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Sample records for healthy population aged

  1. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  2. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Jovi?i?, Ana ?.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor a...

  3. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  4. Healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Bartels, Else Marie

    2009-01-01

    The study employed mechanical stretching in vitro of sections of abdominal aorta of elderly mice to investigate any benefits of oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on arterial elasticity. Eighteen female mice (50-weeks-old) were assigned to a control (2% w/v) Na2-AKG or (2% w/v) a Ca-AK...... investigation as a candidate for therapies targeting arterial stiffening with age....

  5. Development of a Healthy Aging Score in the Population-Based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating Age and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Schoufour, Josje D; Erler, Nicole S; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Portegies, Marileen L P; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. Prospective population-based cohort. Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The β for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable

  6. The role of income and occupation in the association of education with healthy aging: results from a population-based, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christine M; St John, Philip D; Cheverie, Madelon R; Iraniparast, Maryam; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2015-11-25

    The beneficial effects of higher education on healthy aging are generally accepted, but the mechanisms are less well understood. Education may influence healthy aging through improved employment opportunities that enhance feelings of personal control and reduce hazardous exposures, or through higher incomes that enable individuals to access better health care or to reside in better neighbourhoods. Income and occupation have not been explored extensively as potential mediators of the effect of education on healthy aging. This study investigates the role of income and occupation in the association between education and healthy aging including potential effect modification by gender. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of education, income (perceived income adequacy, life satisfaction with finances) and occupation (occupational prestige) with healthy aging five years later in 946 community-dwelling adults 65+ years from a population-based, prospective cohort study in Manitoba, Canada. Higher levels of education generally increased the likelihood of healthy aging. After adjusting for education, both income measures, but not occupation, predicted healthy aging among men; furthermore, the association between education and healthy aging was no longer significant. Income and occupation did not explain the significant association between education and healthy aging among women. Perceived income adequacy and life satisfaction with finances explained the beneficial effects of higher education on healthy aging among men, but not women. Identifying predictors of healthy aging and the mechanisms through which these factors exert their effects can inform strategies to maximize the likelihood of healthy aging.

  7. Seasonal variation of mood and behaviour in a healthy middle-aged population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, M; Shirakawa, S; Uchiyama, M; Oguri, M; Kohsaka, M; Mishima, K; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, H; Kamei, K; Takahashi, K

    1996-10-01

    A population survey of seasonality in six representative cities in Japan was conducted using the Japanese version of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). The questionnaires were given to 951 parents (male: female ratio 1:1 age range 34-59 years) of high-school students. Significant regional differences in seasonal variations of mood, length of sleep, and weight were observed; the proportion of individuals reporting high seasonality in the two northern cities was significantly higher than that in the other areas. These results provide evidence for a northern predominance in the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in Japan.

  8. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-16

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.

  9. Population trends and public awareness of healthy and pathological ageing in India: A brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Santosh; Iyengar, Vijeth; Chowdappa, Suresh Vedalaveni; Varghese, Mathew

    2017-10-01

    India is poised to experience dramatic shifts in the age and makeup of its population. Specifically, projections havehighlighted an increase in both the percentage of the elderly and those suffering from dementia-related disorders.Previous studies have examined the demographics of aging, its impact on the healthcare infrastructure and recommended policies to better cater to the elderly. This article focuses on a summary of these findings in relation to key stakeholders in the care of the elderly including mental health professionals, family caregivers, and public health officials. We broadly conclude that there exists a general shallow level of understanding of what constitutes pathological aging (i.e. dementia) across all stakeholders, and this creates a cascade of effects including delays in treatment seeking and barriers in conducting and having accurate demographic studies. Moreover, addressing this knowledge gap can help enhance communication between these three stakeholders in the hopes of the following: (a) increased education and awareness, (b) faster seeking of care, and (c) earlier diagnoses leading to better opportunities to collect accurate demographics of those suffering from dementia-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  11. Hypovitaminosis D in a healthy female population, aged from 40 to 85 years, in the west of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lardner, E

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Increasing attention has been focused on diseases associated with ageing, as the mean age of the population in developed countries increases. Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone play key roles in calcium homeostasis, which is integral to skeletal health. AIMS: To assess the vitamin D status of healthy, community dwelling, middle-aged and older females. METHODS: General biochemistry and bone profiles, including ALP, PTH and 25(OH)D, were determined. RESULTS: Of 143 healthy white women receiving no supplementation or bone modifying treatments, 47% were vitamin D insufficient (<50 nmol\\/L) and only 4% were sufficient for the time of year. There was no statically significant correlation between age and 25(OH)D concentrations; neither was there a statistically significant seasonal variation in 25(OH)D levels noted. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D status should be assessed more often in middle-aged and older females. Expected age-related and seasonal variations in 25(OH)D levels were not confirmed in this study.

  12. The AGE-RAGE axis in an Arab population: The United Arab Emirates Healthy Futures (UAEHFS pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire K. Inman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The transformation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE from a semi-nomadic to a high income society has been accompanied by increasing rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined if the AGE-RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts axis is associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus in the pilot phase of the UAE Healthy Futures Study (UAEHFS. Methods: 517 Emirati subjects were enrolled and plasma/serum levels of AGE, carboxy methyl lysine (CML-AGE, soluble (sRAGE and endogenous secretory (esRAGE were measured along with weight, height, waist and hip circumference (WC/HC, blood pressure, HbA1c, Vitamin D levels and routine chemistries. The relationship between the AGE-RAGE axis and obesity and diabetes mellitus was tested using proportional odds models and linear regression. Results: After covariate adjustment, AGE levels were significantly associated with diabetes status. Levels of sRAGE and esRAGE were associated with BMI and levels of sRAGE were associated with WC/HC. Conclusions: The AGE-RAGE axis is associated with diabetes status and obesity in this Arab population. Prospective serial analysis of this axis may identify predictive biomarkers of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction in the UAEHFS. Keywords: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs, Receptor for AGE (RAGE, Cohort study, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity

  13. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2016-01-01

    Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes that can influence the performance of tasks. We are faced with an important

  14. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2016-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes that can influence the performance of tasks. We are faced with an

  15. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2015-01-01

    Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes which can influence performance of tasks. We are faced with an important

  16. The AGE-RAGE axis in an Arab population: The United Arab Emirates Healthy Futures (UAEHFS) pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Claire K; Aljunaibi, Abdullah; Koh, Hyunwook; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Ali, Raghib; Alnaeemi, Abdullah; Al Zaabi, Eiman; Oumeziane, Naima; Al Bastaki, Marina; Al-Houqani, Mohammed; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha; Shah, Syed M; Abdel Wareth, Laila; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Alsafar, Habiba; Al Anouti, Fatme; Al Hosani, Ayesha; Haji, Muna; Galani, Divya; O'Connor, Matthew J; Ahn, Jiyoung; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Sherman, Scott; Hayes, Richard B; Li, Huilin; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) from a semi-nomadic to a high income society has been accompanied by increasing rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined if the AGE-RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) axis is associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus in the pilot phase of the UAE Healthy Futures Study (UAEHFS). 517 Emirati subjects were enrolled and plasma/serum levels of AGE, carboxy methyl lysine (CML)-AGE, soluble (s)RAGE and endogenous secretory (es)RAGE were measured along with weight, height, waist and hip circumference (WC/HC), blood pressure, HbA1c, Vitamin D levels and routine chemistries. The relationship between the AGE-RAGE axis and obesity and diabetes mellitus was tested using proportional odds models and linear regression. After covariate adjustment, AGE levels were significantly associated with diabetes status. Levels of sRAGE and esRAGE were associated with BMI and levels of sRAGE were associated with WC/HC. The AGE-RAGE axis is associated with diabetes status and obesity in this Arab population. Prospective serial analysis of this axis may identify predictive biomarkers of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction in the UAEHFS.

  17. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient

  18. Nutriënt status assessment in individuals and populations for healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabolcs, P.; Saris, W.H.M.; Mathers, J.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schols, A.M.; Navis, G.; Kuipers, F.; Weber, P.; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient

  19. Effect of age and gender on lipid profile in healthy rural population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are contradicting information on the influence of age and gender on blood lipid profile, some researchers believe the levels of total cholesterol and other components of lipid profile increase with age, others have proved significant negative correlation between total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and ...

  20. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  1. Trace element status and fatty acids metabolism during healthy ageing: an example of a population from the Tunisian eastern coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfar, Sonia; El Heni, Jihen; Laporte, François; Braham, Hamadi; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Amor, Salah; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2012-03-01

    Micronutrients as well as essential fatty acids are indispensable for the correct functioning of the organism. The risk of disturbance in the associated nutrition and metabolism is expected to increase during ageing. In addition, it seems that trace elements are involved in the fatty acids metabolism. The aim of the present study was then to assess age-related changes in trace elements status and in plasma essential fatty acids composition with an emphasis on the desaturase activity estimation. Two hundred healthy Tunisian subjects (30-85 years old) were recruited and separated into two subgroups: elderly (65-85 years old) and middle-aged (30-60 years old). The findings revealed that plasma zinc and calcium concentrations significantly decreased according to age. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was therefore shown to increase in old age (over 60% of elderly subjects were deficient or at risk of deficiency). No age-related changes were obtained for copper or magnesium status. The Δ6 desaturase, involved in the EFAs conversion, was shown to decrease according to age and to be associated with the plasma zinc level. Since elderly subjects were at risk of nutritional imbalance, it would be interesting to set optimal dietary proportion. This will help to prevent age-associated alterations and diseases for a better and healthy ageing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Labor-force participation, policies & practices in an aging America: adaptation essential for a healthy & resilient population

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa F. Berkman; Axel Boersch-Supan; Mauricio Avendano

    2015-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequen...

  3. Food for the ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, M.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The world’s ageing population is increasing and food professionals will have to address the needs of older generations more closely in the future. This unique volume reviews the characteristics of the ageing population as food consumers, the role of nutrition in healthy ageing and the design of food

  4. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Labor-Force Participation, Policies & Practices in an Aging America: Adaptation Essential for a Healthy & Resilient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Lisa F; Börsch-Supan, Axel; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequences of demographic change. Although this adaptation needs to focus especially on work patterns among the "younger elderly," our society has to change its general attitudes toward work organization and labor-force participation, which will have implications for education and health care. We also show that work's beneficial effects on well-being in older ages are often neglected, while the idea that older workers displace younger workers is a misconception emerging from the "lump of labor" fallacy. We conclude, therefore, that working at older ages can lead to better quality of life for older people and to a more productive and resilient society overall.

  6. Age-Specific Normal Reference Range for Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Healthy Chinese Han Women: A nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofang; Ding, Ting; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhang, Cuilian; Ma, Wenmin; Zhong, Ying; Qu, Wenyu; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Yi; Li, Zhiying; Huang, Kecheng; Deng, Song; Ma, Lanfang; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Jingjing; Yang, Shuhong; Huang, Jia; Wu, Meng; Fang, Li; Lu, Yunping; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-08-01

    The increasing use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in clinic has raised concerns regarding the reliable reference range for this test. However, the reference range for AMH in normal Chinese female population has not been established. Furthermore, relationship between AMH and other clinical markers such as body mass index (BMI) and antral follicle counts (AFCs) and other sex-related hormones have not been examined in normal population-based women. We aimed to determine the age-specific reference range for serum AMH in healthy Chinese women throughout reproductive age to menopause and to estimate relationship between AMH and other clinical markers in healthy women. In this multicenter and nationwide study, advertisements were used to recruit 2055 women, aged 20 to 55 years, from 6 different regions in China; 1590 (77.37%) women met the inclusion criteria for the reference range population. We measured the baseline serum AMH levels using new Beckman Coulter Gen II assay. Serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), and AFCs were also determined in the follicular phase. The AMH-Age nomogram and AMH levels of different age-groups and the relationship between AMH and other clinical markers. Serum AMH concentrations declined progressively with age. A quadratic model defined as log (AMH) = (-1.970 + 0.296 × Age - 0.006 × Age(2)) fitted best the decline of AMH with age. The median AMH levels were 6.23, 5.65, 4.55, 3.74, 2.78, and 1.09 ng/mL for the 20 ≤ age women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Variations of B cell subpopulations in peripheral blood of healthy Mexican population according to age: Relevance for diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrón-Ruíz, L; López-Herrera, G; Ávalos-Martínez, C E; Valenzuela-Ponce, C; Ramírez-SanJuan, E; Santoyo-Sánchez, G; Mújica Guzmán, F; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Santos-Argumedo, L

    Peripheral blood B cells include lymphocytes at various stages of differentiation, each with a specific function in the immune response. All these stages show variations in percentage and absolute number throughout human life. The numbers and proportions of B subpopulation are influenced by factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, and lifestyle. This study establishes reference values according to age of peripheral blood B cell subtypes in healthy Mexican population. Peripheral blood from healthy new-borns and adults were analysed for total B cell subpopulations, using surface markers such as CD19, IgM, IgD, CD21, CD24, CD27, and CD38, to identify naïve, memory with and without isotype switch, double-negative, transitional, and plasmablast cells. We observed a significant variation in terms of frequency and absolute counts between all groups analysed. Values from each B cell subpopulation show variations according to age. In order to attempt to elucidate reference values for B cell subpopulation, the present study evaluated a population sample of healthy blood donors from this region. Values reported here can also be used as a tool for diagnosis of diseases in which B cell maturation is affected. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Interdisciplinary Research on Healthy Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Carey, James; Li, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    This Special Collection was edited by Frans Willekens, James R. Carey, and Qiang Li. The papers in this collection represent a small selection of papers presented at an international conference on healthy aging, held in October 2012 in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. The first part of the conference,

  9. From Survival to Healthy Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte Orr; Wind, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    and the spouses built their mutual and individual lives focusing on their relationship and strived to return to their usual everyday life. Within three to six months the couples went from “survival” where the diagnosis dominated to “wellbeing” where healthy aging/lifestyle dominated. All eight couples led...

  10. Centenarians - a useful model for healthy aging?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Oksuzyan, Anna; Jeune, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Centenarians surpass the current human life expectancy with about 20-25 years. However, whether centenarians represent healthy aging still remains an open question. Previous studies have been hampered by a number of methodological shortcomings such as a cross-sectional design and lack...... of an appropriate control group. In a longitudinal population-based cohort, it was examined whether the centenarian phenotype may be a useful model for healthy aging. The study was based on a completefollow up of 39 945 individuals alive in the Danish 1905 birth cohort on January 1, 1977 identified through...... with 68.4% among individuals who died in their early 80s. This trend was evident in both sexes. As a result of their lower hospitalization rates and length of stay in hospital compared with their contemporaries, who died at younger ages, Danish centenarians represent healthy agers. Centenarians constitute...

  11. Isokinetic and Isometric Muscle Strength in a Healthy Population – with Special Reference to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Bartels, E M; Bülow, P M

    2009-01-01

    decreases in a linear fashion from the age of 25 years down to between 54% and 89% at the age of 75 years, and seems not highly dependent on any other parameter than age. For women, the muscle strength is dependent on weight and is only related to age from around 40 years of age. The decrease in muscle...

  12. Genetics of healthy aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2013-12-01

    Longevity and healthy aging are among the most complex phenotypes studied to date. The heritability of age at death in adulthood is approximately 25 %. Studies of exceptionally long-lived individuals show that heritability is greatest at the oldest ages. Linkage studies of exceptionally long-lived families now support a longevity locus on chromosome 3; other putative longevity loci differ between studies. Candidate gene studies have identified variants at APOE and FOXO3A associated with longevity; other genes show inconsistent results. Genome-wide association scans (GWAS) of centenarians vs. younger controls reveal only APOE as achieving genome-wide significance (GWS); however, analyses of combinations of SNPs or genes represented among associations that do not reach GWS have identified pathways and signatures that converge upon genes and biological processes related to aging. The impact of these SNPs, which may exert joint effects, may be obscured by gene-environment interactions or inter-ethnic differences. GWAS and whole genome sequencing data both show that the risk alleles defined by GWAS of common complex diseases are, perhaps surprisingly, found in long-lived individuals, who may tolerate them by means of protective genetic factors. Such protective factors may 'buffer' the effects of specific risk alleles. Rare alleles are also likely to contribute to healthy aging and longevity. Epigenetics is quickly emerging as a critical aspect of aging and longevity. Centenarians delay age-related methylation changes, and they can pass this methylation preservation ability on to their offspring. Non-genetic factors, particularly lifestyle, clearly affect the development of age-related diseases and affect health and lifespan in the general population. To fully understand the desirable phenotypes of healthy aging and longevity, it will be necessary to examine whole genome data from large numbers of healthy long-lived individuals to look simultaneously at both common and

  13. 3 Tesla (1) H MR spectroscopy of hip bone marrow in a healthy population, assessment of normal fat content values and influence of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansini, Vittorio; Monnet, Aurélien; Salleron, Julia; Hardouin, Pierre; Cortet, Bernard; Cotten, Anne

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate in a healthy population normal spectroscopic fat content (FC) values of the hip bone marrow and to assess the influence of age and sex on bone marrow conversion. Eighty volunteers (40 men; 40 women; ages: 20-60 years; divided into four consecutive groups) underwent acetabulum, femoral head, femoral neck, greater trochanter, and diaphysis localized (1) H MR spectroscopy. FC values of each anatomical site were obtained according to the following formula: Fat content = CH2 /(CH2  + Water)*100. To assess bone marrow conversion, a spectroscopic conversion index (SCI) was calculated as FC neck/FC greater trochanter. FC values showed a gradient as follows: greater trochanter > femoral head > femoral neck > diaphysis > acetabulum in every age group both in men and in women. SCI increased with age both in men and women, showing lower values in women for every age group. We obtained normal spectroscopic FC values from different areas of the hip, according to age and sex. These values may be used as reference values to evaluate, by the means of (1) H MR spectroscopy, pathological conditions affecting hip bone marrow. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Healthy Aging with Go4Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Healthy Aging with Go4Life ® Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of ... is to make physical activity a cornerstone of healthy aging, for a simple reason. Being physically active is ...

  15. Changing course in ageing research: The healthy ageing phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Oscar H; Karnik, Kavita; Osborne, Gabrielle; Ordovas, Jose M; Catt, Michael; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2009-05-20

    Ageing is often associated with the aged and the diseased, nevertheless ageing is a process that starts in-uterus and is characterised by a progressive functional loss but not necessarily by the presence of disease and poor quality of life. How to meander through life without crossing the confines of major chronic disease and cognitive and physical impairment remains one of the most relevant challenges for science and humankind. Delimiting that 'immaculate' trajectory - that we dub as the 'Healthy Ageing Phenotype' - and exploring solutions to help the population to stay or return to this trajectory should constitute the core focus of scientific research. Nevertheless, current efforts on ageing research are mainly focused on developing animal models to disentangle the human ageing process, and on age-related disorders often providing merely palliative solutions. Therefore, to identify alternative perspectives in ageing research, Unilever and the Medical Research Council (MRC) UK convened a Spark workshop entitled 'The Healthy Ageing Phenotype'. In this meeting, international specialists from complementary areas related to ageing research, gathered to find clear attributes and definitions of the 'Healthy Ageing Phenotype', to identify potential mechanisms and interventions to improve healthy life expectancy of the population; and to highlight areas within ageing research that should be prioritised in the future. General agreement was reached in recognising ageing research as a disaggregated field with little communication between basic, epidemiological and clinical areas of research and limited translation to society. A more holistic, multi-disciplinary approach emanating from a better understanding of healthy ageing trajectories and centred along human biological resilience, its maintenance and the reversibility from early deviations into pathological trajectories, is urgently required. Future research should concentrate on understanding the mechanisms that permit

  16. Test-retest reliability and longitudinal analysis of automated hippocampal subregion volumes in healthy ageing and Alzheimer's disease populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worker, Amanda; Dima, Danai; Combes, Anna; Crum, William R; Streffer, Johannes; Einstein, Steven; Mehta, Mitul A; Barker, Gareth J; C R Williams, Steve; O'daly, Owen

    2018-04-01

    The hippocampal formation is a complex brain structure that is important in cognitive processes such as memory, mood, reward processing and other executive functions. Histological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the hippocampal region in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. This highly plastic limbic region is made up of several subregions that are believed to have different functional roles. Therefore, there is a growing interest in imaging the subregions of the hippocampal formation rather than modelling the hippocampus as a homogenous structure, driving the development of new automated analysis tools. Consequently, there is a pressing need to understand the stability of the measures derived from these new techniques. In this study, an automated hippocampal subregion segmentation pipeline, released as a developmental version of Freesurfer (v6.0), was applied to T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 22 healthy older participants, scanned on 3 separate occasions and a separate longitudinal dataset of 40 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Test-retest reliability of hippocampal subregion volumes was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), percentage volume difference and percentage volume overlap (Dice). Sensitivity of the regional estimates to longitudinal change was estimated using linear mixed effects (LME) modelling. The results show that out of the 24 hippocampal subregions, 20 had ICC scores of 0.9 or higher in both samples; these regions include the molecular layer, granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, CA1, CA3 and the subiculum (ICC > 0.9), whilst the hippocampal fissure and fimbria had lower ICC scores (0.73-0.88). Furthermore, LME analysis of the independent AD dataset demonstrated sensitivity to group and individual differences in the rate of volume change over time in several hippocampal subregions (CA1, molecular layer, CA3, hippocampal tail, fissure and presubiculum

  17. Healthy Aging: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aging National Institute on Aging Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Healthy Aging updates ... 65 Health screening - women - over 65 Related Health Topics Exercise for Seniors Nutrition for Seniors Seniors' Health ...

  18. Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-05-01

    Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.

  19. Probabilistic population aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We merge two methodologies, prospective measures of population aging and probabilistic population forecasts. We compare the speed of change and variability in forecasts of the old age dependency ratio and the prospective old age dependency ratio as well as the same comparison for the median age and the prospective median age. While conventional measures of population aging are computed on the basis of the number of years people have already lived, prospective measures are computed also taking account of the expected number of years they have left to live. Those remaining life expectancies change over time and differ from place to place. We compare the probabilistic distributions of the conventional and prospective measures using examples from China, Germany, Iran, and the United States. The changes over time and the variability of the prospective indicators are smaller than those that are observed in the conventional ones. A wide variety of new results emerge from the combination of methodologies. For example, for Germany, Iran, and the United States the likelihood that the prospective median age of the population in 2098 will be lower than it is today is close to 100 percent. PMID:28636675

  20. Interdisciplinary Research on Healthy Aging: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Carey, James; Li, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Background: This is an introduction to a Special Collection of Demographic Research on Interdisciplinary Research on Healthy Aging. The collection is an outcome of an international conference in China on biodemography and multistate modeling in healthy aging research. Causal analysis is the common

  1. Healthy aging profile in octogenarians in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gonçalves, Lúcia Hisako Takase

    2016-08-29

    to identify the healthy aging profile in octogenarians in Brazil. this population-based epidemiological study was conducted using household interviews of 335 octogenarians in a Brazilian municipality. The decision-tree model was used to assess the healthy aging profile in relation to the socioeconomic characteristics evaluated at baseline. All of the tests used a p-value adultos mayores participantes, la mayoría eran mujeres (62,1%), edades comprendidas entre 80 y 84 años (50,4%), viudos (53,4%), analfabetos (59,1 %), con ingreso mensual inferior del salario mínimo (59,1%), jubilados (85,7%), viviendo con el cónyuge (63,8%), sin cuidador (60,3%), con dos o más hijos (82,7%), y dos o más nietos (78,8%). Los resultados indican tres grupos de edad con perfil de envejecimiento más saludable: adultos mayores de 80-84 años (55,6%), adultos mayores con 85 años o más y casados (64,9%), y adultos mayores con 85 años o más sin pareja y ni cuidador (54,2%). el perfil de envejecimiento saludable de octogenarios se puede explicar por el grupo etario, el estado civil y la presencia de un cuidador.

  2. Designing New Meals for an Ageing Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Today's ageing population is an ever-increasing, highly diverse group of people wanting to live a healthy and enjoyable life. Seniors increasingly see the importance of eating healthy and delicious food in a pleasant environment in achieving happiness and well-being. Up until now, the food industry

  3. Life course vaccination and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmano, Michael K; Michel, Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    The authors notice the low vaccine coverage rate among European citizens and inventory the multiple reasons leading to the non-use of preventable infectious diseases vaccines in adults whose mortality consequences represent an important and unexpected burden of diseases. These facts are in close relation with the disruption of vaccine recommendations after the childhood vaccine program, the poor literacy knowledge concerning vaccines among the general population, but also unfortunately among physicians and other health care workers. Popular beliefs, fear of side-effects, fear of needles facilitated the constitution of active non-vaccine groups which conduct to the reappearance in non-vaccinated adults and with dramatic consequences of preventable childhood infectious diseases. This careful analysis of the current preventable infectious disease vaccine coverage in old adults leads to propose a life course vaccine programme including adult vaccinations as part of healthy aging as well as old adults' vaccine guidelines integrated in health prevention programs.

  4. Balneotherapy and healthy ageing - review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Constantin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “To be forever young doesn’t mean to be 20. It means to be optimist, to feel good, to have an ideal to fight for and to achieve it” said Prof. Ana Aslan. Human ageing and longevity are complex and multi-factorial traits that result from a combination of environmental, genetic, epigenetic and stochastic factors. Ageing refers to the time sequential deterioration - including weaness, susceptibility to disease, loss of mobility and agility.

  5. Predictors of healthy ageing: public health policy targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Agnieszka; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Poscia, Andrea; la Milia, Daniele Ignazio

    2016-09-05

    The public health policy agenda oriented towards healthy ageing becomes the highest priority for the European countries. The article discusses the healthy ageing concept and its possible determinants with an aim to identify behavioral patterns related to healthy ageing in selected European countries. The healthy ageing is assessed based on a composite indicator of self-assessed health, functional capabilities and life meaningfulness. The logistic regression models are used to assess the impact of the healthy lifestyle index, psycho-social index and socio-economic status on the probability of healthy ageing (i.e. being healthy at older age). The lifestyle and psychosocial indexes are created as a sum of behaviors that might be important for healthy ageing. Models are analyzed for three age groups of older people: 60-67, 68-79 and 80+ as well as for three groups of countries representing Western, Southern and Central-Eastern Europe. The lifestyle index covering vigorous and moderate physical activity, consumption of vegetables and fruits, regular consumption of meals and adequate consumption of liquids is positively related to healthy ageing, increasing the likelihood of being healthy at older age with each of the items specified in the index. The score of the index is found to be significantly higher (on average by 1 point for men and 1.1 for women) for individuals ageing healthily. The psychosocial index covering employment, outdoor social participation, indoor activities and life satisfaction is also found to be significantly related to health increasing the likelihood of healthy ageing with each point of the index score. There is an educational gradient in healthy ageing in the population below the age of 68 and in Southern and Central-Eastern European countries. In Western European countries, income is positively related to healthy ageing for females. Stimulation physical activity and adequate nutrition are crucial domains for a well-defined public health policy

  6. Yogurt: role in healthy and active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Abbadi, Naglaa Hani; Dao, Maria Carlota; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt consumption has been associated with health benefits in different populations. Limited information, however, is available on nutritional and health attributes of yogurt in older adults. Yogurt is abundant in calcium, zinc, B vitamins, and probiotics; it is a good source of protein; and it may be supplemented with vitamin D and additional probiotics associated with positive health outcomes. Aging is accompanied by a wide array of nutritional deficiencies and health complications associated with under- and overnutrition, including musculoskeletal impairment, immunosenescence, cardiometabolic diseases, and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, yogurt is accessible and convenient to consume by the older population, which makes yogurt consumption a feasible approach to enhance older adults' nutritional status. A limited number of studies have specifically addressed the impact of yogurt on the nutritional and health status of older adults, and most are observational. However, those reported thus far and reviewed here are encouraging and suggest that yogurt could play a role in improving the nutritional status and health of older adults. In addition, these reports support further investigation into the role of yogurt in healthy and active aging.

  7. Healthy building environments for ageing adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Helianthe S.M.

    2017-01-01

    A healthy building environment, when looking from a gerontechnology perspective, should facilitate ageing adults' functioning, self-esteem, and prosperity. Creating healthy environments is becoming more and more relevant in society. Older adults tend to stay more indoors when compared to younger

  8. Social environment and healthy ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schalkwijk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available growing numbers of people living to older ages, age-related diseases have become an increasing challenge for societies everywhere. Many age-related diseases however, should rather be considered lifestyle-related diseases since lifestyle plays an important role in the etiology and the treatment of cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2I diabetes and many forms of cancer. This has led to a large body of literature investigating the possibility to change people’s lifestyle. Interventions with, for example, physiotherapists that engage in daily physical activity with older people have shown substantial benefits, even reversing type 2 diabetes and some characteristics of the ageing process (1,2. Most lifestyle interventions, however, struggle to achieve sustained, long-term behavioural change (3,4. Few individuals can maintain the effort to adopt a new diet or exercise regime themselves, without intensive coaching by professionals. These interventions are therefore expensive and this hinders the widespread and continued delivery to the growing number of older people with unhealthy lifestyle and (risk for age-related disease. Therefore, it is important to explore novel sustainable and cost-effective methods for lifestyle interventions to combat the burden of agerelated disease in ageing societies. One often overlooked influence on the health behaviour of older people is the effect of the social environment. We believe that peer coaching, in which older people coach each other in achieving lifestyle changes, is such a promising method to deliver health benefits in a sustainable, scalable way. Although there is substantial documentation of the effect of peers on adolescents and children, the influence of peers has been overlooked in older people. In peer coaching, the social environment is applied as a method to deliver an intervention. Peer coaching is a face-to-face intervention in which a group is led by a peer, a non-professional, who shares a

  9. [Study on the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant B-subunit/whole cell cholera vaccine infused with antacids in healthy population at ages of 2-6 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T; Li, R C; Liu, D P

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To assess the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant B-subunit/whole cell cholera vaccine (rBS/WC) oral cholera vaccine (Ora Vacs) infused with antacids in healthy population at ages of 2-6 years. Methods: Between December 2009 and January 2010, we recruited 900 volunteers aged 2-6 years od through giving out recruitment notice for the eligible children's parents from different vaccination clinics of Chongzuo city in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and subjects were randomly (2∶1) assigned to receive Cholera vaccine infused with antacids or placebo, and observed for safety. Serum samples of 300 subjects in immunogenicity subgroups (200 for vaccine groups, 100 for control groups) before the 1st dose and 49 d (±3 d) after immunization were collected, and determined for antibody levels against the cholera toxin (anti-CT) and cholera vibriocidal (anti-Vab) with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), based on which the GMT was calculated. There were 266 cases paired with the serum samples before and after immunization (177 for vaccine groups, 89 for control groups). The comparison of subjects' age at enrollment and the level of GMT before and after immunization between groups were analyzed by t test. The superiority test for the difference between seroconversion rates of vaccine groups and control groups were analyzed by χ(2) test. Results: Of 900 subjects enrolled, the number of males and females were 503 and 397 respectively (vaccine groups 335 vs . 265, control groups 168 vs . 132), the average ages of vaccine groups and control groups at enrollment were (4.8±1.2) years and (4.9±1.2) years respectively. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of gender and age (χ(2)=0.00, P= 1.000; t= 0.55, P= 0.585). The 2 times increase rates of anti-CT and anti-Vab in vaccine groups after inoculation were 90.96% and 57.63% respectively, which were superiority to

  10. Relationships between Housing and Healthy Aging in Very Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Frank; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver; Nygren, Carita; Fange, Agneta; Sixsmith, Andrew; Sixsmith, Judith; Szeman, Zsuzsa; Tomsone, Signe; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between aspects of objective and perceived housing and aspects of healthy aging, defined as independence in daily activities and subjective well-being. Furthermore, this research examined the comparability of relationships between housing and healthy aging in the five European countries.…

  11. Social activity and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall...... activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin......Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity...

  12. Operational Definition of Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Kuh, D; Bewick, M

    2015-01-01

    Health is a multi-dimensional concept, capturing how people feel and function. The broad concept of Active and Healthy Ageing was proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the process of optimizing opportunities for health to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both...... individuals and population groups. A universal Active and Healthy Ageing definition is not available and it may differ depending on the purpose of the definition and/or the questions raised. While the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) has had a major impact......, a definition of Active and Healthy Ageing is urgently needed. A meeting was organised in Montpellier, France, October 20-21, 2014 as the annual conference of the EIP on AHA Reference Site MACVIA-LR (Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif en Languedoc Roussillon) to propose an operational...

  13. Normative values for volume and fat content of the hip abductor muscles and their dependence on side, age and gender in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Magda; Berger, Nicole; Manoliu, Andrei; Fischer, Michael A; Nanz, Daniel; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J

    2016-04-01

    To determine normative values for volume and fat content of the gluteus medius (GMed) and minimus (GMin) muscle in healthy volunteers and to evaluate their dependence on age, gender and leg dominance. The IRB approval was obtained for this study. 80 healthy volunteers (females, 40; males, 40; age range 20-62 years), divided into four age groups, were included. Fat- and water-signal-separated MR images of the pelvis were acquired on a 3.0 T MR with a 3-point mDIXON sequence. Normalized volume and fat-signal fraction (FSF) of the GMed (ViGMed, FSFGMed) and GMin (ViGMin, FSFGMin) muscles were determined. The overall mean volumes (normalized) and FSF ± SD: ViGMed 105.13 ± 16.30 cm(3); ViGMin 30.24 ± 5.15 cm(3); FSFGMed 8.13 ± 1.70 % and FSFGMin 9.89 ± 2.72 %. Comparing different age subgroups within each gender no significant differences were found concerning the volumes and FSFs (except FSFGMin in male subgroup aged 20-29 versus 50-62 years, P = 0.014). Comparing FSFs differences between the two genders, only in 20-29 years subgroup, FSFGMed (P =0.003) and FSFGMin (P =0.002) were greater in female. Volume differences between the two legs were not significant (P > 0.077); FSFGMed and FSFGMin (P =0.005 for both) were significantly lower in the dominant leg in female but not in male group (P = 0.454 for FSFGMed and P = 0.643 for FSFMin). No age dependency was evident for volume normative data for GMed and GMin and normative data for FSF values showed no age- or gender dependency.

  14. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  15. The Old-Age Healthy Dependency Ratio in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Magdalena M; Rau, Roland

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the question of whether improvements in the health of the elderly in European countries could compensate for population ageing on the supply side of the labour market. We propose a state-of-health-specific (additive) decomposition of the old-age dependency ratio into an old-age healthy dependency ratio and an old-age unhealthy dependency ratio in order to participate in a discussion of the significance of changes in population health to compensate for the ageing of the labour force. Applying the proposed indicators to the Eurostat's population projection for the years 2010-2050, and assuming there will be equal improvements in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at birth, we discuss various scenarios concerning future of the European labour force. While improvements in population health are anticipated during the years 2010-2050, the growth in the number of elderly people in Europe may be expected to lead to a rise in both healthy and unhealthy dependency ratios. The healthy dependency ratio is, however, projected to make up the greater part of the old-age dependency ratio. In the European countries in 2006, the value of the old-age dependency ratio was 25. But in the year 2050, with a positive migration balance over the years 2010-2050, there would be 18 elderly people in poor health plus 34 in good health per 100 people in the current working age range of 15-64. In the scenarios developed in this study, we demonstrate that improvements in health and progress in preventing disability will not, by themselves, compensate for the ageing of the workforce. However, coupled with a positive migration balance, at the level and with the age structure assumed in the Eurostat's population projections, these developments could ease the effect of population ageing on the supply side of the European labour market.

  16. Heart rate variability in healthy population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Hussain, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Heart rate variability has been considered as an indicator of autonomic status. Little work has been done on heart rate variability in normal healthy volunteers. We aimed at evolving the reference values of heart rate variability in our healthy population. Methods: Twenty-four hour holter monitoring of 37 healthy individuals was done using Holter ECG recorder 'Life card CF' from 'Reynolds Medical'. Heart rate variability in both time and frequency domains was analysed with 'Reynolds Medical Pathfinder Digital/700'. Results: The heart rate variability in normal healthy volunteers of our population was found in time domain using standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of average NN intervals (SDANN), and Square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD). Variation in heart rate variability indices was observed between local and foreign volunteers and RMSSD was found significantly increased (p<0.05) in local population. Conclusions: The values of heart rate variability (RMSSD) in healthy Pakistani volunteers were found increased compared to the foreign data reflecting parasympathetic dominance in our population. (author)

  17. Attentional neural networks impairment in healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazquez-Marrufo, Manuel; Luisa Benitez, Maria; Rodriguez-Gomez, Guillermo; Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; Fernandez-Del Olmo, Aaron; Vaquero-Casares, Encarnacion

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Diverse evidences have shown that the process of natural aging causes a decline in different cognitive functions, including among them the attentional process. Aim. To determine how the healthy aging affects to the different attentional networks. Subjects and methods. Two groups: young

  18. Influence of individual and combined healthy behaviours on successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimaki, Mika

    2012-12-11

    Increases in life expectancy make it important to remain healthy for as long as possible. Our objective was to examine the extent to which healthy behaviours in midlife, separately and in combination, predict successful aging. We used a prospective cohort design involving 5100 men and women aged 42-63 years. Participants were free of cancer, coronary artery disease and stroke when their health behaviours were assessed in 1991-1994 as part of the Whitehall II study. We defined healthy behaviours as never smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, physical activity (≥ 2.5 h/wk moderate physical activity or ≥ 1 h/wk vigorous physical activity), and eating fruits and vegetables daily. We defined successful aging, measured over a median 16.3-year follow-up, as good cognitive, physical, respiratory and cardiovascular functioning, in addition to the absence of disability, mental health problems and chronic disease (coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes). At the end of follow-up, 549 participants had died and 953 qualified as aging successfully. Compared with participants who engaged in no healthy behaviours, participants engaging in all 4 healthy behaviours had 3.3 times greater odds of successful aging (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-5.1). The association with successful aging was linear, with the odds ratio (OR) per increment of healthy behaviour being 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.4; population-attributable risk for 1-4 v. 0 healthy behaviours 47%). When missing data were considered in the analysis, the results were similar to those of our main analysis. Although individual healthy behaviours are moderately associated with successful aging, their combined impact is substantial. We did not investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations, but we saw clear evidence of the importance of healthy behaviours for successful aging.

  19. Policy initiatives to promote healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, Donna Lind; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2002-08-01

    An overwhelming array of policies and programs can be used to help older people (and future older people) maintain healthy lifestyles. How can clinicians help ensure that their patients take advantage of these opportunities? How can these broad-scope policies, educational and information initiatives, and direct service programs be turned into tools to help older people maximize health and independence? First, physicians do not need to do it all themselves. They need to know where to send their patients. For example, case managers in local aging service organizations and social workers, nurses, and discharge planners in hospitals can help connect elderly patients to appropriate benefits and services. Physicians play a critical role in creating a bridge between patients and the array of programs and information that can help them change their individual patterns of behavior. A serious lack of integration exists between what is known about healthy behaviors and lifestyles and what is really happening and available to older people today. From the earlier articles in this issue we know that much can be done to prevent many types of age-related disease and disability. This article provides examples of mechanisms that can be used to broadly disseminate knowledge about effective behavior and treatment changes and create mechanisms to turn this knowledge into real and widespread client-level, practice-level, health system, and community-wide interventions. Second, physicians need to understand that they are not merely subject to these policies and initiatives. They can help formulate and shape them. This political involvement includes active participation in policy initiatives of professional associations, involvement in research and demonstration activities, keeping informed about policy proposals at the federal and state levels, and helping advance ideas for improving health behaviors by speaking up and working toward change. These changes go beyond health initiatives to

  20. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Modeling Collaboration for Community Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-03-01

    As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of increased intake of fish and mussels on exposure to toxic trace elements in a healthy, middle-aged population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are rich in essential nutrients, but are also a source of exposure to environmental contaminants. We aimed to investigate the effect of increased fish and mussel intake on mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium blood concentrations. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all...... non-smokers) aged 48-76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received a high amount of fish and mussels for 26 weeks (1 kg week(-1)). Controls received no intervention and were expected to eat less than 300 g of fish and mussels per week. Whole...

  3. Personality Plasticity, Healthy Aging, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…

  4. Changes in Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) throughout the Life Span: A Population-Based Study of 1027 Healthy Males from Birth (Cord Blood) to the Age of 69 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, K; Boas, Malene

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anti-Mu¨ llerian hormone (AMH), which is secreted by immature Sertoli cells, triggers the involution of the fetalMu¨ llerian ducts.AMHis a testis-specific marker used for diagnosis in infants with ambiguous genitalia or bilateral cryptorchidism. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe...... the ontogeny of AMH secretion through life in healthy males. Setting:This was a population-based study of healthy volunteers. Participants: Participants included 1027 healthy males from birth (cord blood) to 69 yr. A subgroup was followed up longitudinally through the infantile minipuberty [(in cord blood......AMHwas above the detection limit in all samples with a marked variation according to age and pubertal status. The median AMH level in cord blood was 148 pmol/liter and increased significantly to the highest observed levels at 3 months (P 0.0001). AMH declined at 12 months (P 0.0001) and remained...

  5. The challenges of human population ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical...... of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20-21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create 'age-friendly' societies and promote 'ageing...

  6. Healthy aging: The ultimate preventative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Martin, George M

    2015-12-04

    Age is the greatest risk factor for nearly every major cause of mortality in developed nations. Despite this, most biomedical research focuses on individual disease processes without much consideration for the relationships between aging and disease. Recent discoveries in the field of geroscience, which aims to explain biological mechanisms of aging, have provided insights into molecular processes that underlie biological aging and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to delay aging and promote healthy longevity. Here we describe some of these advances, along with efforts to move geroscience from the bench to the clinic. We also propose that greater emphasis should be placed on research into basic aging processes, because interventions that slow aging will have a greater effect on quality of life compared with disease-specific approaches. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Lithuanian Population Aging Factors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Garlauskaitė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the aging of the population of Lithuania. After analysis it is concluded in the article that the decline in the birth rate and increase in the number of emigrants compared to immigrants have the greatest impact on aging of the population, so in order to show the aging of the population, a lot of attention should be paid to management of these demographic processes.

  8. Identifying transportation solutions that promote healthy aging for Texas : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As the population of Texans who are aging continues to grow, the role that transportation plays in the promotion of healthy aging is useful information for policy makers to plan and provide for the safe and healthy aging of Texass population. Tran...

  9. Healthy ageing - from molecules to hormesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Ageing can be understood at various levels, from evolutionary and biological levels to psychological and sociological levels. At the molecular biological level ageing is characterized by the stochastic occurrence and progressive accumulation of molecular damage. Failure of homeodynamics, increased...... molecular heterogeneity, altered cellular functioning and reduced stress tolerance are the determinants of health status, probability of diseases and the duration of survival. The inefficiency and imperfection of the maintenance and repair systems underlie the biological basis of ageing. Two major issues...... life style alterations are examples of ageing interventions. A promising healthy-ageing approach is that of hormesis by strengthening the homeodynamic ability of self-maintenance through transient and repetitive mild stress-inducing hormetins. Achieving the goal of extended health-span will depend...

  10. Comprehensive haematological indices reference intervals for a healthy Omani population: First comprehensive study in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Middle Eastern countries based on age, gender and ABO blood group comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Avinash Daniel; Al-Busaidi, Raiya; Al-Lawati, Rabab H.; Morsi, Magdi

    2018-01-01

    Background Reference intervals for venous blood parameters differs with age, gender, geographic region, and ethnic groups. Hence local laboratory reference intervals are important to improve the diagnostic accuracy of health assessments and diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive published reference intervals established in Oman, the Gulf Cooperation Council or Middle Eastern countries. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for full blood count in healthy Omani adults. Methods Venous blood specimens were collected from 2202 healthy individuals aged 18 to 69 years from January 2012 to April 2017, and analysed by Sysmex XS-1000i and Cell-Dyn Sapphire automated haematology analysers. Results were statistically analysed and compared by gender, age, and ABO blood group. The lower and upper reference limits of the haematology reference intervals were established at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. Results Reference intervals were calculated for 17 haematology parameters which included red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet parameters. Red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), platelet and platelet haematocrit counts of the healthy donors were significantly different between males and females at all ages (p values of RBC, HGB and HCT than females. Other complete blood count parameters showed no significant differences between genders, age groups, instruments, or blood groups. Our study showed a lower haemoglobin limit for the normal reference interval in males and females than the currently used in Oman. Conclusions Data from this study established specific reference intervals which could be considered for general use in Oman. The differences in haematology reference intervals highlights the necessity to establish reference intervals for venous blood parameters among the healthy population in each country or at least in each region. PMID:29621271

  11. Comprehensive haematological indices reference intervals for a healthy Omani population: First comprehensive study in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Middle Eastern countries based on age, gender and ABO blood group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mawali, Adhra; Pinto, Avinash Daniel; Al-Busaidi, Raiya; Al-Lawati, Rabab H; Morsi, Magdi

    2018-01-01

    Reference intervals for venous blood parameters differs with age, gender, geographic region, and ethnic groups. Hence local laboratory reference intervals are important to improve the diagnostic accuracy of health assessments and diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive published reference intervals established in Oman, the Gulf Cooperation Council or Middle Eastern countries. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for full blood count in healthy Omani adults. Venous blood specimens were collected from 2202 healthy individuals aged 18 to 69 years from January 2012 to April 2017, and analysed by Sysmex XS-1000i and Cell-Dyn Sapphire automated haematology analysers. Results were statistically analysed and compared by gender, age, and ABO blood group. The lower and upper reference limits of the haematology reference intervals were established at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. Reference intervals were calculated for 17 haematology parameters which included red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet parameters. Red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), platelet and platelet haematocrit counts of the healthy donors were significantly different between males and females at all ages (p < 0.05), with males having higher mean values of RBC, HGB and HCT than females. Other complete blood count parameters showed no significant differences between genders, age groups, instruments, or blood groups. Our study showed a lower haemoglobin limit for the normal reference interval in males and females than the currently used in Oman. Data from this study established specific reference intervals which could be considered for general use in Oman. The differences in haematology reference intervals highlights the necessity to establish reference intervals for venous blood parameters among the healthy population in each country or at least in each region.

  12. Biology of Healthy Aging and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Juan José; Michan, Shaday

    2016-01-01

    As human life expectancy is prolonged, age-related diseases are thriving. Aging is a complex multifactorial process of molecular and cellular decline that affects tissue function over time, rendering organisms frail and susceptible to disease and death. Over the last decades, a growing body of scientific literature across different biological models, ranging from yeast, worms, flies, and mice to primates, humans and other long-lived animals, has contributed greatly towards identifying conserved biological mechanisms that ward off structural and functional deterioration within living systems. Collectively, these data offer powerful insights into healthy aging and longevity. For example, molecular integrity of the genome, telomere length, epigenetic landscape stability, and protein homeostasis are all features linked to "youthful" states. These molecular hallmarks underlie cellular functions associated with aging like mitochondrial fitness, nutrient sensing, efficient intercellular communication, stem cell renewal, and regenerative capacity in tissues. At present, calorie restriction remains the most robust strategy for extending health and lifespan in most biological models tested. Thus, pathways that mediate the beneficial effects of calorie restriction by integrating metabolic signals to aging processes have received major attention, such as insulin/insulin growth factor-1, sirtuins, mammalian target of rapamycin, and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Consequently, small-molecule targets of these pathways have emerged in the impetuous search for calorie restriction mimetics, of which resveratrol, metformin, and rapamycin are the most extensively studied. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie age-related deterioration and repair, and how these pathways interconnect, remains a major challenge for uncovering interventions to slow human aging while extending molecular and physiological youthfulness

  13. Clinical Utility of a Coronary Heart Disease Risk Prediction Gene Score in UK Healthy Middle Aged Men and in the Pakistani Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Beaney

    Full Text Available Numerous risk prediction algorithms based on conventional risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD are available but provide only modest discrimination. The inclusion of genetic information may improve clinical utility.We tested the use of two gene scores (GS in the prospective second Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHSII of 2775 healthy UK men (284 cases, and Pakistani case-control studies from Islamabad/Rawalpindi (321 cases/228 controls and Lahore (414 cases/219 controls. The 19-SNP GS included SNPs in loci identified by GWAS and candidate gene studies, while the 13-SNP GS only included SNPs in loci identified by the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium.In NPHSII, the mean of both gene scores was higher in those who went on to develop CHD over 13.5 years of follow-up (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=7x10-3. In combination with the Framingham algorithm the GSs appeared to show improvement in discrimination (increase in area under the ROC curve, 19-SNP p=0.48, 13-SNP p=0.82 and risk classification (net reclassification improvement (NRI, 19-SNP p=0.28, 13-SNP p=0.42 compared to the Framingham algorithm alone, but these were not statistically significant. When considering only individuals who moved up a risk category with inclusion of the GS, the improvement in risk classification was statistically significant (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=0.04. In the Pakistani samples, risk allele frequencies were significantly lower compared to NPHSII for 13/19 SNPs. In the Islamabad study, the mean gene score was higher in cases than controls only for the 13-SNP GS (2.24 v 2.34, p=0.04. There was no association with CHD and either score in the Lahore study.The performance of both GSs showed potential clinical utility in European men but much less utility in subjects from Pakistan, suggesting that a different set of risk loci or SNPs may be required for risk prediction in the South Asian population.

  14. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Echocardiographic chamber quantification in a healthy Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grootel, R W J; Menting, M E; McGhie, J; Roos-Hesselink, J W; van den Bosch, A E

    2017-12-01

    For accurate interpretation of echocardiographic measurements normative data are required, which are provided by guidelines. For this article, the hypothesis was that these cannot be extrapolated to the Dutch population, since in Dutch clinical practice often higher values are found, which may not be pathological but physiological. Therefore this study aimed to 1) obtain and propose normative values for cardiac chamber quantification in a healthy Dutch population and 2) determine influences of baseline characteristics on these measurements. Prospectively recruited healthy subjects, aged 20-72 years (at least 28 subjects per age decade, equally distributed for gender) underwent physical examination and 2D and 3D echocardiography. Both ventricles and atria were assessed and volumes were calculated. 147 subjects were included (age 44 ± 14 years, 50% female). Overall, feasibility was good for both linear and volumetric measurements. Linear and volumetric parameters were consistently higher than current guidelines recommend, while functional parameters were in line with the guidelines. This was more so in the older population. 3D volumes were higher than 2D volumes. Gender dependency was seen in all body surface area (BSA) corrected volumes and with increasing age, ejection fractions decreased. This study provides 2D and 3D echocardiographic reference ranges for both ventricles and atria derived from a healthy Dutch population. BSA indexed volumes are gender-dependent, age did not influence ventricular volumes and a rise in blood pressure was independently associated with increased right ventricular volumes. The higher volumes found may be indicative for the Dutch population being the tallest in the world.

  16. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Judith B; Putney, Jennifer M; Shepard, Bonnie L; Sass, Samantha E; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly; Cahill, Sean

    2016-04-01

    In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly.

  17. Operative definition of active and healthy ageing (AHA) : Meeting report. Montpellier October 20-21, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Kuh, D.; Bewick, M.; Strandberg, T.; Farrell, J.; Pengelly, R.; Joel, M. E.; Manas, L. Rodriguez; Mercier, J.; Bringer, J.; Camuzat, T.; Bourret, R.; Bedbrook, A.; Kowalski, M. L.; Samolinski, B.; Bonini, S.; Brayne, C.; Michel, J. P.; Venne, J.; Viriot-Durandal, P.; Alonso, J.; Avignon, A.; Bousquet, P. J.; Combe, B.; Cooper, R.; Hardy, R.; Iaccarino, G.; Keil, T.; Kesse-Guyot, E.; Momas, I.; Ritchie, K.; Robine, J. M.; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Vellas, B.; Zaidi, A.; Alonso, F.; Ranberg, K. Andersen; Andreeva, V.; Ankri, J.; Arnavielhe, S.; Arshad, S. H.; Auge, P.; Berr, C.; Bertone, P.; Blain, H.; Blasimme, A.; Buijs, G. J.; Caimmi, D.; Carriazo, A.; Cesario, A.; Coletta, J.; Cosco, T.; Criton, M.; Cuisinier, F.; Demoly, P.; Fernandez-Nocelo, S.; Fougere, B.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Goldberg, M.; Guldemond, N.; Gutter, Z.; Harman, D.; Hendry, A.; Heve, D.; Illario, M.; Jeandel, C.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Krys, O.; Kula, D.; Laune, D.; Lehmann, S.; Maier, D.; Malva, J.; Matignon, P.; Melen, E.; Mercier, G.; Moda, G.; Nizinkska, A.; Nogues, M.; O'Neill, M.; Pelissier, J. Y.; Poethig, D.; Porta, D.; Postma, D.; Puisieux, F.; Richards, M.; Robalo-Cordeiro, C.; Romano, V.; Roubille, F.; Schulz, H.; Scott, A.; Senesse, P.; Slagter, S.; Smit, H. A.; Somekh, D.; Stafford, M.; Suanzes, J.; Todo-Bom, A.; Touchon, J.; Traver-Salcedo, V.; Van Beurden, M.; Varraso, R.; Vergara, I.; Villalba-Mora, E.; Wilson, N.; Wouters, E.; Zins, M.

    The broad concept of Active and Healthy Ageing was proposed by WHO as the process of optimizing opportunities for health to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both individuals and population groups. A universal active and healthy ageing definition is not available and may differ

  18. Demographic Changes and the Challenge for a Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes bring about a wide range of new research fields including policy topics, health, social welfare, work & productivity, urban & rural development, communication tools, and mobility. This new situation requires a new multi-disciplinary approach bringing together different research programs in order to provide solutions for the upcoming challenges. National Health services are now facing a huge shift in the population structure with a predominance of older generations in the total number of citizens. Good health is the most important factor to live independently in old age. A better understanding of ageing processes and the related "plasticity" of individual performance for environmental adaptation, the prevention for age-related illnesses and healthcare strategies are the basis for keeping very old people healthy and active throughout the course of their lives. We will face mainly the biological, cognitive and psychological dimensions of ageing. Afterwards, we will focus on the relationships linking various biological and lifestyle factors - such as nutrition - that are crucial to obtain a comprehensive picture of ageing and to promote preventing strategies against degenerative neurological diseases. Finally we will investigate which interventions - nutritional and physical - could help in keeping people healthy, in particular which factors could promote people's physical, social and psychological functional abilities and the systemic multilevel consequences induced by a healthy ageing.

  19. Healthy aging – insights from Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin G Iliadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human life expectancy has nearly doubled in the past century due, in part, to social and economic development, and a wide range of new medical technologies and treatments. As the number of elderly increase it becomes of vital importance to understand what factors contribute to healthy aging. Human longevity is a complex process that is affected by both environmental and genetic factors and interactions between them. Unfortunately, it is currently difficult to identify the role of genetic components in human longevity. In contrast, model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila and rodents have facilitated the search for specific genes that affect lifespan. Experimental evidence obtained from studies in model organisms suggests that mutations in a single gene may increase longevity and delay the onset of age-related symptoms including motor impairments, sexual and reproductive and immune dysfunction, cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. Furthermore, the high degree of conservation between diverse species in the genes and pathways that regulate longevity suggests that work in model organisms can both expand our theoretical knowledge of aging and perhaps provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of age-related disorders.

  20. Genetics of healthy aging in Europe: the EU-integrated project GEHA (GEnetics of Healthy Aging)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschi, Claudio; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Blanché, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the 5-year European Union (EU)-Integrated Project GEnetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA), constituted by 25 partners (24 from Europe plus the Beijing Genomics Institute from China), is to identify genes involved in healthy aging and longevity, which allow individuals to survive to advanced old......DNA). The genetic analysis will be performed by 9 high-throughput platforms, within the framework of centralized databases for phenotypic, genetic, and mtDNA data. Additional advanced approaches (bioinformatics, advanced statistics, mathematical modeling, functional genomics and proteomics, molecular biology...... age in good cognitive and physical function and in the absence of major age-related diseases. To achieve this aim a coherent, tightly integrated program of research that unites demographers, geriatricians, geneticists, genetic epidemiologists, molecular biologists, bioinfomaticians, and statisticians...

  1. Number skills are maintained in healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Didino, Daniele; Stoianov, Ivilin; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Numerical skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline, but whether they change in healthy ageing is not well known. Longer exposure to numbers and quantity-related problems may progressively refine numerical skills, similar to what happens to other cognitive abilities like verbal memory. Alternatively, number skills may be sensitive to ageing, reflecting either a decline of number processing itself or of more auxiliary cognitive abilities that are involved in number tasks. To distinguish between these possibilities we tested 30 older and 30 younger participants on an established numerosity discrimination task requiring to judge which of two sets of items is more numerous, and on arithmetical tasks. Older participants were remarkably accurate in performing arithmetical tasks although their numerosity discrimination (also known as 'number acuity') was impaired. Further analyses indicate that this impairment was limited to numerosity trials requiring inhibiting information incongruent to numerosity (e.g., fewer but larger items), and that this also correlated with poor inhibitory processes measured by standard tests. Therefore, rather than a numerical impairment, poor numerosity discrimination is likely to reflect elderly's impoverished inhibitory processes. This conclusion is supported by simulations with a recent neuro-computational model of numerosity perception, where only the specific degradation of inhibitory processes produced a pattern that closely resembled older participants' performance. Numeracy seems therefore resilient to ageing but it is influenced by the decline of inhibitory processes supporting number performance, consistent with the 'Inhibitory Deficit' Theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative measures of healthy aging and biological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2015-01-01

    Numerous genetic and non-genetic factors contribute to aging. To facilitate the study of these factors, various descriptors of biological aging, including ‘successful aging’ and ‘frailty’, have been put forth as integrative functional measures of aging. A separate but related quantitative approach is the ‘frailty index’, which has been operationalized and frequently used. Various frailty indices have been constructed. Although based on different numbers and types of health variables, frailty indices possess several common properties that make them useful across different studies. We have been using a frailty index termed FI34 based on 34 health variables. Like other frailty indices, FI34 increases non-linearly with advancing age and is a better indicator of biological aging than chronological age. FI34 has a substantial genetic basis. Using FI34, we found elevated levels of resting metabolic rate linked to declining health in nonagenarians. Using FI34 as a quantitative phenotype, we have also found a genomic region on chromosome 12 that is associated with healthy aging and longevity. PMID:26005669

  3. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-03-18

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing.

  4. C-reactive protein implications in new-onset hypertension in a healthy population initially aged 65 years : the Proof study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dauphinot, Virginie; Roche, Frederic; Kossovsky, Michel P.; Schott, Anne-Marie; Pichot, Vincent; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gosse, Philippe; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude

    Background Because inflammation is known to be related with several cardiovascular diseases, we sought to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) might precede the onset of hypertension. Methods The study population was selected from the Proof study cohort including 1011 individuals initially

  5. Social capital and healthy ageing in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junran Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large international literature has found a positive association between social capital and measures of physical and mental health. However, there is a paucity of research on the links between social capital and healthy ageing in a developing country environment, where universal social security coverage is absent and health infrastructure is poor. Method In this paper, we develop and empirically test a model of the linkages between social capital and the health outcomes for older adults in Indonesia, using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey-East (IFLS-East, conducted in 2012. Using multivariate regression analysis, we examine whether social capital plays a role in mitigating poor health among older individuals aged 50 years and above in Indonesia’s most vulnerable provinces. We test the robustness of these social capital variables across different health measures (self-assessed health, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, measures of chronic illness and mental health measures, as well as across different demographic groups, after controlling for an array of socio-economic, demographic and geographic characteristics. Results Our findings show that access to better social capital (using measures of neighbourhood trust and community participation is associated with a higher degree of physical mobility, independence, and mental well-being among older individuals but has no influence on chronic illnesses. These results are consistent when we estimate samples disaggregated by gender, rural/urban residence, and by age categories. Conclusion From a policy perspective these results point to the importance of social capital measures in moderating the influence of poor health, particularly in the Activities of Daily Living.

  6. Social capital and healthy ageing in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junran; Rammohan, Anu

    2016-07-22

    A large international literature has found a positive association between social capital and measures of physical and mental health. However, there is a paucity of research on the links between social capital and healthy ageing in a developing country environment, where universal social security coverage is absent and health infrastructure is poor. In this paper, we develop and empirically test a model of the linkages between social capital and the health outcomes for older adults in Indonesia, using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey-East (IFLS-East), conducted in 2012. Using multivariate regression analysis, we examine whether social capital plays a role in mitigating poor health among older individuals aged 50 years and above in Indonesia's most vulnerable provinces. We test the robustness of these social capital variables across different health measures (self-assessed health, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), measures of chronic illness and mental health measures), as well as across different demographic groups, after controlling for an array of socio-economic, demographic and geographic characteristics. Our findings show that access to better social capital (using measures of neighbourhood trust and community participation) is associated with a higher degree of physical mobility, independence, and mental well-being among older individuals but has no influence on chronic illnesses. These results are consistent when we estimate samples disaggregated by gender, rural/urban residence, and by age categories. From a policy perspective these results point to the importance of social capital measures in moderating the influence of poor health, particularly in the Activities of Daily Living.

  7. Healthy Aging Promotion through Neuroscientific Information-Based Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinfeld, Sofia; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2015-09-28

    To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted.

  8. Healthy Aging Promotion through Neuroscientific Information-Based Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Seinfeld

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted.

  9. Self-transcendence and correlates in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, D D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the presence of self-transcendence perspectives in a healthy population and to compare self-transcendence and related concepts with previous findings in elderly well persons and in those with life-threatening illness. Levels of self-transcendence, as assessed by the Self-Transcendence Scale and the Purpose-in-Life Test in a sample of 152 persons (mean age = 46 years), were similar to those found in other populations. Moderate correlations with self-transcendence and female gender; older age, and higher self-report of health status were found. Self-transcendence was strongly correlated with sense of coherence, self-esteem, hope, and variables assessing emotional well-being.

  10. Defining and Estimating Healthy Aging in Spain: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Laso, Angel; McLaughlin, Sara J; Urdaneta, Elena; Yanguas, Javier

    2018-03-19

    Using an operational continuum of healthy aging developed by U.S. researchers, we sought to estimate the prevalence of healthy aging among older Spaniards, inform the development of a definition of healthy aging in Spain, and foster cross-national research on healthy aging. The ELES pilot study is a nationwide, cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling Spaniards 50 years and older. The prevalence of healthy aging was calculated for the 65 and over population using varying definitions. To evaluate their validity, we examined the association of healthy aging with the 8 foot up & go test, quality of life scores and self-perceived health using multiple linear and logistic regression. The estimated prevalence of healthy aging varied across the operational continuum, from 4.5% to 49.2%. Prevalence figures were greater for men and those aged 65 to 79 years and were higher than in the United States. Predicted mean physical performance scores were similar for 3 of the 4 definitions, suggesting that stringent definitions of healthy aging offer little advantage over a more moderate one. Similar to U.S. researchers, we recommend a definition of healthy aging that incorporates measures of functional health and limiting disease as opposed to definitions requiring the absence of all disease in studies designed to assess the effect of policy initiatives on healthy aging.

  11. A proposed panel of biomarkers of healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jose; Cooper, Rachel; Nissan, Jack; Ginty, Annie T; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Deary, Ian J; Lord, Janet M; Kuh, Diana; Mathers, John C

    2015-09-15

    studies of human ageing, in health surveys of older people and as outcomes in intervention studies that aim to promote healthy ageing. Further, the inclusion of the same common panel of measures of healthy ageing in diverse study designs and populations may enhance the value of those studies by allowing the harmonisation of surrogate endpoints or outcome measures, thus facilitating less equivocal comparisons between studies and the pooling of data across studies.

  12. Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-06-01

    Since the ageing population demands a response to ensure older people remain healthy and active, we studied the dynamics of a recently proposed healthy ageing phenotype. We drew the phenotype's trajectories and tested whether their levels and rates of change are influenced by health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions earlier in the life course. The English Longitudinal Ageing Study, a prospective, nationally representative sample of people aged ≥50 years, measured a set of eight biomarkers which make up the outcome of the healthy ageing phenotype three times over nearly a decade (N2004=5009, N2008=5301, N2013=4455). A cluster of health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions were also measured repeatedly. We assessed the phenotype's distribution non-parametrically, then fitted linear mixed models to phenotypic change and further examined time interactions with gender and socioeconomic position. We ran additional analyses to test robustness. Women had a wider distribution of the healthy ageing phenotype than men had. The phenotype declined annually by -0.242 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.352, -0.131). However, there was considerable heterogeneity in the levels and rates of phenotypic change. Women started at higher levels, then declined more steeply by -0.293 (CI: -0.403, -0.183) annually, leading to crossover in the trajectories. Smoking and physical activity assessed on the Allied Dunbar scale were strongly associated with the trajectories. Though marked by secular decline, the trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype showed distinct socioeconomic gradients. The trajectories were also susceptible to variations in health behaviours, strengthening the case for serial interventions to attain healthy and active ageing. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary quality, lifestile factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional status


    The contribution

  14. Ageing populations: the challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Rau, Roland

    2009-01-01

    birthdays. Although trends differ between countries, populations of nearly all such countries are ageing as a result of low fertility, low immigration, and long lives. A key question is: are increases in life expectancy accompanied by a concurrent postponement of functional limitations and disability......? The answer is still open, but research suggests that ageing processes are modifiable and that people are living longer without severe disability. This finding, together with technological and medical development and redistribution of work, will be important for our chances to meet the challenges of ageing...

  15. Lipid and Alzheimer's disease genes associated with healthy aging and longevity in healthy oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindale, Lauren C; Leach, Stephen; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2017-03-28

    Several studies have found that long-lived individuals do not appear to carry lower numbers of common disease-associated variants than ordinary people; it has been hypothesized that they may instead carry protective variants. An intriguing type of protective variant is buffering variants that protect against variants that have deleterious effects. We genotyped 18 variants in 15 genes related to longevity or healthy aging that had been previously reported as having a gene-gene interaction or buffering effect. We compared a group of 446 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' (individuals 85 or older who have never been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes or major pulmonary disease) to 421 random population-based midlife controls. Cases and controls were of European ancestry. Association tests of individual SNPs showed that Super-Seniors were less likely than controls to carry an APOEε4 allele or a haptoglobin HP2 allele. Interactions between APOE/FOXO3, APOE/CRYL1, and LPA/CRYL1 did not remain significant after multiple testing correction. In a network analysis of the candidate genes, lipid and cholesterol metabolism was a common theme. APOE, HP, and CRYL1 have all been associated with Alzheimer's Disease, the pathology of which involves lipid and cholesterol pathways. Age-related changes in lipid and cholesterol maintenance, particularly in the brain, may be central to healthy aging and longevity.

  16. Transcranial Doppler velocities in a large, healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Charles H; Crutchfield, Kevin; Katsnelson, Michael; Kim, Jongyeol; Tang, Rong; Passmore Griffin, Leah; Rundek, Tanja; Evans, Greg

    2013-07-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography has been extensively used in the evaluation and management of patients with cerebrovascular disease since the clinical application was first described in 1982 by Aaslid and colleagues TCD is a painless, safe, and noninvasive diagnostic technique that measures blood flow velocity in various cerebral arteries. Numerous commercially available TCD devices are currently approved for use worldwide, and TCD is recognized to have an established clinical value for a variety of clinical indications and settings. Although many studies have reported normal values, there have been few recently, and none to include a large cohort of healthy subjects across age, race, and gender. As more objective, automated processes are being developed to assist with the performance and interpretation of TCD studies, and with the potential to easily compare results against a reference population, it is important to define stable normal values and variances across age, race, and gender, with clear understanding of variability of the measurements, as well as the yield from various anatomic segments. To define normal TCD values in a healthy population, we enrolled 364 healthy subjects, ages 18-80 years, to have a complete, nonimaging TCD examination. Subjects with known or suspected cerebrovascular disorders, systemic disorders with cerebrovascular effects, as well as those with known hypertension, diabetes, stroke, coronary artery disease, or myocardial infarction, were excluded. Self-reported ethnicity, handedness, BP, and BMI were recorded. A complete TCD examination was performed by a single experienced sonographer, using a single gate nonimaging TCD device, and a standardized protocol to interrogate up to 23 arterial segments. Individual Doppler spectra were saved for each segment, with velocity and pulsatility index (PI) values calculated using the instrument's automated waveform tracking function. Descriptive analysis was done to determine the mean

  17. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of "nutritional frailty," which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of “nutritional frailty,” which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed. PMID:28096124

  19. Reprint of: Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selfie Aging Index: An Index for the Self-assessment of Healthy and Active Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Judite; Gomes, Maria Isabel; Fonseca, Miguel; Teodoro, Tomás; Barros, Pedro Pita; Botelho, Maria-Amália

    2017-01-01

    Governments across Europe want to promote healthy and active aging, as a matter of both public health and economic sustainability. Designing policies focused on the most vulnerable groups requires information at the individual level. However, a measure of healthy and active aging at the individual level does not yet exist. This paper develops the Selfie Aging Index (SAI), an individual-level index of healthy and active aging. The SAI is developed thinking about a tool that would allow each person to take a selfie of her aging status. Therefore, it is based entirely on self-assessed indicators. This paper also illustrates how the SAI may look like in practice. The SAI is based on the Biopsychosocial Assessment Model (MAB), a tool for the multidimensional assessment of older adults along three domains: biological, psychological, and social. Indicators are selected and their weights determined based on an ordered probit model that relates the MAB indicators to self-assessed health, which proxies healthy and active aging. The ordered probit model predicts the SAI based on the estimated parameters. Finally, predictions are rescaled to the 0-1 interval. Data for the SAI development come from the Study of the Aging Profiles of the Portuguese Population and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe. The selected indicators are BMI, having difficulties moving around indoors and performing the activities of daily living, feeling depressed, feeling nervous, lacking energy, time awareness score, marital status, having someone to confide in, education, type of job, exercise, and smoking status. The model also determines their weights. Results shed light on various factors that contribute significantly to healthy and active aging. Two examples are mental health and exercise, which deserve more attention from individuals themselves, health-care professionals, and public health policy. The SAI has the potential to put the individual at the center of the healthy and

  2. The challenges of human population ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid; Krasnik, Allan; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical, social, public health and public policy challenges, whose full implications on a societal level are only just beginning to be fully appreciated. Some of these implications are discussed in this commentary, an outcome of Cultures of Health and Ageing, a conference co-sponsored by the University of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20–21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create ‘age-friendly’ societies and promote ‘ageing-in-community’? what tools will effectively promote social engagement and prevent social detachment among older individuals? is there a risk that further extension of human lifespan would be a greater burden to the individual and to society than is warranted by the potential benefit of longer life? PMID:25452294

  3. Whole Genome Sequencing of a Healthy Aging Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Erikson, Galina A.; Bodian, Dale L.; Rueda, Manuel; Molparia, Bhuvan; Scott, Erick R.; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; Topol, Sarah E.; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Niederhuber, John E.; Topol, Eric J.; Torkamani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Studies of long-lived individuals have revealed few genetic mechanisms for protection against age-associated disease. Therefore, we pursued genome sequencing of a related phenotype – healthy aging – to understand the genetics of disease-free aging without medical intervention. In contrast with studies of exceptional longevity, usually focused on centenarians, healthy aging is not associated with known longevity variants but is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer and co...

  4. Lymphocyte maintenance during healthy aging requires no substantial alterations in cellular turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Liset; van Hoeven, Vera; Drylewicz, Julia; Spierenburg, Gerrit; van Velzen, Jeroen F.; de Boer, Rob J.; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, José A M

    2015-01-01

    In healthy humans, lymphocyte populations are maintained at a relatively constant size throughout life, reflecting a balance between lymphocyte production and loss. Given the profound immunological changes that occur during healthy aging, including a significant decline in T-cell production by the

  5. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Timimi, D.; Al-Najjar, F.; Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  6. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  7. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Resources for Building Capacity for Public Health and Aging Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Altpeter, Mary; Anderson, Lynda A.; Belza, Basia; Bryant, Lucinda; Jones, Dina L.; Leith, Katherine H.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Satariano, William A.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to translate science into practice and help enhance the capacity of professionals to deliver evidence-based programming. We describe contributions of the Healthy Aging Research Network in building professional capacity through online modules, issue briefs, monographs, and tools focused on health promotion practice, physical activity, mental health, and environment and policy. We also describe practice partnerships and research activities that helped inform product development and ways these products have been incorporated into real-world practice to illustrate possibilities for future applications. Our work aims to bridge the research-to-practice gap to meet the demands of an aging population. PMID:24000962

  8. Healthy ageing in the Nun Study: definition and neuropathologic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Suzanne L; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Markesbery, William R

    2007-11-01

    Although the concept of healthy ageing has stimulated considerable interest, no generally accepted definition has been developed nor has its biological basis been determined. To develop a definition of healthy ageing and investigate its association with longevity and neuropathology. Analyses were based on cognitive, physical, and post-mortem assessments from 1991 to 1998 in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of ageing in participants 75+ years at baseline. We defined three mutually exclusive levels of healthy ageing (excellent, very good, and good) based on measures of global cognitive function, short-term memory, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated function. Mortality analyses were based on 636 participants; neuropathologic analyses were restricted to 221 who had died and were autopsied. Only 11% of those meeting criteria for the excellent level of healthy ageing at baseline subsequently died, compared with 24% for the very good, 39% for the good, and 60% for the remaining participants. Survival curves showed significantly greater longevity with higher levels of healthy ageing. The risk of not attaining healthy ageing, adjusted for age, increased two-fold in participants with brain infarcts alone, six-fold in those with Alzheimer neuropathology alone, and more than thirteen-fold in those with both brain infarcts and Alzheimer neuropathology. The biological validity of our definition of healthy ageing is supported by its strong association with mortality and longevity. Avoiding Alzheimer and stroke neuropathology is critical to the maintenance of healthy ageing, and the presence of both pathologies dramatically decreases the likelihood of healthy ageing.

  9. Telomere biology in healthy aging and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, Hisko; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van der Harst, Pim

    Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Telomeres have been postulated as a universal biological clock that shortens in parallel with aging in cells. Telomeres are located at the end of the chromosomes and consist of an evolutionary conserved repetitive

  10. Evaluating aging in cats: How to determine what is healthy and what is disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Center, Sharon; Daristotle, Leighann; Estrada, Amara H; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Horwitz, Debra F; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lepine, Allan; Perea, Sally; Scherk, Margie; Shoveller, Anna K

    2016-07-01

    Many of the changes that occur with aging are not considered pathologic and do not negatively affect overall wellness or quality of life. Ruling out disease is essential, however, when attempting to determine whether an aged cat can be considered 'healthy'. A clear understanding of the normal and abnormal changes that are associated with aging in cats can help practitioners make decisions regarding medical management, feeding interventions and additional testing procedures for their aged patients. It can be difficult to determine if a cat is displaying changes that are appropriate for age. For example, healthy aged cats may have hematologic or serum biochemistry changes that differ from those of the general feline population. Assessment of behavioral health and cognitive changes, as well as auditory, olfactory and visual changes, can also be challenging in the aged patient. This is the second of two review articles in a Special Issue devoted to feline healthy aging. The goals of the project culminating in these publications included developing a working definition for healthy aging in feline patients and identifying clinical methods that can be used to accurately classify healthy aged cats. This second review proposes criteria for assessing 'healthy aged cats'. There is a paucity of research in feline aging. The authors draw on expert opinion and available data in both the cat and other species. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Features of gas exchange of healthy people of working age

    OpenAIRE

    Noreiko S.B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of determining the basal metabolism of healthy people. Comparative studies of basal metabolism of healthy men and women on probation and respiratory physical factors are considered. Surveyed 30 healthy men and women aged 21-56 years. Determination of the volume of absorbed oxygen and produces carbon dioxide carried by the gas analyzer "Spirolit-2" were defined. Calculate the actual respiratory rate. It is established that the actual value ...

  12. Standard Populations (Millions) for Age-Adjustment - SEER Population Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download files containing standard population data for use in statististical software. The files contain the same data distributed with SEER*Stat software. You can also view the standard populations, either 19 age groups or single ages.

  13. Reference values of electrocardiogram repolarization variables in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Graff, Claus; Andersen, Mads P

    2010-01-01

    Reference values for T-wave morphology analysis and evaluation of the relationship with age, sex, and heart rate are lacking in the literature. In this study, we characterized T-wave morphology in a large sample of healthy individuals....

  14. Healthy Aging After Age 65: A Life-Span Health Production Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdows, Nasim B; Jensen, Gail A; Tarraf, Wassim

    2018-06-01

    This article examines the determinants of healthy aging using Grossman's framework of a health production function. Healthy aging, sometimes described as successful aging, is produced using a variety of inputs, determined in early life, young adulthood, midlife, and later life. A healthy aging production function is estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study on 7,355 noninstitutionalized seniors. Using a simultaneous equation mediation model, we quantify how childhood factors contribute to healthy aging, both directly and indirectly through their effects on mediating adult outcomes. We find that favorable childhood conditions significantly improve healthy aging scores, both directly and indirectly, mediated through education, income, and wealth. We also find that good health habits have positive effects on healthy aging that are larger in magnitude than the effects of childhood factors. Our findings suggest that exercising, maintaining proper weight, and not smoking are likely to translate into healthier aging.

  15. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.; Barisic, N.; Baxter, P.; Brankovic-Sreckovic, V.; Calabrò, G. E.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.; de Coo, Ifm; Craiu, D.; Dan, B.; Gburek-Augustat, J.; Kammoun-Feki, F.; Kennedy, C.; Mancini, F.; Mirabelli-Badenier, M.; Nemeth, A.; Newton, R.; Poll-The, B. T.; Steinlin, M.; Synofzik, M.; Topcu, M.; Triki, C.; Valente, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo

  16. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Ageing and healthy sexuality among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Payne, Caitlin; Caldas, Stephanie; Beard, John R; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Populations around the world are rapidly ageing and effective treatment for HIV means women living with HIV (WLHIV) can live longer, healthier lives. HIV testing and screening programmes and safer sex initiatives often exclude older sexually active WLHIV. Systematically reviewing the literature to inform World Health Organization guidelines on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of WLHIV, identified four studies examining healthy sexuality among older WLHIV. In Uganda, WLHIV reported lower rates of sexual activity and rated sex as less important than men. In the United States, HIV stigma, disclosure, and body image concerns, among other issues, were described as inhibiting relationship formation and safer sexual practices. Sexual activity declined similarly over time for all women, including for WLHIV who reported more protected sex, while a significant minority of WLHIV reported unprotected sex. A single intervention, the "ROADMAP" intervention, demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV stigma and high risk sexual behaviour. WLHIV face ageist discrimination and other barriers to remaining sexually active and maintaining healthy sexual relationships, including challenges procuring condoms and seeking advice on safe sex practices, reduced ability to negotiate safer sex, physical and social changes associated with menopause, and sexual health challenges due to disability and comorbidities. Normative guidance does not adequately address the SRHR of older WLHIV, and while this systematic review highlights the paucity of data, it also calls for additional research and attention to this important area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dental caries and periodontal diseases in the ageing population: call to action to protect and enhance oral health and well-being as an essential component of healthy ageing - Consensus report of group 4 of the joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Maurizio S; Bottenberg, Peter; Conrads, Georg; Eickholz, Peter; Heasman, Peter; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; López, Rodrigo; Madianos, Phoebus; Müller, Frauke; Needleman, Ian; Nyvad, Bente; Preshaw, Philip M; Pretty, Iain; Renvert, Stefan; Schwendicke, Falk; Trombelli, Leonardo; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; Vanobbergen, Jacques; West, Nicola; Young, Alix; Paris, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Over the last two decades, progress in prevention and treatment of caries and periodontal diseases has been translated to better oral health and improved tooth retention in the adult population. The ageing population and the increasing expectations of good oral health-related quality of life in older age pose formidable challenges to clinical care and healthcare systems. The objective of this workshop was to critically review scientific evidence and develop specific recommendations to: (i) prevent tooth loss and retain oral function through prevention and treatment of caries and periodontal diseases later in life and (ii) increase awareness of the health benefits of oral health as an essential component of healthy ageing. Discussions were initiated by three systematic reviews covering aspects of epidemiology of caries and periodontal diseases in elders, the impact of senescence on caries and periodontal diseases and the effectiveness of interventions. Recommendations were developed based on evidence from the systematic reviews and expert opinion. Key messages included: (i) the ageing population, trends in risk factors and improved tooth retention point towards an expected increase in the total burden of disease posed by caries and periodontal diseases in the older population; (ii) specific surveillance is required to monitor changes in oral health in the older population; (iii) senescence impacts oral health including periodontitis and possibly caries susceptibility; (iv) evidence indicates that caries and periodontal diseases can be prevented and treated also in older adults; (v) oral health and functional tooth retention later in life provides benefits both in terms of oral and general quality of life and in terms of preventing physical decline and dependency by fostering a healthy diet; (vi) oral healthcare professionals and individuals should not base decisions impacting tooth retention on chronological age but on level of dependency, life expectancy, frailty

  19. Dietary quality, lifestyle factors and healthy ageing in Europe: the SENECA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to identify dietary and lifestyle factors that contribute to healthy ageing. Subjects: for the analyses, data of the longitudinal SENECA study were used. The study population consisted of 1091 men and 1109 women aged 70-75 years from Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands,

  20. The aging population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nasri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is currently in an advanced stage of both the mortality andfertility transitions, which allows one to confi dently forecast the agedistribution and population size over the next four decades. Whereasthe elderly population with more than 65 years will increase at highrates (2 to 4% per year the young population will decline. Accordingto United Nations projections, the elderly population will increasefrom 3.1% of the population in 1970 to 19% in 2050. The changingage distribution of the Brazilian population brings opportunities andchallenges that could lead to serious social and economic issues ifnot dealt with properly in coming decades.

  1. Whole-Genome Sequencing of a Healthy Aging Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Galina A; Bodian, Dale L; Rueda, Manuel; Molparia, Bhuvan; Scott, Erick R; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A; Topol, Sarah E; Wineinger, Nathan E; Niederhuber, John E; Topol, Eric J; Torkamani, Ali

    2016-05-05

    Studies of long-lived individuals have revealed few genetic mechanisms for protection against age-associated disease. Therefore, we pursued genome sequencing of a related phenotype-healthy aging-to understand the genetics of disease-free aging without medical intervention. In contrast with studies of exceptional longevity, usually focused on centenarians, healthy aging is not associated with known longevity variants, but is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer and coronary artery disease. Additionally, healthy aging is not associated with a decreased rate of rare pathogenic variants, potentially indicating the presence of disease-resistance factors. In keeping with this possibility, we identify suggestive common and rare variant genetic associations implying that protection against cognitive decline is a genetic component of healthy aging. These findings, based on a relatively small cohort, require independent replication. Overall, our results suggest healthy aging is an overlapping but distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity that may be enriched with disease-protective genetic factors. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HEALTHY WORK IN THE AGEING EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Lekovic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion (WHP has been defined as the combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and well-being of people at work. This is achieved through a combination of: improving the work organization and the working environment , promoting the active participation of employees in health activities, encouraging personal development. In our country, this subject is still unpopular, and organized work on introduction and implementation of already existing directives of ENWHP still does not exist. As a result, the competitiveness of the European Union during the next few decades will depend on the contribution of older workers, especially in comparison with North America and Asia. The general aim, therefore, is to extend workability and health up to a higher age. The most important force for change is the workplace. There are different action plans and a host of tools with which the health, qualifications, motivation and therefore the work ability and employability of a company’s older workers both now and in the future can be fostered.

  4. Social cognition in schizophrenia and healthy aging: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2014-12-01

    Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness and whether emotion perception is selectively affected. To study this we examined the perception of emotional and non-emotional clues in facial expressions, a key social cognitive skill, in schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals using young healthy individuals as reference. Tests of object recognition, visual orientation, psychomotor speed, and working memory were included to allow multivariate analysis taking into account other cognitive functions Schizophrenia patients showed impairments in recognition of identity and emotional facial clues compared to young and old healthy groups. Severity was similar to that for object recognition and visuospatial processing. Older and younger healthy groups did not differ from each other on these tests. Schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals were similarly impaired in the ability to automatically learn new faces during the testing procedure (measured by the CSTFAC index) compared to young healthy individuals. Social cognition is distinctly impaired in schizophrenia compared to healthy aging. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of automatic social cognitive learning impairment in schizophrenia patients and healthy aging individuals and determine whether similar neural systems are affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  6. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  7. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors......, and in the temporal cortex. Because of the inverse relation between OEF and capillary oxygen tension, increased OEF can compromise oxygen delivery to neurons, with possible perturbation of energy turnover. The results establish a possible mechanism of progression from healthy to unhealthy brain aging, as the regions...

  8. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  9. [Age-related changes of sensory peripheral nerve system in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitenkov, V B; Ekusheva, E V; Komancev, V N; Skripchenko, N V; Grigoryev, S G; Klimkin, A V; Aksenova, A I

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to present and evaluate age-related changes of peripheral nerves of limbs on a huge population of healthy subjects of different ages. In 2009-2016 subjects aged from 1months to 90 years were studied by nerve conduction velocity studies (NCV). Data of those confirmed healthy was included in our study. In total there were 372 healthy subjects. NCV for nn. Medianus et Ulnaris was registered, with NCV and amplitude of compound sensory action potential (CSAP) being analyzed. There were significant differences on both these parameters between different age groups. Since the childhood the improvement of conduction (which was reflected in rising of CSAP amplitudes and NCV quickening) was registered; from 40-50 years steady decline of both these parameters were observed in both nerves. Conduction studies of peripheral nerves may be implemented in gerontology for early detection of neurophysiology patterns reflecting physiological aging. Also our results may be implemented for accelerated aging detection.

  10. Charasteristics of Ageing Population in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Hardati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increase of amount of ageing population represent the indication that a region have experienced of the ageing population. In some developing countries, of including Indonesia, growth of ageing population are estimate will mount quickly in period to come, although its percentage do not same. Whereas characteristic do not know surely. This matter is caused by there is view that ageing population of still not yet of this problem, but within long term will be are problem of if are not paid attention since now. Studying of ageing population of pursuant to its characteristic will assist in handling good problems now and also to come. With the existence of data of usable ageing population resident characteristic for the materials of population development planning in area.

  11. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  12. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. The ageing of Croatian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgić, Jure; Jukić, Tomislav; Tomek-Roksandić, Spomenka; Ljubicić, Mate; Kusić, Zvonko

    2009-06-01

    With a share of people older than 65 years of 16.64 per cent in total population, Croatia is considered a very old country regarding it's population. This percentage is one of the highest in already old Europe. Demographic projections reveal a further increase of share of people older than 65 years in future. There are many causes of this condition. This fact carries negative economic and health care implications which burden Croatia. Many administrative reforms are necessary to resolve this issue and to avoid economy problems and intergenerational conflicts.

  14. Oral medicine and the ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, T; McCullough, M

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  15. How fast is population ageing in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Yinhua mai; Xiujian Peng; Wei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Using adjusted 2000 population census data, this paper conducts China's population projections to 2050. Three fertility and four mortality scenarios yield 12 sets of results. Despite the below-replacement fertility, China's population will continue growing for many years. However, there are substantial differences among the twelve scenarios. The maximum population could range from less than 1.4 billion to more than 1.6 billion. One of the notable trends is the rapid population ageing. By the ...

  16. Healthy aging and dementia: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A

    2003-09-02

    The Nun Study is a longitudinal study of 678 Catholic sisters 75 to 107 years of age who are members of the School Sisters of Notre Dame congregation. Data collected for this study include early and middle-life risk factors from the convent archives, annual cognitive and physical function evaluations during old age, and postmortem neuropathologic evaluations of the participants' brains. The case histories presented include a centenarian who was a model of healthy aging, a 92-year-old with dementia and clinically significant Alzheimer disease neuropathology and vascular lesions, a cognitively and physically intact centenarian with almost no neuropathology, and an 85-year-old with well-preserved cognitive and physical function despite a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer disease and an abundance of Alzheimer disease lesions. These case histories provide examples of how healthy aging and dementia relate to the degree of pathology present in the brain and the level of resistance to the clinical expression of the neuropathology.

  17. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  18. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  19. Enhancing healthy ageing through music | Ekong | UJAH: Unizik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Enhancing healthy ageing through music.

  20. Study healthy ageing and intellectual disabilities : Recruitment and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a

  1. Exercise participation and diet monitoring in pursuit of healthy aging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the level of exercise participation and diet monitoring in pursuit of healthy aging. Descriptive survey research design and self-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. Proportionate stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select two hundred ...

  2. Reading in Healthy Aging: Selective Use of Information Structuring Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jessica M.; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that information referring to a named character or to information in the main clause of a sentence is more accessible and facilitates the processing of anaphoric references. We investigated whether the use of such cues are maintained in healthy aging. We present two experiments investigating whether information…

  3. Impaired acquisition of goal-directed action in healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; van de Vijver, I.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    According to dual-system theories, instrumental learning is supported by dissociable goal-directed and habitual systems. Previous investigations of the dual-system balance in healthy aging have yielded mixed results. To further investigate this issue, we compared performance of young (17-24 years)

  4. Decline of functional capacity in healthy aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H; van der Schans, Cees; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reneman, Michiel F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To study the natural decline in functional capacity (FC) of healthy aging workers; (2) to compare FC to categories of workload; and (3) to study the differences in decline between men and women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: A rehabilitation center at a university medical

  5. Healthy Ageing and the importance of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Wereldwijd zien we de trend dat de bevolking vergrijst. Dit vraagt om verdieping in het verouderingsproces en in het voorkomen van gezondheidsproblemen. Deze dag van de summerschool Healthy Ageing van de Universiteit Utrecht richt zich met name op de praktische kennis en vaardigheden op het gebied

  6. Basal body temperature as a biomarker of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsick, Eleanor M; Meier, Helen C S; Shaffer, Nancy Chiles; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Scattered evidence indicates that a lower basal body temperature may be associated with prolonged health span, yet few studies have directly evaluated this relationship. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between early morning oral temperature (95.0-98.6 °F) and usual gait speed, endurance walk performance, fatigability, and grip strength in 762 non-frail men (52 %) and women aged 65-89 years participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Since excessive adiposity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 or waist-to-height ratio ≥0.62) may alter temperature set point, associations were also examined within adiposity strata. Overall, controlling for age, race, sex, height, exercise, and adiposity, lower temperature was associated with faster gait speed, less time to walk 400 m quickly, and lower perceived exertion following 5-min of walking at 0.67 m/s (all p ≤ 0.02). In the non-adipose (N = 662), these associations were more robust (all p ≤ 0.006). Direction of association was reversed in the adipose (N = 100), but none attained significance (all p > 0.22). Over 2.2 years, basal temperature was not associated with functional change in the overall population or non-adipose. Among the adipose, lower baseline temperature was associated with greater decline in endurance walking performance (p = 0.006). In longitudinal analyses predicting future functional performance, low temperature in the non-adipose was associated with faster gait speed (p = 0.021) and less time to walk 400 m quickly (p = 0.003), whereas in the adipose, lower temperature was associated with slower gait speed (p = 0.05) and more time to walk 400 m (p = 0.008). In older adults, lower basal body temperature appears to be associated with healthy aging in the absence of excessive adiposity.

  7. Aging-From molecules to populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Avlund, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    of human aging. To foster interactions and collaboration between diverse scientists interested in the biochemical, physiological, epidemiological and psychosocial aspects of aging, The University of Copenhagen Faculty of Health Sciences recently organized and co-sponsored a workshop entitled Aging......-From Molecules to Populations. The following questions about human aging were discussed at the workshop: What is the limit of human life expectancy? What are the key indicators of human aging? What are the key drivers of human aging? Which genes have the greatest impact on human aging? How similar is aging...

  8. PREVALENCE OF MARKERS OF VIRAL HEPATITIS B AND D FROM HEALTHY POPULATION IN REPUBLIC TYVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Kozhanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to estimate prevalence of markers, genetic diversity, risk factors of HBV and HDV infections in all age groups among healthy population in Republic Tyva. Serum samples obtained from healthy population in Republic Tyva (N = 1086 were tested (aged from birth to older 60 years. The markers of HBV and HDV infections were determined by enzyme immunoassay and PCR. HBsAg was detected in 7,7% (84/1086, anti-HBc — in 47,8% (519/1086 and HBeAg — in 0,3% (3/1086 cases. Prevalence of HBsAg in children under 9 years was 1,3%, no positive results of anti-HDV were determined among children aged up to 9 year. Prevalence of anti-HDV among HBsAg-positive individuals of healthy population was 32,1% (27/84. HBV DNA was detected in 2,9% (31/1086 cases; HDV RNA — in 32,1% (14/84 HBsAg-positive individuals. The obtained data showed high prevalence of HBV ang HDV infections among healthy population of Republic Tyva. Thus, it is necessary to extend screening program in this region to improve viral hepatitis surveillance and diagnostics. The sharp decline in the prevalence of these infections in children up to 9 years in the surveyed endemic region is an evidence of effective protection against HBV and HDV with vaccination against hepatitis B. 

  9. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  10. Vitamin D in the healthy European paediatric population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, reports suggesting a resurgence of vitamin D deficiency in the Western world, combined with various proposed health benefits for vitamin D supplementation have resulted in increased interest from healthcare professionals, the media and the public. The aim of this position paper...... is to summarize the published data on vitamin D intake and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the healthy European paediatric population, to discuss health benefits of vitamin D and to provide recommendations for the prevention of vitamin D deficiency in this population. Vitamin D plays a key role in calcium...

  11. Estimating population age structure using otolith morphometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doering-Arjes, P.; Cardinale, M.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    known-age fish individuals. Here we used known-age Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from the Faroe Bank and Faroe Plateau stocks. Cod populations usually show quite large variation in growth rates and otolith shape. We showed that including otolith morphometrics into ageing processes has the potential...... populations. The intercalibration method was successful but generalization from one stock to another remains problematic. The development of an otolith growth model is needed for generalization if an operational method for different populations is required in the future....... to make ageing objective, accurate, and fast. Calibration analysis indicated that a known-age sample from the same population and environment is needed to obtain robust calibration; using a sample from a different stock more than doubles the error rate, even in the case of genetically highly related...

  12. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway.

  13. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition’s impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition – from entire diets to specific nutrients – affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns, along with (ii modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging.

  14. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  15. Lymphocyte maintenance during healthy aging requires no substantial alterations in cellular turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Hoeven, Vera; Drylewicz, Julia; Spierenburg, Gerrit; van Velzen, Jeroen F; de Boer, Rob J; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, José A M

    2015-04-01

    In healthy humans, lymphocyte populations are maintained at a relatively constant size throughout life, reflecting a balance between lymphocyte production and loss. Given the profound immunological changes that occur during healthy aging, including a significant decline in T-cell production by the thymus, lymphocyte maintenance in the elderly is generally thought to require homeostatic alterations in lymphocyte dynamics. Surprisingly, using in vivo (2) H2 O labeling, we find similar dynamics of most lymphocyte subsets between young adult and elderly healthy individuals. As the contribution of thymic output to T-cell production is only minor from young adulthood onward, compensatory increases in peripheral T-cell division rates are not required to maintain the T-cell pool, despite a tenfold decline in thymic output. These fundamental insights will aid the interpretation of further research into aging and clinical conditions related to disturbed lymphocyte dynamics. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. RESULTS: Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P ages, fat fraction was higher in paraspinal than leg muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction...... was associated with lumbar paraspinal fat fraction (P activity or lower back pain. CONCLUSION: The paraspinal muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had......PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors...

  17. Age- and Gender-Based Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population increases the risks of cognitive decline and suicide. About 25% of older adults have some type of mental health problem, such as a mood disorder not associated with normal aging. Older adults with ...

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisawa T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  19. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Planning for an ageing population: strategic considerations

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Dr Eamon

    2005-01-01

    This report presents both the proceedings of the Council’s conference, Planning for an Ageing Population: Strategic Considerations, and the Council’s discussion paper, ‘The Older Population: Information Issues and Deficits’, which was introduced at that conference.\\r\

  1. HOW TO DESIGN NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION TRIALS TO SLOW COGNITIVE DECLINE IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY POPULATIONS AND APPLY FOR EFFICACY CLAIMS: A STATEMENT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY ON NUTRITION AND AGING TASK FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M.; Coley, N.; Andrieu, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Caubere, J.P.; Cesari, M.; Gautry, J.; Garcia Sanchez, I.; Hugonot, L.; Mansuy, L.; Pahor, M.; Pariente, J.; Ritz, P.; Salva, A.; Sijben, J.; Wieggers, R.; Ythier-Moury, P.; Zaim, M.; Zetlaoui, J.; Vellas, B.

    2015-01-01

    Interventions are crucial as they offer simple and inexpensive public health solutions that will be useful over the long term use. A Task Force on designing trials of nutritional interventions to slow cognitive decline in older adults was held in Toulouse in September 2012. The aim of the Task Force was to bring together leading experts from academia, the food industry and regulatory agencies to determine the best trial designs that would enable us to reach our goal of maintaining or improving cognitive function in apparently healthy aging people. An associated challenge for this Task Force was to determine the type of trials required by the Public Food Agencies for assessing the impact of nutritional compounds in comparison to well established requirements for drug trials. Although the required quality of the study design, rationale and statistical analysis remains the same, the studies designed to show reduction of cognitive decline require a long duration and the objectives of this task force was to determine best design for these trials. Two specific needs were identified to support trials of nutritional interventions: 1- Risk- reduction strategies are needed to tackle the growing burden of cognitive decline that may lead to dementia, 2- Innovative study designs are needed to improve the quality of these studies. PMID:23933873

  2. Healthy Ageing in People with Intellectual Disabilities from Managers' Perspective: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Björne, Petra; Runesson, Ingrid; Ahlström, Gerd

    2017-08-18

    An increasing number of people with intellectual disability (ID) are reaching older ages today although they experience more health problems than the older population without ID. Leaders in intellectual disability services can greatly influence the conditions for a healthy ageing, and the aim of the present study was to explore healthy ageing in this group from the perspective of the leaders. Interviews with 20 leaders were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The findings gave rise to the overall theme ageing in dependence, which emerged from the following six categories: Supporting self-determination; Inaccessible activities after retirement; Signs of decline; Increased and specific needs for support and care; A non-question of gender; Aspects concerning the end of life and death. A prerequisite for healthy ageing in the case of people with ID is, according to the leaders, that they can live the life according to their preferences and make independent choices whilst at the same time receiving adequate support. With the shrinking of their social network after retirement, they become increasingly dependent on staff and leaders in the group home, who need to know what healthy ageing implies.

  3. Periodicity in Age-Resolved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipov, Sergei

    We discuss the interplay between the non-linear diffusion and age-resolved population dynamics. Depending on the age properties of collective migration the system may exhibit continuous joint expansion of all ages or continuous expansion with age segregation. Between these two obvious limiting regimes there is an interesting window of periodic expansion, which has been previously used by us in modeling bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis. In order to test whether the age-dependent collective migration leads to periodicity in other systems we performed a Fourier analysis of historical data on ethnic expansions and found multiple co-existing periods of activity.

  4. Brain metabolism and memory in age differentiated healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan method with positron emission tomography was used to determine age differences in factors underlying both the performances on 18 multivariate memory tests and the rates of cerebral glucose utilization in 9 left and 9 right hemispheric regions of 23 healthy adults in the age range of 27-78 years. Young persons below age 42 had higher scores than middle-aged (age 48-65 yrs) or old (age 66-78 yrs) persons on two of seven factors, reflecting memory for sequences of words or events together with metabolic indices of Broca's (and its mirror region) and Thalamic areas. Reliable correlations (critical r = 0.48, p<0.02) indicated that persons with high Superior Frontal and low Caudate-Thalamic metabolic measures were the same who performed well in tests of memory for sentences, story, designs, and complex patterns; while metabolic indices of Occipital and Posterior Temporal regions were correlated with the decision criteria adopted in testing. The mean metabolic ratio (b = -0.033, F = 5.47, p<0.03) and those of bilateral Broca's regions (b = -0.002, F = 13.65, p<0.001) significantly declined with age. The functional interrelation of frontal-subcortical metabolic ratios with memory processing was more prominent in younger persons under study and implicates decreasing thalamo-frontal interaction with age

  5. Structural and Functional Changes in Human Kidneys with Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommos, Musab S; Glassock, Richard J; Rule, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Aging is associated with significant changes in structure and function of the kidney, even in the absence of age-related comorbidities. On the macrostructural level, kidney cortical volume decreases, surface roughness increases, and the number and size of simple renal cysts increase with age. On the microstructural level, the histologic signs of nephrosclerosis (arteriosclerosis/arteriolosclerosis, global glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy) all increase with age. The decline of nephron number is accompanied by a comparable reduction in measured whole-kidney GFR. However, single-nephron GFR remains relatively constant with healthy aging as does glomerular volume. Only when glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis exceed that expected for age is there an increase in single-nephron GFR. In the absence of albuminuria, age-related reduction in GFR with the corresponding increase in CKD (defined by an eGFRage-standardized mortality risk or ESRD. These findings raise the question of whether disease labeling of an age-related decline in GFR is appropriate. These findings also emphasize the need for a different management approach for many elderly individuals considered to have CKD by current criteria. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C.; Aihie Sayer, A.; Eendebak, R. J.; Clough, G. F.; Beard, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. PMID:26518329

  7. Working Memory Training in Schizophrenia and Healthy Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linette Lawlor-Savage

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are consistently demonstrated in individuals with schizophrenia. Cognitive training involves structured exercises prescribed and undertaken with the intention of enhancing cognitive abilities such as attention, memory, and problem solving. Thus, cognitive training represents a potentially promising intervention for enhancing cognitive abilities in schizophrenia. However, cognitive training programs are numerous and heterogeneous, hence, the generalizability of training related outcomes can be challenging to assess. This article will provide a brief overview of current literature on cognitive training and explore how knowledge of working memory training in healthy populations can potentially be applied to enhance cognitive functioning of individuals with schizophrenia.

  8. Ageing populations and changing worlds of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Brian

    2014-08-01

    Population ageing has reshaped the notion of retirement. The changes carry important implications for aspirations to extend working life. Cultural expectations regarding work and retirement must adapt to the reality posed by longer lives. The modern world is characterised by perpetual - and sometime rapid - change. Transformation throughout the second half of the 20th century brought about substantial shifts in the health and longevity of people in societies across the world. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the impacts of population ageing have gathered greater awareness in public consciousness and within the policy arena. Notions of old age, retirement, and later life have been fundamentally transformed, presenting stark challenges alongside novel opportunities for individuals, communities, and governments. Many of the topics of interest with respect to ageing populations are themselves the result of shifts that were unforeseen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceptions of competence: age moderates views of healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jane M; Williams, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin D; Blair, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Older adults have more complex and differentiated views of aging than do younger adults, but less is known about age-related perceptions of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated age-related perceptions of competence of an older adult labeled as "in good health" (healthy) or "has Alzheimer's disease" (AD), using a person-perception paradigm. It was predicted that older adults would provide more differentiated assessments of the two targets than would younger adults. Younger (n=86; 18-36 years) and older (n=66; 61-95 years) adults rated activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and memory abilities of a female target aged 75 years, described as healthy or with AD. Data on anxiety about aging, knowledge of and experience with aging and AD, knowledge of memory aging, and positive and negative biases toward aging and AD were also collected. Older adults perceived the healthy target as more capable of cognitively effortful activities (e.g., managing finances) and as possessing better memory abilities than the AD target. As predicted, these differences were greater than differences between targets perceived by younger adults. The interaction effect remained significant after statistically controlling for relevant variables, including education and gender. Additionally, exploratory analyses revealed that older adults held less positively biased views of AD than younger adults, but negatively biased views were equivalent between age groups. The results demonstrate that mere labels of "healthy" and "Alzheimer's disease" produce significant and subtle age differences in perceived competencies of older adults, and that biases towards AD vary by age group and valence. Our findings extend the person-perception paradigm to an integrative analysis of aging and AD, are consistent with models of adult development, and complement current research and theory on stereotypes of aging. Future directions for research

  11. Technology of making healthy and correction of build of men of the first mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroganov S.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Directions of search of ways of making healthy of population of mature age are considered. In an experiment 30 men took part 21-35 years. The men of experimental group conducted training on the basis of 4th of the monthly program of correction and making healthy. There was statistically meaningful divergence in the capacity of men of experimental group by comparison to the men of control group. Also in the subjective estimation of own build, feel for a day, at the end of workweek and after training. Employment on the developed technology induced the men of experimental group a greater measure to give up harmful habits.

  12. Effects of ageing on serotonin transporters in healthy females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Tammela, L.; Karhunen, L.; Uusitupa, M.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Tiihonen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ageing on brain serotonin transporters was evaluated in 19 healthy female volunteers (age range 22-74 years) using single-photon emission tomography and [ 123 I] nor-β-CIT. The study subjects were scanned 0.3, 3, 6 and 23 h after injection of 185 MBq of [ 123 I] nor-β-CIT. The ratio of the distribution volume for tracer in the midbrain to that in the cerebellum minus 1 was used as an index for serotonin transporter binding. An age-related decline of 2% per decade (r=-0.47; P 123 I] nor-β-CIT binding in the serotonin transporter-rich area is much less than that in dopamine transporters in the striatum (6% per decade). (orig.)

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihan; Zhang, Yaping; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Lujin; Li, Yunfei; Wang, Kun; Yang, Juan; He, Yingchun; Lv, Yinghua; Zheng, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    To develop a population pharmacokinetic model of adefovir dipivoxil in healthy volunteers and evaluate the effect of individual factors on the pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil. Plasma concentration data collected from 32 healthy Chinese subjects in a Phase I clinical study was pooled. Subjects received a single oral dose of 10 mg, 20 mg, or 30 mg adefovir dipivoxil, or multiple doses of 10 mg once a day for 9 days. Plasma concentrations of adefovir dipivoxil were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method. A nonlinear mixed-effect model was used to analyze the plasma concentration data of adefovir dipivoxil in healthy volunteers and to calculate the relevant parameters as well as inter- and intra-individual variability. The time course of adefovir dipivoxil concentration is best described by a first-order absorption and first-order elimination two-compartment model with lag time. The final estimate of total body clearance (CL) is 56.9 L/h and 78.7 L/h for single and multiple dosing regimen, respectively; the volume distribution of the central compartment (V2) is 106 L; inter-compartmental clearance (Q) is 220 L/h; volume distribution of the peripheral compartment (V3) is 498 L and 800 L for single and multiple dosing regimen, respectively; absorption rate is 0.509 h-1; and lag time is 0.315 hours. The inter-individual variabilities of CL and V2 were 22.4% and 58.9%, respectively. The proportional error of residual variability is 14.1% and the additive error is 0.30 ng/L. The final pharmacokinetic model was evaluated using a bootstrap method. A nonlinear mixed effect model for oral adefovir dipivoxil formulations was developed in healthy Chinese subjects. A multiple dosing regimen may significantly increase the body clearance and volume distribution of the peripheral compartment compared to a single dosing regimen. *These authors contribute equally to this work.

  14. Healthy Aging and Compensation of Sentence Comprehension Auditory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lima Silagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze the effect of aging on sentence auditory comprehension and to study the relationship between this language skill and cognitive functions (attention, working memory, and executive functions. Methods. A total of 90 healthy subjects were divided into three groups: adults (50–59 years, young-old (60–69 years, and old-old (70–80 years. Subjects were assessed using the Revised Token Test. The measures used for performance analysis were number of correct answers (accuracy and execution time of commands on the different subtests. Results. Regarding accuracy, groups showed similar performance on the first blocks, but the young-old and old-old performed worse than adults on blocks 9 and 10. With respect to execution time, groups differed from block 2 (i.e., the groups differed for all blocks, except for block 1, with the worst performance observed in the old-old group, followed by that of the young-old group. Therefore, the elderly required more time to attain performance similar to that of adults, showing that time measurements are more sensitive for detecting the effects of age. Sentence comprehension ability is correlated with cognitive test performance, especially for global cognition and working memory tests. Conclusions. Healthy aging is characterized by the ability to compensate for difficulties in linguistic processing, which allows the elderly to maintain functional communication.

  15. Association between systemic inflammation and serum prostate-specific antigen in a healthy Korean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jonghyun; Lee, Hyunyoung; Yang, Wonjae

    2017-01-01

    Objective Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may be elevated in healthy men with systemic inflammation. We aimed to investigate the association between systemic inflammation markers and serum PSA in a healthy Korean population. Material and methods A cohort of 20,151 healthy native Korean men without prostate disease between the ages of 40 and 65 years who underwent medical checkups were studied from January 2007 to December 2013. Serum total PSA and serum C-reactive protein concentrations, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts were determined. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were calculated. We checked the correlation between systemic inflammation markers and PSA. Results Data obtained from 18,800 healthy men were analyzed. The mean age of the study subjects was 50.72±7.62 years and the mean NLR was 1.764±0.804. Correlation analysis after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) revealed that neutrophil count (coefficient = 0.028, p value <0.001), and NLR (coefficient = 0.027, p value <0.001) correlated with PSA. Multivariate analysis using the full model revealed that age, neutrophil count and NLR were positively correlated with PSA (p<0.001, 0.001, and 0.043 respectively). Multivariate analysis using a stepwise model revealed that age, neutrophil count and NLR were positively correlated with PSA (p<0.001, 0.001, and 0.040, respectively) and BMI was negatively correlated with PSA (p<0.001). Conclusion Systemic inflammation markers are useful with a serum PSA in a healthy Korean population. NLR in particular is significantly associated with serum PSA. PMID:28861299

  16. [Acromegaly features in the aging population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoun, Nadia; El Ouahabi, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Somatotroph adenomas are rare in the aging population. Diagnosis of somatotroph adenomas is often long delayed and they are characterized by atypical clinical picture. Their diagnostic criteria are similar to those used for younger patients. Surgery, if possible, is the treatment of choice for acromegaly in the elderly. Somatostatin analogues have shown to be effective in these patients. Prognosis is inversely correlated with patient's age, duration of disease and last GH level under treatment. Beside evolution of disease, age is a major determinant of mortality. We report three cases of elderly patients with acromegaly aged 75, 70 and 66 years respectively with a literature review.

  17. Pilot study protocol to inform a future longitudinal study of ageing using linked administrative data: Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Elaine; Rutherford, Alasdair; Bell, David

    2018-01-10

    Population ageing is a welcome testament to improvements in the social, economic and health circumstances over the life course. However, these successes necessitate that we understand more about the pathways of ageing to plan and cost our health and social care services, to support our ageing population to live healthier for longer and to make adequate provisions for retirement. Longitudinal studies of ageing facilitate such understanding in many countries around the world. Scotland presently does not have a longitudinal study of ageing, despite dramatic increases to its ageing population and its poor health record. Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS) constitutes the launch of Scotland's first comprehensive longitudinal study of ageing. A sample of 1000 people aged 50+ years will be invited to take part in a household social survey. The innovative sampling procedure used administrative data to identify eligible households. Anonymised survey responses will be linked to administrative data. Ethics approval was obtained from the host institution for the study design and from the Public Benefits and Privacy Panel for administrative data linkage. Anonymised survey data will be deposited with the UK Data Service. A subset of survey data, harmonised with other global ageing studies, will be available via the Gateway to Global Aging platform. These data will enable powerful cross-country comparisons across the social, economic and health domains that will be relevant for national and international research.Research publications from the HAGIS team will be disseminated through journal articles and national and international conferences. The findings will support current and future research and policy debate on ageing populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. The Growth of Older Inmate Populations: How Population Aging Explains Rising Age at Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luallen, Jeremy; Cutler, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Older inmates are the fastest growing segment of the prison population; however, the reasons for this are not well understood. One explanation is that the general population is aging, driving prison age distributions to change. For this article, we study the role of population aging in prison growth by investigating how the baby boom phenomenon of post-World War II has contributed to the growth of older inmate populations. We identify the impact of population aging using simulation methods that explain prison growth as the combination of criminal justice processes. Overall, we find evidence that population aging has played a significant role in explaining the growth of older inmate populations, in particular among inmates aged between 50 and 64 years, contributing to as much as half of the observed increase in these groups since 2000. This finding stands in contrast to the notion that population aging has little explanatory power in describing the growth of prison populations and implies that older inmate groups are more sensitive to compositional changes in the general population. We argue that prediction-based modeling of prison growth should more seriously consider the impacts and consequences of demographic shifts among older prisoner populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mobile health applications to promote active and healthy ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Christop; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-01-01

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal

  20. Some macroeconomic aspects of global population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald; Mason, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Across the demographic transition, declining mortality followed by declining fertility produces decades of rising support ratios as child dependency falls. These improving support ratios raise per capita consumption, other things equal, but eventually deteriorate as the population ages. Population aging and the forces leading to it can produce not only frightening declines in support ratios but also very substantial increases in productivity and per capita income by raising investment in physical and human capital. Longer life, lower fertility, and population aging all raise the demand for wealth needed to provide for old-age consumption. This leads to increased capital per worker even as aggregate saving rates fall. However, capital per worker may not rise if the increased demand for wealth is satisfied by increased familial or public pension transfers to the elderly. Thus, institutions and policies matter for the consequences of population aging. The accumulation of human capital also varies across the transition. Lower fertility and mortality are associated with higher human capital investment per child, also raising labor productivity. Together, the positive changes due to human and physical capital accumulation will likely outweigh the problems of declining support ratios. We draw on estimates and analyses from the National Transfer Accounts project to illustrate and quantify these points.

  1. Cerebral Hemodynamics in a Healthy Population Measured by Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helenius, J.; Soinne, L.; Tatlisumak, T.; Kaste, M.; Aronen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To establish reference data and to study age-dependency for cerebral perfusion in various regions of the brain in a healthy population. Material and Methods: Eighty healthy subjects of both genders from 22 to 85 years of age were studied with spin echo echo-planar dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC MRI) at 1.5 T. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and contrast agent mean transit time (MTT) were calculated bilaterally for 20 distinct neuro anatomic structures. Results: In gray matter, the following values were found (mean ± SD): CBV (4.6 ± 1.0 ml/100 g), CBF (94.2 ± 23.0 ml/100 g/min), and MTT (3.0 ± 0.6 s), and in white matter: CBV (1.3 ± 0.4 ml/100 g), CBF (19.6 ± 5.8 ml/100 g/min), and MTT (4.3 ± 0.7 s). The perfusion parameters did not change with age, except for a tendency to an increase in gray matter MTT and CBV. Males exhibited higher MTT and CBV than females. No hemispheric difference was found in either gender. Conclusion: Cerebral hemodynamics can be assessed with DSC MRI. Age itself seems to have only a marginal effect on cerebral perfusion in healthy population

  2. Cerebral Hemodynamics in a Healthy Population Measured by Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helenius, J.; Soinne, L.; Tatlisumak, T.; Kaste, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Neurology; Perkioe, J.; Salonen, O.; Savolainen, S. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Oestergaard, L. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Carano, R.A.D. [Synarc Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Aronen, H.J. [Helsinki Brain Research Center (Finland). Functional Brain Imaging Unit

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: To establish reference data and to study age-dependency for cerebral perfusion in various regions of the brain in a healthy population. Material and Methods: Eighty healthy subjects of both genders from 22 to 85 years of age were studied with spin echo echo-planar dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC MRI) at 1.5 T. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and contrast agent mean transit time (MTT) were calculated bilaterally for 20 distinct neuro anatomic structures. Results: In gray matter, the following values were found (mean {+-} SD): CBV (4.6 {+-} 1.0 ml/100 g), CBF (94.2 {+-} 23.0 ml/100 g/min), and MTT (3.0 {+-} 0.6 s), and in white matter: CBV (1.3 {+-} 0.4 ml/100 g), CBF (19.6 {+-} 5.8 ml/100 g/min), and MTT (4.3 {+-} 0.7 s). The perfusion parameters did not change with age, except for a tendency to an increase in gray matter MTT and CBV. Males exhibited higher MTT and CBV than females. No hemispheric difference was found in either gender. Conclusion: Cerebral hemodynamics can be assessed with DSC MRI. Age itself seems to have only a marginal effect on cerebral perfusion in healthy population.

  3. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Aihie Sayer, A; Eendebak, R J; Clough, G F; Beard, J R

    2016-04-15

    We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  4. Feast and famine: Adipose tissue adaptations for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Aquilano, Katia

    2016-07-01

    Proper adipose tissue function controls energy balance with favourable effects on metabolic health and longevity. The molecular and metabolic asset of adipose tissue quickly and dynamically readapts in response to nutrient fluctuations. Once delivered into cells, nutrients are managed by mitochondria that represent a key bioenergetics node. A persistent nutrient overload generates mitochondrial exhaustion and uncontrolled reactive oxygen species ((mt)ROS) production. In adipocytes, metabolic/molecular reorganization is triggered culminating in the acquirement of a hypertrophic and hypersecretory phenotype that accelerates aging. Conversely, dietary regimens such as caloric restriction or time-controlled fasting endorse mitochondrial functionality and (mt)ROS-mediated signalling, thus promoting geroprotection. In this perspective view, we argued some important molecular and metabolic aspects related to adipocyte response to nutrient stress. Finally we delineated hypothetical routes by which molecularly and metabolically readapted adipose tissue promotes healthy aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Theta power is reduced in healthy cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Tarrant D R; Finnigan, Simon

    2007-10-01

    The effects of healthy cognitive aging on electroencephalographic (EEG) theta (4.9-6.8 Hz) power were examined during performance of a modified Sternberg, S., 1966. High-speed scanning in human memory. Science 153, 652-654.) word recognition task. In a sample of fourteen young (mean age 21.9 years, range=18-27) and fourteen older (mean age 68.4 years, range=60-80) participants, theta power was found to be significantly lower in older adults during both the retention and recognition intervals. This theta power difference was greatest at the fronto-central midline electrode and occurred in parallel with a small, non-significant decrease in recognition accuracy in the older sample. A significant decrease in older adults' mean theta power was also observed in resting EEG, however, it was of substantially smaller magnitude than the task-related theta difference. It is proposed that a neurophysiological measure(s), such as task-specific frontal midline theta (fmtheta) power, may be a more sensitive marker of cognitive aging than task performance measures. Furthermore, as recent research indicates that fmtheta is generated primarily in the anterior cingulate cortex, the current findings support evidence that the function of brain networks incorporating this structure may be affected in cognitive aging.

  6. General considerations on the population ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nuta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most important issues of the current context, the ageing of the population, with major consequences on the financial stability of the nation. This restructure of the population (that change the shape of the population pyramid , as a result, on the one hand, of the reducing in the fertility rate, on the other hand, increasing in life expectancy and last but not least, due to migration, unbalance national budgets, generating negative effects in economic, financial and social terms.

  7. Positive Technology for Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Villani, Daniela; Cipresso, Pietro; Repetto, Claudia; Serino, Silvia; Triberti, Stefano; Brivio, Eleonora; Galimberti, Carlo; Graffigna, Guendalina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are widely and rapidly spreading in people's daily lives. But what is the possible role of the mass proliferation of digital devices in supporting healthy living and active ageing? Are they useful in fostering personal growth and individual integration of the elderly, by promoting satisfaction, opportunities for action, and self-expression? Rather, do they enhance automation, impose constraints on personal initiative, and result in compulsive consumption of information? In this chapter, we suggest that possible answers to these questions will be offered by the "Positive Technology" approach, i.e., the scientific and applied approach to using technology so that it improves the quality of our personal experiences through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement. First, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to manipulate the quality of experience with the goal of increasing wellness and generating strengths and resilience in individuals, organizations, and society. Then, we classify positive technologies according to their effects on these three features of personal experience - Hedonic: technologies used to induce positive and pleasant experiences; Eudaimonic: technologies used to support individuals in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences; Social/Interpersonal: technologies used to support and improve the connectedness between individuals, groups, and organizations. Finally, we discuss the possible role of positive technologies for healthy living and active ageing by presenting different practical applications of this approach.

  8. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000 and men (p = 0.000, and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000 and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021 than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  9. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-09-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  10. Quantifying policy tradeoffs to support aging populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Scherbov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on those working. One way of dealing with this is to raise the normal pension age, but this has proven unpopular. A complementary approach is to raise the average labor force participation rate. These policies are generally more politically palatable because they often remove barriers, allowing people who would like to work to do so. Objective: To conceptualize and estimate the trade-off between pension age and labor force participation rate policies. Methods: We project the populations of European countries and apply different levels of labor force participation rates to the projected populations. We introduce the notion of a relative burden, which is the ratio of the fraction of the income of people in the labor market in 2050 that they transfer to adults out of the labor market to the same fraction in 2009. We use this indicator to investigate the trade-offs between changes in normal pension ages and the general level of labor force participation rates. Results: We show that, in most European countries, a difference in policies that results in an increase in average labor force participation rates by an additional one to two percentage points by 2050 can substitute for a one-year increase in the normal pension age. This is important because, in many European countries, without additional increases in labor force participation rates, normal pension ages would have to be raised well above 68 by 2050 to keep the burden on those working manageable. Conclusions: Because of anticipated increases in life expectancy and health at older ages as well as because of financial necessity, some mix of increases in pension ages and in labor force participation rates will be needed. Pension age changes by themselves will not be sufficient.

  11. Healthy Aging: What's On Your Plate? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging What's On Your Plate? Past Issues / Winter 2015 ... What's On Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/whats-your- ...

  12. Community Nurses' Experiences Regarding the Meaning and Promotion of Healthy Aging in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Choowattanapakorn, Tassana; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2018-03-01

    Describe community nurses' experiences regarding the meaning and promotion of healthy aging in northeastern Thailand. Data were collected through five focus group interviews with 36 community nurses in northeastern Thailand. Latent content analysis was conducted to analyze the data. Healthy aging was characterized by the interconnection of older persons, older persons' family members, and the community. Healthy aging was associated with two themes: "being strong" and "being a supporter and feeling supported." The nurses' experiences in promoting healthy aging were described by the themes "providing health assessment," "sharing knowledge," and "having limited resources." The findings of this study provide a deeper understanding of the meaning of healthy aging from a holistic viewpoint. Community nurses must pay attention to older persons and their surroundings when planning how to promote healthy aging. Person-centeredness should be applied in practice to promote healthy aging. The current findings contribute useful information that should help policy makers develop healthy aging strategies in Thailand.

  13. Down with retirement: implications of embodied cognition for healthy aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hommel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive and neurocognitive approaches to human healthy aging attribute age-related decline to the biologically-caused loss of cognitive-control functions. However, an embodied-cognition approach to aging implies a more interactive view according to which cognitive control emerges from, and relies on a person’s active encounters with his or her physical and social environment. We argue that the availability of cognitive-control resources does not only rely on biological processes but also on the degree of active maintenance, that is, on the systematic use of the available control resources. Unfortunately, there is evidence that the degree of actual use might systematically underestimate resource availability, which implies that elderly individuals do not fully exploit their cognitive potential. We discuss evidence for this possibility from three aging-related issues: the reduction of dopaminergic supply, loneliness, and the loss of body strength. All three phenomena point to a downward spiral, in which losses of cognitive-control resources do not only directly impair performance but also more indirectly discourage individuals from making use of them, which in turn suggests underuse and a lack of maintenance—leading to further loss. On the positive side, the possibility of underuse points to not yet fully exploited reservoirs of cognitive control, which calls for more systematic theorizing and experimentation on how cognitive control can be enhanced, as well as for reconsiderations of societal practices that are likely to undermine the active maintenance of control resources—such as retirement laws.

  14. How does healthy aging impact on the circadian clock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Buga, Ana-Maria; Dumitrascu, Dinu Iuliu; Uzoni, Adriana; Thome, Johannes; Coogan, Andrew N

    2017-02-01

    Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a host of physiological and other parameters that recur with periods of near 24 h. These rhythms reflect the temporal organization of an organism's homeostatic control systems and as such are key processes in ensuring optimal physiological performance. Dysfunction of circadian processes is linked with adverse health conditions. In this review we highlight the evidence that normal, healthy aging is associated with changes in the circadian system; we examine the molecular mechanisms through which such changes may arise, discuss whether more robust circadian function is a predictor of longevity and highlight the role of circadian rhythms in age-related diseases. Overall, the literature shows that aging is associated with marked changes in circadian processes, both at the behavioral and molecular levels, and the molecular mechanisms through which such changes arise remain to be elucidated, but may involve inflammatory process, redox homeostasis and epigenetic modifications. Understanding the nature of age-related circadian dysfunction will allow for the design of chronotherapeutic intervention strategies to attenuate circadian dysfunction and thus improve health and quality of life.

  15. The Role of Psychogeriatrics in Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Enrico; Spatola, Chiara; Pietrabissa, Giada; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    A healthy and active life is a key issue for elderly citizens, above all when psychological complications such as depression and anxiety disorders, late delusion or loneliness can be observed. Moreover, medical pathologies in elderly patients often have a multi-factorial etiology and many psychopathological dimensions and psychosocial risk factors are underestimated. From the perspective of clinical health psychology, psychogeriatrics could play an important role in promoting active ageing and a healthy lifestyle in elderly persons through tailored clinical approaches based on specific research and advanced professional training in this area. More research is needed in order to study which determinants affect the process of an active and functional ageing. Possible research ageing areas are: 1) evaluation of psychosocial risk-protective factors related to the individual's biography and personality. 2) Evaluation of enrichment programs and clinical protocols focused on the management of different topics such as health system areas, behavioral areas, social and physical environment areas, psychological factors and economic determinants. The goal of Psychogeriatrics endeavors to develop and evaluate interventions designed to stimulate improvement in friendship, self-esteem and subjective well-being, as well as to reduce loneliness among older citizens. 3) Evaluation of self-management programs in chronic disease conditions (such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking), that could enhance risk factors for health in elderly citizens. Typical key elements of self-management, such as decision making, problem solving, motivation, self-efficacy, resource utilization, and citizen's empowerment have to be studied.

  16. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Antoniou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest

  17. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Wright, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest gains. PMID:29326636

  18. [Scrotal temperature in 258 healthy men, randomly selected from a population of men aged 18 to 23 years old. Statistical analysis, epidemiologic observations, and measurement of the testicular diameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, A; Mianné, D; Merouze, F; Bujan, L; Altobelli, A; Masson, J

    1993-06-01

    Scrotal hyperthermia can induce certain alterations in spermatogenesis. The basal scrotal temperature used to define hyperthermia is usually 33 degrees C. However, no study, conducted according to a strict methodology has validated this mean measurement. We therefore randomly selected 258 men between the ages of 18 and 23 years from a population of 2,000 young French men seen at the National Service Selection Centre in order to measure the scrotal temperature over each testis and in the median raphe in order to determine the mean and median values for these temperatures. For a mean room temperature of 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C with a range of 18 to 31 degrees C, the mean right and left scrotal temperature was 34.2 +/- 0.1 degree C and the mean medioscrotal temperature was 34.4 +/- 0.1 degree C. Scrotal temperature was very significantly correlated to room temperature and its variations. It was therefore impossible to define a normal value for scrotal temperature. Only measurement of scrotal temperature at neutral room temperature, between 21 and 25 degrees C, is able to provide a reference value for scrotal temperature. In this study, the mean scrotal temperature under these conditions was 34.4 +/- 0.2 degree C, i.e. 2.5 degrees C less than body temperature. In the 12.9% of cases with left varicocele, left scrotal temperature was significantly higher than in the absence of varicocele and was also higher than right Scrotal temperature. The authors also determined the dimensions of the testes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Dental caries and periodontal diseases in the ageing population: call to action to protect and enhance oral health and well-being as an essential component of healthy ageing - Consensus report of group 4 of the joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonetti, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Conrads, G.; Eickholz, P.; Heasman, P.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Lopez, R.; Madianos, P.; Muller, F; Needleman, I.; Nyvad, B.; Preshaw, P.M.; Pretty, I.; Renvert, S.; Schwendicke, F.; Trombelli, L.; Putten, G.J. van der; Vanobbergen, J.; West, N.; Young, A.; Paris, S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, progress in prevention and treatment of caries and periodontal diseases has been translated to better oral health and improved tooth retention in the adult population. The ageing population and the increasing expectations of good oral health-related quality of

  20. Energy implications of an aging population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This study provides various demographic, medical, and economic information relative to energy usage on a segment of the population, the elderly, which is growing in absolute numbers and relative population percentage. This growth is expected to continue well into the twenty-first century. The US aging population numbered 3.1 million in 1900, and by 1977 it had climbed to 23.5 million. It can be stated with reasonable certainty that this figure will rise to 31 million in the year 2000 and 43 million in the year 2020. These figures, corresponding to more than 10% of our population, are by no means insignificant. As our fossil-fuel reserves are being depleted and the cost of energy mounts, it becomes apparent that the elderly will become increasingly vulnerable to the energy crisis, primarily beause of their physical tendency to infirmity, their economic and social situation, and their susceptibility to psychological depression. This white paper concentrates on those aspects of aging and the nation's energy problem which are not usually related in our everyday consideration of these as separable problems. It seeks to identify the peculiar energy problems of the aged and to consider alternatives in the solution of these problems in light of modern technology.

  1. Population dietary habits and physical activity modification with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Marrugat, J; Covas, M; Elosua, R; Pena, A; Weinbrenner, T; Fito, M; Vidal, M A; Masia, R

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the relation between age and both dietary habits and leisure-time physical activity, and to determine nutrient inadequacy of aged groups in our population. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of the 25-74-y-old population of Gerona, Spain. A total of 838 men and 910 women were selected from among the general population according to the 1991 census. Analysis of dietary habits, including amount and type of alcohol consumption, and detailed evaluation of leisure-time physical activity. Nutrient densities of carbohydrates, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(12), vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, potassium, iron, magnesium, copper, and dietary fiber increased significantly (Phabits, characterized through a composite dietary score, with age after adjusting for several confounders both in men and women (P<0.001). This score was composed of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, dietary fibre, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and sodium. In all, 29 and 10% of male and female subjects aged 65-74 y, respectively, reported inadequate intakes of six or more of 16 nutrients. Total leisure-time physical activity increased with age in men (P<0.002), and was not different among female age groups. Dietary behaviours and levels of physical activity spent during leisure time indicate a healthy lifestyle of the aged men and women in the present population. Nutrient inadequacy observed in some aged men and women, however, deserves particular intervention of health-care programmes for this growing part of our society.

  2. Defining normal liver stiffness range in a normal healthy Chinese population without liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For patients with chronic liver disease, different optimal liver stiffness cut-off values correspond to different stages of fibrosis, which are specific for the underlying liver disease and population. AIMS: To establish the normal ranges of liver stiffness in the healthy Chinese population without underlying liver disease. METHODS: This is a prospective cross sectional study of 2,528 healthy volunteers recruited from the general population and the Red Cross Transfusion Center in Hong Kong. All participants underwent a comprehensive questionnaire survey, measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure. Fasting liver function tests, glucose and cholesterol was performed. Abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography were performed on all participants. RESULTS: Of the 2,528 subjects, 1,998 were excluded with either abnormal liver parenchyma on ultrasound, chronic medical condition, abnormal blood tests including liver enzymes, fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, high body mass index, high blood pressure, or invalid liver stiffness scan. The reference range for the 530 subjects without known liver disease was 2.3 to 5.9 kPa (mean 4.1, SD 0.89. The median liver stiffness was higher in males compared with females (4.3 vs 4.0 kPa respectively, p55 years (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The healthy reference range for liver stiffness in the Chinese population is 2.3 to 5.9 kPa. Female gender and older age group was associated with a lower median liver stiffness.

  3. Handwriting in healthy people aged 65 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drempt, Nadege; McCluskey, Annie; Lannin, Natasha A

    2011-08-01

    Handwriting is an important activity that is commonly affected by neurological and orthopaedic conditions. Handwriting research has predominantly involved children. Little is known about handwriting behaviour in healthy older adults. This study aims to describe the handwriting practices of 30 unimpaired adults aged 65 years and over. In this cross-sectional observational study, data were collected from 30 older adults using a self-report questionnaire, digital pen recordings over three days and a handwriting log. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The mean age of participants was 75.1 years (standard deviation=6.9). Variations in handwriting were evident in letter size, slant and spacing. Participants wrote very little--a median of 18 words per occasion (interquartile range=10.5-26.9 words). Most handwriting involved self-generated text (85%), not copied or transcribed text. Participants stood while writing for 17% of handwriting occasions. The most common reasons for handwriting were note taking (23%) and puzzles (22%). Legibility may not depend exclusively on the handwriting script that a beginning writer is taught, but may be a result of other factors as the person ages. A comprehensive adult handwriting assessment and retraining programme should be relevant to older adults, including common handwriting activities, involving self-generated text and few words. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  4. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Christian; Mossahebi, Pouria; Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; Stamm, Julie; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The 'default-mode' network (DMN) has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01-0.027 Hz) in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two 'task-positive' networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in 'task-positive' slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis) effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need to be further explored to better inform our understanding of brain function in healthy individuals and following injury.

  5. Maximising the Opportunity for Healthy Ageing: Online Mental Health Measurement and Targeted Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasiello, Matthew; Bartholomaeus, Jonathan; Jarden, Aaron; van Agteren, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Longevity is a valuable resource for society, as older people are increasingly looking for new ways to contribute after retirement. Their contribution is however dependent upon their physical health, mental health and wellbeing. The potential role that mental health and wellbeing, two separate but interrelated constructs, play often are both under-recognised and insufficiently targeted. Positive ageing is a positive and constructive view of ageing, where older people actively work on maintaining a positive attitude, work towards keeping fit and healthy, and strive to maximize their wellbeing. Interventions stimulating positive ageing show promising results for both mental health and wellbeing, and telehealth can play an important role in improving the reach and effectiveness of positive ageing interventions. Telehealth solutions can also help researchers reliably measure and better understand the drivers of wellbeing at individual and population levels; results that can both form the basis for advancing the field of positive ageing and help inform public policy.

  6. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran

    2015-01-01

    The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We...... investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic...... structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating...

  7. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allentoft, Morten E; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Rasmussen, Simon; Rasmussen, Morten; Stenderup, Jesper; Damgaard, Peter B; Schroeder, Hannes; Ahlström, Torbjörn; Vinner, Lasse; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Margaryan, Ashot; Higham, Tom; Chivall, David; Lynnerup, Niels; Harvig, Lise; Baron, Justyna; Della Casa, Philippe; Dąbrowski, Paweł; Duffy, Paul R; Ebel, Alexander V; Epimakhov, Andrey; Frei, Karin; Furmanek, Mirosław; Gralak, Tomasz; Gromov, Andrey; Gronkiewicz, Stanisław; Grupe, Gisela; Hajdu, Tamás; Jarysz, Radosław; Khartanovich, Valeri; Khokhlov, Alexandr; Kiss, Viktória; Kolář, Jan; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Longhi, Cristina; McGlynn, George; Merkevicius, Algimantas; Merkyte, Inga; Metspalu, Mait; Mkrtchyan, Ruzan; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Paja, László; Pálfi, György; Pokutta, Dalia; Pospieszny, Łukasz; Price, T Douglas; Saag, Lehti; Sablin, Mikhail; Shishlina, Natalia; Smrčka, Václav; Soenov, Vasilii I; Szeverényi, Vajk; Tóth, Gusztáv; Trifanova, Synaru V; Varul, Liivi; Vicze, Magdolna; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zhitenev, Vladislav; Orlando, Ludovic; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-06-11

    The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating a more recent onset of positive selection on lactose tolerance than previously thought.

  8. Health and Aging Policy Fellows Program: Shaping a Healthy Future for Older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Pike, Kathleen M; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Elinson, Lynn

    2017-09-01

    As the size of the elderly population increases, so do the challenges of and barriers to high-quality, affordable health care. The Health and Aging Policy Fellows (HAPF) Program is designed to provide health and aging professionals with the skills and experience to help lead the effort in reducing these barriers and shaping a healthy and productive future for older Americans. Since its inception in 2008, the program has affected not only the fellows who participate, but also the field of health and aging policy. Work needs to be done to sustain this program so that more fellows can participate and sound policies for the elderly population can continue to be shaped and improved. This report describes the HAPF Program, including its background (rationale, description, partners, progress, effect), lessons learned, challenges and solutions, and policy implications. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease12

    OpenAIRE

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of “nutritional frailty,” which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutr...

  10. Small Demodex populations colonize most parts of the skin of healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Iván; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Sánchez, Armand; Roldán, Wendy; Villanueva, Sergio; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2013-02-01

    It is unproven that all dogs harbour Demodex mites in their skin. In fact, several microscopic studies have failed to demonstrate mites in healthy dogs. Demodex canis is a normal inhabitant of the skin of most, if not all, dogs. This hypothesis was tested using a sensitive real-time PCR to detect Demodex DNA in the skin of dogs. One hundred dogs living in a humane society shelter, 20 privately owned and healthy dogs and eight dogs receiving immunosuppressive or antineoplastic therapy. Hair samples (250-300 hairs with their hair bulbs) were taken from five or 20 skin locations. A real-time PCR that amplifies a 166 bp sequence of the D. canis chitin synthase gene was used. The percentage of positive dogs increased with the number of sampling points. When a large canine population was sampled at five cutaneous locations, 18% of dogs were positive for Demodex DNA. When 20 skin locations were sampled, all dogs tested positive for mite DNA. Our study indicates that Demodex colonization of the skin is present in all dogs, independent of age, sex, breed or coat. Nevertheless, the population of mites in a healthy dog appears to be small. Demodex DNA was amplified from all 20 cutaneous points investigated, without statistically significant differences. Using a real-time PCR technique, Demodex mites, albeit in very low numbers, were found to be normal inhabitants of haired areas of the skin of healthy dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Individuals With Schizophrenia and Healthy Aging: Testing the Accelerated Aging Hypothesis of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhana; Mulsant, Benoit H; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-07-01

    Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a syndrome of accelerated aging. Brain plasticity is vulnerable to the normal aging process and affected in schizophrenia: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neuroplasticity molecule. The present review explores the accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia by comparing changes in BDNF expression in schizophrenia with aging-associated changes. Individuals with schizophrenia show patterns of increased overall mortality, metabolic abnormalities, and cognitive decline normally observed later in life in the healthy population. An overall decrease is observed in BDNF expression in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and in older individuals compared to a younger cohort. There is a marked decrease in BDNF levels in the frontal regions and in the periphery among older individuals and those with schizophrenia; however, data for BDNF expression in the occipital, parietal, and temporal cortices and the hippocampus is inconclusive. Accelerated aging hypothesis is supported based on frontal regions and peripheral studies; however, further studies are needed in other brain regions.

  12. Christianity Facing the Ageing of Global Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ageing population is a great challenge for the whole world including churches, Christian communities, Christian families and the so-called “Christian countries”. The respect and support for elderly people is almost a common rule of social life in developed countries regardless of religious views. But in the Christian world this obligation has very strong religious justification – obligation enshrined in the Commandments of Old (the fourth/fifth Commandment and New (the second one of The Greatest Commandments of Love Testaments. Therefore between the Christianity – understood as a set of different communities sharing their beliefs in Jesus Christ – and aging population there are many very different connections including among others: honour and respect, privilege, obligations, giving – receiving relations, duty, charity, solidarity, dependency. They are present both in the teaching and the practice of different Christian communities starting with Churches, through NGOs and Christian societies, ending with Christian families. The paper shows some of these connections. It also tries – based on a case of Poland – to answer the question whether the Christianity is ready to face the aging of global population

  13. Population ageing alongside health care spending growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Mihajlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Silver Tsunami or population ageing has become a globally widespread phenomenon. The purpose of this review is to observe its dynamics and consequences from a local Balkan perspective. The main drivers of this unique demographic evolution are extended longevity, improved early childhood survival, absorption of women into the labor markets, and consequences of sexual revolution leading to falling female fertility. This process lasting well over a century is taking its toll on contemporary societies. Major side effects are shrinking young labor force and growing pool of elderly and retired citizens in many countries. This equation tends to worsen further in the future threatening long-term financial sustainability of public social and health insurance funds. Notable health expenditure growth, accelerating worldwide since the 1960s, is to a large degree attributable to ageing itself. Growing share of senior citizens increases demand for medical services and costs of health care provision. Home-based care provided by the family caregivers presents another important reality putting a huge burden on modern communities. Serbs are no exception in this landscape. Historical demographic evolution of this nation gives a clear evidence of advanced and accelerated ageing, which is well documented in post-World War II era. This synthesis of rich published evidence shows clear upward parallel trend between the pace of population aging and the growth of health expenditure. National authorities shall be forced to consider reform of the current health care financing pattern inherited from the demographic growth era. This might be the only way to smooth out the impact of population ageing on the financial sustainability of the health system and long-term medical care in Serbia. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI 175014

  14. [Effects and the associated factors of the 2016 China Motivational Healthy Walking Program among occupational population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W; Zhao, Y F; Yang, X Z; Li, Y C; Li, Z X; Wang, L H

    2018-05-06

    Objective: To examine the effects and associated factors of the China Motivational Healthy Walking Program among occupational population. Methods: The 2016 China Motivational Healthy Walking Program recruited 29 224 participants from 139 demonstration areas for comprehensive prevention and control of chronic and non-communicable disease at national level and 70 at provincial level. Intervention on walking was carried out by adopting group and individual motivating measures. Walking steps were recorded by electronic pedometer. We used percent of days achieving 10 000 steps (P10 000), percent of days fulfilling continuous walking (PCW), and proportion of valid walking (PVW) steps to reflect walking quantity, pattern and quality of participants. Motivation intensity was measured by summing up scores of each motivating activity. Questionnaire-based online survey collected information about demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors and chronic diseases. This study finally included 12 368 individuals in the analysis. Multilevel logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of group and individual motivating measures on walking activity and corresponding associated factors. Results: Age of the study sample was (41.2±8.99) years, and 58.17% (7 194) of them were female. After 100-day intervention, the P10 000, PCW and PVW of all participants were 93.89%±14.42%,92.01%±15.97% and 81.00%±7.45%, respectively. The mean P10 000 and PCW increased with rising group-motivated scores, self-motivated scores and individual-activity scores ( Pmotivated scores and self-motivated scores (both Pmotivated scores and self-motivated scores tended to have more likelihood of high-level of P10 000 and PCW. Age, sex, smoking status, education attainment and alcohol drinking were associated with P10 000 and PCW ( PMotivational Healthy Walking Program had positive effect on promoting healthy walking among occupational population. Group-motivated and self-motivated activities

  15. Portal Vein Dopplerflowmetry in healthy sheep according to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra F. Belotta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pulsed Doppler ultrasound was used to evaluate portal blood flow, portal velocity and portal congestion index in 24 healthy sheep divided into groups (lambs, yearlings and ewes, according to age. Measurements were performed at the 11th right intercostal space using ideal insonation angle and uniform insonation method. Mean values obtained in each group were compared with one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Portal velocity and portal blood flow were statistically similar between the groups (P>0.05. Mean portal velocity were 17.75; 17.13 and 16.75; while mean portal blood flow were 26.65; 31.04 and 24.32 for lambs, yearlings and ewes, respectively. Portal congestion index was statistically distinct between the groups and values for lambs, yearlings and ewes were 0.009; 0.058 and 0.09, respectively (P<0.01. Statistical differences were observed in portal vein diameter, portal vein area and portal congestion index between the groups, presumably due to influence of weight and not to age.

  16. Healthy Aging Among Older Black and White Men: What Is the Role of Mastery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham-Mintus, Kenzie; Vowels, Ashley; Huskins, Kyle

    2018-01-11

    This research explores black-white differences in healthy aging and investigates whether mastery acts as a buffer against poor health for older black and white men. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (2008-2012), a series of binary logit models were created to assess healthy aging over a 2-year period. Healthy aging was defined as good subjective health and free of disability at both waves. Mastery was lagged, and analyses (n = 4,892) controlled for social and health factors. Black-white disparities in healthy aging were observed, where older black men had lower odds of healthy aging. Mastery was associated with higher odds of healthy aging, and race moderated the relationship between mastery and healthy aging. The predicted probability of healthy aging was relatively flat across all levels of mastery among black men, yet white men saw consistent gains in the probability of healthy aging with higher levels of mastery. In race-stratified models, mastery was not a significant predictor of healthy aging among black men. High levels of mastery are linked to positive health-often acting as a buffer against stressful life events. However, among older black men, higher levels of mastery did not necessarily equate to healthy aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  18. Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. The purpose of this review is to elucidate which components of executive functioning benefit from such exercise in healthy populations. In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.

  19. Towards measurement of the Healthy Ageing Phenotype in lifestyle-based intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jose; Godfrey, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth; Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura J E; Barron, Evelyn; Rochester, Lynn; Meyer, Thomas D; Mathers, John C

    2013-10-01

    Given the biological complexity of the ageing process, there is no single, simple and reliable measure of how healthily someone is ageing. Intervention studies need a panel of measures which capture key features of healthy ageing. To help guide our research in this area, we have adopted the concept of the "Healthy Ageing Phenotype" (HAP) and this study aimed to (i) identify the most important features of the HAP and (ii) identify/develop tools for measurement of those features. After a comprehensive assessment of the literature we selected the following domains: physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we hoped would provide a reasonably holistic characterisation of the HAP. We reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews and/or meta-analysis of cohort studies, and clinical guidelines on outcome measures of these domains relevant to the HAP. Selection criteria for these measures included: frequent use in longitudinal studies of ageing; expected to change with age; evidence for strong association with/prediction of ageing-related phenotypes such as morbidity, mortality and lifespan; whenever possible, focus on studies measuring these outcomes in populations rather than on individuals selected on the basis of a particular disease; (bio)markers that respond to (lifestyle-based) intervention. Proposed markers were exposed to critique in a Workshop held in Newcastle, UK in October 2012. We have selected a tentative panel of (bio)markers of physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we propose may be useful in characterising the HAP and which may have utility as outcome measures in intervention studies. In addition, we have identified a number of tools which could be applied in community-based intervention studies designed to enhance healthy ageing. We have proposed, tentatively, a panel

  20. Systemic klotho is associated with KLOTHO variation and predicts intrinsic cortical connectivity in healthy human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Marx, Gabe; Brown, Jesse A; Bonham, Luke W; Wang, Dan; Coppola, Giovanni; Seeley, William W; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H; Dubal, Dena B

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive decline is a major biomedical challenge as the global population ages. Elevated levels of the longevity factor klotho suppress aging, enhance cognition, and promote synaptic plasticity and neural resilience against aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathogenic proteins. Here, we examined the relationship between human genetic variants of KLOTHO and systemic klotho levels - and assessed neuroanatomic correlates of serum klotho in a cohort of healthy older adults. Serum klotho levels were increased with KL-VS heterozygosity, as anticipated. We report, for the first time, that serum klotho levels were paradoxically decreased with KL-VS homozygosity. Further, we found that higher serum klotho levels were associated with measures of greater intrinsic connectivity in key functional networks of the brain vulnerable to aging and AD such as the fronto-parietal and default mode networks. Our findings suggest that elevated klotho promotes a resilient brain, possibly through increased network connectivity of critical brain regions.

  1. Intestinal Permeability Biomarker Zonulin is Elevated in Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, YanFei; Goel, Ruby; Kim, Seungbum; Richards, Elaine M; Carter, Christy S; Pepine, Carl J; Raizada, Mohan K; Buford, Thomas W

    2017-09-01

    Increased gut permeability ("leaky gut") has been proposed as a potential contributor to age-related inflammation and gut dysbiosis. However, information on the relationship between a leaky gut and inflammation and physical frailty during aging are limited. To investigate the hypothesis that an aging-associated leaky gut is linked to the age-related inflammation and frailty. Two cohorts of healthy adults were studied: young (18-30 years old, n = 19) and older (≥70 years old, n = 18). Serum concentrations of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, zonulin (a marker for leaky gut), and high-mobility group box protein (HMGB1, a nuclear protein triggering inflammation) were measured. Correlations of serum levels of zonulin and HMGB1 with strength of plantar flexor muscles and number of steps taken per day were analyzed. Serum concentration of zonulin and HMGB1 were 22% (P = .005) and 16% (P = .010) higher in the older versus young adults. Serum zonulin was positively associated with concentrations of TNF-α (r = 0.357, P = .032) and IL-6 (r = 0.345, P = .043). Importantly, both zonulin and HMGB1 were negatively correlated with skeletal muscle strength (zonulin: r = -0.332, P = .048; HMGB1: r = -0.383, P = .023), and habitual physical activity (zonulin: r = -0.410, P = .016; HMGB1: r = -0.483, P = .004). Serum zonulin was associated with both systemic inflammation and 2 key indices of physical frailty. These data suggest that a leaky gut may play a critical role in the development of age-related inflammation and frailty. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. NutrimiRAging: Micromanaging Nutrient Sensing Pathways through Nutrition to Promote Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Víctor; Berninches, Laura; Tapia, Javier; Daimiel, Lidia

    2017-04-26

    Current sociodemographic predictions point to a demographic shift in developed and developing countries that will result in an unprecedented increase of the elderly population. This will be accompanied by an increase in age-related conditions that will strongly impair human health and quality of life. For this reason, aging is a major concern worldwide. Healthy aging depends on a combination of individual genetic factors and external environmental factors. Diet has been proved to be a powerful tool to modulate aging and caloric restriction has emerged as a valuable intervention in this regard. However, many questions about how a controlled caloric restriction intervention affects aging-related processes are still unanswered. Nutrient sensing pathways become deregulated with age and lose effectiveness with age. These pathways are a link between diet and aging. Thus, fully understanding this link is a mandatory step before bringing caloric restriction into practice. MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of cellular functions and can be modified by diet. Some microRNAs target genes encoding proteins and enzymes belonging to the nutrient sensing pathways and, therefore, may play key roles in the modulation of the aging process. In this review, we aimed to show the relationship between diet, nutrient sensing pathways and microRNAs in the context of aging.

  4. NutrimiRAging: Micromanaging Nutrient Sensing Pathways through Nutrition to Promote Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Micó

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Current sociodemographic predictions point to a demographic shift in developed and developing countries that will result in an unprecedented increase of the elderly population. This will be accompanied by an increase in age-related conditions that will strongly impair human health and quality of life. For this reason, aging is a major concern worldwide. Healthy aging depends on a combination of individual genetic factors and external environmental factors. Diet has been proved to be a powerful tool to modulate aging and caloric restriction has emerged as a valuable intervention in this regard. However, many questions about how a controlled caloric restriction intervention affects aging-related processes are still unanswered. Nutrient sensing pathways become deregulated with age and lose effectiveness with age. These pathways are a link between diet and aging. Thus, fully understanding this link is a mandatory step before bringing caloric restriction into practice. MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of cellular functions and can be modified by diet. Some microRNAs target genes encoding proteins and enzymes belonging to the nutrient sensing pathways and, therefore, may play key roles in the modulation of the aging process. In this review, we aimed to show the relationship between diet, nutrient sensing pathways and microRNAs in the context of aging.

  5. Changes in Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) throughout the Life Span: A Population-Based Study of 1027 Healthy Males from Birth (Cord Blood) to the Age of 69 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, K; Boas, M.

    2010-01-01

    , and at 3 and 12 months), n = 55] and another group through puberty [(biannual measurements), n = 83]. Main Outcome Measures: Serum AMH was determined by a sensitive immunoassay. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH were measured, and pubertal staging was performed in boys aged 6 to 20 yr (n = 616). Results......: Serum AMH was above the detection limit in all samples with a marked variation according to age and pubertal status. The median AMH level in cord blood was 148 pmol/liter and increased significantly to the highest observed levels at 3 months (P ....0001) and remained at a relatively stable level throughout childhood until puberty, when AMH declined progressively with adults exhibiting 3-4% of infant levels. Conclusion: Based on this extensive data set, we found detectable AMH serum levels at all ages, with the highest measured levels during infancy...

  6. Smart Cities and the Ageing Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik; Kivimäki, Anri; Haukiputo, Lotta

    Due to a growing number of elderly people, it is a necessity to create the cities that are aware of the special needs of all their citizens including the needs of aging populations. This paper shows that by combining smart homes with smart cities, we are able to provide an ICT infrastructure...... population to support independent elderly living. Using ICT in a smart city/home context can provide personalized health care, social services and intelligent community services. Homecare systems for elderly people are becoming important due to economic reasons as well as patients’ preferences. The expected...... and 3D virtual world design. In this paper we will discuss how the recent development in ICT, and its particular components, Internet of Things (IoT), Clouds of Things, the Advanced Artificial Intelligence, can become building blocks between elderly people, smart homes and smart cities. Also, we...

  7. The Health of America's Aging Prison Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A; Gross, Alden; Schrack, Jennifer A; Deal, Jennifer A; Eber, Gabriel B

    2018-03-23

    Older incarcerated individuals comprise the fastest growing demographic in the US prison system. Unhealthy lifestyles among incarcerated individuals and inadequate health care lead to earlier onset and more rapid progression of many chronic conditions that are prevalent among community-living older adults. There are limited peer-reviewed epidemiologic data in this area; however, there is growing interest in identifying strategies for housing aging incarcerated individuals, delivering appropriate health care in prisons, and coordinating after-release health care. In this systematic review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence of the health challenges facing the aging US prison population. Our comprehensive literature search focused on health outcomes, including diseases, comorbid conditions, mental health, cognition, and mobility. From 12,486 articles identified from the literature search, we reviewed 21 studies published between 2007 and 2017. All the studies were observational and cross-sectional, and most (n = 17) were based on regional samples. Sample sizes varied widely, ranging from 25 to 14,499 incarcerated people (median, 258). In general, compared with their younger counterparts, older incarcerated individuals reported high rates of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular conditions, and liver disease. Mental health problems were common, especially anxiety, fear of desire for death or suicide, and depression. Activities of daily living were challenging for up to one-fifth of the population. We found no empirical data on cognition among older incarcerated individuals. The findings of this review reveal few empirical data in this area and highlight the need for new data to drive policy and practice patterns that address critical health issues related to the aging prison population.

  8. Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The Case of Mauritius. ... the life expectancy of the population and consequently, the society is ageing. ... Originality/Value – Although some studies have been done on ageing yet ...

  9. Hypercapnic evaluation of vascular reactivity in healthy aging and acute stroke via functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ryan V; Nair, Veena A; Sattin, Justin A; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is well-established for the study of brain function in healthy populations, although its clinical application has proven more challenging. Specifically, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which allows the assessment of the vascular response that serves as the basis for fMRI, has been shown to be reduced in healthy aging as well as in a range of diseases, including chronic stroke. However, the timing of when this occurs relative to the stroke event is unclear. We used a breath-hold fMRI task to evaluate CVR across gray matter in a group of acute stroke patients (< 10 days from stroke; N = 22) to address this question. These estimates were compared with those from both age-matched (N = 22) and younger (N = 22) healthy controls. As expected, young controls had the greatest mean CVR, as indicated by magnitude and extent of fMRI activation; however, stroke patients did not differ from age-matched controls. Moreover, the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres of stroke patients did not differ with respect to any of these measures. These findings suggest that fMRI remains a valid tool within the first few days of a stroke, particularly for group fMRI studies in which findings are compared with healthy subjects of similar age. However, given the relatively high variability in CVR observed in our stroke sample, caution is warranted when interpreting fMRI data from individual patients or a small cohort. We conclude that a breath-hold task can be a useful addition to functional imaging protocols for stroke patients.

  10. Hypercapnic evaluation of vascular reactivity in healthy aging and acute stroke via functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan V. Raut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI is well-established for the study of brain function in healthy populations, although its clinical application has proven more challenging. Specifically, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR, which allows the assessment of the vascular response that serves as the basis for fMRI, has been shown to be reduced in healthy aging as well as in a range of diseases, including chronic stroke. However, the timing of when this occurs relative to the stroke event is unclear. We used a breath-hold fMRI task to evaluate CVR across gray matter in a group of acute stroke patients (<10 days from stroke; N = 22 to address this question. These estimates were compared with those from both age-matched (N = 22 and younger (N = 22 healthy controls. As expected, young controls had the greatest mean CVR, as indicated by magnitude and extent of fMRI activation; however, stroke patients did not differ from age-matched controls. Moreover, the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres of stroke patients did not differ with respect to any of these measures. These findings suggest that fMRI remains a valid tool within the first few days of a stroke, particularly for group fMRI studies in which findings are compared with healthy subjects of similar age. However, given the relatively high variability in CVR observed in our stroke sample, caution is warranted when interpreting fMRI data from individual patients or a small cohort. We conclude that a breath-hold task can be a useful addition to functional imaging protocols for stroke patients.

  11. Failing to Focus on Healthy Aging: A Frailty of Our Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan M; Shah, Krupa; Hall, William J

    2015-07-01

    The academic geriatrics community has provided outstanding leadership in addressing frailty and complexity in older adults, but a minority of older adults are frail. Although resources to treat older adults are limited, and it is appropriate to focus clinical efforts on those with frailty and multimorbidity, there is also important expertise that can be brought to bear on the health of ALL older adults. A review of the literature suggests that attention to healthy or successful aging has failed to keep pace with the focus on frailty. By providing leadership to promote successful aging, the quality of life of older adults across the spectrum can be improved and transitions to frailty reduced. The template that leaders have established in understanding frailty-defining and operationalizing it, understanding outcomes, identifying pathophysiology-can be used as an approach to successful aging. Several community-based programs have been successful in promoting successful aging. These are potentially highly scalable and could have a substantial effect on the aging population, but their essential components need to be better understood. The geriatrics community is uniquely positioned to take on this role. This is a critical time to work together to make the lives of all older adults as healthy and fulfilling as possible. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. A healthy aging program for older adults: effects on self-efficacy and morale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scult, Matthew; Haime, Vivian; Jacquart, Jolene; Takahashi, Jonathan; Moscowitz, Barbara; Webster, Ann; Denninger, John W; Mehta, Darshan H

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, 810 million people worldwide were older than 60 y, accounting for 11% of the population. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2050 or to 22% of the overall population. As a result, a growing need exists to understand the factors that promote mental and physical health in older populations. The purpose of this study was to develop a healthy aging program for older adults and to measure the changes from baseline to the end of the program in participants' relevant psychosocial outcomes (ie, self-efficacy and morale). The study's healthy aging mind-body intervention (MBI) was adapted from the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP) at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine, which incorporates elements from the fields of stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. That program was modified with examples and exercises targeted to an older population and evaluated in the current single-arm pilot study. The program took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The 9-wk healthy aging MBI was developed for participants aged 65 y and older. Fifty-one older adults from the surrounding community participated in the study's groups. A new intervention group began the program every 3 mo, with a maximum of 12 individuals per group. For each group, the MBI consisted of weekly 90-min sessions for 9 consecutive wk, directed by a psychologist. The program included sessions that taught participants (1) a variety of methods to elicit the relaxation response (RR), (2) the practice of adaptive coping and cognitions, (3) behaviors necessary to create a healthy lifestyle, and (4) methods of building social support. The research team chose to focus on 2 psychological variables of interest for aging populations: morale and self-efficacy. The study used 2 questionnaires to measure those outcomes, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), a multidimensional measure of the psychological state of older

  13. Non-coding genomic regions possessing enhancer and silencer potential are associated with healthy aging and exceptional survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyu; Welsh, David A; Myers, Leann; Cherry, Katie E; Wyckoff, Jennifer; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2015-02-28

    We have completed a genome-wide linkage scan for healthy aging using data collected from a family study, followed by fine-mapping by association in a separate population, the first such attempt reported. The family cohort consisted of parents of age 90 or above and their children ranging in age from 50 to 80. As a quantitative measure of healthy aging, we used a frailty index, called FI34, based on 34 health and function variables. The linkage scan found a single significant linkage peak on chromosome 12. Using an independent cohort of unrelated nonagenarians, we carried out a fine-scale association mapping of the region suggestive of linkage and identified three sites associated with healthy aging. These healthy-aging sites (HASs) are located in intergenic regions at 12q13-14. HAS-1 has been previously associated with multiple diseases, and an enhancer was recently mapped and experimentally validated within the site. HAS-2 is a previously uncharacterized site possessing genomic features suggestive of enhancer activity. HAS-3 contains features associated with Polycomb repression. The HASs also contain variants associated with exceptional longevity, based on a separate analysis. Our results provide insight into functional genomic networks involving non-coding regulatory elements that are involved in healthy aging and longevity.

  14. Healthy ageing and home: the perspectives of very old people in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, J; Sixsmith, A; Fänge, A Malmgren; Naumann, D; Kucsera, C; Tomsone, S; Haak, M; Dahlin-Ivanoff, S; Woolrych, R

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on in-depth research, using a grounded theory approach, to examine the ways in which very old people perceive healthy ageing in the context of living alone at home within urban settings in five European countries. This qualitative study was part of a cross-national project entitled ENABLE-AGE which examined the relationship between home and healthy ageing. Interviews explored the notion of healthy ageing, the meaning and importance of home, conceptualisations of independence and autonomy and links between healthy ageing and home. Data analysis identified five ways in which older people constructed healthy ageing: home and keeping active; managing lifestyles, health and illness; balancing social life; and balancing material and financial circumstances. Older people reflected on their everyday lives at home in terms of being engaged in purposeful, meaningful action and evaluated healthy ageing in relation to the symbolic and practical affordances of the home, contextualised within constructions of their national context. The research suggests that older people perceive healthy ageing as an active achievement, created through individual, personal effort and supported through social ties despite the health, financial and social decline associated with growing older. The physicality and spatiality of home provided the context for establishing and evaluating the notion of healthy ageing, whilst the experienced relationship between home, life history and identity created a meaningful space within which healthy ageing was negotiated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insufficient DNA methylation affects healthy aging and promotes age-related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Deli; James, Smitha R; Karpf, Adam R; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2011-08-01

    DNA methylation plays an integral role in development and aging through epigenetic regulation of genome function. DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is the most prevalent DNA methyltransferase that maintains genomic methylation stability. To further elucidate the function of Dnmt1 in aging and age-related diseases, we exploited the Dnmt1+/- mouse model to investigate how Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency impacts the aging process by assessing the changes of several major aging phenotypes. We confirmed that Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency indeed decreases DNA methylation as a result of reduced Dnmt1 expression. To assess the effect of Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency on general body composition, we performed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis and showed that reduced Dnmt1 activity decreased bone mineral density and body weight, but with no significant impact on mortality or body fat content. Using behavioral tests, we demonstrated that Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency impairs learning and memory functions in an age-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings point to the interesting likelihood that reduced genomic methylation activity adversely affects the healthy aging process without altering survival and mortality. Our studies demonstrated that cognitive functions of the central nervous system are modulated by Dnmt1 activity and genomic methylation, highlighting the significance of the original epigenetic hypothesis underlying memory coding and function.

  16. 'Healthy Ageing' policies and anti-ageing ideologies and practices: on the exercise of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Beatriz

    2008-12-01

    This paper explores how the exercise of the ethics of 'responsibility' for health care advanced through 'healthy ageing' and 'successful ageing' narratives in Western countries animates an array of 'authorities', including the 'anti-ageing medicine' movement as a strategy to address the anxieties of growing old in Western societies and as a tool to exercise the ethos of 'responsibility'. The choice of this type of authority as a source of guidance for self-constitution and the exercise of the 'responsible self', this paper will argue, enables the enactment of a type of late modernity notion of citizenship for ageing individuals based on principles of agelessness, health, independence and consumption power. Through interviews with anti-ageing consumers, however, it is also possible to argue the existence of tensions and contradictions that such a rigid model of self-constitution in later life produces, and the potential forms of resistance and contestations that may emerge as a result. In this way the current 'war on anti-ageing medicine' (Vincent 2003) becomes also symptomatic of bigger 'wars' taking place not only between institutions competing for control over knowledge and management of ageing, but between those in favour and against the homogenisation of life under the language of universal science, reason and market rationality.

  17. Design, recruitment, logistics, and data management of the GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytthe, A; Valensin, S; Jeune, B

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the integrated European project GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) was initiated with the aim of identifying genes involved in healthy ageing and longevity. The first step in the project was the recruitment of more than 2500 pairs of siblings aged 90years or more together with one younger...

  18. The association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hack-Lyoung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population. Methods A total of 115 healthy subjects without known cardiovascular risk factors or overt heart disease who underwent both transthoracic echocardiography and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV measurement at the same day during their routine check-ups were analyzed. Results The mean age of study subjects was 52.8 ± 8.4 years, and 78 (67.8% were men. The mean baPWV value was 1,325 ± 185 cm/s. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups according to E/E’ value: subjects with E/E’ p β = 0.371, p after controlling confounders including age, sex and body mass index. In receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of E/E’ ≥ 10 were 78.6% and 59.8%, respectively with mean baPWV of 1,282 cm/s as the cut off value. The discriminatory capacity for predicting E/E’ ≥ 10 was improved from an area under the ROC curve of 0.646 with age alone to 0.734 when baPWV was added (p Conclusions There is a significant association between baPWV and E/E’ in an apparently healthy Korean population. BaPWV is useful as a simple and non-invasive method for early detection of increased LV filling pressure among these people.

  19. Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects: implications for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D B; Jeffery, I B; Cusack, S; O'Connor, E M; O'Toole, P W

    2015-01-01

    With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The microbiota composition and function, acting in concert with direct and indirect effects of habitual diet, is of great importance in remaining healthy and active. This is not a new concept, but until now the scale of the potential microbiota contribution was not appreciated. There are an estimated ten times more bacteria in an individual than human cells. The bacterial population is relatively stable in adults, but the age-related changes that occur later in life can have a negative impact on host health. This loss of the adult-associated microbiota correlates with measures of markers of inflammation, frailty, co-morbidity and nutritional status. This effect may be greater than that of diet or in some cases genetics alone. Collectively, the recent studies show the importance of the microbiota and associated metabolites in healthy aging and the importance of diet in its modulation. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. [Elaboration of Criteria and Indicators to Develop and Evaluate Programs of Healthy Aging in the Workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Bernal Solano, Mariola; Sánchez Pérez, M José

    2015-10-01

    In the actual context of population ageing and extension of working age, programs for health promotion at the workplace are a key and necessary tool to promote an active and healthy ageing. This work presents the methodological process followed to elaborate a checklist tool, within the framework of the European project Progress, that contributes to orientate planning, implementation and evaluation of good practices in this field, to be applicable to a variety of programs, countries and workplaces. A Delphi technique has been applied in three rounds in which experts in the area from five European countries participated. A questionnaire created from a list of criteria and indicators was adapted throughout the rounds, with the use of webmail, to the evaluation of interventions in the field of interest. Through processes of assessment and consensus, criteria and indicators most relevant were prioritized. From the nine starting criteria and after the implementation of the technique, four key criteria were prioritized: relevance: 62, adequacy to objective: 57, innovation: 50 and guarantee of quality: 41. Using this group of criteria and indicators, a checklist was designed containing the key information that should be collected for planning, implementation and evaluation of good practices in interventions in this field. The checklist tool helps to systematize the global methodology for the implementation of interventions which could be very useful for persons responsible of programmes to promote active and healthy ageing in the workplace.

  1. An examination of healthy aging across a conceptual continuum: prevalence estimates, demographic patterns, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Sara J; Jette, Alan M; Connell, Cathleen M

    2012-06-01

    Although the notion of healthy aging has gained wide acceptance in gerontology, measuring the phenomenon is challenging. Guided by a prominent conceptualization of healthy aging, we examined how shifting from a more to less stringent definition of healthy aging influences prevalence estimates, demographic patterns, and validity. Data are from adults aged 65 years and older who participated in the Health and Retirement Study. We examined four operational definitions of healthy aging. For each, we calculated prevalence estimates and examined the odds of healthy aging by age, education, gender, and race-ethnicity in 2006. We also examined the association between healthy aging and both self-rated health and death. Across definitions, the prevalence of healthy aging ranged from 3.3% to 35.5%. For all definitions, those classified as experiencing healthy aging had lower odds of fair or poor self-rated health and death over an 8-year period. The odds of being classified as "healthy" were lower among those of advanced age, those with less education, and women than for their corresponding counterparts across all definitions. Moving across the conceptual continuum--from a more to less rigid definition of healthy aging--markedly increases the measured prevalence of healthy aging. Importantly, results suggest that all examined definitions identified a subgroup of older adults who had substantially lower odds of reporting fair or poor health and dying over an 8-year period, providing evidence of the validity of our definitions. Conceptualizations that emphasize symptomatic disease and functional health may be particularly useful for public health purposes.

  2. Food management for the aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, J; Coleman, L J; Haran, E

    1996-01-01

    The older population is becoming more important to our society everyday. These individuals are being studied for their past, present, and potential impact on markets and marketing. Evaluated as a user of products or services in the marketplace or an employee or volunteer within the marketing system, this segment is gaining a visibility and importance. An interview was conducted with five Nutrition Project Directors to obtain an overview of Federally Funded Nutrition Programs for the Elderly. The areas which were highlighted were service delivery, site activities, management styles, barriers to service, clientele composition, food planning and preparation, staffing, USDA funding, coordination, marketing, transportation, and volunteerism. The Second Quarter Service Provider Output Reports for 1991, which are compiled by the Nutrition Projects and submitted to the Area Agency on Aging, were utilized to obtain client profile information (Reports, 1991). The analysis sought to compare the programs offered in the five counties on a number of factors which could be quantified. It was hoped that by looking at the numerical ratios, and depicting them graphically, any trends or unique characteristics of the programs could be identified. In that the percentage of Florida's present elder population (17%) far exceeds the national average (12%) these findings could be utilized by nutrition programs outside of Florida to plan for future funds. Analysis of quantitative information on the five programs yielded information on cost comparisons and on services.

  3. Dancing for Healthy Aging: Functional and Metabolic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2018-02-10

    Context • Dancing has been used as a form of exercise to improve functional and metabolic outcomes during aging. The field lacks randomized, clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating metabolic outcomes related to dance interventions, but dancing may be a form of exercise that could induce positive effects on the metabolic health of older adults. However, primary studies seem very heterogonous regarding the trial designs, characteristics of the interventions, the methods for outcomes assessments, statistical powers, and methodological quality. Objective • The current research team intended to review the literature on the use of dance as a form of intervention to promote functional and metabolic health in older adults. Specifically, the research team aimed to identify and describe the characteristics of a large range of studies using dance as an intervention, summarizing them and putting them into perspective for further analysis. Design • The research team searched the following data sources-MEDLINE, Cochrane Wiley, Clinical Trials.gov, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDRO), and the Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS)-for RCTs, quasi-experimental studies, and observational trials that compared the benefits of any style of dancing, combined with other exercises or alone, to nonexercising controls and/or controls practicing other types of exercise. Setting • The study took place at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre, Brazil). Participants were aging individuals, >55 y, both with or without health conditions. Interventions • Interventions should be supervised, taking form as group classes, in a dance setting environment. Dance styles were divided into 5 categories for the review: (1) cultural dances developed by groups of people to reflect the roots of a certain region, such as Greek dance; (2) ballroom dance (ie, dances with partners performed socially or competitively in a ballroom, such as foxtrot

  4. Knowledge brokering for healthy aging: a scoping review of potential approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; Newman, Kristine; DeForge, Ryan; Urquhart, Robin; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Dainty, Katie N

    2016-10-19

    Developing a healthcare delivery system that is more responsive to the future challenges of an aging population is a priority in Canada. The World Health Organization acknowledges the need for knowledge translation frameworks in aging and health. Knowledge brokering (KB) is a specific knowledge translation approach that includes making connections between people to facilitate the use of evidence. Knowledge gaps exist about KB roles, approaches, and guiding frameworks. The objective of the scoping review is to identify and describe KB approaches and the underlying conceptual frameworks (models, theories) used to guide the approaches that could support healthy aging. Literature searches were done in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, EBM reviews (Cochrane Database of systematic reviews), CINAHL, and SCOPUS, as well as Google and Google Scholar using terms related to knowledge brokering. Titles, abstracts, and full reports were reviewed independently by two reviewers who came to consensus on all screening criteria. Documents were included if they described a KB approach and details about the underlying conceptual basis. Data about KB approach, target stakeholders, KB outcomes, and context were extracted independently by two reviewers. Searches identified 248 unique references. Screening for inclusion revealed 19 documents that described 15 accounts of knowledge brokering and details about conceptual guidance and could be applied in healthy aging contexts. Eight KB elements were detected in the approaches though not all approaches incorporated all elements. The underlying conceptual guidance for KB approaches varied. Specific KB frameworks were referenced or developed for nine KB approaches while the remaining six cited more general KT frameworks (or multiple frameworks) as guidance. The KB approaches that we found varied greatly depending on the context and stakeholders involved. Three of the approaches were explicitly employed in the context of health aging. Common elements

  5. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘default-mode’ network (DMN has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (< 7 days after stroke onset, and 16 stroke patients in their later stage (between 1-6 months after stroke onset, this study showed that patterns of cortical system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01-0.027 Hz in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two ‘task-positive’ networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in ‘task-positive’ slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need

  6. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  7. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A and E Virus Infections Among Healthy Population in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaei, Sadaf; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Moeini, Mahsa; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin

    2015-07-01

    Enterically-transmitted acute viral hepatitis is caused predominantly by hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV and HAV infections varies in different geographical regions. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HEV and HAV infections among Iranian healthy individuals in southern Iran. Totally, 1030 samples were collected from healthy subjects in schools, those referred to tertiary outpatient clinics and health centers in Shiraz between November 2011 and May 2012. Their ages ranged between six months and 95 years. The presence of total anti-HAV and anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) in plasma was assessed by ELISA. The results showed that 66.2% and 0.6% of the general population in this area were positive for total anti-HAV and IgM antibodies by ELISA, respectively. As seen, 13.4% and 0.9% were positive for total anti-HEV and IgM antibodies, respectively. The difference in total anti-HAV and anti-HEV antibodies was significant among the age groups (P viruses in the region was high and some high-risk individuals including females at child-bearing age were more susceptible. HAV vaccination could be recommended for antibody-negative adults.

  8. Patterns of cognitive performance in healthy ageing in Northern Portugal: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Paulo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Minho Integrative Neuroscience Database (MIND-Ageing project aims to identify predictors of healthy cognitive ageing, including socio-demographic factors. In this exploratory analysis we sought to establish baseline cohorts for longitudinal assessment of age-related changes in cognition. METHODS: The population sample (472 individuals was strictly a convenient one, but similar to the Portuguese population in the age profile. Participants older than 55 years of age were included if they did not present defined disabling pathologies or dementia. A standardized clinical interview was conducted to assess medical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to characterize global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination, memory and executive functions (Selective Reminding Test; Stroop Color and Word Test; and Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Cross-sectional analysis of the neuropsychological performance with individual characteristics such as age, gender, educational level and setting (retirement home, senior university, day care center or community, allowed the establishment of baseline clusters for subsequent longitudinal studies. RESULTS: Based on different socio-demographic characteristics, four main clusters that group distinctive patterns of cognitive performance were identified. The type of institution where the elders were sampled from, together with the level of formal education, were the major hierarchal factors for individual distribution in the four clusters. Of notice, education seems to delay the cognitive decline that is associated with age in all clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Social-inclusion/engagement and education seem to have a protective effect on mental ageing, although this effect may not be effective in the eldest elders.

  9. Exercise Is Key to Healthy Aging | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. NIH Research Exercise Is Key to Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter ... to exercise regularly—at any age! Why is exercise so important? Exercise is perhaps the best demonstrated ...

  10. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  11. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  12. Mitochondrial Dynamics: Coupling Mitochondrial Fitness with Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, David; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria. However, the precise mechanisms by which aging promotes these mitochondrial alterations and the role of the latter in aging are still not fully understood. Mitochondrial dynamics is a key process regulating mitochondrial function and quality. Altered expression of some mitochondrial dynamics proteins has been recently associated with aging and with age-related alterations in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, and humans. Here, we review the link between alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, aging, and age-related impairment. We propose that the dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics leads to age-induced accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria and contributes to alterations linked to aging, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CT evaluation of cerebellar atrophy with aging in healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimiya, Jin

    1988-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of CT scans available from 2,102 neurologically normal persons, dilatations of the cerebellar vermis fissures (CVF), cerebellar hemispheric fissures (CHF), subarachnoid space (SAS) around the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle (FV) were examined according the age groups of persons younger than one year, one to four, five to nine, 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 years and older. An dilatation of both the CVF and CHF was associated with aging, with statistically significant differences among age groups of persons older than 20 years. This was especially noted in age groups of 60 years or older. There was a significant enlargement in the SAS around the cerebellum in age groups 60 years or more compared with age groups less than 60 years. For age groups of persons 20 years or older, both the FV transverse width and the radio of the FV transverse width to the inside diameter of the posterior fossa (PF) increased with aging. This was significant in age groups 60 years or older. For age groups younger than 10 years, however, there was inverse correlation between the ratio of the FV transverse width to the PF inside diameter and aging. Plotted curve of the ratio of the FV to the PF was U-shaped with smallest value in persons in their twenties. Since changes in the FV might reflect the volume of the cerebellar medullary substance, the cerebellar medullary substance should increase up to the age of 20. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Approaches in methodology for population-based longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (TUA) among Malaysian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Omar, Azahadi; Vanoh, Divya; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Mukari, Siti Zamratol Mai-Sarah; Din, Normah Che; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Mohammed, Zainora; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Loo, Won Hui; Meramat, Asheila; Kamaruddin, Mohd Zul Amin; Bagat, Mohamad Fazdillah; Razali, Rosdinom

    2016-12-01

    A number of longitudinal studies on aging have been designed to determine the predictors of healthy longevity, including the neuroprotective factors, however, relatively few studies included a wide range of factors and highlighted the challenges faced during data collection. Thus, the longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (LRGS TUA) has been designed to prospectively investigate the magnitude of cognitive decline and its risk factors through a comprehensive multidimensional assessment comprising of biophysical health, auditory and visual function, nutrition and dietary pattern and psychosocial aspects. At baseline, subjects were interviewed for their status on sociodemographic, health, neuropsychological test, psychosocial and dietary intake. Subjects were also measured for anthropometric and physical function and fitness. Biospecimens including blood, buccal swap, hair and toenail were collected, processed and stored. A subsample was assessed for sensory function, i.e., vision and auditory. During follow-up, at 18 and 36 months, most of the measurements, along with morbidity and mortality outcomes will be collected. The description of mild cognitive impairment, successful aging and usual aging process is presented here. A total 2322 respondents were recruited in the data analysis at baseline. Most of the respondents were categorized as experiencing usual aging (73 %), followed by successful aging (11 %) and mild cognitive impairment (16 %). The LRGS TUA study is the most comprehensive longitudinal study on aging in Malaysia, and will contribute to the understanding of the aging process and factors associated with healthy aging and mental well-being of a multiethnic population in Malaysia.

  15. Prevalence of viral hepatitis (B and C serological markers in healthy working population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Calleja-Panero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: prevalence of viral hepatitis (B and C changes geographically. Our aim was to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV serological markers in healthy working population and to describe the epidemiological characteristics associated to its presence. Methods: blood samples and epidemiological data of 5,017 healthy workers from Murcia and Madrid were recorded prospectively. Results: a total of 5,017 healthy volunteers participated. Mean age 39 ± 11 years, men predominance (73 %. Prevalence of serological markers of HCV and HBV was 0.6 % and 0.7 %. Age of patients with HCV antibody was significantly higher (43 ± 9 years vs. 39 ± 11 years; p = 0.03. We observed significant differences in liver test values (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] 64 ± 56 IU/L vs. 28 ± 20 IU/L; p < 0.001; aspartate aminotransferase [AST] (51 ± 45 IU/L vs. 23 ± 12 IU/L; p < 0.001 and in gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT value (104 ± 122 IU/L vs. 37 ± 46 IU/L; p < 0.001. The presence of HCV antibody was related significantly to previous transfusion (13 % vs. 5 %; p = 0.03, tattoos (29 % vs. 13 %; p < 0.01, intravenous drug addiction (13 % vs. 0.2 %; p < 0.001 and coexistence with people with positive HCV antibody (16 % vs. 4 %; p < 0.001. In HBV no differences in basal characteristics were observed with exception in AST values (29 ± 15 IU/L vs. 23 ± 12 IU/L; p < 0.01. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was related significantly to previous transfusion (15 % vs. 5 %; p < 0.01, tattoos (26 % vs. 14 %; p = 0.04 and coexistence with people with positive HBsAg (17 % vs. 4 %; p < 0.001. Conclusions: prevalence of serological markers in healthy working population is low. Risk factors for infection were previous transfusion and tattoos. Intravenous drug addiction was only a risk factor in HCV.

  16. Healthy aging and disease : role for telomere biology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Belcher, Matthew; van der Harst, Pim

    Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Human aging is associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, neurological diseases and cancer. Despite the remarkable progress made during the

  17. Designing for healthy and active ageing with intelligent technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Brankaert, R.G.A.; Ren, X.; Jia, P.; Offermans, S.A.M.; Nagtzaam, H.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ageing is a very important societal problem that we are facing today. According to WHO, health refers to physical, mental and social well being while active ageing refers to the process of optimizing opportunities for health, social participation and security in order to enhance quality of

  18. Visualising the demographic factors which shape population age structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population pyramid is one of the most popular tools for visualising population age structure. However, it is difficult to discern from the diagram the relative effects of different demographic components on the size of age-specific populations, making it hard to understand exactly how a population's age structure is formed. Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a type of population pyramid which shows how births, deaths, and migration have shaped a population's age structure. Methods: Births, deaths, and population data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A variation on the conventional population pyramid, termed here a components-of-change pyramid, was created. Based on cohort population accounts, it illustrates how births, deaths, and net migration have created the population of each age group. A simple measure which summarises the impact of net migration on age structure is also suggested. Results: Example components-of-change pyramids for several countries and subnational regions are presented, which illustrate how births, deaths, and net migration have fashioned current population age structures. The influence of migration is shown to vary greatly between populations. Conclusions: The new type of pyramid aids interpretation of a population's age structure and helps to understand its demographic history over the last century.

  19. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P traits (r = 0. 376, P trait (r = 0. 544, P trait (r = 0. 485, P trait (r = 0.632, P traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits.

  20. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent.......Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  1. Cell population data in neonates: differences by age group and associations with perinatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Lee, W; Han, K; Sung, I K

    2015-10-01

    Cell population data (CPD) describe physical parameters of white blood cell subpopulations and are reported to be of some value in the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Before using the CPD for diagnosing sepsis, the baseline features of the CPD distribution in healthy neonates should be clarified. The aim of this study was to compare the CPD distributions of healthy neonates and other age groups and to identify perinatal factors that are associated with changes in the CPD distribution of healthy neonates. The CPD distribution of 69 samples from term neonates was compared with adolescents and adults. The CPD distribution of 163 samples from healthy neonates was analyzed in association with perinatal factors, including gestational age, chronologic age, birthweight, delivery mode, premature rupture of membranes, diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The CPD distribution for term neonates was significantly different from those in adolescents and adults. The mean lymphocyte volume showed a negative correlation with gestational age at birth (r = -0.305; P group than in the normal delivery group. The small for gestational age (SGA) group had smaller mean neutrophil volume and mean monocyte volume than the appropriate for gestational age group. The CPD distribution of healthy neonates differed from those of adolescents or adults, and the differences were associated with gestational age, delivery mode, and being SGA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Healthy Aging Actions to Advance the National Prevention Strategy: Healthy Heart-- Powerpoint presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Society on Aging is an association of professionals in the field of aging including practitioners, educators, administrators, policymakers, researchers and students. Attendees at this session will receive 1.5 Continuing educational credits and will have a better u...

  3. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  4. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  5. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans.

  6. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway in a healthy North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Shastri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to obtain normative data for cephalometric measurements of the upper airway in the North Indian population. Design: Observational study. Setting: University department and teaching hospital out-patient clinic. Subjects and Methods: A total of 180 healthy patients were included out of which 90 were males (age range, 8-16 years, and 90 were females (age range, 8-16 years, with normal skeletal facial profile, no history of snoring, sleep apnea, upper airway disease, tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, obesity, or pathology in the pharynx. Twenty cephalometric airway measurements, including size of the tongue, soft palate, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and relative position of the hyoid bone and valleculae were obtained. Landmarks on cephalometric radiographs were digitized and measurements were made using a specially designed computer program. Error analysis of measurements was performed and comparison of measurements according to sex was made. Results: Significant sex dimorphism was seen for the majority of measurements, with the exception of minimal depth of the airway, oropharyngeal depth of the airway, and the soft palate angle with the hard palate. Conclusion: A minimum sagittal dimension of the upper airway was evident despite differences in measurements between sexes. Findings from this study should be a useful reference for the assessment of sleep apnea in the North Indian population.

  7. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin E; Barr, Ronald D

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014-1020, 2006). Age-dependent patterns of increase in SMM were derived by fitting SMM values to equations that consisted of the sum of two logistic expressions, one accounting for SMM changes during growth and the other for SMM changes during puberty. Normal ranges were defined so that 95% of the SMM values were included. The reproducibility of SMM measurements was obtained from whole-body DXA scans repeated on three occasions in each of a separate group of 32 normal children with repositioning between scans. Normal ranges are presented as equations describing the age-dependent pattern of increase in SMM as well as population standard deviations that increased steadily with age. For 15 children below age 10, SMM reproducibility (95% CI) was 149 g (119-199 g) while for 17 children and adolescents over age 10, reproducibility was 170 g (138-223 g). DXA-based measurements of SMM in children and adolescents are reproducible and can be expressed in terms of age-dependent Z scores.

  8. [Construction of a psychological aging scale for healthy people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fei; Long, Yao; Zeng, Ni; Wu, Lei; Huang, Helang

    2017-04-28

    To construct a psychological aging scale, and to provide a tool and indexes for scientific evaluation on aging.
 Methods: The age-related psychological items were collected through literature screening and expert interview. The importance, feasibilityand the degree of authority for the psychological index system were graded by two rounds of Delphi method. Using analytic hierarchy process, the weight of dimensions and items were determined. The analysis for internal consistency reliability, correlation and exploratory factor was performed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the scales.
 Results: By two rounds of Delphi method, 17 experts offered the results as follows: the coefficient of expert authorities was 0.88±0.06, the coordination coefficients for the importance and feasibility in second round were 0.456 (Pemotion, personality and motivation. The weight coefficients for the 4 dimensions were 0.338, 0.250, 0.166 and 0.258, respectively. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the scale was 0.822, the reliability was 0.817, the content validity index (CVI) was 0.847, and the cumulative contribution rate for the 5 factors was51.42%.
 Conclusion: The psychological aging scale is satisfied, which can provide reference for the evaluation for aging. The indicators were representative and well-recognized.

  9. Population Aging: An Emerging Research Agenda for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Kudo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, population aging has been recognized as an emerging challenge in many parts of the world. Earlier studies discussed its impacts on the sustainability of social security systems and national economic growth; however, they tended to focus on the issues at the national level and were limited to developed countries. With the knowledge that population aging will be a predominant trend in both developed and developing countries, this paper aims to: (i describe the global population aging trend and its regional demography; (ii provide a structural review of population aging challenges at the national, communal and individual levels; and (iii elaborate future research topics on population aging with a particular emphasis on developing countries. Several indicators suggest rapid population aging in the coming decades, especially in Asia, Latin America and Africa. The structural review presents the diverse challenges that affect both young and older population groups. Finally, the need for linking population aging with the sustainable development concept and the possible rural decline caused by rapid urbanization are suggested as future research topics. Further studies to establish a body of knowledge on population aging in developing countries are required to place population aging on the agenda of future sustainable development discussions.

  10. Physical activity, healthy diet and good cognitive functioning: findings from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Visser, M.; Hobbelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background. In an ageing society cognitive decline is expected to become an important health problem. Previous studies showed that a healthy lifestyle, i.e. sufficient physical activity and a healthy diet,can benefit cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to assess the (synergistic) association

  11. Promoting Cognitive Health: A Formative Research Collaboration of the Healthy Aging Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, James N.; Beard, Renee L.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Fetterman, David; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Wu, Bei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests that healthy lifestyles may help maintain cognitive health. The Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network, 9 universities collaborating with their communities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is conducting a multiyear research project, begun in 2005, to understand how to translate this…

  12. Volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath in a healthy population: effect of tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jareño-Esteban, José Javier; Muñoz-Lucas, M Ángeles; Carrillo-Aranda, Belén; Maldonado-Sanz, José Ángel; de Granda-Orive, Ignacio; Aguilar-Ros, Antonio; Civera-Tejuca, Concepción; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos; Callol-Sánchez, Luis Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco smoke is a source of free radicals and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are the main causes of oxidative stress. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath is an indirect method of measuring the level of oxidative stress that occurs in the airways caused by tobacco consumption. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking influences the production of VOC, in a clinically healthy population. Exhaled breath from 89 healthy volunteers, divided into three groups (non-smokers, ex-smokers and smokers) was analysed. Samples were collected using Bio-VOC® devices and transferred to universal desorption tubes. Chemical compounds were analysed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We analysed hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, nonanoic acid and propanoic acid, all identified by retention time and mass spectra referenced in the NIST 08 mass spectral library; confirmation was carried out using reference standards of the pure chemical compound. These VOC were found in very low concentrations. Only nonanal showed significant quantitative and qualitative statistical differences among the study groups. Nonanal concentration is dependent on smoking, but is independent of the amount of tobacco consumed, age and gender. Nonanal in exhaled breath is associated with tobacco consumption, current or previous. Nonanal is a sub-product of the destruction of the cell membrane, and its finding may be indicative of cell damage in smokers. This result appears in many farmers who smoke. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Swimming on the Lung Functions in Healthy Young Male Population of Amritsar

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    Mahajan Shashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to study the effects of swimming on the lung functions in adult male population of Amritsar. Many exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression. The present study was undertaken to study the effects swimming on the lung functions. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs of swimming trainees were compared with those of controls. We evaluated PFTs in 50 healthy subjects who participated in a 3 months of swimming plan. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before the commencement of swimming and at the end of swimming and compared the values so obtained with 50 healthy non- swimmers who were chosen as controls. The controls were the physiotherapy students from Khalsa College Amritsar. Both were in the age group of 18- 20 years. The PFTs were carried out with a computerized spirometer “Med-Spiror”. The various data was collected, compiled, statistically analysed and valid conclusions were drawn. Higher lung volumes and flow rates were achieved in swimming trainees after their training period, as compared to their own values obtained before their training period and to those of controls. Regular exercise enhances physical capabilities and physiological responses of the human body and also in the lungs. The cause of improved of various respiratory functions and flow rates after  swimming duration was better mechanical factors and lower airway resistance influenced during the training period. Key words: Pulmonary; Expiration; Swimming; Pulmonary Function Test

  14. Heritability of circulating growth factors involved in the angiogenesis in healthy human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantsulaia, I; Trofimov, S; Kobyliansky, E; Livshits, G

    2004-09-21

    The present study examined the extent of genetic and environmental influences on the populational variation of circulating growth factors (VEGF, EGF) involved in angiogenesis in healthy and ethnically homogeneous Caucasian families. The plasma levels of each of the studied biochemical indices were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 478 healthy individuals aged 18-75 years. Quantitative genetic analysis showed that the VEGF and EGF variation was appreciably attributable to genetic effects, with heritability estimates of 79.9% and 48.4%, respectively. Yet, common environmental factors, shared by members of the same household, also played a significant role (P growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) or tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), likewise relevant for angiogenesis. Bivariate analysis revealed significant phenotypic correlations (P < 0.002) between all pairs of variables, thus indicating the possible existence of common genetic and environmental factors. The analysis suggested that the pleiotropic genetic effects were consistently the primary (or even the sole) source of correlation between all pairs of studied molecules. The results of our study affirm the existence of specific and common genetic pathways that commonly determine the greater part of the circulating variation of these molecules.

  15. Healthy habits: what kind of guidance the elderly population is receiving from health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Thaynã Ramos; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of guidance on healthy habits received from health professionals by elderly and its relation to socioeconomic demographic, behavioral and health indicators, and the type of services. Cross sectional population based study including individuals aged 60 years or more in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seven guidance on healthy habits were evaluated: weight control, reduction in salt, sugar and fat intake, physical activity practice, not smoking and not drinking alcohol. Among the 1,451 elderly interviewed, 1,281 (88.3%) consulted in the last year. The orientations more refereed were to fat (61.7%) and salt (61.5%) intake reduction and physical activity (58.2%). Elderly who consulted three times or more and in services financed by the Unified Health System received more guidance. Those elderly from the socioeconomic classes A/B were more likely to receive guidance for weight control (RP = 1.27; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.70) and physical activity (RP = 1.34; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.69). The orientation from health professionals were uncommon and, in some cases, unfocused.

  16. Population Aging and the Generational Economy: A Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... ... of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, USA. ... Over coming decades, changes in population age structure will have ... at international agencies such as the World Bank, the IMF, and the UN.

  17. Population Matters Policy Brief: Preparing foran Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  18. Population Matters Policy Brief. Preparing for an Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  19. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  20. Examining Strategies to Build and Sustain Healthy Aging Programming Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Mary; Schneider, Ellen Caylor; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Community collaboratives provide a means to build local capacity, reduce service fragmentation and duplication, maximize efficiency, and create synergies for "systems change". But what are the collaborative practices that aging services providers and other stakeholders employ for "system change" and…

  1. Gait Complexity and Regularity Are Differently Modulated by Treadmill Walking in Parkinson's Disease and Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Warlop

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Variability raises considerable interest as a promising and sensitive marker of dysfunction in physiology, in particular in neurosciences. Both internally (e.g., pathology and/or externally (e.g., environment generated perturbations and the neuro-mechanical responses to them contribute to the fluctuating dynamics of locomotion. Defective internal gait control in Parkinson's disease (PD, resulting in typical timing gait disorders, is characterized by the breakdown of the temporal organization of stride duration variability. Influence of external cue on gait pattern could be detrimental or advantageous depending on situations (healthy or pathological gait pattern, respectively. As well as being an interesting rehabilitative approach in PD, treadmills are usually implemented in laboratory settings to perform instrumented gait analysis including gait variability assessment. However, possibly acting as an external pacemaker, treadmill could modulate the temporal organization of gait variability of PD patients which could invalidate any gait variability assessment. This study aimed to investigate the immediate influence of treadmill walking (TW on the temporal organization of stride duration variability in PD and healthy population. Here, we analyzed the gait pattern of 20 PD patients and 15 healthy age-matched subjects walking on overground and on a motorized-treadmill (randomized order at a self-selected speed. The temporal organization and regularity of time series of walking were assessed on 512 consecutive strides and assessed by the application of non-linear mathematical methods (i.e., the detrended fluctuation analysis and power spectral density; and sample entropy, for the temporal organization and regularity of gait variability, respectively. A more temporally organized and regular gait pattern seems to emerge from TW in PD while no influence was observed on healthy gait pattern. Treadmill could afford the necessary framework to regulate gait

  2. Reference Intervals of Alpha-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen in the Apparently Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-Ming; Guo, Xu-Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Guo-Ming

    2016-12-12

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to calculate 95% reference intervals and double-sided limits of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) according to the CLSI EP28-A3 guideline. MATERIAL AND METHODS Serum AFP and CEA values were measured in samples from 26 000 healthy subjects in the Shuyang area receiving general health checkups. The 95% reference intervals and upper limits were calculated by using MedCalc. RESULTS We provided continuous reference intervals from 20 years old to 90 years old for AFP and CEA. The reference intervals were: AFP, 1.31-7.89 ng/ml (males) and 1.01-7.10 ng/ml (females); CEA, 0.51-4.86 ng/ml (males) and 0.35-3.45ng/ml (females). AFP and CEA were significantly positively correlated with age in both males (r=0.196 and r=0.198) and females (r=0.121 and r=0.197). CONCLUSIONS Different races or populations and different detection systems may result in different reference intervals for AFP and CEA. Continuous reference intervals of age changes are more accurate than age groups.

  3. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging.

  4. Characteristics of healthy population among the migrants to the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutin, V P

    2001-11-01

    The goal of the study was to elucidate psychophysiological characteristics of subjects who can adapt effectively to Arctic and Subarctic conditions. Plasma cortisol and insulin levels, blood pressure as well as functional sensori-motor asymmetry have been examined in the groups of North Selkups and transit workers from the Subarctic regions. The highest level of plasma cortisol was observed in the Selkups with the predominance of the right indices of sensorimotor asymmetry, whereas the lowest cortisol concentrations have been found in the left-handed groups. The level of insulin appeared to be lower in all examined groups of the Selkups. No changes in the blood pressure were found among the northern populations. The maximum incidence of arterial hypertension was revealed among shift workers with the predominance of the right profile of functional asymmetry. The indices of functional asymmetry, giving important information about adaptive abilities of different populations to severe climato-geographical conditions, can be a useful prognostic factor for the professional selection of workers in the North regions.

  5. Metabonomics of ageing - Towards understanding metabolism of a long and healthy life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Montoliu, Ivan; Kussmann, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Systems biology approaches have been increasingly employed in clinical studies to enhance our understanding of the role of genetics, environmental factors and their interactions on nutritional, health and disease status. Amongst the new omics technologies, metabonomics has emerged as a robust platform to capture metabolic and nutritional requirements by enabling, in a minimally invasive fashion, the monitoring of a wide range of biochemical compounds. Their variations reflect comprehensively the various molecular regulatory processes, which are tightly controlled and under the influence of genetics, diet, gut microbiota and other environmental factors. They are providing key insights into complex metabolic phenomena as well as into differences and specificities at individual and population level. The aim of this review is to evaluate promising metabolic insights towards understanding metabolism of a long and healthy life from pre-clinical and clinical metabonomics studies. We will also discuss analytical approaches to enable data integration, with an emphasis on the longitudinal component. Herein, we will illustrate current examples, challenges and perspectives in the applications of metabonomics monitoring and modelling approaches in the context of healthy ageing research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

    2007-11-01

    This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT.

  7. Predictive Factors for Verbal Memory Performance Over Decades of Aging: Data from the Women's Healthy Ageing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoeke, Cassandra; Lehert, Philippe; Henderson, Victor W; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Desmond, Patricia; Campbell, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Abnormalities in brain structure and function can occur several decades prior to the onset of cognitive decline. It is in the preceding decades that an intervention is most likely to be effective, when informed by an understanding of factors contributing to the disease prodrome. Few studies, however, have sufficient longitudinal data on relevant risks to determine the optimum targets for interventions to improve cognition in aging. In this article we examine the timing and exposure of factors contributing to verbal memory performance in later life. 387 participants from the population-based Women's Healthy Ageing Project, mean age at baseline of 49.6 years (range: 45-55 years), had complete neuropsychiatric assessments, clinical information, physical measures, and biomarkers collected at baseline, with at least three follow-up visits that included at least one cognitive reassessment. Mixed linear models were conducted to assess the significance of risk factors on later-life verbal memory. We explored the influence of early, contemporaneous, and cumulative exposures. Younger age and better education were associated with baseline memory test performance (CERAD). Over the 20 years of study follow-up, cumulative mid- to late-life physical activity had the strongest effect on better later life verbal memory (0.136 [0.058, 0.214]). The next most likely contributors to verbal memory in late life were the negative effect of cumulative hypertension (-0.033 [-0.047, -0.0.18] and the beneficial effect of HDL cholesterol (0.818 [0.042, 1.593]). Findings suggest that midlife interventions focused on physical activity, hypertension control, and achieving optimal levels of HDL cholesterol will help maintain later-life verbal memory skills. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Green sea turtle age, growth, population characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Morphology, sex ratio, body condition, disease status, age structure, and growth patterns were characterized for 448 green sea turtles cold stunned in St. Joseph...

  9. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allentoft, M. E.; Sikora, M.; Sjogren, K.-G.; Rasmussen, S.; Rasmussen, M.; Stenderup, J.; Damgaard, P. B.; Schroeder, H.; Ahlström, T.; Vinner, L.; Malaspinas, A.-S.; Margaryan, A.; Higham, T.; Chivall, D.; Lynnerup, N.; Harvig, L.; Baron, J.; Della Casa, P.; Dabrowski, P.; Duffy, P. R.; Ebel, A. V.; Epimakhov, A.; Frei, K.; Furmanek, M.; Gralak, T.; Gromov, A.; Gronkiewicz, S.; Grupe, G.; Hajdu, T.; Jarysz, R.; Khartanovich, V.; Khokhlov, A.; Kiss, V.; Kolář, Jan; Kriiska, A.; Lasak, I.; Lonhgi, C.; McGlynn, G.; Merkevicius, A.; Merkyte, I.; Metspalu, M.; Mkrtchyan, R.; Moiseyev, V.; Paja, L.; Pilli, G.; Pokutta, D.; Pospieszny, L.; Price, D.; Saag, L.; Sablin, M.; Shishlina, N.; Smrčka, V.; Soenov, V. I.; Szeverenyi, V.; Tóth, G.; Trifanova, S. V.; Varul, L.; Vicze, M.; Yepiskoposyan, L.; Zhitenev, L.; Orlando, L.; Sicheritz-Ponten, T.; Brunak, S.; Nielsen, R.; Kristiansen, K.; Willerslev, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 522, č. 7555 (2015), s. 167-172 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : genetics * migration * Bronze Age Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 38.138, year: 2015

  10. Gastrointestinal tract and the elderly: functional foods, gut microflora and healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, K; Doré, J

    2002-09-01

    Advances in science and medicine as well as improved living standards have led to a steady increase in life expectancy. Yet ageing is associated with increased susceptibility to degenerative or infectious diseases, which may be exacerbated by a poor nutritional status. The intestinal microflora will mediate crucial events towards the protection or degradation of health. It is hence essential and timely that strategies of preventive nutrition aimed at maintaining or improving the quality of life of the ageing population be developed. "CROWNALIFE" is a newly funded EuropeanUnion project, so called because of its emphasis on the preservation of the period of independence of the elderly, recognised as the "crown of life". The project aims at assessing age-related alterations and exploring strategies to restore and maintain a balanced healthy intestinal environment. Current knowledge on the composition and function of the human intestinal microflora is still improving with the use of better methodologies and yet their evolution with ageing has not been investigated in detail. There have been a few reports that putatively protective lactic acid bacteria, in general, and bifidobacteria, in particular, seem less represented in the elderly faecal flora. We have also observed an increase in species diversity of the dominant faecal microflora with ageing. This certainly warrants confirmation and is being addressed by the investigation of age-related changes in the structure and function of the intestinal flora of the elderly in countries across Europe. Ensuing results will constitute a baseline for functional-food based strategies aimed at providing health benefits for the elderly.

  11. Circadian rhythms, time-restricted feeding, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Emily N C; Panda, Satchidananda

    2017-10-01

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models. In humans, epidemiological studies have shown erratic eating patterns increase the risk of disease, whereas sustained feeding-fasting cycles, or prolonged overnight fasting, is correlated with protection from breast cancer. Therefore, optimizing the timing of external cues with defined eating patterns can sustain a robust circadian clock, which may prevent disease and improve prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Survival Outlook for Middle-Aged Populations in South Mrica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-10-12

    Oct 12, 1974 ... death at middle-age and beyond, reduces rather than in- creases ... mate longevity of populations may be genetically pro- ...... concluded that 'the characteristic life span of man and .... Ageing: The Biology of Senescence.

  13. The Mediterranean healthy eating, ageing, and lifestyle (MEAL) study: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; D'Urso, Maurizio; Mistretta, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence suggesting that Mediterranean lifestyles, including nutrition and sleeping patterns as well as social integration, may play a role in reducing age-related diseases. However, the literature is mostly deficient of evidence provided by Italian Mediterranean islands that more closely adhered to the originally described lifestyles. In this paper, we described the rationale and the study design of the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Ageing, and Lifestyle (MEAL) study, a prospective population-based cohort established in Sicily, southern Italy. The main exposures investigated are classical determinants of health, including demographic, nutritional habits, smoking and physical activity status, as well as eating-related behaviors, sleeping habits, sun exposure, social resources, and perceived stress. Anthropometric measurements will be collected. The main outcomes included depression, quality of life, and, after the follow-up period, also cardiovascular disease and cancer. The MEAL study may provide important data to increase our knowledge regarding the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of age-related disorders in the Mediterranean region.

  14. JP-3 gene polymorphism in a healthy population of Serbia and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sions are the cause of Huntington disease like-2 (HDL-2) phenotype. CTG repeats in ... Analyses of CTG repeat polymorphism of JP-3 gene in various healthy populations could help in estimating ... of a recently described membrane protein family exclu- .... low frequency of larger alleles in German population based on very ...

  15. The NEIL Memory Research Unit: psychosocial, biological, physiological and lifestyle factors associated with healthy ageing: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Caoimhe; Coen, Robert F; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Brennan, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Population ageing is a global phenomenon that has characterised demographic trends during the 20th and 21st century. The rapid growth in the proportion of older adults in the population, and resultant increase in the incidence of age-related cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease, brings significant social, economic and healthcare challenges. Decline in cognitive abilities represents the most profound threat to active and healthy ageing. Current evidence suggests that a significant proportion of cases of age-related cognitive decline and dementia may be preventable through the modification of risk factors including education, depressive symptomology, physical activity, social engagement and participation in cognitively stimulating activities. The NEIL Memory Research Unit cohort study was established to investigate factors related to brain health and the maintenance of cognitive function. A cohort of 1000 normally ageing adults aged 50 years and over are being recruited to participate in comprehensive assessments at baseline, and at follow-up once every 2 years. The assessment protocol comprises a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, some basic physical measures, psychosocial scales, questionnaire measures related to a range of health, lifestyle and behavioural factors, and a measure of resting state activity using electroencephalography (EEG). The NEIL Memory Research Unit cohort study will address key questions about brain health and cognitive ageing in the population aged 50+, with a particular emphasis on the influence of potentially modifiable factors on cognitive outcomes. Analyses will be conducted with a focus on factors involved in the maintenance of cognitive function among older adults, and therefore will have the potential to contribute significant knowledge related to key questions within the field of cognitive ageing, and to inform the development of public health interventions aimed at preventing cognitive decline and promoting

  16. The role of attention in emotional memory enhancement in pathological and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Alina-Alexandra; Paquet, Claire; Dumurgier, Julien; Hugon, Jacques; Chainay, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    After short delays between encoding and retrieval, healthy young participants have better memory performance for emotional stimuli than for neutral stimuli. Divided-attention paradigms suggest that this emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) is due to different attention mechanisms involved during encoding: automatic processing for negative stimuli, and controlled processing for positive stimuli. As far as we know, no study on the influence of these factors on EEM in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, as compared to healthy young and older controls, has been conducted. Thus, the goal of our study was to ascertain whether the EEM in these populations depends on the attention resources available at encoding. Participants completed two encoding phases: full attention (FA) and divided attention (DA), followed by two retrieval phases (recognition tasks). There was no EEM on the discrimination accuracy, independently of group and encoding condition. Nevertheless, all participants used a more liberal response criterion for the negative and positive stimuli than for neutral ones. In AD patients, larger numbers of false recognitions for negative and positive stimuli than for neutral ones were observed after both encoding conditions. In MCI patients and in healthy older and younger controls this effect was observed only for negative stimuli, and it depended on the encoding condition. Thus, this effect was observed in young controls after both encoding conditions, in older controls after the DA encoding, and in MCI patients after the FA encoding. In conclusion, our results suggest that emotional valence does not always enhance discrimination accuracy. Nevertheless, in certain conditions related to the attention resources available at encoding, emotional valence, especially the negative one, enhances the subjective feeling of familiarity and, consequently, engenders changes in response bias. This effect seems to be sensitive to the age and

  17. Modeling cognitive reserve in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Vickers, James C

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor that supports cognition by increasing the resilience of an individual's cognitive function to the deleterious effects of cerebral lesions. A single environmental proxy indicator is often used to estimate CR (e.g. education), possibly resulting in a loss of the accuracy and predictive power of the investigation. Furthermore, while estimates of an individual's prior CR can be made, no operational measure exists to estimate dynamic change in CR resulting from exposure to new life experiences. We aimed to develop two latent measures of CR through factor analysis: prior and current, in a sample of 467 healthy older adults. The prior CR measure combined proxy measures traditionally associated with CR, while the current CR measure combined variables that had the potential to reflect dynamic change in CR due to new life experiences. Our main finding was that the analyses uncovered latent variables in hypothesized prior and current models of CR. The prior CR model supports multivariate estimation of pre-existing CR and may be applied to more accurately estimate CR in the absence of neuropathological data. The current CR model may be applied to evaluate and explore the potential benefits of CR-based interventions prior to dementia onset.

  18. Late-life factors associated with healthy aging in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christina L; Chen, Randi; Masaki, Kamal; Yee, Priscilla; He, Qimei; Grove, John; Donlon, Timothy; Curb, J David; Willcox, D Craig; Poon, Leonard W; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-05-01

    To identify potentially modifiable late-life biological, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors associated with overall and healthy survival to age 85. Prospective longitudinal cohort study with 21 years of follow-up (1991-2012). Hawaii Lifespan Study. American men of Japanese ancestry (mean age 75.7, range 71-82) without baseline major clinical morbidity and functional impairments (N = 1,292). Overall survival and healthy survival (free from six major chronic diseases and without physical or cognitive impairment) to age 85. Factors were measured at late-life baseline examinations (1991-1993). Of 1,292 participants, 1,000 (77%) survived to 85 (34% healthy) and 309 (24%) to 95 (healthy). Late-life factors associated with survival and healthy survival included biological (body mass index, ankle-brachial index, cognitive score, blood pressure, inflammatory markers), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity), and sociodemographic factors (education, marital status). Cumulative late-life baseline risk factor models demonstrated that age-standardized (at 70) probability of survival to 95 ranged from 27% (no factors) to 7% (≥ 5 factors); probability of survival to 100 ranged from 4% (no factors) to 0.1% (≥ 5 factors). Age-standardized (at 70) probability of healthy survival to 90 ranged from 4% (no factors) to 0.01% (≥ 5 factors). There were nine healthy survivors at 95 and one healthy survivor at 100. Several potentially modifiable risk factors in men in late life (mean age 75.7) were associated with markedly greater probability of subsequent healthy survival and longevity. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. The nature of behavioural correlates of healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    with ageing: smoking, drinking, diet and physical, social and intellectual activities. Standard biometric methods were used to analyse the twin data and determine the extent to which individual differences in each of the lifestyle factors are heritable. RESULTS: For each of the six lifestyle factors......, the estimate of heritability ranged from 32% (95% CI: 19-42%) for the diet scale to 69% (62-72%) for the smoking measure. Biometric estimates of the contribution of the twins' common rearing environment were uniformly small (≤6%). There was little evidence that standardized biometric estimates varied by gender...

  20. Why Does Population Aging Matter So Much for Asia? Population Aging, Economic Growth, and Economic Security in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew; Park, Donghyun

    2011-01-01

    Asia as a whole is experiencing a rapid demographic transition toward older populations, though different countries are at different stages of this region- wide trend. We document Asia's aging population, describe the region's old-age support systems, and highlight the regional socioeconomic implications of the transition for those support systems. Aging populations present two fundamental challenges to Asian policymakers: (1) developing socioeconomic systems that can provide economic securit...

  1. Preparing the Workforce for Healthy Aging Programs: The Skills for Healthy Aging Resources and Programs (SHARP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Janet C.; Altpeter, Mary; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Driggers, Joann; Lachenmayr, Susan; Manning, Colleen; Martinez, Dana M.; Price, Rachel M.; Robinson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Current public health and aging service agency personnel have little training in gerontology, and virtually no training in evidence-based health promotion and disease management programs for older adults. These programs are rapidly becoming the future of our community-based long-term care support system. The purpose of this project was to develop…

  2. Stairs instead of elevators at the workplace decreases PCSK9 levels in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Christel H; Gencer, Baris; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Courvoisier, Delphine; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Mach, François

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity is recommended to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a healthy population. Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to reduce (LDL-C) levels; however, the impact of physical exercise on PCSK9 levels remains unclear. We used data from 67 healthy hospital employees who participated in a 6-month intervention promoting active use of stairs instead of elevators during 3 months, followed by 3 months without recommendation. We confirmed the degree of physical activity with estimated aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) and measured serum PCSK9 levels at baseline, 3 and 6 month. Using a multilevel regression model, we analysed changes of PCSK9 levels over time adjusting for age, gender, aerobic capacity, baseline LDL-C, and LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) changes. At baseline, PCSK9 levels were associated with higher aerobic capacity (P-value = 0·024). At 3 months, we observed a significant decrease in mean PCSK9 levels from 403·6 to 324·3 ng/mL (P-value = 0·001), as well a significant decrease in mean LDL-C levels from 3·5 to 3·3 mM (P-value = 0·01). During this period, mean aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) increased from 37·0 to 40·4 mL/kg/min (P-value < 0·001). Physical activity was independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels after adjustment for age, gender, baseline aerobic capacity, and LDL-C and BMI changes. Daily physical activity at the work place is independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels over time. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  3. Population Aging and the Generational Economy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Finance, School of Business, Monash University Sunway Campus, Malaysia. ..... Governments tax prime-age adults to provide schooling to children, pensions to .... We describe the principles and methods of constructing estimates of public ...... distributions challenge the continuity of transfer practices by stressing some ...

  4. Survey of HFE Gene C282Y Mutation in Turkish Beta-Thalassemia Patients and Healthy Population: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Ünal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was planned in order to determine the effect of C282Y mutation in development of secondary hemochromatosis in beta-thalassemia patients and to determine the prevalence and allele frequency of this mutation in a healthy control group. METHODS: Eighty-seven children and young adults (46 males and 41 females; mean age: 15.6±6.1 years, range: 3-30 years with beta-thalassemia major (BTM and 13 beta-thalassemia intermedia (BTI patients (6 males and 7 females; mean age: 19.6±3.5 years, range: 13-26 years were included in the study. The control group comprised 100 healthy blood donors. RESULTS: Neither heterozygous nor homozygous HFE gene C282Y mutation was detected in patients with BTM or BTI, or in control group. CONCLUSION: The C282Y mutation, which is supposed to be responsible for the majority of hereditary hemochromatosis, was not found to have a role in the development of hemochromatosis in beta-thalassemia patients and was not detected in a healthy Turkish population. However, research on larger cohorts of individuals is required in order to determine the exact prevalence of the HFE gene mutation in Turkish populations from diverse ethnic origins and whether it would have an impact on iron loading in thalassemic populations.

  5. Analysis of human blood plasma proteome from ten healthy volunteers from Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Gautam

    Full Text Available Analysis of any mammalian plasma proteome is a challenge, particularly by mass spectrometry, due to the presence of albumin and other abundant proteins which can mask the detection of low abundant proteins. As detection of human plasma proteins is valuable in diagnostics, exploring various workflows with minimal fractionation prior to mass spectral analysis, is required in order to study population diversity involving analysis in a large cohort of samples. Here, we used 'reference plasma sample', a pool of plasma from 10 healthy individuals from Indian population in the age group of 25-60 yrs including 5 males and 5 females. The 14 abundant proteins were immunodepleted from plasma and then evaluated by three different workflows for proteome analysis using a nanoflow reverse phase liquid chromatography system coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. The analysis of reference plasma sample a without prefractionation, b after prefractionation at peptide level by strong cation exchange chromatography and c after prefractionation at protein level by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, led to the identification of 194, 251 and 342 proteins respectively. Together, a comprehensive dataset of 517 unique proteins was achieved from all the three workflows, including 271 proteins with high confidence identified by ≥ 2 unique peptides in any of the workflows or identified by single peptide in any of the two workflows. A total of 70 proteins were common in all the three workflows. Some of the proteins were unique to our study and could be specific to Indian population. The high-confidence dataset obtained from our study may be useful for studying the population diversity, in discovery and validation process for biomarker identification.

  6. Frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in healthy Bosniak population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has demonstrated the role of CCR5Δ32 in a variety of human diseases: from infectious and inflammatory diseases to cancer. Several studies have confirmed that genetic variants in chemokine receptor CCR5 gene are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to HIV infection. A 32-nucleotide deletion within the CCR5 reading frame is associated with decreased susceptibility to HIV acquisition and a slower progression to AIDS. Mean frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in Europe is approximately 10%. The highest allele frequency is observed among Nordic populations (about 12% and lower in the regions of Southeast Mediterranean (about 5%. Although the frequency of CCR5Δ32 was determined in numerous European populations, there is a lack of studies on this variant in the Bosnia and Hercegovina population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in the cohort of Bosniaks and compare the results with European reports. CCR5Δ32 was detected by sequence-specific PCR in a sample of 100 healthy subjects from Bosnia and Herzegovina (DNA collected 2011-2013.  Mean age of the cohort being 58.8 (±10.7 years, with 82% of women. We identified 17 heterozygotes and one mutant homozygote in study group, with mean ∆32 allele frequency of 9.5%. CCR5∆32 allele frequency among Bosniaks is comparable to that found in Caucasian populations and follows the pattern of the north-southern gradient observed for Europe. Further studies on larger cohorts with adequate female-to-male ratio are necessary. 

  7. [The general methodological approaches identifying strategic positions in developing healthy lifestyle of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeev, S B; Babenko, A I

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of national and international publications concerning methodological aspects of elaborating systematic approach to healthy life-style of population. This scope of inquiry plays a key role in development of human capital. The costs related to healthy life-style are to be considered as personal investment into future income due to physical incrementation of human capital. The definitions of healthy life-style, its categories and supportive factors are to be considered in the process of development of strategies and programs of healthy lifestyle. The implementation of particular strategies entails application of comprehensive information and educational programs meant for various categories of population. Therefore, different motivation techniques are to be considered for children, adolescents, able-bodied population, the elderly. This approach is to be resulted in establishing particular responsibility for national government, territorial administrations, health care administrations, employers and population itself. The necessity of complex legislative measures is emphasized. The recent social hygienic studies were focused mostly on particular aspects of development of healthy life-style of population. Hence, the demand for long term exploration of development of organizational and functional models implementing medical preventive measures on the basis of comprehensive information analysis using statistical, sociological and professional expertise.

  8. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.

  9. China: Awakening Giant Developing Solutions to Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning Jackie; Guo, Man; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    As the world's most populous country with the largest aging population and a rapidly growing economy, China is receiving increased attention from both the Chinese government and the governments of other countries that face low fertility and aging problems. This unprecedented shift of demographic structure has repercussions for many aspects of…

  10. 11 CFR 110.18 - Voting age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting age population. 110.18 Section 110.18 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CONTRIBUTION AND EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS AND... population of the United States, of each State, and of each Congressional district. The term voting age...

  11. Sex Hormones and Healthy Psychological Aging in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro-Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides their key role in reproduction, estrogens have effects in several organs in the body, as confirmed by the identification of estrogen receptors (ER in multiple tissues. Experimental evidence has shown that estrogens have significant impacts on the central nervous system (CNS, and a key question is to what extent the fall in estrogen levels in the blood that occurs with increasing age, particularly around and following the menopause, has an impact on the cognitive function and psychological health of women, specifically regarding mood. This review will consider direct effects of menopausal changes in estrogens on the brain, including cognitive function and mood. Secondary pathways whereby health factors affected by changes in estrogens may interact with CNS functions, such as cardiovascular factors, will be reviewed as well insofar as they also have an impact on cognitive function. Finally, because decline in estrogens may induce changes in the CNS, there is interest in clarifying whether hormone therapy may offer a beneficial balance and the impact of hormone therapy on cognition will also be considered.

  12. Analysis of longitudinal diffusion-weighted images in healthy and pathological aging: An ADNI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruggel, Frithjof; Masaki, Fumitaro; Solodkin, Ana

    2017-02-15

    The widely used framework of voxel-based morphometry for analyzing neuroimages is extended here to model longitudinal imaging data by exchanging the linear model with a linear mixed-effects model. The new approach is employed for analyzing a large longitudinal sample of 756 diffusion-weighted images acquired in 177 subjects of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging initiative (ADNI). While sample- and group-level results from both approaches are equivalent, the mixed-effect model yields information at the single subject level. Interestingly, the neurobiological relevance of the relevant parameter at the individual level describes specific differences associated with aging. In addition, our approach highlights white matter areas that reliably discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls with a predictive power of 0.99 and include the hippocampal alveus, the para-hippocampal white matter, the white matter of the posterior cingulate, and optic tracts. In this context, notably the classifier includes a sub-population of patients with minimal cognitive impairment into the pathological domain. Our classifier offers promising features for an accessible biomarker that predicts the risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Data used in preparation of this article were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (adni.loni.usc.edu). As such, the investigators within the ADNI contributed to the design and implementation of ADNI and/or provided data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADNI investigators can be found at: http://adni.loni.usc.edu/wp-content/uploads/how to apply/ADNI Acknowledgement List.pdf. Significance statement This study assesses neuro-degenerative processes in the brain's white matter as revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging, in order to discriminate healthy from pathological aging in a large sample of elderly subjects. The analysis of time

  13. Internet Use, Depression, and Anxiety in a Healthy Adolescent Population: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Robyn Pauline; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael

    2018-05-22

    Psychiatric disorders, including conduct disturbances, substance abuse, and affective disorders, emerge in approximately 20% of adolescents. In parallel with the rise in internet use, the prevalence of depression among adolescents has increased. It remains unclear whether and how internet use impacts mental health in adolescents. We assess the association between patterns of internet use and two mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety) in a healthy adolescent population. A total of 126 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years were recruited. Participants reported their typical computer and internet usage patterns. At baseline and one-year follow-up, they completed the Beck Depression Index for primary care (BDI-PC) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for Primary Care (BAI-PC). Individual linear regressions were completed to determine the association between markers of internet use at baseline and mental health outcomes at one-year follow-up. All models controlled for age, gender, and ethnicity. There was an inverse correlation between minutes spent on a favorite website per visit and BAI-PC score. No association was found between internet use and BDI-PC score. There is no relationship between internet use patterns and depression in adolescents, whereas internet use may mitigate anxiety in adolescents with higher levels of baseline anxiety. ©Robyn Pauline Thom, David S Bickham, Michael Rich. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 22.05.2018.

  14. A novel multi-tissue RNA diagnostic of healthy ageing relates to cognitive health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sanjana; Gallagher, Iain J; Lunnon, Katie; Rullman, Eric; Keohane, Aoife; Crossland, Hannah; Phillips, Bethan E; Cederholm, Tommy; Jensen, Thomas; van Loon, Luc J C; Lannfelt, Lars; Kraus, William E; Atherton, Philip J; Howard, Robert; Gustafsson, Thomas; Hodges, Angela; Timmons, James A

    2015-09-07

    Diagnostics of the human ageing process may help predict future healthcare needs or guide preventative measures for tackling diseases of older age. We take a transcriptomics approach to build the first reproducible multi-tissue RNA expression signature by gene-chip profiling tissue from sedentary normal subjects who reached 65 years of age in good health. One hundred and fifty probe-sets form an accurate classifier of young versus older muscle tissue and this healthy ageing RNA classifier performed consistently in independent cohorts of human muscle, skin and brain tissue (n = 594, AUC = 0.83-0.96) and thus represents a biomarker for biological age. Using the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men birth-cohort (n = 108) we demonstrate that the RNA classifier is insensitive to confounding lifestyle biomarkers, while greater gene score at age 70 years is independently associated with better renal function at age 82 years and longevity. The gene score is 'up-regulated' in healthy human hippocampus with age, and when applied to blood RNA profiles from two large independent age-matched dementia case-control data sets (n = 717) the healthy controls have significantly greater gene scores than those with cognitive impairment. Alone, or when combined with our previously described prototype Alzheimer disease (AD) RNA 'disease signature', the healthy ageing RNA classifier is diagnostic for AD. We identify a novel and statistically robust multi-tissue RNA signature of human healthy ageing that can act as a diagnostic of future health, using only a peripheral blood sample. This RNA signature has great potential to assist research aimed at finding treatments for and/or management of AD and other ageing-related conditions.

  15. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  16. The Distribution of Macular Thickness and Its Determinants in a Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Yekta, AbbasAli; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2017-10-01

    To determine the distribution of macular thickness in a healthy Iranian population aged 45-69 years and its association with certain determinants. All participants underwent optometric examinations including measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, objective refraction by retinoscopy, and subjective refraction. Subsequently, all participants underwent slit-lamp biomicroscopy followed by fundus examination through direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under pupil dilation. Mean central macular thickness was 255.4 µm (95% confidence interval, CI, 254.5-256.3 µm), average inner macular thickness was 316.5 µm (95% CI 315.9-317.1 µm), average outer macular thickness was 275.3 µm (95% CI 274.8-275.8 µm), and overall average thickness was 278.6 µm (95% CI 278.1-279.1 µm). A linear multiple regression model showed that all indexes were significantly larger in male participants (p < 0.001). Central macular thickness increased with age (coef = 0.25, p < 0.001) while overall, inner and outer macular thickness decreased with age (coef = -0.18, -0.15, -0.19, respectively, all p < 0.001). Central and inner macular thickness had a positive correlation (coef = 3.8, 2.6, respectively, both p < 0.001) and outer macular thickness had a negative correlation (coef = -1.6, p < 0.001) with axial length. Age, sex, refractive error, axial length, and keratometry were found to be associated with macular thickness. These factors should be taken into account when interpreting macular thickness measurements with spectral-domain OCT.

  17. Influence of the Self-Perception of Old Age on the Effect of a Healthy Aging Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Sarmiento-Salmorán, Elia; Marín-Cortés, Regulo; Martínez-Maldonado, María de la Luz; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2018-05-07

    It has been shown that health programs are useful for the prevention and control of chronic diseases in community-dwelling older people; however, a negative self-perception of old age could have an effect on the results. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effect of a healthy aging program linked to self-perception of old age in Mexican community-dwelling older people. A pre-test/post-test single-group design study was conducted in a convenience sample of 64 older people who undertook the entire healthy aging program workshop (five months’ duration). We measured self-perception of old age, efficacy of self-care, blood glucose concentration, anthropometric measures, and blood pressure before and after the workshop. A statistically significant decrease in blood glucose concentration was observed (baseline 136 ± 50 vs. post-intervention, 124 ± 45 ± 29 mg/dL, p self-perception, we found that this difference was only maintained in the subgroup of older adults with a positive self-perception of old age. Our findings suggest that the self-perception of old age influences the effect of healthy aging programs on the health of community-dwelling older people.

  18. Electroencephalographic Fractal Dimension in Healthy Ageing and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20–89 years) and 67 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients (age: 50–88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called “free” copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26872349

  19. Health and quality of life in an aging population – food and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Wendin, Karin Maria Elisabet; Kremer, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our...... older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, their food perception and preferences are increasingly needed. The role of food in healthy aging was a prominent theme at the 6th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, which had quality...

  20. Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.

  1. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation

  2. Work, eat and sleep : towards a healthy ageing at work program offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riethmeister, Vanessa; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health management tools need to be developed to foster healthy ageing at work and sustain employability of ageing work-forces. The objectives of this study were to 1) perform a needs assessment to identify the needs of offshore workers in the Dutch Continental Shelf with regard to

  3. Effects of Ageism on Individual and Health Care Providers' Responses to Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lynda D.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature to support the contention that misconceptions about the aging process have a detrimental effect on healthy aging. Seeks to demonstrate how stereotyping can affect the shape and nature of programs for elderly people. Argues that for long-lasting change to occur, service providers need to target these negative attitudes in…

  4. Nutrition across the lifespan for healthy aging: proceedings of a workshop--in brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 13-14, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering & Medicine, and Medicine's Food Forum convened a workshop in Washington DC, to (1) examine trends and patterns in aging and factors related to healthy aging in the United States with a focus on nutrition; (2) examine how nutri...

  5. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  6. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  7. Operational definition of Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA) : A conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Kuh, D.; Bewick, M.; Standberg, T.; Farrell, J.; Pengelly, R.; Joel, M. E.; Rodriguez Manas, L.; Mercier, J.; Bringer, J.; Camuzat, T.; Bourret, R.; Bedbrook, A.; Kowalski, M. L.; Samolinski, B.; Bonini, S.; Brayne, C.; Michel, J. P.; Venne, J.; Viriot-Durandal, P.; Alonso, J.; Avignon, A.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Bousquet, P. J.; Combe, B.; Cooper, R.; Hardy, R.; Iaccarino, G.; Keil, T.; Kesse-Guyot, E.; Momas, I.; Ritchie, K.; Robine, J. M.; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Vellas, B.; Zaidi, A.; Alonso, F.; Ranberg, K. Andersen; Andreeva, V.; Ankri, J.; Arnavielhe, S.; Arshad, H.; Auge, P.; Berr, C.; Bertone, P.; Blain, H.; Blasimme, A.; Buijs, G. J.; Caimmi, D.; Carriazo, A.; Cesario, A.; Coletta, J.; Cosco, T.; Criton, M.; Cuisinier, F.; Demoly, P.; Fernandez-Nocelo, S.; Fougere, B.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Goldberg, M.; Guldemond, N.; Gutter, Z.; Harman, D.; Hendry, A.; Heve, D.; Illario, M.; Jeandel, C.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Krys, O.; Kula, D.; Laune, D.; Lehmann, S.; Maier, D.; Malva, J.; Matignon, P.; Melen, E.; Mercier, G.; Moda, G.; Nizinkska, A.; Nogues, M.; O'Neill, M.; Pelissier, J. Y.; Poethig, D.; Porta, D.; Postma, D.; Puisieux, F.; Richards, M.; Robalo-Cordeiro, C.; Romano, V.; Roubille, F.; Schulz, H.; Scott, A.; Senesse, P.; Slagter, S.; Smit, H. A.; Somekh, D.; Stafford, M.; Suanzes, J.; Todo-Bom, A.; Touchon, J.; Traver-Salcedo, V.; Van Beurden, M.; Varraso, R.; Vergara, I.; Villalba-Mora, E.; Wilson, N.; Wouters, E.; Zins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Health is a multi-dimensional concept, capturing how people feel and function. The broad concept of Active and Healthy Ageing was proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the process of optimizing opportunities for health to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both

  8. Serum profiling of healthy aging identifies phospho- and sphingolipid species as markers of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.

  9. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent......Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  10. Cognitive-enhancing drugs in the healthy population: Fundamental drawbacks and researcher roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsee Leng Choy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs in the healthy population is a controversial topic with numerous and expansive repercussions. By outlining common proponent arguments on the current PCE state of affairs, the definition of normality, and the complex regulation of PCEs, this article addresses why the mainstream use of PCEs in the healthy population is still disadvantageous overall. In this respect, the influence and roles of researchers to the society are emphasized in bringing the focus back to the fundamental issues, which is crucial in deciphering its controversy and avoiding costly societal, research credibility and ethical implications.

  11. On Constructing Ageing Rural Populations: "Capturing" the Grey Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is ageing, with forecasts predicting this ageing is likely to be particularly severe in the rural areas of more developed countries. These forecasts are developed from nationally aggregated census and survey data and assume spatial homogeneity in ageing. They also draw on narrow understandings of older people and construct…

  12. The development of old age human resource under the background of population ageing in china

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xin; Xu, Jian-pei

    2007-01-01

    China is the country that has the most population in quantity of the world. Rapidly growing population has brought about enormous pressure on the social and economic development. Thus population control is always one of the population policies focuses in our country. However, China has not succeed in escaping out from the pressure of population control, another challenge-population ageing is coming. This challenge also can bring the great impact on the whole social and economic development. M...

  13. A Healthy Dietary Pattern at Midlife, Combined with a Regulated Energy Intake, Is Related to Increased Odds for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen E; Lassale, Camille; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DPs) on healthy aging (HA), and current findings are inconsistent. Our study's objective was to investigate the association between empirically derived DPs in midlife and HA after 13 y of follow-up. Baseline dietary data from repeated 24-h dietary records (on average, 10 records per participant) of a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study allowed extraction of 2 DPs with the use of principal components analysis on 37 food groups. HA was assessed in 2007-2009 among 2796 participants of the SU.VI.MAX study aged 45-60 y at baseline (1994-1995), who were initially free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health, and no function-limiting pain. The association between DPs (in tertiles) and HA was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, and a potential interaction with energy intake was investigated. A "Western" and a "healthy" DP were identified. After adjustment for a large number of potential confounders, there was no significant association between the Western DP and HA. Moreover, the healthy pattern was not associated with HA among subjects with high (i.e., greater than or equal to the median) energy intake. Among subjects with low (i.e., less than the median) energy intake, on the other hand, higher scores on the healthy DP were related to higher odds of HA (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00; P-trend = 0.01). Adherence to a healthy diet in midlife that provides micronutrients, fiber, and antioxidants while regulating energy intake may help to promote HA. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Devastating epidemics in recent ages Greek populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Antonia; Michalaki, Vasiliki; Anagnostopoulou, Helen N

    2017-12-01

    In the recent Greek ages the most devastating epidemics were plague, smallpox, leprosy and cholera. In 1816 plague struck the Ionian and Aegean Islands, mainland Greece, Constantinople and Smyrna. The Venetians ruling the Ionian Islands effectively combated plague in contrast to the Ottomans ruling all other regions. In 1922, plague appeared in Patras refugees who were expelled by the Turks from Smyrna and Asia Minor. Inoculation against smallpox was first performed in Thessaly by the Greek women, and the Greek doctors Emmanouel Timonis (1713, Oxford) and Jakovos Pylarinos (1715, Venice) made relevant scientific publications. The first leper colony opened in Chios Island. In Crete, Spinalonga was transformed into a leper island, which following the Independence War against Turkish occupation and the unification of Crete with Greece in 1913, was classified as an International Leper Hospital. Cholera struck Greece in 1853-1854 brought by the French troops during the Crimean War, and again during the Balkan Wars (1912-13) when the Bulgarian troops brought cholera to northern Greece. Due to successive wars, medical assistance was not always available, so desperate people turned many times to religion through processions in honor of local saints, for their salvation in epidemics.

  15. AGEING POPULATION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG EUROPEAN UNION STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aging population is a global phenomenon, which has affected almost all the EU states. The consequences are very important since it affects the socio-economic environment usually on the long run. Some of them could consist in increasing the public expenditure on pensions, social security and health services, which will raise the overall burden on the working population. Sometimes, a significant reduction of the labour force will even diminish the growth rate of an economy. Considering these aspects, the present paper intends to analyse the demographic situation from the EU states, the factors that have generated it and to identify the possible future trends. To determine the evolution of the ageing population phenomenon, we have analysed some demographic indicators included in various statistical reports and databases, such as the fertility rate, the median age, the percentage of population over a certain age and the age dependency ratio.

  16. Examination of validity of fall risk assessment items for screening high fall risk elderly among the healthy community-dwelling Japanese population

    OpenAIRE

    DEMURA, Shinichi; SATO, Susumu; YAMAJI, Shunsuke; KASUGA, Kosho; NAGASAWA, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine the validity of fall risk assessment items for the healthy community-dwelling elderly Japanese population. Participants were 1122 healthy elderly individuals aged 60 years and over (380 males and 742 females). The percentage who had experienced a fall was 15.8%. This study used fall experience and 50 fall risk assessment items representing the five risk factors (symptoms of falling, physical function, disease and physical symptom, environment, and behavior and character), ...

  17. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Manasatchakun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons’ family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative’s perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  18. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2018-01-01

    In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons' family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative's perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  19. The association between serum uric acid and blood pressure in different age groups in a healthy Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wenjuan; Wen, Shiling; Wang, Yutang; Qian, Zhiping; Tan, Yuyao; Li, Hongying; Hou, Yueli; Hu, Haiyang; Golledge, Jonathan; Yang, Guang

    2017-12-01

    High serum uric acid (sUA) has been reported to be a risk factor for hypertension however, whether this is the case for all age groups is not clear. We examined the association between sUA concentrations and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in different age groups in a cohort of healthy Chinese participants.A total of 1082 healthy participants aged from 41 to 70 years were included. sUA concentration was measured by the uricase-peroxidase method. SBP and DBP were assessed using mercury sphygmomanometry. Hypertension was defined as SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Hyperuricemia (HUA) was defined as sUA concentration of >7 mg/dL in men and >6 mg/dL in women. The association between sUA concentration and SBP and DBP was examined using Pearson's correlation test, multivariate linear regression, and logistic regression analysis.The prevalence of hypertension and HUA increased with age (P age, sex, total cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and fasting plasma glucose). HUA was also a risk factor for hypertension in this age group (odds ratio 1.425, 95% confidence interval, 1.217-1.668, P age groups.In this population of healthy Chinese participants, sUA concentration was positively associated with hypertension only in the 41- to 50-year-old group. Lowering uric acid in this age group may help to reduce the incidence of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabado, Séverine; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the "normal" metabolome and its main sources of variation.

  1. Healthy adult aging and decision-making:Is it all downhill from here?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinvest, Neal

    2015-01-01

    As we age there are significant changes to our brain structure and cognitive functioning. There is a substantial body of literature exploring changes to memory and attention during healthy adult aging. There has been considerably less focus on the impact of aging on other areas of cognition, specifically, decision-making. This is surprising given that choices are ubiquitous in daily life across the lifespan. For example, older adults still face many significant decisions including those conce...

  2. Age structure of the population in Belgium and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooghe, G

    1991-01-01

    The effects of demographic aging and of various socioeconomic factors on the social security system in Belgium are explored. "Special attention is given to the impact of the ageing of the population on the pension problem. Based on a simple formula a series of percentages of taxation have been calculated as a function of shifts in the proportion of retired vs. active population and in the proportion of the average income vs. the average amount of pension. One of the conclusions is that the progressive ageing of the population will become the most significant factor in the growth of social expenditures." excerpt

  3. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  4. Social Problems Of Aged In A Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Charan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the social problems of aged persons in a rural population? Objectives: i To study social problems of aged. ii To identify measures to eliminate them. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of Machhra Rural Health & Training Centre attached with Deptt. of SPM, Medical College, Meerut. Participants: Population above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 1000 households from 5 villages, which had 464 participants. Study Variables: Chi- square test. Results: In all, 259 (55.8% aged persons were engaged in productive work while 205 (44.2% were not doing any productive work. Of 376 aged persons living in joint families, 207 (55% were being respected, 71(18.9% were indifferently treated and 98 (26.1% were being neglected by family members. Recommendations: It is a strong case for proper planning to improve the lot of old age population especially for their social problems at the earliest.

  5. The rate of change in declining steroid hormones: a new parameter of healthy aging in men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-09-20

    Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P). Principal component analysis including ten salivary analytes identified a principal component mainly unifying the variance of the four sex steroid hormones. Subsequent principal component analysis including the four sex steroids extracted the principal component of declining steroid hormones (DSH). Moderation analysis of the association between age and DSH revealed significant moderation effects for psychosocial factors such as depression, chronic stress and perceived general health. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence that sex steroids decline in aging men and that the integrated hormone parameter DSH and its rate of change can be used as biomarkers for healthy aging in men. Furthermore, the negative association of age and DSH is moderated by psychosocial factors.

  6. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  7. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An age structured model for obesity prevalence dynamics in populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto González Parra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Modeling the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time and predict the dynamics of the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time under different scenarios in Valencia (Spain. Materials and methods. An age structured mathematical model is used to describe the future dynamics of obesity prevalence for different ages in human population with excess weight. Simulation of the model with parameters estimated using the Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2000 (4.319 interviews and Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2005 (4.012 interviews. The model considers only overweight and obese populations since these subpopulations are the most relevant on obesity health concern. Results. The model allows predicting and studying the prevalence of obesity for each age. Results showed an increasing trend of obesity in the following years in well accordance with the trend observed in several countries. Conclusions. Based on the numerical simulations it is possible to conclude that the age structured mathematical model is suitable to forecast the obesity epidemic in each age group in different countries. Additionally, this type of models may be applied to study other characteristics of other populations such animal populations.

  9. Predictors of Long-Term Healthy Arterial Aging: Coronary Artery Calcium Nondevelopment in the MESA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Seamus P; Silverman, Michael G; McEvoy, John W; Budoff, Matthew J; Blankstein, Ron; Eng, John; Blumenthal, Roger S; Szklo, Moyses; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to determine the predictors of healthy arterial aging. Long-term nondevelopment of coronary artery calcification (persistent CAC = 0) is a marker of healthy arterial aging. The predictors of this phenotype are not known. We analyzed 1,850 participants from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with baseline CAC = 0 who underwent a follow-up CAC scan at visit 5 (median 9.6 years after baseline). We examined the proportion with persistent CAC = 0 and calculated multivariable relative risks and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of this healthy arterial aging phenotype. We found that 55% of participants (n = 1,000) had persistent CAC = 0, and these individuals were significantly more likely to be younger, female, and have fewer traditional risk factors (RF). Participants with an ASCVD (Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score) risk score healthy arterial aging than were participants with an ASCVD score ≥7.5%. There was no significant association between the Healthy Lifestyle variables (body mass index, physical activity, Mediterranean diet, and never smoking) and persistent CAC = 0. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve incorporating age, sex, and ethnicity was 0.65, indicating fair to poor discrimination. No single traditional RF or combination of other risk factors increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by more than 0.05. Whereas participants free of traditional cardiovascular disease RF were significantly more likely to have persistent CAC = 0, there was no single RF or specific low-risk RF phenotype that markedly improved the discrimination of persistent CAC = 0 over demographic variables. Therefore, we conclude that healthy arterial aging may be predominantly influenced by the long-term maintenance of a low cardiovascular disease risk profile or yet to be determined genetic factors rather than the absence of any specific RF cluster identified

  10. Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiepers, Olga; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Van Boxtel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Schiepers, O. J., De Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., & Van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2010). Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 83(1), 31-35.

  11. Age structure changes and extraordinary lifespan in wild medfly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Müller, Hans-Georg; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wachter, Kenneth; Yu, Wei; Liedo, Pablo

    2008-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that major changes in age structure occur in wild populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) and that a substantial fraction of individuals survive to middle age and beyond (> 3-4 weeks). We thus brought reference life tables and deconvolution models to bear on medfly mortality data gathered from a 3-year study of field-captured individuals that were monitored in the laboratory. The average time-to-death of captured females differed between sampling dates by 23.9, 22.7, and 37.0 days in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 field seasons, respectively. These shifts in average times-to-death provided evidence of changes in population age structure. Estimates indicated that middle-aged medflies (> 30 days) were common in the population. A surprise in the study was the extraordinary longevity observed in field-captured medflies. For example, 19 captured females but no reference females survived in the laboratory for 140 days or more, and 6 captured but no reference males survived in the laboratory for 170 days or more. This paper advances the study of aging in the wild by introducing a new method for estimating age structure in insect populations, demonstrating that major changes in age structure occur in field populations of insects, showing that middle-aged individuals are common in the wild, and revealing the extraordinary lifespans of wild-caught individuals due to their early life experience in the field.

  12. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  13. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  14. Structural hippocampal network alterations during healthy aging: A multi-modal MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine ePelletier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While hippocampal atrophy has been described during healthy aging, few studies have examined its relationship with the integrity of White Matter (WM connecting tracts of the limbic system. This investigation examined WM structural damage specifically related to hippocampal atrophy in healthy aging subjects (n=129, using morphological MRI to assess hippocampal volume and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI to assess WM integrity. Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI or dementia were excluded from the analysis. In our sample, increasing age was significantly associated with reduced hippocampal volume and reduced Fractional Anisotropy (FA at the level of the fornix and the cingulum bundle. The findings also demonstrate that hippocampal atrophy was specifically associated with reduced FA of the fornix bundle, but it was not related to alteration of the cingulum bundle. Our results indicate that the relationship between hippocampal atrophy and fornix FA values is not due to an independent effect of age on both structures. A recursive regression procedure was applied to evaluate sequential relationships between the alterations of these two brain structures. When both hippocampal atrophy and fornix FA values were included in the same model to predict age, fornix FA values remained significant whereas hippocampal atrophy was no longer significantly associated with age. According to this latter finding, hippocampal atrophy in healthy aging could be mediated by a loss of fornix connections. Structural alterations of this part of the limbic system, which have been associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease, result at least in part from the aging process.

  15. Automated Determination of Bone Age in a Modern Chinese Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shao-Yan; Liu, Gang; Ma, Chen-Guo; Han, Yi-San; Shen, Xun-Zhang; Xu, Rui-Long; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective. Large studies have previously been performed to set up a Chinese bone age reference, but it has been difficult to compare the maturation of Chinese children with populations elsewhere due to the potential variability between raters in different parts of the world. We re-analysed the radiographs from a large study of normal Chinese children using an automated bone age rating method to establish a Chinese bone age reference, and to compare the tempo of maturation in the Chinese with other populations. Materials and Methods. X-rays from 2883 boys and 3143 girls aged 2–20 years from five Chinese cities, taken in 2005, were evaluated using the BoneXpert automated method. Results. Chinese children reached full maturity at the same age as previously studied Asian children from Los Angeles, but 0.6 years earlier than Caucasian children in Los Angeles. The Greulich-Pyle bone age method was adapted to the Chinese population creating a new bone age scale BX-China05. The standard deviation between BX-China05 and chronologic age was 1.01 years in boys aged 8–14, and 1.08 years in girls aged 7–12. Conclusion. By eliminating rater variability, the automated method provides a reliable and efficient standard for bone age determination in China

  16. Dietary sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL) study cohort. A total of 1937 individuals (18 + y) of urban population of Catania, Italy, completed a validated 110-item food frequency questionnaire; Phenol-Explorer database was used to estimate polyphenol intake. Mean intake of polyphenols was 663.7 mg/d; the most abundant classes were phenolic acids (362.7 mg/d) and flavonoids (258.7 mg/d). The main dietary sources of total polyphenols were nuts, followed by tea and coffee as source of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids, respectively, fruits (i.e. cherries were sources of anthocyanins and citrus fruits of flavanones) and vegetables (i.e. artichokes and olives were sources of flavones and spinach and beans of flavonols); chocolate, red wine and pasta contributed to flavanols and tyrosols, respectively. These findings will be useful to assess the potential benefits of foods with high polyphenol content.

  17. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional Impact of Population Aging on Changes in Individual Self-perceptions of Aging: Findings From the German Ageing Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Julia K; Beyer, Ann-Kristin; Wurm, Susanne; Nowossadeck, Sonja; Wiest, Maja

    2018-01-18

    The importance of self-perceptions of aging (SPA) for health and longevity is well documented. Comparably little is known about factors that contribute to SPA. Besides individual factors, the context a person lives in may shape SPA. Research has so far focused on country-level differences in age stereotypes, indicating that rapid population aging accompanies more negative age stereotypes. The present study expands previous research by investigating the impact of district-specific population aging within one country on different facets of SPA. Based on a large representative survey in Germany, the study investigates changes in SPA as ongoing development as well as the SPA of physical loss over a 12-year period in adults aged 40+. The study uses several indicators of population aging (e.g., population development, average age, greying index), to identify four clusters differing in their pace of population aging. Based on three-level latent change models, these clusters were compared in their impact on changes in SPA. Compared to districts with an average rate of population aging, the study shows that persons living in regions with a fast population aging rate (C1) hold more negative SPA in both facets (ps = .01). Districts with slow population aging (C2) have significantly higher SPA ongoing development (p = .03). The study underlines the importance for regional differences in population aging on the development of SPA. In particular, societies should be aware that fast population aging may result in more negative SPA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Towards a sustainable healthy working life : associations between chronological age, functional age and work outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Background: The aims of this study were: (i) to determine the relation between chronological and functional age; (ii) to examine the association between chronological age and work outcomes; and (iii) to examine the association between functional age and work outcomes. An overview of the most

  20. STUDY ON SEROPREVALENCE OF MUMPS - SPECIFIC IgG ANTIBODIES IN A HEALTHY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Karcheva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mumps is a vaccine preventable viral infection. Its typical clinical manifestations are characterized by pain and swelling of the salivary glands, fever, and fatigue. Often other organs are affected - testes in males after puberty (orchitis, ovaries in women (ooforitis, pancreas (pancreatitis, central nervous system (meningities. The use of specific immune prophylaxis led to a significant success in the fight against mumps, but there are still unresolved issues related to the immunological and epidemiological effectiveness of the vaccines. The disease continues to interest researchers today. The main issues being tackled are related to the conduct of virological, clinical and sero-epidemiological studies in different countries. Objectives of the study is to determine the frequency distribution of mumps-specific IgG antibodies in healthy populations in the region of Pleven, Bulgaria. Methods: a cross-sectional sero - epidemiological representative population - based survey in the area was made. Enzyme immunoassay method was used for an indirect proof of mumps - specific IgG serum antibodies. 410 people were examined at an average age of 25 (1 to 84. Of these, 250 (61 % were women and 160 (39 % - men. Results: Of all test results, the negative were 72 (19 %, the borderline were 12 (3 %, the positive were 182 (44 %, and highly positive were 144 (35 %. The vaccination status showed that 242 (69 % of all surveyed were immunized with a vaccine against mumps. According to the immunization schedule in Bulgaria, 132 (33 % people were immunized with monovaccine during the years - 1 intake, 80 (20 % with trivaccine - 1 intake, and 64 (16 % - 2 doses. Conclusion: We believe that despite the specific immunprophylaxis carried out against mumps decades on end, the necessary level of protection leading to its elimination has not yet been reached.

  1. Development of the Thai healthy aging model: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiamwong, Ladda; McManus, Michael S; Suwanno, Jom

    2013-06-01

    To develop a model of healthy aging from the perspective of Thais, a grounded theory approach, including in-depth interviews and focus groups, was used. A purposive sample of 39 community-dwelling adults aged 40-85 years old was interviewed. The Thai healthy aging model composed of three themes: normality, nature, and dharma. In Thai, they are called tham-ma-da, tham-ma-chat, and tham-ma, or "Thai 3Ts". The theme of normality encompasses subthemes of staying physically active by being involved in plenty of physical activities, and being mentally active with creative and thoughtful hobbies and work. The theme of nature encompasses subthemes of living simply and being careful with money. The theme of dharma encompasses subthemes of enjoyment through helping family and participating in community activities, staying away from stress and worries by talking openly and honestly with someone, making merit, and helping other people without expecting anything in return. A greater understanding of healthy aging is a benefit for older adults and healthcare providers in an intervention-design process. Research can contribute valuable information to shape policy for healthy aging as well. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  3. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-12-30

    To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable 'healthy lifestyle behaviour'. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  4. Aging mind and brain: Is implicit learning spared in healthy aging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Howard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is often held that although explicit learning declines in the course of normal aging, implicit learning is relatively preserved. Here we summarize research from our group which leads us to argue that some forms of implicit learning do decline with adult age. In particular, we propose that there are age-related declines in implicit learning of probabilistic sequential relationships that occur across the adult lifespan, and that they reflect, at least in part, age-related striatal dysfunction. We first review behavioral evidence supporting this age-related decline and then evidence from patient groups, genetics, and neuroimaging supporting this striatal dysfunction hypothesis.

  5. Impaired information sampling in mild dementia of Alzheimer's type but not in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarian, Laura; Benke, Thomas; Brand, Matthias; Djamshidian, Atbin; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-05-01

    It is unknown whether aging affects predecisional processing, that is, gathering information and evaluating options before making a decision. Here, we investigated information sampling in mild Dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) and healthy aging by using the Information Sampling Task (IST). In a first investigation, we compared patients with mild DAT (n = 20) with healthy controls (n = 20) on the IST and several neuropsychological background tests. In a second investigation, healthy older adults (n = 30) were compared with younger adults (n = 30) on the IST and executive-function tasks. Results of the first investigation demonstrated that, in the IST, patients gathered significantly less information, made riskier and less accurate decisions, and showed less reward sensitivity relative to controls. We found a significant correlation between performance on the IST and performance on tests of verbal fluency, working memory, and recognition in patients but not in controls. Results of the second investigation indicated a largely similar performance pattern between healthy older adults and younger adults. There were no significant correlations for both groups between the IST and executive-function tasks. There are no relevant changes with healthy aging in predecisional processing. In contrast, mild DAT significantly affects predecisional information sampling. Thus, the problems shown in patients with mild DAT in decision making might be related to the patients' difficulties in predecisional processing. Decision-making performance in mild DAT might be improved by helping the patients at a predecisional stage to gather sufficient information and evaluate options more accurately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Survey on Knowledge of Shiraz District Health Volunteers Over Healthy Life Style in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Saffari

    2006-10-01

    infection disease but also problems and deaths are now consider regarding to unhealthy life styles, so elder people as an important population subgroup should receive healthy life style education and so to their families. This study reveals that volunteer's knowledge level about health life style in satisfaction (85.4% of them were abbot weak to moderate level. The worst result in their knowledge is about nutritional information (only 5.9% were in good level, and the best result were over health advices regarding to matters of exercise appropriate way of sleeping, sitting and prevention of osteoporosis (18.2% were in good level. This by attention to importance of matter of elderly age, education of health volunteers and employees and by tum the different subgroup of community should be programmed.

  7. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Intraocular Pressure in Myopic Spanish Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. del Buey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine biomechanical parameters of the cornea in myopic eyes and their relationship with the degree of myopia in a western healthy population. Methods. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOP, and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc were measured using the ocular response analyzer (ORA in 312 eyes of 177 Spanish subjects aged between 20 and 56 years. Refraction was expressed as spherical equivalent (SE, which ranged from 0 to −16.50 diopters (D (mean: −3.88±2.90 D. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their refractive status: group 1 or control group: emmetropia (-0.50≤SE0.05; nevertheless, IOPcc was significantly higher in the moderately myopic (15.47±2.47 mmHg and highly myopic (16.14±2.59 mmHg groups than in the emmetropia (15.15±2.06 mmHg and low myopia groups (14.53±2.37 mmHg. No correlation between age and the measured parameters was found. CH and IOPcc were weakly but significantly correlated with SE (r=0.171, P=0.002 and r=-0.131, P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Present study showed only a very weak, but significant, correlation between CH and refractive error, with CH being lower in both moderately and highly myopic eyes than that in the emmetropic and low myopic eyes. These changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea may have an impact on IOP measurement, increasing the risk of glaucoma.

  8. Centenarians' offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible.

  9. Place integration through efforts to support healthy aging in resource frontier communities: the role of voluntary sector leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Neil; Skinner, Mark W; Joseph, Alun E; Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2014-09-01

    Resource-dependent communities in hinterland regions of Australia, Canada and elsewhere are rapidly aging, yet many features that distinguish them (e.g., geographic remoteness, small populations, infrastructure built with younger persons in mind) also pose significant challenges for healthy aging. These challenges can lead to substantial gaps in access to formal health and social services, with negative implications for older residents aging-in-place and the development aspirations of resource frontier communities. In this paper, we explore the efforts of voluntary sector leaders to transform resource communities into more livable and supportive places for older adults. We offer a case study of two small towns in Canada׳s aging resource frontier; one forestry-dependent and the other dependent on coal mining. Our findings suggest that place integration develops through volunteer work and explains how voluntarism works as both a process and outcome of 'placemaking'. We argue that greater attention to place integration is needed to bring into focus the transformative potential of the voluntary sector in creating supportive and sustainable environments for healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  11. Comparing Volume Loss in Neuroanatomical Regions of Emotion versus Regions of Cognition in Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Peter S; Noniyeva, Yuliana; Bott, Nick; Dutt, Shubir; Sturm, Virginia; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    Many emotional functions are relatively preserved in aging despite declines in several cognitive domains and physical health. High levels of happiness exist even among centenarians. To address the hypothesis of whether preservation of emotional function in healthy aging may relate to different rates of age-related volume loss across brain structures, we performed two volumetric analyses on structural magnetic resonance neuroimaging of a group of healthy aging research participants using Freesurfer version 5.1. Volumes selected as supporting cognition included bilateral midfrontal and lateral frontal gyri, lateral parietal and temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobes. Volumes supporting emotion included bilateral amygdala, rostral anterior cingulate, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using structural MRI scans from 258 subjects. We found no difference in proportional change between groups. A longitudinal mixed effects model was used to compare regional changes over time in a subset of 84 subjects. Again, there was no difference in proportional change over time. While our results suggest that aging does not collectively target cognitive brain regions more than emotional regions, subgroup analysis suggests relative preservation of the anterior cingulate cortex, with greater volume loss in the nucleus accumbens. Implications of these relative rates of age-related volume loss in healthy aging are discussed and merit further research.

  12. Measuring the Speed of Aging across Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip strength were run for each sex and race using age and education, their interactions and other covariates as independent variables. Ages of identical mean hand-grip strength across education groups were compared for people in the age range 60 to 80. The hand-grip strength of 65 year old white males with less education was the equivalent to that of 69.6 (68.2, 70.9) year old white men with more education, indicating that the more educated men had aged more slowly. This is a constant characteristic age, as defined in the Sanderson and Scherbov article “The characteristics approach to the measurement of population aging” published 2013 in Population and Development Review. Sixty-five year old white females with less education had the same average hand-grip strength as 69.4 (68.2, 70.7) year old white women with more education. African-American women at ages 60 and 65 with more education also aged more slowly than their less educated counterparts. African American men with more education aged at about the same rate as those with less education. This paper expands the toolkit of those interested in population aging by showing how survey data can be used to measure the differential extent of aging across subpopulations. PMID:24806337

  13. Correlation of liver stiffness measured by FibroScan with sex and age in healthy adults undergoing physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Chongshan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo determine the reference range of liver stiffness in healthy population, and to investigate the influence of age and sex on liver stiffness. MethodsA total of 1794 healthy subjects who underwent physical examination in China National Petroleum Corporation Central Hospital from October 1, 2012 to October 31, 2014 were enrolled, and FibroScan was used to perform liver stiffness measurement (LSM. Since LSM value was not normally distributed, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare LSM value between male and female patients, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare LSM value between different age groups, and the Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between LSM value and age. The one-sided percentile method was used to determine the range of normal reference values in male and female subjects or in different age groups. ResultsLSM was successfully performed in 1590 patients, and the rate of successful measurement was 88.63%. A total of 107 patients were excluded due to abnormal liver enzymes. The analysis showed that LSM value showed a significant difference between male and female subjects (Z=-4.980, P<0.001, as well as between different age groups (χ2=16.983, P=0.001. Age was positively correlated with LSM value (r=0.087, P=0.001. The reference range was estimated to be ≤7.1 kPa in adults, ≤7.0 kPa in females, and ≤7.2 kPa in males. From the perspective of age, the reference range was estimated to be ≤6.8 kPa in persons aged 20-29 years, ≤6.7 kPa in persons aged 30-44 years, ≤7.8 kPa in persons aged 45-59 years, and ≤8.8 kPa in persons aged 60-74 years. ConclusionLiver stiffness value is influenced by sex and age. Sex and age should be taken into account while performing liver stiffness measurement in healthy subjects.

  14. Working memory in healthy aging and in Parkinson's disease: evidence of interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Elisa; Pischedda, Doris; Cherubini, Paolo; Mapelli, Daniela; Tamburin, Stefano; Burigo, Michele

    2017-05-01

    Focusing on relevant information while suppressing the irrelevant one are critical abilities for different cognitive processes. However, their functioning has been scarcely investigated in the working memory (WM) domain, in both healthy and pathological conditions. The present research aimed to study these abilities in aging and Parkinson's disease (PD), testing three groups of healthy participants (young, older and elderly) and one of PD patients, employing a new experimental paradigm. Results showed that the transient storing of irrelevant information in WM causes substantial interference effects, which were remarkable in elderly individuals on both response latency and accuracy. Interestingly, PD patients responded faster and were equally accurate compared to a matched control group. Taken together, findings confirm the existence of similar mechanisms for orienting attention inwards to WM contents or outwards to perceptual stimuli, and suggest the suitability of our task to assess WM functioning in both healthy aging and PD.

  15. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Mascha K; Laubender, Ruediger P; Kuster, Daniela; Braendli, Otto; Moeller, Alexander; Mansmann, Ulrich; von Mutius, Erika; Wildhaber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS). The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51%) females and 58'267 (49%) males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3%) children under the age of 18 years. We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  16. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: From research to policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T

    2016-01-01

    group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Santé). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across...... the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing. © 2016 The Author(s).......Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working...

  17. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... a Wright peak flowmeter. The equation for prediction of PEFR in boys was calculated as (3.8 x height) + (10.6 x age) - 313.2 (p age) - 143.9 (p ... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  18. Reference intervals for stone risk factors in 24-h urine among healthy adults of the Han population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Zanlin; Li, Xiaoxia; Cui, Zelin; Wu, Wenqi; Liu, Yongda; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yueping; Zhao, Zhijian; Liu, Yang; Mai, Xing; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Cai, Chao; Yang, Houmeng; Zeng, Guohua

    2018-03-28

    The aim of the study was to establish reference intervals for 24-h urinary stone risk factors in the healthy Chinese Han population. From May 2013 to July 2014, we collected and analyzed 24-h urine samples from healthy adult Han population during a cross-sectional study across China. The protocol for analysis of 24-h urine included volume, pH, oxalate, citrate, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, urate, magnesium, the ion activity products of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) indexs) and calcium phosphate (AP(CaP) indexs). We calculated the reference intervals according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2008 guidelines and compared them with those recorded in other studies. A total of 132 male and 123 female healthy subjects with a mean (SD, range) age of 52.4 (15.2, 19-89) years were eligible in the final analysis. Men had higher 24-h excretion of creatinine, calcium, urate and phosphorus and lower levels of citrate, magnesium, chloride, sodium and potassium than women. AP(CaOx) indexs and AP(CaP) indexs were significantly higher among men than women. When urinary findings were compared with the reference intervals, most of our data showed a high abnormality rate, especially for creatinine, calcium, citrate, magnesium, chloride, sodium and potassium. The present study revealed the normal metabolic status for stone risk factors of the Chinese Han population. It is therefore necessary for each country or region to define their own reference intervals for comparison of stone risk factors between patients and healthy subjects.

  19. The influences of factors associated with decreased iron supply to the fetus during pregnancy on iron status in healthy children aged 0.5 to 3 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.; Vloemans, J.; Rövekamp-Abels, L.; Feitsma, H.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Brus, F.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal anemia, pregnancy-induced diabetes, hypertension and smoking contributed to the recently found high prevalence of iron deficiency in a population of otherwise healthy children. Iron status was assessed in 400 children aged 0.5 to 3 years. We obtained information on

  20. Population ageing and intergenerational conflict: a post-Keynesian view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W A

    1992-01-01

    The author reexamines the relationships among demographic aging, the dependency burden, and intergenerational conflict from a post-Keynesian perspective, in which unemployment and excess capacity are normal to the functioning of capitalist economies, and resources are not generally fully utilized. He "argues that the Keynesian process of national income determination precludes any immediate relationship between population ageing and the 'burden' imposed on income recipients. Below full employment, a rising dependency ratio is not guaranteed to reduce the expenditure share of income recipients or raise their tax rates. An exclusive emphasis on intergenerational conflict can give a misleading impression of the consequences of population ageing." The focus is on developed countries. excerpt

  1. An age-structured population balance model for microbial dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte M.V.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an age-structured population balance model (ASPBM for a bioprocess in a continuous stirred-tank fermentor. It relates the macroscopic properties and dynamic behavior of biomass to the operational parameters and microscopic properties of cells. Population dynamics is governed by two time- and age-dependent density functions for living and dead cells, accounting for the influence of substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations on cell division, aging and death processes. The ASPBM described biomass and substrate oscillations in aerobic continuous cultures as experimentally observed. It is noteworthy that a small data set consisting of nonsegregated measurements was sufficient to adjust a complex segregated mathematical model.

  2. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni L. Vlahou; Franka Thurm; Iris-Tatjana Kolassa; Winfried Schlee

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18–89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show tha...

  3. Lower-Extremity Function in Cognitively Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C.; Stern, Robert A.

    Eggermont LH, Gavett BE, Volkers KM, Blankevoort CG, Scherder EJ, Jefferson AL, Steinberg E, Nair A, Green RC, Stern RA. Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:584-8. Objective: To examine differences

  4. Distinguishing rhythmic from non-rhythmic brain activity during rest in healthy neurocognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Bottomley, Monica; Kang, Pardeep; Dixon, Roger A

    2015-05-15

    Rhythmic brain activity at low frequencies (healthy neurocognitive aging are mixed. Here we address two reasons conventional spectral analyses may have led to inconsistent results. First, spectral-power measures are compared to a baseline condition; when resting activity is the signal of interest, it is unclear what the baseline should be. Second, conventional methods do not clearly differentiate power due to rhythmic versus non-rhythmic activity. The Better OSCillation detection method (BOSC; Caplan et al., 2001; Whitten et al., 2011) avoids these problems by using the signal's own spectral characteristics as a reference to detect elevations in power lasting a few cycles. We recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signal during rest, alternating eyes open and closed, in healthy younger (18-25 years) and older (60-74 years) participants. Topographic plots suggested the conventional and BOSC analyses measured different sources of activity, particularly at frequencies, like delta (1-4Hz), at which rhythms are sporadic; topographies were more similar in the 8-12Hz alpha band. There was little theta-band activity meeting the BOSC method's criteria, suggesting prior findings of theta power in healthy aging may reflect non-rhythmic signal. In contrast, delta oscillations were present at higher levels than theta in both age groups. In summary, applying strict and standardized criteria for rhythmicity, slow rhythms appear present in the resting brain at delta and alpha, but not theta frequencies, and appear unchanged in healthy aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study and Linkage Analysis of the Healthy Aging Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minster, Ryan L; Sanders, Jason L; Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Healthy Aging Index (HAI) is a tool for measuring the extent of health and disease across multiple systems. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study and a genome-wide linkage analysis to map quantitative trait loci associated with the HAI and a modified HAI weighted...

  7. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  8. Lifelong Learning and Healthy Ageing : The Significance of Music as an Agent of Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke; Bisschop Boele, Evert

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the Healthy Ageing research portfolio of the research group Lifelong Learning in Music (Hanze University of Applied Sciences Groningen, the Netherlands). Lifelong learning enables musicians to respond to the continuously changing context in which they are working

  9. Clinical chemistry reference intervals of healthy adult populations in Gojjam Zones of Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Zewdie; Amuamuta, Asmare; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Adem, Yesuf; Abera, Bayeh; Gebeyehu, Wondemu; Gebregziabher, Yakob

    2017-01-01

    Reference interval is crucial for disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring, progression and treatment efficacy. Due to lack of locally derived reference values for the parameters, clinicians use reference intervals derived from western population. But, studies conducted in different African countries have indicated differences between locally and western derived reference values. Different studies also indicated considerable variation in clinical chemistry reference intervals by several variables such as age, sex, geographical location, environment, lifestyle and genetic variation. This study aimed to determine the reference intervals of common clinical chemistry parameters of the community of Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Population based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 in healthy adult populations of Gojjam zone. Data such as, medical history, physical examination and socio-demographic data were collected. In addition, laboratory investigations were undertaken to screen the population. Clinical chemistry parameters were measured using Mindray BS 200 clinical chemistry autoanalyzer as per the manufacturer's instructions. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean, median and 95th percentiles. Independent sample T-test and one way ANOVA were used to see association between variables. After careful screening of a total of 799 apparently healthy adults who were consented for this study, complete data from 446 (224 females and 222 males) were included for the analysis. The mean age of both the study participants was 28.8 years. Males had high (Preference intervals of amylase, LDH, total protein and total bilirubin were not significantly different between the two sex groups (P>0.05). Mean, median, 95% percentile values of AST, ALP, amylase, LDH, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin across all age groups of participants were similar (P>0.05). But, there was a significant difference in the

  10. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-02-14

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing-a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population-a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries' economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  11. Impact of Population Aging on Military and Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šimková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is among the most important problems of developed European countries and the most frequently discussed social issues. The Czech Republic also faces population ageing and we cannot expect a different trend in the future. Life expectancy has increased due to better health care while current lifestyle often leads to lower natality, resulting in a negative rate of natural increase and a decreasing proportion of young people in population in the future. This problem affects all spheres of life and social and economic development. Population ageing may pose a threat to the security of the population in different ways. The functioning of the security system may be threatened due to decreasing workforce. Population ageing may undercut resources for military budgets. Young recruits represent an important part of military forces and the latter are competing in the labour market with more attractive occupations. Especially ensuring the stability of the personnel needed for securing crisis situations would be a significant problem of near future. This paper presents a demographic perspective on staffing and correct operation of military forces in the context of population ageing. It describes the current situation of human resources in the military policy of the Czech Republic and determines the negative impact of population ageing on recruitment potential. It deals with the sustainability of human resources for security forces.

  12. DNA methylation age is elevated in breast tissue of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary E; Henry, Jill E; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Ganz, Patricia A; Horvath, Steve

    2017-07-01

    Limited evidence suggests that female breast tissue ages faster than other parts of the body according to an epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the "epigenetic clock." However, it is unknown whether breast tissue samples from healthy women show a similar accelerated aging effect relative to other tissues, and what could drive this acceleration. The goal of this study is to validate our initial finding of advanced DNA methylation (DNAm) age in breast tissue, by directly comparing it to that of peripheral blood tissue from the same individuals, and to do a preliminary assessment of hormonal factors that could explain the difference. We utilized n = 80 breast and 80 matching blood tissue samples collected from 40 healthy female participants of the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center who donated these samples at two time points spaced at least a year apart. DNA methylation levels (Illumina 450K platform) were used to estimate the DNAm age. DNAm age was highly correlated with chronological age in both peripheral blood (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) and breast tissues (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001). A measure of epigenetic age acceleration (age-adjusted DNAm Age) was substantially increased in breast relative to peripheral blood tissue (p = 1.6 × 10 -11 ). The difference between DNAm age of breast and blood decreased with advancing chronologic age (r = -0.53, p = 4.4 × 10 -4 ). Our data clearly demonstrate that female breast tissue has a higher epigenetic age than blood collected from the same subject. We also observe that the degree of elevation in breast diminishes with advancing age. Future larger studies will be needed to examine associations between epigenetic age acceleration and cumulative hormone exposure.

  13. The effects of healthy aging on cerebral hemodynamic responses to posture change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, Brian L; Greenberg, Joel H; Detre, John A; Kim, Meeri N; Durduran, Turgut; Zhou, Chao; Yodh, Arjun G; Putt, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased incidence of orthostatic hypotension, impairment of the baroreceptor reflex and lower baseline cerebral blood flow. The effect of aging on cerebrovascular autoregulation, however, remains to be fully elucidated. We used a novel optical instrument to assess microvascular cerebral hemodynamics in the frontal lobe cortex of 60 healthy subjects ranging from ages 20–78. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to measure relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), total hemoglobin concentration (THC), oxyhemoglobin concentration (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Hb). Cerebral hemodynamics were monitored for 5 min at each of the following postures: head-of-bed 30°, supine, standing and supine. Supine-to-standing posture change caused significant declines in rCBF, THC and HbO 2 , and an increase in Hb, across the age continuum (p < 0.01). Healthy aging did not alter postural changes in frontal cortical rCBF (p = 0.23) and was associated with a smaller magnitude of decline in HbO 2 (p < 0.05) during supine-to-standing posture change. We conclude that healthy aging does not alter postural changes in frontal cortical perfusion

  14. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, Burhan; Simsek, Enver; Erdogmus, Besir; Bahcebasi, Talat; Aktas, Alev; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Uzun, Hakan; Safak, Alp Alper

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children

  15. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  16. Population aging and future carbon emissions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Michael; O'Neill, Brian; Prskawetz, Alexia; Jiang Leiwen; Pitkin, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the age composition of U.S. households over the next several decades could affect energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, the most important greenhouse gas. This article incorporates population age structure into an energy-economic growth model with multiple dynasties of heterogeneous households. The model is used to estimate and compare effects of population aging and technical change on baseline paths of U.S. energy use, and CO 2 emissions. Results show that population aging reduces long-term emissions, by almost 40% in a low population scenario, and effects of aging on emissions can be as large, or larger than, effects of technical change in some cases. These results are derived under standard assumptions and functional forms that are used in economic growth models. The model also assumes a closed economy, substitution elasticities that are fixed, and identical across age groups, and patterns of labor supply that vary by age group, but are fixed over time

  17. Aging in Mexico: Population Trends and Emerging Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, William; López-Ortega, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although all nations in the America’s face a common demographic reality of longevity, declining fertility rates and changes in family roles a growing body of research points to a dramatic demographic transformation in Mexico. Although Mexico’s population is relatively young, with a median age of 27.9 in 2015, it will age rapidly in coming years, increasing to 42 years by 2050. The rapid median age in the nation also reflects the growing proportion of people 65 or older, and is expected to triple to 20.2% by 2050. This article examines how the age and gender structure of Mexico offers important insights about current and future political and social stability, as well as economic development. Mexico is the world’s eleventh largest country in terms of population size and the “demographic dividend” of a large youthful population is giving way to a growing older population that will inevitably place demands on health care and social security. The shift in age structure will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working-age population in the next 20 years. Mexico does not provide universal coverage of social security benefits and less than half of the labor force is covered by any pension or retirement plan. As a result, elderly Mexicans often continue working into old age. The high total poverty rate in the country, especially among the older population magnifies the problem of the potential dependency burden. The article ends with a discussion of key public policy issues related to aging in Mexico. PMID:27927730

  18. Corneal clarity measurements in healthy volunteers across different age groups: Observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Carley, Fiona; Brahma, Arun; Morley, Debbie; Hillarby, M Chantal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize and investigate the changes in corneal clarity with age. Densitometry software for the Oculus Pentacam was used to examine corneal clarity at different age groups.A total of 192 eyes from 97 healthy participants were included in this cohort comparative nonrandomized, cross-sectional study. An Oculus Pentcam was used to image the cornea of healthy participants grouped by age (between 10 and 70 years old). Data from the densitometry output have been used to determine clarity in concentric zones and different depths of the cornea.Corneal densitometry (CD) across all ages showed significant differences between groups when divided into the following layers: anterior, central, and posterior or divided into 0 to 2, 2 to 6, and 6 to 10 mm concentric zones (P age in all 3 layers of the periphery (6-10 mm) (P age group had lower clarity than the 20 to 30-age group (P age is differed when the cornea is divided into layers and zones. This study suggests that there are other factors that may play an essential role in corneal clarity as well as age.

  19. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....

  20. Factors independently associated with cardiac troponin I levels in young and healthy adults from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Matthias; Thériault, Sébastien; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Schoen, Tobias; Kunz, Seraina; von Rotz, Mirco; Estis, Joel; Todd, John; Risch, Martin; Mueller, Christian; Risch, Lorenz; Paré, Guillaume; Conen, David

    2017-02-01

    Determinants of cardiomyocyte injury as quantified by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in young and healthy individuals, and sex-specific 99th percentiles are largely unknown. Our study included 2077 adults from the general population aged 25-41 years without cardiovascular disease. cTnI was measured using a high-sensitivity assay. We performed stepwise backward linear regression analyses to identify variables independently associated with hs-cTnI levels, and calculated narrow-sense heritability from 1638-genotyped participants. Median age was 37 years. cTnI was quantifiable in all but 11 participants (99.5 %). Median (interquartile range) cTnI was significantly higher in men than in women [0.99 (0.71; 1.65) versus 0.47 (0.33; 0.71) ng/L, p age, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular mass, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and creatine kinase (all p age, and systolic blood pressure belong to the strongest determinants of hs-cTnI in healthy adults. The 99th percentile was three times higher in men compared to women. Hence, sex-specific cut-off values may be preferable when applying hs-cTnI for screening purposes. Our results may also improve the interpretation of cTn levels in daily clinical practice.

  1. Comparative morphometry of facial surface models obtained from a stereo vision system in a healthy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Leticia; Gastélum, Alfonso; Chan, Yuk Hin; Delmas, Patrice; Escorcia, Lilia; Márquez, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    Our goal is to obtain three-dimensional measurements of craniofacial morphology in a healthy population, using standard landmarks established by a physical-anthropology specialist and picked from computer reconstructions of the face of each subject. To do this, we designed a multi-stereo vision system that will be used to create a data base of human faces surfaces from a healthy population, for eventual applications in medicine, forensic sciences and anthropology. The acquisition process consists of obtaining the depth map information from three points of views, each depth map is obtained from a calibrated pair of cameras. The depth maps are used to build a complete, frontal, triangular-surface representation of the subject face. The triangular surface is used to locate the landmarks and the measurements are analyzed with a MATLAB script. The classification of the subjects was done with the aid of a specialist anthropologist that defines specific subject indices, according to the lengths, areas, ratios, etc., of the different structures and the relationships among facial features. We studied a healthy population and the indices from this population will be used to obtain representative averages that later help with the study and classification of possible pathologies.

  2. Changes in healthy food habits after transition to old age retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helldán, Anni; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-08-01

    Retirement is one of the major transitions in the life course. However, it is poorly understood how health behaviours, such as food habits, might change after retirement. This study aimed to examine whether healthy food habits change after the transition to old age retirement and whether socio-demographic or health-related factors explain the association between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-02 and the follow-up in 2007. We included only participants who were aged 55-60 years at baseline and entered old age retirement during the follow-up (n = 1156, 76% women) or remained continuously employed (n = 1269, 79% women). Food habits from a food frequency questionnaire included eight items formed according to the Finnish and Nordic dietary recommendations. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the associations between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. Healthy food habits increased more among retired women than those continuously employed (P = 0.03). At follow-up retired women had healthier food habits than continuously employed women after adjusting for baseline food habits [OR = 1.36 (1.12-1.65)]. Among men, healthy food habits were unassociated with retirement. Transition to old age retirement is likely to have beneficial effects on food habits among women. This helps prevent major diseases and supports better public health among ageing people.

  3. Population Ageing in Rural Settlements in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic demographic characteristics of Croatia is the inherited dispersed population density with a large number of small settlements and the undeveloped system of regional and micro-regional centres. Such settlement structure was entirely inappropriate in the conditions of accelerated and urban-based industrialization after the Second World War. This period was characterised by a mass transition of agricultural population into non-agricultural activities, along with the abandonment of rural settlements. In addition to the strong emigration from rural areas in which younger age groups participated for the most part, there was a continuous reduction in fertility, too. All this has led to the narrowing of young age groups and consequently to the increase in the proportion of the elderly. An important factor of demographic ageing is the reduction in mortality of persons over 30 years of age and longer life respectively. Life expectancy of the Croatian population was 64.8 years in 1960 and 77.2 years in 1972. The average age constantly increased: it was 32.5 years in 1961, 35.4 in 1981 and it reached the high 41.7 years in 2011. The aggression and war against Croatia happened in the 1990s. Dramatic events affected the general social conditions and processes, strongly accelerating negative demographic trends. All this had further affected the socio-demographically eroded rural areas. There was a particularly difficult situation in the regions directly affected by the war; part of these areas had had the features of extreme demographic regression before the war sufferings and the war only further strengthened it. The overall population of Croatia is characterised by decreasing fertility, natural depopulation (negative natural change, total depopulation (since 1990 and intense population ageing. The duration and intensity of these processes clearly testifies to the demographic development of Croatia being very unfavourable. All this also

  4. Cognitive Vulnerability in Aging May Be Modulated by Education and Reserve in Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Roldán-Tapia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is related to a deterioration of cognitive performance and to multiple alterations in the brain. Even before the beginning of a noticeable cognitive decline, the framework which holds cognitive function experiences these alterations. From a system-vulnerability point of view of cognition, the deterioration associated with age would be the collection of repercussions during a life. Brain function and structure are modified in a multidimensional way, which could concern different aspects like structural integrity, functional activity, connectivity, or glucose metabolism. From this point of view, the effects of aging could affect the most brain systems and their functional activity. In this study, we analyze the functional development of three cognitive domains in relation to aging, educational level, and cognitive reserve (CR. A total of 172 healthy subjects were divided into two age groups (young and old, and completed a battery of classic neuropsychological tests. The tests were organized and analyzed according to three cognitive domains: working memory and flexibility, visuoconstructive functions, and declarative memory. Subjects also completed a questionnaire on CR. Results showed that the performance in all cognitive domains decreased with age. In particular, tests related to working memory, flexibility, and visuoconstructive abilities were influenced by age. Nevertheless, this effect was attenuated by effects of education, mainly in visuoconstructive domain. Surprisingly, visual as well as verbal memory tests were not affected either by aging, education, or CR. Brain plasticity plays a prominent role in the aging process, but, as other studies have shown, the plasticity mechanism is quite different in healthy vs. pathological brains. Moreover, this plasticity brain mechanism could be modulated by education and CR. Specially, cognitive domains as working memory, some executive functions and the visuoconstructive abilities seem to be

  5. Population pharmacokinetics of olmesartan following oral administration of its prodrug, olmesartan medoxomil: in healthy volunteers and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazutaka; Gao, Yuying; Shiga, Hiroshi; Wada, D Russell; Hisaoka, Masafumi

    2005-01-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil (CS-866) is a new orally active angiotensin II receptor antagonist that is highly selective for the AT1 receptor subtype. To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for olmesartan (RNH-6270), the active metabolite of olmesartan medoxomil, in healthy volunteers and hypertensive patients, and to evaluate effects of covariates on the apparent oral clearance (CL/F), with particular emphasis on the effect of race. Retrospective analysis of data from 12 phase I-III trials in the US, Europe and Japan. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers and 383 hypertensive patients. Nonlinear mixed-effects modelling was used to evaluate 7911 olmesartan plasma sample concentrations. The covariates included age, bodyweight, sex, race (Westerners [including Caucasians and Hispanics] versus Japanese), patient status (hypertensive patients versus healthy volunteers), serum creatinine level as an index of renal function and serum chemistry data as indices of hepatic function. The pharmacokinetic data of olmesartan were well described by a two-compartment linear model with first-order absorption and an absorption lag-time, parameterised in terms of CL/F (6.66 L/h for a typical male Western hypertensive patient), absorption rate constant (1.46h-1), elimination rate constant (0.193h-1), rate constant from the central to peripheral compartment (0.061h-1), rate constant from the peripheral to central compartment (0.079h-1) and absorption lag-time (0.427h). Analysis of covariates showed that age, bodyweight, sex, patient status and renal function were factors influencing the clearance of olmesartan. The population pharmacokinetic analysis of olmesartan showed that: (i) severe renal impairment (serum creatinine >265 micromol/L [approximately 3 mg/dL]) could cause a clearance decrease of > or =30%; (ii) older age, lower bodyweight and being female were determinants of lower clearance but their effects on olmesartan clearance were within 20%; (iii) no statistically significant

  6. MACVIA-LR (Fighting Chronic Diseases for Active and Healthy Ageing in Languedoc-Roussillon): A Success Story of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Bourret, R; Camuzat, T; Augé, P; Bringer, J; Noguès, M; Jonquet, O; de la Coussaye, J E; Ankri, J; Cesari, M; Guérin, O; Vellas, B; Blain, H; Arnavielhe, S; Avignon, A; Combe, B; Canovas, G; Daien, C; Dray, G; Dupeyron, A; Jeandel, C; Laffont, I; Laune, D; Marion, C; Pastor, E; Pélissier, J Y; Galan, B; Reynes, J; Reuzeau, J C; Bedbrook, A; Granier, S; Adnet, P A; Amouyal, M; Alomène, B; Bernard, P L; Berr, C; Caimmi, D; Claret, P G; Costa, D J; Cristol, J P; Fesler, P; Hève, D; Millot-Keurinck, J; Morquin, D; Ninot, G; Picot, M C; Raffort, N; Roubille, F; Sultan, A; Touchon, J; Attalin, V; Azevedo, C; Badin, M; Bakhti, K; Bardy, B; Battesti, M P; Bobia, X; Boegner, C; Boichot, S; Bonnin, H Y; Bouly, S; Boubakri, C; Bourrain, J L; Bourrel, G; Bouix, V; Bruguière, V; Cade, S; Camu, W; Carre, V; Cavalli, G; Cayla, G; Chiron, R; Coignard, P; Coroian, F; Costa, P; Cottalorda, J; Coulet, B; Coupet, A L; Courrouy-Michel, M C; Courtet, P; Cros, V; Cuisinier, F; Danko, M; Dauenhauer, P; Dauzat, M; David, M; Davy, J M; Delignières, D; Demoly, P; Desplan, J; Dujols, P; Dupeyron, G; Engberink, O; Enjalbert, M; Fattal, C; Fernandes, J; Fouletier, M; Fraisse, P; Gabrion, P; Gellerat-Rogier, M; Gelis, A; Genis, C; Giraudeau, N; Goucham, A Y; Gouzi, F; Gressard, F; Gris, J C; Guillot, B; Guiraud, D; Handweiler, V; Hayot, M; Hérisson, C; Heroum, C; Hoa, D; Jacquemin, S; Jaber, S; Jakovenko, D; Jorgensen, C; Kouyoudjian, P; Lamoureux, R; Landreau, L; Lapierre, M; Larrey, D; Laurent, C; Léglise, M S; Lemaitre, J M; Le Quellec, A; Leclercq, F; Lehmann, S; Lognos, B; Lussert, Cj M; Makinson, A; Mandrick, K; Mares, P; Martin-Gousset, P; Matheron, A; Mathieu, G; Meissonnier, M; Mercier, G; Messner, P; Meunier, C; Mondain, M; Morales, R; Morel, J; Mottet, D; Nérin, P; Nicolas, P; Nouvel, F; Paccard, D; Pandraud, G; Pasdelou, M P; Pasquié, J L; Patte, K; Perrey, S; Pers, Y M; Portejoie, F; Pujol, J L E; Quantin, X; Quéré, I; Ramdani, S; Ribstein, J; Rédini-Martinez, I; Richard, S; Ritchie, K; Riso, J P; Rivier, F; Robine, J M; Rolland, C; Royère, E; Sablot, D; Savy, J L; Schifano, L; Senesse, P; Sicard, R; Stephan, Y; Strubel, D; Tallon, G; Tanfin, M; Tassery, H; Tavares, I; Torre, K; Tribout, V; Uziel, A; Van de Perre, P; Venail, F; Vergne-Richard, C; Vergotte, G; Vian, L; Vialla, F; Viart, F; Villain, M; Viollet, E; Ychou, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    The Région Languedoc Roussillon is the umbrella organisation for an interconnected and integrated project on active and healthy ageing (AHA). It covers the 3 pillars of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA): (A) Prevention and health promotion, (B) Care and cure, (C) and (D) Active and independent living of elderly people. All sub-activities (poly-pharmacy, falls prevention initiative, prevention of frailty, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic diseases with multimorbidities, chronic infectious diseases, active and independent living and disability) have been included in MACVIA-LR which has a strong political commitment and involves all stakeholders (public, private, patients, policy makers) including CARSAT-LR and the Eurobiomed cluster. It is a Reference Site of the EIP on AHA. The framework of MACVIA-LR has the vision that the prevention and management of chronic diseases is essential for the promotion of AHA and for the reduction of handicap. The main objectives of MACVIA-LR are: (i) to develop innovative solutions for a network of Living labs in order to reduce avoidable hospitalisations and loss of autonomy while improving quality of life, (ii) to disseminate the innovation. The three years of MACVIA-LR activities are reported in this paper.

  7. Determination of Mean Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy Adults of a Local Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Sumbal; Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Ijaz, Aamir; Khan, Muhammad Qaiser Alam; Aleef, Hira; Abbasi, Maria

    2017-07-01

    To determine the mean hemoglobin HbA1C levels of disease-free adults in a local population and its optimum cutoff for the diagnosis of diabetes. Cross-sectional study. Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2015. Healthy subjects aged 18 years and above of either gender were recruited from local population. Pregnant ladies and individuals with known diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, congestive cardiac failure, anemia, hemoglobinopathies, mental illness and individuals on glucocorticoid therapy were excluded. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) was analyzed using hexokinase methodology and glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) was also analyzed using turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay technique. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Differences among the groups were tested by one-way ANOVA, and p <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among 558 subjects, 88.8% (496) were normoglycaemic (NG), 5.7% (32) were with impaired glucose fasting (IFG), and 5.4% (30) were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). A1C was 5.00 ±0.44% in NG and 6.28 ±1.16% in diabetics. FPG in NG was 4.55 ±0.95 mmol/Land in diabetics was 8.28 ±1.78 mmol/L. The optimal HbA1C cutoff value for diagnosis of DM was at 6.05% (AUC 0.827 95% CI 0.732 to 0.923, p ≤0.05 with its sensitivity of 53.3% and specificity of 98.5%. However, HbA1C showed suboptimal sensitivity and specificity for prediabetes. The mean HbAIC and cutoff point for diabetes in the study population is 5.07 ±0.58% and 6.05%, respectively (AUC 0.827, 95% CI: 0.732 to 0.923, p<0.001) with 53.3% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity.

  8. Determination of Mean Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy Adults of a Local Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nida, S.; Ijaz, A.; Aleef, H.; Khan, D. A.; Khan, M. Q. A.; Abbasi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mean hemoglobin HbA1C levels of disease-free adults in a local population and its optimum cutoff for the diagnosis of diabetes. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2015. Methodology: Healthy subjects aged 18 years and above of either gender were recruited from local population. Pregnant ladies and individuals with known diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, congestive cardiac failure, anemia, hemoglobinopathies, mental illness and individuals on glucocorticoid therapy were excluded. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) was analyzed using hexokinase methodology and glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) was also analyzed using turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay technique. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Differences among the groups were tested by one-way ANOVA, and p <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among 558 subjects, 88.8% (496) were normoglycaemic (NG), 5.7% (32) were with impaired glucose fasting (IFG), and 5.4% (30) were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). A1C was 5.00 0.44% in NG and 6.28 +-1.16% in diabetics. FPG in NG was 4.55 +-0.95 mmol/L and in diabetics was 8.28 1.78 mmol/L. The optimal HbA1C cutoff value for diagnosis of DM was at 6.05% (AUC 0.827 95% CI 0.732 to 0.923, p <=0.05 with its sensitivity of 53.3% and specificity of 98.5%. However, HbA1C showed suboptimal sensitivity and specificity for prediabetes. Conclusion: The mean HbAIC and cutoff point for diabetes in the study population is 5.07 +-0.58% and 6.05%, respectively (AUC 0.827, 95% CI: 0.732 to 0.923, p<0.001) with 53.3% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. (author)

  9. The impact of population ageing on future Danish drug expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    expenditure among the elderly partly is due the high "costs of dying". Aims The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the ageing Danish population on future total expenditures on out-of-hospital prescription drugs and to describe the association between age and drug expenditure among survivors......Background Population ageing is likely to place an increasing burden on future health care budgets. Several studies have demonstrated that the impact of ageing on future hospital expenditures will be overestimated when not accounting for proximity to death. This is because greater health care...... compared to that of decedents. Methods Taking expenditure during the last year of life and the changes in mortality rates into account, future drug expenditure was projected by multiplying estimated mean annual drug expenditure according to age, gender and survival status by the predicted future number...

  10. Randomized controlled trial of a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program: effects on memory, mood, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Keri; Mowszowski, Loren; Cockayne, Nicole; Norrie, Louisa; Paradise, Matthew; Hermens, Daniel F; Lewis, Simon J G; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in the ageing population and absence of a cure for dementia, cost-effective prevention strategies for those 'at risk' of dementia including those with depression and/or mild cognitive impairment are urgently required. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multifaceted Healthy Brain Ageing Cognitive Training (HBA-CT) program for older adults 'at risk' of dementia. Using a single-blinded design, 64 participants (mean age = 66.5 years, SD = 8.6) were randomized to an immediate treatment (HBA-CT) or treatment-as-usual control arm. The HBA-CT intervention was conducted twice-weekly for seven weeks and comprised group-based psychoeducation about cognitive strategies and modifiable lifestyle factors pertaining to healthy brain ageing, and computerized cognitive training. In comparison to the treatment-as-usual control arm, the HBA-CT program was associated with improvements in verbal memory (p = 0.03), self-reported memory (p = 0.03), mood (p = 0.01), and sleep (p = 0.01). While the improvements in memory (p = 0.03) and sleep (p = 0.02) remained after controlling for improvements in mood, only a trend in verbal memory improvement was apparent after controlling for sleep. The HBA-CT program improves cognitive, mood, and sleep functions in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, and therefore offers promise as a secondary prevention strategy.

  11. Implications of an ageing population in the Asian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1999-12-01

    Population aging is the increasing number and proportion of old persons aged 60 years and above in the developing countries and 65 years and above in the developed countries that exceeds 10% of the total population. In Asia, the last decade of the 20th century is marked by significant changes in the age structure due to the process of population aging. The implications of this aging population on the life of Asian countries has to be addressed since demographically the current situation is changing rapidly and there lie the future challenges that have to be answered. Due to the growing size of the elderly population, Asia will need better plans to prevent these elderly groups from turning into the socioeconomically vulnerable group of society. However, many governments are not prepared with effective policies, programs, and services that are particularly designed to care for the elderly. The provision of infrastructure and services, including education, employment, health and housing are necessary steps that need to be taken. Some of the suggested measures include: the Social Safety Net Programs; the implementation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plan of Action on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication; and strengthen volunteerism and the role of private sector in human development. The role of the media in transmitting information concerning policies and programs intended to increase the welfare of the older persons is also very important.

  12. Population cardiovascular health and urban environments: the Heart Healthy Hoods exploratory study in Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Bilal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood’s social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. Methods We conducted this study in an area of 16,000 residents in Madrid (Spain. We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System. We used several quantitative audit tools to assess: the type and location of food outlets and healthy food availability; tobacco and alcohol points of sale; walkability of all streets and use of parks and public spaces. We also conducted 11 qualitative interviews with key informants to help understanding the relationships between urban environment and cardiovascular behaviors. We integrated quantitative and qualitative data following a mixed-methods merging approach. Results Electronic Health Records of the entire population of the area showed similar prevalence of risk factors compared to the rest of Madrid/Spain (prevalence of diabetes: 12 %, hypertension: 34 %, dyslipidemia: 32 %, smoking: 10 %, obesity: 20 %. The food environment was very dense, with many small stores (n = 44 and a large food market with 112 stalls. Residents highlighted the importance of these small stores for buying healthy foods. Alcohol and tobacco environments were also very dense (n = 91 and 64, respectively, dominated by bars and restaurants (n = 53 that also acted as food services. Neighbors emphasized the importance of drinking as a socialization mechanism. Public open spaces were mostly used by seniors that remarked the importance of accessibility to these spaces and the availability of destinations to walk to. Conclusion This experience allowed testing and refining

  13. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahou, Eleni L; Thurm, Franka; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schlee, Winfried

    2014-05-29

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18-89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show that healthy aging is accompanied by a marked and linear decrease of resting-state activity in the slow frequency range (0.5-6.5 Hz). The effects of slow wave power on cognitive performance were expressed as interactions with age: For older (>54 years), but not younger participants, enhanced delta and theta power in temporal and central regions was positively associated with perceptual speed and executive functioning. Consistent with previous work, these findings substantiate further the important role of slow wave oscillations in neurocognitive function during healthy aging.

  14. Coupling between skeletal muscle fiber size and capillarization is maintained during healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Yoann; McPhee, Jamie S; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Bosutti, Alessandra; De Vito, Giuseppe; Jones, David A; Narici, Marco; Behin, Anthony; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Degens, Hans

    2017-08-01

    As muscle capillarization is related to the oxidative capacity of the muscle and the size of muscle fibres, capillary rarefaction may contribute to sarcopenia and functional impairment in older adults. Therefore, it is important to assess how ageing affects muscle capillarization and the interrelationship between fibre capillary supply with the oxidative capacity and size of the fibres. Muscle biopsies from healthy recreationally active young (22 years; 14 men and 5 women) and older (74 years; 22 men and 6 women) people were assessed for muscle capillarization and the distribution of capillaries with the method of capillary domains. Oxidative capacity of muscle fibres was assessed with quantitative histochemistry for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. There was no significant age-related reduction in muscle fibre oxidative capacity. Despite 18% type II fibre atrophy (P = 0.019) and 23% fewer capillaries per fibre (P age and sex. Based on SDH, the maximal oxygen consumption supported by a capillary did not differ significantly between young and old people. The similar quantitative and qualitative distribution of capillaries within muscle from healthy recreationally active older people and young adults indicates that the age-related capillary rarefaction, which does occur, nevertheless maintains the coupling between skeletal muscle fibre size and capillarization during healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  15. The Influence of Age on Hemodynamic Parameters During Rest and Exercise in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Bakkestrøm, Rine; Thomsen, Jacob H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to obtain hemodynamic estimates across a wide age span and in both sexes for future reference and compare these estimates with current guideline diagnostic hemodynamic thresholds for abnormal filling pressure and pulmonary hypertension. BACKGROUND: At present....... METHODS: Sixty-two healthy participants, evenly distributed with respect to age (20 to 80 years) and sex (32 women/30 men), were prospectively enrolled in the study. Participants were all deemed healthy by medical history, echocardiography, exercise test, spirometry, blood tests, and electrocardiogram....... Participants had hemodynamic parameters measured using right heart catheterization during rest, passive leg raise, and incremental exercise. RESULTS: During rest, all hemodynamic parameters were similar between age groups, apart from blood pressure. During leg raise and incremental exercise...

  16. Kidney growth in 717 healthy children aged 0-18 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Main, Katharina M; Damgaard, Ida N

    2004-01-01

    Kidney size is an important parameter in the evaluation of children with renal disease. However, reference materials for kidney size in healthy children have been limited beyond the neonatal period. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of 717 healthy children born at term with normal birth...... weight. Kidney size and shape were determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, and body size (weight, length, body surface area, skinfold thickness) at 0, 3, and 18 months of age. Gender-differentiated reference charts were established. Boys had significantly larger kidney volumes than...... girls ( Page. The best single predictor of gender-differentiated kidney volume was weight. Relative kidney volume changed with increasing age and height in a two-phase pattern: an initial...

  17. Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Katherine H M; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin possesses many properties which may prevent or ameliorate pathological processes underlying age-related cognitive decline, dementia or mood disorders. These benefits in preclinical studies have not been established in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the effects of curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population or to examine any acute behavioral effects in humans. Results highlight the need for further investigation of the potential psychological and cognitive benefits of curcumin in an older population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  19. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality and architecture as well as sleep's homeostatic and circadian controls change with healthy aging. Changes include reductions in slow-wave sleep's (SWS) percent and spectral power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), number and amplitude of sleep spindles, rapid eye movement (REM) density and the amplitude of circadian rhythms, as well as a phase advance (moved earlier in time) of the brain's circadian clock. With mild cognitive impairment (MCI) there are further reductions of sleep quality, SWS, spindles, and percent REM, all of which further diminish, along with a profound disruption of circadian rhythmicity, with the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sleep disorders may represent risk factors for dementias (e.g., REM Behavior Disorder presages Parkinson's disease) and sleep disorders are themselves extremely prevalent in neurodegenerative diseases. Working memory , formation of new episodic memories, and processing speed all decline with healthy aging whereas semantic, recognition, and emotional declarative memory are spared. In MCI, episodic and working memory further decline along with declines in semantic memory. In young adults, sleep-dependent memory consolidation (SDC) is widely observed for both declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, with healthy aging, although SDC for declarative memory is preserved, certain procedural tasks, such as motor-sequence learning, do not show SDC. In younger adults, fragmentation of sleep can reduce SDC, and a normative increase in sleep fragmentation may account for reduced SDC with healthy aging. Whereas sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy can impair SDC in the absence of neurodegenerative changes, the incidence of sleep disorders increases both with normal aging and, further, with neurodegenerative disease. Specific features of sleep architecture, such as sleep spindles and SWS are strongly linked to SDC. Diminution of these features with healthy aging

  20. Main biomarkers associated with age-related plasma zinc decrease and copper/zinc ratio in healthy elderly from ZincAge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacconi, R; Costarelli, L; Piacenza, F; Basso, A; Rink, L; Mariani, E; Fulop, T; Dedoussis, G; Herbein, G; Provinciali, M; Jajte, J; Lengyel, I; Mocchegiani, E; Malavolta, M

    2017-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) plays an essential role in many biological processes including immune response. Impaired Zn status promotes immune dysfunction, and it has been associated with enhanced chronic inflammation during aging. It has been suggested that the measurement of circulating Zn by itself could not reflect the real Zn status of an individual. It is therefore necessary to identify other determinants associated with plasma Zn to better understanding how physiopathological conditions during aging may affect the concentration of this metal. We have investigated the association between Zn levels and some biomarkers in 1090 healthy elderly from five European countries to increase the accuracy in the assessment of the Zn status. Stepwise multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the influence of factors such as age, dietary intake, inflammatory mediators, laboratory parameters and polymorphisms previously associated with Zn homeostasis. Plasma Zn decrement was most strongly predicted by age, while positive correlations were found with albumin, RANTES and Zn intake after adjustment for multiple confounders. HSP70 +1267 AA genotype was an independent factor associated with Zn plasma concentrations. Cu/Zn ratio was positively associated with markers of systemic inflammation and age and negatively associated with albumin serum levels. Our findings show the most important independent determinants of plasma Zn concentration and Cu/Zn ratio variability in elderly population and suggest that the decline with age of Zn circulating levels is more dependent on physiopathological changes occurring with aging rather than to its nutritional intake.

  1. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  2. Behavioral determinants of healthy aging: good news for the baby boomer generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Stein, Paula E; Potkanowicz, Edward S

    2003-01-01

    The first of the Baby Boomer generation will officially enter the beginning of old age in 2011 by turning 65. Recent research findings suggest that if the members of this cohort group engage in certain healthy behaviors and thought patterns in their middle years, they will experience a vital, satisfying life in their 70s and beyond. This article reviews the existing literature, including the results of longitudinal studies showing variables that predicted successful aging. Focusing on a lifespan psychology perspective of aging, the authors provide behavioral recommendations for middle age individuals that are likely to prevent disease-related disability, cognitive impairment, and late life depression. These include regular physical exercise, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, maintaining an optimistic mental outlook, and finding meaning in life. The good news for the Baby Boomers is that there is increasing evidence that their behavior at age 50 will impact how they feel at age 80.

  3. Does Population Aging Drive Up Pro-Elderly Social Spending?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    -elderly biased. It then points out that population ageing actually cannot explain very much of this pro-elderly bias variance. For instance, countries such as Denmark, Finland and Sweden are demographically old societies, yet they boast among the lowest pro-elderly spending biases in the OECD world, due...... to their greater commitment to family-friendly policies, active labour market policies and similar pro-young policies. The essay reviews a series of similarly counter-intuitive findings about generational politics and policies as published in Ageing Populations in Post-Industrial Democracies (Vanhuysse and Goerres......, 2012) and makes a plea for institutionally and historically richly informed explanations of the political consequences and the policy feedback effects arising from population ageing....

  4. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  5. Simulation for competition of languages with an ageing sexual population

    OpenAIRE

    Schwämmle, Veit

    2005-01-01

    Recently, individual-based models originally used for biological purposes revealed interesting insights into processes of the competition of languages. Within this new field of population dynamics a model considering sexual populations with ageing is presented. The agents are situated on a lattice and each one speaks one of two languages or both. The stability and quantitative structure of an interface between two regions, initially speaking different languages, is studied. We find that indiv...

  6. Life style and longevity among initially healthy middle-aged men: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Trond; Erikssen, Jan; Sandvik, Leiv

    2013-09-11

    Few studies have examined how various lifestyle factors in midlife predict longevity, and none of these studies have examined the impact of physical fitness. The present study aimed to examine longevity in relation to smoking, overweight and physical fitness. We prospectively studied longevity (defined as reaching at least 85 years of age) in relation to smoking status, body mass index and physical fitness in 821 healthy men between 51 and 59 years of age. Of these, 369 were smokers, 320 were overweight, and 31 were obese. The associations were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol level, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Deaths were registered until the 31st of December, 2006. Physical fitness was measured as the total work performed in a maximal exercise tolerance bicycle test. 252 men survived to the age of 85 years (30.7%). Smoking status was significantly and independently related to longevity; 37.2% of the non-smokers survived to the age of 85, and 22.8% of the smokers. Among non-smokers, overweight and physical fitness were significantly and independently related to longevity after adjustment for age, blood pressure and cholesterol level, but not among smokers. Among non-smokers with high physical fitness, 48.8% reached the age of 85 years, compared to 27.9% among non-smokers with low physical fitness. Lifestyle variables appear to be strong and independent predictors of longevity in initially healthy middle-aged men. The probability of longevity may be a useful concept when informing the general public about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle.

  7. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  8. Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3-101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed ® platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3-9 years, adolescents aged 10-19 years, adults aged 20-59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of ageing on quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Emmelie; Paepe, Dominique; Daminet, Sylvie; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vanderperren, Katrien

    2018-05-05

    The degenerative effects of ageing on the kidneys have been extensively studied in humans. However, only recently interest has been focused on renal ageing in veterinary medicine. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound allows non-invasive evaluation of renal perfusion in conscious cats. Renal perfusion parameters were obtained in 43 healthy cats aged 1-16 years old, and the cats were divided in four age categories: 1-3 years, 3-6 years, 6-10 years and over 10 years. Routine renal parameters as serum creatinine, serum urea, urine-specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio and systolic blood pressure were also measured. No significant differences in any of the perfusion parameters were observed among the different age categories. A trend towards a lower peak enhancement and wash-in area under the curve with increasing age, suggestive for a lower blood volume, was detected when comparing the cats over 10 years old with the cats of 1-3 years old. Additionally, no significant age-effect was observed for the serum and urine parameters, whereas a higher blood pressure was observed in healthy cats over 10 years old. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  11. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology : The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal

  12. Positivity effect in healthy aging in observational but not active feedback-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, Christian; Rustemeier, Martina; Daum, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of healthy aging on the bias to learn from positive or negative performance feedback in observational and active feedback learning. In active learning, a previous study had already shown a negative learning bias in healthy seniors older than 75 years, while no bias was found for younger seniors. However, healthy aging is accompanied by a 'positivity effect', a tendency to primarily attend to stimuli with positive valence. Based on recent findings of dissociable neural mechanisms in active and observational feedback learning, the positivity effect was hypothesized to influence older participants' observational feedback learning in particular. In two separate experiments, groups of young (mean age 27) and older participants (mean age 60 years) completed an observational or active learning task designed to differentially assess positive and negative learning. Older but not younger observational learners showed a significant bias to learn better from positive than negative feedback. In accordance with previous findings, no bias was found for active learning. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the neural underpinnings of active and observational learning from performance feedback.

  13. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks.

  14. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the spleen in healthy dogs of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronezi, M C; Feliciano, M A R; Crivellenti, L Z; Simões, A P R; Bartlewski, P M; Gill, I; Canola, J C C; Vicente, W R R

    2015-06-01

    To determine the elastographic characteristics of splenic parenchyma in clinically healthy dogs of various ages in order to establish preliminary qualitative and quantitative standards/reference intervals for this technique. Thirty three healthy dogs categorized as young, adult and elderly were used. Splenic echotexture, echogenicity, size and ages were assessed with B-mode ultrasonography. Using qualitative elastography, the spleen (head, body and tail) was examined for homogeneity and presence of deformities. Shear velocities in different splenic segments were then quantitatively evaluated. All splenic segments visualised with the B-mode ultrasonography appeared normal. Different splenic segments examined with qualitative elastography were free of any detectable malformations and the images appeared as homogeneous dark areas. The mean shear velocity values were 2 · 32 m/s for head, 2 · 16 m/s for body and 2 · 25 m/s for tail of the spleen (P = 0 · 40), and they did not vary between the different age groups (P > 0 · 05). Quantitative and qualitative ARFI elastography of the spleen in clinically healthy dogs differing in age could be easily performed, and it may aid in the diagnosis and evaluation of splenic abnormalities routinely assessed in veterinary practice with B-mode ultrasonography. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  16. The aging US population and residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Eisenberg, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This piece explores the relationships between a rapidly aging U.S. population and the demand for residential energy. Data indicate that elderly persons use more residential energy than younger persons. In this time of steeply rising energy costs, energy is an especially important financial issue for the elderly with low and/or fixed incomes. As the absolute number of elderly as well as their proportion of the total US population both continue to increase, energy and the elderly population looms as another energy policy challenge

  17. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Independently Inversely Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Healthy, Non-Obese Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Ock

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe evaluated the associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations in serum and insulin resistance in the healthy Korean population.MethodsWe conducted this cross-sectional analysis in 1,807 healthy Korean people (628 men and 1,179 women aged 30 to 64 years in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiologic Research Center study. All participants were assessed for 25(OHD, fasting glucose, and insulin levels, and completed a health examination and lifestyle questionnaire according to standard procedures. Insulin resistance was defined as the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance higher than the 75 percentile.ResultsCompared to those in the highest tertile (≥14.3 ng/mL, the odds ratio (OR for insulin resistance was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.86 for the 1st tertile (<9.7 ng/mL and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.08 to 1.62 for the 2nd tertile (9.7 to 14.3 ng/mL after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical exercise, season, and cohort. After stratification of the subjects by adiposity, these associations remained only in non-obese subjects (lowest tertile vs. highest tertile, multivariable OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.56.ConclusionSerum 25(OHD has an independent inverse association with insulin resistance in the healthy, non-obese Korean population, even among people with vitamin D insufficiency.

  18. Reference interval for the disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in a large population of healthy Japanese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults. A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis. On the photograph, the distances between the fovea and the nearest temporal margin of the optic disc (Dft), and the two kinds of disc diameters (D1 and D2), which bisected at right angles and one of which was directed to the fovea (D1), were measured. DM:DD was estimated using the formula: (2Dft + D1)/(D1 + D2). The mean ± standard deviation of DM:DD was 2.91 ± 0.49 for men and 2.96 ± 0.54 for women; there was no sex difference (P = .78, Mann–Whitney U test). Also, almost no relationship was found between DM:DD and age (ρ = −.12, P = .04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). The data did not fit a normal distribution (P < .001, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). The estimated reference interval for DM:DD corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles was 2.12 to 4.18. Using a nonparametric approach, the reference interval for DM:DD of a large population of healthy Japanese adults was calculated to be 2.12 to 4.18, regardless of age or sex. PMID:28403107

  19. Social Profile Of The Aged In An Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Khan

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the socio-demographic profile of urban aged population in Aligarh city.Objectives: i To describe the socio-demographic profile of the aged population in an urban area, ii To describe the attitude of these people.Design:Cross-sectional study.Setting : Urban areas of Aligarh city.Participants : 3951 persons aged 60 years and aboveStudy Variables: Socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes.Statistical Analysis : By proportions.Result: 15% of the total estimated elderly population covering all 10 sectors of Aligarh city was studied. The majority ofthe elderly (72.4% belonged to 60-70 years age group. Most of them (77.2% were illiterate, 61.6% belonged to lower socio-economic classes (IV & V, 78.1 % lived in joint families. 39.6% of the aged felt that they were not being given due respect by family members. Nearly half of them had an indifferent or unhappy attitude towards life.Conclusion: The socio-demographic characteristics of the aged are important and must be kept in mind for developing programs to assist them in living as respectful senior citizens.

  20. Cortical 11C-PIB Uptake is Associated with Age, APOE Genotype, and Gender in "Healthy Aging"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheinin, Noora M; Wikman, Kristina; Jula, Antti

    2014-01-01

    with the amyloid tracer 11C-PIB, in 64 cognitively healthy subjects (54-89 years). In addition to PET, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological testing, and APOE genotyping was performed. The results were assessed with a statistical general linear model as well as with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM......). Results: The effects of age (p gender (p = 0.001) on composite cortical 11C-PIB uptake were all significant. The effect of educational level was non-significant (p = 0.37). No significant interactions were found between any of the factors. Cortical 11C....... In this sample of cognitively healthy elderly individuals, men exhibited higher 11C-PIB uptake than women. Possible gender differences in Aβ accumulation have not been addressed in detail in previous studies, and deeper evaluation in the future is warranted....

  1. A holistic approach to healthy ageing: how can people live longer, healthier lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, P C; Carding, S R; Christopher, G; Kuh, D; Langley-Evans, S C; McNulty, H

    2018-06-03

    Although lifespan is increasing, there is no evidence to suggest that older people are experiencing better health in their later years than previous generations. Nutrition, at all stages of life, plays an important role in determining health and wellbeing. A roundtable meeting of UK experts on nutrition and ageing considered key aspects of the diet-ageing relationship and developed a consensus position on the main priorities for research and public health actions that are required to help people live healthier lives as they age. The group consensus highlighted the requirement for a life course approach, recognising the multifactorial nature of the impact of ageing. Environmental and lifestyle influences at any life stage are modified by genetic factors and early development. The response to the environment at each stage of life can determine the impact of lifestyle later on. There are no key factors that act in isolation to determine patterns of ageing and it is a combination of environmental and social factors that drives healthy or unhealthy ageing. Too little is known about how contemporary dietary patterns and sedentary lifestyles will impact upon healthy ageing in future generations and this is a priority for future research. There is good evidence to support change to lifestyle (i.e. diet, nutrition and physical) activity in relation to maintaining or improving body composition, cognitive health and emotional intelligence, immune function and vascular health. Lifestyle change at any stage of life may extend healthy lifespan, although the impact of early changes appears to be greatest. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas K U Koehler

    Full Text Available There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001, possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  3. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  4. The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriazoula Chatzianagnostou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been suggested to affect age-associated physiological dysfunction. Therefore, it is speculated that antioxidant supplements could have a potential role in preventing age-related diseases and death. Among different dietary habits, the highly antioxidant Mediterranean dietary pattern, which includes high vegetable and fruit intake, consumption of legumes, cereals, and fish, low intake of meat and dairy derivatives, moderate red wine consumption, and use of extra-virgin olive oil, is characterized by other aspects than food, such as conviviality, sensory stimulation, socialization, biodiversity, and seasonality that can reinforce the Mediterranean diet’s (MeD beneficial effects on wellbeing, quality of life, and healthy aging. The present review aims to discuss available data on the relationship between oxidative stress and aging, biomarkers of oxidative stress status, protective effects of the MeD, and the adoption of the Mediterranean lifestyle as a non-pharmacological and natural tool to cope with oxidative stress damage for a longer life span, and—even more important—healthy aging beyond the biological, psychological, and social challenges that old age entails.

  5. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  6. Differences in healthy life expectancy for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region: 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Man-Huei; Molla, Michael T; Truman, Benedict I; Athar, Heba; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Yoon, Paula W

    2015-09-01

    Healthy life expectancy (HLE) varies among demographic segments of the US population and by geography. To quantify that variation, we estimated the national and regional HLE for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region in 2008. National HLEs were calculated using the published 2008 life table and the self-reported health status data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Regional HLEs were calculated using the combined 2007-09 mortality, population and NHIS health status data. In 2008, HLE in the USA varied significantly by sex, race/ethnicity and geographical regions. At 25 years of age, HLE for females was 47.3 years and ∼2.9 years greater than that for males at 44.4 years. HLE for non-Hispanic white adults was 2.6 years greater than that for Hispanic adults and 7.8 years greater than that for non-Hispanic black adults. By region, the Northeast had the longest HLE and the South had the shortest. The HLE estimates in this report can be used to monitor trends in the health of populations, compare estimates across populations and identify health inequalities that require attention. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. How music and social engagement provides healthy aging and prevents behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2018-01-01

    engagement and learning, and further affects cognitive reserve and the way we age. Music and musical elements affect listeners differently but seem to regulate our body and brain at a much deeper level than we are aware of. When music touches and engages us, a release of the neurotransmitter Norepinephrine....... In addition, through musical interaction, meaningful expression of psychosocial needs may indirectly lead to a reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. For the person with severe dementia, with sensory and cognitive decline, this offers a healthy means of remaining active, autonomous...... follows. This process involves the brain stem (more precisely the locus coeruleus) and a compensatory effect is observed. By engaging in music from early childhood, preventive mechanisms add to healthy aging and may even slow down the development of dementia symptoms, although it cannot prevent dementia...

  8. Population Aging in Iran and Rising Health Care Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion Based on the results of this research, it can be said that people throughout their life cycle always allocate a percentage of their total spending to health care costs, but the percentage of this allocation is different at different ages. In a way the demand for healthcare costs increases with aging, it rises significantly in the old age. At the macro level, due to an increase in the percentage of elderly in the population over the next decade, there will also be an increase in the share of health care costs.

  9. The third molar maturity index in indicating the legal adult age in Kosovar population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Jeta; Cameriere, Roberto; Koçani, Ferit; Galić, Ivan; Mehmeti, Blerim; Vodanović, Marin

    2017-12-16

    The third molar tooth, known as the "wisdom tooth," is the only tooth that can be used to determine legal adult age. This study aimed to test the accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ) in assessing the legal adult age of 18 years in the Kosovar population. Orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 1221 healthy living Kosovar individuals, aged between 12 and 23 years and with no congenital or developmental anomalies, were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.858 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.906) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.779 to 0.903) for intra-rater and for inter-rater agreement, respectively. The sample was divided into training dataset (800 OPTs) and test dataset (421 OPTs). The training dataset was used to generate the logistic regression model, while the test dataset was used to study the performance of the model. I 3M and gender as independent variables and adult age (≥ 18 years) or minor age (age. The results showed that only I 3M statistically significantly contributed to discriminating adults and minors. ROC analysis showed that the cut-off value of I 3M  age gradually increased. The performance of the cut-off value of I 3M  age in a Kosovar population.

  10. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvato, G; Patai, EZ; Nobre, AC

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on expl...

  11. Peritoneal dialysis in an ageing population: a 10-year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming increasingly prevalent and there are increasing numbers of older patients with advanced CKD. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a potential treatment. This study aims to compare PD outcomes in age-defined populations in the largest PD centre in the Republic of Ireland over 10 years.

  12. Age and growth of two populations of West Coast steenbras ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... density-dependent competition for food, or biochemical genetic variations between the two populations, are possible reasons for the geographic differences found in the growth rates and length-at-age. Slow growth and longevity are characteristics of West Coast steenbras that make it extremely susceptible to overfishing; ...

  13. Polypharmacy and falls in the middle age and elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ziere; J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); A. Hofman (Albert); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAim: Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. We studied the association between multiple drug use (polypharmacy) and falls in the elderly. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study. The participants were 6928 individuals aged ≥55

  14. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of active and healthy aging (AHA) in octogenarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Kirsi K; Strandberg, Timo E; Stenholm, Sari S; Strandberg, Arto Y; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Salomaa, Veikko V; Tilvis, Reijo S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate clinical and laboratory variables associated with good subjective and objective health ("active and healthy aging", AHA) in a cohort of octogenarian men. Cross-sectional analyses of a longitudinal study. The Helsinki Businessmen Study in Finland. A socioeconomically homogenous cohort of men (baseline n = 3293), born in 1919-1934, has been followed up from the 1960s. From 2000, the men have been regularly sent mailed questionnaires and mortality has been retrieved from national registers. In 2010 survey, AHA was defined as independently responding to the mailed survey, feeling happy without cognitive or functional impairments and without major diseases. In 2010/11, a random subgroup men was clinically investigated and survivors with healthy and nonhealthy aging were compared. By 2010, 1788 men of the baseline cohort had died, and 894 men responded to the mailed survey. 154 (17.2 %) of those fulfilled the present AHA criteria. Increasing number of criteria were negatively (P active and healthy aging over their life course, which was significantly related to markers of frailty but not to the traditional vascular risk factors.

  16. Cranberry interacts with dietary macronutrients to promote healthy aging in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Laslo, Mara; Sun, Yaning; Wheeler, Charles T; Sun, Xiaoping; Zou, Sige

    2014-08-01

    Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar-low protein, and low sugar-high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar-high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar-low protein diet but not with the low sugar-high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly's resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2013.

  17. The Italian reference sites of the European innovation partnership on active and healthy ageing: Progetto Mattone Internazionale as an enabling factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illario, Maddalena; De Luca, Vincenzo; Tramontano, Giovanni; Menditto, Enrica; Iaccarino, Guido; Bertorello, Lorenzo; Palummeri, Ernesto; Romano, Valeria; Moda, Giuliana; Maggio, Marcello; Barbolini, Mirca; Leonardini, Lisa; Addis, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Ageing population implies an increasing demand for health care services and resources, unsustainable according to current previsions. The European Commission is tackling this challenge throughout initiatives such as the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP-AHA), where all the efforts are aligned to the common goal of adding two active and healthy years to the life of European Union (EU) citizens. We presented the collaborative efforts of Italian Reference Site Collaborative Network 2012-2015. Italian regions joined forces through the "Progetto Mattone Internazionale" of the Ministry of Health developing several national and international collaborations. Activities from all five Italian reference sites are presented with different good practices and scale-up approaches for improving health in ageing population. The simultaneous development of these activities allowed the strengthening of the coordination of Italian stakeholders in the European arena fostering collaboration and supporting the streamlining of the Italian regions still outside these projects.

  18. Dissociating Effects of Global SWS Disruption and Healthy Aging on Waking Performance and Daytime Sleepiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, John A.; Stanley, Neil; Deacon, Stephen; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To contrast the effects of slow wave sleep (SWS) disruption and age on daytime functioning. Design: Daytime functioning was contrasted in three age cohorts, across two parallel 4-night randomized groups (baseline, two nights of SWS disruption or control, recovery sleep). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: 44 healthy young (20-30 y), 35 middle-aged (40-55 y), and 31 older (66-83 y) men and women. Interventions: Acoustic stimulation contingent on appearance of slow waves. Measurements and Results: Cognitive performance was assessed before sleep latency tests at five daily time-points. SWS disruption resulted in less positive affect, slower or impaired information processing and sustained attention, less precise motor control, and erroneous implementation, rather than inhibition, of well-practiced actions. These performance impairments had far smaller effect sizes than the increase in daytime sleepiness and differed from baseline to the same extent for each age group. At baseline, younger participants performed better than older participants across many cognitive domains, with largest effects on executive function, response time, sustained attention, and motor control. At baseline, the young were sleepier than other age groups. Conclusions: SWS has been considered a potential mediator of age-related decline in performance, although the effects of SWS disruption on daytime functioning have not been quantified across different cognitive domains nor directly compared to age-related changes in performance. The data imply that two nights of SWS disruption primarily leads to an increase in sleepiness with minor effects on other aspects of daytime functioning, which are different from the substantial effects of age. Citation: Groeger JA, Stanley N, Deacon S, Dijk DJ. Dissociating effects of global sws disruption and healthy aging on waking performance and daytime sleepiness. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1127-1142. PMID:24882908

  19. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Methods Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014–1020, 2006). Age-de...

  20. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Age dependent white matter lesions and brain volume changes in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles was meas......The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles...... was measured. An almost linear increase in the number of volunteers with WMHL was seen with aging for males and females. With aging a significant decrease in the volume of the cerebral hemispheres was found for males, and a significant increase in the volume of the lateral ventricles was seen for both males...... and females. Our results suggest that with aging central atrophy increases more (relatively) than cortical atrophy. No correlation was found between the decreasing volume of the cerebral hemispheres and the increasing number and size of WMHL, nor between the increasing volume of the lateral ventricles...

  2. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng

    2016-05-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation.

  3. Dual regression physiological modeling of resting-state EPI power spectra: Effects of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viessmann, Olivia; Möller, Harald E; Jezzard, Peter

    2018-02-02

    Aging and disease-related changes in the arteriovasculature have been linked to elevated levels of cardiac cycle-induced pulsatility in the cerebral microcirculation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), acquired fast enough to unalias the cardiac frequency contributions, can be used to study these physiological signals in the brain. Here, we propose an iterative dual regression analysis in the frequency domain to model single voxel power spectra of echo planar imaging (EPI) data using external recordings of the cardiac and respiratory cycles as input. We further show that a data-driven variant, without external physiological traces, produces comparable results. We use this framework to map and quantify cardiac and respiratory contributions in healthy aging. We found a significant increase in the spatial extent of cardiac modulated white matter voxels with age, whereas the overall strength of cardiac-related EPI power did not show an age effect. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  5. Population age structure and asset returns: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterba, J M

    1998-10-01

    "This paper investigates the association between population age structure, particularly the share of the population in the 'prime saving years' 45-60, and the returns on stocks and bonds. The paper is motivated by the claim that the aging of the 'Baby Boom' cohort in the United States is a key factor in explaining the recent rise in asset values. It also addresses the associated claim that asset prices will decline when this large cohort reaches retirement age and begins to reduce its asset holdings. This paper begins by considering household age-asset accumulation profiles. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances suggest that while cross-sectional age-wealth profiles peak for households in their early 60s, cohort data on the asset ownership of the same households show a much less pronounced peak.... The paper then considers the historical relationship between demographic structure and real returns on Treasury bills, long-term government bonds, and corporate stock. The results do not suggest any robust relationship between demographic structure and asset returns.... The paper concludes by discussing factors such as international capital flows and forward-looking behavior on the part of market participants that could weaken the relationship between age structure and asset returns in a single nation." excerpt

  6. Effects of combined healthy lifestyle factors on functional vascular aging: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Leila; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; van Rosmalen, Joost; van Rooij, Frank; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate whether components of a healthy lifestyle, combined and individually, are associated with arterial stiffness as a marker of functional vascular aging. We included 3235 participants aged 61-96 years from the Rotterdam Study. Measures of arterial stiffness included: aortic pulse wave velocity and carotid distensibility coefficient. Participants were scored one point for each of healthy lifestyle factors: consumption of five or more of fruits and/or vegetables per day, 75 min or more vigorous physical activity per week, 18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 24. 9, never smoked and light-to-moderate alcohol intake (maximum seven glasses for women and 14 glasses for men) per week. Also a combined score (0-5) was computed by adding the five factors. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of healthy lifestyle and measures of arterial stiffness adjusting for confounders. Participants had -0.113 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.196, -0.029] difference in mean aortic pulse wave velocity m/s per unit increment of the lifestyle factors score, independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Higher fruit and vegetable consumption -0.221 (95% CI: -0.409, -0.034) and physical activity -0.239 (95% CI: -0.433, -0.044) were also significantly associated with reduced aortic pulse wave velocity. The corresponding estimates in carotid distensibility coefficient lacked statistical significance when we adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Combining multiple healthy lifestyle factors is associated with reduced aortic stiffness, a measure of functional vascular aging and independent of cardiovascular risk factors.

  7. Ages and stages questionnaires: adaptation to an Arabic speaking population and cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; Sinno, Durriyah; Ammous, Farah; Yassin, Walid; Al-Shaar, Laila; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of developmental delay is essential to initiate early intervention. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) correlate well with physician's assessment and have high predictive value. No such tool exists in Arabic. Translate and test the applicability and reliability of Arabic translated Ages and Stages Questionnaires (A-ASQ) in an Arabic speaking population. 733 healthy children were assessed. ASQ-II for 10 age groups (4-60 months) were translated to Arabic, back translations and cultural adaptation were performed. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Cronbach's alpha (Cα). Mean scores per domain were compared to US normative scores using t-test. A-ASQ, after culturally relevant adaptations, was easily administered for 4-36 months age groups but not for 4-5 year old due to numerous cultural differences in the later. For the 4-36 month age groups Pearson CC ranged from 0.345 to 0.833. The internal consistency coefficients Cα scores ranged from 0.111 to 0.816. Significant differences were found in the mean domain scores of all age groups between Lebanese and US normative sample (p-value internal consistency and reliability in the younger age groups. It proved to be culturally sensitive, which should be taken into consideration when adapting such tool to non-western populations. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-specific effects of estrogen receptors' polymorphisms on the bone traits in healthy fertile women: the BONTURNO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirazzoli Antonella

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal characteristics such as height (Ht, bone mineral density (BMD or bone turnover markers are strongly inherited. Common variants in the genes encoding for estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and beta (ESR2 are proposed as candidates for influencing bone phenotypes at the population level. Methods We studied 641 healthy premenopausal women aged 20–50 years (yrs participating into the BONTURNO study. Exclusion criteria were irregular cyclic menses, low trauma fracture, metabolic bone or chronic diseases. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX, osteocalcin (OC, and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP were measured in all enrolled subjects, who underwent to lumbar spine (LS, total hip (TH and femoral neck (FN BMD evaluation by DXA. Five hundred seventy Caucasian women were genotyped for ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms. Results Although no genotype differences were found in body parameters, subjects with combined ESR1 CCGG plus ESR2 AA-AG genotype were taller than those with opposite genotype (P = 0.044. Moreover, ESR1 rs2234693 genotypes correlated with family history of osteoporosis (FHO and hip fracture (FHF (P When clustered by age, 20–30 yrs old subjects, having at least one ESR1 rs2234693 C allele presented lower LS- (P = 0.008 and TH-BMD (P = 0.047 than TT genotypes. In 41–50 yrs age, lower FN-BMD was associated with ESR2 AA (P = 0.0180 subjects than in those with the opposite genotype. ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms did not correlate with age-adjusted values of OC, CTX and P1NP. Conclusion These findings support the presence of age-specific effects of ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms on various skeletal traits in healthy fertile women.

  9. 'Aussie normals': an a priori study to develop clinical chemistry reference intervals in a healthy Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, G; Cavanaugh, J A; Potter, J M; Abhayaratna, W P; West, N P; Glasgow, N; Hawkins, C; Armbruster, D; Oakman, C; Hickman, P E

    2015-02-01

    Development of reference intervals is difficult, time consuming, expensive and beyond the scope of most laboratories. The Aussie Normals study is a direct a priori study to determine reference intervals in healthy Australian adults. All volunteers completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and exclusion was based on conditions such as pregnancy, diabetes, renal or cardiovascular disease. Up to 91 biochemical analyses were undertaken on a variety of analytical platforms using serum samples collected from 1856 volunteers. We report on our findings for 40 of these analytes and two calculated parameters performed on the Abbott ARCHITECTci8200/ci16200 analysers. Not all samples were analysed for all assays due to volume requirements or assay/instrument availability. Results with elevated interference indices and those deemed unsuitable after clinical evaluation were removed from the database. Reference intervals were partitioned based on the method of Harris and Boyd into three scenarios, combined gender, males and females and age and gender. We have performed a detailed reference interval study on a healthy Australian population considering the effects of sex, age and body mass. These reference intervals may be adapted to other manufacturer's analytical methods using method transference.

  10. Allele and Genotype Distributions of DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in South Indian Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiboina Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various DNA repair pathways protect the structural and chemical integrity of the human genome from environmental and endogenous threats. Polymorphisms of genes encoding the proteins involved in DNA repair have been found to be associated with cancer risk and chemotherapeutic response. In this study, we aim to establish the normative frequencies of DNA repair genes in South Indian healthy population and compare with HapMap populations. Genotyping was done on 128 healthy volunteers from South India, and the allele and genotype distributions were established. The minor allele frequency of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A ( XPA G23A, Excision repair cross-complementing 2 ( ERCC2 /Xeroderma pigmentosum group D ( XPD Lys751Gln, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G ( XPG His46His, XPG Asp1104His, and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 ( XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were 49.2%, 36.3%, 48.0%, 23.0%, and 34.0% respectively. Ethnic variations were observed in the frequency distribution of these polymorphisms between the South Indians and other HapMap populations. The present work forms the groundwork for cancer association studies and biomarker identification for treatment response and prognosis.

  11. The epidemiology of dysphonia in the aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jeffrey P; Johns, Michael M

    2014-12-01

    The expanding elderly population continues to exert profound effects on the United States healthcare delivery system. This review summarizes the epidemiology of dysphonia in the aging population as well as its impact on quality of life and the emerging challenges of managing elderly patients with voice disorders. Although often underreported, dysphonia is present in as many as one in three elderly patients. The differential diagnosis for dysphonia in an aging patient is broad, and multifactorial causes are common. In the elderly, dysphonia exerts significant adverse effects on quality of life and often occurs against a background of multiple chronic medical conditions, polypharmacy, hearing loss, dysphagia, and neurologic disease. Recent data have demonstrated that elderly patients respond well to both surgical and nonsurgical treatments for voice disorders. Elderly patients and medical providers, as well as families and caregivers, must be educated about the prevalence of dysphonia in the aging population, its psychosocial impact, and available treatment options. Optimizing the care of voice disorders is essential to maximizing quality of life in aging patients.

  12. MRI of the brain in neurologically healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, O.; Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Ylikoski, A.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document the MRI appearances of the brain in healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. T2- and proton density-weighted axial slices were obtained in 61 volunteers, 30-86 years of age. After visual inspection, signal intensities of brain structures were measured on T2-weighted images. Age-related changes became increasingly apparent after age 50. The main findings were that signal intensity of the white matter increased concomitantly with widening of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces; that basal ganglia remained stable; that high-signal foci in white matter increased in number and size after the age of 50 years; that periventricular high-signal foci were constant after the age of 65 years. Our visual impression of a decrease in signal intensity of the central grey matter with age seems to be mistaken. Pathological processes should be suspected if periventricular foci are found in middle-aged or young subjects. (orig.). With 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Age-Modulated Associations between KIBRA, Brain Volume, and Verbal Memory among Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Stickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource modulation hypothesis suggests that the influence of genes on cognitive functioning increases with age. The KIBRA single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145, associated with episodic memory and working memory, has been suggested to follow such a pattern, but few studies have tested this assertion directly. The present study investigated the relationship between KIBRA alleles (T carriers vs. CC homozygotes, cognitive performance, and brain volumes in three groups of cognitively healthy adults—middle aged (ages 52–64, n = 38, young old (ages 65–72, n = 45, and older old (ages 73–92, n = 62—who were carefully matched on potentially confounding variables including apolipoprotein ε4 status and hypertension. Consistent with our prediction, T carriers maintained verbal memory performance with increasing age while CC homozygotes declined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance images showed an advantage for T carriers in frontal white matter volume that increased with age. Focusing on the older old group, this advantage for T carriers was also evident in left lingual gyrus gray matter and several additional frontal white matter regions. Contrary to expectations, neither KIBRA nor the interaction between KIBRA and age predicted hippocampal volumes. None of the brain regions investigated showed a CC homozygote advantage. Taken together, these data suggest that KIBRA results in decreased verbal memory performance and lower brain volumes in CC homozygotes compared to T carriers, particularly among the oldest old, consistent with the resource modulation hypothesis.

  14. Effects of serum phosphorus on vascular calcification in a healthy, adult population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kristin; Logomarsino, John V

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease has been associated with elevated serum phosphorus levels, which have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. This is commonly seen in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population where studies have shown that high phosphorus levels cause coronary artery calcification. Although studies have independently associated vascular stiffness and serum phosphorus in those with and without CKD, there are fewer data in individuals without CKD. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to analyze whether serum phosphorus levels are associated with cardiovascular calcification in healthy individuals. A systematic review of the literature that was conducted revealed 10 articles, all cross-sectional studies, that met eligibility criteria. These criteria were peer-reviewed studies on a healthy, adult population written in the English language. Studies lacking data on serum phosphorus and measured to assess its association with vascular calcification were excluded. Studies on subjects with CKD, other chronic diseases, or on children were also excluded. Of the 10 studies located, 8 indicated an association between serum phosphorus and vascular calcification. One study did not indicate an association. One study indicated a statistically significant association between serum phosphorus and vascular calcification prevalence, but not incidence. Studies were limited since no randomized controlled trials were available. This systematic review generates gaps in research. Due to considerable amounts of phosphorus additives in the food supply, there may be a connection to dietary phosphorus and vascular calcification. Additionally, phosphorus binders may assist in the prevention of vascular calcification but have not been studied in a healthy population. Further study on both dietary phosphorus restriction and phosphorus binders is needed. While 8 out of 10 cross-sectional studies found an association in this systematic review, the topic of vascular

  15. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  16. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diverse effects of a low dose supplement of lipidated curcumin in healthy middle aged people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiSilvestro Robert A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin extracts of turmeric are proposed to produce health benefits. To date, human intervention studies have focused mainly on people with existing health problems given high doses of poorly absorbed curcumin. The purpose of the current study was to check whether in healthy people, a low dose of a lipidated curcumin extract could alter wellness-related measures. Methods The present study was conducted in healthy middle aged people (40–60 years old with a low dose of curcumin (80 mg/day in a lipidated form expected to have good absorption. Subjects were given either curcumin (N = 19 or placebo (N = 19 for 4 wk. Blood and saliva samples were taken before and after the 4 weeks and analyzed for a variety of blood and saliva measures relevant to health promotion. Results Curcumin, but not placebo, produced the following statistically significant changes: lowering of plasma triglyceride values, lowering of salivary amylase levels, raising of salivary radical scavenging capacities, raising of plasma catalase activities, lowering of plasma beta amyloid protein concentrations, lowering of plasma sICAM readings, increased plasma myeloperoxidase without increased c-reactive protein levels, increased plasma nitric oxide, and decreased plasma alanine amino transferase activities. Conclusion Collectively, these results demonstrate that a low dose of a curcumin-lipid preparation can produce a variety of potentially health promoting effects in healthy middle aged people.

  18. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    to almost 100% from the age of 10 years. The repeatability of 3 approved measurements was 1.6 ppb (95% CI, 1.49-1.64 ppb). CONCLUSION: FE NO in healthy children is below 15 to 25 ppb depending on age and self-reported atopy. Measurement of FE NO by NIOX is simple and safe and has a good repeatability...... NO was measured in healthy subjects of 4 to 17 years according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (single breath online, exhalation flow 50 mL/s) with a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden) in 3 European and 2 US centers. Each child performed 3...... NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...

  19. On the preservation of vigilant attention to semantic information in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David R; Hasher, Lynn

    2017-07-01

    Despite decades of research on younger adults, little is known about the way in which vigilant attention is affected by healthy aging, and the small body of work that does exist has yielded mixed findings. Prior examinations of aging and vigilant attention have focused almost exclusively on sensory/perceptual tasks despite the fact that many real-world vigilance tasks are semantic in nature and it has been shown that older adults exhibit memory and attention deficits in semantic tasks in other domains. Here, we present the first empirical investigation of vigilant attention to verbal stimuli in healthy normal aging. In Experiment 1 we find that older adults are just as able as younger adults to identify critical targets defined by category membership (both overall and over time). In Experiment 2, we increase the difficulty of the task by changing the target category from one block to the next, but again find no age-group effects in accuracy. Response time data, however, show that older adults respond more slowly and subjective ratings indicate that older adults experience higher workload and arousal compared to their younger counterparts. The practical as well as theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. [Construction of a physiological aging scale for healthy people based on a modified Delphi method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yao; Zhou, Xuan; Deng, Pengfei; Liao, Xiong; Wu, Lei; Zhou, Jianming; Huang, Helang

    2016-04-01

    To build a physiological aging scale for healthy people.
 We collected age-related physiologic items through literature screening and expert interview. Two rounds of Delphi were implemented. The importance, feasibility and the degree of authority for the physiological index system were graded. Using analytic hierarchy process, we determined the weight of dimensions and items.
 Using Delphy mothod, 17 physiological and other professional experts offered the results as follow: coefficient of expert authorities Cr was 0.86±0.03, coordination coefficients for the first and second round were 0.264(χ2=229.691, Paging scale for healthy people included 3 dimensions, namely physical form, feeling movement and functional status. Each dimension had 8 items. The weight coefficients for the 3 dimensions were 0.54, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively. The Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale was 0.893, the reliability was 0.796, and the variance of the common factor was 58.17%.
 The improved Delphi method or physiological aging scale is satisfied, which can provide reference for the evaluation of aging.

  1. Brain volumes in healthy adults aged 40 years and over: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Beltramello, Alberto; Bonetti, Matteo; Bono, Giorgio; Falini, Andrea; Magnani, Giuseppe; Minonzio, Giorgio; Piovan, Enrico; Alaimo, Giuseppina; Ettori, Monica; Galluzzi, Samantha; Locatelli, Enrico; Noiszewska, Malgorzata; Testa, Cristina; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2005-08-01

    Gender and age effect on brain morphology have been extensively investigated. However, the great variety in methods applied to morphology partly explain the conflicting results of linear patterns of tissue changes and lateral asymmetry in men and women. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of age, gender and laterality on the volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in a large group of healthy adults by means of voxel-based morphometry. This technique, based on observer-independent algorithms, automatically segments the 3 types of tissue and computes the amount of tissue in each single voxel. Subjects were 229 healthy subjects of 40 years of age or older, who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) for reasons other than cognitive impairment. MR images were reoriented following the AC-PC line and, after removing the voxels below the cerebellum, were processed by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99). GM and WM volumes were normalized for intracranial volume. Women had more fractional GM and WM volumes than men. Age was negatively correlated with both fractional GM and WM, and a gender x age interaction effect was found for WM, men having greater WM loss with advancing age. Pairwise differences between left and right GM were negative (greater GM in right hemisphere) in men, and positive (greater GM in left hemisphere) in women (-0.56+/-4.2 vs 0.99+/-4.8; p=0.019). These results support side-specific accelerated WM loss in men, and may help our better understanding of changes in regional brain structures associated with pathological aging.

  2. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M.; Fusilli, S.; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm 3 per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  3. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Fusilli, S. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Clinical Pathology; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Division of Endocrinology

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm{sup 3} per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  4. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha K Rochat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. OBJECTIVE: To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. MATERIALS: We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS. RESULTS: The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51% females and 58'267 (49% males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3% children under the age of 18 years. CONCLUSION: We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  5. AN AGING POPULATION: A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Barešová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the most currently discussed topics, the ageing population. Population aging can be discussed from different perspectives, exploring various challenges associated with it. The authors examined marketing communications from the point of view of a target group, over age 55. The main objective of this study was to find out which marketing communication tools those over age 55 prefer, including selected aspects of printed advertising. At the same time, it was examined whether there is a different gender perspective on this issue. To find out answers to the main question of this study, we conducted quantitative research by using a questionnaire survey among the population over age 55 living in the Czech Republic (Zlín Region. The results of this study were compared with the results of a previous study conducted in 2014, focusing on the marketing communication tools targeted at the 55+ group from the point of view of companies. The research results have shown that the target groups’ most effective (preferred marketing communication tools are printed materials (leaflets and catalogues, sales pr