installation

  4. Hotels Make Room for Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)

  5. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  6. In a Peak Fitness Condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    managerial efforts with regard to Danish elite sports? The analysis finds the Danish elite sports organization, Team Danmark, well prepared and fit for the future challenges. Still, though, areas such as talent identification and development and division of roles and responsibilities, are in need...

  7. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However...

  8. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness and vision loss among young and middle-age U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Zebardast, Nazlee; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between vision loss and cardiorespiratory fitness among young and middle-age U.S. adults. The study had a cross-sectional design. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 served as the study setting. Study subjects included 3135 adults ages 20 to 49 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from cardiorespiratory extrapolation using heart rate response during submaximal treadmill testing, with inadequate cardiorespiratory fitness defined as below the 60th percentile for age and gender. Visual acuity was objectively assessed for each eye. Multivariable regression (linear and logistic) models were computed to examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and vision. Poorer cardiorespiratory fitness (β = -3.7 mL O2/kg per minute; 95% confidence interval: -5.3 to -2.2) was observed in subjects with visual impairment after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and comorbid illness. Participants with vision impairment, as compared with those with normal sight, had 4.4-fold higher odds of having inadequate cardiorespiratory fitness (95% confidence interval: 1.04-18.97), whereas participants with uncorrected refractive error were not more likely to demonstrate poorer cardiorespiratory fitness. Adults with visual impairment, but not adults with uncorrected refractive error, demonstrate a significant reduction in cardiorespiratory fitness and are much more likely to have inadequate fitness compared with those with normal vision. Evaluation and implementation of strategies to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among those with vision impairment, in particular, are needed.

  10. Early in vivo experience with the pediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Horvath, David J; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Kuban, Barry D; Gao, Shengqiang; Dessoffy, Raymond; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2018-03-30

    Heart transplantation in infants and children is an accepted therapy for end-stage heart failure, but donor organ availability is low and always uncertain. Mechanical circulatory support is another standard option, but there is a lack of intracorporeal devices due to size and functional range. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vivo performance of our initial prototype of a pediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart (P-CFTAH), comprising a dual pump with one motor and one rotating assembly, supported by a hydrodynamic bearing. In acute studies, the P-CFTAH was implanted in 4 lambs (average weight: 28.7 ± 2.3 kg) via a median sternotomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. Pulmonary and systemic pump performance parameters were recorded. The experiments showed good anatomical fit and easy implantation, with an average aortic cross-clamp time of 98 ± 18 minutes. Baseline hemodynamics were stable in all 4 animals (pump speed: 3.4 ± 0.2 krpm; pump flow: 2.1 ± 0.9 liters/min; power: 3.0 ± 0.8 W; arterial pressure: 68 ± 10 mm Hg; left and right atrial pressures: 6 ± 1 mm Hg, for both). Any differences between left and right atrial pressures were maintained within the intended limit of ±5 mm Hg over a wide range of ratios of systemic-to-pulmonary vascular resistance (0.7 to 12), with and without pump-speed modulation. Pump-speed modulation was successfully performed to create arterial pulsation. This initial P-CFTAH prototype met the proposed requirements for self-regulation, performance, and pulse modulation. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Options for Heart Valve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide: Understanding Your Heart Valve Problem | Spanish Symptom Tracker | Spanish Pre-surgery Checklist | Spanish What Is Heart ... Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? 7 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 8 Low Blood Pressure - ...

  12. Heart Disease in Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Hispanic Women “I thought it couldn’t be true,” says ... disease is their No. 1 killer. Why Hispanic women? While heart disease doesn’t discriminate, you could ...

  13. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000112.htm Heart failure - fluids and diuretics To use the sharing features ... to Expect at Home When you have heart failure, your heart does not pump out enough blood. This causes ...

  14. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  15. What is Broken Heart Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pumping action and blood flow, go to the Health Topics How the Heart Works article.) Researchers are trying to identify the precise way in which the stress hormones affect the heart. Broken heart syndrome may result from ...

  16. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  17. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Keidser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  18. Graded associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness, and blood pressure in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klasson-Heggebø, L.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wennlöf, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure the graded relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and sum of skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure in children and adolescents participating in the European youth heart study. Methods: The participants were 4072 children and adolescents (aged 9 and 15) from...

  19. Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand; Alliez, Pierre; Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse

  20. X-ray picture of the heart turn in echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishkevich, A.M.; Goryanina, N.K.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is concerned with X-ray and echocardiographic investigation of the heart in 461 patients with mitral-tricuspidal disease. In 377 (82%) cases a turn of the heart along the longitudinal axis (counter clockwise) to the left and back was revealed. X-ray recognition of the heart turn made it possible to set an echocardiographic sensor to spot some of the cardiac cavities, interventricular septum and valvular apparatus. The correct setting of the echocardiographic sensor resulted in the determination of true sizes of each cardiac cavity, diagnosis of the nature of each valvular lesion and the recognition of such complications of rheumatic heart diseases as valvular calcinosis, left atrial thrombosis and disorder of myocardial contractility

  1. Defining beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart with iodocyanopindolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, J.C.; Wieland, D.M.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Normolle, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Beta adrenoreceptors in the heart are integral to the regulation of myocardial function by the sympathetic nervous system and are important in adaptations to physiologic stress and disease. However, these adrenoreceptors have not been defined throughout the living heart. Iodocyanopindolol (ICYP), a nonselective beta antagonist, binds with high affinity to beta adrenoreceptors and, when radiolabeled, offers a method for portraying the receptors quantitatively. When administered intravenously to rats, [ 125 I]ICYP in the heart was fitted with a mathematical model. The T 1/2 of offset of binding from the heart was several hours, and metabolism of ICYP in blood and heart was modest. ICYP in the heart fulfilled the following criteria for binding to beta adrenoreceptors: Patterns of inhibition produced by a beta agonist and beta antagonists were according to dose and potency; binding of (-)ICYP and (±)ICYP were stereospecific; and binding was saturable. When administered intravenously to dogs at 3-5 mCi, [ 123 I]ICYP distributed diffusely in the myocardium, as seen in scintigraphic tomographs of the heart. A small quantity of another beta antagonist selectively reduced lung binding to improve image quality. Thus, [ 123 I]ICYP portrays beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart. With newer detection instruments, dynamic data of [ 123 I]ICYP can be acquired to quantify the adrenoreceptors

  2. Fitness for Work Evaluation of Firefighters in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mehrdad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firefighting is extremely strenuous and physically demanding work and involves ability to cope with emergency life-or-death situations. Because of the high physical demands of firefighting, successful job performance and minimizing of morbidity and mortality depends on fitness for duty. The firefighting department of Tehran does not perform periodic medical assessment for firefighters. The aim of this study was to evaluate medical fitness among firefighters in Tehran. In this cross sectional study we examined 147 firefighters. Medical and occupational history obtained by interview, then we performed physical examination, blood tests, ECG, spirometry and audiometry. Then results compared with guidelines for firefighters in the USA, Australia and the United Kingdom. Seven percent of our participants had a kind of pulmonary dysfunction and 25% had some degrees of hearing loss. A considerable percent of them had modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors. Thirteen participitants were unfit for this job that among them; ten firefighters were unfit based on vision capability, one case due to hypertention and two cases because of pulmonary dysfunction. Because of hazardouse nature of firefighting; preplacement, periodic medical evaluations and assesment of fitness for firefighters in Iran is highly recommended. Establishment of fitness criteria for firefighters in Iran is necessery to perform assigned functions safely.

  3. Dental Health and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  4. Mental Health and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  5. Carrying photosynthesis genes increases ecological fitness of cyanophage in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweger, Ferdi L

    2009-06-01

    Several viruses infecting marine cyanobacteria carry photosynthesis genes (e.g. psbA, hli) that are expressed, yield proteins (D1, HLIP) and help maintain the cell's photosynthesis apparatus during the latent period. This increases energy and speeds up virus production, allowing for a reduced latent period (a fitness benefit), but it also increases the DNA size, which slows down new virus production and reduces burst size (a fitness cost). How do these genes affect the net ecological fitness of the virus? Here, this question is explored using a combined systems biology and systems ecology ('systems bioecology') approach. A novel agent-based model simulates individual cyanobacteria cells and virus particles, each with their own genes, transcripts, proteins and other properties. The effect of D1 and HLIP proteins is explicitly considered using a mechanistic photosynthesis component. The model is calibrated to the available database for Prochlorococcus ecotype MED4 and podovirus P-SSP7. Laboratory- and field-scale in silico survival, competition and evolution (gene packaging error) experiments with wild type and genetically engineered viruses are performed to develop vertical survival and fitness profiles, and to determine the optimal gene content. The results suggest that photosynthesis genes are nonessential, increase fitness in a manner correlated with irradiance, and that the wild type has an optimal gene content.

  6. Magnitude, direction and location of the resultant dipole moment of the pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, B C; Nelson, C V; Angelakos, E T

    1976-04-01

    Vectorcardiograms were obtained from 50 young domestic pigs using the Nelson lead system. Compensation for body size and shape is achieved and the resultant dipole moment magnitude reflects heart size. A strong relationship was found between heart size and maximum magnitude. Dipole moment magnitude increased as four pigs increased from five to ten weeks of age. The dipole moment during QRS is considered in light of known pig heart excitation pattern. Dipole locations during QRS, calculated by computer solution of the Gabor-Nelson equations, were in agreement with heart location and excitation data.

  7. Disruption effects on the beam size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D y is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10 10 particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 μm horizontally and 0.55 μm vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H D of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit

  8. Influence of fitness and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity to musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, David; Taylor, Adrian; Backx, Karianne; Williamon, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the relationships between physical activity and fitness and reactivity to a musical performance stressor (MPS). Numerous studies suggest that being fitter and more physically active has a beneficial effect on individuals' cardiovascular responses to laboratory-based mental challenges. The results are equivocal regarding the transfer of such benefits to real world contexts such as musical performance. Forty six advanced music students completed this assessment. All participants completed a 20-min pre-performance assessment of heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and blood pressure. Participants also completed baseline measures and a sub-maximal fitness assessment on a separate day. A positive association between fitness and HR pre-MPS was found. Fitness was also positively associated with root mean square SD RR(interval) before the MPS. Higher fitness was related to lower state anxiety post-MPS. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to classical musicians' day-to-day work and performance.

  9. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse and...

  10. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  11. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at least... structure. This factor applies to all parts of the fitting, the means of attachment, and the bearing on the...

  12. Valvular Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrsic, Zorana; Hopkins, Scott P; Antevil, Jared L; Mullenix, Philip S

    2018-03-01

    This article outlines the diagnosis and management of commonly occurring valvular heart diseases for the primary care provider. Basic understanding of pathologic murmurs is important for appropriate referral. Echocardiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and severity grading. Patients with progressive valvular heart disease should be followed annually by cardiology and imaging should be performed based on the severity of valvular dysfunction. Surgery or intervention is recommended only when symptoms dictate or when changes in left ventricular function occur. Surgery or intervention should be performed after discussion by a heart team, including cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Thyroid and the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are some of the most clinically relevant findings that accompany both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. On the basis of the understanding of the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action on the heart and cardiovascular system, it is possible to explain the changes in cardiac output, cardiac contractility, blood pressure and rhythm disturbances that result from thyroid dysfunction. In the present review will integrate what is known about the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action on the heart and the alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism that accompany chronic congestive heart failure.

  14. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  15. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, Jens

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC

  16. Back school for fitness treinees

    OpenAIRE

    Líbalová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    In introductory chapters the work deals with theoretical starting points of exercising in fitness centres. It focuses on anatomical and physiological basis of exercises and neuromuscular imbalances which may be caused by inadequate exertion. In further chapters the work enlightens about the rudiments of sport training, training of strength and model form of a training unit. In final chapters suitable techniques of exercises of individual muscular systems are discussed. Common mistakes done by...

  17. Effects of soccer training on health-related physical fitness measures in male adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammami, Amri; Randers, Morten B.; Kasmi, Sofien

    2018-01-01

    , and enjoyment responses. Over 8 weeks, the between-group analysis revealed that soccer training had a large beneficial effect on postural balance (45%) when compared with control group with unclear effects on other fitness parameters. Conclusion: Adolescent soccer players had markedly higher physical fitness......, postural balance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity. After baseline testing, Purposes 2 and 3 were addressed by randomly assigning the untrained boys to either a soccer-training group (small-sided games, 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks) or to a control group, followed by identical retesting. Results......: At baseline, physical fitness was higher (p postural balance. Small-sided games using 6 v 6 or 4 v 4 elicited similar heart rate (HR) (mean: ~ 85% peak heart rate, HRpeak), rate of perceived exertion...

  18. Goodness of Fit Test and Test of Independence by Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sharifdoost; N. Nematollahi; E. Pasha

    2009-01-01

    To test whether a set of data has a specific distribution or not, we can use the goodness of fit test. This test can be done by one of Pearson X 2 -statistic or the likelihood ratio statistic G 2 , which are asymptotically equal, and also by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic in continuous distributions. In this paper, we introduce a new test statistic for goodness of fit test which is based on entropy distance, and which can be applied for large sample sizes...

  19. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2016-05-01

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  20. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale,School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-05-05

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.