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Sample records for hear reveals surprises

  1. Modern Sedimentation along the SE Bangladesh Coast Reveal Surprisingly Low Accumulation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.; Mustaque, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Iqbal, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent sediments recovered along the SE coast of Bangladesh, from Teknaf to Cox's Bazar and drainage basin analyses reveal sediment sources and very low sedimentation rates of 1mm/year. These low rates are surprisingly low given that this coast is adjacent to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta with a yearly discharge of 1GT. The Teknaf anticline (elevation 200 m), part of the western Burma fold-thrust belt dominates the topography extending across and along the Teknaf peninsula. It is thought to have begun evolving since the Miocene (Alam et al. 2003 & Allen et al. 2008). Presently the anticline foothills on the west are flanked by uplifted terraces, the youngest linked to coseismic displacement during the 1762 earthquake (Mondal et al. 2015), and a narrow beach 60-200 m in width. Petrography, semi-quantitative bulk mineralogy and SEM/EDX analyses were conducted on sediments recovered along the west coast from 1-4 m deep trenches and three 4-8 m deep drill holes. GIS mapping of drainage basins and quartz-feldspar-lithic (QFL) ternary plots based on grain counting show mixing of sediments from multiple sources: Himalayan provenance of metamorphic and igneous origin (garnet-mostly almandine, tourmaline, rutile, kyanite, zircon, sillimanite and clinopyroxene) similar to Uddin et al. (2007); Brahmaputra provenance of igneous and metamorphic origin (amphibole, epidote, plagioclase 40% Na and 60% Ca, apatite, ilmenite, magnetite, Cr-spinel and garnet-mostly grossular,) as indicated by Garzanti et al. (2010) & Rahman et al. (2016) and Burmese sources (cassiterite and wolframite) (Zaw 1990 & Searle et al. 2007). Low sedimentation rates are the result of two main factors: 1. Strong longshore currents from the south-east that interact with high tidal ranges as evidenced by the morphology of sand waves and ridge and runnel landforms along the beach. 2. Streams draining the Teknaf anticline are dry during the winter and during summer monsoon rains, the sediments bypass the narrow

  2. Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fan; Bize, Ariane; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Madigou, Céline; Chapleur, Olivier; Mazéas, Laurent; He, Pinjing; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. Optimising energy recovery from this renewable but recalcitrant material is a key issue. The metaproteome expressed by thermophilic communities during cellulose anaerobic digestion was investigated in microcosms. By multiplying the analytical replicates (65 protein fractions analysed by MS/MS) and relying solely on public protein databases, more than 500 non-redundant protein functions were identified. The taxonomic community structure as inferred from the metaproteomic data set was in good overall agreement with 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. Numerous functions related to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis and fermentation catalysed by bacteria related to Caldicellulosiruptor spp. and Clostridium thermocellum were retrieved, indicating their key role in the cellulose-degradation process and also suggesting their complementary action. Despite the abundance of acetate as a major fermentation product, key methanogenesis enzymes from the acetoclastic pathway were not detected. In contrast, enzymes from the hydrogenotrophic pathway affiliated to Methanothermobacter were almost exclusively identified for methanogenesis, suggesting a syntrophic acetate oxidation process coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Isotopic analyses confirmed the high dominance of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Very surprising was the identification of an abundant proteolytic activity from Coprothermobacter proteolyticus strains, probably acting as scavenger and/or predator performing proteolysis and fermentation. Metaproteomics thus appeared as an efficient tool to unravel and characterise metabolic networks as well as ecological interactions during methanisation bioprocesses. More generally, metaproteomics provides direct functional insights at a limited cost, and its attractiveness should increase in the future as sequence databases are growing exponentially.

  3. The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Ana; Farrar, Nathan; Windsor, Pamela J; Giribet, Gonzalo; Leys, Sally P

    2014-05-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness-many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges-but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell-cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.

  4. Individual differences reveal correlates of hidden hearing deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Hari M; Masud, Salwa; Mehraei, Golbarg; Verhulst, Sarah; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2015-02-04

    Clinical audiometry has long focused on determining the detection thresholds for pure tones, which depend on intact cochlear mechanics and hair cell function. Yet many listeners with normal hearing thresholds complain of communication difficulties, and the causes for such problems are not well understood. Here, we explore whether normal-hearing listeners exhibit such suprathreshold deficits, affecting the fidelity with which subcortical areas encode the temporal structure of clearly audible sound. Using an array of measures, we evaluated a cohort of young adults with thresholds in the normal range to assess both cochlear mechanical function and temporal coding of suprathreshold sounds. Listeners differed widely in both electrophysiological and behavioral measures of temporal coding fidelity. These measures correlated significantly with each other. Conversely, these differences were unrelated to the modest variation in otoacoustic emissions, cochlear tuning, or the residual differences in hearing threshold present in our cohort. Electroencephalography revealed that listeners with poor subcortical encoding had poor cortical sensitivity to changes in interaural time differences, which are critical for localizing sound sources and analyzing complex scenes. These listeners also performed poorly when asked to direct selective attention to one of two competing speech streams, a task that mimics the challenges of many everyday listening environments. Together with previous animal and computational models, our results suggest that hidden hearing deficits, likely originating at the level of the cochlear nerve, are part of "normal hearing." Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352161-12$15.00/0.

  5. Surprising roles for phospholipid binding proteins revealed by high throughput genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Marissa A; McMaster, Christopher R

    2010-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains an ideal organism for studying the cell biological roles of lipids in vivo, as yeast has phospholipid metabolic pathways similar to mammalian cells, is easy and economical to manipulate, and is genetically tractable. The availability of isogenic strains containing specific genetic inactivation of each non-essential gene allowed for the development of a high-throughput method, called synthetic genetic analysis (SGA), to identify and describe precise pathways or functions associated with specific genes. This review describes the use of SGA to aid in elucidating the function of two lipid-binding proteins that regulate vesicular transport, Sec14 and Kes1. Sec14 was first identified as a phosphatidylcholine (PC) - phosphatidylinositol (PI) transfer protein required for viability, with reduced Sec14 function resulting in diminished vesicular transport out of the trans-Golgi. Although Sec14 is required for cell viability, inactivating the KES1 gene that encodes for a member of the oxysterol binding protein family in cells lacking Sec14 function results in restoration of vesicular transport and cell growth. SGA analysis identified a role for Kes1 and Sec14 in regulating the level and function of Golgi PI-4-phosphate (PI-4-P). SGA also determined that Sec14 not only regulates vesicular transport out of the trans-Golgi, but also transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi. Comparing SGA screens in databases, coupled with genetic and cell biological analyses, further determined that the PI-4-P pool affected by Kes1 is generated by the PI 4-kinase Pik1. An important biological role for Sec14 and Kes1 revealed by SGA is coordinate regulation of the Pik1-generated Golgi PI-4-P pool that in turn is essential for vesicular transport into and out of the trans-Golgi.

  6. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies.......This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output...

  7. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...... and as notification tokens to alert users when they are within proximity of a surprise. To evaluate the concept, we developed mock-ups, a video prototype and conducted a wizard-of-oz user test for a national park in Denmark....

  8. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  9. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  10. A new in vivo model of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration reveals a surprising role for transcriptional regulation in pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun ePandey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disorder with a poorly understood molecular mechanism. It is caused by mutations in Pantothenate Kinase, the first enzyme in the Coenzyme A (CoA biosynthetic pathway. Here, we developed a Drosophila model of PKAN (tim-fbl flies that allows us to continuously monitor the modeled disease in the brain. In tim-fbl flies, downregulation of fumble, the Drosophila PanK homologue in the cells containing a circadian clock results in characteristic features of PKAN such as developmental lethality, hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, and diminished life span. Despite quasi-normal circadian transcriptional rhythms, tim-fbl flies display brain-specific aberrant circadian locomotor rhythms, and a unique transcriptional signature. Comparison with expression data from flies exposed to paraquat demonstrates that, as previously suggested, pathways others than oxidative stress are affected by PANK downregulation. Surprisingly we found a significant decrease in the expression of key components of the photoreceptor recycling pathways, which could lead to retinal degeneration, a hallmark of PKAN. Importantly, these defects are not accompanied by changes in structural components in eye genes suggesting that changes in gene expression in the eye precede and may cause the retinal degeneration. Indeed tim-fbl flies have diminished response to light transitions, and their altered day/night patterns of activity demonstrates defects in light perception. This suggest that retinal lesions are not solely due to oxidative stress and demonstrates a role for the transcriptional response to CoA deficiency underlying the defects observed in dPanK deficient flies. Moreover, in the present study we developed a new fly model that can be applied to other diseases and that allows the assessment of neurodegeneration in the brains of living flies.

  11. Potentiation by potassium iodide reveals that the anionic porphyrin TPPS4 is a surprisingly effective photosensitizer for antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyi; El-Hussein, Ahmed; Xuan, Weijun; Hamblin, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    We recently reported that addition of the non-toxic salt, potassium iodide can potentiate antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation of a broad-spectrum of microorganisms, producing many extra logs of killing. If the photosensitizer (PS) can bind to the microbial cells, then delivering light in the presence of KI produces short-lived reactive iodine species, while if the cells are added after light the killing is caused by molecular iodine produced as a result of singlet oxygen-mediated oxidation of iodide. In an attempt to show the importance of PS-bacterial binding, we compared two charged porphyrins, TPPS4 (thought to be anionic and not able to bind to Gram-negative bacteria) and TMPyP4 (considered cationic and well able to bind to bacteria). As expected TPPS4+light did not kill Gram-negative Escherichia coli, but surprisingly when 100mM KI was added, it was highly effective (eradication at 200nM+10J/cm 2 of 415nm light). TPPS4 was more effective than TMPyP4 in eradicating the Gram-positive bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the fungal yeast Candida albicans (regardless of KI). TPPS4 was also highly active against E. coli after a centrifugation step when KI was added, suggesting that the supposedly anionic porphyrin bound to bacteria and Candida. This was confirmed by uptake experiments. We compared the phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate derivative (ClAlPCS4), which did not bind to bacteria or allow KI-mediated killing of E. coli after a spin, suggesting it was truly anionic. We conclude that TPPS4 behaves as if it has some cationic character in the presence of bacteria, which may be related to its delivery from suppliers in the form of a dihydrochloride salt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Xiaojun [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Eunmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fischer, Susan M. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78967 (United States); Hu, Yinling, E-mail: huy2@mail.nih.gov [Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside.

  13. Surprise, Recipes for Surprise, and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Jeffrey

    2018-02-07

    Surprising people can provide an opening for influencing them. Surprises garner attention, are arousing, are memorable, and can prompt shifts in understanding. Less noted is that, as a result, surprises can serve to persuade others by leading them to shifts in attitudes. Furthermore, because stories, pictures, and music can generate surprises and those can be widely shared, surprise can have broad social influence. People also tend to share surprising items with others, as anyone on social media has discovered. This means that in addition to broadcasting surprising information, surprising items can also spread through networks. The joint result is that surprise not only has individual effects on beliefs and attitudes but also collective effects on the content of culture. Items that generate surprise need not be random or accidental. There are predictable methods or recipes for generating surprise. One such recipe is discussed, the repetition-break plot structure, to explore the psychological and social possibilities of examining surprise. Recipes for surprise offer a useful means for understanding how surprise works and offer prospects for harnessing surprise to a wide array of ends. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Surprise Trips 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    2010-01-01

    on the theme of surprises as well as utilizing physical icons both as representation of users' interests and as notification tokens to alert users when they are within proximity of a surprise. We developed mock-up prototypes and a video prototype to do brief evaluations with target users. The evaluation shows...

  15. Discrimination task reveals differences in neural bases of tinnitus and hearing impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima T Husain

    Full Text Available We investigated auditory perception and cognitive processing in individuals with chronic tinnitus or hearing loss using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our participants belonged to one of three groups: bilateral hearing loss and tinnitus (TIN, bilateral hearing loss without tinnitus (HL, and normal hearing without tinnitus (NH. We employed pure tones and frequency-modulated sweeps as stimuli in two tasks: passive listening and active discrimination. All subjects had normal hearing through 2 kHz and all stimuli were low-pass filtered at 2 kHz so that all participants could hear them equally well. Performance was similar among all three groups for the discrimination task. In all participants, a distributed set of brain regions including the primary and non-primary auditory cortices showed greater response for both tasks compared to rest. Comparing the groups directly, we found decreased activation in the parietal and frontal lobes in the participants with tinnitus compared to the HL group and decreased response in the frontal lobes relative to the NH group. Additionally, the HL subjects exhibited increased response in the anterior cingulate relative to the NH group. Our results suggest that a differential engagement of a putative auditory attention and short-term memory network, comprising regions in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices and the anterior cingulate, may represent a key difference in the neural bases of chronic tinnitus accompanied by hearing loss relative to hearing loss alone.

  16. Homozygosity Mapping Reveals Mutations of GRXCR1 as a Cause of Autosomal-Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraders, Margit; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Oostrik, Jaap; Huygen, Patrick L.M.; Ali, Ghazanfar; Hoefsloot, Lies H.; Veltman, Joris A.; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Basit, Sulman; Ansar, Muhammad; Cremers, Cor W.R.J.; Kunst, Henricus P.M.; Ahmad, Wasim; Admiraal, Ronald J.C.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Kremer, Hannie

    2010-01-01

    We identified overlapping homozygous regions within the DFNB25 locus in two Dutch and ten Pakistani families with sensorineural autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (arNSHI). Only one of the families, W98-053, was not consanguineous, and its sibship pointed toward a reduced critical region of 0.9 Mb. This region contained the GRXCR1 gene, and the orthologous mouse gene was described to be mutated in the pirouette (pi) mutant with resulting hearing loss and circling behavior. Sequence analysis of the GRXCR1 gene in hearing-impaired family members revealed splice-site mutations in two Dutch families and a missense and nonsense mutation, respectively, in two Pakistani families. The splice-site mutations are predicted to cause frameshifts and premature stop codons. In family W98-053, this could be confirmed by cDNA analysis. GRXCR1 is predicted to contain a GRX-like domain. GRX domains are involved in reversible S-glutathionylation of proteins and thereby in the modulation of activity and/or localization of these proteins. The missense mutation is located in this domain, whereas the nonsense and splice-site mutations may result in complete or partial absence of the GRX-like domain or of the complete protein. Hearing loss in patients with GRXCR1 mutations is congenital and is moderate to profound. Progression of the hearing loss was observed in family W98-053. Vestibular dysfunction was observed in some but not all affected individuals. Quantitative analysis of GRXCR1 transcripts in fetal and adult human tissues revealed a preferential expression of the gene in fetal cochlea, which may explain the nonsyndromic nature of the hearing impairment. PMID:20137778

  17. Cryptosporidiosis in Haiti: surprisingly low level of species diversity revealed by molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium oocysts from surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Céline; Balthazard-Accou, Ketty; Clervil, Elmyre; Diallo, Aïssata; Da Costa, Cécilia; Emmanuel, Evens; Totet, Anne; Agnamey, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium sp. has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. In Haiti, cryptosporidiosis is a frequent cause of diarrhoea in children under the age of five years, HIV-infected individuals, and people living in low socioeconomic conditions, mainly due to the consumption of water or food polluted by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The aim of this study was to detect and identify Cryptosporidium oocysts present in 12 water samples collected in Port-au-Prince and 4 water samples collected in Cap Haïtien. Initial detection consisted of immunomagnetic separation - immunofluorescence assay (IMS-IFA), which was confirmed by nested PCR, targeting the most polymorphic region of the 18S rRNA gene in 15/16 samples. Genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Under our working conditions, neither nested PCR-RFLP nor direct DNA sequencing revealed the expected species diversity, as only Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in the water samples studied. This study highlights the difficulty of detecting mixed populations of Cryptosporidium species in environmental samples. © C. Damiani et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  18. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien A Fordham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al. provide the first direct evidence that future global warming can increase extinction risk for temperate ectotherms. Using aquatic mesocosms, Yvon-Durocher et al. show that human-induced climate change could, in some cases, actually enhance the diversity of local communities, increasing productivity. Blending these theoretical and empirical results with computational models will improve forecasts of biodiversity loss and altered ecosystem processes due to climate change.

  19. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fordham, Damien A

    2015-01-01

    .... Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions...

  20. Behavioral manifestations of audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing loss revealed by measures of binaural detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Leslie R; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed whether audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing losses might be associated with degradations in binaural processing as measured in binaural detection experiments employing interaurally delayed signals and maskers. Thirty-one listeners participated, all having no greater than slight hearing losses (i.e., no thresholds greater than 25 dB HL). Across the 31 listeners and consistent with the findings of Bernstein and Trahiotis [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL474-EL479] binaural detection thresholds at 500 Hz and 4 kHz increased with increasing magnitude of interaural delay, suggesting a loss of precision of coding with magnitude of interaural delay. Binaural detection thresholds were consistently found to be elevated for listeners whose absolute thresholds at 4 kHz exceeded 7.5 dB HL. No such elevations were observed in conditions having no binaural cues available to aid detection (i.e., "monaural" conditions). Partitioning and analyses of the data revealed that those elevated thresholds (1) were more attributable to hearing level than to age and (2) result from increased levels of internal noise. The data suggest that listeners whose high-frequency monaural hearing status would be classified audiometrically as being normal or "slight loss" may exhibit substantial and perceptually meaningful losses of binaural processing.

  1. A large scale hearing loss screen reveals an extensive unexplored genetic landscape for auditory dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowl, Michael R.; Simon, Michelle M.; Ingham, Neil J.

    2017-01-01

    The developmental and physiological complexity of the auditory system is likely reflected in the underlying set of genes involved in auditory function. In humans, over 150 non-syndromic loci have been identified, and there are more than 400 human genetic syndromes with a hearing loss component. O...

  2. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  3. C and Cl isotope fractionation of 1,2-dichloroethane displays unique δ¹³C/δ³⁷Cl patterns for pathway identification and reveals surprising C-Cl bond involvement in microbial oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Jordi; Cretnik, Stefan; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Höche, Martina; Elsner, Martin; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2014-08-19

    This study investigates dual element isotope fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) via oxidative cleavage of a C-H bond (Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1) versus C-Cl bond cleavage by S(N)2 reaction (Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 and Ancylobacter aquaticus AD20). Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis of 1,2-DCA was performed for the first time, and isotope fractionation (ε(bulk)(Cl)) was determined by measurements of the same samples in three different laboratories using two gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry systems and one gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry system. Strongly pathway-dependent slopes (Δδ13C/Δδ37Cl), 0.78 ± 0.03 (oxidation) and 7.7 ± 0.2 (S(N)2), delineate the potential of the dual isotope approach to identify 1,2-DCA degradation pathways in the field. In contrast to different ε(bulk)(C) values [-3.5 ± 0.1‰ (oxidation) and -31.9 ± 0.7 and -32.0 ± 0.9‰ (S(N)2)], the obtained ε(bulk)(Cl) values were surprisingly similar for the two pathways: -3.8 ± 0.2‰ (oxidation) and -4.2 ± 0.1 and -4.4 ± 0.2‰ (S(N)2). Apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs) of 1.0070 ± 0.0002 (13C-AKIE, oxidation), 1.068 ± 0.001 (13C-AKIE, S(N)2), and 1.0087 ± 0.0002 (37Cl-AKIE, S(N)2) fell within expected ranges. In contrast, an unexpectedly large secondary 37Cl-AKIE of 1.0038 ± 0.0002 reveals a hitherto unrecognized involvement of C-Cl bonds in microbial C-H bond oxidation. Our two-dimensional isotope fractionation patterns allow for the first time reliable 1,2-DCA degradation pathway identification in the field, which unlocks the full potential of isotope applications for this important groundwater contaminant.

  4. Surprise as a design strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of the cashier’s singing abilities, feel amused. The preceding story is an example of how a surprise can transform something very normal, and maybe even boring, into a more pleasant experience. Analogou...

  5. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented.

  6. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  7. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  8. The Living Experience of Feeling Surprised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the finding of a Parse research method study on the universal living experience of feeling surprised. In dialogical engagement with the researcher, eight participants described the experience. The structure of the living experience of feeling surprised was found to be: Feeling surprised is stunning amazement arising with shifting fortunes, as delight amid despair surfaces with diverse involvements.

  9. The Essential Elements of Operational Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-15

    to achieve the surprise necessary to gaia an advantage at the operational level. Another factor is the level of the target at which the surprise is...necessary to adapt to the changing battlefield. Proper education must occur within the professional development system to ensure that the planner is

  10. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change: e1002323

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damien A Fordham

    2015-01-01

    .... Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions...

  11. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  12. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Ariel; Lemeshko, Mikhail; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a me...

  13. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  14. About Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with unilateral hearing should be monitored closely for linguistic, educational, or social gaps. For more information about ... see: Info to Go/Hearing Aids For more information about cochlear implants, see: Info ... resources about hearing, see: Hearing and Amplification (My Baby's ...

  15. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    origin regions to specific subcellular sites (i.e. the poles or quarter-cell positions). Two types of partitioning ATPases are known: the Walker-type ATPases encoded by the par/sop gene family (type I partitioning loci) and the actin-like ATPase encoded by the par locus of plasmid R1 (type II...... partitioning locus). A phylogenetic analysis of the large family of Walker type of partitioning ATPases yielded a surprising pattern: most of the plasmid-encoded ATPases clustered into distinct subgroups. Surprisingly, however, the par loci encoding these distinct subgroups have different genetic organizations...... and thus divide the type I loci into types Ia and Ib. A second surprise was that almost all chromosome-encoded ATPases, including members from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive Bacteria and Archaea, clustered into one distinct subgroup. The phylogenetic tree is consistent with lateral gene transfer...

  16. The Surprising Persistence of Biglan's Classification Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Within higher education systems, different institutions deliver different patterns of disciplines. A simple analysis of the structure of that pattern of disciplines across institutions in one higher education system uncovers a surprising relationship. That is, the key dimensions which describe that structure align nearly perfectly with dimensions…

  17. Sclerosing PEComa: A Histologic Surprise | Valiathan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerosing PEComa: A Histologic Surprise. M Valiathan, BP Sunil, L Rao, V Geetha, P Hedge. Abstract. PEComa represents a group of mesenchymal tumors consisting of perivascular epithelioid cells. We present a 50-year old female patient with a rare distinctive variant, sclerosing PEComa, characterized by extensive ...

  18. Surprise Leads to Noisier Perceptual Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Garrido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprising events in the environment can impair task performance. This might be due to complete distraction, leading to lapses during which performance is reduced to guessing. Alternatively, unpredictability might cause a graded withdrawal of perceptual resources from the task at hand and thereby reduce sensitivity. Here we attempt to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Listeners performed a novel auditory pitch—duration discrimination, where stimulus loudness changed occasionally and incidentally to the task. Responses were slower and less accurate in the surprising condition, where loudness changed unpredictably, than in the predictable condition, where the loudness was held constant. By explicitly modelling both lapses and changes in sensitivity, we found that unpredictable changes diminished sensitivity but did not increase the rate of lapses. These findings suggest that background environmental uncertainty can disrupt goal-directed behaviour. This graded processing strategy might be adaptive in potentially threatening contexts, and reflect a flexible system for automatic allocation of perceptual resources.

  19. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  20. Surprise and Preemption in Soviet Nuclear Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    V.V. Larionov , "New Weapons and the Duration of War," Kras- naya Zvezda [Red Star] , 1965, trans, and reprinted in Kintner and Scott, eds. The...61. Larionov wrote, "The massive and surprise use of nuclear rocket weapons can bring utter defeat to an enemy In the shortest time." 86. Douglass...34Characteristic Features of Modern War," p. 53. 92. General Major V.V. Larionov , "Scenarios of Unlimited Insanity," Krasnaya Zvezda [Red Star]. 16 July

  1. Hearing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...

  2. New speech tests reveal benefit of wide-dynamic-range, fast-acting compression for consonant discrimination in children with moderate-to-profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Josephine E; Moore, Brian C J

    2003-10-01

    Fast-acting, wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) has been shown to give better discrimination of soft speech and shouted speech than linear amplification for moderately hearing-impaired young adults. For severe and profound hearing losses, higher compression ratios are needed. The resultant distortion of the temporal envelope and reduced modulation depth may offset improvements in audibility offered by WDRC. This study compares the effectiveness of WDRC and linear amplification for children with different degrees of hearing loss. Pre-recorded tests of closed-set consonant confusions and open-set word recognition were developed to assess performance. Three groups of subjects (aged 4-14 years) with moderate (51-70 dB), severe (71-90 dB) and profound (91-115 dB) hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids programmed with WDRC or linear amplification. The frequency response was adjusted to match each child's own hearing aid prescription. For each group, stimuli were presented both in quiet and in noise at levels chosen to avoid floor and ceiling effects. Consonant confusion scores for the profound and severe groups combined and for the moderate group were significantly better with WDRC than with linear amplification. Open-set test results showed greater variability. Although mean scores were higher for WDRC than for linear processing, the effects were of marginal statistical significance.

  3. Hearing aid fitting in older persons with hearing impairment: the influence of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss on hearing aid benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Hartmut; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin; Margolf-Hackl, Sabine; Kießling, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss with clinically assessed hearing aid benefit in older hearing-impaired persons. Hearing aid benefit was assessed using objective measures regarding speech recognition in quiet and noisy environments as well as a subjective measure reflecting everyday situations captured using a standardized questionnaire. A broad range of general cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and intelligence were determined using different neuropsychological tests. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the outcome of the neuropsychological tests as well as age and hearing loss as independent variables and the benefit measures as dependent variables. Thirty experienced older hearing aid users with typical age-related hearing impairment participated. Most of the benefit measures revealed that the participants obtained significant improvement with their hearing aids. Regression models showed a significant relationship between a fluid intelligence measure and objective hearing aid benefit. When individual hearing thresholds were considered as an additional independent variable, hearing loss was the only significant contributor to the benefit models. Lower cognitive capacity - as determined by the fluid intelligence measure - was significantly associated with greater hearing loss. Subjective benefit could not be predicted by any of the variables considered. The present study does not give evidence that hearing aid benefit is critically associated with cognitive function in experienced hearing aid users. However, it was found that lower fluid intelligence scores were related to higher hearing thresholds. Since greater hearing loss was associated with a greater objective benefit, these results strongly support the advice of using hearing aids regardless of age and cognitive function to counter hearing loss and the adverse effects of age-related hearing impairment. Still, individual cognitive capacity might

  4. A surprising palmar nevus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rafiei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Raised palmar or plantar nevus especially in white people is an unusual feature. We present an uncommon palmar compound nevus in a 26-year-old woman with a large diameter (6 mm which had a collaret-shaped margin. In histopathologic evaluation intralymphatic protrusions of nevic nests were noted. This case was surprising to us for these reasons: size, shape, location and histopathology of the lesion. Palmar nevi are usually junctional (flat and below 3 mm diameter and intra lymphatic protrusion or invasion in nevi is an extremely rare phenomenon.

  5. Teacher Supply and Demand: Surprises from Primary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Wayne

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of primary research studies on public school teacher supply and demand revealed four surprises. Projections show that enrollments are leveling off. Relatedly, annual hiring increases should be only about two or three percent over the next few years. Results from studies of teacher attrition also yield unexpected results. Excluding retirements, only about one in 20 teachers leaves each year, and the novice teachers who quit mainly cite personal and family reasons, not job dissatisfaction. Each of these findings broadens policy makers' options for teacher supply.

  6. The alkali metals: 200 years of surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, James L

    2015-03-13

    Alkali metal compounds have been known since antiquity. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy surprised everyone by electrolytically preparing (and naming) potassium and sodium metals. In 1808, he noted their interaction with ammonia, which, 100 years later, was attributed to solvated electrons. After 1960, pulse radiolysis of nearly any solvent produced solvated electrons, which became one of the most studied species in chemistry. In 1968, alkali metal solutions in amines and ethers were shown to contain alkali metal anions in addition to solvated electrons. The advent of crown ethers and cryptands as complexants for alkali cations greatly enhanced alkali metal solubilities. This permitted us to prepare a crystalline salt of Na(-) in 1974, followed by 30 other alkalides with Na(-), K(-), Rb(-) and Cs(-) anions. This firmly established the -1 oxidation state of alkali metals. The synthesis of alkalides led to the crystallization of electrides, with trapped electrons as the anions. Electrides have a variety of electronic and magnetic properties, depending on the geometries and connectivities of the trapping sites. In 2009, the final surprise was the experimental demonstration that alkali metals under high pressure lose their metallic character as the electrons are localized in voids between the alkali cations to become high-pressure electrides! © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Oldest Known Objects May Be Surprisingly Immature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Some of the oldest objects in the Universe may still have a long way to go, according to a new study using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. These new results indicate that globular clusters might be surprisingly less mature in their development than previously thought. Globular clusters, dense bunches of up to millions of stars found in all galaxies, are among the oldest known objects in the Universe, with most estimates of their ages ranging from 9 to 13 billions of years old. As such they contain some of the first stars to form in a galaxy and understanding their evolution is critical to understanding the evolution of galaxies. Animation The Evolution of a Globular Cluster "For many years, globular clusters have been used as wonderful natural laboratories to study the evolution and interaction of stars," said John Fregeau of Northwestern University, who conducted the study. "So, it’s exciting to discover something that may be new and fundamental about the way they evolve." Conventional wisdom is that globular clusters pass through three phases of evolution or development of their structure, corresponding to adolescence, middle age, and old age. These "ages" refer to the evolutionary state of the cluster, not the physical ages of the individual stars. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Discovery of Most Recent Supernova in Our Galaxy Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image In the adolescent phase, the stars near the center of the cluster collapse inward. Middle age refers to a phase when the interactions of double stars near the center of the cluster prevents it from further collapse. Finally, old age describes when binaries in the center of the cluster are disrupted or ejected, and the center of the cluster collapses inwards. For years, it has been thought that most globular clusters are middle- aged with a few being toward

  8. Some surprising facts about (the problem of) surprising facts (from the Dusseldorf Conference, February 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D

    2014-03-01

    A common intuition about evidence is that if data x have been used to construct a hypothesis H, then x should not be used again in support of H. It is no surprise that x fits H, if H was deliberately constructed to accord with x. The question of when and why we should avoid such "double-counting" continues to be debated in philosophy and statistics. It arises as a prohibition against data mining, hunting for significance, tuning on the signal, and ad hoc hypotheses, and as a preference for predesignated hypotheses and "surprising" predictions. I have argued that it is the severity or probativeness of the test--or lack of it--that should determine whether a double-use of data is admissible. I examine a number of surprising ambiguities and unexpected facts that continue to bedevil this debate.

  9. Surprises and counterexamples in real function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rajwade, A R

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a variety of intriguing, surprising and appealing topics and nonroutine theorems in real function theory. It is a reference book to which one can turn for finding that arise while studying or teaching analysis.Chapter 1 is an introduction to algebraic, irrational and transcendental numbers and contains the Cantor ternary set. Chapter 2 contains functions with extraordinary properties; functions that are continuous at each point but differentiable at no point. Chapters 4 and intermediate value property, periodic functions, Rolle's theorem, Taylor's theorem, points of tangents. Chapter 6 discusses sequences and series. It includes the restricted harmonic series, of alternating harmonic series and some number theoretic aspects. In Chapter 7, the infinite peculiar range of convergence is studied. Appendix I deal with some specialized topics. Exercises at the end of chapters and their solutions are provided in Appendix II.This book will be useful for students and teachers alike.

  10. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... are some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed ...

  12. A Role of Medial Olivocochlear Reflex as a Protection Mechanism from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Revealed in Short-Practicing Violinists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Otsuka

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that extended exposure to a high level of sound might increase the risk of hearing loss among professional symphony orchestra musicians. One of the major problems associated with musicians' hearing loss is difficulty in estimating its risk simply on the basis of the physical amount of exposure, i.e. the exposure level and duration. The aim of this study was to examine whether the measurement of the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR, which is assumed to protect the cochlear from acoustic damage, could enable us to assess the risk of hearing loss among musicians. To test this, we compared the MOCR strength and the hearing deterioration caused by one-hour instrument practice. The participants in the study were music university students who are majoring in the violin, whose left ear is exposed to intense violin sounds (broadband sounds containing a significant number of high-frequency components during their regular instrument practice. Audiogram and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs were measured before and after a one-hour violin practice. There was a larger exposure to the left ear than to the right ear, and we observed a left-ear specific temporary threshold shift (TTS after the violin practice. Left-ear CEOAEs decreased proportionally to the TTS. The exposure level, however, could not entirely explain the inter-individual variation in the TTS and the decrease in CEOAE. On the other hand, the MOCR strength could predict the size of the TTS and CEOAE decrease. Our findings imply that, among other factors, the MOCR is a promising measure for assessing the risk of hearing loss among musicians.

  13. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  14. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Emotions by Individuals with Cochlear Implants, Hearing Aids, and Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Aviner, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefits of cochlear implant (CI) with regard to emotion perception of participants differing in their age of implantation, in comparison to hearing aid users and adolescents with normal hearing (NH). Emotion perception was examined by having the participants identify happiness, anger, surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust.…

  15. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hearing loss. Hearing loss can have a negative effect on communication, relationships, school/work performance, and emotional ... the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the ... in Effect Guidance Document: Conditions for Sale for Air-Conduction ...

  16. Prospective mutation screening of three common deafness genes in a large Taiwanese Cohort with idiopathic bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment reveals a difference in the results between families from hospitals and those from rehabilitation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Chi; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chiu, Yu-Hsun; Lu, Ying-Chang; Wu, Ming-Chueh; Hsu, Chuan-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Accurate epidemiological data on common deafness genes are essential to improve the efficiency and to reduce the cost of molecular diagnosis. They may depend on several factors, including a clear delineation of the source of patients being studied. In the present study, we hypothesize that patients with idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss recruited from different sources might reveal discrepancies in the epidemiological results of genetic screening, because patients from different sources might demonstrate distinct clinical or audiologic features and thus result in biased selection of subjects. To elucidate the relative importance of common deafness genes in Taiwanese and to verify our hypothesis, we conducted a prospective project screening mutations in GJB2, SLC26A4 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in a total of 420 Taiwanese families with idiopathic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, of which 325 families were recruited from hospitals and 95 from hearing rehabilitation facilities. Allele frequencies of common mutations in these three genes and distributions of the corresponding genotypes were then compared between the two groups. The allele frequencies of mutations in SLC26A4, GJB2 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA in the probands of the 420 families were 14.4, 21.7 and 3.8%, respectively. The allele frequency of SLC26A4 mutations in the hospital group was significantly higher than that in the rehabilitation facility group (16.2 vs. 8.4%, chi(2)-test, p < 0.05), whereas no difference in the frequencies of GJB2 mutations and mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutations was found between the two groups. Distributions of probands classified by SLC26A4 genotypes were also different between the two groups (chi(2)-test, p < 0.05). Accordingly, a discrepancy in the genetic screening results might exist between different sources of idiopathic hearing-impaired patients. Further analysis of audiological results and construction of a logistic regression model showed that different

  17. Lungfish Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    Recent research has shown that tympanic middle ears evolved independently in the major vertebrate groups and represent independent experiments in terrestrial hearing. Furthermore, the tympanic ear emerged quite late – ap - proximately 120 mya after the origin of the tetrapods and approximately 70...... my after the first truly terrestrial tetrapods emerged. One of the major challenges is to understand the transitional stages from tetrapod ancestors to the tympanic tetrapod ear, for example how a non-tympanic ear functions in terrestrial hearing. Lungfish are the closest living relatives...... and urodeles. Based on ABR and vibration measurements also on amphib - ians, lizards, snakes and alligators we can outline scenarios for the initial adaptations of the middle ear to non-tympanic hearing and assess the selection pressures later adapting the middle ear for tympanic hearing. Hearing by bone...

  18. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. ISS GN and C - First Year Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) began in late 1998 with the joining of the first two US and Russ ian elements. For more than two years, the outpost was served by two Russian Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) systems. The station requires orbital translation and attitude control functions for its 100+ configurations, from the nascent two-module station to the half million kilogram completed station owned and operated by seventeen nations. With the launch of the US Laboratory module in February 2001, the integration of the US GN&C system with its Russian counterpart laid the foundation for such a robust system. In its first year of combined operation, the ISS GN&C system has performed admirably, even better than many expected, but there have been surprises. Loss of command capability, loss of communication between segments, a control system force-fight, and "non-propulsive vents" that weren't - such events have repeatedly underscored the importance of thorough program integration, testing, and operation, both across subsystem boundaries and across international borders.

  20. Presbycusis phenotypes form a heterogeneous continuum when ordered by degree and configuration of hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul D.; Eddins, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Many reports have documented age-by-frequency increases in average auditory thresholds in various human populations. Despite this, the prevalence of different patterns of hearing loss in presbycusis remains uncertain. We examined presbycusis phenotypes in a database of 960 subjects (552 female, 408 male, 18 to 92 yrs) that each had 30 measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity: pure tone audiograms for left and right ears from 0.25 kHz to 8 kHz and DPOAE for each ear with Fmean = 1 to 6.4 kHz. Surprisingly, the hearing phenotypes did not naturally separate into discrete classes of presbycusis. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that two principal components account for 74 % of the variance among the 30 measures of hearing. The two components represent the overall degree (PC1) and configuration of loss (Flat vs. Sloping; PC2) and the phenotypes form a continuum when plotted against them. A heuristic partitioning of this continuum produced classes of presbycusis that vary in their degree of Sloping or Flat hearing loss, suggesting that the previously reported sub-types of presbycusis arise from the categorical segregation of a continuous and heterogeneous distribution. Further, most phenotypes lie intermediate to the extremes of either Flat or Sloping loss, indicating that if audiometric configuration does predict presbycusis etiology, then a mixed origin is the most prevalent. PMID:20144701

  1. Spectral and temporal measures in hybrid cochlear implant users: on the mechanism of electroacoustic hearing benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Won, Jong Ho; Drennan, Ward R; Worman, Tina D; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2012-02-01

    Compare auditory performance of Hybrid and standard cochlear implant users with psychoacoustic measures of spectral and temporal sensitivity and correlate with measures of clinical benefit. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic medical center. Hybrid cochlear implant users between 12 and 33 months after implantation. Hybrid recipients had preservation of low-frequency hearing. Administration of psychoacoustic, music perception, and speech reception in noise tests. Performance on spectral-ripple discrimination, temporal modulation detection, Schroeder-phase discrimination, Clinical Assessment of Music Perception, and speech reception in steady-state noise tests. Clinical Assessment of Music Perception pitch performance at 262 Hz was significantly better in Hybrid users compared with standard implant controls. There was a near significant difference on speech reception in steady-state noise. Surprisingly, neither Schroeder-phase discrimination at 2 frequencies nor temporal modulation detection thresholds across a range of frequencies revealed any advantage in Hybrid users. This contrasts with spectral-ripple measures that were significantly better in the Hybrid group. The spectral-ripple advantage was preserved even when using only residual hearing. These preliminary data confirm existing data demonstrating that residual low-frequency acoustic hearing is advantageous for pitch perception. Results also suggest that clinical benefits enjoyed by Hybrid recipients are due to improved spectral discrimination provided by the residual hearing. No evidence indicated that residual hearing provided temporal information beyond that provided by electric stimulation.

  2. Presbycusis phenotypes form a heterogeneous continuum when ordered by degree and configuration of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul D; Eddins, David A

    2010-06-01

    Many reports have documented age-by-frequency increases in average auditory thresholds in various human populations. Despite this, the prevalence of different patterns of hearing loss in presbycusis remains uncertain. We examined 'presbycusis phenotypes' in a database of 960 subjects (552 female, 408 male, 18-92 years) that each had 30 measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity: pure tone audiograms for left and right ears from 0.25 to 8 kHz and DPOAE for each ear with F(mean)=1-6.4 kHz. Surprisingly, the hearing phenotypes did not naturally separate into discrete classes of presbycusis. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that two principal components account for 74% of the variance among the 30 measures of hearing. The two components represent the overall degree (PC1) and configuration of loss (Flat vs. Sloping; PC2) and the phenotypes form a continuum when plotted against them. A heuristic partitioning of this continuum produced classes of presbycusis that vary in their degree of Sloping or Flat hearing loss, suggesting that the previously reported sub-types of presbycusis arise from the categorical segregation of a continuous and heterogeneous distribution. Further, most phenotypes lie intermediate to the extremes of either Flat or Sloping loss, indicating that if audiometric configuration does predict presbycusis etiology, then a mixed origin is the most prevalent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  4. Underwater Hearing in Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of turtles is poorly understood compared with the other reptiles. Although the mechanism of transduction of sound into a neural signal via hair cells has been described in detail, the rest of the auditory system is largely a black box. What is known is that turtles have higher hearing thresholds than other reptiles, with best frequencies around 500 Hz. They also have lower underwater hearing thresholds than those in air, owing to resonance of the middle ear cavity. Further studies demonstrated that all families of turtles and tortoises share a common middle ear cavity morphology, with scaling best suited to underwater hearing. This supports an aquatic origin of the group. Because turtles hear best under water, it is important to examine their vulnerability to anthropogenic noise. However, the lack of basic data makes such experiments difficult because only a few species of turtles have published audiograms. There are also almost no behavioral data available (understandable due to training difficulties). Finally, few studies show what kinds of sounds are behaviorally relevant. One notable paper revealed that the Australian snake-necked turtle (Chelodina oblonga) has a vocal repertoire in air, at the interface, and under water. Findings like these suggest that there is more to the turtle aquatic auditory scene than previously thought.

  5. Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... known as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Personal music players are among the chief culprits of NIHL ...

  6. Hearing Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    the federal standard. Footnote** See Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.95 "Occupational Noise Exposure." (Back to text) | USDOL | CONTACT INFORMATION | DISCLAIMER | 15 of 15 OSHA 3074 - Hearing Conservation

  7. Hearing Loss in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...

  8. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...

  9. Managing Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Managing Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... not a cure. Read More "Hearing Loss" Articles Managing Hearing Loss / Symptoms, Devices, Prevention & Research / Screening Newborns / ...

  10. What's Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight for Me? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's Hearing Loss? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Hearing Loss? Print ... problem can also develop later in life. How Hearing Works To understand how and why hearing loss ...

  11. Plants and climate change: complexities and surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmesan, Camille; Hanley, Mick E

    2015-11-01

    Anthropogenic climate change (ACC) will influence all aspects of plant biology over coming decades. Many changes in wild species have already been well-documented as a result of increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations, warming climate and changing precipitation regimes. A wealth of available data has allowed the use of meta-analyses to examine plant-climate interactions on more sophisticated levels than before. These analyses have revealed major differences in plant response among groups, e.g. with respect to functional traits, taxonomy, life-history and provenance. Interestingly, these meta-analyses have also exposed unexpected mismatches between theory, experimental, and observational studies. We reviewed the literature on species' responses to ACC, finding ∼42 % of 4000 species studied globally are plants (primarily terrestrial). We review impacts on phenology, distributions, ecophysiology, regeneration biology, plant-plant and plant-herbivore interactions, and the roles of plasticity and evolution. We focused on apparent deviations from expectation, and highlighted cases where more sophisticated analyses revealed that unexpected changes were, in fact, responses to ACC. We found that conventionally expected responses are generally well-understood, and that it is the aberrant responses that are now yielding greater insight into current and possible future impacts of ACC. We argue that inconclusive, unexpected, or counter-intuitive results should be embraced in order to understand apparent disconnects between theory, prediction, and observation. We highlight prime examples from the collection of papers in this Special Issue, as well as general literature. We found use of plant functional groupings/traits had mixed success, but that some underutilized approaches, such as Grime's C/S/R strategies, when incorporated, have improved understanding of observed responses. Despite inherent difficulties, we highlight the need for ecologists to conduct community

  12. Hearing aid fitting in older persons with hearing impairment: the influence of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss on hearing aid benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meister H

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hartmut Meister,1 Sebastian Rählmann,1 Martin Walger,2 Sabine Margolf-Hackl,3 Jürgen Kießling3 1Jean Uhrmacher Institute for Clinical ENT-Research, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 3Department of Othorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany Purpose: To examine the association of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss with clinically assessed hearing aid benefit in older hearing-impaired persons.Methods: Hearing aid benefit was assessed using objective measures regarding speech recognition in quiet and noisy environments as well as a subjective measure reflecting everyday situations captured using a standardized questionnaire. A broad range of general cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and intelligence were determined using different neuropsychological tests. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the outcome of the neuropsychological tests as well as age and hearing loss as independent variables and the benefit measures as dependent variables. Thirty experienced older hearing aid users with typical age-related hearing impairment participated.Results: Most of the benefit measures revealed that the participants obtained significant improvement with their hearing aids. Regression models showed a significant relationship between a fluid intelligence measure and objective hearing aid benefit. When individual hearing thresholds were considered as an additional independent variable, hearing loss was the only significant contributor to the benefit models. Lower cognitive capacity – as determined by the fluid intelligence measure – was significantly associated with greater hearing loss. Subjective benefit could not be predicted by any of the variables considered.Conclusion: The present study does not give evidence that hearing aid benefit is critically associated with cognitive

  13. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  14. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  15. Spatial hearing of normally hearing and cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John; Summerfield, A Quentin; O'Donoghue, Gerard M; Moore, David R

    2011-04-01

    Spatial hearing uses both monaural and binaural mechanisms that require sensitive hearing for normal function. Deaf children using either bilateral (BCI) or unilateral (UCI) cochlear implants would thus be expected to have poorer spatial hearing than normally hearing (NH) children. However, the relationship between spatial hearing in these various listener groups has not previously been extensively tested under ecologically valid conditions using a homogeneous group of children who are UCI users. We predicted that NH listeners would outperform BCI listeners who would, in turn, outperform UCI listeners. We tested two methods of spatial hearing to provide norms for NH and UCI using children and preliminary data for BCI users. NH children (n=40) were age matched (6-15 years) to UCI (n=12) and BCI (n=6) listeners. Testing used a horizontal ring of loudspeakers within a booth in a hospital outpatient clinic. In a 'lateral release' task, single nouns were presented frontally, and masking noises were presented frontally, or 90° left or right. In a 'localization' task, allowing head movements, nouns were presented from loudspeakers separated by 30°, 60° or 120° about the midline. Normally hearing children improved with age in speech detection in noise, but not in quiet or in lateral release. Implant users performed more poorly on all tasks. For frontal signals and noise, UCI and BCI listeners did not differ. For lateral noise, BCI listeners performed better on both sides (within ~2 dB of NH), whereas UCI listeners benefited only when the noise was opposite the unimplanted ear. Both the BCI and, surprisingly, the UCI listeners performed better than chance at all loudspeaker separations on the ecologically valid, localization task. However, the BCI listeners performed about twice as well and, in two cases, approached the performance of NH children. Children using either UCI or BCI have useful spatial hearing. BCI listeners gain benefits on both sides, and localize better

  16. Rethinking Strategic Surprise: Defence Planning Under Bounded Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    la menace d‟une surprise stratégique, le problème est circonscrit par une connaissance relativement solide des sources potentielles de danger. Par...la difficulté de la gestion de l‟incertitude peut sembler insurmontable. En sa qualité d‟analyste de la défense, Paul Davis observe que « non...efficace contre la menace de surprise stratégique, le problème peut être contourné par une connaissance assez solide des sources potentielles de surprise

  17. On surprise, change, and the effect of recent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Iris; Erev, Ido

    2012-01-01

    The leading models of human and animal learning rest on the assumption that individuals tend to select the alternatives that led to the best recent outcomes. The current research highlights three boundaries of this "recency" assumption. Analysis of the stock market and simple laboratory experiments suggests that positively surprising obtained payoffs, and negatively surprising forgone payoffs reduce the rate of repeating the previous choice. In addition, all previous trails outcomes, except the latest outcome (most recent), have similar effect on future choices. We show that these results, and other robust properties of decisions from experience, can be captured with a simple addition to the leading models: the assumption that surprise triggers change.

  18. No Association Between Time of Onset of Hearing Loss (Childhood Versus Adulthood) and Self-Reported Hearing Handicap in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Engdahl, Bo

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap in adults. This is a population-based cohort study of 2,024 adults (mean = 48 years) with hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5-4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL) who completed a hearing handicap questionnaire. In childhood, the same persons (N = 2,024) underwent audiometry in a school investigation (at ages 7, 10, and 13 years), in which 129 were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5-4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL), whereas 1,895 had normal hearing thresholds. Hearing handicap was measured in adulthood as the sum-score of various speech perception and social impairment items (15 items). The sum-score increased with adult hearing threshold level (p handicap sum-score between the group with childhood-onset hearing loss (n = 129) and the group with adult-onset hearing loss (n = 1,895; p = .882). Self-reported hearing handicap in adults increased with hearing threshold level. After adjustment for adult hearing threshold level, this cohort study revealed no significant association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap.

  19. No Association Between Time of Onset of Hearing Loss (Childhood Versus Adulthood) and Self-Reported Hearing Handicap in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambs, Kristian; Engdahl, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap in adults. Methods This is a population-based cohort study of 2,024 adults (mean = 48 years) with hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5–4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL) who completed a hearing handicap questionnaire. In childhood, the same persons (N = 2,024) underwent audiometry in a school investigation (at ages 7, 10, and 13 years), in which 129 were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5–4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL), whereas 1,895 had normal hearing thresholds. Results Hearing handicap was measured in adulthood as the sum-score of various speech perception and social impairment items (15 items). The sum-score increased with adult hearing threshold level (p handicap sum-score between the group with childhood-onset hearing loss (n = 129) and the group with adult-onset hearing loss (n = 1,895; p = .882). Conclusion Self-reported hearing handicap in adults increased with hearing threshold level. After adjustment for adult hearing threshold level, this cohort study revealed no significant association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap. PMID:26649831

  20. Hearing status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, A; Daraei, M; Jalessi, M; Peyvandi, A A; Amini, E; Ranjbar, L A; Daneshi, A

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to induce conductive hearing loss and/or sensorineural hearing loss. This study evaluated the function of the middle ear and cochlea, and the related factors. Pure tone audiometry, speech reception thresholds, speech discrimination scores, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were assessed in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy volunteers. Pure tone audiometry results revealed a higher bone conduction threshold in the rheumatoid arthritis group, but there was no significant difference when evaluated according to the sensorineural hearing loss definition. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions related prevalence of conductive or mixed hearing loss, tympanometry values, acoustic reflexes, and speech discrimination scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Sensorineural hearing loss was significantly more prevalent in patients who used azathioprine, cyclosporine and etanercept. Higher bone conduction thresholds in some frequencies were detected in rheumatoid arthritis patients that were not clinically significant. Sensorineural hearing loss is significantly more prevalent in refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  1. Surprise! Bayesian Weighting for De-Biasing Thematic Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Michael; Heer, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Thematic maps are commonly used for visualizing the density of events in spatial data. However, these maps can mislead by giving visual prominence to known base rates (such as population densities) or to artifacts of sample size and normalization (such as outliers arising from smaller, and thus more variable, samples). In this work, we adapt Bayesian surprise to generate maps that counter these biases. Bayesian surprise, which has shown promise for modeling human visual attention, weights information with respect to how it updates beliefs over a space of models. We introduce Surprise Maps, a visualization technique that weights event data relative to a set of spatia-temporal models. Unexpected events (those that induce large changes in belief over the model space) are visualized more prominently than those that follow expected patterns. Using both synthetic and real-world datasets, we demonstrate how Surprise Maps overcome some limitations of traditional event maps.

  2. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  3. PENGARUH EARNINGS SURPRISE TERHADAP CONTRARIUM RETURN SHARE PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Aristianto, Astri Indranila

    2013-01-01

    Earning surprise is difference between earning forecast and earning announcement value. Earning surprise will influence stock price of a company, so it needs a strategy to make expected investment. This research utilized contrarian strategy that was opposite strategy to habit by doing stock purchase when market was experiencing decrease and other investors did selling and sold their share when market was experiencing increase, while other investors made stock purchasing (Manurung, 2009). The ...

  4. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in ... One of the most common birth defects is hearing loss or deafness (congenital), which can affect as ...

  5. Hearing Disorders and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to enjoy talking with friends or family. Hearing disorders make it hard, but not impossible, to ... often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all. What causes hearing loss? Some ...

  6. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  7. Hearing Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learning speech and language long before they talk. Hearing problems can be temporary or permanent. Sometimes, ear infections, injuries or diseases affect hearing. If your child does not hear well, get ...

  8. Phase transition of Surprise optimization in community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ju; Tang, Yan-Ni; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Lang; Hao, Yi; Li, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Shi

    2018-02-01

    Community detection is one of important issues in the research of complex networks. In literatures, many methods have been proposed to detect community structures in the networks, while they also have the scope of application themselves. In this paper, we investigate an important measure for community detection, Surprise (Aldecoa and Marín, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1060), by focusing on the critical points in the merging and splitting of communities. We firstly analyze the critical behavior of Surprise and give the phase diagrams in community-partition transition. The results show that the critical number of communities for Surprise has a super-exponential increase with the increase of the link-density difference, while it is close to that of Modularity for small difference between inter- and intra-community link densities. By directly optimizing Surprise, we experimentally test the results on various networks, following a series of comparisons with other classical methods, and further find that the heterogeneity of networks could quicken the splitting of communities. On the whole, the results show that Surprise tends to split communities due to various reasons such as the heterogeneity in link density, degree and community size, and it thus exhibits higher resolution than other methods, e.g., Modularity, in community detection. Finally, we provide several approaches for enhancing Surprise.

  9. Modeling and predicting hearing aid outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Following a brief tutorial on the application of factor analysis to hearing aid outcome measures, three studies of hearing aid outcome measures in elderly adults are presented and analyzed. Two of the studies were completed at Indiana University (IU-1 and IU-2), and one was a collaborative multisite study by the Veterans Administration and the National Institute of Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD/VA). IU-1 measured hearing aid outcome in 173 elderly wearers of single-channel, linear, in-the-ear hearing aids with output-limiting compression, whereas IU-2 obtained the same extensive set of outcome measures from 53 elderly wearers of two-channel, wide-dynamic-range compression, in-the-canal hearing aids. In the NIDCD/VA study, 333 to 338 participants wore three single-channel circuits in succession, with each circuit housed within an in-the-ear shell. The three circuits included in that study and in this analysis were: (1) linear with peak clipping, (2) linear with output-limiting compression, and (3) single-channel, wide-dynamic-range compression. Evaluation of the many outcome measures completed in each study using principal components factor analysis revealed that from three (both IU studies) to five (NIDCD/VA study) principal components captured the individual differences in hearing aid outcome. This was independent of hearing aid type (in-the-ear or in-the-canal) and circuitry. Subsequent multiple regression analyses of individual differences in performance along each dimension of hearing aid outcome revealed that these individual differences could be accounted for reasonably well by various prefit variables for some dimensions of outcome, but not others. In general, measures of speech recognition performance were well accounted for by prefit measures, with the best predictors being hearing loss, cognitive performance, and age. Measures of hearing aid usage were less well accounted for by prefit measures, with the most accurate predictor of

  10. Hearing aid-related satisfaction based on type and degree of hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad FarajiKhiavi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the elderly; using a hearing aid to alleviate auditory impairment can positively affect their quality of life. This research aimed to determine the level of satisfaction concerning hearing aids in elderly people with hearing impairment based on the type and degree of hearing loss.Methods: An analytic cross-sectional research design was used ; the sample included 40 elderly people who used hearing aids. According to the World Health Organization (WHO age classification, participants were divided into two age groups: 65-74 years (n=20 and 75-90 years (n=20. Satisfaction levels were assessed using a standard satisfaction with amplification in daily life (SADL questionnaire.Results: Satisfaction levels in the 65-74 age group were significantly higher than that in the 75-90 age group (p=0.02. Participants with mixed hearing loss revealed higher satisfaction levels than participants with sensorineural hearing loss (p=0.02. On the negative effects dimension, participants with severe hearing loss exhibited significantly higher satisfaction levels than participants with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss (p=0.01.Conclusion: Total satisfaction mean scores were relatively high in the elderly participants . Negative features could be reduced via careful consultation regarding the aids’ amplifying capabilities and limitations in groups with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss.

  11. Hearing preservation in the resection of vestibular schwannomas: patterns of hearing preservation and patient-assessed hearing function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Joshua J; Leonetti, John P; Raffin, Michael J M; Pisansky, Marc T; Herr, Brian; Triemstra, Justin D; Anderson, Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    postoperative hearing deficit and that patient perception of this deficit has a strong relation with audiometric data. Furthermore, questionnaire responses revealed a significant disparity between subjective hearing function and standard audiometrics such that even with similar levels of audiometric data, subjective measures of hearing, especially the cocktail party effect, decreased postoperatively. The authors posit that the incorporation of patient-perceived hearing function evaluation along with standard audiometry is an illustrative means of identifying subjective hearing deficits after VS resection and may ultimately aid in specific and subsequent treatment for these patients.

  12. HEARING LOSS IN DECOMPRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    hearing loss is often reported. Most of this can readily be attributed to the residual effects of repeated aerotitis media, and is not sudden. A review of the topic of sudden deafness reveals that every large hospital where such records have been published sees every month about 1-2 patients whose sudden deafness is not easily explained. Possible causes have been suggested: acute neuritis of the VIIIth nerve, virus infection, vascular accident, vasomotor neurosis, acoustic trauma at levels of noise not usually noxious, collagen disease, transient ischemia from violent

  13. Hard of Hearing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T Christensen, Vibeke

    This summary presents the results of a study of the impact of reduced hearing in relation to labour-market attachment and working life. Reduced hearing contributes to early retirement. Many people with impaired hearing are not aware of the impact of their hearing problems on their working life an...

  14. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on CERN premises to participate in the National Hearing Day on: Thursday 10th March From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Gr.Fl. We will be offering hearing tests (audiogram); information, advice on hearing loss, tinnitus and more. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing loss. But PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE AND EFFECTIVE: for example, Hearing protection devices could reduce tinnitus cases by 80%.

  15. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on the CERN site to participate in the NATIONAL HEARING DAY on: Thursday 10th March 2005 From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Ground Floor We will be offering hearing tests (audiograms), as well as information and advice on hearing loss, tinnitus, etc. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% of the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing problems but PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE. For example, hearing protection devices can prevent 80% of tinnitus cases.

  16. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss ? do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on the CERN site to participate in the NATIONAL HEARING DAY on: Thursday 10th March 2005 From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Ground Floor We will be offering hearing tests (audiograms), as well as information and advice on hearing loss, tinnitus, etc. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% of the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing problems but prevention is possible. For example, hearing protection devices can prevent 80% of tinnitus cases.

  17. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on CERN premises to participate in the National Hearing Day on: Thursday 10th March From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Gr.Fl. We will be offering hearing tests (audiogram); information, advice on hearing loss, tinnitus and more. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing loss. But prevention is possible and effective: for example, Hearing protection devices could reduce tinnitus cases by 80%.

  18. The Master Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  19. Hearing loss in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Murthy, V.; Krishna, Kirtan

    2011-01-01

    To study hearing loss in healthy pregnant women. Tertiary care hospital. Prospective study. We screened fifty healthy, non-complicated pregnant women (study group) in the third trimester for hearing loss who had no previous history for the same. Fifty healthy, non-pregnant women (control group) were also screened for hearing loss with a normal pure tone audiogram (PTA) for evidence of hearing loss. Thirteen women in the study group had evidence of hearing loss, in the form of absence of disto...

  20. Canine hearing loss management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  2. International Team Shows that Primes Can Be Found in Surprising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. International Team Shows that Primes Can Be Found in Surprising Places. Andrew Granville. Research News Volume 3 Issue 3 March 1998 pp 71-72. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Effects of surprisal and locality on Danish sentence processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...

  4. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

  5. Hearing Loss in Children: Types of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...

  6. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... Read More "Drug Induced Hearing Loss" Articles Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing / What Is Ototoxicity? Spring 2016 ...

  7. Surprise and opportunity for learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Walters, Carl; Korman, Josh

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  8. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Melis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  9. Negotiating hearing disability and hearing disabled identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2012-01-01

        Using disability theory as a framework and social science theories of identity to strengthen the arguments, this paper explores empirically how working-age adults confront the medical diagnosis of hearing impairment. For most participants hearing impairment threatens the stability of social...... interaction and the construction of hearing disabled identities is seen as shaped in the interaction with the hearing impaired person‟s surroundings. In order to overcome the potential stigmatisation the „passing‟ as normal becomes predominant. For many the diagnosis provokes radical redefinitions of the self....... The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...

  10. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...

  11. Eldercare at Home: Hearing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Hearing Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem Fifty percent ... at all). Unfortunately, not many older people with hearing problems visit a hearing specialist or wear a hearing ...

  12. Hearing Aid and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Fatahi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.

  13. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  14. Sudden hearing loss associated with methylphenidate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapinar, Ugur; Saglam, Omer; Dursun, Engin; Cetin, Bilal; Salman, Nergis; Sahan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old child diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder presented to our Department of Otolaryngology 4 days after suffering hearing loss, loss of balance, tinnitus, and fullness sensation of the left ear. Her symptoms occured with the first dose of methylphenidate. The medical history and physical examination revealed no other diseases associated with sudden hearing loss. The audiogram revealed a total hearing loss on the left ear. Stapedial reflexes, distortion product and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions were absent in left ear. The absence of clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of a possible cause for complaints, an association between methylphenidate and sudden hearing loss was suggested. The patient received a standard course of oral corticosteroid and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Weekly otological and audiological examinations were performed. Conservative and medical treatments offered no relief from hearing loss. Sudden hearing loss is a serious and irreversible adverse effect of methylphenidate. Therefore, the risk of hearing loss should be taken into consideration when initiating methylphenidate therapy.

  15. Strategic Warning: If Surprise is Inevitable, What Role for Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Z39-18 2 Sherman Kent Center for Intelligence Analysis Occasional Papers: Volume 2, Number 1 Strategic Warning: If Surprise is Inevitable...central mission of intelligence analysis is to warn US officials about dangers to national security interests and to alert them to perceived openings to...imbedded doctrine that sets a wall of separation between intelligence analysis and policy-support activities in any guise. Once analysts sense that

  16. PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCE OF HEARING IMPAIRMENT ON THE INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR OF YOUTHS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osisanya AYO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with hearing impairment are confronted with a lot of problems due to the condition of their disability. This has a negative impact on their social and psychological well-being with multiplying effect on their interpersonal relationship. Therefore, this study investigated the psycho-social influence of hearing impairment on interpersonal behavior of youths with hearing loss.MethodologyThe study adopted a survey research design. A sample consisting of 211 participants with hearing loss were purposively selected from the Federal College of Education (Special Oyo, Nigeria. A questionnaire, part of Psycho-social Competence Scale (PCS, was used for data collection with reliability coefficient of 0.72.ResultsThe findings revealed that hearing impairement affects social interaction of youths with hearing impairment, hearing loss affects emotional well-being of youths with hearing impairment and youths with hearing impairment feel inferior in company of persons without hearing impairment. Based on this, it was recommended that a friendly home environment should be made and youths with hearing impairment should be advised to accept their loss and take it as a challenge that can be used to achieve a better end and the society should have right attitude and beliefs toward youths with hearing impairment.

  17. The BAHA hearing system for hearing-impaired postirradiated nasopharyngeal cancer patients: a new indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Gordon; Tong, Michael C F; Tsang, Willis S S; Wong, Terence K C; To, Ka-fai; Leung, Sing-fai; van Hasselt, C Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Radiation for patients who have nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) often renders them hearing challenged and facing difficulties from treatment sequelae such as chronic suppurative otitis media and osteoradionecrosis. Conventional hearing aids aggravate otorrhea, and ear moulds traumatize osteoradionecrosis ulcers in the ear canal. The bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) hearing system might represent an excellent hearing solution. To investigate the BAHA benefit and osseointegration results for hearing-impaired postirradiated NPC patients. A prospective longitudinal study. Tertiary university center. Eleven hearing-impaired postirradiated NPC patients were studied from October 2002 to October 2006. Two-stage BAHA surgeries were performed. Assessments include pure-tone and speech audiometry, implant integrity, periabutment audit, and patient satisfaction analysis during a 24-month period. Radiation dosimetric analysis and bone sampling at the fixture implant sites were studied. No implant fixtures were lost (follow-up, 13-58 mo). Average patient satisfaction scores were 84.4%, with 80% using their BAHA everyday and 90% using their devices for more than 8 hours. Dosimetric analysis of the implant site revealed that all fixtures were outside the irradiated field. There was a reduction in otorrhea rates after BAHA use over the course of the study. Successful osseointegration was demonstrated in postirradiated NPC patients. Improved subjective hearing clarity, reduced ear discharge rates, and extended BAHA usage times accounted for high patient satisfaction with the BAHA hearing system. This is the first study to demonstrate long-term osseointegration and hearing benefit in postirradiated NPC patients. We recommend the BAHA hearing system for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media-related hearing problems in NPC patients.

  18. Temporal Masking Contributions of Inherent Envelope Fluctuations for Listeners with Normal and Impaired Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Adam

    Gaussian noise (GN) simultaneous maskers yield higher masked thresholds for pure tones than low-fluctuation noise (LFN) simultaneous maskers for listeners with normal hearing. This increased residual masking is thought to be due to inherent fluctuations in the temporal envelope of Gaussian noise, but these masking effects using forward maskers have been previously unexamined. Because differences in forward masking due to age and hearing loss are known, the first study measured forward-masked detection thresholds for younger and older adults with normal hearing (NH) and older adults with hearing loss (HI) for a 4000 Hz pure-tone probe at a single masker-probe delay in narrowband noises with maximal (GN) or minimal (LFN) inherent envelope fluctuations. As predicted, results suggested that no effect of age was observed. Surprisingly, forward-masked threshold differences between GN and LFN, an estimate of the magnitude of the effect of inherent masker envelope fluctuations, were not significantly different for older HI listeners compared to younger or older NH listeners. Due to the surprising similarities between listeners with normal and impaired hearing, the second study was designed to assess effects of hearing loss on the slopes and magnitudes of recovery from forward maskers that varied in inherent envelope fluctuations for masker-probe delays of 25, 50, and 75 ms. In addition to measuring these effects centered at 4000 Hz, forward-masked thresholds were also measured at 2000 Hz, a region of better hearing for the HI listeners. As hypothesized, regardless of masker fluctuations, slopes of recovery from forward masking were shallower for HI than NH listeners in all conditions. At 4000 Hz, additional residual masking was greater in HI than NH listeners at the longest masker-probe delays; whereas, no differences in additional residual masking between HI and NH listeners were observed for 2000 Hz. These results suggest that the masking effects from inherent envelope

  19. HEARING AID USE IN PATIENTS WITH PRESBYACUSIS: A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karimaneh A. Eftekharian

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The acceptability of hearing aids in people with presbyacusis has been improved but assessment of whether there is a need for more counseling to increase the number of regular hearing-aid users seems to be important. The aim of this study was to determine if the hearing aid was worn regularly and over a long period of time in people with presbyacusis. A questionnaire survey of patients with presbyacusis who had been fitted with a monaural behind the ear hearing aid for the first time was undertaken. The patients were divided into four groups ranging from 6 months to 3 years after fitting. Overall regular long-term use of the hearing aid was found in the majority of patients with presbyacusis. The main dropout point was within the first year after fitting the hearing aid. The study furthermore revealed a relatively high demand for further help and advice with the hearing aid in all groups.

  20. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... deafness, which account for most cases. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard In 1993, children born in the ...

  1. OI Issues: Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing Loss and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Introduction Significant hearing loss has been reported in approximately 50% of people with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) beginning any time from childhood into middle age. While not ...

  2. Hearing Aid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  3. Hearing loss and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and how often you are exposed to loud music Headphone use Family history of hearing loss Jobs or activities that increase your chance of hearing loss from music are: Being a musician, sound crew member, or ...

  4. Modular structure of brain functional networks: breaking the resolution limit by Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Carlo; Bifone, Angelo

    2016-01-14

    The modular organization of brain networks has been widely investigated using graph theoretical approaches. Recently, it has been demonstrated that graph partitioning methods based on the maximization of global fitness functions, like Newman's Modularity, suffer from a resolution limit, as they fail to detect modules that are smaller than a scale determined by the size of the entire network. Here we explore the effects of this limitation on the study of brain connectivity networks. We demonstrate that the resolution limit prevents detection of important details of the brain modular structure, thus hampering the ability to appreciate differences between networks and to assess the topological roles of nodes. We show that Surprise, a recently proposed fitness function based on probability theory, does not suffer from these limitations. Surprise maximization in brain co-activation and functional connectivity resting state networks reveals the presence of a rich structure of heterogeneously distributed modules, and differences in networks' partitions that are undetectable by resolution-limited methods. Moreover, Surprise leads to a more accurate identification of the network's connector hubs, the elements that integrate the brain modules into a cohesive structure.

  5. Hearing poorly with skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an account of ongoing research into hearing. I offer a characterization of 'skil- led practitioners' from an Ethnomethodological perspective. The skilled practitioner in question is a generic 'hard of hearing' person. The ambition is that such a characterization, both in its...... making and its final state, may be an intrinsic part of design practices concerning the development of hearing aids....

  6. Hearing-aid tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  7. Prevalence of minimal hearing loss in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Eun; Ahn, Jungmin; Park, Hyun Woo; Baek, Sun-Young; Kim, Seonwoo; Moon, Il Joon

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of minimal hearing loss (MHL) in South Korea based on the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 16,630 representative individuals (older than 12 years) who completed ear examinations and structured questionnaires were analyzed. Only participants who had normal tympanic membranes were included. MHL was categorized into the following three groups: 1) unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USHL, pure-tone average (PTA) ≥ 15 dB in the affected ear), 2) bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (BSHL, 15 dB ≤ PTA hearing loss (HFSHL, two or more high-frequency thresholds > 25 dB in either ear). To evaluate clinical symptoms, subjective hearing status, tinnitus, and quality of life of each MHL group were compared to those of normal-hearing listeners. The use of hearing aids (HAs) was also investigated in the MHL population. The prevalence of normal hearing and MHL were 58.4% and 37.4%, respectively. In univariate analyses, the prevalence of MHL increased with age. It was significantly increased in males. Regarding clinical symptoms, 13.0% and 92.1% of participants with MHL reported difficulties with hearing and annoying tinnitus, respectively. In multivariate analyses, these proportions were significantly higher in the MHL groups than in normal-hearing listeners. Participants with MHL also showed significantly lower Euro Qol-5D index scores than did normal-hearing listeners. Regarding hearing rehabilitation, among minimally hearing impaired participants with subjective hearing loss, only 0.47% of individuals used HAs. Our results reveal that MHL is common in South Korea. It is associated with significant subjective hearing loss, tinnitus, and poor quality of life. Therefore, clinicians need to pay attention to this special group and provide proper counselling and rehabilitative management.

  8. Prevalence of minimal hearing loss in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Eun; Ahn, Jungmin; Park, Hyun Woo; Baek, Sun-Young; Kim, Seonwoo; Moon, Il Joon

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of minimal hearing loss (MHL) in South Korea based on the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 16,630 representative individuals (older than 12 years) who completed ear examinations and structured questionnaires were analyzed. Only participants who had normal tympanic membranes were included. MHL was categorized into the following three groups: 1) unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USHL, pure-tone average (PTA) ≥ 15 dB in the affected ear), 2) bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (BSHL, 15 dB ≤ PTA hearing loss (HFSHL, two or more high-frequency thresholds > 25 dB in either ear). To evaluate clinical symptoms, subjective hearing status, tinnitus, and quality of life of each MHL group were compared to those of normal-hearing listeners. The use of hearing aids (HAs) was also investigated in the MHL population. The prevalence of normal hearing and MHL were 58.4% and 37.4%, respectively. In univariate analyses, the prevalence of MHL increased with age. It was significantly increased in males. Regarding clinical symptoms, 13.0% and 92.1% of participants with MHL reported difficulties with hearing and annoying tinnitus, respectively. In multivariate analyses, these proportions were significantly higher in the MHL groups than in normal-hearing listeners. Participants with MHL also showed significantly lower Euro Qol-5D index scores than did normal-hearing listeners. Regarding hearing rehabilitation, among minimally hearing impaired participants with subjective hearing loss, only 0.47% of individuals used HAs. Our results reveal that MHL is common in South Korea. It is associated with significant subjective hearing loss, tinnitus, and poor quality of life. Therefore, clinicians need to pay attention to this special group and provide proper counselling and rehabilitative management. PMID:28196098

  9. Facial patterning and infant emotional expression: happiness, surprise, and fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, S W; Campos, J J; Emde, R N

    1979-12-01

    Although recent studies have convincingly demonstrated that emotional expressions can be judged reliably from actor-posed facial displays, there exists little evidence that facial expressions in lifelike settings are similar to actor-posed displays, are reliable across situations designed to elicit the same emotion, or provide sufficient information to mediate consistent emotion judgments by raters. The present study therefore investigated these issues as they related to the emotions of happiness, surprise, and fear. 27 infants between 10 and 12 months of age (when emotion masking is not likely to confound results) were tested in 2 situations designed to elicit hapiness (peek-a-boo game and a collapsing toy), 2 to elicit surprise (a toy-switch and a vanishing-object task), and 2 to elicit fear (the visual cliff and the approach of a stranger. Dependent variables included changes in 28 facial response components taken from previous work using actor poses, as well as judgments of the presence of 6 discrete emotions. In addition, instrumental behaviors were used to verify with other than facial expression responses whether the predicted emotion was elicited. In contrast to previous conclusions on the subject, we found that judges were able to make all facial expression judgments reliably, even in the absence of contextual information. Support was also obtained for at least some degree of specificity of facial component response patterns, especially for happiness and surprise. Emotion judgments by raters were found to be a function of the presence of discrete facial components predicted to be linked to those emotions. Finally, almost all situations elicited blends, rather than discrete emotions.

  10. [Genetic hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka-Ouyang, Lei; Marlin, Sandrine; Nevoux, Jérôme

    2017-11-01

    Deafness is the most common sensory disability in developed countries affecting more than 2 births in 1000. Eighty percent of congenital deafness is genetic. Universal newborn hearing screening has been in place since 2012 in France. All genetic hearing losses are not congenital and all congenital hearing losses are not genetic. Genetic hearing loss may be syndromic (associated with other symptoms) (10 %) or non-syndromic (isolated) (90 %). Hearing loss may initially be the only symptom of syndromic deafness. A genetic origin can be diagnosed and must therefore be evoked systematically even in the adult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Diphtheria and hearing loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, C. R.; Cruickshanks, K. J.; Wiley, T. L.; Klein, R.; Klein, B E; Tweed, T. S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if infectious diseases usually experienced in childhood have an effect on hearing ability later in life. METHODS: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (N = 3,753) is a population-based study of age-related hearing loss in adults aged 48 to 92 years in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of this study, infectious disease history was obtained and hearing was tested using pure-tone audiometry. Hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone average of thresholds at 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz,...

  12. Prediction suppression and surprise enhancement in monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Suchitra; Meyer, Travis; Olson, Carl R

    2017-07-01

    Exposing monkeys, over the course of days and weeks, to pairs of images presented in fixed sequence, so that each leading image becomes a predictor for the corresponding trailing image, affects neuronal visual responsiveness in area TE. At the end of the training period, neurons respond relatively weakly to a trailing image when it appears in a trained sequence and, thus, confirms prediction, whereas they respond relatively strongly to the same image when it appears in an untrained sequence and, thus, violates prediction. This effect could arise from prediction suppression (reduced firing in response to the occurrence of a probable event) or surprise enhancement (elevated firing in response to the omission of a probable event). To identify its cause, we compared firing under the prediction-confirming and prediction-violating conditions to firing under a prediction-neutral condition. The results provide strong evidence for prediction suppression and limited evidence for surprise enhancement.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In predictive coding models of the visual system, neurons carry signed prediction error signals. We show here that monkey inferotemporal neurons exhibit prediction-modulated firing, as posited by these models, but that the signal is unsigned. The response to a prediction-confirming image is suppressed, and the response to a prediction-violating image may be enhanced. These results are better explained by a model in which the visual system emphasizes unpredicted events than by a predictive coding model. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Evidence for neural encoding of Bayesian surprise in human somatosensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Dirk; Spitzer, Bernhard; Guggenmos, Matthias; Schmidt, Timo T; Kiebel, Stefan J; Blankenburg, Felix

    2012-08-01

    Accumulating empirical evidence suggests a role of Bayesian inference and learning for shaping neural responses in auditory and visual perception. However, its relevance for somatosensory processing is unclear. In the present study we test the hypothesis that cortical somatosensory processing exhibits dynamics that are consistent with Bayesian accounts of brain function. Specifically, we investigate the cortical encoding of Bayesian surprise, a recently proposed marker of Bayesian perceptual learning, using EEG data recorded from 15 subjects. Capitalizing on a somatosensory mismatch roving paradigm, we performed computational single-trial modeling of evoked somatosensory potentials for the entire peri-stimulus time period in source space. By means of Bayesian model selection, we find that, at 140 ms post-stimulus onset, secondary somatosensory cortex represents Bayesian surprise rather than stimulus change, which is the conventional marker of EEG mismatch responses. In contrast, at 250 ms, right inferior frontal cortex indexes stimulus change. Finally, at 360 ms, our analyses indicate additional perceptual learning attributable to medial cingulate cortex. In summary, the present study provides novel evidence for anatomical-temporal/functional segregation in human somatosensory processing that is consistent with the Bayesian brain hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening of DFNB3 in Iranian families with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss reveals a novel pathogenic mutation in the MyTh4 domain of the MYO15A gene in a linked family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Reiisi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 500 newborns. This type of hearing loss is extremely heterogeneous and includes over 100 loci. Mutations in the GJB2 gene have been implicated in about half of autosomal recessive NSHL (ARNSHL cases, making this the most common cause of ARNSHL. For the latter form of deafness, most frequent genes proposed include GJB2, SLC26A4, MYO15A, OTOF, and CDH23 worldwide. Materials and Methods: the aim of the present study was to determine the role of MYO15A gene mutations in Iranian families. Thirty Iranian families with over three deaf children and negative for GJB2 using genetic linkage analysis (GLA, followed by mutation screening by DNA sequencing were enrolled. Results: One family (3.33% showed linkage to DFNB3 and a novel mutation was identified in the MYO15A gene (c.6442T>A as the disease-causing mutation. Mutation co-segregated with hearing loss in the family but was not present in the 100 ethnicity-matched controls. Conclusion: Our results confirmed that the hearing loss of the linked Iranian family was caused by a novel missense mutation in the MYO15A gene. This mutation is the first to be reported in the world and affects the first MyTH4 domain of the protein.

  15. Influence of Genetic Variants in TPMT and COMT Associated with Cisplatin Induced Hearing Loss in Patients with Cancer : Two New Cohorts and a Meta-Analysis Reveal Significant Heterogeneity between Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagleitner, Melanie M.; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Patino-Garcia, Ana; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Vos, Hanneke I.; van Leeuwen, Frank N.; Gelderblom, Hans; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; te Loo, Maroeska W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens causes hearing loss in 40-60% of cancer patients. It has been suggested that genetic variants in the genes encoding thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) can predict the development of cisplatin-induced

  16. Trends in Hearing Loss Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Tyson S; White, Karl R

    2017-11-08

    Our aim with this article is to evaluate whether the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing among adolescents living in the United States. All available data about hearing loss among adolescents from the large, federally funded National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. By using the 4 data releases between 1994 and 2010 (a total of 6891 adolescents), the prevalence of adolescent hearing loss >15 and ≥25 dB at low frequencies (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) and high frequencies (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz) for bilateral, unilateral, and any loss were calculated. Only 13 of 90 comparisons of prevalence across combinations of degree, frequency, and laterality of hearing loss revealed a statistically significant increase at P < .05. Among the 18 subgroups of degree, frequency, and laterality, 61% had a lower prevalence of hearing loss in 2010 than in 1994, and 100% of the subgroups had a lower prevalence in 2010 than in 2006. With previous analyses of NHANES data from 1994 to 2006, researchers showed that hearing loss among US adolescents was increasing. Based on the NHANES data from 1994 to 2010 that are now available, there is no consistent evidence that hearing loss among adolescents in the United States is increasing. Results reveal that conclusions about trends using data from 2 time points can be misleading. NHANES should resume collecting audiometric data as part of their data collection protocol so that trends in the prevalence of childhood hearing loss can be documented. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Music and Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  19. Destabilization of flapping sheets: The surprising analogue of soap films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuissier, H.; Villermaux, E.

    2009-06-01

    When punctured, a uniform liquid sheet is known, since Taylor and Culick, to recess at a constant speed, balancing surface tension and inertia. For planar soap films, this steady solution holds until the initially smooth receding rim is violently destabilized, exhibiting deep indentations from which droplets are ejected. A surprising new three-dimensional mechanism explaining this destabilization and resulting wavelength has been demonstrated: because of the shear between the still outer medium and the receding liquid, the film flaps through a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, itself inducing an acceleration perpendicular to the film, which intensifies with the flapping amplitude. To this acceleration is associated a classical Rayleigh-Taylor mechanism, promoting the rim indentations. To cite this article: H. Lhuissier, E. Villermaux, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  20. Stability of the Taylor--Culick receding rim: surprising observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    When punctured, a uniform liquid sheet is known, since Taylor and Culick, to recess at a constant speed balancing surface tension and inertia. For planar soap films, this steady solution holds until the initially smooth receding rim is violently destabilized, exhibiting deep indentations from which droplets are ejected. A surprising new three dimensional mechanism explaining this destabilization and resulting wavelength has been evidenced : because of the shear between the still outer medium and the receding liquid, the film flaps through a Kelvin--Helmholtz instability, itself inducing an acceleration perpendicular to the film, which intensifies with the flapping amplitude. To this acceleration is associated a classical Rayleigh--Taylor mechanism, promoting the rim indentations. The same mechanism holds for a punctured round bubble, for which the relevant acceleration is the Culick velocity squared divided by the bubble radius. The bearing of this phenomenon on aerosols formation in Nature will be underlined.

  1. Recent surprising similarities between plant cells and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, Frantisek

    2010-02-01

    Plant cells and neurons share several similarities, including non-centrosomal microtubules, motile post-Golgi organelles, separated both spatially/structurally and functionally from the Golgi apparatus and involved in vesicular endocytic recycling, as well as cell-cell adhesion domains based on the actin/myosin cytoskeleton which serve for cell-cell communication. Tip-growing plants cells such as root hairs and pollen tubes also resemble neurons extending their axons. Recently, surprising discoveries have been made with respect of the molecular basis of neurodegenerative disorders known as Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias and tip-growth of root hairs. All these advances are briefly discussed in the context of other similarities between plant cells and neurons.

  2. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  3. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  4. Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is not hearing high-pitched sounds, like the singing of birds, or not understanding speech when in ... radio. Music, the sounds of nature, and the voices of loved ones can bring you pleasure; sirens ...

  5. Sensorineural hearing loss following irradiation to the malignant tumor of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Masafumi; Kobari, Hitomi; Kanno, Hidetaka; Aikawa, Tohru; Anzai, Tomohiro; Okamura, Hiro-oki; Ohtani, Iwao; Hoshino, Toshiaki

    1989-03-01

    We observed sensorineural hearing loss following X-ray irradiation to the malignant tumor of head and neck. There were 24 patients whose auditory organs lied within the irradiation field. Ten of these patients were affected by sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing loss occurred at a high frequency in elderly patients, epipharynx tumor and high dose of irradiation. Many cases revealed high tone hearing loss. Most cases showed about a 20/similar to/30 dB hearing loss, so their impediment seemed not severe in daily life. In some of these cases, we could have temporal bone findings, but there were no particular findings relevant to sensorineural hearing loss. (author).

  6. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals.

  7. Do You Hear What Horton Hears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robert; Johnson, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    "I've never heard of a small speck of dust that is able to yell" says Horton of a sound he hears well (Geisel 1954). It is always valuable to connect science to student's interests and their everyday world--so what better way to teach concepts relating to sound than to read "Horton Hears a Who" by Dr. Seuss? Here the authors present several…

  8. Verbal and spatial analogical reasoning in deaf and hearing children: the role of grammar and vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsey; Figueras, Berta; Mellanby, Jane; Langdon, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which cognitive development and abilities are dependent on language remains controversial. In this study, the analogical reasoning skills of deaf and hard of hearing children are explored. Two groups of children (deaf and hard of hearing children with either cochlear implants or hearing aids and hearing children) completed tests of verbal and spatial analogical reasoning. Their vocabulary and grammar skills were also assessed to provide a measure of language attainment. Results indicated significant differences between the deaf and hard of hearing children (regardless of type of hearing device) and their hearing peers on vocabulary, grammar, and verbal reasoning tests. Regression analyses revealed that in the group of deaf and hard of hearing children, but not in the hearing group, the language measures were significant predictors of verbal analogical reasoning, when age and spatial analogical reasoning ability were controlled for. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Refining a model of hearing impairment using speech psychophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten; Ghitza, Oded

    2014-01-01

    The premise of this study is that models of hearing, in general, and of individual hearing impairment, in particular, can be improved by using speech test results as an integral part of the modeling process. A conceptual iterative procedure is presented which, for an individual, considers measures...... of sensitivity, cochlear compression, and phonetic confusions using the Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) framework. The suggested approach is exemplified by presenting data from three hearing-impaired listeners and results obtained with models of the hearing impairment of the individuals. The work reveals...

  10. OBJECTIVE HEARING DISORDER DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN YOUNGER CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Savel'eva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative analysis of objective hearing function examination methods in children and identification of the factors affecting examination results. Patients and methods. We studied hearing in 473 children of 3 months – 5 years of age with sensorineural hearing loss and surdity. The control group was comprised of 30 children with normal hearing. Along with the standard clinical examination of ENT-organs, we performed tympanometry and reflexometry, examination of delayed evoked otoacoustic emission and reflection-source frequency otoacoustic emission, registered short-latency auditory evoked potentials and auditory steady state response (ASSR in all children. We also conducted behavioral audiometry in children of 2-3 years of age and play audiometry in older children. Results. Various hearing loss risk factors are revealed in anamneses of most children (77% with sensorineural hearing loss and surdity. The most sensitive (Se = 100% and specific (Sp = 98.3% method of diagnosing hearing level in children is the registration of short-latency brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Conclusions. The most reliable results of hearing thresholds identification are obtained when classic psychoacoustic hearing function examination methods are combined with modern electrophysiological examination method and hearing loss grade verification using surdopedagogic tests.

  11. How to quantify binaural hearing in patients with unilateral hearing using hearing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Agterberg, M.J.H.; Bosman, A.

    2015-01-01

    Application of bilateral hearing devices in bilateral hearing loss and unilateral application in unilateral hearing loss (second ear with normal hearing) does not a priori lead to binaural hearing. An overview is presented on several measures of binaural benefits that have been used in patients with

  12. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Hearing loss following myringoplasty - implications for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, J; Prinsley, P

    2015-04-01

    There are many reports of operations performed to successfully close ear drum perforations. Hearing deterioration after myringoplasty is not a widely published topic. This paper presents an audit of this complication. A six-year retrospective analysis of a series of myringoplasty operations was performed using electronic patient records. Patients with post-operative hearing loss were identified and those with hearing loss greater than 10 dB were further scrutinised. Out of 187 patients who underwent myringoplasty procedures, 44 (23.53 per cent) experienced a reduction in hearing thresholds. In seven cases (3.74 per cent), the hearing loss was greater than 10 dB. A case note review revealed no obvious predictive factors, although posterior perforations and the possibility of ossicular chain manipulation were considered. Hearing loss following myringoplasty is not rare, and this may alter the consent process for this procedure.

  14. Personal and social conditions potentially influencing women's hearing loss management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstecki, D C; Erler, S F

    2001-12-01

    Little gender-specific data related to hearing loss and hearing loss management are available. The purpose of this investigation was to examine personal and social conditions affecting women at selected stages of the adult life course that may influence hearing loss management. In all, 191 women in three age groups, ranging from 35 to 85 years old, participated. None reported hearing problems. Participants completed a demographic data form and were given a standard audiometric evaluation to confirm age-normal hearing. Each completed assessments of speech understanding in quiet and noise, auditory signal duration discrimination, and binaural processing. Measures of hearing knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes; health-related locus of control; ego strength; and, social support were administered. Results revealed that although some variables deteriorate among subsequent age groups (i.e., hearing thresholds, central auditory processing, and ego strength), the reverse is true for others (i.e., social interaction and satisfaction with income). Age-specific sociodemographic burdens that may interfere with hearing loss management were noted. New psychosocial data are revealed against which women and men with impaired hearing may be compared.

  15. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  16. Hearing and Speech at Seven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Mary D.; Peckham, Catherine S.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluated for social and educational aspects at 7 years of age were 133 children with moderate hearing loss, 46 children with severe unilateral hearing loss, and 215 children with normal hearing but with unintelligible speech. (DB)

  17. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hearing ... noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Read and comment ...

  18. Age-related hearing loss and the factors determining continued usage of hearing aids among elderly community-dwelling residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Mizutari

    Full Text Available While hearing aids are recommended for people with age-related hearing loss, many with impaired hearing do not use them. In this study, we investigated how many elderly people in the study area needed hearing aids, and the factors that determined continued wearing of the devices. The study area was Kurabuchi Town, Japan, where 1,437 residents (those aged 65 years or over were eligible for participation in the study; 1,414 participated, of whom, 103 (7.3% were already using hearing aids at the start of the study. After the primary screening, hearing aids were lent to 68 participants (4.8% who did not already have one, 38 of whom (60.3% of the borrowers, representing 2.7% of the total aged population went on to wear the hearing aid continuously. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE score was significantly elevated among these 38 participants. This study indicated that hearing aids are of potential benefit to many local residents. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that HHIE scores were associated with the extent of HA usage. The adjusted odds ratio for a 1-unit increase in HHIE score was 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.14. Programs like this, in which people with impaired hearing are identified at the local level and given appropriate assistance, are useful models for future use in societies with aging populations.

  19. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...

  20. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  1. Hearing impairment caused by mutations in two different genes responsible for nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss within a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepokój, Katarzyna; Rygiel, Agnieszka M; Jurczak, Piotr; Kujko, Aleksandra A; Śniegórska, Dominika; Sawicka, Justyna; Grabarczyk, Alicja; Bal, Jerzy; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-18

    Usher syndrome is rare genetic disorder impairing two human senses, hearing and vision, with the characteristic late onset of vision loss. This syndrome is divided into three types. In all cases, the vision loss is postlingual, while loss of hearing is usually prelingual. The vestibular functions may also be disturbed in Usher type 1 and sometimes in type 3. Vestibular areflexia is helpful in making a proper diagnosis of the syndrome, but, often, the syndrome is misdiagnosed as a nonsyndromic hearing loss. Here, we present a Polish family with hearing loss, which was clinically classified as nonsyndromic. After excluding mutations in the DFNB1 locus, we implemented the next-generation sequencing method and revealed that hearing loss was syndromic and mutations in the USH2A gene indicate Usher syndrome. This research highlights the importance of molecular analysis in establishing a clinical diagnosis of congenital hearing loss.

  2. Age-related changes in auditory and cognitive abilities in elderly persons with hearing aids fitted at the initial stages of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Obuchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relation between the use of hearing aids at the initial stages of hearing loss and age-related changes in the auditory and cognitive abilities of elderly persons. 12 healthy elderly persons participated in an annual auditory and cognitive longitudinal examination for three years. According to their hearing level, they were divided into 3 subgroups - the normal hearing group, the hearing loss without hearing aids group, and the hearing loss with hearing aids group. All the subjects underwent 4 tests: pure-tone audiometry, syllable intelligibility test, dichotic listening test (DLT, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R Short Forms. Comparison between the 3 groups revealed that the hearing loss without hearing aids group showed the lowest scores for the performance tasks, in contrast to the hearing level and intelligibility results. The other groups showed no significant difference in the WAIS-R subtests. This result indicates that prescription of a hearing aid during the early stages of hearing loss is related to the retention of cognitive abilities in such elderly people. However, there were no statistical significant correlations between the auditory and cognitive tasks.

  3. Hearing Evaluation in Children (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Braces Eating Disorders Mitral Valve Prolapse Arrhythmias Hearing Evaluation in Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Hearing Evaluation ... hearing screened early and checked regularly. Causes of Hearing Loss Hearing loss is a common birth defect, ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: nonsyndromic hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factor for hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is thought to have both genetic and environmental ... Encyclopedia: Hearing or speech impairment - resources Health Topic: Hearing Disorders and Deafness Health Topic: Hearing Problems in Children Health Topic: ...

  5. X-rays from comets - a surprising discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Comets are kilometre-size aggregates of ice and dust, which remained from the formation of the solar system. It was not obvious to expect X-ray emission from such objects. Nevertheless, when comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) was observed with the ROSAT X-ray satellite during its close approach to Earth in March 1996, bright X-ray emission from this comet was discovered. This finding triggered a search in archival ROSAT data for comets, which might have accidentally crossed the field of view during observations of unrelated targets. To increase the surprise even more, X-ray emission was detected from four additional comets, which were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. For one of them, comet Arai (C/1991 A2), X-ray emission was even found in data which were taken six weeks before the comet was optically discovered. These findings showed that comets represent a new class of celestial X-ray sources. The subsequent detection of X-ray emission from several other comets in dedicated observations confir...

  6. Small particles dominate Saturn's Phoebe ring to surprisingly large distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Masci, Frank J.

    2015-06-01

    Saturn's faint outermost ring, discovered in 2009 (ref. 1), is probably formed by particles ejected from the distant moon Phoebe. The ring was detected between distances of 128 and 207 Saturn radii (RS = 60,330 kilometres) from the planet, with a full vertical extent of 40RS, making it well over ten times larger than Saturn's hitherto largest known ring, the E ring. The total radial extent of the Phoebe ring could not, however, be determined at that time, nor could particle sizes be significantly constrained. Here we report infrared imaging of the entire ring, which extends from 100RS out to a surprisingly distant 270RS. We model the orbital dynamics of ring particles launched from Phoebe, and construct theoretical power-law profiles of the particle size distribution. We find that very steep profiles fit the data best, and that elevated grain temperatures, arising because of the radiative inefficiency of the smallest grains, probably contribute to the steepness. By converting our constraint on particle sizes into a form that is independent of the uncertain size distribution, we determine that particles with radii greater than ten centimetres, whose orbits do not decay appreciably inward over 4.5 billion years, contribute at most about ten per cent to the cross-sectional area of the ring's dusty component.

  7. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  8. Surprisingly Rapid Orbital Evolution: A Compendium of Solar Type Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samec, Ronald George

    2015-08-01

    Solar type binaries are believed to be undergoing steady but slow angular momentum losses due to magnetic braking (Réville et al. 2015, Jiang et al. 2014) as stellar winds leave radially away on semi-rigid (out to the Alfvén radius) bipolar field lines: There is an outward radial flow of ions along the rotating magnetic fields. This is happening simultaneously as the gravitationally locked binary rotates about its center of mass. The stream of ions spiral outward resulting in a resistant torque, causing a decay in the orbital radius along with a period decrease due to Kepler’s laws. My past studies have included more than 25 binaries that appear to be undergoing magnetic braking. I have extended the number of systems to 75+ in this group by perusing the literature of modern precision synthetic light curve studies. Several interesting facts arise including their surprisingly rapid orbital evolution, much faster than would be suggested by the theory. Further results are presented in this study.

  9. Endosymbiont evolution: predictions from theory and surprises from genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2015-12-01

    Genome data have created new opportunities to untangle evolutionary processes shaping microbial variation. Among bacteria, long-term mutualists of insects represent the smallest and (typically) most AT-rich genomes. Evolutionary theory provides a context to predict how an endosymbiotic lifestyle may alter fundamental evolutionary processes--mutation, selection, genetic drift, and recombination--and thus contribute to extreme genomic outcomes. These predictions can then be explored by comparing evolutionary rates, genome size and stability, and base compositional biases across endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria. Recent surprises from such comparisons include genome reduction among uncultured, free-living species. Some studies suggest that selection generally drives this streamlining, while drift drives genome reduction in endosymbionts; however, this remains an hypothesis requiring additional data. Unexpected evidence of selection acting on endosymbiont GC content hints that even weak selection may be effective in some long-term mutualists. Moving forward, intraspecific analysis offers a promising approach to distinguish underlying mechanisms, by testing the null hypothesis of neutrality and by quantifying mutational spectra. Such analyses may clarify whether endosymbionts and free-living bacteria occupy distinct evolutionary trajectories or, alternatively, represent varied outcomes of similar underlying forces. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. The (non)relation between empathy and aggression: surprising results from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Johnson, Jarrod A

    2014-05-01

    Assumptions regarding the importance of empathy are pervasive. Given the impact these assumptions have on research, assessment, and treatment, it is imperative to know whether they are valid. Of particular interest is a basic question: Are deficits in empathy associated with aggressive behavior? Previous attempts to review the relation between empathy and aggression yielded inconsistent results and generally included a small number of studies. To clarify these divergent findings, we comprehensively reviewed the relation of empathy to aggression in adults, including community, student, and criminal samples. A mixed effects meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies involving 106 effect sizes revealed that the relation between empathy and aggression was surprisingly weak (r = -.11). This finding was fairly consistent across specific types of aggression, including verbal aggression (r = -.20), physical aggression (r = -.12), and sexual aggression (r = -.09). Several potentially important moderators were examined, although they had little impact on the total effect size. The results of this study are particularly surprising given that empathy is a core component of many treatments for aggressive offenders and that most psychological disorders of aggression include diagnostic criteria specific to deficient empathic responding. We discuss broad conclusions, consider implications for theory, and address current limitations in the field, such as reliance on a small number of self-report measures of empathy. We highlight the need for diversity in measurement and suggest a new operationalization of empathy that may allow it to synchronize with contemporary thinking regarding its role in aggressive behavior.

  11. Is All Human Hearing Cochlear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Faranak Emami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the possibility that the saccule may contribute to human hearing. The forty participants included twenty healthy people and twenty other subjects selected from patients who presented with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo to Audiology Department of Hazrat Rasoul Akram hospital (Tehran, Iran. Assessments comprised of audiological evaluations, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs, recognition of spoken phonemes in white noise (Rsp in wn, and auditory brainstem response to 500 Hz tone burst (ABR500 HZ. Twenty affected ears with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs revealed decreased scores of Rsp in wn and abnormal findings of ABR500 HZ. Both unaffected and normal ears had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs and ABR500 HZ between three groups were significant (P<0.05, ANOVA. The correlation between RSP in wn and p13 latencies was significant. The peak-to-peak amplitudes showed significant correlation to RSP in wn. The correlation between RSP in wn and the latencies of n23 was significant. In high-level of noisy competing situations, healthy human saccular sensation can mediate the detection of low frequencies and possibly help in cochlear hearing for frequency and intensity discrimination. So, all human hearing is not cochlear.

  12. Evaluation of the Hearing Aid Rehabilitation Questionnaire in Dutch: examination of its psychometric properties and potential use as a screening instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelene N. Chenault

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Items pertaining to hearing and hearing aids from the Hearing Aid Rehabilitation Questionnaire were applied to a heterogeneous sample of Dutch patients aged 55 years and more to evaluate their potential use in hearing screening. Subjects aged 55+ were recruited from a large general practitioners practice to participate. Three groups were formed: a group of 63 persons with a hearing aid, a group of 64 without a hearing aid but with sufficient hearing impairment to qualify for hearing aid reimbursement, and a group of 85 non-hearing impaired persons. Factor and reliability analyses revealed a structure with two scales regarding hearing, namely functionality and social hearing and three scales pertaining to hearing aids, namely hearing aid stigma, pressure to be assessed and not wanting a hearing aid. Scale validity was assessed with pure tone averages over the frequencies 1, 2 and 4 kHz and with a visual analogue scale for subjective hearing. The derived scales can be applied reliably in audiological assessment in an adult hearing screen setting to detect experienced hearing problems as well as attitudes related to hearing and hearing aids.

  13. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  14. Access to care for hearing loss: policies and stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhagen, Margaret I

    2014-03-01

    Although hearing loss is common in old age and associated with a variety of negative outcomes, hearing aids and related services are not covered by Medicare or many other forms of insurance. Out-of-pocket costs are expensive and thus serve as a barrier for many individuals. Efforts at the national level to broaden coverage can confront surprising or unexpected opposition from a variety of groups. This article discusses how an experience as an Atlantic Philanthropies Health and Aging Policy Fellow helped inform how gaining an understanding of the positions held by such stakeholder groups is critical to developing strategies to promote a more effective payment structure that would improve access to hearing care. The implications for nurses desiring to influence policy are also highlighted.

  15. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhradin Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  16. Surprise as an ideal case for the interplay of cognition and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meadhbh I; Keane, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    The target article is a timely exposition on the impact of how emotion and cognition interact, a specifically important issue in surprise research. Psychologists debate whether disconfirmed expectations or sense-making processes determine surprise levels experienced for an event. We posit that, in surprise, cognition and emotion are intertwined, making it an interesting test case for the proposals in this article.

  17. Beyond surprise : A longitudinal study on the experience of visual-tactual incongruities in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.

    2012-01-01

    When people encounter products with visual-tactual incongruities, they are likely to be surprised because the product feels different than expected. In this paper, we investigate (1) the relationship between surprise and the overall liking of the products, (2) the emotions associated with surprise,

  18. Hearing in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Martin C; Hennig, R Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Insect hearing has independently evolved multiple times in the context of intraspecific communication and predator detection by transforming proprioceptive organs into ears. Research over the past decade, ranging from the biophysics of sound reception to molecular aspects of auditory transduction to the neuronal mechanisms of auditory signal processing, has greatly advanced our understanding of how insects hear. Apart from evolutionary innovations that seem unique to insect hearing, parallels between insect and vertebrate auditory systems have been uncovered, and the auditory sensory cells of insects and vertebrates turned out to be evolutionarily related. This review summarizes our current understanding of insect hearing. It also discusses recent advances in insect auditory research, which have put forward insect auditory systems for studying biological aspects that extend beyond hearing, such as cilium function, neuronal signal computation, and sensory system evolution.

  19. Hearing Aid Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  20. Individual Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Santurette

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR, held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium.

  1. [Hearing impairment and dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimann, I; Óvari, A; Hermann, A; Witt, G; Pau, H W; Teipel, S

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) burden of disease study identified dementia and hearing problems as leading causes of loss of quality of life in the industrial world. The prevalence of dementia and hearing problems increases in aging societies. Comorbidity of these two diseases causes increasing demands on healthcare systems. The similarity and possible interaction of symptoms renders diagnosis and therapy of dementia and hearing loss a challenge for neurologists, psychiatrists, ear, nose and throat (ENT) and hearing specialists. Knowledge of both diseases enables an early intervention and helps preserve participation in society and thereby reducing the risk of developing dementia. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the diagnosis and therapy of hearing problems and dementia.

  2. Dracunculiasis eradication--finishing the job before surprises arise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Benjamin Jelle

    2012-07-01

    Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-Saharan African countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water. The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a 25-year old campaign to rid the world of Guinea Worm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries. During the 19th and 20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much of Southern Asia and the African continent. The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by ≥99%, from the 3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in 1986 in Africa to only 1,797 cases reported in 2010 reported in only five countries (Sudan, Mali, Ethiopia, Chad and Ghana) and Asia free of the disease. This achievement is unique in its kind--the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible--and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs. Most efforts need to be taken in two countries, South Sudan (comprising 94% or 1,698 out of 1,797 of the cases reported world-wide in 2010) and Mali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outside Mali's borders. All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy. Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-related Hearing Impairment and the Triad of Acquired Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hui eYang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding underlying pathological mechanisms is prerequisite for a sensible design of protective therapies against hearing loss. The triad of age-related, noise-generated, and drug-induced hearing loss ¬¬displays intriguing similarities in some cellular responses of cochlear sensory cells such as a potential involvement of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. On the other hand, detailed studies have revealed that molecular pathways are considerably complex and, importantly, it has become clear that pharmacological protection successful against one form of hearing loss will not necessarily protect against another. This review will summarize pathological and pathophysiological features of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI in human and animal models and address selected aspects of the commonality (or lack thereof of cellular responses in ARHI to drugs and noise.

  4. Age-related hearing impairment and the triad of acquired hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Hui; Schrepfer, Thomas; Schacht, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding underlying pathological mechanisms is prerequisite for a sensible design of protective therapies against hearing loss. The triad of age-related, noise-generated, and drug-induced hearing loss displays intriguing similarities in some cellular responses of cochlear sensory cells such as a potential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. On the other hand, detailed studies have revealed that molecular pathways are considerably complex and, importantly, it has become clear that pharmacological protection successful against one form of hearing loss will not necessarily protect against another. This review will summarize pathological and pathophysiological features of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in human and animal models and address selected aspects of the commonality (or lack thereof) of cellular responses in ARHI to drugs and noise. PMID:26283913

  5. Adjustment Problems of Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the social and academic adjustment problems of some mainstreamed hearing and hearing-impaired students who were randomly selected from two integrated schools in Ibadan metropolis. The sample consisted of 232 junior secondary school students. 125 of them are hearing while 107 are hearing ...

  6. HearCom: hearing in the communication society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, M.S.M.G.; Kollmeier, B.; Dreschler, W.A.; Martin, R.; Wouters, J.; Grover, B.; Mohammadh, Y.; Houtgast, T.

    2011-01-01

    A group of 28 research partners joined the EU-funded project HearCom with the overall aim to improve hearing communication. One of the main achievements has been the provision of advanced hearing screening tests by telephone and Internet. Next to that it was aimed to harmonize hearing diagnostic

  7. HearCom: Hearing in the Communication Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, Marcel S. M. G.; Kollmeier, Birger; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Martin, Rainer; Wouters, Jan; Grover, Brian; Mohammadh, Yehya; Houtgast, Tammo

    2011-01-01

    A group of 28 research partners joined the EU-funded project HearCom with the overall aim to improve hearing communication. One of the main achievements has been the provision of advanced hearing screening tests by telephone and Internet. Next to that it was aimed to harmonize hearing diagnostic

  8. Hearing handicap in adults with unilateral deafness and bilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Hajime; Nishio, Shinya; Takumi, Yutaka; Okamoto, Makito; Usami, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2013-06-01

    To assess the perception of hearing handicap in adult patients with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) compared with those with bilateral SNHL or unilateral congenital SNHL. Retrospective chart review. Multicenter department of otolaryngology referrals. Seventy-one subjects in the unilateral severe-profound (>70 dB) sudden SNHL group (Group 1), 17 subjects in the unilateral prelingual or congenital SNHL group (Group 2), and 121 subjects in the bilateral SNHL group (Group 3). Questionnaire. Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA) and visual analogue scale (VAS) measurements of hearing handicap. Average levels of hearing loss were 92 dB in Group 1, 109 dB in Group 2, and 67 dB in Group 3. The relative percentage scores of HHIA and VAS compared with Group 3 were 72.6% and 81.0% in Group 1 and 25.4% and 50.3% in Group 2, respectively. A mild correlation between the HHIA subscale or VAS scores and degree of hearing loss could be found in Group 3. No significant correlation was found between the HHIA subscale or VAS scores and duration of hearing loss in Group 1 or Group 3. Higher scores were obtained in male subjects than in female subjects. Patients in Group 1 who were troubled by tinnitus scored significantly higher in the HHIA. In multiple logistic regression analysis, presence of tinnitus, older age, higher average hearing loss level, and group (bilateral SNHL>unilateral sudden SNHL>unilateral precongenital SNHL) revealed a significant positive association with high score (>42) of HHIA (odds ratio, 3.171, 1.021, 1.031, and 6.690, respectively). The results of HHIA and VAS suggest that not only patients with bilateral SNHL but also those with unilateral sudden SNHL, particularly those who have tinnitus, experience a hearing handicap.

  9. Auditory event related potentials in children with peripheral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoît; Lassonde, Maryse

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the neurophysiological responses in children with hearing loss. Cortical auditory evoked potentials and Mismatch Negativity (MMN) Responses were recorded in 40 children, 9-12 years old: 12 with hearing loss, 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and 16 with normal hearing. Passive oddball paradigms were used with nonverbal and verbal stimuli. For P1, no significant group differences were observed. A significant reduction in N2 amplitude with all stimuli was observed in the group of children with hearing loss compared to the results of those with normal hearing. N2 results did not reveal any significant differences between the group of children with hearing loss and the children with CAPD. MMN amplitude indicated a trend toward larger MMN amplitude among the group of children with hearing loss compared to the value of those of children with CAPD. Abnormal N2 characteristics could be a manifestation of a specific signature in children with hearing loss. This cortical response could be considered as a neurophysiologic marker of central auditory processing deficits in these children. Results suggest maturational delays and/or deficits in central auditory processing in children with hearing loss. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  11. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  12. Binaural Hearing and Beamforming in Digital Hearing Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Nazeri

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Binaural hearing is an important phenomenon in hearing for human being. Nowadays, the role of binaural hearing in the process of amplification has been focused. Since hearing aids act separately in the process of amplification and hearing, the attentions has been devoted to designing a system for binaural amplification by means of Beam forming which will be explained in more details in the current article.

  13. 77 FR 23319 - Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Public Hearing AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold a public hearing on May 10, 2012, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. At this public hearing, the Commission will hear testimony on the projects listed in the Supplementary...

  14. 78 FR 64260 - Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... COMMISSION Public Hearing AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold a public hearing on November 13, 2013, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. At this public hearing, the Commission will hear testimony on the projects listed in the...

  15. 78 FR 5556 - Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Public Hearing AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold a public hearing on February 14, 2013, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. At this public hearing, the Commission will hear testimony on the projects listed in the...

  16. 78 FR 24785 - Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... COMMISSION Public Hearing AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold a public hearing on May 23, 2013, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. At this public hearing, the Commission will hear testimony on the projects listed in the Supplementary...

  17. Modality Use in Joint Attention between Hearing Parents and Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eDepowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined differences in modality use during episodes of joint attention between hearing parent-hearing child dyads and hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Hearing children were age-matched to deaf children. Dyads were video recorded in a free play session with analyses focused on uni- and multimodality use during joint attention episodes. Results revealed that adults in hearing parent-deaf child dyads spent a significantly greater proportion of time interacting with their children using multiple communicative modalities than adults in hearing parent-hearing child dyads, who tended to use the auditory modality (e.g., oral language most often. While these findings demonstrate that hearing parents accommodate their children's hearing status, we observed greater overall time spent in joint attention in hearing parent-hearing child dyads than hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Our results point to important avenues for future research on how parents can better accommodate their child’s hearing status through the use of multimodal communication strategies.

  18. Binaural integration: a challenge to overcome for children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karen A; Cushing, Sharon L; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Polonenko, Melissa J; Papsin, Blake C

    2017-12-01

    Access to bilateral hearing can be provided to children with hearing loss by fitting appropriate hearing devices to each affected ear. It is not clear, however, that bilateral input is properly integrated through hearing devices to promote binaural hearing. In the present review, we examine evidence indicating that abnormal binaural hearing continues to be a challenge for children with hearing loss despite early access to bilateral input. Behavioral responses and electrophysiological data in children, combined with data from developing animal models, reveal that deafness in early life disrupts binaural hearing and that present hearing devices are unable to reverse these changes and/or promote expected development. Possible limitations of hearing devices include mismatches in binaural place, level, and timing of stimulation. Such mismatches could be common in children with hearing loss. One potential solution is to modify present device fitting beyond providing audibility to each ear by implementing binaural fitting targets. Efforts to better integrate bilateral input could improve spatial hearing in children with hearing loss.

  19. The hearing aid effect in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauterkus, Erik P; Palmer, Catherine V

    2014-10-01

    analysis revealed that only two significant effects were present. People wearing a completely-in-the-canal aid (nothing visible in the ear) were rated significantly older than people wearing an earbud, and people wearing the standard-size BTE with earmold were rated significantly more trustworthy than people who wore the Bluetooth device. It was hypothesized that the hearing aid effect would be diminished in 2013 compared with data reported in the past. This proved to be the case, as no hearing aid condition was rated as more negative than any of the non-hearing aid device conditions. In fact, models wearing the standard-size BTE with earmold were rated as more trustworthy than models wearing the Bluetooth device. The standard-sized BTE with earmold condition is the configuration that can be directly compared with previous research because similar devices were used in those studies. These results indicate that the hearing aid effect has diminished, if not completely disappeared, in the 21st century. American Academy of Audiology.

  20. Surprising cause of dysphagia in an elderly male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Bennett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 73 year old man presented to his primary care physician with sudden onset dysphagia to solids and liquids. He urgently completed a barium swallow study showing what was believed to be a coin. Endoscopic removal subsequently revealed it was a lithium battery. Consequences and management of lithium battery ingestion are discussed.

  1. Microsoft's Book-Search Project Has a Surprise Ending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a Microsoft venture falling under the weight of a competitor. That's the post-mortem offered by many academic librarians as they ponder the software giant's recent and sudden announcement that it is shutting down its book-digitization project. The librarians' conclusion: Google did it. Microsoft quietly revealed in May that…

  2. Apps for hearing healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The hearing healthcare scenario is rapidly evolving due to the pervasive use of m-Health solutions, in particular mobile apps. This brings along significant advantages and opportunities (e.g., accessibility, affordability, personalized healthcare, patient empowerment) as well as significant potential risks and threats (e.g., safety, misuse, quality issues, privacy). Our research aims at the identification and assessment of apps in the hearing healthcare domain. In this article we present an overview of the current availability, variety, and penetration of hearing-related apps.

  3. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  4. Introduction to audiology: Some basics about hearing loss, hearing technologies and barriers to hearing aid use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtou, Eleni; Meis, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides background information for researchers who wish to become familiar with some basic medical and audiological aspects of hearing loss and the technology of hearing aids. It introduces (1) the disciplines involved in research on hearing loss, (2) the medical categories of hearing...

  5. Hearing Aids: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine) Article: Hearing Loss in Adults. Article: Bilateral versus unilateral hearing aids for bilateral hearing impairment in... Article: Preliminary audiologic and peri-operative outcomes ...

  6. A surprising diagnosis: metastatic prostate cancer causing cervical lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Meher; Sharma, Anita; Patten, Darren K

    2014-02-11

    Cervical lymphadenopathy as an initial presentation for metastatic prostate cancer has been rarely described. Less than 30 cases have been published in medical literature whereby a lymph node biopsy revealed immunoreactivity for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) diagnosing metastatic prostate cancer. We present a unique scenario whereby an asymptomatic patient with previous high-risk gastric cancer presented to clinic with cervical lymphadenopathy. A hunt for a recurrence ensued to no avail and imaging of the head and neck showed no hint of a primary malignancy in those regions. A lymph node biopsy was undertaken which showed elements suggesting metastatic prostate cancer. The patient developed symptoms of urinary outflow obstruction shortly afterwards. Blood tests revealed a very high PSA and a bone scan showed widespread bony metastasis. He was started on androgen deprivation therapy with an improvement of his PSA and symptoms. A regular clinic follow-up has shown stable disease.

  7. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  8. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  9. Perceptual consequences of "hidden" hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Christopher J; Barker, Daphne; Prendergast, Garreth

    2014-09-09

    Dramatic results from recent animal experiments show that noise exposure can cause a selective loss of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers without affecting absolute sensitivity permanently. This cochlear neuropathy has been described as hidden hearing loss, as it is not thought to be detectable using standard measures of audiometric threshold. It is possible that hidden hearing loss is a common condition in humans and may underlie some of the perceptual deficits experienced by people with clinically normal hearing. There is some evidence that a history of noise exposure is associated with difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing, even in the absence of any audiometric loss. There is also evidence that the tinnitus experienced by listeners with clinically normal hearing is associated with cochlear neuropathy, as measured using Wave I of the auditory brainstem response. To date, however, there has been no direct link made between noise exposure, cochlear neuropathy, and perceptual difficulties. Animal experiments also reveal that the aging process itself, in the absence of significant noise exposure, is associated with loss of auditory nerve fibers. Evidence from human temporal bone studies and auditory brainstem response measures suggests that this form of hidden loss is common in humans and may have perceptual consequences, in particular, regarding the coding of the temporal aspects of sounds. Hidden hearing loss is potentially a major health issue, and investigations are ongoing to identify the causes and consequences of this troubling condition. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Hearing Protection and Hearing Symptoms in Danish Symphony Orchestras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Heli; Poulsen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    A study about hearing protectors, problems involving hearing protector usage, hearing problems and working surroundings of classical musicians was made in three Danish symphony orchestras. The questionnaire used in the study was based on a previous study, a study made in Sweden to rock musicians......, and a questionnaire used in researching occlusion effect with hearing aid users. Also a section from an EQ-5D- questionnaire (a standardised instrument for use as a measure of health outcome) was included to the study. Orchestras were visited by the authors and informed about hearing protection, hearing loss, and ear...... symptoms. 146 musicians filled out the questionnaire. Results show that musicians wear hearing protectors to some extent but their usage can be irregular and hearing protector is sometimes used in one ear only. Musicians worry about their hearing. The more ear symptoms musicians have, the more they use...

  11. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain after birth, such as meningitis or measles Problems with the structure of the inner ear Tumors Central hearing loss results from damage to the auditory nerve itself, or the brain pathways that lead ...

  12. Hearing and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de España, R; Biurrun, O; Lorente, J; Traserra, J

    1995-01-01

    The results of the audiological evaluation of 47 diabetics are presented. The patients were divided into two groups: A (17/47), type I early diabetics, and B (30/47), type I chronic diabetics. The evaluation included puretone audiometry, high-frequency audiometry and auditory brainstem response. There was a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. In group 1 the audiological assessment was normal in all cases. In group 2 hearing loss was found in 30% of cases (9/30). Hearing loss was significantly correlated with age (p = 0.0019) and duration of diabetes (p = 0.0143), but not with diabetic microangiopathy (p = 0.1506). The authors conclude that hearing loss is not a usual feature in diabetic patients. When present, hearing loss should be attributed to the effect of diabetes on the age-related physiological impairment of the inner ear. The pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure.

  13. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  14. Help with Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... observing their behavior in response to sounds. Today’s technology, however, allows even a sleeping baby to be evaluated. Many hospitals now screen newborns’ hearing before they even leave ...

  15. Human Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, Stacy Lee

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss affects as much as 5% of the global human population and its negative consequences, often exacerbated by cultural bias or distributive injustice, include delayed cognitive and language development, learning deficits and poor academic performance, chronic unemployment and dependency, poverty, elevated risk of harm and poor health. This paper is based on a review of the academic literature as well as other credible published resources to identify the principal causes of hearing los...

  16. The surprising evolutionary history of South American deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; González, Susana; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2008-10-01

    To clarify the systematic relationships and evolutionary history of South American deer, we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis using representative species of all of the genera of Neotropical deer. Our results revealed high levels of molecular and cytogenetic divergence between groups of morphologically similar species of brockets (Mazama), and suggest a polyphyletic origin. At least eight ancestral forms of deer invaded South America during the late Pliocene (2.5-3 MYA), and members of the red brockets had an independent early explosive diversification soon after their ancestor arrived there, giving rise to a number of morphologically cryptic species.

  17. Gastric Schwannoma: A Postoperative Surprise A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmounaim Ait Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastric Schwannoma is a rare, slow-growing, and clinically non-specific submucosal tumor, originating from Schwann cells with excellent prognosis after surgical resection.We report a clinical case of a patient presented with gastric schwannoma revealed by non-specific gastric signs and of which the definitive diagnosis is done through immunohistochemistry of the resected specimen, showing strong S100 protein positivity. The evolution is favorable after a partial gastrectomy with a decline of two years. Through this case, we are trying to trace the rarity, strong similarities with gastric stromal tumors and especially, the weak index of suspicion for this diagnosis.

  18. Benefits of active middle ear implants over hearing aids in patients with sloping high tone hearing loss: comparison with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J M; Jeon, J H; Moon, I S; Choi, J Y

    2017-06-01

    In this retrospective chart review we compared the subjective and objective benefits of active middle ear implants (AMEIs) with conventional hearing aids (HAs) in patients with sloping high tone hearing loss. Thirty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss were treated with AMEIs. Of these, six had sloping high tone hearing loss and had worn an HA for more than 6 months. Objective assessments, a pure-tone audiogram, as well as a word recognition test, and the Korean version of the Hearing in Noise Test (K-HINT), and a subjective assessment, the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) questionnaire, were performed. Tests were conducted under three circumstances: 1) the unaided state before surgery; 2) the HA-aided state before surgery; and 3) the AMEI-aided state 3 months after surgery. The average high-frequency hearing gain (≥ 2 kHz) was significantly better with AMEIs than with HAs. Although the result had no statistical significance, AMEIs showed a superior word recognition score (WRS) compared to HAs. However, the most comfortable hearing level at which the WRS was tested was significantly decreased with an AMEI compared to an HA. In the K-HINT, patients with an AMEI showed greater recognition than those fitted with an HA under both quiet and noisy conditions. The APAHB scores revealed that patients were more satisfied with an AMEI rather than an HA on all subscales. The use of vibroplasty in patients with sloping high tone loss resulted in positive hearing outcomes when compared to conventional HAs. Based on the data from this study, AMEIs provided better objective and subjective results and could, therefore, be a better alternative for the treatment of sloping hearing loss. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  19. Dietary habits and hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhall, Ulf; Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Objective: Study groups from three age cohorts of 70-75 year-olds were investigated to search for possible correlations between dietary habits and auditory function. A cross-sectional, epidemiological study. A total number of 524 people (275 women, 249 men) were recruited from three age cohorts. The study sample was representative of the general population. All participants answered a diet history and were tested with pure-tone audiometry. Eleven categories of food consumption were related to pure-tone averages of low-mid frequency hearing, and high frequency hearing. Two consistent correlations between diet and hearing were observed. One was a correlation between good hearing and a high consumption of fish in the male group. The other was a correlation between poor high frequency hearing and a high consumption of food rich in low molecular carbohydrates in both genders; a larger effect size was seen in females. The study indicates that diet is important for aural health in aging. According to this study fish is beneficial to hearing, whereas consumption of "junk food", rich in low molecular carbohydrates, is detrimental. Other correlations, e.g. between high consumption of antioxidants, were not demonstrated here, but cannot be excluded.

  20. Is there any association between consanguinity and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Eihakeem, Amr A M; Abdulhadi, Khaled

    2005-03-01

    Hearing loss (HL) and its complications appear to be increasingly common in developing countries. Previous studies have supported the association between hearing loss and consanguinity. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of hearing loss and its association with consanguinity among Qatari population. In addition, correlation between hearing loss and Rhesus (Rh) blood groups has been investigated. This is a cross-sectional study. The study conducted at the Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation. Total sample of 2800 infants screened and 2277 subjects were eligible to be included in the study. The neonatal screening for hearing loss was conducted from January 2003 to November 2003 among all the 2800 infants born during that period. Some of them were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The hearing loss was screened using otoacoustic emission (Garson Stadler Incorporation, GSI-70), auditory brain stem responses (ABR) and tympanogram. Out of 2277 infant screened, the prevalence of hearing loss was (119/2277) 5.2%. The prevalence of HL was more common in boys (2.7%) than in girls (2.5%). We did not find any statistical significance differences between genders with the respect of HL. Parental consanguinity was more common among HL cases compared with non-HL 60.5% versus 25.3% (p prevalence of HL 8.4% versus 4.4% (p = 0.043). The present study revealed that strong correlation between hearing loss, consanguineous (r = 0.217, p consanguineous (r = 0.206, p prevalence and risk factors of HL in the infant population of Qatar. The data revealed that parental consanguinity was more common among hearing loss cases. There is a strong correlation between hearing loss and baby's age.

  1. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  2. Auditory function and hearing loss in children and adults with Williams syndrome: cochlear impairment in individuals with otherwise normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Jeffrey A; Sitcovsky, Jessica L; Mervis, Carolyn B; Kistler, Doris J; Wightman, Frederic L

    2010-05-15

    Hearing loss is common in school-age individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and extensive in adults. Prior studies with relatively small sample sizes suggest that hearing loss in WS has an early onset and may be progressive, yet the auditory phenotype and the scope of the hearing loss have not been adequately characterized. We used standard audiometric tools: Otoscopy, tympanometry, air-conduction (bone conduction when available) behavioral testing, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to measure hearing sensitivity and outer hair cell function. We tested 81 individuals with WS aged 5.33-59.50 years. Sixty-three percent of the school-age and 92% of the adult participants had mild to moderately-severe hearing loss. The hearing loss in at least 50% was sensorineural. DPOAE testing corroborated behavioral results. Strikingly, 12 of 14 participants with hearing within normal limits bilaterally had 4,000-Hz DPOAE input/output (DPOAE IO) functions indicative of outer hair cell damage and impaired cochlear compression. Our results indicate that hearing loss is very common in WS. Furthermore, individuals with WS who have "normal" hearing as defined by behavioral thresholds may actually have sub-clinical impairments or undetected cochlear pathology. Our findings suggest outer hair cell dysfunction in otherwise normal hearing individuals. The DPOAE IO in this same group revealed growth functions typically seen in groups with noise-induced damage. Given this pattern of findings, individuals with WS may be at increased risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Recommendations regarding audiological testing for individuals with WS and accommodations for these individuals in both academic and nonacademic settings are provided.

  3. High Prevalence of Hearing Loss at the Special Olympics: Is This Representative of People with Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, C.; Fessler, S.; Hafner, N.; Lange, B. P.; Euler, H. A.; Neumann, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Healthy Hearing (HH) programme at the Special Olympics (SO) revealed hearing disorders in between 16 and 40% of athletes. However, it is not clear whether these prevalence represents the entire population with intellectual disability. Therefore, this study compares the hearing status of SO athletes with an intellectual disability…

  4. Cartilage Conduction Hearing Aids for Severe Conduction Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tadashi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Saito, Osamu; Shimokura, Ryota; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    To assess the benefits of a new type of hearing aid using cartilage conduction (CC) in patients with severe conduction hearing loss and evaluate its potential for practical use. Consecutive, prospective case series. Forty-one subjects (21 with bilateral aural atresia; 15 with unilateral aural atresia; and 5 others) participated in this study. Fitting and gain adjustments of the CC hearing aids were performed to the ear(s) with conduction hearing loss. The function gains were measured. Evaluation of the measurements of speech performance-intensity functions, speech recognition scores, tolerance of environmental noise, and subject questionnaires were also performed, and judged according to the "Guidelines for the evaluation of hearing aid fitting" established by the Japan Audiological Society. The thresholds were significantly improved by CC hearing aids. The functional gains for CC hearing aids were nearly equivalent to that for their previously used hearing aids. The style of the transducer fixation and the type of aural atresia had no significant influence on the functional gains. Most of the assessment results were judged to be sufficient. Before the trial, bone conduction hearing aids had been used most frequently by bilateral aural atresia subjects. However, after the trial, most subjects continued to use CC hearing aids instead of reverting back to their original device. Overall, 39 subjects continued use of the CC hearing aids. No severe adverse effects were noted in the trial. Cartilage conduction hearing aids could be an additional and beneficial option for severe conduction hearing loss from aural atresia.

  5. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  6. Hearing Loss in Children: Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...

  7. Hearing Loss in Children: Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...

  8. Electric Nutrition: The Surprising Health and Healing Benefits of Biological Grounding (Earthing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Stephen T; Oschman, James L; Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Drew

    2017-09-01

    Context • Modern biomedicine has discovered that many of the most debilitating diseases, as well as the aging process itself, are caused by or associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Emerging research has revealed that direct physical contact with the surface of the planet generates a kind of electric nutrition, with surprisingly potent and rapid anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Objectives • The objective of this study was to explain the potential of grounding to clinicians as a simple strategy for prevention, therapy, and improving patient outcomes. The research summarized here has pursued the goal of determining the physiological and clinical significance of biological grounding. Design • The research team has summarized more than 12 peer-reviewed reports. Where appropriate, blinded studies examined in this paper were conducted using a variety of statistical procedures. Interventions • In all cases, the intervention examined conductive contact between the surface of Earth and the study's participants, using conductive bed sheets, floor or desk pads, and electrode patches, such as those used in electrocardiography. Results • All studies discussed revealed significant physiological or clinical outcomes as a result of grounding. Conclusion • This body of research has demonstrated the potential of grounding to be a simple, natural, and accessible clinical strategy against the global epidemic of noncommunicable, degenerative, inflammatory-related diseases.

  9. Satisfaction with Hearing Aids among Aged Patients with Different Degrees of Hearing Loss and Length of Daily Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Rezvan; Khiavi, Farzad Faraji; Sameni, Seyyed Jalal; Bayat, Arash

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of subjective benefits and positive effects of hearing aids in daily is important for measuring the treatment outcome. The aim of this project was to investigate the degree of satisfaction of aged users with their hearing aids using the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) scale, which emphasizes non-auditory factors contributing to satisfaction as well as benefit. The Persian version of SADL scale was completed by 40 patients who received monaural hearing aid fitting at south of the Iran from December 2013 and March 2014. SADL subscales of the SADL were evaluated according to the type and degree of hearing loss, the pure tone audiogram pattern and shape and type of the hearing aid. The results associated with the SADL subscales revealed a greater satisfaction associated with the Positive Effect and Service and Costs subscales. Subjects with different degree of hearing loss were very satisfied in terms of positive effect subscale. Participants reported a considerable level of satisfaction with their hearing aids. Appropriate guidance for using hearing aids and spending more time for counseling can improve the satisfaction level of this age group.

  10. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  11. Virome Assembly and Annotation: A Surprise in the Namib Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Uljana; van Heusden, Peter; Kirby, Bronwyn M; Olonade, Israel; van Zyl, Leonardo J; Trindade, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of environmental virome samples is challenging. Methodological biases and differences in species abundance result in fragmentary read coverage; sequence reconstruction is further complicated by the mosaic nature of viral genomes. In this paper, we focus on biocomputational aspects of virome analysis, emphasizing latent pitfalls in sequence annotation. Using simulated viromes that mimic environmental data challenges we assessed the performance of five assemblers (CLC-Workbench, IDBA-UD, SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). Individual analyses of relevant scaffold length fractions revealed shortcomings of some programs in reconstruction of viral genomes with excessive read coverage (IDBA-UD, RayMeta), and in accurate assembly of scaffolds ≥50 kb (SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). The CLC-Workbench assembler performed best in terms of genome recovery (including highly covered genomes) and correct reconstruction of large scaffolds; and was used to assemble a virome from a copper rich site in the Namib Desert. We found that scaffold network analysis and cluster-specific read reassembly improved reconstruction of sequences with excessive read coverage, and that strict data filtering for non-viral sequences prior to downstream analyses was essential. In this study we describe novel viral genomes identified in the Namib Desert copper site virome. Taxonomic affiliations of diverse proteins in the dataset and phylogenetic analyses of circovirus-like proteins indicated links to the marine habitat. Considering additional evidence from this dataset we hypothesize that viruses may have been carried from the Atlantic Ocean into the Namib Desert by fog and wind, highlighting the impact of the extended environment on an investigated niche in metagenome studies.

  12. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-02-01

    In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size.

  13. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    OpenAIRE

    Iwańska Dagmara; Madej Anna; Urbanik Czesław

    2013-01-01

    Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  14. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwańska Dagmara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  15. Hearing Disability Assessment - Report of the Expert Hearing Group

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    1998-01-01

    In November 1997, the Department of Health and Children established an expert group to examine and make recommendations on an appropriate system and criteria for the assessment of hearing disability arising from hearing loss, with particular reference to noise induced hearing loss. The group was to prepare a report for the Minister for Health and Children. Download the Report here

  16. Hearing speech in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth-Reino Ekström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA. The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01. Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01 and SPN (P<.05. Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01, but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01. It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  17. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Communication Disorders Click to enlarge image Newborn Hearing Infographic Illustration: NIH, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders In 1993, children born in the U.S. were screened for hearing ...

  18. Noise sensitivity and hearing disability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marja Heinonen-Guzejev; Tapani Jauhiainen; Heikki Vuorinen; Anne Viljanen; Taina Rantanen; Markku Koskenvuo; Kauko Heikkilä; Helena Mussalo-Rauhamaa; Jaakko Kaprio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of noise sensitivity with self-reported hearing disability and hearing levels, with consideration of the role of self-reported history of noise...

  19. Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening Page Content Article Body Before you ... they go home from the hospital. Why do newborns need hearing screening? Babies learn from the time ...

  20. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... noise-induced hearing loss. Many construction workers, farmers, musicians, airport workers, yard and tree care workers, and ... Loss Do You Need a Hearing Test? News Brain training can improve our understanding of speech in ...

  1. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a microwave or conventional oven, or using a hair dryer on them. Clean hearing aids as instructed. Earwax and ear drainage can damage your aids. Avoid using hairspray and other hair care products while wearing your hearing aids. Turn ...

  2. Correlation between hearing loss and the results of the following questionnaires: Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Adults - Screening Version HHIA-S and Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - Screening Version - HHIE-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegotto, Isabela Hoffmeister

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The self-assessment questionnaires are useful to measure the emotional and social/transient consequences resulting from hearing loss, and they can be used in a wide range of situations in the clinical routine, such as auditory screening. Objective: Check the sensitivity and specificities of HHIA-S and HHIE-S questionnaires to identify a hearing loss and their usages in auditory screenings, as well as analyze the ability of these questionnaires to detect different degrees of hearing impairments in the studied people. Method: Retrospective study with 51 individuals aged between 18 and 88, who filled out the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults Screening Version - HHIA-S and Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening Version - HHIE-S questionnaires at the waiting room of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS's otorhinolaryngology infirmary. Results: The instruments showed a low sensitivity (47%, not identifying individuals with a hearing loss; however, they showed a high specificity (75%, accurately identifying individuals with no hearing disorder. Moreover, no significant association between the degree of hearing loss and the constraint degree for participation was found. Conclusion: the aforementioned questionnaires revealed a low sensitivity and a high specificity, proving to be ineffective for auditory screenings in a group with previous hearing complaints in addition to being unable to detect different types and degrees of hearing impairment.

  3. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; van Oostendorp, H.; ter Vrugte, Judith; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Van der Cruysse, S.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new

  4. Finding the SurPriSe: A Case Study of a Faculty Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Roberta M.

    2014-01-01

    This article details a faculty learning community (FLC) that started in 2009 on the campus of a Midwestern University and has evolved into an interdisciplinary research, teaching and social community of practice and learning called SurPriSe. SurPriSe is an acronym that reflects the interest area of the FLC; Sur for surveillance, Pri for privacy,…

  5. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  6. 78 FR 64026 - Investigative Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... SAFETY BOARD Investigative Hearing On Wednesday, November 6, 2013, and Thursday, November 7, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene an investigative hearing to gather additional... May 2013. The NTSB Chairman Deborah A.P. Hersman will preside over the Investigative Hearing. On...

  7. 78 FR 39017 - Investigative Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Investigative Hearing On November 30, 2012, at 6:59 a.m. eastern standard time, southbound... responders were also tested for vinyl chloride exposure. The investigative hearing will discuss Conrail... state and Federal agencies in establishing a unified command. The goals of this hearing are to gather...

  8. 78 FR 11237 - Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Hearing On Tuesday, February 26, 2013 the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene an Investigative Hearing to gather additional factual information for the ongoing...) intermodal train No. AAMMLX-22 on June 24, 2012 near Goodwell, Oklahoma. The hearing will begin at 9:00 a.m...

  9. 78 FR 21632 - Investigative Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... SAFETY BOARD Investigative Hearing On January 7, 2013, about 1021 eastern standard time, smoke was... investigative hearing is being held to discuss the Boeing 787 battery and battery charger system. Areas that... hearing will be to gather additional information on the selection of the lithium ion (Li- ion) battery...

  10. How to quantify binaural hearing in patients with unilateral hearing using hearing implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snik, Ad; Agterberg, Martijn; Bosman, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Application of bilateral hearing devices in bilateral hearing loss and unilateral application in unilateral hearing loss (second ear with normal hearing) does not a priori lead to binaural hearing. An overview is presented on several measures of binaural benefits that have been used in patients with unilateral or bilateral deafness using one or two cochlear implants, respectively, and in patients with unilateral or bilateral conductive/mixed hearing loss using one or two percutaneous bone conduction implants (BCDs), respectively. Overall, according to this overview, the most significant and sensitive measure is the benefit in directional hearing. Measures using speech (viz. binaural summation, binaural squelch or use of the head shadow effect) showed minor benefits, except for patients with bilateral conductive/mixed hearing loss using two BCDs. Although less feasible in daily practise, the binaural masking level difference test seems to be a promising option in the assessment of binaural function. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Psychophysics in insect hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyttenbach, Robert A; Farris, Hamilton E

    2004-04-15

    Psychophysics has much to offer the study of insect hearing. Not only is there a rich set of experimental methods to apply, there is a large body of experimental work on vertebrate hearing that can suggest topics for investigation and provide material for cross-species comparisons. We present an overview of the methods of psychophysics, followed by specific examples of their use in insects. Topics covered include intensity discrimination, frequency analysis and discrimination, temporal integration and acuity, and localization. We conclude by pointing out additional areas of research suggested by the reviewed work and areas in which a psychophysical approach would be useful. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  13. The Emotional Well-Being of Older Siblings of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Older Siblings of Children with Typical Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, Renuka Sundaram

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the emotional well-being of older siblings of children who are deaf or hard of hearing and older siblings of children with typical hearing (control group). We interviewed 70 families and had both the parent and the older sibling complete questionnaires on sibling perceptions and relationships. Findings revealed no significant…

  14. The Personal Hearing System—A Software Hearing Aid for a Personal Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giso Grimm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept and architecture of a personal communication system (PCS is introduced that integrates audio communication and hearing support for the elderly and hearing-impaired through a personal hearing system (PHS. The concept envisions a central processor connected to audio headsets via a wireless body area network (WBAN. To demonstrate the concept, a prototype PCS is presented that is implemented on a netbook computer with a dedicated audio interface in combination with a mobile phone. The prototype can be used for field-testing possible applications and to reveal possibilities and limitations of the concept of integrating hearing support in consumer audio communication devices. It is shown that the prototype PCS can integrate hearing aid functionality, telephony, public announcement systems, and home entertainment. An exemplary binaural speech enhancement scheme that represents a large class of possible PHS processing schemes is shown to be compatible with the general concept. However, an analysis of hardware and software architectures shows that the implementation of a PCS on future advanced cell phone-like devices is challenging. Because of limitations in processing power, recoding of prototype implementations into fixed point arithmetic will be required and WBAN performance is still a limiting factor in terms of data rate and delay.

  15. Surprising dissimilarities in a newly formed pair of 'identical twin' stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G; Mathieu, Robert D; Cargile, Phillip A; Aarnio, Alicia N; Stempels, Eric; Geller, Aaron

    2008-06-19

    The mass and chemical composition of a star are the primary determinants of its basic physical properties-radius, temperature and luminosity-and how those properties evolve with time. Accordingly, two stars born at the same time, from the same natal material and with the same mass, are 'identical twins,' and as such might be expected to possess identical physical attributes. We have discovered in the Orion nebula a pair of stellar twins in a newborn binary star system. Each star in the binary has a mass of 0.41 +/- 0.01 solar masses, identical to within 2 per cent. Here we report that these twin stars have surface temperatures differing by approximately 300 K ( approximately 10 per cent) and luminosities differing by approximately 50 per cent, both at high confidence level. Preliminary results indicate that the stars' radii also differ, by 5-10 per cent. These surprising dissimilarities suggest that one of the twins may have been delayed by several hundred thousand years in its formation relative to its sibling. Such a delay could only have been detected in a very young, definitively equal-mass binary system. Our findings reveal cosmic limits on the age synchronization of young binary stars, often used as tests for the age calibrations of star-formation models.

  16. Surprising prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity, community structure and biogeography of Ethiopian soda lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lanzén

    Full Text Available Soda lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems for studying the connection between community structure and abiotic parameters such as pH and salinity. For the first time, we apply high-throughput sequencing to accurately estimate phylogenetic richness and composition in five soda lakes, located in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The lakes were selected for their contrasting pH, salinities and stratification and several depths or spatial positions were covered in each lake. DNA was extracted and analyzed from all lakes at various depths and RNA extracted from two of the lakes, analyzed using both amplicon- and shotgun sequencing. We reveal a surprisingly high biodiversity in all of the studied lakes, similar to that of freshwater lakes. Interestingly, diversity appeared uncorrelated or positively correlated to pH and salinity, with the most "extreme" lakes showing the highest richness. Together, pH, dissolved oxygen, sodium- and potassium concentration explained approximately 30% of the compositional variation between samples. A diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic taxa could be identified, including several putatively involved in carbon-, sulfur- or nitrogen cycling. Key processes like methane oxidation, ammonia oxidation and 'nitrifier denitrification' were also confirmed by mRNA transcript analyses.

  17. Hearing preservation after cochlear reimplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Silke; Rajan, Gunesh P; Stöver, Timo; Lockley, Morag; Kuthubutheen, Jafri; Green, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of electrical and acoustical hearing (EAS) is the aim of successful hearing preservation in patients with low-frequency residual hearing who receive a cochlear implant. With adequate surgical treatment and electrode arrays designed for hearing preservation, partial hearing preservation can nowadays be achieved in the majority of patients. Over recent years, the number of patients with EAS has increased, and device failures within this group are a problem that will need to be addressed. It remains unclear how reliably hearing can be preserved during revision surgery. The outcome of 3 subjects requiring cochlear reimplantation after surgery for hearing preservation is presented and discussed. Our aim was to investigate the influence of electrode reinsertion on hearing preservation. Three patients with measurable residual hearing were implanted with a flexible, free-fitting electrode array in 3 different centers. Two subjects received a 31.5-mm array inserted 24 mm into the cochlea, whereas a third was treated with a 24-mm array, which was inserted 21 mm into the cochlea. In all cases, hearing was preserved at the initial operation. All of these subjects subsequently represented with device problems, and reimplantation was performed. Hearing preservation was measured using preoperative and postoperative pure tone audiograms. In addition, speech perception with the implant was evaluated before and after reimplantation surgery. Reimplantation was feasible in all subjects also in cases where a slightly deeper reinsertion was performed. Speech understanding scores after reimplantation were comparable to those seen after the first intervention. Revision surgery in patients with preserved hearing after cochlear implantation does not necessarily lead to loss of natural residual hearing, and patients can continue to benefit from the combination of electric and acoustic hearing. Even deeper insertion is possible without hearing loss within residual frequencies.

  18. Prevalence of hearing loss in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiramongkolchai, Pawina; Kumar, Manvinder S; Chinnadurai, Sivakumar; Wootten, Christopher T; Goudy, Steven L

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characterize the types of hearing loss in pediatric patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Fifty-eight patients were identified via retrospective chart review performed of patients with 22q11DS between 1996 and 2014. Patient demographics, pertinent family history, associated comorbidities, and degree and type of hearing loss were gathered for each patient. A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's database with a focus on hearing loss and 22q11DS was performed. 22 patients (38%) were found to have hearing impairment: 68% with conductive hearing loss, 14% with sensorineural hearing loss, and 18% with mixed hearing loss. Patients with hearing loss regardless of type had a higher prevalence of developmental delay (55%), cleft palate (23%), articulation disorders (77%), and a greater need for tympanostomy tubes (73%) compared to patients with normal hearing. Temporal bone computed tomography scans of 5 patients revealed a variety of abnormalities in the middle and/or inner ears. Hearing impairment occurs in up to 38% of 22q11DS patients of both conductive and sensorineural types, with the conductive type being the most common. These patients have a greater need for tympanostomy tubes and a higher prevalence of developmental delay and speech articulation disorders. Early hearing screening and treatment is warranted in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of submaximal exercise and noise exposure on hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, H M; Hutchinson, K M

    1991-12-01

    A recent Scandinavian study reported that persons cycling at moderate intensity for 10 min suffered hearing loss when the exercise was accompanied by noise. The noise consisted of a 1/3 octave band-filtered noise with a 2000 Hz center frequency at 104 dB SPL. In the present study, adults cycled at 50 rev.min-1 against a force that elicited an oxygen cost equal to 70% of VO2max--an intensity frequently recommended in exercise prescriptions--with and without noise administered via headphones. Repeated measures ANOVA with three factors revealed that although a temporary hearing loss occurred following exercise-and-noise, a similar and slightly greater hearing loss occurred following noise-only. Hearing sensitivity was not significantly altered by exercise-only (p greater than .05). In general, hearing loss values were greatest between 3000 and 4000 Hz. In conclusion, temporary hearing loss was driven by noise exposure, not exercise. However, persons who choose to exercise with personal headphones or in a noisy environment should be aware of potential premature hearing loss.

  20. Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

  1. Investigation of the heat source(s) of the Surprise Valley Geothermal System, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, N.; Holt, C. D.; Hawkes, S.; McClain, J. S.; Safford, L.; Mink, L. L.; Rose, C.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concerns about environmental impacts and energy security have led to an increased interest in sustainable and renewable energy resources, including geothermal systems. It is essential to know the permeability structure and possible heat source(s) of a geothermal area in order to assess the capacity and extent of the potential resource. We have undertaken geophysical surveys at the Surprise Valley Hot Springs in Cedarville, California to characterize essential parameters related to a fault-controlled geothermal system. At present, the heat source(s) for the system are unknown. Igneous bodies in the area are likely too old to have retained enough heat to supply the system, so it is probable that fracture networks provide heat from some deeper or more distributed heat sources. However, the fracture system and permeability structure remain enigmatic. The goal of our research is to identify the pathways for fluid transport within the Surprise Valley geothermal system using a combination of geophysical methods including active seismic surveys and short- and long-period magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. We have collected 14 spreads, consisting of 24 geophones each, of active-source seismic data. We used a "Betsy Gun" source at 8 to 12 locations along each spread and have collected and analyzed about 2800 shot-receiver pairs. Seismic velocities reveal shallow lake sediments, as well as velocities consistent with porous basalts. The latter, with velocities of greater than 3.0 km/s, lie along strike with known hot springs and faulted and tilted basalt outcrops outside our field area. This suggests that basalts may provide a permeable pathway through impermeable lake deposits. We conducted short-period (10Hz-60kHz) MT measurements at 33 stations. Our short-period MT models indicate shallow resistive blocks (>100Ωm) with a thin cover of more conductive sediments ( 10Ωm) at the surface. Hot springs are located in gaps between resistive blocks and are connected to deeper low

  2. Psychometric evaluation of a Swedish version of the communication strategies scale of the communication profile for the hearing impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L R; Eriksson-Mangold, M; Carlsson, S G

    1992-06-01

    The Communication Strategies scale of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI) was translated into Swedish and used in several studies of people with hearing impairment (Hallberg & Carlsson, in press; Hallberg, Erlandsson, & Carlsson, 1991). In this study the scale was evaluated in terms of descriptive statistics, corrected item-total correlations, principal component analysis, and internal consistency reliability. Agreement with results from American studies is surprisingly good. Normative data based on three samples are presented: a general Swedish hearing-impaired sample with predominantly sensorineural hearing loss (N = 199), a subgroup of 105 younger subjects with noise-induced hearing loss, and a subgroup of 39 older subjects with sensorineural hearing loss due to heredity and/or old age. A significantly more frequent use of maladaptive behaviors (p less than .001) and verbal communication strategies (p less than .01) was reported by older subjects with age-related and/or hereditary hearing loss than by younger subjects with noise-induced hearing loss. The Communication Strategies scale seems to be an adequately reliable and clinically useful instrument for assessing adaptive and maladaptive strategies in hearing-impaired subjects.

  3. Utility of the "Surprise" Question in Predicting Survival among Older Patients with Acute Surgical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Elizabeth J; Gemunden, Sean A; Kristo, Gentian; Changoor, Navin; Scott, John W; Rickerson, Elizabeth; Shimizu, Naomi; Salim, Ali; Cooper, Zara

    2017-04-01

    The surprise question is a validated tool for identifying patients with increased risk of death within one year who could, therefore, benefit from palliative care. However, its utility in surgery is unknown. We sought to determine whether the surprise question predicted 12-month mortality in older emergency general surgery patients. This was a prospective cohort study. Emergency general surgery attendings and surgical residents in or beyond their third year of training at a single tertiary care academic hospital from January to July 2014. Surgeons responded to the surprise question within 72 hours of evaluating patients, ≥65 years, hospitalized with an acute surgical condition. Patient data, including demographic and clinical characteristics, were extracted from the medical record. Mortality within 12 months of initial evaluation was determined by using Social Security death data. Ten attending surgeons and 18 surgical residents provided 163 responses to the surprise question for 119 patients: 60% of responses were "No, I would not be surprised" and 40% were "Yes, I would be surprised." A "No" response was associated with increased odds of death within 12 months in binary logistic regression (OR 4.8 [95% CI 2.1-11.1]). The surprise question is a valuable tool for identifying older patients with higher risk of death, and it may be a useful screening criterion for older emergency general surgery patients who would benefit from palliative care evaluation.

  4. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  5. A letter from the United States: the fox in our backyard--science, serendipity and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard V

    2009-11-01

    The story of how Charles Darwin composed The Origin of Species, published in November of 1859, has been told many times during the bicentennial of Darwin s birth and the sesquicentennial of the publication of the book. It is a history well known to biologists and historians of science. The heated debate that accompanied the demonstration of natural selection as a mechanism of speciation and continues to the present is surprising. Human beings do not welcome surprise: "the emotion aroused by something unexpected." The history of science and human intellect, however, illustrate the creative stimulus of surprise and serendipity in the development of human knowledge and the evolution of culture. The lives of Homo sapiens would not change if our intellect was unable or unwilling to respond to the unexpected and to make connections between surprising and commonplace events. The rich diversity of South American life was surprising to the European travelers of the 18th and 19th centuries: surprising by its beauty and profusion, but also by its similarities to the creatures of Europe and Africa. Darwin s curiosity sought and welcomed surprise).

  6. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a result of the aging process and/or noise exposure, but also may be secondary to head trauma, ... tested for word understanding in quiet and in noise, and for improvement in ... environments. Then eventually work up to wearing your hearing aids all waking ...

  7. Hearing impairment in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teek, R; Kruustük, K; Zordania, R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The present study was initiated to establish the etiological causes of early onset hearing loss (HL) among Estonian children between 2000-2009. Methods: The study group consisted of 233 probands who were first tested with an arrayed primer extension assay, which covers 199 mutat...

  8. Can You Hear Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    design and architectural quality for people with a hearing disability and a newly conducted qualitative evaluation research in Denmark as well as architectural theories on multisensory aspects of architectural experiences, the paper uses examples of existing Nordic building cases to discuss the role...

  9. Can Baby Hear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the same rate as their hearing peers. Interventions are most effective for language development when the child is identified before age six months. Researchers think that the first two years of life are the most important for developing language and ...

  10. NATIONAL HEARING DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 12th of June 2003 Is the French National Hearing Day. The Medical Service invites everyone working at CERN to come and have an ear test at the infirmary. Bld. 57, ground floor, between 9h00 and 16h00 Tel. 73802

  11. National hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 12th of June 2003 Is the French National Hearing Day. The Medical Service invites everyone working at CERN to come and have an ear test at the infirmary. Bld. 57, ground floor, between 9h00 and 16h00 Tel. 73802

  12. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  13. Sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wormald, R

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.

  14. An introduction to hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrlund, Ole

    2003-04-01

    This presentation reviews hearing-aid development from analog to advanced digital technology. A basic hearing aid consists of a microphone, an amplification circuit that provides a gain that varies with frequency to accommodate variations in hearing loss with frequency, and a small earphone. In recent years, hearing aid technology has developed rapidly. Digital hearing aids have become commonplace and their share of the marketplace is increasing rapidly. Therefore, the main focus of this talk is signal-processing schemes in advanced digital hearing aids, including microphones with digitally controlled directional characteristics, wide-dynamic-range compression in multiple channels that allow the compression characteristics to vary with frequency, noise reduction, and feedback cancellation. Each of these signal-processing functions help address the needs of individuals with hearing losses.

  15. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  16. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Miles

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of “surprise.” This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  17. Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Amy; Woltjer, Rogier; Field, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Re-framing is the process by which a person "fills the gap" between what is expected and what has been observed, that is, to try and make sense of what is going on following a surprise. It is an active and adaptive process guided by expectations, which are based on knowledge and experience. In this article, surprise situations in cockpit operations are examined by investigating the re-framing process. The results show difficulties that pilots have in re-framing following surprise, including t...

  18. The hearing gene Prestin unites echolocating bats and whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-01-26

    Echolocation is a sensory mechanism for locating, ranging and identifying objects which involves the emission of calls into the environment and listening to the echoes returning from objects [1]. Only microbats and toothed whales have acquired sophisticated echolocation, indispensable for their orientation and foraging [1]. Although the bat and whale biosonars originated independently and differ substantially in many aspects [2], we here report the surprising finding that the bottlenose dolphin, a toothed whale, is clustered with microbats in the gene tree constructed using protein sequences encoded by the hearing gene Prestin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Defeating Surprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-08

    Failures in Intelligence Estimates: The Case of the Yom Kippur War," World Politics , April 1976, p. 364. 2 Kam, p. 8. 26 Roberta Wohlstetter, Cuba and...34 Failures in National Intelligence Estimates: The case of the Yom Kippur War." World Politics , April 1976. pp. 348-380. 21 a Sun Tzu. The Art of War...Pearl Harbor: Hindsight and Foresight (Santa Monica: Rand, 1965), p. 21. ൣWohlstetter, p. 22. 28 Robert Jervis, "Hypotheses of Misperception," World

  20. Subcutaneous Surprise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Melioidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by an accidental pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. The organism is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The mortality of melioidosis is 20-50% even with treatment.[1] Melioidosis has been called the “Great Imitator” because the disease does not show any specific ...

  1. Hearing and hearing conservation practices among Australia's professional orchestral musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ian; Ackermann, Bronwen J; Driscoll, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Orchestral musicians are an at-risk population for noise-induced hearing loss. Following strategic approaches to mitigate exposure, many must use earplugs to safeguard their hearing, although reported usage rates are poor. Australia has progressive hearing conservation programs within many of its orchestras, yet little is known of earplug usage rates, abilities with earplugs or self-perceived hearing loss in this population. To help direct and inform future approaches to hearing conservation in Australia's orchestras a questionnaire assessing hearing conservation behaviors and the prevalence of self-perceived hearing loss was distributed. A total of 580 musicians across eight professional orchestras were surveyed, with 367 completed surveys (63%) returned. Eighty percent of respondents reported a risk of hearing damage in the orchestra, 64% used earplugs of some type at least some of the time and 83% found this use difficult/impossible. Forty-three percent reported a hearing loss, including 54% in pit orchestras and 46% of those ≤50 years of age. Brass players were least likely to use earplugs, most likely to report usage difficulties and most likely of those ≤50 years of age to report a hearing loss. While earplug usage rates in Australia are encouraging and may be linked to hearing conservation measures in the orchestras, the widespread difficulty reported with the use of these earplugs, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and the continued vulnerability of those most at-risk indicate improvements in both earplug design and further education for musicians are required to progress hearing conservation options for this population.

  2. Hear where we are sound, ecology, and sense of place

    CERN Document Server

    Stocker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, hearing and sound perception have been typically framed in the context of how sound conveys information and how that information influences the listener. Hear Where We Are inverts this premise and examines how humans and other hearing animals use sound to establish acoustical relationships with their surroundings. This simple inversion reveals a panoply of possibilities by which we can re-evaluate how hearing animals use, produce, and perceive sound. Nuance in vocalizations become signals of enticement or boundary setting; silence becomes a field ripe in auditory possibilities; predator/prey relationships are infused with acoustic deception, and sounds that have been considered territorial cues become the fabric of cooperative acoustical communities. This inversion also expands the context of sound perception into a larger perspective that centers on biological adaptation within acoustic habitats. Here, the rapid synchronized flight patterns of flocking birds and the tight maneuvering of s...

  3. Development of a Shortened Version of the Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ-S) for Screening Spatial-Hearing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua; Perreau, Ann; Tyler, Richard S

    2017-09-18

    The Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ) was developed to address how to measure spatial-hearing ability in complex listening situations (Tyler, Perreau, & Ji, 2009). It has been translated and validated into various languages, including Chinese, Dutch, French, and Persian. Although the SHQ contains only 24 items, it could be time-consuming in a busy clinic to administer. The purposes of this study were to develop and validate a shortened version of the SHQ (SHQ-S) and to compare self-perceived spatial-hearing ability across adults with normal hearing (NH), hearing loss (HL), and cochlear implants (CIs). This was a retrospective study. The full version of the SHQ was administered to measure self-perceived spatial-hearing ability for 51 adults with NH at Augustana College, 47 adults with essentially mild to moderately severe sensorineural HL at Illinois State University, and 72 adult CI users at the University of Iowa. Exploratory factor analysis was performed for the full version for the data collected from adults with NH and HL. Appropriate items were chosen to develop the SHQ-S from the results of the exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was then applied to test the factor structure of the SHQ-S for all participants. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the self-perceived spatial-hearing performance scores between the 3 groups. The exploratory factor analysis revealed scores loaded on 2 factors. Six items from the full version were chosen accordingly. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that that a shortened version of 6 items is sufficient to measure spatial-hearing ability. The internal consistency reliability of the SHQ-S was high. The main effect of the one-way analysis of variance was significant for the groups, F(2, 167) = 36.0, p < .0001. The comparisons with the Tukey adjustment indicated that the NH group reported significantly better spatial-hearing ability than either the HL or the CI group (both

  4. Hearing aids for mild to moderate hearing loss in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie A; Kitterick, Pádraig T; Chong, Lee Yee; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Barker, Fiona; Hoare, Derek J

    2017-09-25

    The main clinical intervention for mild to moderate hearing loss is the provision of hearing aids. These are routinely offered and fitted to those who seek help for hearing difficulties. By amplifying and improving access to sounds, and speech sounds in particular, the aim of hearing aid use is to reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss and improve participation in everyday life. To evaluate the effects of hearing aids for mild to moderate hearing loss in adults. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; the Cochrane Register of Studies Online; MEDLINE; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 23 March 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of hearing aids compared to a passive or active control in adults with mild to moderate hearing loss. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary outcomes in this review were hearing-specific health-related quality of life and the adverse effect pain. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, listening ability and the adverse effect noise-induced hearing loss. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included five RCTs involving 825 participants. The studies were carried out in the USA and Europe, and were published between 1987 and 2017. Risk of bias across the studies varied. Most had low risk for selection, reporting and attrition bias, and a high risk for performance and detection bias because blinding was inadequate or absent.All participants had mild to moderate hearing loss. The average age across all five studies was between 69 and 83 years. The duration of the studies ranged between six weeks and six months.There was a large beneficial effect of hearing aids on hearing-specific health-related quality of life associated with participation in daily life as

  5. Surprise! Infants consider possible bases of generalization for a single input example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, LouAnn; Dawson, Colin; Chatila, Razanne; Tenenbaum, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Infants have been shown to generalize from a small number of input examples. However, existing studies allow two possible means of generalization. One is via a process of noting similarities shared by several examples. Alternatively, generalization may reflect an implicit desire to explain the input. The latter view suggests that generalization might occur when even a single input example is surprising, given the learner’s current model of the domain. To test the possibility that infants are able to generalize based on a single example, we familiarized 9-month-olds with a single three-syllable input example that contained either one surprising feature (syllable repetition, Exp. 1) or two features (repetition and a rare syllable, Exp. 2). In both experiments, infants generalized only to new strings that maintained all of the surprising features from familiarization. This research suggests that surprise can promote very rapid generalization. PMID:24703007

  6. Effects of Hearing Impairment and Hearing Aid Amplification on Listening Effort: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Jansma, Elise P.; Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Lorens, Artur; Lunner, Thomas; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2017-01-01

    , according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group guidelines. We tested the statistical evidence across studies with nonparametric tests. The testing revealed only one consistent effect across studies, namely that listening effort was higher for hearing-impaired listeners compared with normal-hearing listeners (Q1) as measured by electroencephalographic measures. For all other studies, the evidence across studies failed to reveal consistent effects on listening effort. Conclusion: In summary, we could only identify scientific evidence from physiological measurement methods, suggesting that hearing impairment increases listening effort during speech perception (Q1). There was no scientific, finding across studies indicating that hearing aid amplification decreases listening effort (Q2). In general, there were large differences in the study population, the control groups and conditions, and the outcome measures applied between the studies included in this review. The results of this review indicate that published listening effort studies lack consistency, lack standardization across studies, and have insufficient statistical power. The findings underline the need for a common conceptual framework for listening effort to address the current shortcomings. PMID:28234670

  7. Pediatric Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilay, Ahmet; Koca, Çiğdem Firat

    2016-06-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is defined as sudden unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is rare among children. The mechanism of the process and prognosis of the disorder remains unclear. The current incidence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss among pediatric population is unknown. The authors carried out a retrospective chart analysis of patients under 15 years of age from 2004 to 2015, who consulted to the Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Inonu University Medical Faculty. Age, sex, number of affected ear and side, audiometric evaluations, medical follow-up, treatment method, duration of treatment recovery, associated complaints; tinnitus and/or vertigo, presence of mumps disease were recorded for each patient. A 4-frequency pure-tone average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) was calculated for each ear. Complete recovery, defined as some hearing level compared with the nonaffected ear, was observed in 3 patients (21.4 %) and there was no partial hearing recovery. The hearing loss of 11 patient remained unchanged after prednisolone treatment. Two of the 11 patients had bilaterally total sensorineural hearing loss and evaluated as appropriate for cochlear implantation. Sex of patient and laterality of hearing loss were not correlated with hearing recovery. Sensorineural hearing loss among pediatrics has been the issue of otolaryngologists. The incidence, etiology, and treatment methods should be more studied.

  8. 7 CFR 273.15 - Fair hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hearing system shall establish a procedure for monitoring local level hearing decisions. The number of... participation of the houshold in the Program. (b) Hearing system. Each State agency shall provide for either a...) Attendance at hearing. The hearing shall be attended by a representative of the State agency and by the...

  9. 34 CFR 668.116 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 668.116 Section 668.116 Education Regulations... Program Review Determinations § 668.116 Hearing. (a) A hearing is a process conducted by the hearing official whereby an orderly presentation of arguments and evidence is made by the parties. (b) The hearing...

  10. 49 CFR 209.115 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 209.115 Section 209.115 Transportation... Hearing. (a) When a hearing is requested and scheduled under § 209.113, a hearing officer designated by the Chief Counsel convenes and presides over the hearing. If requested by respondent and if...

  11. 34 CFR 668.88 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 668.88 Section 668.88 Education Regulations of... Proceedings § 668.88 Hearing. (a) A hearing is an orderly presentation of arguments and evidence conducted by a hearing official. (b) If the hearing official, the designated department official who brought a...

  12. 12 CFR 308.155 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 308.155 Section 308.155 Banks and... Pursuant to Section 32 of the FDIA § 308.155 Hearing. (a) Hearing dates. The Executive Secretary shall order a hearing to be commenced within 30 days after receipt of a request for a hearing filed pursuant...

  13. 19 CFR 111.67 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing. 111.67 Section 111.67 Customs Duties U.S... Revocation § 111.67 Hearing. (a) Hearing officer. The hearing officer must be an administrative law judge... right to examine all exhibits offered at the hearing and will have the right to cross-examine witnesses...

  14. 5 CFR 1215.5 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 1215.5 Section 1215.5... § 1215.5 Hearing. (a) Request for hearing. (1) An employee must file a petition for a hearing in accordance with the instructions outlined in the agency's notice to offset. (2) A hearing may be requested by...

  15. 45 CFR 16.11 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 16.11 Section 16.11 Public Welfare... BOARD § 16.11 Hearing. (a) Electing a hearing. If the appellant believes a hearing is appropriate, the... appeal file). The Board will approve a request (and may schedule a hearing on its own or in response to a...

  16. 29 CFR 1450.22 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 1450.22 Section 1450.22 Labor Regulations Relating... STATES Salary Offset § 1450.22 Hearing. (a) Petition for hearing. (1) A hearing may be requested by..., and is not accepted pursuant to paragraph (a)(4) of this section, the employee's right to hearing will...

  17. The 'surprise' question in advanced cancer patients: A prospective study among general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Matteo; Zocchi, Donato; Bolognesi, Deborah; Abernethy, Amy; Rondelli, Roberto; Savorani, Giandomenico; Salera, Marcello; Dall'Olio, Filippo G; Galli, Giulia; Biasco, Guido

    2014-07-01

    Using the 'surprise' question 'Would you be surprised if this patient died in the next year?' may improve physicians' prognostic accuracy and identify people appropriate for palliative care. Determine the prognostic accuracy of general practitioners asking the 'surprise' question about their patients with advanced (stage IV) cancer. Prospective cohort study. Between December 2011 and February 2012, 42 of 50 randomly selected general practitioners (Bologna area, Italy) prospectively classified 231 patients diagnosed with advanced cancer according to the 'surprise' question and supplied the status of each patient 1 year later. Of the 231 patients, general practitioners responded 'No' to the 'surprise' question for 126 (54.5%) and 'Yes' for 105 (45.5%). After 12 months, 104 (45.0%) patients had died; 87 (83.7%) were in the 'No' group. The sensitivity of the 'surprise' question was 69.3%; the specificity was 83.6%. Positive predictive value was 83.8%; negative predictive value was 69.0%. The answer to the 'surprise' question was significantly correlated with survival at 1 year. Patients in the 'No' group had an odds ratio of 11.55 (95% confidence interval: 5.83-23.28) and a hazard ratio of 6.99 (95% confidence interval: 3.75-13.03) of being dead in the next year compared to patients in the 'Yes' group (p = 0.000 for both odds ratio and hazard ratio). When general practitioners used the 'surprise' question for their patients with advanced cancer, the accuracy of survival prognosis was very high. This has clinical potential as a method to identify patients who might benefit from palliative care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Whole-genome sequencing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Danish routine human stool samples reveals surprising degree of clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K G; Kuhn, K G; Müller, L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of Campylobacter are traditionally considered to be rare, however rather than being the true nature of the disease, this may reflect our present inability to detect them. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic and epidemiological degree of clustering among...

  19. DNA Analysis of Algal Endosymbionts of Ciliates Reveals the State of Algal Integration and the Surprising Specificity of the Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshina, Ryo; Kusuoka, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    Many freshwater protists harbor unicellular green algae within their cells, but little is known of their degree of integration and specificity. Using algae-targeted PCR of whole ciliate cells collected at irregular intervals over 15 months from Lake Biwa, Japan, we explored the SSU-ITS rDNA of the endosymbiotic algae and its changes over time, obtaining sequences of algal rDNA fragments from four ciliate species. A high proportion of clonal algae was evident within the ciliate cells. The differences observed in those sequences from the SSU through to the ITS region were less than 1%. The name 'Chlorb' is proposed for these algae, with the implication that they represent a single 'species.' The sequences of the algal DNA fragments were identical for any given host species throughout the collection period, thus we conclude that these four ciliates stably retain their algae over long term. In contrast, algal DNA fragments obtained from Didinium sp. were variable within each sample, which indicates that this ciliate only temporarily holds its algal cells. The ITS1 sequences of Chlorb populations are close (at intraspecific level) to those of algae isolated from ciliates in Austria, which raises the possibility that Chlorb algae are universally shared as symbionts among various ciliates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematics Motivation, Anxiety, and Performance in Female Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariapooran, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss can be a major detriment to academic achievement among students. The present comparative study examines the differences in mathematics motivation, anxiety, and performance in female students with hearing loss and their hearing peers. A total of 63 female students with hearing loss (deaf and hard-of-hearing) and 63 hearing female…

  1. The effects of hearing protectors on auditory localization: evidence from audio-visual target acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, R S; McKinley, R L

    2000-01-01

    Response times (RT) in an audio-visual target acquisition task were collected from 3 participants while wearing either circumaural earmuffs, foam earplugs, or no hearing protection. Analyses revealed that participants took significantly longer to locate and identify an audio-visual target in both hearing protector conditions than they did in the unoccluded condition, suggesting a disturbance of the cues used by listeners to localize sounds in space. RTs were significantly faster in both hearing protector conditions than in a non-audio control condition, indicating that auditory localization was not completely disrupted. Results are discussed in terms of safety issues involved with wearing hearing protectors in an occupational environment.

  2. Electronic Hearing Protection for Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Robert; Jaatinen, Jussi; Lokki, Tapio

    2017-01-01

    Many people are exposed to large sound pressure levels ei- ther occasionally or regularly, and thus need to protect their hearing in order to prevent hearing loss and other hearing disorders. Earplugs are effective at attenuating sound from the environment, but they do not attenuate bone-conducted sound, but instead amplify it at low frequencies due to the occlusion effect. This is a problem, e.g., for many mu- sicians and especially wind instrument players, since this low-frequency amplifica...

  3. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases ...

  4. [Vibrant Sound Bridge System. A new kind hearing prosthesis for patients with sensorineural hearing loss. 2. Audiological results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Weber, B P; Issing, P R; Gnadeberg, D; Ambjørnsen, K; Mack, K F; Winter, M

    2001-07-01

    hearing aids or better. In particular speech-related frequencies showed improved amplification. The free field speech recognition tests revealed higher scores in quiet and in noise. The patients commended the natural sound quality, the lack of feedback, the absence of occlusion and distortion, the improved speech understanding in noise and the favourable cosmetic appeal. Only two patients failed to achieve better results as compared to their performance with conventional hearing aids. No complications, such as a deterioration of hearing due to inner ear damage or a conductive hearing loss, were observed in the long-term. The Symphonix Vibrant Soundbridge is a new and promising treatment modality for patients suffering from moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Further improvement of the good results can be expected with improved coupling of the transducer to the ossicular chain and further development of signal processing.

  5. Self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation for adult hearing aid users in a developing South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pienaar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impairment has far reaching consequences for affected individuals, in terms of quality of life indicators. In a developing South African context the hearing impaired population is faced with limited aural rehabilitation services. This study evaluated self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation in a group of adults in the public healthcare sector with a standardized outcomes measurement tool (IOI-HA. Sixty-one respondents participated (44% males; 56% females, with a mean age of 69.7 years. Results revealed that the majority of respondents experienced favourable outcomes in all domains of the inventory comprising of: daily use of hearing aids, benefits provided by hearing aids, residual activity limitation, satisfaction with hearing aids, residual participation restriction, impact of hearing difficulties on others, and changes in quality of life. Statistically significant relationships were obtained between the daily use of hearing aids, the degree of hearing loss, and the type of hearing aids fitted, as well as the benefits received from hearing aids in difficult listening environments (p < 0.05. Despite challenges of developing contexts, the mean scores distribution compared positively to similar reports from developed countries. Outcomes of improved quality of life emphasize the importance of providing affordable hearing aids and services to all hearing impaired individuals in South Africa.

  6. Is Hearing Impairment Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Bjoerndal, Kristine; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory disease that affects 1% of the population. The auditory system may be involved during the course of disease; however the association of RA and hearing impairment has not been clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review...... is to evaluate published clinical reports related to hearing impairment in patients with RA. Furthermore, we discuss possible pathologies and associated factors as well as new treatment modalities. METHOD: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases including Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane...... and ComDisDome to cover all relative reports. The following keywords were used: hearing loss, hearing difficulties, hearing disorders, hearing impairment, sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, mixed hearing loss, autoimmune hearing loss, drug ototoxicity, drug-induced hearing loss, hearing...

  7. A Cheaper Alternative to Hearing Aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167033.html A Cheaper Alternative to Hearing Aids? Devices performed almost as well and are much ... that almost 30 million people could benefit from hearing aids. But hearing aids can cost thousands of dollars, ...

  8. Do You Need a Hearing Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you feel restricted or limited by a hearing problem? Yes No Do you have difficulty hearing when ... or in the theater? Yes No Does a hearing problem cause you to argue with family members? Yes ...

  9. Behavioral audiometry: protocols for measuring hearing thresholds in babies aged 4-18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaroche, Monique; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Dauman, René

    2004-10-01

    This paper provides the first report in English of original behavioral audiometry protocols for measuring hearing thresholds in very young children, including the multiply handicapped. Based on reactions to one or two well-calibrated acoustic stimulations delivered in the sound field, the protocol first involves the use of a vibrator to measure hearing levels by bone conduction. This measurement technique, which is not affected by middle ear infections, is the key diagnostic step. Moreover, in profoundly hearing loss children, it triggers reactions through vibratory stimulation and sets the scene for the conditioning of responses. Next, hearing levels are assessed by air conduction with the aid of headphones, in order to measure hearing levels in each ear as early as possible. A unique set-up is used to facilitate the emergence of reliable "surprise reactions", which may be interpreted by a sole examiner. Classical visual reinforcement is replaced by a highly interactive, dynamic and playful exchange between child and examiner, which gives meaning to the perception of stimuli and heralds the learning of hearing. The results concern 105 babies suffering from bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and aged 4-18 months at the first behavioral test. Group 1 comprised 91 babies with no other handicap, in whom full bilateral air conduction was obtained in 82.4% before 12 months and in 98.9% before 18 months. In this group, air conduction in each ear was obtained in 47.0% before 12 months and in 70.3% before 18 months. In Group 2, which included 14 multiply handicapped babies, full bilateral air conduction was obtained in 37.5% before 12 months and in 78.6% before 18 months. Air conduction in both ears was obtained in 28.6% before 18 months. The protocols described make it possible, in a minimum number of sessions, to measure hearing thresholds early over the whole range of hearing frequencies, even in multiply handicapped babies and those suffering from developmental

  10. Long-term versus short-term hearing aid benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, R K; Cord, M T; Walden, B E

    1998-06-01

    This study compared hearing aid benefit obtained 6 weeks and a minimum of 1 year after fitting to determine if changes occurred over time. Fifteen individuals with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing losses, who were successful users of linear amplification, were fitted binaurally with the Resound BT2 Personal Hearing System. These hearing aids are programmable in two frequency bands that provide wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) amplification. The manufacturer's recommended loudness growth in octave bands (LGOB) and audiogram programming algorithm and fitting procedures were used. Following an initial 6-week period and again following a minimum of 1 year of use, the Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (PHAB) was administered. Similarly, speech recognition performance was tested using the Connected Speech Test (CST) in a six-talker speech babble at 50 dBA, +10 signal-to-noise (S/N); 60 dBA, +5 SNR; and 70 dBA, +2 SNR; and in quiet with a reverberation time of 0.78 seconds. Significant aided benefit was shown. These short-term benefit scores for the PHAB and CST were compared with those obtained after 1 year of full-time use. Results revealed no significant change in hearing aid benefit with long-term use, suggesting that a 6-week acclimatization period is sufficiently long for clinical trials of this type of WDRC amplification.

  11. Reliability and Utility of the Surprise Question in CKD Stages 4 to 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Andrei D; Figueroa, Rocio; Siew, Edward D; Salat, Huzaifah; Morse, Jennifer; Stewart, Thomas G; Malhotra, Rakesh; Jhamb, Manisha; Schell, Jane O; Cardona, Cesar Y; Maxwell, Cathy A; Ikizler, T Alp; Abdel-Kader, Khaled

    2017-07-01

    Prognostic uncertainty is one barrier to engaging in goals-of-care discussions in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The surprise question ("Would you be surprised if this patient died in the next 12 months?") is a tool to assist in prognostication. However, it has not been studied in non-dialysis-dependent CKD and its reliability is unknown. Observational study. 388 patients at least 60 years of age with non-dialysis-dependent CKD stages 4 to 5 who were seen at an outpatient nephrology clinic. Trinary (ie, Yes, Neutral, or No) and binary (Yes or No) surprise question response. Mortality, test-retest reliability, and blinded inter-rater reliability. Baseline comorbid conditions, Charlson Comorbidity Index, cause of CKD, and baseline laboratory values (ie, serum creatinine/estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin, and hemoglobin). Median patient age was 71 years with median follow-up of 1.4 years, during which time 52 (13%) patients died. Using the trinary surprise question, providers responded Yes, Neutral, and No for 202 (52%), 80 (21%), and 106 (27%) patients, respectively. About 5%, 15%, and 27% of Yes, Neutral, and No patients died, respectively (P<0.001). Trinary surprise question inter-rater reliability was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.42-0.72), and test-retest reliability was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.54-0.72). The trinary surprise question No response had sensitivity and specificity of 55% and 76%, respectively (95% CIs, 38%-71% and 71%-80%, respectively). The binary surprise question had sensitivity of 66% (95% CI, 49%-80%; P=0.3 vs trinary), but lower specificity of 68% (95% CI, 63%-73%; P=0.02 vs trinary). Single center, small number of deaths. The surprise question associates with mortality in CKD stages 4 to 5 and demonstrates moderate to good reliability. Future studies should examine how best to deploy the surprise question to facilitate advance care planning in advanced non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  12. Hearing loss at work? Hearing loss from leisure activities?

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The nurses of the Medical Service would like invite all persons working on the CERN site to take part in a: HEARING LOSS DETECTION WEEK From 28 August to 1st September 2006 At the Infirmary, Building 57 from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Hearing tests - advice - information - documentation - protective equipment

  13. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

    2013-12-01

    . The repeated surprises were initially viewed with dismay by some managers and stakeholders who had unrealistic expectations about science and modeling to start with, yet actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better flow and non-flow policies. A new Long Term Experiment and Management Plan EIS (see URL) started in 2011, and co-led by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation and the National Park Service, is underway and provides Colorado River managers, other stakeholders and the public a unique opportunity to refocus and weight resource objectives, conduct trade-off evaluations within the context of structured decision analyses, and identify key uncertainties with the goal of improving past experimental designs and monitoring strategies so as to take advantage of future learning opportunities over the next two decades. Perhaps the single greatest uncertainty now facing river managers is trying to anticipate how climate change and global warming will affect the supply of water from the Upper Colorado River Basin, Lake Powell storage that is known to control the river's thermal regime and native and nonnative fish interactions in GCNP, and the already highly-limited tributary sand supply below the dam from the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers required to manage sandbars along river shorelines.

  14. The Effects of Noise and Reverberation on Listening Effort in Adults With Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Gordon, Julia; Ricketts, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of background noise and reverberation on listening effort. Four specific research questions were addressed related to listening effort: (A) With comparable word recognition performance across levels of reverberation, what are the effects of noise and reverberation on listening effort? (B) What is the effect of background noise when reverberation time is constant? (C) What is the effect of increasing reverberation from low to moderate when signal to noise ratio is constant? (D) What is the effect of increasing reverberation from moderate to high when signal to noise ratio is constant? Eighteen young adults (mean age 24.8 years) with normal hearing participated. A dual-task paradigm was used to simultaneously assess word recognition and listening effort. The primary task was monosyllable word recognition, and the secondary task was word categorization (press a button if the word heard was judged to be a noun). Participants were tested in quiet and in background noise in three levels of reverberation (T30 < 100 ms, T30 = 475 ms, and T30 = 834 ms). Signal to noise ratios used were chosen individually for each participant and varied by reverberation to address the specific research questions. As expected, word recognition performance was negatively affected by both background noise and by increases in reverberation. Furthermore, analysis of mean response times revealed that background noise increased listening effort, regardless of degree of reverberation. Conversely, reverberation did not affect listening effort, regardless of whether word recognition performance was comparable or signal to noise ratio was constant. The finding that reverberation did not affect listening effort, even when word recognition performance was degraded, is inconsistent with current models of listening effort. The reasons for this surprising finding are unclear and warrant further investigation. However, the results of this study are

  15. The effects of noise and reverberation on listening effort for adults with normal hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.; Gordon, Julia; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of background noise and reverberation on listening effort. Four specific research questions were addressed related to listening effort. These questions were: A) with comparable word recognition performance across levels of reverberation, what are the effects of noise and reverberation on listening effort? (B) what is the effect of background noise when reverberation time is constant? (C) what is the effect of increasing reverberation from low to moderate when signal-to-noise ratio is constant? (D) what is the effect of increasing reverberation from moderate to high when signal-to-noise ratio is constant? Design Eighteen young adults (mean age 24.8 years) with normal hearing participated. A dual-task paradigm was used to simultaneously assess word recognition and listening effort. The primary task was monosyllable word recognition and the secondary task was word categorization (press a button if the word heard was judged to be a noun). Participants were tested in quiet and in background noise in three levels of reverberation (T30 < 100 ms, T30 = 475 ms, and T30 = 834 ms). Signal-to-noise ratios used were chosen individually for each participant and varied by reverberation to address the specific research questions. Results As expected, word recognition performance was negatively affected by both background noise and by increases in reverberation. Furthermore, analysis of mean response times revealed that background noise increased listening effort, regardless of degree of reverberation. Conversely, reverberation did not affect listening effort, regardless of whether word recognition performance was comparable or signal-to-noise ratio was constant. Conclusions The finding that reverberation did not affect listening effort, even when word recognition performance was degraded, is inconsistent with current models of listening effort. The reasons for this surprising finding are unclear and warrant

  16. Perception of a Self-Fitting Hearing Aid Among Urban-Dwelling Hearing-Impaired Adults in a Developed Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidser, Gitte; Hartley, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    A self-fitting hearing aid is a personal amplification device that is designed to be assembled, programmed, and fine-tuned by the user, without the need for additional equipment or professional support. A written description of the device was presented to 80 older adults with a hearing impairment, all of whom were residents of an urban area in a developed country. In response to a structured questionnaire, the majority of participants reported that the self-fitting hearing aid concept was a good idea (83%), would be of personal benefit (60%), and could be managed independently by the user (90%). Overall, half of the participant group agreed with all three statements. Two were uncertain about the concept, but none of the participants rejected it outright. There were no significant differences between the opinions of participants with previous hearing aid experience and those without. Participant responses to open-ended questions revealed that the main benefits of a self-fitting hearing aid were thought to be the ability to self-adjust the device’s settings (reported by 33% of participants) and increased convenience (20% of participants). The main drawback, mentioned by 25% of participants, was a preference for professional guidance through the fitting process. These results suggest that the self-fitting hearing aid may present as an alternative product in developed countries for those users who prefer to be in control of the fitting process. PMID:22079900

  17. Prescribing and Verifying Hearing Aids Applying the American Academy of Audiology Pediatric Amplification Guideline: Protocols and Outcomes from the Ontario Infant Hearing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatto, Marlene; Moodie, Sheila; Brown, Christine; Malandrino, April; Richert, Frances; Clench, Debbie; Scollie, Susan

    2016-03-01

    who were typically developing. Important updates to Ontario's Amplification Protocol offer new details about candidacy considerations as well as technical updates. Outcomes from the IHP reveal protocol elements can be executed clinically and when they are, typically developing children who wear hearing aids are meeting auditory development and performance milestones. Updates to Ontario's Amplification Protocol are necessary to support the evolution of EHDI programs and the evidence which sustains them. With advances in technology and additional research, pediatric hearing aid fitting will continue to progress and support systematic measurement of outcomes for children who wear hearing aids. The application of state-of-the-art hearing aid fitting practices to the pediatric population within EHDI programs supports good outcomes for infants and children with hearing loss. American Academy of Audiology.

  18. Optimized static and video EEG rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm based on motion surprise computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Huber, David J.; Bhattacharyya, Rajan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we describe an algorithm and system for optimizing search and detection performance for "items of interest" (IOI) in large-sized images and videos that employ the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) based EEG paradigm and surprise algorithms that incorporate motion processing to determine whether static or video RSVP is used. The system works by first computing a motion surprise map on image sub-regions (chips) of incoming sensor video data and then uses those surprise maps to label the chips as either "static" or "moving". This information tells the system whether to use a static or video RSVP presentation and decoding algorithm in order to optimize EEG based detection of IOI in each chip. Using this method, we are able to demonstrate classification of a series of image regions from video with an azimuth value of 1, indicating perfect classification, over a range of display frequencies and video speeds.

  19. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  20. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  1. [Implantable middle ear hearing aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    à Wengen, D F

    2004-01-01

    Conventional acoustic hearing aids are limited in their performance. Due to physical laws their amplification of sound is limited to within 5 kHz. However, the frequencies between 5 and 10 kHz are essential for understanding consonants. Words can only be understood correctly if their consonants can be understood. Furthermore noise amplification remains a problem with hearing aids. Other problems consist of recurrent infections of the external auditory canal, intolerance for occlusion of the ear canal, feedback noise, and resonances in speech or singing. Implantable middle ear hearing aids like the Soundbridge of Symphonix-Siemens and the MET of Otologics offer improved amplification and a more natural sound. Since the first implantation of a Soundbridge in Switzerland in 1996 almost one thousand patients have been implanted worldwide. The currents systems are semi-implantable. The external audio processor containing the microphone, computer chip, battery and radio system is worn in the hair bearing area behind the ear. Implantation is only considered after unsuccessful fitting of conventional hearing aids. In Switzerland the cost for these implantable hearing aids is covered by social insurances. Initially the cost for an implant is higher than for hearing aids. However, hearing aids need replacement every 5 or 6 years whereas implants will last 20 to 30 years. Due to the superior sound quality and the improved understanding of speech in noise, the number of patients with implantable hearing aids will certainly increase in the next years. Other middle ear implants are in clinical testing.

  2. Age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... everyday function. The following may be helpful: Hearing aids Telephone amplifiers and other assistive devices Sign language (for those with severe hearing loss) Speech reading (lip reading and using visual cues to aid communication) A cochlear implant may be recommended for people ...

  3. Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests, offer counseling, and fit and test hearing aids. What treatments and devices can help? Your treatment will depend ... purpose of assisting the physician in developing a treatment plan. (Read the NIDCD fact sheet Hearing Aids for more information.) Cochlear implants. Cochlear (COKE-lee- ...

  4. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  5. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  6. Noise-induced hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catlin, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. 19 references.

  7. Intellectual Disabilities and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herer, Gilbert R.

    2012-01-01

    Undetected/untreated hearing loss imposes significant limitations upon individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). It can interfere with cognitive development, impede communicative and social interactions, and limit vocational aspirations. Over the past decade, the hearing of 9961 people with ID was evaluated at Special Olympics sports…

  8. Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Presenting With Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Sietze; Stokroos, Robert; Weber, Jacobiene W; van Tongeren, Joost

    2015-12-01

    To present the rare case of a young boy with idiopathic intracranial hypertension presenting with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss developing over several months. This was accompanied by headaches, otalgia, tinnitus, and vertigo. Furthermore, we aim to provide a concise review on this matter, as this report represents the second case in literature of pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension presenting with hearing loss. Workup of a 9-year-old boy with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, including (among others) physical examination, audiometry, diagnostic imaging, and lumbar puncture. Physical examination including fundoscopy as well as imaging showed no abnormalities. At presentation, pure tone audiometry revealed bone conduction thresholds of about 30 dB HL in both ears. Two months later, this declined to about 35 dB HL in both ears. Lumbar puncture revealed an increased intracranial pressure. The boy was thus diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. After the lumbar puncture, the otological complaints gradually resolved, and the hearing normalized (bone conduction thresholds of 0-5 dB HL). Although rare, sensorineural hearing loss in the pediatric population together with otalgia, tinnitus, and vertigo can be due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension and as such can be reversible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  10. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  11. The Use of Vibrotactile Aids with Preschool Hearing-Impaired Children: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Patti; Hansen, Susan Aaberg

    1983-01-01

    Case studies of three hearing-impaired four-year-old children revealed that vibrotactile stimulation aids were effective in teaching speech skills. The aid helped the students become more aware of sounds. (CL)

  12. Young stars in old galaxies - surprising discovery with the world's leading telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Do elliptical galaxies only contain old stars? One of the challenges of modern astronomy is to understand how galaxies - large systems of stars, gas and dust - form and evolve. When did most of the stars in the Universe form? Did this happen at a very early stage, within a few billion years of the Big Bang? Have a significant number of the stars we now observe formed much more recently? Spectacular collisions between galaxies take place all the time, triggering the formation of thousands or even millions of stars. However, when looking at the Universe as a whole, most of its stars are found in elliptical galaxies whose overall appearance has so far led us to believe that they, and their stars and as well, are old. These elliptical galaxies do shine with the diffuse, reddish glow normally associated with stars that are many thousand million years old. However, what is the underlying mix of stars that produces this elderly appearance? Could a significant number of much younger stars be 'hiding' among the older ones? Detailed observations with the world's premier telescopes have now cast new light on this central question about the behaviour of some of the major building blocks of the Universe. Cosmic paleonthology To break the stellar 'cocktail' in elliptical galaxies down into its different constituents, a team of European and American astronomers observed massive stellar clusters in and around nearby galaxies. These "globular" clusters, so called because of their shape, exist in large numbers around all observed galaxies and form a kind of 'skeleton' within their host galaxies. These 'bones' receive an imprint for every episode of star formation they undergo. By reading the ages of the globular clusters in a galaxy, it is possible to identify the past epoch(s) of active star formation in a galaxy. Reading the imprints and deducing the distribution of ages of the globular clusters, astronomers can reveal when many of the stars in elliptical galaxies formed. This is

  13. Noise effect on hearing acuity of motorcycle riders popularly called ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result analysis was based on pure tone audiometric average at 500Hertz, 1000Hertz, 2000Hertz and 4000Hertz respectively, where it revealed a diminished hearing sensitivity, especially among the workers who had spent above 5 years in okada business. Recommendations were made to NISHA and FEPA to initiate ...

  14. A look at language problems experienced by children with hearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that children with hearing impairments experienced communication and language problems at home and at school. They had to learn either Chishona or isiNdebele at home, as well as Zimbabwe Sign Language at school. There is need for the parents and siblings to be taught Zimbabwe Sign ...

  15. Learning Disabilities and Conductive Hearing Loss Involving Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Julie; Healey, William C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of research on the relationship of otitis media (ear infection) and learning/language/hearing disorders revealed that incidence of otitis media was twice as common in learning disabled as nonLD students; and that, in general, otitis-prone children scored below controls with frequent evidence of performance deficits. (CL)

  16. Relationship between hearing complaint and hearing loss among older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presbycusis is a public health problem. Despite its high prevalence, many elders do not have their hearing ability investigated periodically, because they do not have a specific complaint. Objective: To check whether there is a relationship between the complaint and the presence of hearing loss in elder people. Method: Transversal study in elders from a neighborhood in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul. After the definition of the neighborhood's geographic boundaries, all houses were visited, the older people's addresses were ascertained and the invitations to take part in the research were provided. A questionnaire survey was applied which had a question about hearing loss complaint and air-conducted hearing thresholds were obtained and studied. Out of the 72 identified elders 50 elders agreed to participate, 35 (70% women, and 15 (30% men. Results: It was confirmed that only 12 (24% elders showed a specific complaint of hearing loss, although 33 (66% elders showed slight, moderate, severe and profound hearing losses. Conclusion: Data analysis confirmed there was no relationship between the complaint and the presence of hearing loss in the assessed group, and demonstrated the need to forward the elders for audiological evaluation even without any specific complaint.

  17. Effects of hearing loss on speech recognition under distracting conditions and working memory in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Wondo; Kim, Gibbeum; Kim, Gungu; Han, Woojae; Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate hearing-related changes in terms of speech-in-noise processing, fast-rate speech processing, and working memory; and to identify which of these three factors is significantly affected by age-related hearing loss. One hundred subjects aged 65-84 years participated in the study. They were classified into four groups ranging from normal hearing to moderate-to-severe hearing loss. All the participants were tested for speech perception in quiet and noisy conditions and for speech perception with time alteration in quiet conditions. Forward- and backward-digit span tests were also conducted to measure the participants' working memory. 1) As the level of background noise increased, speech perception scores systematically decreased in all the groups. This pattern was more noticeable in the three hearing-impaired groups than in the normal hearing group. 2) As the speech rate increased faster, speech perception scores decreased. A significant interaction was found between speed of speech and hearing loss. In particular, 30% of compressed sentences revealed a clear differentiation between moderate hearing loss and moderate-to-severe hearing loss. 3) Although all the groups showed a longer span on the forward-digit span test than the backward-digit span test, there was no significant difference as a function of hearing loss. The degree of hearing loss strongly affects the speech recognition of babble-masked and time-compressed speech in the elderly but does not affect the working memory. We expect these results to be applied to appropriate rehabilitation strategies for hearing-impaired elderly who experience difficulty in communication.

  18. 46 CFR 502.144 - Notice of time and place of hearing; postponement of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of time and place of hearing; postponement of... and place of hearing; postponement of hearing. (a) Notice of hearing will designate the time and place..., or electronic mail. (b) Motions for postponement of any hearing date shall be filed in accordance...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1415 - Disability hearing-disability hearing officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability hearing-disability hearing... Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Reconsideration § 416.1415 Disability hearing—disability hearing officers. (a) General. Your disability hearing will be conducted by a disability hearing officer who was...

  20. The Influence of Surprise on Upset Recovery Performance in Airline Pilots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, H.M.; Groen, Eric L.; van Paassen, M.M.; Bronkhorst, A; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test if performance of airline pilots, in performing an aerodynamic stall recovery procedure, decreases when they are surprised, compared to when they anticipate a stall event.
    Background: New flight-safety regulations for commercial aviation recommend the

  1. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  2. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Mahmoudi, Shahram; Zarei, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Background In comparison with other industries, the construction industry still has a higher rate of fatal injuries, and thus, there is a need to apply new and innovative approaches for preventing accidents and promoting safe conditions at construction sites. Methods In this study, the effectiveness of a new incentive system—the surprising incentive system—was assessed. One year after the implementation of this new incentive system, behavioral changes of employees with respect to seven types of activities were observed. Results The results of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between the new incentive system and the safety performance of frontline employees. The new incentive system had a greater positive impact in the first 6 months since its implementation. In the long term, however, safety performance experienced a gradual reduction. Based on previous studies, all activities selected in this study are important indicators of the safety conditions at workplaces. However, there is a need for a comprehensive and simple-to-apply tool for assessing frontline employees' safety performance. Shortening the intervals between incentives is more effective in promoting safety performance. Conclusion The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually. PMID:26929832

  3. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Mahmoudi, Shahram; Zarei, Esmaeil

    2015-09-01

    In comparison with other industries, the construction industry still has a higher rate of fatal injuries, and thus, there is a need to apply new and innovative approaches for preventing accidents and promoting safe conditions at construction sites. In this study, the effectiveness of a new incentive system-the surprising incentive system-was assessed. One year after the implementation of this new incentive system, behavioral changes of employees with respect to seven types of activities were observed. The results of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between the new incentive system and the safety performance of frontline employees. The new incentive system had a greater positive impact in the first 6 months since its implementation. In the long term, however, safety performance experienced a gradual reduction. Based on previous studies, all activities selected in this study are important indicators of the safety conditions at workplaces. However, there is a need for a comprehensive and simple-to-apply tool for assessing frontline employees' safety performance. Shortening the intervals between incentives is more effective in promoting safety performance. The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  4. Surprising convergence of the Monte Carlo renormalization group for the three-dimensional Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Dorit; Brandt, Achi; Swendsen, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    We present a surprisingly simple approach to high-accuracy calculations of the critical properties of the three-dimensional Ising model. The method uses a modified block-spin transformation with a tunable parameter to improve convergence in the Monte Carlo renormalization group. The block-spin parameter must be tuned differently for different exponents to produce optimal convergence.

  5. Surprising results: HIV testing and changes in contraceptive practices among young women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Christie; Yeatman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study uses eight waves of data from the population-based Tsogolo la Thanzi study (2009–2011) in rural Malawi to examine changes in young women’s contraceptive practices, including the use of condoms, non-barrier contraceptive methods, and abstinence, following positive and negative HIV tests. The analysis factors in women’s prior perceptions of their HIV status that may already be shaping their behaviour and separates surprise HIV test results from those that merely confirm what was already believed. Fixed effects logistic regression models show that HIV testing frequently affects the contraceptive practices of young Malawian women, particularly when the test yields an unexpected result. Specifically, women who are surprised to test HIV positive increase their condom use and are more likely to use condoms consistently. Following an HIV negative test (whether a surprise or expected), women increase their use of condoms and decrease their use of non-barrier contraceptives; the latter may be due to an increase in abstinence following a surprise negative result. Changes in condom use following HIV testing are robust to the inclusion of potential explanatory mechanisms including fertility preferences, relationship status, and the perception that a partner is HIV positive. The results demonstrate that both positive and negative tests can influence women’s sexual and reproductive behaviours, and emphasise the importance of conceptualizing of HIV testing as offering new information only insofar as results deviate from prior perceptions of HIV status. PMID:26160156

  6. Models of Automation surprise : results of a field survey in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Robert; Dekker, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration

  7. Interventional Audiology to Address Hearing Health Care Disparities: Oyendo Bien Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Nicole; Ingram, Maia; Somoza, Maria; Jacob, Daisey Sánchez; Sanchez, Adriana; Adamovich, Stephanie; Harris, Frances P

    2017-05-01

    Interventional audiology, specifically community-based outreach, can connect people with the hearing health care system. Community-based participatory research methods were applied in two phases of research to: (1) investigate the needs of families affected by hearing loss in a rural Arizona community on the U.S.-Mexico border; and (2) evaluate an outreach program on hearing health. The needs assessment included interviews with persons with hearing loss and focus groups with family members and the greater community. The needs assessment revealed that despite perceived severity of hearing loss, help-seeking for audiologic care was limited due to barriers, stigma, and low self-efficacy. Results informed development of a community-based pilot study conducted as part of an academic-community partnership between audiology, public health, and community health workers of a federally qualified health center. An outreach program, Oyendo Bien (hearing wellness), a 5-week, Spanish-language health education program for older adults (n = 21) incorporated communication strategies and behavioral change techniques. Postprogram focus groups revealed increased self-efficacy and decreased stigma. After 1 year, 7 of 9 participants with hearing loss contacted for follow-up had sought some form of hearing-related health care. Future research should further investigate interventional audiology approaches to address health disparities.

  8. A review of new insights on the association between hearing loss and cognitive decline in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, S; Forli, F; Guglielmi, V; De Corso, E; Paludetti, G; Berrettini, S; Fetoni, A R

    2016-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) has a multifactorial pathogenesis and it is an inevitable hearing impairment associated with reduction of communicative skills related to ageing. Increasing evidence has linked ARHL to more rapid progression of cognitive decline and incidental dementia. Many aspects of daily living of elderly people have been associated to hearing abilities, showing that hearing loss (HL) affects the quality of life, social relationships, motor skills, psychological aspects and function and morphology in specific brain areas. Epidemiological and clinical studies confirm the assumption of a relationship between these conditions. However, the mechanisms are still unclear and are reviewed herein. Long-term hearing deprivation of auditory inputs can impact cognitive performance by decreasing the quality of communication leading to social isolation and depression and facilitate dementia. On the contrary, the limited cognitive skills may reduce the cognitive resources available for auditory perception, increasing the effects of HL. In addition, hearing loss and cognitive decline may reflect a 'common cause' on the auditory pathway and brain. In fact, some pathogenetic factors are recongised in common microvascular disease factors such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Interdisciplinary efforts to investigate and address HL in the context of brain and cognitive ageing are needed. Surprisingly, few studies have been adressed on the effectiveness of hearing aids in changing the natural history of cognitive decline. Effective interventions with hearing aids or cochlear implant may improve social and emotional function, communication, cognitive function and positively impact quality of life. The aim of this review is to overview new insights on this challenging topic and provide new ideas for future research. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  9. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-06-15

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).  Created: 6/15/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 6/25/2007.

  10. 34 CFR 300.181 - Hearing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 300.181 Section 300.181 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Department Procedures § 300.181 Hearing procedures. (a) As used in §§ 300.179... assist the resolution of the matter, the Hearing Official or Hearing Panel gives each party, in addition...

  11. 76 FR 66126 - Notice of Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing The Central Oregon and Pacific Railroad (CORP... the carrier's proposal and the available facts, FRA has determined that a public hearing is necessary... participate in a public hearing on December 1, 2011. The hearing will be conducted at the Douglas County...

  12. 5 CFR 1639.23 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 1639.23 Section 1639.23... Hearing. (a) Request for hearing. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an employee who desires a hearing concerning the existence or amount of the debt or the proposed offset schedule must send...

  13. 12 CFR 308.142 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 308.142 Section 308.142 Banks and... Exchange Act of 1934 § 308.142 Hearing. (a) Proceedings are informal. Formal rules of evidence, the... Local Rules shall not apply to hearings under this subpart. (b) Hearing Procedure. (1) Parties to the...

  14. 17 CFR 8.17 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing. 8.17 Section 8.17..., SUMMARY, AND MEMBERSHIP DENIAL ACTIONS Disciplinary Procedure § 8.17 Hearing. (a) The following minimum requirements shall apply to any hearing required by this subpart: (1) The hearing shall be fair and shall be...

  15. 29 CFR 1650.109 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 1650.109 Section 1650.109 Labor Regulations... Collection of Debts by Salary Offset § 1650.109 Hearing. (a) Request for a hearing. An employee who wants a hearing on the existence of the debt, its amount, or on the proposed offset schedule must send a written...

  16. 29 CFR 2200.209 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 2200.209 Section 2200.209 Labor Regulations... Simplified Proceedings § 2200.209 Hearing. (a) Procedures. As soon as practicable after the conclusion of the pre-hearing conference, the Judge will hold a hearing on any issue that remains in dispute. The...

  17. 45 CFR 607.5 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 607.5 Section 607.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.5 Hearing. (a) Request for hearing. (1) An employee may file a petition for an oral or paper hearing in...

  18. 17 CFR 141.5 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing. 141.5 Section 141.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET § 141.5 Hearing. (a) Request for hearing. (1) An employee must file a petition for a hearing in accordance with the...

  19. 49 CFR 209.321 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 209.321 Section 209.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.321 Hearing. (a) Upon receipt of a hearing request complying with § 209.311, an administrative hearing for review of a notice of...

  20. 76 FR 68260 - Notice of Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...-2011-0055] Notice of Public Hearing The Marquette Rail, LLC (MQT), by a May 23, 2011, document, has...; Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen; and Railsoft Systems, Inc., FRA has determined that a public hearing is... to participate in a public hearing on December 13, 2011. The hearing will be conducted at the Holiday...

  1. 7 CFR 900.115 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 900.115 Section 900.115 Agriculture... Hearing. (a) The arbitrator shall have full discretion to conduct the hearing in such manner as will, in..., and other experts. (h) When more than two arbitrators are designated to hear a dispute, and they...

  2. 45 CFR 1606.8 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 1606.8 Section 1606.8 Public Welfare... PROCEDURES; RECOMPETITION § 1606.8 Hearing. (a) The recipient may make written request for a hearing within... days after receipt of a request for a hearing, the Corporation shall notify the recipient in writing of...

  3. 29 CFR 4221.6 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 4221.6 Section 4221.6 Labor Regulations Relating... PLANS ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES IN MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS § 4221.6 Hearing. (a) Time and place of hearing established. Unless the parties agree to proceed without a hearing as provided in § 4221.5(c), the parties and...

  4. 78 FR 56951 - Notice of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... OVERSIGHT BOARD Notice of Hearing ACTION: Notice of a hearing. SUMMARY: The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) will conduct a public hearing with current and former government officials and... federal government regarding the government's counterterrorism surveillance programs. This hearing will...

  5. 45 CFR 1179.5 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 1179.5 Section 1179.5 Public Welfare... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET § 1179.5 Hearing. (a) Request for hearing. (1) An employee must file a petition for a hearing in accordance with the instructions outlined in the agency's notice to...

  6. 5 CFR 831.1106 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 831.1106 Section 831.1106...) RETIREMENT Prohibition on Payments of Annuities § 831.1106 Hearing. (a) OPM's hearing examiner shall preside at any hearing held pursuant to this subpart, unless OPM designates another presiding officer. The...

  7. 47 CFR 1.1928 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 1.1928 Section 1.1928... United States Salary Offset-Individual Debt § 1.1928 Hearing. (a) Petition for hearing. (1) An employee may request a hearing by filing a written petition with the Managing Director of the Commission, or...

  8. 15 CFR 90.14 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 90.14 Section 90.14 Commerce... OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.14 Hearing. (a) The hearing shall be conducted by the same hearing officer who collected the documentary evidence, if...

  9. 28 CFR 4.8 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 4.8 Section 4.8 Judicial... OF 1974 § 4.8 Hearing. The hearing on the application shall be held at the offices of the Commision in Washington, DC, or elsewhere as the Commission may direct. The hearing shall be held before the...

  10. 21 CFR 1303.31 - Hearings generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearings generally. 1303.31 Section 1303.31 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Hearings § 1303.31 Hearings generally. (a) In any case where the Administrator shall hold a hearing regarding the determination of an...

  11. 21 CFR 1308.41 - Hearings generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearings generally. 1308.41 Section 1308.41 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1308.41 Hearings generally. In any case where the Administrator shall hold a hearing on the...

  12. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents If ... gov Internet: www.nidcd.nih.gov Read More "Hearing Loss" Articles Managing Hearing Loss / Symptoms, Devices, Prevention & Research / ...

  13. The 'surprise' question in paediatric palliative care: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kimberley; Coombes, Lucy Helen; Menezes, Antoinette; Anderson, Anna-Karenia

    2017-06-01

    The question 'would you be surprised if this patient died in the next 12-months' is widely used for identifying adult patients in the last year of life. However, this has not yet been studied in children. To assess the prognostic accuracy of the surprise question when used by a multidisciplinary team to predict survival outcomes of children with life-limiting conditions over a 3 and 12 month period. A prospective cohort study. Six multidisciplinary team members working in a children's hospice answered a 3 and 12 month surprise question about 327 children who were either newly referred or receiving care at the hospice between 2011 and 2013. The prognostic accuracy of the multidisciplinary team for the 3 (and 12)month surprise question were: sensitivity 83.3% (83.3%), specificity 93.2% (70.7%), positive predictive value 41.7% (23.6%), negative predictive value 99% (97.5%) and accuracy 92.6% (71.9%). Patients with a 'no' response had an increased risk of death at 3 (hazard ratio, 22.94, p ⩽ 0.001) and 12 months (hazard ratio, 6.53, p ⩽ 0.001). The surprise question is a highly sensitive prognostic tool for identifying children receiving palliative care who are in the last 3 and 12 months of life. The tool is accurate at recognising children during stable periods demonstrated through a high negative predictive value. In practice, this tool could help identify children who would benefit from specialist end of life care, act as a marker to facilitate communications on advance care planning and assist in resource allocation.

  14. Binaural Interference and the Effects of Age and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussoi, Bruna S S; Bentler, Ruth A

    2017-01-01

    The existence of binaural interference, defined here as poorer speech recognition with both ears than with the better ear alone, is well documented. Studies have suggested that its prevalence may be higher in the elderly population. However, no study to date has explored binaural interference in groups of younger and older adults in conditions that favor binaural processing (i.e., in spatially separated noise). Also, the effects of hearing loss have not been studied. To examine binaural interference through speech perception tests, in groups of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal hearing for their age, and older adults with hearing loss. A cross-sectional study. Thirty-three participants with symmetric thresholds were recruited from the University of Iowa community. Participants were grouped as follows: younger with normal hearing (18-28 yr, n = 12), older with normal hearing for their age (73-87 yr, n = 9), and older with hearing loss (78-94 yr, n = 12). Prior noise exposure was ruled out. The Connected Speech Test (CST) and Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) were administered to all participants bilaterally, and to each ear separately. Test materials were presented in the sound field with speech at 0° azimuth and the noise at 180°. The Dichotic Digits Test (DDT) was administered to all participants through earphones. Hearing aids were not used during testing. Group results were compared with repeated measures and one-way analysis of variances, as appropriate. Within-subject analyses using pre-established critical differences for each test were also performed. The HINT revealed no effect of condition (individual ear versus bilateral presentation) using group analysis, although within-subject analysis showed that 27% of the participants had binaural interference (18% had binaural advantage). On the CST, there was significant binaural advantage across all groups with group data analysis, as well as for 12% of the participants at each of the two

  15. Everyday trajectories of hearing correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study of the onset of acquired hearing impairment. The focus of attention is about why a person seeks treatment. The Danish welfare state serves the population ‘in need' such as those with an audiological need and gives them guidance on becoming hearing aid wea...... are complex and epistemologically contested and can help explain why noncompliance is dominant when it comes to hearing rehabilitation for hearing impaired adults.......This paper reports on a qualitative study of the onset of acquired hearing impairment. The focus of attention is about why a person seeks treatment. The Danish welfare state serves the population ‘in need' such as those with an audiological need and gives them guidance on becoming hearing aid...... wearers in order to rehabilitate them back to ‘normal'. However, within audiological research, noncompliance has attracted much attention as investigations have shown that more than 20 percent of hearing aids are very seldom, if ever, in use and 19 percent are used only occasionally. As shown in the paper...

  16. Motivation to Address Self-Reported Hearing Problems in Adults With Normal Hearing Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Carly C M; Doherty, Karen A

    2017-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motivation to change in relation to hearing problems in adults with normal hearing thresholds but who report hearing problems and that of adults with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Factors related to their motivation were also assessed. The motivation to change in relation to self-reported hearing problems was measured using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (McConnaughy, Prochaska, & Velicer, 1983). The relationship between objective and subjective measures and an adult's motivation was examined. The level of hearing handicap did not differ significantly between adults with normal hearing who reported problems hearing in background noise and adults who had a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing handicap, personal distress, and minimization of hearing loss were factors significantly related to motivation. Age, degree of hearing loss, speech-in-noise scores, working memory, and extended high-frequency average thresholds were not significantly related to their motivation. Adults with normal hearing thresholds but self-reported hearing problems had the same level of hearing handicap and were equally motivated to take action for their hearing problems as age-matched adults with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing handicap, personal distress, and minimization of hearing loss were most strongly correlated with an individual's motivation to change.

  17. A Comparison of Deaf College Students’ and Hard of Hearing College Students’ Experiences and Risk Factors of Psychological and Physical Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaVerne McQuiller Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 222 Deaf or hard of hearing college students in an upstate New York university provided a unique opportunity to explore possible differences between Deaf students’ and hard of hearing students’ experiences and risk factors of psychological and physical abuse in their intimate relationships. Previous research has indicated that Deaf and hard of hearing college students in the aggregate were significantly more likely to experience abuse than were hearing students. A comparison of Deaf students with hard of hearing students revealed that hard of hearing individuals were significantly more likely to experience physical abuse than were Deaf students but not more likely to experience psychological abuse. Findings also revealed that in most cases, traditional risk factors for partner violence (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, living on campus used in hearing college samples were not significant. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Validity of hearing impairment calculation methods for prediction of self-reported hearing handicap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew B John; Brian M Kreisman; Stephen Pallett

    2012-01-01

    .... The present study evaluated the ability of various arithmetic hearing impairment calculations to predict a self-reported hearing handicap in a sample of presenting with sensorineural hearing loss. 204 adults (127 male, 77 female...

  19. Importance of binaural hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Paul; Giraudet, Fabrice; Büki, Béla

    2015-01-01

    An essential task for the central auditory pathways is to parse the auditory messages sent by the two cochleae into auditory objects, the segregation and localisation of which constitute an important means of separating target signals from noise and competing sources. When hearing losses are too asymmetric, the patients face a situation in which the monaural exploitation of sound messages significantly lessens their performance compared to what it should be in a binaural situation. Rehabilitation procedures must aim at restoring as many binaural advantages as possible. These advantages encompass binaural redundancy, head shadow effect and binaural release from masking, the principles and requirements of which make up the topic of this short review. Notwithstanding the complete understanding of their neuronal mechanisms, empirical data show that binaural advantages can be restored even in situations in which faultless symmetry is inaccessible. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Childhood Hearing Health: Educating for Prevention of Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1% presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential.

  1. Evidence for training effects of the acoustical environment on hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Gerald; Mueller, Reinhard

    2004-05-01

    A database of roughly 10000 adult persons-from 18 years to 70 years-was analyzed with a procedure that accounts for normal aging of the ear. Auditory performance of good-hearing persons of various groups was determined: office personnel, construction workers, university students, airline pilots, dentists, orchestra musicians, fans of discotheques, avoiders of discotheques, Tibetian nomads, Chinese peasants living without technical noise, etc. Pure-tone auditory threshold-based on pulsed signals-was analyzed from 125 Hz to 10 kHz. The Leq of the long-term acoustic environment was estimated, using acoustic measurements. Results confirm the well-known fact that excessive noise levels damage the ear. However, at lower levels, sound can apparently improve the sense of hearing, as measured by the auditory threshold. Ranking the various groups according to their hearing performance reveals that the best-hearing groups are all living and working in a loud acoustic environment. In these groups aging of the ear is reduced. Groups living in an environment with very low sound levels do not hear well. Apparently the auditory system needs training, in order to develop its full potential, and to keep functioning well.

  2. Hearing Profile of Brazilian Forestry Workers' Noise Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda, Adriana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers studying the hearing health of forestry workers have revealed the presence of a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in this population and have concluded that the vibration of the equipment, the carbon monoxide released by motors, and pesticides might also contribute to NIHL. Objective To analyze the noise exposure in the Brazilian forestry industry workers and the effects on hearing. Methods The study sample comprised 109 employees of a company that specialized in reforestation. Their participants' mean age was 35.5 years (21 to 54 years, mean tenure at the company was 3.9 years (1 to 13 years, and mean total duration of noise exposure was 12.3 years (1 to 30 years. The existing documentation reporting on the jobs risk analysis was examined, noise level was measured, and pure tone audiometry was performed in all participants. Participants were divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels in their current job. Results Of the participants who were exposed to noise levels less than 85 dBA (decibels with A-weighting filter, 23.8% had hearing loss, and 5.5% of the participants who were exposed to noise ranging from 85 to 89.9 dBA and 11% of the participants who were exposed to noise greater than 90 dBA had audiogram results suggestive of NIHL. Conclusion The implementation of a hearing loss prevention program tailored to forestry workers is needed.

  3. Perceptual Consequences of “Hidden” Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Daphne; Prendergast, Garreth

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic results from recent animal experiments show that noise exposure can cause a selective loss of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers without affecting absolute sensitivity permanently. This cochlear neuropathy has been described as hidden hearing loss, as it is not thought to be detectable using standard measures of audiometric threshold. It is possible that hidden hearing loss is a common condition in humans and may underlie some of the perceptual deficits experienced by people with clinically normal hearing. There is some evidence that a history of noise exposure is associated with difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing, even in the absence of any audiometric loss. There is also evidence that the tinnitus experienced by listeners with clinically normal hearing is associated with cochlear neuropathy, as measured using Wave I of the auditory brainstem response. To date, however, there has been no direct link made between noise exposure, cochlear neuropathy, and perceptual difficulties. Animal experiments also reveal that the aging process itself, in the absence of significant noise exposure, is associated with loss of auditory nerve fibers. Evidence from human temporal bone studies and auditory brainstem response measures suggests that this form of hidden loss is common in humans and may have perceptual consequences, in particular, regarding the coding of the temporal aspects of sounds. Hidden hearing loss is potentially a major health issue, and investigations are ongoing to identify the causes and consequences of this troubling condition. PMID:25204468

  4. Prevalence of hearing problems, and use of hearing aids among a sample of elderly patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Liston, R; Solomon, S; Banerjee, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Deterioration of hearing with advancing age is well documented. However, the proportion of elderly people with hearing problems who wear hearing aids is low. AIM. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hearing disability in a group of elderly patients in hospital and to determine their attitudes to hearing difficulties and the wearing of hearing aids. METHOD. A random sample of patients who were convalescing were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire was administere...

  5. Risk dishabituation: in repeated gambling, risk is reduced following low-probability "surprising" events (wins or losses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Heath A; Burns, Kevin J; Dedonno, Michael A; Agarwala, Edward K; Everhart, D Erik

    2012-06-01

    In path-dependent risk taking, like playing a slot machine, the wager on one trial may be affected by the outcome of the preceding trial. Previous studies have shown that a person's risk-taking preferences may change as a result of the preceding trial (win or loss). For example, the "house money effect" suggests that risk taking may increase after a win, whereas the "break even effect" posits that risk taking increases after a loss. Independent of those findings, a person's emotional state has been found to influence risk taking. For example, the "mood maintenance hypothesis" supports the notion that positive affect decreases risk taking, and related research finds that increased negative affect increases risk taking. Because winning and losing may influence one's emotional state, we sought to investigate how both previous outcomes, as well as a person's emotional responses to those outcomes, independently influence subsequent risk taking. To do this, data were collected using three simplified slot machines where the chance of winning each trial was set to 13%, 50%, and 87%, respectively. Evidence for the break even and house money effects were found on the 13% and 87% games, respectively. Likewise, emotional valence was found to predict risk taking on these two tasks, with emotional valence fully explaining the break even effect observed on the 13% game. In addition to these results, the present research revealed that risk taking is reduced following low-probability ("surprising") events (i.e., a win in the 13% condition or loss in the 87% condition). Dubbed "risk dishabituation," this phenomenon is discussed, along with its likely corresponding emotional experience--surprise.

  6. Sex-linked inheritance of hearing and song in the Belgian Waterslager canary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Timothy F; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Dooling, Robert J; Mundinger, Paul C

    2004-12-07

    Belgian Waterslager canaries have less sensitive hearing at high frequencies and produce songs with more energy at low frequencies than wild-type canaries. A backcross pedigree between Belgian Waterslager canaries and a domestic strain with wild-type song revealed inheritance patterns consistent with a factor of major effect located on the Z sex chromosome affecting both poor high-frequency hearing at 4 kHz and the relative energy in the spectra of the learned songs of males. Hearing thresholds at 4 kHz were significant predictors of the relative amount of song energy at 4 kHz for individual males. One hypothesis for the mechanistic basis of this correlation between hearing and song abnormalities is that a reduction in the ability to hear higher-frequency songs biases males towards learning lower-frequency songs.

  7. Audiometry and other hearing tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R A

    2016-01-01

    Hearing tests of the peripheral auditory system are well established and the pure-tone audiogram is generally regarded as the screening test of choice in adults. It allows the distinction to be made between conductive, i.e., outer- and middle-ear, and sensorineural, i.e., cochlear, hearing loss, and also to describe the configuration of the hearing thresholds in terms of severity and the frequency affected. Electrophysiologic testing with auditory potentials, e.g., the auditory brainstem response, can identify sites of lesion in the eighth nerve, brainstem, and more centrally. However, it is only in the last two decades that a battery of central auditory tests has been established that can probe the central pathways in more details, i.e., when the pure-tone audiogram may be normal, and yet the patient still has symptoms of hearing dysfunction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sudden hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ječmenica, Jovana; Bajec-Opančina, Aleksandra

    2014-08-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is defined as a unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is very rare in children. Sudden hearing loss is a symptom that suggests that there is a problem in the inner ear, surrounding structures, or the whole organism. The etiology and development of this disorder are still not fully understood. The literature contains numerous models of the pathogenesis of SSHL, with childhood SSHL having certain peculiarities. In practical terms, the multifactorial nature of SSHL is important in the choice of diagnostic methods and treatment methods. It is important to determine the cause and effect relationship between the underlying disease and hearing loss. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Hearing Voices and Seeing Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes accompanied by hallucinations or delusions (a fixed, false, and often bizarre belief). Hearing voices or seeing ... of his life such as at school, with friends, in the neighborhood, and with family. Any child ...

  10. Exploring Hearing Aid Problems: Perspectives of Hearing Aid Owners and Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca J; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Meyer, Carly J; Eikelboom, Robert H

    To gather perspectives of hearing aid owners and hearing healthcare clinicians with regard to problems that arise after hearing aid fitting and use these perspectives to generate a conceptual framework to gain a better understanding of these problems. Participants included a group of 17 hearing aid owners and a group of 21 hearing healthcare clinicians; data collection occurred separately for each group. Participants each attended two group sessions in Perth, Western Australia, wherein they: (1) generated statements describing the problems associated with hearing aids and (2) grouped and rated the statements to identify key themes. Concept mapping was used to generate a conceptual framework. Participants identified four concepts regarding hearing aid problems as follows: (1) hearing aid management; (2) hearing aid sound quality and performance; (3) feelings, thoughts, and behaviors; and (4) information and training. While hearing aid owners and clinicians generated similar results regarding the concepts derived, the clinicians reported that the problems identified had a greater negative impact on hearing aid success than did hearing aid owners. The magnitude and diversity of hearing aid problems identified in this study highlight the ongoing challenges that hearing aid owners face and suggest that current processes for hearing aid fitting can be improved. Problems relating to hearing aid management were most often deemed to have the greatest impact on hearing aid success and be the most preventable/solvable, and thus are a good starting point when addressing hearing aid-related problems.

  11. Noise-induced hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska; Adrian Davis

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medic...

  12. How Well Can Centenarians Hear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhongping; Zhao, Lijun; Pu, Lichun; Wang, Mingxiao; Zhang, Qian; He, David Z. Z.

    2013-01-01

    With advancements in modern medicine and significant improvements in life conditions in the past four decades, the elderly population is rapidly expanding. There is a growing number of those aged 100 years and older. While many changes in the human body occur with physiological aging, as many as 35% to 50% of the population aged 65 to 75 years have presbycusis. Presbycusis is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. There are many studies of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss in the United States, Europe, and Asia. However, no audiological assessment of the population aged 100 years and older has been done. Therefore, it is not clear how well centenarians can hear. We measured middle ear impedance, pure-tone behavioral thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission from 74 centenarians living in the city of Shaoxing, China, to evaluate their middle and inner ear functions. We show that most centenarian listeners had an “As” type tympanogram, suggesting reduced static compliance of the tympanic membrane. Hearing threshold tests using pure-tone audiometry show that all centenarian subjects had varying degrees of hearing loss. More than 90% suffered from moderate to severe (41 to 80 dB) hearing loss below 2,000 Hz, and profound (>81 dB) hearing loss at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Otoacoustic emission, which is generated by the active process of cochlear outer hair cells, was undetectable in the majority of listeners. Our study shows the extent and severity of hearing loss in the centenarian population and represents the first audiological assessment of their middle and inner ear functions. PMID:23755251

  13. How well can centenarians hear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Mao

    Full Text Available With advancements in modern medicine and significant improvements in life conditions in the past four decades, the elderly population is rapidly expanding. There is a growing number of those aged 100 years and older. While many changes in the human body occur with physiological aging, as many as 35% to 50% of the population aged 65 to 75 years have presbycusis. Presbycusis is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. There are many studies of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss in the United States, Europe, and Asia. However, no audiological assessment of the population aged 100 years and older has been done. Therefore, it is not clear how well centenarians can hear. We measured middle ear impedance, pure-tone behavioral thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission from 74 centenarians living in the city of Shaoxing, China, to evaluate their middle and inner ear functions. We show that most centenarian listeners had an "As" type tympanogram, suggesting reduced static compliance of the tympanic membrane. Hearing threshold tests using pure-tone audiometry show that all centenarian subjects had varying degrees of hearing loss. More than 90% suffered from moderate to severe (41 to 80 dB hearing loss below 2,000 Hz, and profound (>81 dB hearing loss at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Otoacoustic emission, which is generated by the active process of cochlear outer hair cells, was undetectable in the majority of listeners. Our study shows the extent and severity of hearing loss in the centenarian population and represents the first audiological assessment of their middle and inner ear functions.

  14. Protect Your Hearing at Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-09

    Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses. This podcast features information from CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on how to protect yourself from work-related noise-induced hearing loss.  Created: 11/9/2015 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 11/9/2015.

  15. Exploring the relationship between technology use, hearing help-seeking, and hearing aid outcomes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz Ham, Heidi; Bunn, Paul; Meyer, Carly; Khan, Asad; Hickson, Louise

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore technology use and its relationship to help-seeking for hearing impairment (HI) and success with hearing aids among older adults. Previous research had suggested a link between higher levels of technology use and hearing aid success. General technology use was evaluated using a purposefully developed 25-item questionnaire. Twelve items related to everyday technology use (e.g. DVD player) and 13 related to advanced technology use (e.g. Bluetooth). Four groups of older adults with HI participated in the study: (1) non-consulters (n=49), (2) consulters (n=62), (3) unsuccessful hearing aid owners (n=61), and (4) successful hearing aid owners (n=79). Preliminary analyses revealed a main effect in the use of everyday and advanced technology across the four participant groups. However, it was found that age and living arrangements accounted for most of the variance in reported everyday technology use (p=.030; p=.029, respectively) and age and gender accounted for the variance in reported advanced technology use (phearing aid owners, our findings did not support this prediction. Technology use did not vary by group membership once the covariates of age, gender, and living arrangements were accounted for.

  16. Advantages of binaural amplification to acceptable noise level of directional hearing aid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ja-Hee; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) would be lower (greater acceptance of noise) in binaural listening than in monaural listening condition and also whether meaningfulness of background speech noise would affect ANLs for directional microphone hearing aid users. In addition, any relationships between the individual binaural benefits on ANLs and the individuals' demographic information were investigated. Fourteen hearing aid users (mean age, 64 years) participated for experimental testing. For the ANL calculation, listeners' most comfortable listening levels and background noise level were measured. Using Korean ANL material, ANLs of all participants were evaluated under monaural and binaural amplification with a counterbalanced order. The ANLs were also compared across five types of competing speech noises, consisting of 1- through 8-talker background speech maskers. Seven young normal-hearing listeners (mean age, 27 years) participated for the same measurements as a pilot testing. The results demonstrated that directional hearing aid users accepted more noise (lower ANLs) with binaural amplification than with monaural amplification, regardless of the type of competing speech. When the background speech noise became more meaningful, hearing-impaired listeners accepted less amount of noise (higher ANLs), revealing that ANL is dependent on the intelligibility of the competing speech. The individuals' binaural advantages in ANLs were significantly greater for the listeners with longer experience of hearing aids, yet not related to their age or hearing thresholds. Binaural directional microphone processing allowed hearing aid users to accept a greater amount of background noise, which may in turn improve listeners' hearing aid success. Informational masking substantially influenced background noise acceptance. Given a significant association between ANLs and duration of hearing aid usage, ANL measurement can be useful for

  17. Tablet Audiometry in Canada's North: A Portable and Efficient Method for Hearing Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Ryan; Kong, David Chan Chun; Bromwich, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Access to hearing health care is limited in many parts of the world, creating a lack of prompt diagnosis, which further complicates treatment. The use of portable audiometry for hearing loss testing can improve access to diagnostics in marginalized populations. Our study objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in children aged 4 to 11 years in Iqaluit, Nunavut, and (2) to test and demonstrate the use of our tablet audiometer as a portable hearing-testing device in a remote location. Prospective cross-sectional observational. Remote elementary schools in 3 Canadian Northern communities. Tablet audiometers were used to test hearing in 218 children. Air conduction pure tones thresholds were obtained at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. Children with hearing loss ≥30 dB in either ear were referred for audiology services. Tablet audiometry screening testing revealed abnormal results in 14.8% of the study participants. No significant difference in the rate of hearing loss was seen by sex; however, the rate of hearing loss decreased significantly with increasing age. The median duration of the hearing test was 5 minutes 30 seconds. Of the study population, 14.8% tested positive for hearing loss based on our interactive tablet audiometer. In this setting, the tablet audiometer was both time efficient and largely language independent. This type of testing is valuable for providing much-needed hearing health care for high-risk populations in rural and remote areas where audiology services are often unavailable. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  18. Hearing Impairment Affects Dementia Incidence. An Analysis Based on Longitudinal Health Claims Data in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Óvári, Attila; Kilimann, Ingo; Witt, Gabriele; Doblhammer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed an association between hearing impairment and dementia. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence in a longitudinal study, and whether ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist care, care level, institutionalization, or depression mediates or moderates this pathway. The present study used a longitudinal sample of 154,783 persons aged 65 and older from claims data of the largest German health insurer; containing 14,602 incident dementia diagnoses between 2006 and 2010. Dementia and hearing impairment diagnoses were defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes. We used a Kaplan Meier estimator and performed Cox proportional hazard models to explore the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence, controlling for ENT specialist care, care level, institutionalization, and depression. Gender, age, and comorbidities were controlled for as potential confounders. Patients with bilateral (HR = 1.43, pimpairment had higher risks of dementia incidence than patients without hearing impairment. We found no significant effect for unilateral hearing impairment and other diseases of the ear. The effect of hearing impairment was only partly mediated through ENT specialist utilization. Significant interaction between hearing impairment and specialist care, care level, and institutionalization, respectively, indicated moderating effects. We discuss possible explanations for these effects. This study underlines the importance of the association between hearing impairment and dementia. Preserving hearing ability may maintain social participation and may reduce the burden associated with dementia. The particular impact of hearing aid use should be the subject of further investigations, as it offers potential intervention on the pathway to dementia. PMID:27391486

  19. Effects of hearing loss and cognitive load on speech recognition with competing talkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut eMeister

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyday communication frequently comprises situations with more than one talker speaking at a time. These situations are challenging since they pose high attentional and memory demands placing cognitive load on the listener. Hearing impairment additionally exacerbates communication problems under these circumstances. We examined the effects of hearing loss and attention tasks on speech recognition with competing talkers in older adults with and without hearing impairment. We hypothesized that hearing loss would affect word identification, talker separation and word recall and that the difficulties experienced by the hearing impaired listeners would be especially pronounced in a task with high attentional and memory demands. Two listener groups closely matched regarding their age and neuropsychological profile but differing in hearing acuity were examined regarding their speech recognition with competing talkers in two different tasks. One task required repeating back words from one target talker (1TT while ignoring the competing talker whereas the other required repeating back words from both talkers (2TT. The competing talkers differed with respect to their voice characteristics. Moreover, sentences either with low or high context were used in order to consider linguistic properties. Compared to their normal hearing peers, listeners with hearing loss revealed limited speech recognition in both tasks. Their difficulties were especially pronounced in the more demanding 2TT task. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanisms, different error sources, namely having misunderstood, confused, or omitted words were investigated. Misunderstanding and omitting words were more frequently observed in the hearing impaired than in the normal hearing listeners. In line with common speech perception models it is suggested that these effects are related to impaired object formation and taxed working memory capacity (WMC. In a post hoc analysis the

  20. Each individual is a surprise: a conversation with Marianne Horney Eckardt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2014-06-01

    "Each Individual is a Surprise" is a brief account of a dialogue between Marianne Horney Eckardt and myself about the state of psychoanalysis and the psychoanalytic process, the danger of idolatry, the damaging impact of psychoanalytic schools when they create a standardized and pathologizing approach to people, the value of curiosity and humility and retaining one's clinical creativity. The role of Rank, Horney, Sullivan, and Fromm in Dr. Eckardt's long life and rich work is touched upon.

  1. Human Amygdala Tracks a Feature-Based Valence Signal Embedded within the Facial Expression of Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M Justin; Mattek, Alison M; Bennett, Randi H; Solomon, Kimberly M; Shin, Jin; Whalen, Paul J

    2017-09-27

    Human amygdala function has been traditionally associated with processing the affective valence (negative vs positive) of an emotionally charged event, especially those that signal fear or threat. However, this account of human amygdala function can be explained by alternative views, which posit that the amygdala might be tuned to either (1) general emotional arousal (activation vs deactivation) or (2) specific emotion categories (fear vs happy). Delineating the pure effects of valence independent of arousal or emotion category is a challenging task, given that these variables naturally covary under many circumstances. To circumvent this issue and test the sensitivity of the human amygdala to valence values specifically, we measured the dimension of valence within the single facial expression category of surprise. Given the inherent valence ambiguity of this category, we show that surprised expression exemplars are attributed valence and arousal values that are uniquely and naturally uncorrelated. We then present fMRI data from both sexes, showing that the amygdala tracks these consensus valence values. Finally, we provide evidence that these valence values are linked to specific visual features of the mouth region, isolating the signal by which the amygdala detects this valence information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is an open question as to whether human amygdala function tracks the valence value of cues in the environment, as opposed to either a more general emotional arousal value or a more specific emotion category distinction. Here, we demonstrate the utility of surprised facial expressions because exemplars within this emotion category take on valence values spanning the dimension of bipolar valence (positive to negative) at a consistent level of emotional arousal. Functional neuroimaging data showed that amygdala responses tracked the valence of surprised facial expressions, unconfounded by arousal. Furthermore, a machine learning classifier identified

  2. Childhood Otitis Media: A Cohort Study With 30-Year Follow-Up of Hearing (The HUNT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Kvestad, Ellen; Engdahl, Bo

    2015-01-01

    To study the extent to which otitis media (OM) in childhood is associated with adult hearing thresholds. Furthermore, to study whether the effects of OM on adult hearing thresholds are moderated by age or noise exposure. Population-based cohort study of 32,786 participants who had their hearing tested by pure-tone audiometry in primary school and again at ages ranging from 20 to 56 years. Three thousand sixty-six children were diagnosed with hearing loss; the remaining sample had normal childhood hearing. Compared with participants with normal childhood hearing, those diagnosed with childhood hearing loss caused by otitis media with effusion (n = 1255), chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM; n = 108), or hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM; n = 613) had significantly increased adult hearing thresholds in the whole frequency range (2 dB/17-20 dB/7-10 dB, respectively). The effects were adjusted for age, sex, and noise exposure. Children diagnosed with hearing loss after rAOM had somewhat improved hearing thresholds as adults. The effects of CSOM and hearing loss after rAOM on adult hearing thresholds were larger in participants tested in middle adulthood (ages 40 to 56 years) than in those tested in young adulthood (ages 20 to 40 years). Eardrum pathology added a marginally increased risk of adult hearing loss (1-3 dB) in children with otitis media with effusion or hearing loss after rAOM. The study could not reveal significant differences in the effect of self-reported noise exposure on adult hearing thresholds between the groups with OM and the group with normal childhood hearing. This cohort study indicates that CSOM and rAOM in childhood are associated with adult hearing loss, underlining the importance of optimal treatment in these conditions. It appears that ears with a subsequent hearing loss after OM in childhood age at a faster rate than those without; however this should be confirmed by studies with several follow-up tests through

  3. Acoustic temporal modulation detection in normal-hearing and cochlear implanted listeners: effects of hearing mechanism and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyun; Won, Jong Ho; Horn, David L; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Temporal modulation detection ability matures over many years after birth and may be particularly sensitive to experience during this period. Profound hearing loss during early childhood might result in greater perceptual deficits than a similar loss beginning in adulthood. We tested this idea by measuring performance in temporal modulation detection in profoundly deaf children and adults fitted with cochlear implants (CIs). At least two independent variables could constrain temporal modulation detection performance in children with CIs: altered encoding of modulation information due to the CI-auditory nerve interface, and atypical development of central processing of sound information provided by CIs. The effect of altered encoding was investigated by testing subjects with one of two different hearing mechanisms (normal hearing vs. CI) and the effect of atypical development was studied by testing two different age groups. All subjects were tested for their ability to detect acoustic temporal modulations of sound amplitude. A comparison of the slope, or cutoff frequency, of the temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) among the four subject groups revealed that temporal resolution was mainly constrained by hearing mechanism: normal-hearing listeners could detect smaller amplitude modulations at high modulation frequencies than CI users. In contrast, a comparison of the height of the TMTFs revealed a significant interaction between hearing mechanism and age group on overall sensitivity to temporal modulation: sensitivity was significantly poorer in children with CIs, relative to the other three groups. Results suggest that there is an age-specific vulnerability of intensity discrimination or non-sensory factors, which subsequently affects sensitivity to temporal modulation in prelingually deaf children who use CIs.

  4. [Hearing loss and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhos, David; Villeuneuve, Alexandre; Kim, Soo; Hammoudi, Karim; Hommet, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that subjects with hearing loss are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. Hearing loss can be consecutive to presbycusis and/or to central auditory dysfunction. Standard audiometric measures (pure tone and speech intelligibility) allow the diagnosis of presbycusis. However, to demonstrate central auditory dysfunction, specific audiometric tests are needed such as noisy and/or dichotic tests. Actually, no consensus exists to investigate hearing loss in people with Alzheimer's disease though hearing loss may be an early manifestation of Alzheimer's disease. Until now, investigations and clinical procedure related to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease ignored the hearing ability of the patient. However, the major part of care management and investigations implies the patient's communication ability with the caregivers. Hearing loss may be one of the most unrecognized deficit in subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Auditory rehabilitation could benefit to the patient in order to lessen cognitive decline, but this must be investigated during longitudinal studies in order to clearly demonstrate their efficiency.

  5. Analysis of physiological signals for recognition of boredom, pain, and surprise emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Hye; Park, Byoung-Jun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to examine the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise. In addition to that, it was conducted to propose approaches for emotion recognition based on physiological signals. Three emotions, boredom, pain, and surprise, are induced through the presentation of emotional stimuli and electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (SKT), and photoplethysmography (PPG) as physiological signals are measured to collect a dataset from 217 participants when experiencing the emotions. Twenty-seven physiological features are extracted from the signals to classify the three emotions. The discriminant function analysis (DFA) as a statistical method, and five machine learning algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), self-organizing map (SOM), Naïve Bayes algorithm, and support vector machine (SVM)) are used for classifying the emotions. The result shows that the difference of physiological responses among emotions is significant in heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance response (SCR), mean skin temperature (meanSKT), blood volume pulse (BVP), and pulse transit time (PTT), and the highest recognition accuracy of 84.7% is obtained by using DFA. This study demonstrates the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise and the best emotion recognizer for the classification of the three emotions by using physiological signals.

  6. The plant host can affect the encapsidation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA: BMV virions are surprisingly heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Vaughan, Robert C; Tragesser, Brady; Hoover, Haley; Kao, C Cheng

    2014-03-06

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) packages its genomic and subgenomic RNAs into three separate viral particles. BMV purified from barley, wheat, and tobacco have distinct relative abundances of the encapsidated RNAs. We seek to identify the basis for the host-dependent differences in viral RNA encapsidation. Sequencing of the viral RNAs revealed recombination events in the 3' untranslated region of RNA1 of BMV purified from barley and wheat, but not from tobacco. However, the relative amounts of the BMV RNAs that accumulated in barley and wheat are similar and RNA accumulation is not sufficient to account for the difference in RNA encapsidation. Virions purified from barley and wheat were found to differ in their isoelectric points, resistance to proteolysis, and contacts between the capsid residues and the RNA. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that virions from the three hosts had different post-translational modifications that should impact the physiochemical properties of the virions. Another major source of variation in RNA encapsidation was due to the purification of BMV particles to homogeneity. Highly enriched BMV present in lysates had a surprising range of sizes, buoyant densities, and distinct relative amounts of encapsidated RNAs. These results show that the encapsidated BMV RNAs reflect a combination of host effects on the physiochemical properties of the viral capsids and the enrichment of a subset of virions. The previously unexpected heterogeneity in BMV should influence the timing of the infection and also the host innate immune responses. © 2013.

  7. Early Hearing Detection and Vocabulary of Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Sedey, Allison L; Wiggin, Mallene; Chung, Winnie

    2017-08-01

    To date, no studies have examined vocabulary outcomes of children meeting all 3 components of the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) guidelines (hearing screening by 1 month, diagnosis of hearing loss by 3 months, and intervention by 6 months of age). The primary purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of the current EHDI 1-3-6 policy on vocabulary outcomes across a wide geographic area. A secondary goal was to confirm the impact of other demographic variables previously reported to be related to language outcomes. This was a cross-sectional study of 448 children with bilateral hearing loss between 8 and 39 months of age (mean = 25.3 months, SD = 7.5 months). The children lived in 12 different states and were participating in the National Early Childhood Assessment Project. The combination of 6 factors in a regression analysis accounted for 41% of the variance in vocabulary outcomes. Vocabulary quotients were significantly higher for children who met the EHDI guidelines, were younger, had no additional disabilities, had mild to moderate hearing loss, had parents who were deaf or hard of hearing, and had mothers with higher levels of education. Vocabulary learning may be enhanced with system improvements that increase the number of children meeting the current early identification and intervention guidelines. In addition, intervention efforts need to focus on preventing widening delays with chronological age, assisting mothers with lower levels of education, and incorporating adults who are deaf/hard-of-hearing in the intervention process. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Status hearings in drug court: when more is less and less is more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B; Lee, Patricia A; Kirby, Kimberly C; Bovasso, Gregory; McLellan, A Thomas

    2002-10-01

    We examined the effects of increasing the number of times misdemeanor drug court clients appeared before a judge for judicial status hearings. Our previous findings showed no main effect of increased hearings during the first 14 weeks of the program. The present study examined participants' discharge status in the program, and also explored potential interactions between client characteristics and the frequency of judicial status hearings on outcomes. Results revealed no main effects for hearing frequency on graduation status. Drug offenders who satisfied DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder (APD) achieved more weeks of urinalysis-confirmed drug abstinence when assigned to more frequent judicial status hearings, whereas subjects without APD achieved more abstinence and were more likely to graduate successfully from the program when assigned to less frequent hearings. Additionally, clients with a history of substance abuse treatment achieved more weeks of abstinence when assigned to more frequent hearings. These findings lend useful guidance to drug courts. Status hearings are expensive and time consuming and should be targeted to clients who would benefit most from them.

  9. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2') following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation.

  10. Hearing rehabilitation with single-stage bilateral vibroplasty in a child with Franceschetti syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Sona; Rahne, Torsten; Kösling, Sabrina; Eichler, Gerburg; Plontke, Stefan K

    2014-05-01

    Hearing is of utmost importance for normal speech and social development. Even children who have mild or unilateral permanent hearing loss may experience difficulties with understanding speech, as well as problems with educational and psycho-social development. The increasing advantages of middle-ear implant technologies are opening new perspectives for restoring hearing. Active middle-ear implants can be used in children and adolescents with hearing loss. In addition to the well-documented results for improving speech intelligibility and quality of hearing in sensorineural hearing loss active middle-ear implants are now successfully used in patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss. In this article we present a case of successful, single-stage vibroplasty, on the right side with the fixation of the FMT on the stapes and PORP CLiP vibroplasty on the left side in a 6-year-old girl with bilateral mixed hearing loss and multiple dyslalia associated with Franceschetti syndrome (mandibulofacial dysostosis). CT revealed bilateral middle-ear malformations as well as an atretic right and stenotic left external auditory canal. Due to craniofacial dysmorphia airway and (post)operative, management is significantly more difficult in patients with a Franceschetti syndrome which in this case favoured a single-stage bilateral procedure. No intra- or postoperative surgical complications were reported. The middle-ear implants were activated 4 weeks after surgery. In the audiological examination 6 months after surgery, the child showed 100% speech intelligibility with activated implants on each side.

  11. The impact of hyperacusis and hearing loss on tinnitus perception in German teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P Meuer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that a notable number of teachers are concerned with conditions of auditory impairment such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and hearing loss. Studies focussing on characteristics and interdependencies of single hearing disorders (HD are rare. This explorative study examines tinnitus, hyperacusis, hearing loss, and all possible combinations (tinnitus + hyperacusis; tinnitus + hearing loss; hyperacusis + hearing loss; tinnitus, hyperacusis + hearing loss in German teachers. The impact of single HD on perceived distress, depending on the number and kind of comorbid HD, was of special interest. Information was collected via online survey and includes self-reported data as well as data from the Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (Mini-TQ. Results show that most of the 1468 participants (45% suffered from two HD in different combinations, and the fewest (25% were afflicted with only one HD. Considering the seven HD groups, most teachers (30% suffered from all three HD. Across all groups, tinnitus was present in 1096, hyperacusis in 988, and hearing loss in 937 teachers. Multiple intergroup comparisons revealed that self-rated tinnitus-related distress rose significantly with the increasing number of HD. No significant differences were found for distress ratings of hyperacusis between the four groups including hyperacusis and between the four groups with hearing loss. In the Mini-TQ, groups including hyperacusis scored considerably higher than those excluding hyperacusis. The frequent prevalence of HD in German teachers points to a need of better noise prevention in German schools as one priority of occupational safety.

  12. Children using Cochlear Implants Capitalize on Acoustical Hearing for Music Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talar eHopyan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs electrically stimulate the auditory nerve providing children who are deaf with access to speech and music. Because of device limitations, it was hypothesized that children using CIs develop abnormal perception of musical cues. Perception of pitch and rhythm as well as memory for music was measured by the children’s version of the Montreal Battery of Amusia (MBEA in 23 unilateral CI users and 22 age-matched children with normal hearing. Children with CIs were less accurate than their normal hearing peers (p<0.05. CI users were best able to discern rhythm changes (p < .01 and to remember musical pieces (p < .01. Contrary to expectations, abilities to hear cues in music improved as the age at implantation increased (p < .01. Further analyses revealed that this was because the children implanted at older ages also had better low frequency hearing prior to cochlear implantation and were able to use this hearing prior to cochlear implantation by wearing hearing aids. Access to early acoustical hearing in the lower frequency ranges appears to establish a base for music perception, which can be accessed with later electrical CI hearing.

  13. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Campbell

    Full Text Available Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2' following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation.

  14. A comprehensive analysis of hearing preservation after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Isaac; Sughrue, Michael E; Han, Seunggu J; Aranda, Derick; Pitts, Lawrence H; Cheung, Steven W; Parsa, Andrew T

    2010-04-01

    Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) has evolved into a practical alternative to open microsurgical resection in the treatment of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). Hearing preservation rates in GKS series suggest very favorable outcomes without the possible acute morbidity associated with open microsurgery. To mitigate institutional and practitioner bias, the authors performed an analytical review of the published literature on the GKS treatment of vestibular schwannoma patients. Their aim was to objectively characterize the prognostic factors that contribute to hearing preservation after GKS, as well as methodically summarize the reported literature describing hearing preservation after GKS for VS. A comprehensive search of the English-language literature revealed a total of 254 published studies reporting assessable and quantifiable outcome data obtained in patients who underwent radiosurgery for VSs. Inclusion criteria for articles were 4-fold: 1) hearing preservation rates reported specifically for VS; 2) hearing status reported using the American Association of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) or Gardner-Robertson classification; 3) documentation of initial tumor size; and 4) GKS was the only radiosurgical modality in the treatment. In the analysis only patients with AAO-HNS Class A or B or Gardner-Robertson Grade I or II status at the last follow-up visit were defined as having preserved hearing. Hearing preservation and outcome data were then aggregated and analyzed based on the radiation dose, tumor volume, and patient age. The 45 articles that met the authors' inclusion criteria represented 4234 patients in whom an overall hearing preservation rate was 51%, irrespective of radiation dose, patient age, or tumor volume. Practitioners who delivered an average preservation rate (60.5% at 13 Gy; p = 0.0005). Patients with smaller tumors (average tumor volume preservation rate (62%) comparable with patients harboring larger tumors (61%) (p = 0

  15. Clinical reasons for returning hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ju Young; Oh, In-Hwan; Jung, Tae Suk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Ho Min; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-04-01

    Increases in older aged populations and exposure to complicated noise environments have increased the number of hearing-impaired patients, creating greater demands for hearing aids. We have assessed the reasons that individuals rejected wearing and returned properly prescribed hearing aids, as well as differences in individual factors between younger and elderly adults. Of 1138 patients for whom hearing aids were prescribed at Kyung Hee University Medical Center Hearing Aid Clinic, 81 (6.14%) returned their hearing aids, including 36 patients aged hearing-related, and hearing aid-related factors were assessed by retrospective chart analysis and phone survey and compared in the two groups. The primary symptoms reported by the 81 patients who returned their hearing aids were hearing disturbance, ringing, and fullness in the ear, in that order and in both groups. The rate of hearing aid return was similar in elderly females and males (p=0.288). The spondee recognition threshold was significantly higher in younger than in elderly adults (63.3±14.0 dB vs. 55.6±14.74 dB, p=0.019), but the hearing aid return rate was highest in patients with moderate hearing loss in both groups. In evaluating the reasons for return of hearing aids, we found that ineffectiveness of the device was the most frequent reason, accounting for 32.0% of returns, the highest percentage in both groups, with the most frequent patient problem caused by management difficulty in elderly and financial difficulty in younger adults. The reasons for hearing aid return were different in two groups. Financial considerations were cited more by younger adults, while difficulties in managing hearing aids were cited more frequently by elderly adults. Patients in both groups, however, reported that the most frequent reasons for return were inadequate hearing improvement and inconvenience wearing the hearing aid due to noise amplification.

  16. Surprise and Uncertainty—Framing Regional Geohazards in the Theory of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate M. W. Ratter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the concepts of uncertainty and surprise as key variables of a socio-ecological system’s behavior in the context of the theory of complexity. Experiences from the past have shown that living with uncertainty is part of our daily life and surprises are only surprising because our perspective of system trajectories is basically linear and non-dynamic. The future of humanity is dependent on the understanding of the system’s behavior and needs a change in perspective of linearity to non-linearity and from the planning imperative to a management hedging uncertainty and surprise. In the context of humanity’s future, the theory of complexity offers a new perspective on system trajectories and their understanding of surprises and uncertainty. There is a need for a Gestaltwechsel—a change in perception—which helps to see things differently and fosters the search for new answers to emerging questions at the human-nature interface. Drawing on the case study of hazard management the paper will explain the necessity of analysis system’s behavior and the taking into account of multi-agent behavior on the micro level which led to emergent behavior on the macro-level of the system. Regional geohazards are explained as the regional impact of an uncontrolled risk based on a state of a natural feature that has a direct impact on a regional population being affected by the appearance of a hazard and its development into damage. By acting in space, time and connectivity, people construct hazardscapes and change risk into regional geohazards. This concept shows relevance for future mitigation and adaptation measures. The theory of complexity can help in engendering the necessary shift in perspective. What is non-linear dynamic thinking as suggested by the theory of complexity? Why is the consideration of the system’s behavior crucial and not just the number of system’s elements? What is the role of agents in these systems? In

  17. The Society and the Hearing Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Danesh

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Many people around the world are in need for using hearing aid, a prothesis which is prescribed for compensating the hearing loss in hard of hearing patients.Although Hearing aid has crucial role in improving hearing skills in such patients, it has many psychological effects and Social premonitions for the users.we will discuss some of these distresses and the common approaches for resolving economical, cosmetic and the emotional and social problems relted to hearing aid will be discussed.

  18. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Hearing disorders in peripheral arterial vascular diseases. A contribution on hearing loss in the aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, G

    1987-12-01

    Otologic-audiologic examination was carried out in 171 patients (aged between 37-86; average age 64) with confirmed internal angiologic peripheral arterial vascular disease. Additional findings were observed in 94 of these patients who revealed an obliteration of the internal carotid artery or cerebral ischaemic stroke. Diseases of the ear were excluded clinically and audiologically. The mean hearing loss shows a sensory-neural high-tone loss in the tone audiogram. The range of scatter increases proportionately to the increase in tone loss. If compared with the physiologic examination of geriatric patients, the total word comprehension and minimal discrimination loss in the speech audiogram point towards a pathologic impairment of hearing in old age. The total word comprehension amounts to 251.20% in the 51-60 age group, 250.40% in the persons 61-70 years of age, 180.96% for the 71-80 age group and 131.67% for those over 80 years of age. The minimal discrimination loss comprises 4.00% for the 51-60 age group, 4.19% for the 61-70 group, 21.35% for 71-80 age bracket and 35.62% for those over 80. On the strength of these findings, an arterial sclerotic vascular disease should be considered as one of the multifactorial genesis of hearing impairment in old age. Special attention should be focussed on decompensation of the total word comprehension and minimal discrimination loss before the age of eighty. This would contribute towards a differentiation of physiologic and pathologic hearing diseases in old age.

  20. The oil surprise in Brazil, and changes in the strategic, institutional and legal context; La surprise petroliere au Bresil et son contexte de changement strategique, institutionnel et legal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Medeiros Costa, H.K. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moutinho Dos Santos, E. [Sao Paulo Univ., Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    The discovery of large amounts of oil in the rocky layers under the halite (or pre-halite) of off-shore sedimentary basins is a veritable oil surprise in Brazil, changing the country's oil strategy context. This event is being debated in all political circles and has also gained widespread attention in national and international media. It is becoming a major issue impacting on campaign impetus for the 2010 presidential elections, which look to be difficult and unpredictable for predictable or all potential candidates. The administration of president Lula has aimed to put in place a clear historical (and geographical) limit by proposing significant legal and institutional changes for the development of pre-halite oil resources (as opposed to the current scheme which will remain valid for reserves found in the rocky layers above the halite, or post halite). The purpose of this article is to introduce the main legal and institutional change actors that are proposed. The text mainly focuses on the upstream activities from oil exploration to production and on the capture and distribution of the oil rent. These are the two main areas that the new legal and institutional scheme will cover. (authors)

  1. Self-reported hearing problems among older adults: prevalence and comparison to measured hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Samuli; Bloigu, Risto; Majamaa, Kari; Sorri, Martti; Mäki-Torkko, Elina

    2011-09-01

    There are not many population-based epidemiological studies on the association between self-reported hearing problems and measured hearing thresholds in older adults. Previous studies have shown that the relationship between self-reported hearing difficulties and measured hearing thresholds is unclear and, according to our knowledge, there are no previous population-based studies reporting hearing thresholds among subjects with hyperacusis. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported hearing problems, that is, hearing difficulties, difficulties in following a conversation in noise, tinnitus, and hyperacusis, and to compare the results with measured hearing thresholds in older adults. Cross-sectional, population-based, and unscreened. Random sample of subjects (n=850) aged 54-66 yr living in the city of Oulu (Finland) and the surrounding areas. Otological examination, pure tone audiometry, questionnaire survey The prevalence of self-reported hearing problems was 37.1% for hearing difficulties, 43.3% for difficulties in following a conversation in noise, 29.2% for tinnitus, and 17.2% for hyperacusis. More than half of the subjects had no hearing impairment, or HI (BEHL[better ear hearing level]0.5-4 kHzhearing problems. Subjects with self-reported hearing problems, including tinnitus and hyperacusis, had significantly poorer hearing thresholds than those who did not report hearing problems. Self-reported hearing difficulties predicted hearing impairment in the pure-tone average at 4, 6, and 8 kHz, and at the single frequency of 4 kHz. The results indicate that self-reported hearing difficulties are more frequent than hearing impairment defined by audiometric measurement. Furthermore, self-reported hearing difficulties seem to predict hearing impairment at high frequencies (4-8 kHz) rather than at the frequencies of 0.5-4 kHz, which are commonly used to define the degree of hearing impairment in medical and legal issues. American Academy of Audiology.

  2. Directional hearing: from biophysical binaural cues to directional hearing outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    When insects communicate by sound, or use acoustic cues to escape predators or detect prey or hosts they have to localize the sound in most cases, to perform adaptive behavioral responses. In the case of particle velocity receivers such as the antennae of mosquitoes, directionality is no problem because such receivers are inherently directional. Insects equipped with bilateral pairs of tympanate ears could principally make use of binaural cues for sound localization, like all other animals with two ears. However, their small size is a major problem to create sufficiently large binaural cues, with respect to both interaural time differences (ITDs, because interaural distances are so small), but also with respect to interaural intensity differences (IIDs), since the ratio of body size to the wavelength of sound is rather unfavorable for diffractive effects. In my review, I will only shortly cover these biophysical aspects of directional hearing. Instead, I will focus on aspects of directional hearing which received relatively little attention previously, the evolution of a pressure difference receiver, 3D-hearing, directional hearing outdoors, and directional hearing for auditory scene analysis.

  3. Temporal and spectral resolution of hearing in patients with precipitous hearing loss: Gap release of masking (GRM) and the role of cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2005-01-01

    gaps, masking was measured repeatedly over 3 months post-fitting. GRM was characterized as the release from masking under the gap conditions. The cognitive skills of the participants were assessed with two tests for measuring working memory capacity and lexical vigilance. The results showed that while...... the masking by one-octave wide noise maskers without any gaps was constant over time, GRM increased over time for maskers involving a temporal gap. Moreover, at low frequencies where the subjects had normal hearing-threshold levels, they performed as hearing-impaired for the spectral-gap condition....... Surprisingly, the results also showed moderate though highly significant correlation between lexical vigilance and GRM. [Work supported by the William Demant Foundation.] a)Currently at CNBH, Dept. Physiol., University of Cambridge, CB2 3EG Cambridge, UK....

  4. Acoustics and Hearing

    CERN Document Server

    Damaske, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When one listens to music at home, one would like to have an acoustic impression close to that of being in the concert hall. Until recently this meant elaborate multi-channelled sound systems with 5 or more speakers. But head-related stereophony achieves the surround-sound effect in living rooms with only two loudspeakers. By virtue of their slight directivity as well as an electronic filter the limitations previously common to two-speaker systems can be overcome and this holds for any arbitrary two-channel recording. The book also investigates the question of how a wide and diffuse sound image can arise in concert halls and shows that the quality of concert halls decisively depends on diffuse sound images arising in the onset of reverberation. For this purpose a strong onset of reverberation is modified in an anechoic chamber by electroacoustic means. Acoustics and Hearing proposes ideas concerning signal processing in the auditory system that explain the measured results and the resultant sound effects plea...

  5. Newborn hearing screening vs later hearing screening and developmental outcomes in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, A.M.; Konings, S.; Dekker, F.W.; Beers, M. van; Wever, C.; Frijns, J.H.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Admiraal, R.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Newborn hearing screening programs have been implemented in many countries because it was thought that the earlier permanent childhood hearing impairment is detected, the less developmentally disadvantaged children would become. To date, however, no strong evidence exists for universal

  6. Do Hearing Aids Improve Affect Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Juliane; Herzog, Diana; Scharenborg, Odette; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Normal-hearing listeners use acoustic cues in speech to interpret a speaker's emotional state. This study investigates the effect of hearing aids on the perception of the emotion dimensions arousal (aroused/calm) and valence (positive/negative attitude) in older adults with hearing loss. More specifically, we investigate whether wearing a hearing aid improves the correlation between affect ratings and affect-related acoustic parameters. To that end, affect ratings by 23 hearing-aid users were compared for aided and unaided listening. Moreover, these ratings were compared to the ratings by an age-matched group of 22 participants with age-normal hearing.For arousal, hearing-aid users rated utterances as generally more aroused in the aided than in the unaided condition. Intensity differences were the strongest indictor of degree of arousal. Among the hearing-aid users, those with poorer hearing used additional prosodic cues (i.e., tempo and pitch) for their arousal ratings, compared to those with relatively good hearing. For valence, pitch was the only acoustic cue that was associated with valence. Neither listening condition nor hearing loss severity (differences among the hearing-aid users) influenced affect ratings or the use of affect-related acoustic parameters. Compared to the normal-hearing reference group, ratings of hearing-aid users in the aided condition did not generally differ in both emotion dimensions. However, hearing-aid users were more sensitive to intensity differences in their arousal ratings than the normal-hearing participants.We conclude that the use of hearing aids is important for the rehabilitation of affect perception and particularly influences the interpretation of arousal.

  7. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Ramdoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties were offered formal audiological assessment. Results: Screening was performed on 51 patients aged between 70 and 95 years. Of the patients, 21 (41% reported hearing loss and 16 (31% failed the whisper test. A total of 37 patients (73% were referred for audiological assessment with 17 (33% found to have aidable hearing loss and 11 were fitted with hearing aids (22%. Discussion: This study highlights the high prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients. Easy two-step screening can accurately identify patients with undiagnosed deafness resulting in significant proportions receiving hearing aids. Key sentences Approximately 14% of the elderly population use hearing aids despite a reported prevalence of deafness in up to 55%. The use of hearing aids is associated with an improvement in physical, emotional, mental and social well-being. An easy screening test for hearing loss consists of patient-reported hearing loss and a whisper test. Opportunistic screening of elderly inpatients resulted in referral of 73% of screened patients for formal audiology. Of the screened patients, 22% were provided with hearing aids.

  8. The cormorant ear – an adaptation to underwater hearing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    Depending on species, diving birds may spend 2-20 minutes under water during a single foraging dive when they may reach depths ranging from one to several hundred meters. Surprisingly little is known about avian underwater hearing despite the fact that several hundred species dive for food. We do...... was similar to that reported for birds of the same size in air. The bandwidth and slopes of the audiograms were similar in air and water. However, in air the highest sensitivity was found at 1-2 kHz, whereas it was displaced towards lower frequencies under water. These results suggest that cormorants have...... anatomy. Wild-caught fledglings were anesthetized and their auditory brainstem response (ABR) to clicks and tone bursts was measured, first in an anechoic box in air and then in a large water-filled tank with their head and neck submerged 10 cm below the surface. The overall shape of air audiograms...

  9. A qualitative study exploring use of the surprise question in the care of older people: perceptions of general practitioners and challenges for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Margaret; Nicholson, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    The question "Would you be surprised if this patient were to die in the next 6-12 months?" has been included in UK palliative care guidance with the aim of supporting the identification and care planning of those nearing the end of life. Little is known about how the surprise question is utilised in the care of older people within primary care. This study sought to explore the perceptions and experiences of general practitioners (GPs). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 GPs. Each interview reflected on the care of two people, aged 80 years or older, selected by the GP as possibly being in the last year of life. Analysis followed a grounded theory approach within a framework of interpretive thematic analysis. Data discussing 22 clinical cases revealed the difficulties experienced by GPs when assessing prognosis for older people with non-malignant conditions, despite their recognition of multiple mortality risk factors and high symptom burden. GPs did not appear to include the surprise question within their usual practice and expressed concerns regarding its use to facilitate discussion of advance care plans. These concerns highlighted the subjective nature of the surprise question and potential barriers to conducting discussions of preferences for future care. Greater understanding is needed as to the difficulties experienced by GPs when assessing prognosis in older people. We propose a thematic model which could support GPs by focusing assessment on the supportive and palliative care needs of older people nearing the end of life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Hearing Disorders and Sensorineural Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fioretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological age-related hearing loss is defined as presbycusis and it is characterized by reduced hearing sensitivity and problems in understanding spoken language especially in a noisy environment. In elderly the reduced speech recognition is generally caused by a reduction of the cochlear cells in the organ of Corti and degeneration of the central auditory pathways. In order to have a complete management strategy of central and peripheral presbycusis the diagnostic evaluation should include clinical ENT examination, standard audiological tests, and tests of central auditory function. Treatment should include not only the appropriate instruments for peripheral compensation but also auditory rehabilitative training and counseling to prevent social isolation and loss of autonomy. Other common hearing disorders in elderly are tinnitus and hyperacusis which are often undervalued. Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of a “phantom” sound due to abnormal auditory perception. Hyperacusis is defined as a reduced tolerance to ordinary environmental sounds. Furthermore auditory, visual, nociceptive, and proprioceptive systems may be involved together in a possible context of “sensorineural aging.” The aim of this review is to underline the presence of hearing disorders like tinnitus and hyperacusis which in many cases coexist with hearing loss in elderly.

  11. Prediction of hearing outcomes by multiple regression analysis in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Tabata, Takahisa; Koizumi, Hiroki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Takeuchi, Shoko; Kitamura, Takuro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to create a multiple regression model for predicting hearing outcomes of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). The participants were 205 consecutive patients (205 ears) with ISSNHL (hearing level ≥ 40 dB, interval between onset and treatment ≤ 30 days). They received systemic steroid administration combined with intratympanic steroid injection. Data were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses. Three hearing indices (percentage hearing improvement, hearing gain, and posttreatment hearing level [HLpost]) and 7 prognostic factors (age, days from onset to treatment, initial hearing level, initial hearing level at low frequencies, initial hearing level at high frequencies, presence of vertigo, and contralateral hearing level) were included in the multiple regression analysis as dependent and explanatory variables, respectively. In the simple regression analysis, the percentage hearing improvement, hearing gain, and HLpost showed significant correlation with 2, 5, and 6 of the 7 prognostic factors, respectively. The multiple correlation coefficients were 0.396, 0.503, and 0.714 for the percentage hearing improvement, hearing gain, and HLpost, respectively. Predicted values of HLpost calculated by the multiple regression equation were reliable with 70% probability with a 40-dB-width prediction interval. Prediction of HLpost by the multiple regression model may be useful to estimate the hearing prognosis of ISSNHL. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Noise induced hearing loss and other hearing complaints among musicians of symphony orchestras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.J.M.; Helleman, H.W.; Dreschler, W.A.; de Laat, J.A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An investigation of the hearing status of musicians of professional symphony orchestras. Main questions are: (1) Should musicians be treated as a special group with regard to hearing, noise, and noise related hearing problems (2) Do patterns of hearing damage differ for different

  13. Motivation to Address Self-Reported Hearing Problems in Adults with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Carly C. M.; Doherty, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the motivation to change in relation to hearing problems in adults with normal hearing thresholds but who report hearing problems and that of adults with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Factors related to their motivation were also assessed. Method: The motivation to change in…

  14. 20 CFR 702.337 - Formal hearings; change of time or place for hearings; postponements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; change of time or place for hearings; postponements. 702.337 Section 702.337 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... place for hearings; postponements. (a) Except for good cause shown, hearings shall be held at convenient...

  15. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk P Netten

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy.The study group (mean age 11.9 years consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children's level of empathy, their attendance to others' emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior.Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children.Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships.

  16. 20 CFR 416.1417 - Disability hearing-disability hearing officer's reconsidered determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability hearing-disability hearing officer... Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Reconsideration § 416.1417 Disability hearing—disability hearing officer's reconsidered determination. (a) General. The disability hearing...

  17. Electrophysiological indicators of surprise and entropy in dynamic task-switching environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Lange, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This event-related brain potential (ERP) study aimed at bridging two hitherto widely separated domains of cognitive neuroscience. Specifically, we combined the analysis of cognitive control in a cued task-switching paradigm with the fundamental question of how uncertainty is encoded in the brain. Two functional models of P3 amplitude variation in cued task-switching paradigms were put to an empirical test: (1) According to the P3b surprise hypothesis, parietal P3b waveforms are related to surprise over switch cues. (2) According to the P3a entropy hypothesis, frontal P3a waveforms are associated with entropy over switch outcomes. In order to examine these hypotheses, we measured the EEG while sixteen healthy young participants performed cued task-switching paradigms closely modeled to the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). We applied a factorial design, with number of tasks (two vs. three viable tasks), cue explicitness (task cuing vs. transition cuing), and cue contingency (prospectively-signaled cuing vs. feedback-based cuing) as independent variables. The ERP results replicated the commonly reported P3b effect associated with task switches, and further showed that P3a amplitudes were related to the entropy of switch outcomes, thereby supporting both hypotheses. Based on these ERP data, we suggest that surprise over task switches, and entropy over switch outcomes, constitute dissociable functional correlates of P3b and P3a ERP components in task-switching paradigms, respectively. Finally, a theoretical integration of the findings is proposed within the framework of Sokolov's (1966) entropy model of the orienting response (OR). PMID:23840183

  18. Electrophysiological indicators of surprise and entropy in dynamic task-switching environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eKopp

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This event-related brain potential (ERP study aimed at bridging two hitherto widely separated domains of cognitive neuroscience. Specifically, we combined the analysis of cognitive control in a cued task-switching paradigm with the fundamental question of how uncertainty is encoded in the brain. Two functional models of P3 amplitude variation in cued task-switching paradigms were put to an empirical test: (1 According to the P3b surprise hypothesis, parietal P3b waveforms are related to surprise over switch cues. (2 According to the P3a entropy hypothesis, frontal P3a waveforms are associated with entropy over switch outcomes. In order to examine these hypotheses, we measured the EEG while sixteen healthy young participants performed cued task-switching paradigms closely modeled to the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. We applied a factorial design, with number of tasks (two vs. three viable tasks, cue explicitness (task cuing vs. transition cuing, and cue contingency (prospectively-signaled cuing vs. feedback-based cuing as independent variables. The ERP results replicated the commonly reported P3b effect associated with task switches, and further showed that P3a amplitudes were related to the entropy of switch outcomes, thereby supporting both hypotheses. Based on these ERP data, we suggest that surprise over task switches, and entropy over switch outcomes, constitute dissociable functional correlates of P3b and P3a ERP components in task-switching paradigms, respectively. Finally, a theoretical integration of the findings is proposed within the framework of Sokolov’s (1966 entropy model of the orienting response.

  19. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Hearing Loss Using Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids Compared to Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Shina-August, Ella; Meilijson, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the profile of pragmatic abilities among 24 children with hearing loss (HL) aged 6.3-9.4 years, 13 using hearing aids (HAs) and 11 using cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to those of 13 hearing children with similar chronological and language ages. All the children with HL used spoken language, attended regular…

  20. 19 CFR 207.112 - Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED... and Committee Proceedings § 207.112 Hearings. (a) Purpose of and scheduling of hearings. An...

  1. 19 CFR 207.66 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED... a hearing in each full review. The date of the hearing shall be specified in the scheduling notice...

  2. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology....... The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...... to produce a competitive advantage. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry, a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids and an introduction to how a modern hearing is constructed showing the amplifier as the key component in the modern hearing aid...

  3. Talking to someone with hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000361.htm Talking to someone with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... It may be hard for a person with hearing loss to understand a conversation with another person. Being ...

  4. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections, and Deafness Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss On this page: What are vestibular aqueducts? How ... How are enlarged vestibular aqueducts related to childhood hearing loss? Research suggests that most children with enlarged vestibular ...

  5. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: What Is Ototoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss What Is Ototoxicity? Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... of patients taking these drugs." "Antibiotics Caused My Hearing Loss..." Gulab Lalwani Photo Courtesy of: Gulab Lalwani When ...

  6. Case Factors Affecting Hearing Aid Recommendations by Hearing Care Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Jørgensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professional recommendations to patients concerning hearing instrument (HI) technology levels are not currently evidence-based. Pre-fitting parameters have not been proven to be the primary indicators for optimal patient outcome with different HI technology levels. This results...... in subjective decision-making as regards the technology level recommendation made by professionals. Purpose: The objective of this study is to gain insight into the decision-making criteria utilized by professionals when recommending HI technology levels to hearing-impaired patients....

  7. The effectiveness of linguistic plays on the grammatical skills of hearing-impaired children with hearing aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Grammatical skills development of hearing-impaired children depends on using appropriate educational rehabilitation programs. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of linguistic plays on the grammatical skills in hearing-impaired children with hearing aids.Methods: Ten hearing-impaired children with hearing aids, aged between 5 and 7, were randomly assigned to two groups (5 children in each group. Each treatment group received 12 sessions on linguistic plays. The grammatical skills of these children were evaluated via the TOLD-P: 3 (Persian version; in addition, their level of intelligence was assessed by the Raven test.Results: The difference between the scores of both control and treatment groups revealed a statistically significant difference in grammatical skills (t=7.61, p=0.001 and three subskills of the children who participated in the linguistic plays. These subskills include syntactic understanding (t=3.16, p=0.013, sentence imitation (t=1.71, p=0.006, and morphological completion (t=6.55, p=0.001. In other words, the findings suggest that linguistic plays have a significant impact on the improvement of the aforementioned skills in hearing-impaired children.Conclusion: Results suggest that it would be beneficial to include linguistic plays as part of routine rehabilitation programs as a means of improving the grammatical difficulties of children. After partaking in linguistic plays, children significantly improved their ability to comprehend the meaning of sentences and also to recognize, understand, and use common Persian morphological forms.

  8. [Clinical statistics of recurrent acute low-tone senseorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Shun-ichi; Honda, Hideyuki; Miyata, Masanori; Mizukoshi, Akihito; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2007-07-01

    Recently, acute low-tone senseorineural hearing loss (ALHL) has become common, and its good prognosis is known well. On the other hand, several reports have suggested that ALHL is frequently associated with Meniere's disease. We retrospectively examined the clinical course of 357 cases that were diagnosed and treated as ALHL at our hospitals. Forty-four of these cases that showed high-tone hearing loss in association with age-related changes were classified as atypical cases. The clinical futures of 49 "poor prognosis cases", who experienced recurrent hearing loss and/or profound hearing loss, are reported. Eight of the 49 cases who experienced recurrences had progressive hearing loss upto middle or high tones. Seventeen cases complained of vertiginous sensation, and 8 of these cases experienced recurrent attacks of vertigo and were diagnosed as having Meniere's disease. The former seventeen cases accounted for 34.7% of the "poor prognosis cases", and the latter eight accounted for 16.3% of these cases. Our results suggest that the hearing loss is more frequently associated with Meniere's disease in cases who experience recurrent hearing loss. Thus, cases initially diagnosed as ALHL may include some cases of progressive hearing loss and Meniere's disease. Even in cases in which hearing improvement is obtained, careful clinical observation is necessary, especially in older patients with bilateral affliction and atypical presentation. ALHL has been generally considered to have a good prognosis, however our examination revealed a relatively high frequency of recurrences, progressive hearing loss and complication by vertigo. We recommend, based on this evidence, that careful explanation of this disease is necessary at time of initial informed consent.

  9. Truth Revealed: New Scientific Discoveries Regarding Mercury in Medicine and Autism. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and Wellness of the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session (September 8, 2004) Serial No. 108-262

    Science.gov (United States)

    US House of Representatives, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This purpose of this hearing was to discuss the latest scientific research regarding the use of mercury in medicine in the United States and the possible connection between these products and autism spectrum disorders. The subcommittee also discusses the need for further research to determine the biological basis of autism and how the Federal…

  10. Full time directional versus user selectable microphone modes in hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Todd; Henry, Paula; Gnewikow, David

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to systematically examine hearing aid benefit as measured by speech recognition and self-assessment methods across omnidirectional and directional hearing aid modes. These data were used to compare directional benefit as measured by speech recognition in the laboratory to hearing aid wearer's perceptions of benefit in everyday environments across full-time directional, full-time omnidirectional, and user selectable directional fittings. Identification of possible listening situations that resulted in different self reported hearing aid benefit as a function of microphone type was a secondary objective of this experiment. Fifteen adults with symmetrical, sloping sensorineural hearing loss were fitted bilaterally with in-the-ear (ITE) directional hearing aids. Measures of hearing aid benefit included the Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (PHAB), the Connected Sentence Test (CST), the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), and a daily use log. Additionally, two new subscales were developed for administration with the PHAB. These subscales were developed to specifically address situations in which directional hearing aids may provide different degrees of benefit than omnidirectional hearing aids. Participants completed these measures in three conditions: omnidirectional only (O), directional only with low-frequency gain compensation (D), and user-selectable directional/omnidirectional (DO). Results from the speech intelligibility in noise testing indicated significantly more hearing aid benefit in directional modes than omnidirectional. PHAB results indicated more benefit on the background noise subscale (BN) in the DO condition than in the O condition; however, this directional advantage was not present for the D condition. Although the reliability of the newly proposed subscales is as yet unknown, the data were interpreted as revealing a directional advantage in situations where the signal of interest was in front of the participant and a

  11. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate Parikshit; Rishikeshi Nikhil; Mehata Reshma; Ranade Satish; Kharat Jitesh; Deshpande Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed vis...

  12. Persons with hearing disability and music

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRÁŠKOVÁ, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The main theme of this bachelor thesis is the issue of people with hearing impairment and also music. It is about the positive effects of music on their person. In the theoretical part I mainly work on information about hearing impairment and its causes. Classification of hearing impairments follows. Another part of this section is historical knowledge, I mean access to disabled people in history. It is also important to mention the emergence of communication systems for people with hearing i...

  13. Online Personalization of Hearing Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert de Vries

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Online personalization of hearing instruments refers to learning preferred tuning parameter values from user feedback through a control wheel (or remote control, during normal operation of the hearing aid. We perform hearing aid parameter steering by applying a linear map from acoustic features to tuning parameters. We formulate personalization of the steering parameters as the maximization of an expected utility function. A sparse Bayesian approach is then investigated for its suitability to find efficient feature representations. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated in an application to online personalization of a noise reduction algorithm. A patient trial indicates that the acoustic features chosen for learning noise control are meaningful, that environmental steering of noise reduction makes sense, and that our personalization algorithm learns proper values for tuning parameters.

  14. Online Personalization of Hearing Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ypma Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Online personalization of hearing instruments refers to learning preferred tuning parameter values from user feedback through a control wheel (or remote control, during normal operation of the hearing aid. We perform hearing aid parameter steering by applying a linear map from acoustic features to tuning parameters. We formulate personalization of the steering parameters as the maximization of an expected utility function. A sparse Bayesian approach is then investigated for its suitability to find efficient feature representations. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated in an application to online personalization of a noise reduction algorithm. A patient trial indicates that the acoustic features chosen for learning noise control are meaningful, that environmental steering of noise reduction makes sense, and that our personalization algorithm learns proper values for tuning parameters.

  15. Hearing and music in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Chow, Maggie L

    2015-01-01

    Music is a complex acoustic signal that relies on a number of different brain and cognitive processes to create the sensation of hearing. Changes in hearing function are generally not a major focus of concern for persons with a majority of neurodegenerative diseases associated with dementia, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). However, changes in the processing of sounds may be an early, and possibly preclinical, feature of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this chapter is to review the current state of knowledge concerning hearing and music perception in persons who have a dementia as a result of a neurodegenerative disease. The review focuses on both peripheral and central auditory processing in common neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular focus on the processing of music and other non-verbal sounds. The chapter also reviews music interventions used for persons with neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hearing aids with no batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I wish to offer a characterization of 'skilled practitioners' from an Ethnomethodological perspective. The skilled practitioner in question is a generic 'hard of hearing' person. The ambition is that such a characterization, both in its making and its final state, may be an intrinsic...... part of design practices concerning the development of hearing aids. Within design studies, the idea of a skilled practitioner has a host of brothers and sisters all prefaced with the family name 'skilled'- skilled users, skilled workers, skilled employees - but the basic idea is the same for all...... might be realized through the introspective and observational study of the 'natural' techniques the hard of hearing employ in everyday life....

  17. Hearing and music in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Chow, Maggie L

    2016-01-01

    Music is a complex acoustic signal that relies on a number of different brain and cognitive processes to create the sensation of hearing. Changes in hearing function are generally not a major focus of concern for persons with a majority of neurodegenerative diseases associated with dementia, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). However, changes in the processing of sounds may be an early, and possibly preclinical, feature of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this chapter is to review the current state of knowledge concerning hearing and music perception in persons who have a dementia as a result of a neurodegenerative disease. The review focuses on both peripheral and central auditory processing in common neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular focus on the processing of music and other non-verbal sounds. The chapter also reviews music interventions used for persons with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25726296

  18. Bringing Hearing to the Deaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipsey, Ian (Purdue)

    2006-06-12

    In his talk, Shipsey will discuss the cochlear implant, the first device to successfully allow the profoundly deaf to regain some sense of hearing. A cochlear implant is a small electronic apparatus. Unlike a normal hearing aid, which amplifies sound, a cochlear implant is surgically implanted behind the ear where it converts sound waves into electrical impulses. These implants have instigated a popular but controversial revolution in the treatment of deafness, and they serve as a model for research in neuroscience and biomedical engineering. Shipsey will discuss the physiology of natural hearing from the perspective of a physicist. He will also touch on the function of cochlear implants in the context of historical treatments, electrical engineering, psychophysics, clinical evaluation of efficacy and personal experience. Finally, Shipsey will address the social implications of cochlear implantation and the future outlook for auditory prostheses.

  19. Hearing Loss Signals Need for Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hearing loss are related to aging and exposure to loud noises, and a hearing aid, or frequently one for ... Mann. “There are sometimes problems with a whistling noise from the hearing aid ... will work through with you.” Aids Versus Amplifiers Mann adds ...

  20. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker a...

  1. 11 CFR 7.28 - Hearing date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing date. 7.28 Section 7.28 Federal... for Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 7.28 Hearing date. (a) Setting of date by examiner. The examiner shall set the hearing at a reasonable time, date, and place. (b) Considerations. Whenever...

  2. 6 CFR 27.335 - Hearing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.335 Hearing procedures. (a) Any hearing shall be held as... under an oath or affirmation. (4) The hearing shall be recorded verbatim. (b)(1) A facility or other...

  3. 75 FR 12584 - Sunshine Act; Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act; Public Hearing March 17, 2010. OPIC's Sunshine Act notice of its Public Hearing in... record; therefore, OPIC's public hearing scheduled for 3 p.m., March 17, 2010 in conjunction with OPIC's...

  4. 75 FR 67145 - Sunshine Act: Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act: Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 2 p.m., Wednesday, November 24, 2010. PLACE: Offices...: Hearing open to the Public at 2 p.m. PURPOSE: Public Hearing in conjunction with each meeting of OPIC's...

  5. Apps for Hearing Science and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Our research aims at the identification and assessment of applications (referred to as apps) in the hearing health care domain. This research forum article presents an overview of the current availability, affordability, and variety of hearing-related apps. The available apps were reviewed by searching on the leading platforms (iOS, Android, Windows Phone stores) using the keywords hearing, audiology, audio, auditory, speech, language, tinnitus, hearing loss, hearing aid, hearing sys tem, cochlear implant, implantable device, auditory training, hearing rehabilitation, and assistive technology/tool/device. O n the bas is of the offered services, apps were classified into 4 application domains: (a) screening and assessment, (b) intervention and rehabilitation, (c) education and information, and (d) assistive tools. A large variety of apps are available in the hearing health care domain. These cover a wide range of services for people with hearing or communication problems as well as for hearing professionals, families, or informal caregivers. This evolution can potentially bring along considerable advantages and improved outcomes in the field of hearing health care. Nevertheless, potential risks and threats (e.g., safety, quality, effectiveness, privacy, and regulation) should not be overlooked. Significant research—particularly in terms of assessment and guidance—is still needed for the informed, aware, and safe adoption of hearing-related apps by patients and professionals.

  6. The Danish hearing in noise test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Objective : A Danish version of the hearing in noise test (HINT) has been developed and evaluated in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. The speech material originated from Nielsen & Dau (2009) where a sentence-based intelligibility equalization method was presented. Design...

  7. 42 CFR 93.211 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.211 Hearing. Hearing means that part of the research misconduct proceeding from the time a respondent files a request for an administrative hearing to contest ORI findings of research misconduct and...

  8. 22 CFR 16.12 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing. 16.12 Section 16.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.12 Hearing. (a) Appearances and... reasonable number of agency representatives, are entitled to be present at the hearing. The Grievance Board...

  9. 78 FR 64037 - Notice of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... OVERSIGHT BOARD Notice of Hearing AGENCY: Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB). ACTION: Notice of a hearing. SUMMARY: The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) will conduct a public hearing with current and former government officials and others to address the activities and...

  10. 43 CFR 4.1373 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 4.1373 Section 4.1373 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Review of Osm Decisions Proposing to...

  11. 75 FR 16422 - Notice of Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings...; ] FINANCIAL CRISIS INQUIRY COMMISSION Notice of Public Hearing AGENCY: Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (FCIC) announces that it will hear from...

  12. 7 CFR 3.77 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 3.77 Section 3.77 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.77 Hearing. (a) If an employee timely files a petition for a hearing under section 3.75, USDA shall select the time, date, and location for...

  13. 45 CFR 32.5 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 32.5 Section 32.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.5 Hearing. (a) In general. Upon timely written request of the debtor, the Secretary shall provide a hearing...

  14. 75 FR 53303 - Notice of Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Hearing AGENCY: Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The next public hearing of the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (FCIC) is titled ``Too Big to Fail... Crisis.'' The forum will also be webcast live at http://www.FCIC.gov . DATES: The hearing will be held on...

  15. 49 CFR 209.209 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 209.209 Section 209.209 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Compliance Orders § 209.209 Hearing. (a) When a respondent... and the respondent fail to agree upon an acceptable consent order, the hearing officer designated by...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1383 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 4.1383 Section 4.1383 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Review of Office of Surface Mining...

  17. 49 CFR 107.321 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 107.321 Section 107.321 Transportation... PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.321 Hearing. (a) To the extent practicable, the hearing is held in the general vicinity of the place where the alleged violation occurred or at a...

  18. 24 CFR 7.36 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing. 7.36 Section 7.36 Housing..., Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Complaints § 7.36 Hearing. (a) Notification of right to request a hearing. The Director of EEO will notify the Complainant, the General...

  19. 15 CFR 0.735-46 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 0.735-46 Section 0.735-46... Disciplinary Actions Concerning Post-Employment Conflict of Interest Violations § 0.735-46 Hearing. (a) Examiner. (1) Upon timely receipt of a request for a hearing, the Director shall refer the matter to the...

  20. 21 CFR 1005.20 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing. 1005.20 Section 1005.20 Food and Drugs... IMPORTATION OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS Bonding and Compliance Procedures § 1005.20 Hearing. (a) If, from an... is not submitted at or prior to the hearing, the Secretary may allow a reasonable time for filing...

  1. Predictors of Hearing-Aid Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Peter T.; Pérez-González, Patricia; Blanco, José L.; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Over 360 million people worldwide suffer from disabling hearing loss. Most of them can be treated with hearing aids. Unfortunately, performance with hearing aids and the benefit obtained from using them vary widely across users. Here, we investigate the reasons for such variability. Sixty-eight hearing-aid users or candidates were fitted bilaterally with nonlinear hearing aids using standard procedures. Treatment outcome was assessed by measuring aided speech intelligibility in a time-reversed two-talker background and self-reported improvement in hearing ability. Statistical predictive models of these outcomes were obtained using linear combinations of 19 predictors, including demographic and audiological data, indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction and auditory temporal processing skills, hearing-aid settings, working memory capacity, and pretreatment self-perceived hearing ability. Aided intelligibility tended to be better for younger hearing-aid users with good unaided intelligibility in quiet and with good temporal processing abilities. Intelligibility tended to improve by increasing amplification for low-intensity sounds and by using more linear amplification for high-intensity sounds. Self-reported improvement in hearing ability was hard to predict but tended to be smaller for users with better working memory capacity. Indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, alone or in combination with hearing settings, did not affect outcome predictions. The results may be useful for improving hearing aids and setting patients’ expectations. PMID:28929903

  2. 21 CFR 1312.41 - Hearings generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearings generally. 1312.41 Section 1312.41 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1312.41 Hearings generally. (a) In any case where the Administrator shall...

  3. Adult hearing screening: the Cyprus Pilot Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thodi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is the third most common condition affecting adults over 65 (Cruickshanks et al., 1998. It can affect quality of life, limiting the ability to communicate efficiently, and leading to isolation, psychological strain, and functional decline (LaForge, Spector, Sternberg, 1992; Yueh, Shapiro, MacLean, Shekelle, 2003. Communication limitations impinge on the person directly, as well as the family, friends, and social circle. Reports on hearing loss among adults indicate that less than 25% of people who can benefit from amplification are actually using hearing aids, and that people diagnosed with a hearing loss delay seeking amplification by about seven years (Kochkin, 1997. Often, family members are the driving force behind a person with a hearing loss who decides to seek help. Adult hearing screening programs might have a positive effect on raising public awareness on hearing loss and its implications, and shortening delay time for intervention. There is no routine hearing screening for the adult population in Cyprus. The health system provides hearing tests for beneficiaries upon physician recommendation or self-referral. The Cyprus pilot adult hearing screening program (ΑΠΑΣ- EVERYONE- Greek acronym for Screening- Intervention-Hearing-Participation to Life screened hearing in retired adults.

  4. Sudden Sensory-Neural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Slambol Nassaj

    1993-01-01

    Sudden hearing loss is a type of hearing loss that occurs in three successive frequencies by more than 30 dB and in less than 72 hours. Every 10 person in 100000 in the world and 25000 people in USA suffer this kind of hearing loss. The average age of the onset is 43 years old.

  5. Eye problems in children with hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ostadimoghaddam

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: In a comparison of children of the same ages, hearing-impaired children have significantly more eye problems; therefore, a possible relation between deafness and eye problems must exist. Paying attention to eye health assessment in hearing-impaired children may help prevent adding eye problems to hearing difficulties.

  6. Speech and Hearing Problems among Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstenson, Blue

    1978-01-01

    Findings from speech and hearing tests of older people in South Dakota community senior programs indicate the need for better testing and therapy procedures. Lipreading may be more effective than hearing aids, and factors other than hearing may be involved. Some problems and needs are noted. (MF)

  7. Hearing Loss and Cognition: The Role of Hearing Aids, Social Isolation and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Piers Dawes; Richard Emsley; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Moore, David R.; Heather Fortnum; Mark Edmondson-Jones; Abby McCormack; Munro, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss is associated with poor cognitive performance and incident dementia and may contribute to cognitive decline. Treating hearing loss with hearing aids may ameliorate cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to test whether use of hearing aids was associated with better cognitive performance, and if this relationship was mediated via social isolation and/or depression. Structural equation modelling of associations between hearing loss, cognitive performance, social isolation...

  8. Surprising transformation of a block copolymer into a high performance polystyrene ultrafiltration membrane with a hierarchically organized pore structure

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2018-02-08

    We describe the preparation of hierarchical polystyrene nanoporous membranes with a very narrow pore size distribution and an extremely high porosity. The nanoporous structure is formed as a result of unusual degradation of the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) block from self-assembled poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) membranes through the formation of an unstable pyridinium intermediate in an alkaline medium. During this process, the confined swelling and controlled degradation produced a tunable pore size. We unequivocally confirmed the successful elimination of the P4VP block from a PS-b-P4VPVP membrane using 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and other characterization techniques. Surprisingly, the long range ordered surface porosity was preserved even after degradation of the P4VP block from the main chain of the diblock copolymer, as revealed by SEM. Aside from a drastically improved water flux (∼67% increase) compared to the PS-b-P4VP membrane, the hydraulic permeability measurements validated pH independent behaviour of the isoporous PS membrane over a wide pH range from 3 to 10. The effect of the pore size on protein transport rate and selectivity (a) was investigated for lysozyme (Lys), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and globulin-γ (IgG). A high selectivity of 42 (Lys/IgG) and 30 (BSA/IgG) was attained, making the membranes attractive for size selective separation of biomolecules from their synthetic model mixture solutions.

  9. Noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English, which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  10. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Davis, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  11. Hearing function in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Amneris E; Orlando, Mark S; Leong, U-Cheng; Allen, Paul D; Guido, Joseph J; Yang, Hongmei; Wu, Hulin

    2014-01-01

    During the earlier years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, initial reports described sensorineural hearing loss in up to 49% of individuals with HIV/AIDS. During those years, patients commonly progressed to advanced stages of HIV disease and frequently had neurological complications. However, the abnormalities on pure-tone audiometry and brainstem-evoked responses outlined in small studies were not always consistently correlated with advanced stages of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, these studies could not exclude the confounding effect of concurrent opportunistic infections and syphilis. Additional reports also have indicated that some antiretroviral medications may be ototoxic; thus, it has been difficult to make conclusions regarding the cause of changes in hearing function in HIV-infected patients. More recently, accelerated aging has been suggested as a potential explanation for the disproportionate increase in complications of aging described in many HIV-infected patients; hence, accelerated aging-associated hearing loss may also be playing a role in these patients. We conducted a large cross-sectional analysis of hearing function in over 300 patients with HIV-1 infection and in 137 HIV-uninfected controls. HIV-infected participants and HIV-uninfected controls underwent a 2-hr battery of hearing tests including the Hearing Handicap Inventory, standard audiometric pure-tone air and bone conduction testing, tympanometric testing, and speech reception and discrimination testing. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression analysis of 278 eligible HIV-infected subjects stratified by disease stage in early HIV disease (n = 127) and late HIV disease (n = 148) and 120 eligible HIV-uninfected controls revealed no statistically significant differences among the three study groups in either overall 4-frequency pure-tone average (4-PTA) or hearing loss prevalence in either ear. Three-way ANOVA showed significant differences in word recognition scores in the right ear

  12. Addressing surprise and uncertain futures in marine science, marine governance, and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F. Thrush

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On an increasingly populated planet, with decreasing biodiversity and limited new opportunities to tap unexploited natural resources, there is a clear need to adjust aspects of marine management and governance. Although sectarian management has succeeded in addressing and managing some important threats to marine ecosystems, unintended consequences are often associated with overlooking nonlinear interactions and cumulative impacts that increase the risk of surprises in social-ecological systems. In this paper, we begin to untangle science-governance-society (SGS interdependencies in marine systems by considering how to recognize the risk of surprise in social and ecological dynamics. Equally important is drawing attention to our state of preparedness, adaptation, and timeliness of response in ecosystem governance and society, which involve fostering transformations away from rigid and nonintegrated structures of governance. More inclusive decision-making processes, deeper understanding of complexity, and colearning across SGS can help to build constructive solutions that are likely to benefit multiple stakeholders and build capacity to understand and respond to change.

  13. Surprise! 20-month-old infants understand the emotional consequences of false beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rose M

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that by the second year of life, infants can attribute false beliefs to agents. However, prior studies have largely focused on infants' ability to predict a mistaken agent's physical actions on objects. The present research investigated whether 20-month-old infants could also reason about belief-based emotional displays. In Experiments 1 and 2, infants viewed an agent who shook two objects: one rattled and the other was silent. Infants expected the agent to express surprise at the silent object if she had a false belief that both objects rattled, but not if she was merely ignorant about the objects' properties. Experiment 3 replicated and extended these findings: if an agent falsely believed that two containers held toy bears (when only one did so), infants expected the agent to express surprise at the empty, but not the full, container. Together, these results provide the first evidence that infants in the second year of life understand the causal relationship between beliefs and emotional displays. These findings thus provide new evidence for false-belief understanding in infancy and suggest that infants, like older children, possess a robust understanding of belief that applies to a broad range of belief-based responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cloud Surprises in Moving NASA EOSDIS Applications into Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, Brett

    2017-01-01

    NASA ESDIS has been moving a variety of data ingest, distribution, and science data processing applications into a cloud environment over the last 2 years. As expected, there have been a number of challenges in migrating primarily on-premises applications into a cloud-based environment, related to architecture and taking advantage of cloud-based services. What was not expected is a number of issues that were beyond purely technical application re-architectures. We ran into surprising network policy limitations, billing challenges in a government-based cost model, and difficulty in obtaining certificates in an NASA security-compliant manner. On the other hand, this approach has allowed us to move a number of applications from local hosting to the cloud in a matter of hours (yes, hours!!), and our CMR application now services 95% of granule searches and an astonishing 99% of all collection searches in under a second. And most surprising of all, well, you'll just have to wait and see the realization that caught our entire team off guard!

  15. Measures of hearing aid gain for real speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmachowicz, P G; Kopun, J; Mace, A L; Lewis, D E

    1996-12-01

    Non-speech stimuli typically are used to estimate the electroacoustic characteristics of a hearing aid. At present, there is no consensus as to what type of input stimulus will best represent the gain for real speech. The purpose of this study was to measure hearing aid gain using continuous discourse and to compare these values with gain measured with five different types of simpler stimuli. Hearing aid gain as a function of frequency was measured in a 2 cm3 coupler for 20 commercially available hearing aids. Circuitry included features such as linear peak clipping, compression limiting, 1-, 2-, and 3-channel full dynamic range compression, and adaptive compression. Input stimuli were a) 15 sec of continuous discourse, b) swept pure tones (SPTs), c) speech weighted composite noise (SWCN), d) simulated speech, e) speech weighted warble tones, and f) speech modulated noise. Input levels ranged from 50 to 80 dB SPL. In general, both SPTs and SWCN tended to underestimate the high-frequency gain for real speech. These discrepancies increased as a function of input intensity. On average, the SPT produced the greatest departure from the gain for real speech, producing differences for individual hearing aids as large as 10 to 14 dB. An analysis by circuit type revealed that discrepancies most likely occurred when a hearing aid was operating in a nonlinear mode. Of the five non-speech stimuli used, speech modulated noise and simulated speech seemed to provide the closest approximation to the gain measured with continuous discourse. When a hearing aid is operating in a nonlinear mode, non-speech stimuli will tend to underestimate the gain for real speech, particularly in the high frequencies. Under some conditions, these discrepancies may impact clinical decisions during the hearing aid fitting process. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the factors that contribute to the gain discrepancies observed in this study and to explore the use of additional stimuli

  16. Working Memory, Sleep, and Hearing Problems in Patients with Tinnitus and Hearing Loss Fitted with Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenoe, Reza; Hällgren, Mathias; Andersson, Gerhard; Ledin, Torbjörn

    2017-02-01

    Tinnitus is a common condition and there is a need to evaluate effects of tinnitus management in relation to moderating factors such as degree of hearing loss. As it is possible that tinnitus influences concentration, and thus is likely to disturb cognitive processing, the role of cognitive functioning also needs to be investigated. To compare a group of patients with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus to a control group with only sensorineural hearing loss (and no tinnitus). To investigate working memory, sleep, and hearing problems measured before and after hearing rehabilitation. A prospective study. The sample consisted of 100 patients, 50 with hearing loss and tinnitus, and 50 controls with hearing loss but no tinnitus. All patients were between 40 and 82 yr old and had a pure-tone average (PTA; average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) hearing aids with regard to their working memory capacity, sleep quality, hearing problems, speech recognition, and tinnitus annoyance. Eight patients dropped out of the study. Thus, a total of 92 patients were included for analysis, with 46 in each group. As a consequence of unplanned age and PTA differences between the groups, an age-matched subsample (n = 30 + 30) was selected for further analysis. Tests including the Reading Span, Hearing-in-Noise Test (HINT), Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were administered before and after hearing aid rehabilitation. There were no between-group differences at baseline in the full sample (n = 92), with the exception of the THI (p hearing loss and tinnitus group had significantly higher scores. Pre/post changes were significant for both groups on the Reading Span, and HHIE. However, these improvements were significantly larger for the patients in the hearing loss and tinnitus group on the Reading Span test (p hearing loss also exhibited significantly improved THI scores at follow-up, compared to

  17. Satisfaction with Hearing Aids Based on Technology and Style among Hearing Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji-Khiavi, Farzad; Dashti, Rezvan; Sameni, Seyyed-Jalal; Bayat, Arash

    2016-09-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most disabling impairments. Using a hearing aid as an attempt to improve the hearing problem can positively affect the quality of life for these people. This research was aimed to assess satisfaction of hearing impaired patients with their hearing aids regarding the employed technology and style. This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional research was conducted on 187 subjects with hearing loss who were using a hearing aid. The subjects were over 18 years of age and were using a hearing aid for at least 6 months. The Persian version of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire was the instrument which was used for assessing satisfaction with the hearing aid. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to be 0.80 for instrument reliability. A significant difference was observed among satisfaction subscales' mean scores with hearing aid technology. Also a significant difference was observed between the total satisfaction score and the hearing aid model. With respect to the analysis of satisfaction with the hearing aid and its style, cost and services was the only subscale which showed a significant difference (P=0.005). Respondents using hearing aids with different technology and style were estimated to be quite satisfied. Training audiologists in using more appropriate and fitting hearing aids in addition to using self-reporting questionnaires like SADL for estimating patients' social condition and participation in their life can essentially change their disability condition and countervail their hearing loss.

  18. Mobile Hearing Testing Applications and the Diagnosis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Rosh K V; Ghanad, Iman; Kanumuri, Vivek; Herrmann, Barbara; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K

    2018-01-01

    Mobile hearing applications (apps) are available for hearing testing, personal sound amplification, as well as hearing aid modulation. Hearing testing apps are gaining popularity, especially in resource-limited settings. The reliability of mobile hearing testing apps, however, is not well characterized. A case study of a single patient with a complaint of sudden hearing loss presenting to a tertiary-care hospital. Comparison of a mobile hearing testing app results with standard audiogram. A commercially available mobile hearing testing app was used after hours to determine if a patient's hearing complaints were consistent with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The hearing app produced a rudimentary audiogram that was consistent with unilateral SSNHL. Given contraindications to oral treatment, preparations for possible intratympanic dexamethasone after a full audiometric evaluation were completed. Confirmatory audiogram the following day demonstrated normal hearing without evidence of hearing loss. Steroid treatment was aborted and appropriate counseling provided. While mobile hearing testing apps offer improved access to hearing screening in resource-limited settings, caution must be exercised when interpreting data and making clinical decisions based upon results. The role of professional audiologists remains critical. Further testing and validation of specific apps is required.

  19. Rapid word-learning in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children: effects of age, receptive vocabulary, and high-frequency amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, A L; Lewis, D E; Hoover, B M; Stelmachowicz, P G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined rapid word-learning in 5- to 14-year-old children with normal and impaired hearing. The effects of age and receptive vocabulary were examined as well as those of high-frequency amplification. Novel words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz (typical of current amplification devices) and at 9 kHz. It was hypothesized that (1) the children with normal hearing would learn more words than the children with hearing loss, (2) word-learning would increase with age and receptive vocabulary for both groups, and (3) both groups would benefit from a broader frequency bandwidth. Sixty children with normal hearing and 37 children with moderate sensorineural hearing losses participated in this study. Each child viewed a 4-minute animated slideshow containing 8 nonsense words created using the 24 English consonant phonemes (3 consonants per word). Each word was repeated 3 times. Half of the 8 words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz and half were filtered at 9 kHz. After viewing the story twice, each child was asked to identify the words from among pictures in the slide show. Before testing, a measure of current receptive vocabulary was obtained using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III). The PPVT-III scores of the hearing-impaired children were consistently poorer than those of the normal-hearing children across the age range tested. A similar pattern of results was observed for word-learning in that the performance of the hearing-impaired children was significantly poorer than that of the normal-hearing children. Further analysis of the PPVT and word-learning scores suggested that although word-learning was reduced in the hearing-impaired children, their performance was consistent with their receptive vocabularies. Additionally, no correlation was found between overall performance and the age of identification, age of amplification, or years of amplification in the children with hearing loss. Results also revealed a small increase in performance for both

  20. Sensori-neural hearing loss following radiotherapy to the nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, J.A.

    1976-04-01

    A retrospective study was done to ascertain the risks of cochlear damage from radiotherapy of the nasopharynx. Audiometric evaluation, pre- and post-radiotherapy, revealed that 7 out of 13 patients had sustained sensori-neural deafness. Contrary to what is generally believed of the resistance of the cochlea to radiotherapeutic damage, eventual loss of hearing can occasionally be expected in patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck tumors.