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Sample records for healthy elderly group

  1. Comparison of the Mini Mental State Examination and depressive symptoms between high cardiovascular risk and healthy community elderly groups

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    da Costa, Amanda Lucas; Varela, Juliana Santos; Mazetti, Osmar; Restelatto, Luciane; Costa, Andry Fitterman; Godinho, Claudia; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Picon, Paulo D.; Chaves, Márcia L.

    2008-01-01

    The aging of the population is a universal phenomenon with direct consequences upon the public health system. One of the main repercussions of the growth in this sector of the population is the increased prevalence of disorders such as dementia and depression which are very frequent among the elderly. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, dementia and depression have been addressed in many recent investigations. Objectives To evaluate the relationship of cognitive performance and depressive symptoms with cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Methods 94 high cardiovascular risk elderly patients and 160 healthy community elderly were evaluated cross-sectionally. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) were used as the main measures. The cutoff for presence of depression was 6 on the GDS. Results The high cardiovascular risk elderly group showed significantly lower scores on the MMSE (p<0.001) and was significantly associated to depression (p<0.001), independently of education. The logistic regression analysis for depression as the dependent variable, age and group (healthy community or high cardiovascular risk elderly) were kept in the final equation. Higher age (Odds Ratio=0.92; 95% CI 0.86–0.98) and high cardiovascular risk elderly (OR=2.99; 95% CI 1.36–6.59) were associated to depression. Conclusions The present findings corroborate the different cognitive performance of elderly with high cardiovascular risk factors and the association of depressive symptoms with this group. PMID:29213588

  2. THE SOCIALIZATION OF ELDERS IN COEXISTENCE GROUPS AS A POSSIBILITY OF A HEALTHY AGING

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    Maria Izabel da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify elements from the participation of oldiers in coexistence groups, based in the professional exercise of the social worker. It comes of a interdisciplinary investigation carried out with senior groups in Florianopolis/SC, that results evinced the point of the coexistence group in their lifes as to the process of socialization and prevention of social isolation, contributing, in such a way, to the democratic process under construction, as well as the amplification and consolidation of the citizenship and human rights.

  3. Evaluation of serum trace element, biochemical and hematological data of a healthy elderly group residing in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, N.M.; Jaluul, O.; Jacob-Filho, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, blood serum trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Results obtained showed that more than 93% of the studied individuals presented most of the serum trace element concentrations and of the hematological and biochemical data within the reference values used in clinical laboratories. However, the percentage of elderly presenting recommended low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations was low (70%). The study indicated positive correlation between the concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.06). (author)

  4. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

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    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. A pilot randomized controlled trial using EEG-based brain-computer interface training for a Chinese-speaking group of healthy elderly.

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    Lee, Tih-Shih; Quek, Shin Yi; Goh, Siau Juinn Alexa; Phillips, Rachel; Guan, Cuntai; Cheung, Yin Bun; Feng, Lei; Wang, Chuan Chu; Chin, Zheng Yang; Zhang, Haihong; Lee, Jimmy; Ng, Tze Pin; Krishnan, K Ranga Rama

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cognitive training (CT) can improve the cognitive functioning of the elderly. CT may be influenced by cultural and linguistic factors, but research examining CT programs has mostly been conducted on Western populations. We have developed an innovative electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) CT program that has shown preliminary efficacy in improving cognition in 32 healthy English-speaking elderly adults in Singapore. In this second pilot trial, we examine the acceptability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of our BCI CT program in healthy Chinese-speaking Singaporean elderly. Thirty-nine elderly participants were randomized into intervention (n=21) and wait-list control (n=18) arms. Intervention consisted of 24 half-hour sessions with our BCI-based CT training system to be completed in 8 weeks; the control arm received the same intervention after an initial 8-week waiting period. At the end of the training, a usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered. Efficacy was measured using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), which was translated and culturally adapted for the Chinese-speaking local population. Users were asked about any adverse events experienced after each session as a safety measure. The training was deemed easily usable and acceptable by senior users. The median difference in the change scores pre- and post-training of the modified RBANS total score was 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0-16.0, P=0.042) higher in the intervention arm than waitlist control, while the mean difference was 9.0 (95% CI: 1.7-16.2, P=0.017). Ten (30.3%) participants reported a total of 16 adverse events - all of which were graded "mild" except for one graded "moderate". Our BCI training system shows potential in improving cognition in both English- and Chinese-speaking elderly, and deserves further evaluation in a Phase III trial. Overall, participants

  6. A pilot randomized controlled trial using EEG-based brain–computer interface training for a Chinese-speaking group of healthy elderly

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    Lee TS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tih-Shih Lee,1 Shin Yi Quek,1 Siau Juinn Alexa Goh,1 Rachel Phillips,2 Cuntai Guan,3 Yin Bun Cheung,4 Lei Feng,5 Chuan Chu Wang,3 Zheng Yang Chin,3 Haihong Zhang,3 Jimmy Lee,6 Tze Pin Ng,5 K Ranga Rama Krishnan1 1Department of Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 2Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore; 3Institute for Infocomm Research, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; 4Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 5Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 6Department of General Psychiatry/Department of Research, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore Background: There is growing evidence that cognitive training (CT can improve the cognitive functioning of the elderly. CT may be influenced by cultural and linguistic factors, but research examining CT programs has mostly been conducted on Western populations. We have developed an innovative electroencephalography (EEG-based brain–computer interface (BCI CT program that has shown preliminary efficacy in improving cognition in 32 healthy English-speaking elderly adults in Singapore. In this second pilot trial, we examine the acceptability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of our BCI CT program in healthy Chinese-speaking Singaporean elderly.Methods: Thirty-nine elderly participants were randomized into intervention (n=21 and waitlist control (n=18 arms. Intervention consisted of 24 half-hour sessions with our BCI-based CT training system to be completed in 8 weeks; the control arm received the same intervention after an initial 8-week waiting period. At the end of the training, a usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered. Efficacy was measured using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS, which was translated and culturally adapted for the Chinese-speaking local population. Users were asked

  7. GH administration and discontinuation in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Rasmussen, M H

    2001-01-01

    GH administration results in increased lean body mass (LBM), decreased fat mass (FM) and increased energy expenditure (EE). GH therapy may therefore have potential benefits, especially in the elderly, who are known to have decreased function of the GH/IGF-I axis. Several studies have focused...... discontinuation on body composition, resting oxygen uptake (VO2), resting heart rate (HR) and GH related serum markers in healthy elderly men....

  8. Cognitive reserve in the healthy elderly: cognitive and psychological factors

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    Josef Zihl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.

  9. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

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    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly.

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    Adriano, Lia Silveira; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro Machado; Portela, Clarissa Lima de Melo; de Melo, Maria Luisa Pereira; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Soares, Nadia Tavares

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, an increase that may be associated with changes in lifestyle such as unhealthy dietary patterns. Although advanced age is a risk factor for NAFLD, no studies reporting this association in the elderly population were found. In the present study, the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the elderly was assessed. A study including 229 older adults was conducted. NAFLD diagnosis was defined as individuals whose ultrasound examination disclosed hepatic steatosis at any stage, in the absence of excess intake of alcoholic beverages. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal components analysis. Mean scores and standard errors of each dietary pattern were calculated for the groups with and without NAFLD, and mean scores of the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The prevalence ratios and 95 % CI were estimated for each tertile of the dietary pattern adherence scores using Poisson multiple regression models with robust variance. A total of 103 (45 %) elderly with NAFLD and four dietary patterns were identified: traditional, regional snacks, energy dense and healthy. Mean scores for adherence to the healthy pattern in the groups with and without NAFLD differed. NAFLD was inversely associated with greater adherence to the healthy pattern and directly associated with the regional snacks, after adjustment for confounders. In conclusion, healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with NAFLD in elderly.

  11. The comparison of Selective Attention Deficit in Dual Task Performance in Elderly Alzheimer Patients and Healthy Elderly Individuals

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    A. m. Azadian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare selective attention deficit in elderly Alzheimer patients and healthy elderly individuals using the dual task. Therefore, 23 subjects (11 females and 12 males age 62 to 81 years; 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and 10 healthy elderly subjects (EHI with normal cognitive function participated in this study. people with Alzheimer's disease. healthy people was selected through some neurologist identified Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ. After obtaining the average number of correct counting of months of the year in both simple and difficult cognitive task the overall error (E or Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE, and variable error (VE were calculated for the tracking task. Then each person performed 10 tasks simultaneously (under Dual-task in both simple and difficult mode. Analysis of variance in cognitive tasks showed that there was a significant interaction between task difficulty and risk of AD (p0.05. In other words, at dual conditions of tracking task, accuracy and consistency of both groups was equally reduced, which was most prominent in difficult conditions. This decrease indicates increased interference at response level due to defects in the mechanisms of selective attention in dual cognitive and tracking tasks and both groups.

  12. Prevalence of sarcopenia in healthy community-dwelling elderly in an urban area of Barcelona (Spain).

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    Masanes, F; Culla, A; Navarro-Gonzalez, M; Navarro-Lopez, M; Sacanella, E; Torres, B; Lopez-Soto, A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in a cohort of healthy community-dwelling elderly in an urban area in Barcelona (Spain) for native benchmarks and compare them with those published in other geographical areas. We prospectively evaluated a series of 200 healthy elderly in the community with preserved functional capacity and absence of cognitive impairment. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment and determined anthropometric data, muscle mass (MM) and the muscle mass index (MMI). Assessment of muscle mass was performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The cut-off point for defining sarcopenia MMI was established as less than 2 SD of the mean of a reference group comprising 220 healthy volunteers (20-42 years) in the same area. Results were compared with studies undertaken in the USA, France and Taiwan. The cut-off points obtained were 8.31 Kg/m(2) for men and 6.68 Kg/m2 for women, being similar to those observed in France and Taiwan but different from the USA. The prevalence of sarcopenia observed was 33% for elderly women and 10% for males. On comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia in the four populations, we observed some differences, particularly in males. We have defined reference values for sarcopenia, determined by BIA, in our setting. We also observed a remarkable prevalence of sarcopenia in the healthy elderly community, especially in females, showing some differences from those in other geographical regions.

  13. The Effect of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Myostastin in Healthy Elderly Men

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    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion Plasma Myostatin decreased significantly in the response to endurance exercise, in healthy elderly men. Presumably, according to the results of this study, prescription of endurance exercise may decrease Myostatin and subsequently sarcopenia in elderly people.

  14. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

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    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  15. Memory and metamemory performance in Alzheimer's disease and healthy elderly: the Contextual Memory Test (CMT).

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    Gil, N; Josman, N

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of the Contextual Memory Test (CMT) to differentiate between elderly people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison to healthy elderly people. Specifically, the objectives were to compare for differences between and within the groups on components of memory, including immediate and delayed recall as well as recognition. In addition, parameters of metamemory skills, such as general awareness, self-prediction of memory capacity, self-estimation, strategy use and use of contextual information, as well as the correlation between self-awareness and actual performance in both groups, were investigated. The sample consisted of 60 elderly participants, including 30 people diagnosed with AD who were assigned to the research group and 30 people matched for age, gender and educational level who were assigned to the control group. The results provide support for the hypothesis positing differences in memory performance between healthy elderly participants and those suffering from AD, particularly in immediate and delayed recall as well as in recognition. Moreover, findings indicate an improvement in memory performance under the cued condition (contextual), whereas improvement in the AD group proved to be significant only for immediate recall. The findings point to a distinct overestimation of memory ability predicted by both the AD and control groups. Following the memory task, however, the participants accurately estimated the number of items they remembered. In addition, significant correlations between the use of contextual and association strategies and the number of items remembered by both groups were obtained, in immediate as well as in delayed recall. Therefore, these findings support the CMT as a valuable memory and metamemory assessment tool for use with the AD population.

  16. Healthy Eating Exploratory Program for the Elderly: Low Salt Intake in Congregate Meal Service.

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    Seo, S; Kim, O Y; Ahn, J

    2016-03-01

    This study reported on an exploratory program to help the low income elderly improve healthy eating behavior, specifically by reducing salt intake. We conducted an exploratory program for 4 weeks for this study. The exploratory program involved offering menus with reduced salt and providing education on healthy eating. After the exploratory program, a survey of the elderly and in-depth interviews allowed us to evaluate the program for foodservice providers (dietitian, social workers, and volunteer workers). This study included both foodservice workers and elderly who actually used the foodservice in a congregate meal service system. This is a unique approach. A congregate meal service center in Seoul, Korea. Seventy four elderly in a congregate meal service center. Demographics were collected, and the healthy eating program and healthy eating education for elderly respondents were evaluated. The elderly showed high satisfaction with the exploratory program for healthy eating. We found no significant differences in satisfaction with the program between the elderly who attended education sessions and those who did not, but more of the elderly from the education sessions showed positive behavioral change intentions. The exploratory program influenced to reduce the salt intake of the elderly in congregate meal service. This study suggests cooperation of foodservice providers and the support of administrators is critical to the success of such programs.

  17. The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression of Elderly

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    SH Nemati Dehkordi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & objective: Global investigations show that the elderly population is increasing because of the health care developments. However, this group is continuously experiencing health problems for example, depression is one of their major problems. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of group reminiscence therapy on depression of elderly resident of Shahrekord, Iran. Methods and Materials: This is a clinical trial study. The sample was consisted of 64 elderly referring to retirement centre in Shahrekord in 1385 that were selected by convenience sampling, and then divided randomly into two groups: an experimental and a control group. Group reminiscence meetings for experimental group and group meetings for control group were formed each 8 session for one hour and a half. Depression level of investigated subjects’ pre and post intervention were assessed with the use of Geriatric Depression Scale. Descriptive and conceptual statistics were used for data analysis (Chi-square Test, mean - standard deviation- Paired t-test. Results: Findings of this study showed a significant difference between pre and post intervention, where the elderly depression mean score in experimental group changed from 17.95 to 12.99 (p=0.04 but no significant difference were observed in the control group. Conclusion: Considering the result of this study, it can be suggested that group reminiscence therapy is effective on the reduction of elderly depression level. Therefore, we can use this forgotten, easy and practicable and cheap technique in all nursing-homes and even at home.

  18. Subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance in a sample of healthy elderly

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    Paulo Caramelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory loss is a major complaint among the elderly population. However, the clinical significance of this symptom is variable and also controversial in the scientific literature. Objective: To compare the cognitive performance of two groups of healthy elderly, one group with and the other without, subjective memory complaints (SMC. Methods: Sixty cognitively intact elderly individuals (39 females and 21 males, aged 69.9±6.3 years and with educational level of 8.5±5.5 years, were included in the study. Participants were submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and to the Cornell depression scale in order to rule out global cognitive impairment and depression, respectively. Moreover, they answered the MAC-Q, a questionnaire devised to evaluate subjective impression of memory function. Subsequently, they were submitted to the digit span forward and backward, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery, and to the Frontal Assessment Battery. Results: Twenty-seven individuals had MAC-Q scores <25 and thus were classified as not having SMC, while 33 had MAC-Q scores ³25 and were considered to have SMC. No differences for age, gender, education and MMSE scores were found between the two groups. The comparison between the performance of the groups of complainers and non-complainers on the different cognitive tests yielded no significant difference, although there was a trend toward non-complainers performing better on incidental memory. Conclusions: The presence of SMC was not associated to objective memory impairment or to other cognitive deficits in this group of elderly individuals.

  19. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

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    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants ( n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength

  20. Strength Training and Kinematics Parameters of Gait in Healthy Female Elderly

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    Heydar Sadeghi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was under taken to consider the effect of strength training on some kinematics parameters of gait (step length, cadence and speed walking. Methods & Materials: Twenty-four healthy elderly women (with average and standard deviation age of 61.53±2.84 years, height of 157.1±5.5 cm, weight of 69.13±7.6 kg and BMI 28.1±3.6 kg/m participated in this study. The strength of lower limb assessed using leg press test. The subjects were randomly divided in to control and experimental group. Video camera, 3DMax, Premier and Photoshop soft ware’s were used to measure speed walking, cadence and step length before and after training program. The control group continued their daily activity, while experimental group were in eight weeks for strength training for lower limb and body stabilizer muscles. Within group differences using T-test for independent groups and between group differences were analyzed using by T-test for dependent group before and after training at significant level of 0.05. Results: The changes of speed walking and lower limb strength weren't significant in control group. While significant differences observed in step length and speed walking and lower limb strength in experimental group. In comparison between groups, except of cadence, step length, speed walking and lower limb strength showed significant increase in experimental group. Conclusion: The results confirmed the effectiveness of strength training and increasing lower limb and stabilizer muscles strength on step length and speed walking in healthy elder women.

  1. Microheterogeneity of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in healthy elderly subjects: patterns obtained by crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis.

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    Kawerk, N; Succari-Aderschlag, M; Foglietti, M J

    1991-10-14

    Total serum alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration and concanavalin A-dependent microheterogeneity were studied in 31 healthy elderly subjects (18 men, 13 women, 71 to 76 yr old). Crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis (CAIE) revealed three microheterogeneity variants of AGP: non-reactive, weakly reactive and strongly reactive with ConA. Two patterns were found in both elderly men and women, i.e. a normal pattern and one with an increase in the non-reactive form. Mean serum AGP levels in the elderly subjects with slightly higher than in a reference group of younger subjects. The Con A non-reactive form of AGP was increased in 42% of the elderly population. An increase in the non-reactive form of AGP in CAIE should be considered as general expression of chronic inflammation which is of no clinical relevance.

  2. Exercise testing and hemodynamic performance in healthy elderly persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitzhusen, J.C.; Hickler, R.B.; Alpert, J.S.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effect of age on cardiovascular performance, 39 healthy elderly men and women, 70 to 83 years old, underwent treadmill thallium-201 exercise perfusion imaging and radionuclide equilibrium angiography at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. Five volunteers who had a positive exercise thallium test response were excluded from the study. Radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction, regional wall abnormalities, relative cardiac output, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume were measured. Seventy-four percent of the subjects maintained or increased their ejection fraction with exercise. With peak exercise, mean end-diastolic volume did not change, end-systolic volume decreased and cardiac output and stroke volume increased. Moreover, in 35% of the subjects, minor regional wall motion abnormalities developed during exercise. There was no significant difference in the response of men and women with regard to these variables. However, more women than men had difficulty performing bicycle ergometry because they had never bicycled before. Subjects who walked daily performed the exercise tests with less anxiety and with a smaller increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure

  3. Vitamin E supplementation protects erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress in healthy Chinese middle-aged and elderly people.

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    Sun, Yongye; Ma, Aiguo; Li, Yong; Han, Xiuxia; Wang, Qiuzhen; Liang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Elderly people are subject to higher levels of oxidative stress than are young people. Vitamin E, as a powerful antioxidant residing mainly in biomembranes, may provide effective protection against oxidative membrane damage and resultant age-related deterioration, especially in the elderly. We hypothesized that appropriate levels of vitamin E supplementation would protect erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress and thus improve membrane fluidity in healthy middle-aged and elderly people. To test this, we conducted a 4-month double-blind, randomized trial in which 180 healthy subjects (55-70 years old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: group C (control), and 3 treatment groups in which daily doses of 100 mg (VE1), 200 mg (VE2), and 300 mg (VE3) dl-α-tocopheryl acetate were administered. We measured plasma α-tocopherol concentration, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, erythrocyte hemolysis, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity at the beginning and end of the trial. After 4 months supplementation, plasma α-tocopherol concentrations in the 3 treatment groups had increased by 71%, 78%, and 95%, respectively (all P stress in healthy middle-aged to elderly people, at least in part by improving erythrocyte membrane fluidity and reducing erythrocyte hemolysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural light exposure, healthy elderly people and sleep : a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Schoutens, A.M.C.; Stapel, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Among 14 independently living, mobile and healthy elderly people in The Netherlands was conducted to see whether exposure duration of high intensity, natural, light is related to sleep quality, and more general the amplitude of the sleep-wake cycle. The elderly wore for 5 consecutive days in summer

  5. Higher Physical Activity is Associated with Increased Attentional Network Connectivity in the Healthy Elderly

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    Geon Ha Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential alterations in structural network properties related to physical activity (PA in healthy elderly. We recruited 76 elderly individuals with normal cognition from Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. All participants underwent the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and 3.0T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Participants were subdivided into quartiles according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores, which represents the amount of PA. Through graph theory based analyses, we compared global and local network topologies according to PA quartile. The higher PA group demonstrated better performance in speed processing compared to the lower PA group. Regional nodal strength also significantly increased in the higher PA group, which involved the bilateral middle frontal, bilateral inferior parietal, right medial orbitofrontal, right superior and middle temporal gyri. These results were further replicated when the highest and the lowest quartile groups were compared in terms of regional nodal strengths and local efficiency. Our findings that the regional nodal strengths associated with the attentional network were increased in the higher PA group suggest the preventive effects of PA on age-related cognitive decline, especially in attention.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Cromolyn and Ibuprofen in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.

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    Brazier, David; Perry, Robert; Keane, Jim; Barrett, Katie; Elmaleh, David R

    2017-11-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The combination of cromolyn and ibuprofen is being investigated as a treatment for early Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of cromolyn and ibuprofen co-administration in healthy elderly adult volunteers. In this open-labeled study, 26 subjects, aged 55-75 years, received co-administration of inhaled cromolyn (single dose 17.1 mg; double dose 34.2 mg total) and oral ibuprofen (single dose 10 mg; double dose 20 mg total). Blood sampling was performed for 6 h after co-administration in all subjects; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected in three to four subjects per cohort for 4 h following co-administration. Safety parameters, including adverse events (AEs), were monitored throughout the study. For cromolyn, the mean (±SD) maximum observed concentration (C max ) in plasma was 46.69 ± 32.97 and 96.75 ± 46.22 ng/ml after single- and double-dose inhalation, respectively [time to C max (t max ) ~22 min for each; terminal elimination half-life (t ½ ) ~1.8 h for each]. For ibuprofen, the plasma C max was 1090.98 ± 474.64 ng/ml and 2062.96 ± 655.13 ng/ml after single- and double-dose oral administration, respectively (t max ~1.6-1.8 h; t ½ ~1.9 h for each). For cromolyn, the CSF C max was 0.24 ± 0.08 ng/ml at 3.72 ± 0.70 h after single-dose administration and 0.34 ± 0.17 ng/ml at 3.45 ± 0.95 h after double-dose administration, and for ibuprofen, the CSF C max was 3.94 ± 1.29 ng/ml at 2.55 ± 0.96 h after single-dose administration and 8.93 ± 3.29 ng/ml at 3.15 ± 1.05 h after double-dose administration. Three (12%) subjects reported mild or moderate AEs which were unlikely to be related to study drug. The combination of cromolyn and ibuprofen was safe and well tolerated. The concentrations of cromolyn and ibuprofen observed in the CSF are considered sufficient to titrate the estimated daily amyloid production and the associated inflammatory response

  7. Developing an assessment based on physical fitness age to evaluate motor function in frail and healthy elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaichi, Masaki; Anan, Yuya; Hikiji, Yuto; Uratani, Sou

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify a method for assessing physical fitness age that is easy to use with both frail and healthy elderly women and to examine its validity. Principal component analysis was used to develop a formula of physical fitness age from four motor function variables. The subjects comprised 688 (75.7±6.0 years) elderly women, in order to develop a physical fitness scale. The formula for calculating physical fitness age was expressed as physical fitness age =-0.419× grip strength -0.096× balancing on one leg with eyes open -0.737×30 s chair stand +0.503× figure-of-8 walking test +0.47× chronological age +52.68. Measures obtained from subjects in the frail elderly (n=11, 73.0±2.3 years) and exercise (n=10, 70.8±3.1 years) groups were used to examine the validity of the assessment. The mean physical fitness age of the frail elderly group (79.0±3.7 years) was significantly higher than its mean chronological age (73.0±2.3 years, p fitness age of the exercise group (65.6±3.1 years) was significantly lower than the chronological age (70.8±3.1 years, p fitness age scores are applicable to frail and healthy elderly women. Physical fitness age is a valid measure of motor function in elderly women.

  8. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  9. HEALTH EDUCATION TO PROMOTE HEALTHY AGING WITH ELDERLY PATIENTS AT A REFERRAL CENTER FOR SOCIAL ASSISTANCE (CRAS IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Iori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nursing care for the elderly should aim to promote elderly health and reduction of foreseeable risk factors, as well as value and institute measures to the greatest possible degree of autonomy and independence in the elderly in relation to his life and especially about his Cheers. With this view, we carried out a study with 16 members aged from Linkages Strengthening Group of a Social Assistance Reference Center (CRAS, the municipality of Sinop - MT, to enhance understanding of the elderly as the promotion of health through education about risk and protective factors of the most common diseases and health problems among the elderly. We used the action research as a methodological reasons, because this means turning the subject both at the level of thought and in action. The results of this research showed a female predominance in the participation of older age groups, increased participation of older widows with education of 01 years to 04 years. The perception of the elderly as the educational activity performed was satisfactory, reporting that the dynamics of the talks were good, important and promoted new information. It was also found through most of the elderly respondents reported the need for health education activities for this audience. It is concluded that the elderly incorporated into their daily health promotion measures learned in the educational activity, with improvements in quality of life. As well, the need to implement more health education programs for the elderly aimed at promoting healthy aging.

  10. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is related to decline in verbal memory in healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, R; Behnke, S; Liepelt-Scarfone, I; Roeben, B; Pausch, C; Runkel, A; Heinzel, S; Niebler, R; Suenkel, U; Eschweiler, G W; Maetzler, W; Berg, D

    2016-05-01

    Deficits in cognition have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) already in the early and even in the pre-motor stages. Whilst substantia nigra hyperechogenicity measured by transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) represents a strong PD marker and is associated with an increased risk for PD in still healthy individuals, its association with cognitive performance in prodromal PD stages is not well established. Two different cohorts of healthy elderly individuals were assessed by TCS and two different neuropsychological test batteries covering executive functions, verbal memory, language, visuo-constructional function and attention. Cognitive performance was compared between individuals with hyperechogenicity (SN+) and without hyperechogenicity (SN-). In both cohorts, SN+ individuals performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing verbal memory (word list delayed recall P = 0.05, logical memory II P Color-Word Reading, P = 0.004) could only be shown in one of the two cohorts. No between-group effects were found in other cognitive tests and domains. These results indicate that individuals with the PD risk marker SN+ perform worse in verbal memory compared to SN- independent of the assessment battery. Memory performance should be assessed in detail in individuals at risk for PD. © 2016 EAN.

  11. Exploring spirituality in Iranian healthy elderly people: A qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Abolfazl; Anoosheh, Monireh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Foroughan, Mahshid

    2013-03-01

    Spirituality is recognized as a personally important matter to the elderly, and there are evidences of its impact on their health. The aim of this study was to explore the concept of spirituality from the perspectives of Iranian healthy elderly individuals. A conventional qualitative content analysis of carried out with 21 healthy elderly people from both male and female genders were chosen using a purposive sampling method in Tehran in 2010-2011. Data collection was done through semi structured interviews. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the participants' experiences and perceptions on spirituality, using a central question 'what characterizes the spirituality in the Iranian healthy elderly people?' THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES EMERGED FROM THE DATA ANALYSIS: (1) Spiritual health, with four sub categories including saying prayer as a calming factor; beneficence as a way to God; loss of psychological and spiritual support; faith as a way to happiness; (2) spiritual beliefs, with three sub categories including seeking help from God in difficulties; God's power over life and death; doing good deeds is the God's will; and (3) religious practice with three sub categories including saying prayer; reading Quran; and going to mosque, religious ceremonies and pilgrimage. In this study was found that spirituality was a fundamental element in elderly individuals' lives that help them to adapt with daily living conditions.

  12. THE MOVING OF EMOTION ON ELDERLY' S LIFE: A STUDY WITH A THIRD AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Braz Penna

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Qualitative study which aims was to describe the emotions in elderly life and to debate the relation between emotions and elderly health. The study was developed in a third age group at Sao Gonçalo city – RJ by participant observation and semi-structured interviews with ten elderly people. After the information analysis it was possible to identify the category "The Pendulum of Emotions" and two complementary subjects: rising and descending movement of emotions on living. The elderly evidenced that their emotions represents a continuous movement which reflects straightly to the feeling of being or not healthy and living well the third age is having autonomy of daily activities and freedom to participate of leisure and physical activities. Thus, the human being needs to valorize all the stages of his life, because the process of becoming old starts from the moment we were born and the quality of life is a daily conquest in this way. KEY WORDS: Aging; Mental Health; Quality of Life.

  13. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  14. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000-...

  15. Annually repeated influenza vaccination improves humoral responses to several influenza virus strains in healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. de Bruijn (Iris); E.J. Remarque (Edmond); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); S. le Cessie (Saskia); N. Masurel (Nic); G.L. Ligthart (Gerard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of annually repeated influenza vaccination on antibody formation is still under debate. In this study the effect of annually repeated influenza vaccination on haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody formation in the elderly is investigated. Between 1990 and 1993 healthy

  16. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  17. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-01-01

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 components were comparable in all groups. The P3, PNwm, and all oscillatory activity indices were altered in MCI cases compared to controls. Only three EEG indices distinguished the two control groups: alpha and beta ERD (dCON >  sCON) and beta ITC (dCON memory processes but mostly affects attention, resulting in an enhanced recruitment of attentional resources. In addition, cognitive decline alters neural firing synchronization at high frequencies (14-25 Hz) at early stages, and possibly affects lower frequencies (4-13 Hz) only at more severe stages.

  18. Effects of Group Counseling Based on Logo Therapy to Decrease Loneliness in Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Yazdanbakhsh

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion Group counseling based on logo therapy was found to decrease loneliness scores of elderly men. Therefore, the approach taken in this study can be considered as an appropriate method for psychological interventions in elderly men.

  19. Actively station: Effects on global cognition of mature adults and healthy elderly program using eletronic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nascimento Ordonez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies show that aging is accompanied by decline in cognitive functions but also indicate that interventions, such as training on electronic games, can enhance performance and promote maintenance of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Objective: To investigate the effects of an electronic game program, called Actively Station, on the performance of global cognition of adults aged over 50 years. Methods: 124 mature and elderly adults enrolled in the "Actively Station" cognitive stimulation program of São Caetano do Sul City, in the State of São Paulo, participated in training for learning of electronic games. Participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG n=102 and control group (CG n=22. Protocol: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, the scale of frequency of forgetfulness, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI, the Global Satisfaction with Life Scale, and two scales on learning in the training. Results: The cognitive performance of the TG improved significantly after the program, particularly in the domains of language and memory, and there was a decrease on the anxiety index and frequency of memory complaints, when compared to the CG. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of new stimuli, such as electronic games, can promote improvements in cognition and mood and reduce the frequency of memory complaints.

  20. Validity of the Italian telephone version of the mini-mental state examination in the elderly healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, Nicola; De Carolis, Antonella; Sepe-Monti, Micaela; Bomboi, Giuseppe; Stazi, Antonia; Bianchetti, Angelo; Giubilei, Franco

    2006-09-01

    The biggest challenge regarding cognitive prospective evaluations in the elderly is the identification of subjects that go on to develop cognitive impairment. In this study, we compared the Italian telephone version of the MMSE (Itel-MMSE) with both the MMSE and a battery of neuropsychological tests in a group of 107 healthy elderly subjects. The aim of the study was to identify a subset of subjects who, despite having an overall score within the normal range, performed poorly in the cognitive neuropsychological evaluation. The Itel-MMSE score showed a good internal consistency as well as a significant correlation with the MMSE score, age and education. A score of < or = 21 on the Itel-MMSE was the score which reflected the highest degree of sensitivity in the neuropsychological tests. There was a statistically significant difference between subjects with an Itel-MMSE score of < or = 21 and those with a score of 22 in age, education, Attentional Matrices and Copying Drawings. Despite some potential limitations, our results strongly suggest that the Itel-MMSE may be used as a screening test to identify healthy elderly subjects whose cognitive performance is poor.

  1. Being healthy: a grounded theory study of help seeking behaviour among Chinese elders living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenmi; Beaver, Kinta; Speed, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. "Being healthy" (the core category) with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders' concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non-help seeking and "self" rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.

  2. Difference in adherence to and influencing factors of a healthy lifestyle between middle-aged and elderly people in Korea: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ki Young; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Juhyun; Kim, Chang Yup

    2015-06-01

    Comprehensive research for factors related to healthy lifestyles of the elderly is limited. The present study aimed to elucidate the factors associated with adherence to a healthy lifestyle by age groups. The present study was based on data from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated crude proportions and adjusted proportions of cigarette smokers, problem alcohol drinkers, and physically inactive people in two age groups (40-59 years and ≥60 years). We carried out multilevel analysis to elucidate factors associated with healthy lifestyles. Of 3194 respondents included in the analysis, 1154 (36.13%) were aged 60 years or older. Older participants smoked less (23.0% vs 17.4%) and exercised less frequently (52.4% vs 66.9%; all P elderly (OR 1.037, 95% CI 1.005-1.070). Different factors were associated with healthy lifestyles of elderly people when compared with middle-aged people. In addition, local tax per capita, an area level variable, was more likely to be associated with smoking in the elderly than the middle-aged group. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Oral health status and diet habit of institutionalized elder group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the oral health status and diet habits of institutionalized elders in Lagos, Nigeria Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized elders in Lagos State, Nigeria. Age and sex matched non-institutionalized elderly were also ...

  4. [Elder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented.

  5. Performance of a sample of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and healthy elderly on a lexical decision test (LDT) as a measure of pre-morbid intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Serrao, Valéria Trunkl; Brucki, Sônia Maria Dozzi; Campanholo, Kenia Repiso; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Nitrini, Ricardo; Miotto, Eliane Correa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the performance of healthy elderly patients with aging-related pathologies (MCI) and patients with AD on a lexical decision test. Methods: The study included 38 healthy elderly subjects, 61 MCI and 26 AD patients from the Neurology Department of the Hospital das Clinicas, Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology Group. The neuropsychological instruments included the episodic memory test (RAVLT), subtests from the WAIS-III (Matrix Reasoning and...

  6. Neurophysiological basis of creativity in healthy elderly people: a multiscale entropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kanji; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Koichi; Mizukami, Kimiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Wada, Yuji

    2015-03-01

    Creativity, which presumably involves various connections within and across different neural networks, reportedly underpins the mental well-being of older adults. Multiscale entropy (MSE) can characterize the complexity inherent in EEG dynamics with multiple temporal scales. It can therefore provide useful insight into neural networks. Given that background, we sought to clarify the neurophysiological bases of creativity in healthy elderly subjects by assessing EEG complexity with MSE, with emphasis on assessment of neural networks. We recorded resting state EEG of 20 healthy elderly subjects. MSE was calculated for each subject for continuous 20-s epochs. Their relevance to individual creativity was examined concurrently with intellectual function. Higher individual creativity was linked closely to increased EEG complexity across higher temporal scales, but no significant relation was found with intellectual function (IQ score). Considering the general "loss of complexity" theory of aging, our finding of increased EEG complexity in elderly people with heightened creativity supports the idea that creativity is associated with activated neural networks. Results reported here underscore the potential usefulness of MSE analysis for characterizing the neurophysiological bases of elderly people with heightened creativity. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Healthy habits: what kind of guidance the elderly population is receiving from health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Thaynã Ramos; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of guidance on healthy habits received from health professionals by elderly and its relation to socioeconomic demographic, behavioral and health indicators, and the type of services. Cross sectional population based study including individuals aged 60 years or more in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seven guidance on healthy habits were evaluated: weight control, reduction in salt, sugar and fat intake, physical activity practice, not smoking and not drinking alcohol. Among the 1,451 elderly interviewed, 1,281 (88.3%) consulted in the last year. The orientations more refereed were to fat (61.7%) and salt (61.5%) intake reduction and physical activity (58.2%). Elderly who consulted three times or more and in services financed by the Unified Health System received more guidance. Those elderly from the socioeconomic classes A/B were more likely to receive guidance for weight control (RP = 1.27; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.70) and physical activity (RP = 1.34; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.69). The orientation from health professionals were uncommon and, in some cases, unfocused.

  8. Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh A Sorond

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Farzaneh A Sorond1,2, Lewis A Lipsitz2,4, Norman K Hollenberg3,5, Naomi DL Fisher31Department of Neurology, Stroke Division; 2Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA; 3Department of Medicine, Endocrine-Hypertension Division; 4Department of Medicine, Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MABackground and Purpose: Cerebral ischemia is a common, morbid condition accompanied by cognitive decline. Recent reports on the vascular health benefits of flavanol-containing foods signify a promising approach to the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Our study was designed to investigate the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa (FRC consumption on cerebral blood flow in older healthy volunteers.Methods: We used transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound to measure mean blood flow velocity (MFV in the middle cerebral artery (MCA in thirty-four healthy elderly volunteers (72 ± 6 years in response to the regular intake of FRC or flavanol-poor cocoa (FPC.Results: In response to two weeks of FRC intake, MFV increased by 8% ± 4% at one week (p = 0.01 and 10% ± 4% (p = 0.04 at two weeks. In response to one week of cocoa, significantly more subjects in the FRC as compared with the FPC group had an increase in their MFV (p < 0.05.Conclusions: In summary, we show that dietary intake of FRC is associated with a significant increase in cerebral blood flow velocity in the MCA as measured by TCD. Our data suggest a promising role for regular cocoa flavanol’s consumption in the treatment of cerebrovascular ischemic syndromes, including dementias and stroke.Keywords: cerebral blood flow, flavanol, cocoa, transcranial Doppler ultrasound

  9. DFT:B3LYP/3-21G theoretical insights on the confocal Raman experimental observations in skin dermis of healthy young, healthy elderly, and diabetic elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; Pereira, Liliane; dos Santos, Laurita; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Fávero, Priscila; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2016-12-01

    In the confocal Raman spectra of skin dermis, the band area in the spectral region of proline and hydroxyproline varies according to the age and health condition of the volunteers, classified as healthy young women, healthy elderly women, and diabetic elderly women. Another observation refers to the intensity variation and negative Raman shift of the amide I band. To understand these effects, we adopted a model system using the DFT/B3LYP:3-21G procedure, considering the amino acid chain formed by glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine, which interacts with two and six water molecules. Through these systems, polarizability variations were analyzed to correlate its values with the observed Raman intensities of the three groups of volunteers and to assign the vibrational spectra of the skin dermis. As a way to correlate other experimental trends, we propose a model of chemical reaction of water interchange between the bonding amino acids, in which water molecules are attached with glucose by hydrogen bonds. The theoretical results are in accordance with the observed experimental trends.

  10. Stress and Cognitive Reserve as independent factors of neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Centurion Cabral

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of cortisol and self-reported stress, as well as cognitive reserve, have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease pathology. However, there are no studies on the interaction of these variables. The present study aims to assess the associations of measures of cortisol, self-reported stress, and cognitive reserve with neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly people; besides, to test the interactions between these variables. Cross-sectional analyzes were conducted using data on stress, cognitive reserve and clinical conditions in 145 healthy elderly adults. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess executive functions, verbal memory and processing speed. Measurement of salivary cortisol at the circadian nadir was taken. A negative association between different stress measures and performance on tasks of memory, executive functions and processing speed was observed. Elderly people with higher cognitive reserve showed superior performance on all neuropsychological measures. No significant interaction between stress and cognitive reserve to neuropsychological performance was observed. These results indicate that older adults with high levels of stress and reduced cognitive reserve may be more susceptible to cognitive impairment.

  11. Effect of education on listening comprehension of sentences on healthy elderly: analysis of number of correct responses and task execution time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silagi, Marcela Lima; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2017-11-13

    To analyze the effect of education on sentence listening comprehension on cognitively healthy elderly. A total of 111 healthy elderly, aged 60-80 years of both genders were divided into two groups according to educational level: low education (0-8 years of formal education) and high education (≥9 years of formal education). The participants were assessed using the Revised Token Test, an instrument that supports the evaluation of auditory comprehension of orders with different working memory and syntactic complexity demands. The indicators used for performance analysis were the number of correct responses (accuracy analysis) and task execution time (temporal analysis) in the different blocks. The low educated group had a lower number of correct responses than the high educated group on all blocks of the test. In the temporal analysis, participants with low education had longer execution time for commands on the first four blocks related to working memory. However, the two groups had similar execution time for blocks more related to syntactic comprehension. Education influenced sentence listening comprehension on elderly. Temporal analysis allowed to infer over the relationship between comprehension and other cognitive abilities, and to observe that the low educated elderly did not use effective compensation strategies to improve their performances on the task. Therefore, low educational level, associated with aging, may potentialize the risks for language decline.

  12. Hypertension and white matter lesions are independently associated with apathetic behavior in healthy elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Uchino, Akira; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mmHg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.0 14-1.098 per mmHg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP≥90 mmHg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBP<80 group (P=0.011, analysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects. (author)

  13. Elderly Healthy Eating Diet-2005 Index Living in Urban Areas of Iran`s Markazi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aghanuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to assess elderlyhealthy eating diet” -2005 (HED-2005 quality and its relationship to their socio-demographic variables in healthy subjects aged 60 years and over who live in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province. Methods & Materials: This study was a descriptive-analytic survey that included 165 elderly in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province. Data were obtained via a general questionnaire and three 24-hours recalls. Results: The mean of overall HEI-2005 was 54.08. Ninty-three point three percent (93.3% of subjects consumed grains, 70.9% fruits, 84.2% whole fruit, 47.9% vegetables, 12.7% dark-orange vegetables and legumes, 37% dairy products, 40% meats, 18.8% oils, 40% saturated fats, 1.8% sodium and 1.2% discretionary calories (from solid fat and added sugar in optimal levels. Besides, none of the elderly people had a sufficient intake of whole grains. The HEI-2005 total score enhanced along with the increases in education level (P<0.05, income (P<0.01 and TV watching time (P<0.05. But, age and the HEI-2005 total score had an inverse relationship (P<0.001. Conclusion: Because the diet quality of elderly people in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province is low, they will benefit from the improvement of their diet quality. Also, they need to increase intakes of whole grains, dark-orange vegetables and legumes and plant oils, and reduce intakes of sodium and their energy levels from saturated fat and simple sugar. It should be pointed out that the government can help with the achievement of these objectives through some plans such as promoting their literacy level, income and nutritional knowledge.

  14. Dietary intake and physical performance in healthy elderly women: a 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Silvia; Ruggiero, Elena; Coin, Alessandra; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Perissinotto, Egle; Miotto, Fabrizia; Pintore, Giulia; Inelmen, Emine Meral; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    Aging is generally accompanied by changes in body composition, muscle mass and strength, leading to a decline in motor and functional performance. Physical activity and eating habits could be involved in modulating this paraphysiological deterioration. Aim of our study was to investigate changes in body composition, diet and physical performance in healthy, elderly females over a 3-year follow-up. 92 healthy elderly females (70.9±4.0 years) attending a twice-weekly mild fitness program were eligible for the study. They were assessed at baseline and again after 3 years in terms of clinical history, diet, body composition by DEXA, resting energy expenditure, handgrip strength, knee extensor isometric/isotonic strength, and functional performance measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After 3 years, women had a significant decline in muscle strength (∆ isotonic: -1.4±4.3 kg, ∆ isokinetic: -2.0±6.3 kg, ∆ handgrip: -3.2±5.0 kg; pmeter walking time (r: 0.34; p<0.01). With advancing age, physical performance declines even in healthy, fit females despite a spare of weight and body composition. This decline in physical activity could lead to a lower calorie intake, which would explain why there is no variation in body weight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wii Balance Board: Reliability and Clinical Use in Assessment of Balance in Healthy Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Puell, Vivian Neiva; Lattari, Eduardo; Machado, Sérgio; Otero Vaghetti, César Augusto; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Force plate is considered gold standard tool to assess body balance. However the Wii Balance Board (WBB) platform is a trustworthy equipment to assess stabilometric components in young people. Thus, we aim to examine the reliability of measures of center of pressure with WBB in healthy elderly women. Twenty one healthy and physically active women were enrolled in the study (age: 64 ± 7 years; body mass index: 29 ± 5 kg/m2. The WBB was used to assess the center of pressure measures in the individuals. Pressure was linearly applied to different points to test the platform precision. Three assessments were performed, with two of them being held on the same day at a 5- to 10-minute interval, and the third one was performed 48 h later. A linear regression analysis was used to find out linearity, while the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. The platform precision was adequate (R2 = 0.997, P = 0.01). Center of pressure measures showed an excellent reliability (all intraclass correlation coefficient values were > 0.90; p < 0.01). The WBB is a precise and reliable tool of body stability quantitative measure in healthy active elderly women and its use should be encouraged in clinical settings.

  16. Evaluation of vocal fold vibration with an assessment form for high-speed digital imaging: comparative study between healthy young and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Goto, Takao; Takano, Shingo; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Tayama, Niro

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a prospective study with a subjective assessment form for high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) to elucidate the features of vocal fold vibrations in vocally healthy subjects and to clarify gender- and age-related differences. Healthy adult volunteers participated in this study. They were divided into young (aged 35 and younger) and elderly (aged 65 and older) groups, and the scores of an assessment form for HSDI characteristics elaborated at our institution were statistically analyzed. Twenty-six young subjects (males: 9, females: 17; mean age: 27 years) and 20 elderly subjects (males: 8, females: 12; mean age: 72 years) were assigned to our study. Posterior gap and posterior-to-anterior longitudinal phase difference were characteristic to young females, whereas in young males, mucosal wave, anterior-to-posterior longitudinal phase difference, and supraglottic hyperactivity were frequent. In elderly males, axis shift, asymmetry, supraglottic hyperactivity, increased mucosal wave, lateral phase difference, and anterior-to-posterior longitudinal phase difference were frequent; and in elderly females, high incidence of lateral phase difference, atrophic change, anterior gap, and asymmetry were observed. The results show that the behaviors of vocal fold vibrations were diverse even in healthy subjects with no vocal complaints or history of laryngeal diseases, and hence, the diversity of vocal fold vibrations in normal subjects must be taken into account in evaluating vocal fold vibrations. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive and Reactive Locomotor Adaptability in Healthy Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Sebastian; Mademli, Lida; Mersmann, Falk; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2015-12-01

    Locomotor adaptability is based on the implementation of error-feedback information from previous perturbations to predictively adapt to expected perturbations (feedforward) and to facilitate reactive responses in recurring unexpected perturbations ('savings'). The effect of aging on predictive and reactive adaptability is yet unclear. However, such understanding is fundamental for the design and application of effective interventions targeting fall prevention. We systematically searched the Web of Science, MEDLINE, Embase and Science Direct databases as well as the reference lists of the eligible articles. A study was included if it addressed an investigation of the locomotor adaptability in response to repeated mechanical movement perturbations of healthy older adults (≥60 years). The weighted average effect size (WAES) of the general adaptability (adaptive motor responses to repeated perturbations) as well as predictive (after-effects) and reactive adaptation (feedback responses to a recurring unexpected perturbation) was calculated and tested for an overall effect. A subgroup analysis was performed regarding the factor age group [i.e., young (≤35 years) vs. older adults]. Furthermore, the methodological study quality was assessed. The review process yielded 18 studies [1009 participants, 613 older adults (70 ± 4 years)], which used various kinds of locomotor tasks and perturbations. The WAES for the general locomotor adaptability was 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.74, n = 11] for the older and 1.39 (95% CI 0.90-1.89, n = 10) for the young adults with a significant (p locomotor adaptability in general and predictive and reactive adaptation in particular remain highly effective in the elderly, showing only minor, not statistically significant age-related deficits. Consequently, interventions which use adaptation and learning paradigms including the application of the mechanisms responsible for an effective predictive and reactive dynamic stability

  18. Quality of Life and Gait in Elderly Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi, Carlos Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The process of aging could lead to seniors being more prone to falls, which affects their quality of life. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between quality of life and gait in the elderly. Methods We used World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief Brazilian version and the Dynamic Gait Index to assess fifty-six volunteers from the northeast of Brazil. Ages ranged from 60 to 85 years. Results The Dynamic Gait Index, which indicates the probability of falls, resulted in 36.3% of the sample presenting abnormal results. There was correlation between domain 2 (psychological and domain 4 (environment with domain 1(Physical and domain 3 (Social; a negative correlation between age and Domain 2; correlation between Question 1 (How would you rate your quality of life? and domains 1, 2, and 4 and no correlation between questions 1 and 2 (How satisfied are you with your health?. Question 2 was correlated with all of the domains. There was negative association between question 1 and falls, and a slight correlation between the Dynamic Gait Index scores and Question 1. Conclusion The self-perception of the study group about their quality of life was either good or very good, even though a considerable percentage of individuals had suffered falls or reported gait disturbances.

  19. Mobility Behavior of the Elderly: an attitude-based segmentation approach for a heterogeneous target group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    The western population is ageing. Based on the assumption that the elderly are a quite heterogeneous population group with an increasing impact on the transport system, mobility types of the elderly were identified. By means of 1,500 standardized telephone interviews, mobility behavior and possib...... of the diverse lifestyles, attitudes, travel behavior and needs of the elderly. Furthermore, it identifies starting points for the reduction of car use....

  20. The Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Elderly Participants and Geriatric Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M; Trappenburg, Marijke C; Leter, Morena J; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Sipilä, Sarianna; Sillanpää, Elina; Narici, Marco V; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Butler-Browne, Gillian; McPhee, Jamie S; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2015-01-01

    A consensus on the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, a common syndrome in the elderly, has not been reached yet. Prevalence rates vary between studies due to the use of different criteria encompassing different measures, correction factors and cutoff points. This study compared prevalence rates of sarcopenia using nine sets of diagnostic criteria applied in two different elderly populations. The study population encompassed 308 healthy elderly participants (152 males, 156 females; mean age 74 years) and 123 geriatric outpatients (54 males, 69 females; mean age 81 years). Diagnostic criteria included relative muscle mass, absolute muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Prevalence rates of sarcopenia varied between 0 and 15% in healthy elderly participants and between 2 and 34% in geriatric outpatients. This study clearly demonstrates the dependency of sarcopenia prevalence rates on the applied diagnostic criteria. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Human leukocyte antigen class I, class II, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms in a healthy elder Mexican Mestizo population

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    Llorente Luis

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence that an individual's genetic background is an important predisposing factor to longevity. In the present study we analysed the frequency of HLA class I, class II, as well as the TNF-α -308 polymorphism that may be related to an increased life span in Mexican Mestizo healthy elders. Results HLA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR SSO reverse dot blot. The TNF-α -308 polymorphism was assessed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was found in elderly women whereas this allele was not present in elderly males. The TNF2 allele was also increased in the elder group when compared to young controls. The frequencies of the remaining alleles tested were not statistically different among groups. Conclusion These data suggest an ethnicity independent tendency of HLA-DRB1*11 in elder females to increase life span and a possible role of the TNF2 allele with the successful remodelling of senescent immune system.

  2. Teaching Direct Practice Techniques for Work with Elders with Alzheimer's Disease: A Simulated Group Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.

    2003-01-01

    A role-play exercise about Alzheimer's disease was designed to teach group work with memory-impaired elders. Written comments from 26 social work students revealed four outcomes: demystifying practical knowledge, respect for diversity among memory-impaired individuals, increased awareness of elders' internal states, and awareness of the challenges…

  3. Gastrointestinal tract and the elderly: functional foods, gut microflora and healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, K; Doré, J

    2002-09-01

    Advances in science and medicine as well as improved living standards have led to a steady increase in life expectancy. Yet ageing is associated with increased susceptibility to degenerative or infectious diseases, which may be exacerbated by a poor nutritional status. The intestinal microflora will mediate crucial events towards the protection or degradation of health. It is hence essential and timely that strategies of preventive nutrition aimed at maintaining or improving the quality of life of the ageing population be developed. "CROWNALIFE" is a newly funded EuropeanUnion project, so called because of its emphasis on the preservation of the period of independence of the elderly, recognised as the "crown of life". The project aims at assessing age-related alterations and exploring strategies to restore and maintain a balanced healthy intestinal environment. Current knowledge on the composition and function of the human intestinal microflora is still improving with the use of better methodologies and yet their evolution with ageing has not been investigated in detail. There have been a few reports that putatively protective lactic acid bacteria, in general, and bifidobacteria, in particular, seem less represented in the elderly faecal flora. We have also observed an increase in species diversity of the dominant faecal microflora with ageing. This certainly warrants confirmation and is being addressed by the investigation of age-related changes in the structure and function of the intestinal flora of the elderly in countries across Europe. Ensuing results will constitute a baseline for functional-food based strategies aimed at providing health benefits for the elderly.

  4. Effect of Graded Unilateral Sanding Exercise on Metabolic and Cardiopulmonary Function in the Healthy and the Hemiparetic Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Muraki, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how 18 elderly subjects with cerebral vascular accident (CVA) (14 men and 4 women) and 19 healthy elderly subjects (6 men and 13 women) would respond to a five-step graded unilateral sanding activity. Three indicators of pulmonary function such as expiratory tidal volume, respiratory rate, and expiratory volume and four indicators of cardiometabolic function such as metabolic equivalents (METS), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pressure rat...

  5. Neural correlates of saccadic inhibition in healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alichniewicz, K. K.; Brunner, F.; Klünemann, H. H.; Greenlee, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on tasks that require saccadic inhibition declines with age and altered inhibitory functioning has also been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Although mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is assumed to be a high-risk factor for conversion to AD, little is known about changes in saccadic inhibition and its neural correlates in this condition. Our study determined whether the neural activation associated with saccadic inhibition is altered in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed decreased activation in parietal lobe in healthy elderly persons compared to young persons and decreased activation in frontal eye fields in aMCI patients compared to healthy elderly persons during the execution of anti-saccades. These results illustrate that the decline in inhibitory functions is associated with impaired frontal activation in aMCI. This alteration in function might reflect early manifestations of AD and provide new insights in the neural activation changes that occur in pathological ageing. PMID:23898312

  6. [Healthy eating support groups on Facebook: content and features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Ángela; Mayer, Miguel Ángel; Torres Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Suelves, Josep Maria; Armayones, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    To determine the features and use of groups related to healthy eating on Facebook. We carried out a cross-sectional study through the Internet. Using the API on Facebook, we included open groups related to healthy eating in the Spanish language. The variables studied were name, description, category, the number and gender of users, date of creation, number of posts, content of the first 20 posts, and the most recent update. We selected 281 open groups for inclusion in the study. Of these, 125 were excluded because the content was unrelated to healthy eating. Finally 156 groups were studied with 14,619 users (10,373 women [71%] and 3,919 men [26.8%]). Dietary products were promoted by 40% of the groups. Facebook is used as a means of communication and for sharing health information. Because many of these groups promote dietary products, their usefulness for health education is doubtful. Health organizations should participate in social media. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespón, Jesús; Rodella, Claudia; Rossini, Paolo M; Miniussi, Carlo; Pellicciari, Maria C

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task ( n -back task) during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials). A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  8. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cespón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task (n-back task during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials. A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  9. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  10. Low-dose B vitamins supplementation ameliorates cardiovascular risk: a double-blind randomized controlled trial in healthy Chinese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Li, Hongtian; Zhou, Yuan; Jin, Lei; Liu, Jianmeng

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether daily supplementation with low-dose B vitamins in the healthy elderly population improves the Framingham risk score (FRS), a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Between 2007 and 2012, a double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in a rural area of North China. In all, 390 healthy participants aged 60-74 were randomly allocated to receive daily vitamin C (50 mg; control group) or vitamin C plus B vitamins (400 µg folic acid, 2 mg B6, and 10 µg B12; treatment group) for 12 months. FRSs were calculated for all 390 subjects. Folate and vitamin B12 plasma concentrations in the treatment group increased by 253 and 80%, respectively, after 6 months, stopped increasing with continued supplementation after 12 months and returned to baseline levels 6 months after supplementation cessation. Compared with the control group, there was no significant effect of B vitamin supplementation on FRSs after 6 months (mean difference -0.38; 95% CI -1.06, 0.31; p = 0.279), whereas a significant effect of supplementation was evident after 12 months (reduced magnitude 7.6%; -0.77; 95% CI -1.47, -0.06; p = 0.033). However, this reduction disappeared 6 months after supplementation stopped (-0.07; 95% CI -0.80, 0.66; p = 0.855). The reduction in FRS 12 months after supplementation was more pronounced in individuals with a folate deficiency (10.4%; -1.30; 95% CI -2.54, -0.07; p = 0.039) than in those without (4.1%; -0.38; 95% CI -1.12, 0.36; p = 0.313). B vitamins increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 3.4% after 6 months (0.04; 95% CI -0.02, 0.10; p = 0.155) and by 9.2% after 12 months (0.11; 95 % CI 0.04, 0.18; p = 0.003). Compared with the control group, this change in magnitude decreased to 3.3% (0.04; 95 % CI -0.02, 0.10; p = 0.194) 6 months after supplementation cessation. Daily supplementation with a low-dose of B vitamins for 12 months reduced FRS, particularly in healthy elderly subjects with a folate deficiency. These reduced

  11. Behavioural assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome (BADS in healthy elders and Alzheimer´s disease patients: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Canali

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the main initial deficit is considered to be in the memory domain, an early impairment of executive functions is also found in AD where these deficits are correlated to functional impairment. Ecological tests are more indicated to evaluate executive impairment, and are better able to assist in treating AD patients than more commonly used tests. Objectives: The aim of this preliminary study is to verify the performance in executive functions using the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS in elder controls and mild AD patients, and to analyze its applicability in our environment. Methods: The BADS was performed by 17 healthy elders and 17 early AD patients matched for age, schooling and gender. Results: There were significant differences among controls and AD patients on MMSE scores, and in measures of executive functions, memory, and motor speed. Some sub items of BADS (rule shift cards, modified six elements, total score, standard, standard by age and overall classification by age were also different between groups. Differences were also significant on the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX of BADS self-ratings and other-ratings. Conclusion: BADS was efficacious in detecting executive deficits in this sample, as confirmed by other executive functions tests applied.

  12. Group of experience with the elderly: psychosocial support in health promotion

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    Laudicéia Noronha Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the perception of the elderly on the importance of a group of experience. Methods: iIt is an exploratory, descriptive research with qualitative approach, developed at a Basic Health Unit in a county of the Brazilian northeast, with 13 elderly people attending the Group. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysis by the thematic analysis technique. Results: three empirical categories were identified: motivation to seek the group of experience, perspective concerning this group and changes perceived through participation. Conclusion: the group of experience can represent a therapeutic moment for the elderly, serving as support and strengthening the elderly in the social context, making the improvement and development of abilities as well as the obtaining more knowledge for health promotion possible.

  13. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the histamine H3 receptor antagonist, ABT-288, in healthy young adults and elderly volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Zhang, Jun; Dutta, Sandeep

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288, a highly selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, in healthy young adults and elderly subjects following single and multiple dosing in a phase 1 setting. Single doses (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 and 40 mg ABT-288) and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 14 days) were evaluated in young adults and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 5 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 12 days) were evaluated in elderly subjects using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study designs. The effect of food on ABT-288 pharmacokinetics (5 mg single dose) was evaluated using an open label, randomized, crossover design. ABT-288 safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were comparable in young and elderly subjects. Single doses up to 40 mg and multiple doses up to 3 mg once-daily were generally safe and well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events were hot flush, headache, abnormal dreams, insomnia, nausea and dizziness. ABT-288 exposure (AUC) was dose-proportional over the evaluated dose ranges. The mean elimination half-life ranged from 40 to 61 h across dose groups. Steady state was achieved by day 10 of once-daily dosing with 3.4- to 4.2-fold accumulation. Food did not have a clinically meaningful effect on ABT-288 exposure. Based on the above results, 1 and 3 mg once-daily doses of ABT-288 were advanced to phase 2 evaluation in Alzheimer's patients. © 2012 Abbott Laboratories. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Effects of group reminiscence on elderly depression: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Song

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Group reminiscence was associated with short-term depression relief among elderly patients with depression and effectively improved self-esteem and life satisfaction. Higher-quality large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  15. Effects of group reminiscence on elderly depression: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Song; Qin Shen; Tu-Zhen Xu; Qiu-Hua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: The present meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of group reminiscence on depression in elderly patients. Methods: Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of group reminiscence on depression in elderly patients were systematically reviewed using multiple electronic databases. Relative risks for dichotomous data and weighted mean differences for continuous data were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. ...

  16. Variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Klaus F; Hove, Jens D; Freiberg, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess regional and global variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects and to evaluate potentially responsible factors. Twenty men with a mean age of 64 years, no history of cardiovascular disease, and normal blood pressure...... rest and hyperaemic blood flow during dipyridamole infusion were measured with nitrogen-13 ammonia and positron emission tomography in 16 left ventricular myocardial segments. Intra-individual and inter-individual variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake [relative dispersion...... = (standard deviation/mean)] was 13% and 29% respectively. Although inter-individual variability of glucose uptake and blood flow at rest was of the same magnitude, no correlation was found between these measures. Regional and global insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake correlated linearly with whole...

  17. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Emelie; Edholm, Peter; Ponsot, Elodie; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Hellmén, Erik; Nilsson, Andreas; Engfeldt, Peter; Cederholm, Tommy; Risérus, Ulf; Kadi, Fawzi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 ± 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Strength of Structural and Functional Frontostriatal Connectivity Predicts Self-Control in the Healthy Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Lohrey, Corinna; Drobetz, Reinhard; Baetschmann, Hansruedi; Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the successful use of executive functions and initiation of top-down processes to control one's thoughts, behavior, and emotions, and it is crucial to perform self-control. Self-control is needed to overcome impulses and can be assessed by delay of gratification (DoG) and delay discounting (DD) paradigms. In children/adolescents, good DoG/DD ability depends on the maturity of frontostriatal connectivity, and its decline in strength with advancing age might adversely affect self-control because prefrontal brain regions are more prone to normal age-related atrophy than other regions. Here, we aimed at highlighting the relationship between frontostriatal connectivity strength and DoG performance in advanced age. We recruited 40 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 74.0 ± 7.7 years) and assessed the DoG ability using the German version of the DoG test for adults in addition to the delay discounting (DD) paradigm. Based on diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, respectively, the structural and functional whole-brain connectome were reconstructed based on 90 different brain regions of interest in addition to a 12-node frontostriatal DoG-specific network and the resulting connectivity matrices were subjected to network-based statistics. The 90-nodes whole-brain connectome analyses revealed subnetworks significantly associated with DoG and DD with a preponderance of frontostriatal nodes involved suggesting a high specificity of the findings. Structural and functional connectivity strengths between the putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens on the one hand and orbitofrontal, dorsal, and ventral lateral prefrontal cortices on the other hand showed strong positive correlations with DoG and negative correlations with DD corrected for age, sex, intracranial volume, and head motion parameters. These associations cannot be explained by differences in impulsivity and executive functioning. This pattern

  19. Comparison of thoracic kyphosis degree, trunk muscle strength and joint position sense among healthy and osteoporotic elderly women: a cross-sectional preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Increased thoracic kyphosis is one of the most disfiguring consequences of osteoporotic spine fractures in the elderly. However, mechanisms involved in the increasing of the kyphosis degree among osteoporotic women are not completely understood. Then, the aims of this cross-sectional preliminary study were comparing thoracic kyphosis degree, trunk muscle peak torque and joint position sense among healthy and osteoporotic elderly women and investigating possible factors affecting the kyphosis degree. Twenty women were selected for 2 groups: healthy (n=10) and osteoporotic (n=10) elderly women. Bone mineral density (BMD), thoracic kyphosis degree, trunk muscles peak torque and joint position sense were measured. Differences among groups were analyzed by Student's Test T for unpaired data. Correlations between variables were performed by Pearson's coefficient correlation. The level of significance used for all comparisons was 5% (p≤0.05). We observed that the osteoporotic women demonstrated a significantly higher degree of kyphosis and lower trunk extensor muscle peak torque. Moreover, it was found that the BMD had a negative correlation with the thoracic kyphosis degree. Kyphosis degree showed a negative correlation between extensor muscle strength and joint position sense index. This study suggests that lower BMD may be associated to higher degree of kyphosis degree, lower trunk extensors muscle strength and an impaired joint position sense. It is also suggested that lower extensor muscle strength may be a factor that contributes to the increasing in kyphosis thoracic degree. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Variance of foot biomechanical parameters across age groups for the elderly people in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deselnicu, D. C.; Vasilescu, A. M.; Militaru, G.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a fieldwork study conducted in order to analyze major causal factors that influence the foot deformities and pathologies of elderly women in Romania. The study has an exploratory and descriptive nature and uses quantitative methodology. The sample consisted of 100 elderly women from Romania, ranging from 55 to over 75 years of age. The collected data was analyzed on multiple dimensions using a statistic analysis software program. The analysis of variance demonstrated significant differences across age groups in terms of several biomechanical parameters such as travel speed, toe off phase and support phase in the case of elderly women.

  1. WAYFINDING STUDY IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: THE ELDERLY VS. THE YOUNGER-AGED GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghae Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of architectural wayfinding aids on wayfinding performances in comparison of the elderly group and the younger aged group. An ambulatory healthcare facility was simulated using Virtual Reality (VR to develop two levels of wayfinding aids for the same environments. The base model included minimal wayfinding aids, and the design model included more wayfinding aids. The VR environment was presented in the form of video in order to test wayfinding performances at three different wayfinding decision points. Results showed that age and wayfinding aids impacted wayfinding performances. The younger-aged group performed wayfinding better compared to the elderly group. Participants who were tested in the design model were more successful in wayfinding compared to the elderly group. The elderly group reported that more salient wayfinding aids such as a big logo and paint colors helped their wayfinding while the younger-aged group reported less salient aids such as door designs as helpful wayfinding aids. When there were minimal wayfinding aids, the elderly participants needed to rely mostly on memory recall by remembering turns or paying close attention. When participants felt that the wayfinding test was difficult, their performances were less successful. Findings in this study suggest that wayfinding design for the elderly should consider the limited ability of recall and therefore, design wayfinding aids more frequently with more salient aids to avoid confusion. The elderly group needed to rely on their limited cognitive ability when there were not enough wayfinding aids, which make them experience difficulties in wayfinding.

  2. Age-specific incidence of hip fracture in the elderly: a healthy decline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Green, C

    2012-02-01

    Hip fractures in the elderly are an important source of morbidity and mortality. The predicted increase in the number of hip fractures due to the increasing elderly population has not been universally observed. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of hip fractures over a twenty year period to determine if this rise is occurring in our region. All hip fractures from the unit over 20 years were identified. Population data for those over 65 in the catchment area of our hospital was acquired. The rate of fractures occurring each year relative to the population was determined. The results were split into age groups. There was a strong correlation between the population rise and number of fractures (p = 0.77). But there was no significant difference in the rate of fracture over time (p = 0.41). However, the average age at which fracture occurred increased by two years. In addition we show the overall trend in the rate of fractures decreases in the younger age groups and increases in the older age groups. Therefore, the predicted rapid increase in rate is not occurring. This probably reflects the strengthening of the economy in Ireland from the 1930\\'s onwards, leading to a healthier population.

  3. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes N. Pedersen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1, B (n=18, or C (n=4. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than

  4. The Effect of Life Review Group Therapy on Elderly With Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Alizadehfard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chronic pain is a common problem in the elderly. The prevalence of pain indicates that among the Iranian older population who are living in nursing homes, at any specific time, at least 72.8% experience pain. Research designed as a structured review of one’s life is helpful, even is therapeutic in elderly. The aim of life review therapy increases life satisfaction, improves self-esteem, and helps elderly to cope with crises, losses, life transitions and providing acceptance of their life`s realities in coping and resolving their own past conflicts. Methods & Materials: Via this descriptive, case-control research, forty residents with persistent pain of 4 nursing homes in Tehran were selected. All subjects were asked to give their own demographic details and pain status following the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Randomly they got allocated into two groups. First group, conducting the complete life review therapy guide and the second one as control group. During the therapy time, patients reconstruct their life story and examine both positive and negative experiences, with the therapist as a coach. Effects of life review therapy on such elderly were examined via pain questionnaire after therapy periods and were compared with basic levels. Results: The results showed a significant difference between two groups.Reduction in pain questionnaire scores in first group compare with control group were significant. Conclusion: The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the utility of applying life review therapy for elderly with chronic pain

  5. Effectiveness of cognitive Existential Group therapy on quality of life of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jalili Nikoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: With an aging population, considering the factors affecting the quality of life more than ever is necessary. The aim of current research was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive existential therapy on quality of life of elderly people. Methods: The current research is semi experimental with pre and post test with control group. Statistical population of research consists of all elderly people in Kahrizak nursing homes. In the first phase, the participants were selected through purposive sampling method and after responding to the quality of life questionnaire and obtaining score for enter to research they were divided in two groups of experimental and control (N = 12 per group using random sampling method.  The experimental group participated in 10 sessions of group counseling based on cognitive- existential approach and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: There was no difference between pre-test and control groups, but the mean scores of post-test experimental and control groups were statistically significant. and cognitive group therapy improves quality of life is (p=0.001. Therefore it seems that cognitive-existential group therapy increase quality of life of elderly people. Conclusion: Cognitive Existential Group therapy utilizes concepts such as death, meaning, cognitive distortions and responsibility could increase the level ofquality of life of elderly people. Thus interventions based on this approach could be useful in improving the quality of life.

  6. Effect of 8-Week of Selected Aerobic Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Elderly Inactive Men

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Mirmoezzi; Mojtaba Amini; Asghar Khaledan; Davood Khorshidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Old age refers to years near or passed the middle age and therefore, near to the end of life cycle. Old-aged people have limited reviving capability and are more at risk of catching diseases, syndromes, and ailments. Falling is one of the most common problems in the elderly that occur due to their inability to maintain balance. This study aimed to examine the effect of aerobic exercises on static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly inactive men. Methods &...

  7. Reliability of System Identification Techniques to Assess Standing Balance in Healthy Elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available System identification techniques have the potential to assess the contribution of the underlying systems involved in standing balance by applying well-known disturbances. We investigated the reliability of standing balance parameters obtained with multivariate closed loop system identification techniques.In twelve healthy elderly balance tests were performed twice a day during three days. Body sway was measured during two minutes of standing with eyes closed and the Balance test Room (BalRoom was used to apply four disturbances simultaneously: two sensory disturbances, to the proprioceptive and the visual system, and two mechanical disturbances applied at the leg and trunk segment. Using system identification techniques, sensitivity functions of the sensory disturbances and the neuromuscular controller were estimated. Based on the generalizability theory (G theory, systematic errors and sources of variability were assessed using linear mixed models and reliability was assessed by computing indexes of dependability (ID, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC.A systematic error was found between the first and second trial in the sensitivity functions. No systematic error was found in the neuromuscular controller and body sway. The reliability of 15 of 25 parameters and body sway were moderate to excellent when the results of two trials on three days were averaged. To reach an excellent reliability on one day in 7 out of 25 parameters, it was predicted that at least seven trials must be averaged.This study shows that system identification techniques are a promising method to assess the underlying systems involved in standing balance in elderly. However, most of the parameters do not appear to be reliable unless a large number of trials are collected across multiple days. To reach an excellent reliability in one third of the parameters, a training session for participants is needed and at least seven trials of two

  8. A lower-limb training program to improve balance in healthy elderly women using the T-bow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Colado, Juan C; Pablos, Carlos; Naclerio, Fernando; García-Massó, Xavier

    2009-06-01

    Ageing impairs balance, which increases the risk of falls. Fall-related injuries are a serious health problem associated with dependency and disability in the elderly and results in high costs to public health systems. This study aims to determine the effects of a training program to develop balance using a new device called the T-Bow. A total of 28 women > 65 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) (n = 18; 69.50 [0.99] years), or a control group (CG) (n = 10; 70.70 [2.18] years). A program for lower limbs was applied for 8 weeks using 5 exercises on the T-Bow: squat, lateral and frontal swings, lunges, and plantarflexions. The intensity of the exercises was controlled by time of exposure, support base, and ratings of perceived exertion. Clinical tests were used to evaluate variables of balance. Static balance was measured by a 1-leg balance test (unipedal stance test), dynamic balance was measured by the 8-foot-up-and-go test, and overall balance was measured using the Tinetti test. Results for the EG showed an increase of 35.2% in static balance (P 0.05). Results for the CG showed a decline of 5.79% in static balance (P > 0.05) but no change in the other balance variables. Thus the data suggest that implementing a training program using the T-Bow could improve balance in healthy older women.

  9. Effects of 2-Year Cognitive⁻Motor Dual-Task Training on Cognitive Function and Motor Ability in Healthy Elderly People: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Emiko; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Imai, Daiki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ota, Akemi; Kawai, Eriko; Suzuki, Yuta; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2018-05-11

    We aimed to examine the effect of 2-year cognitive⁻motor dual-task (DT) training on cognitive functions and motor ability of healthy elderly people without marked cognitive impairment. From the 25 participants of our 12-week DT trial conducted in 2014, we recruited 8 subjects who voluntarily participated in a new DT training program once a week for 2 years (exercise (EX) group). Their cognitive functions were evaluated by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination and the Trail Making Test, and results were compared with those of the 11 subjects who discontinued the training and did not perform any types of exercise for 2 years (non-exercise (NO) group). Subjects in the NO group showed deterioration in the 3MS examination results, especially in the cognitive domain of attention. Meanwhile, participation in DT training maintained the scores in almost all domains of cognitive function, as well as the total 3MS scores. However, both groups had impaired quadriceps muscle strength and motor ability after the 2-year observation period. These results suggest that participating in exercise program comprising DT training for 2 years may be beneficial for maintaining the broad domains of cognitive function in healthy elderly people, although further verification is needed.

  10. Effects of 2-Year Cognitive–Motor Dual-Task Training on Cognitive Function and Motor Ability in Healthy Elderly People: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Morita

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the effect of 2-year cognitive–motor dual-task (DT training on cognitive functions and motor ability of healthy elderly people without marked cognitive impairment. From the 25 participants of our 12-week DT trial conducted in 2014, we recruited 8 subjects who voluntarily participated in a new DT training program once a week for 2 years (exercise (EX group. Their cognitive functions were evaluated by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS examination and the Trail Making Test, and results were compared with those of the 11 subjects who discontinued the training and did not perform any types of exercise for 2 years (non-exercise (NO group. Subjects in the NO group showed deterioration in the 3MS examination results, especially in the cognitive domain of attention. Meanwhile, participation in DT training maintained the scores in almost all domains of cognitive function, as well as the total 3MS scores. However, both groups had impaired quadriceps muscle strength and motor ability after the 2-year observation period. These results suggest that participating in exercise program comprising DT training for 2 years may be beneficial for maintaining the broad domains of cognitive function in healthy elderly people, although further verification is needed.

  11. Validity and reliability of wii fit balance board for the assessment of balance of healthy young adults and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chang, Wan-Yi; Lee, Chia-Lun; Feng, Chi-Yen

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] Balance is an integral part of human ability. The smart balance master system (SBM) is a balance test instrument with good reliability and validity, but it is expensive. Therefore, we modified a Wii Fit balance board, which is a convenient balance assessment tool, and analyzed its reliability and validity. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 20 healthy young adults and 20 elderly people, and administered 3 balance tests. The correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation of both instruments were analyzed. [Results] There were no statistically significant differences in the 3 tests between the Wii Fit balance board and the SBM. The Wii Fit balance board had a good intraclass correlation (0.86-0.99) for the elderly people and positive correlations (r = 0.58-0.86) with the SBM. [Conclusions] The Wii Fit balance board is a balance assessment tool with good reliability and high validity for elderly people, and we recommend it as an alternative tool for assessing balance ability.

  12. [Socializing groups as protective factor against depression in elderly people. Barranquilla, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuesca-Molina, Rafael; Fierro Herrera, Norma; Molinares Sosa, Alexandra; Oviedo Martínez, Fernando; Polo Arjona, Yesid; Polo Cueto, José; Sierra Manrique, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The depression is a principal problem of public health. The principal aim of this study is to determine the role of the social groups as factor protective in elderly, to evaluate the agreement by American Psychiatric Association Criterions and Hamilton Depression test, and also to determine other socio-cultural risk factors associated with depressive syndrome in elderly. Cross-sectional survey. The sample consisted of 602 elderly people (eligible subjects) were men (223) and women (379) between 60 and 94 years (males and females), residents in the south-west of Barranquilla, Colombia. A previously tested, self answer questionnaire was used, therefore, we needed a report consent. Risk measures: Odds Ratio (OR-95% Confidence intervalue), Kappa test to agreement by the nine criteria of the American Psychiatric Association and Hamilton test so, screening testing. The participation in social groups was a protector factor. (Odds Ratio = 0.5; 95% CI 0.34-0.73, p = 0.001). The rate 29.9% was obtained with prevalence of depression in elderly (21.4%-39.4%) affecting principally males (32.7%). The agreement by Kappa test = 0.63 was very important or good. Sensibility = 56.1% (48.5%-63.4%) Specificity = 0.93% (97.8%-99.8%) and Predictive Positive Value = 97.1% (91.2%-99.3%). This survey was to determine risk factors related to depression in elderly in anyway can be potentially modifiable. The familiar disfunction by moderate and serious, the lack as blindness and deafness, the loneliness, the housingness and low incomes were obtained with risk factors associated to depression. The participation in a social group is a protective factor to depression syndrome in elders. The nine criteria of the American Psychiatric Association to allow the depressed patient exactly as sick even though is not necessary to screening because this test is low sensibility for used in a population elderly.

  13. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p < 0.01). However, the regions showing differences between EH and YH did not overlap between static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process. (orig.)

  14. Elderly people's perceptions of how they want to be cared for: an interview study with healthy elderly couples in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrefors, Christina; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Axelsson, Karin

    2009-06-01

    Many countries encounter a demographic change where the number of elderly people will increase. As a result, the number of very old people needing care, services and medical assistance will increase. Care in the private home is often described as providing the best alternative for many elderly people. The aim of this study was to describe elderly people's perceptions of how they wanted to be cared for, from a perspective of becoming in need of assistance with personal care, in the future. Twelve couples of healthy elderly people living in a couple hood participated in an interview study. They were all 70 years and older and received no kind of professional care or social support. Open individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with the support of written vignettes. The vignettes were formed as scenarios that described three levels of caring needs where the elderly people would become ill. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The findings were interpreted in one main theme: maintaining the self and being cared for with dignity to the end. The theme was built from three categories: at home as long as possible, professional care at nursing home when advanced care is needed and fear of being abandoned. The categories reflect the perception that when minimum help was needed, care and support by the partner and nursing staff were preferred. As the scenarios changed to being totally dependent on care, they preferred care in a nursing home. There was a pervading concern of the risk of not being seen as an individual person and becoming a nobody with no meaningful relations. Thus, there must be a singular goal to support old people, in all stages of their lives, through the recognition and affirmation of self, and providing care with dignity to the end.

  15. MRI of the brain in neurologically healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, O.; Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Ylikoski, A.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document the MRI appearances of the brain in healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. T2- and proton density-weighted axial slices were obtained in 61 volunteers, 30-86 years of age. After visual inspection, signal intensities of brain structures were measured on T2-weighted images. Age-related changes became increasingly apparent after age 50. The main findings were that signal intensity of the white matter increased concomitantly with widening of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces; that basal ganglia remained stable; that high-signal foci in white matter increased in number and size after the age of 50 years; that periventricular high-signal foci were constant after the age of 65 years. Our visual impression of a decrease in signal intensity of the central grey matter with age seems to be mistaken. Pathological processes should be suspected if periventricular foci are found in middle-aged or young subjects. (orig.). With 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... to lower ASM and BCM in elderly men both in a univariate regression analysis and a multivariate regression analysis. In conclusion, high plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in elderly healthy people and in patients with type 2 diabetes are associated with increased truncal fat mass, suggesting...

  17. Pharmacokinetics and effect on the corrected QT interval of single-dose escitalopram in healthy elderly compared with younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Anhye; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Park, Sang-In; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Chung, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Escitalopram is the (S)-enantiomer of citalopram that has a potential QT prolonging effect. In this study, 12 healthy elderly individuals received a single oral dose of escitalopram (20 mg), and their pharmacokinetics and QT effect data were compared with data from 33 younger adults obtained in a previous study. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and ECG was performed up to 48 h postdose. The elderly and younger adults showed similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the elderly compared with the younger adults were 1.02 (0.89-1.17) and 1.01 (0.86-1.17) for the maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve, respectively. The mean baseline-adjusted QT (dQT) time profiles were similar and the mean values of maximum dQT were not significantly different between the elderly and the younger adults. The linear mixed-effect model indicated a weak but positive relationship between the escitalopram concentration and dQT, with an estimated coefficient of concentration of 0.43-0.54. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics and QT effect of a single dose of escitalopram observed in the elderly without comorbidities and younger adults were generally similar.

  18. Body mass index, life-style, and healthy status in free living elderly people in Menorca Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferra, A; Bibiloni, M Del Mar; Zapata, M E; Pich, J; Pons, A; Tur, J A

    2012-04-01

    To assess the BMI, life-style, and healthy status, and explore relationships between these parameters, among Menorca's free living elderly people. A cross-sectional survey carried out in Menorca Island in 2009. A random sample (n=450) of the elderly population (≥65 years) was interviewed. Anthropometric measurements and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors and health status were used. Approximately five per cent of elders were underweight and 60% overweight or obese. Underweight were positively and overweight and obesity negatively affected by age. The prevalence of central obesity, according to the WC cut-off points, was 66.8% in men and 85.1% in women. Low education, socioeconomic status and physical activity were risk factors for malnutrition and overweight/obesity. A possible cognitive impairment was found among elderly persons with BMIrelation between BMI and diabetes mellitus, arthritis, and chronic bronchitis, and an inverted J-shape between BMI and gastric ulcer, osteoporosis and bone fractures, cancer, and prostatitis (in men) were found. Both low and high BMI are associated with a wide range of prevalent conditions and diseases in Menorca elderly men and women.

  19. A pilot study of a new method of cognitive stimulation using abacus arithmetic in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J A; Pérez-Martínez, D A; Matías-Guiu, J

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the applicability of a cognitive stimulation method based on abacus arithmetic in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. This observational and prospective pilot study was performed in 2 hospitals. The study assessed the applicability of a programme of arithmetic training developed for use in the elderly population. The primary endpoint was an evaluation of the stimulation programme, in terms of usability, satisfaction, and participation, in healthy elderly controls and elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease. Secondary endpoints were family satisfaction, caregiver burden, and the behaviour and cognition of patients. Usability, satisfaction, and degree of participation were high. The Mini-Mental State Examination showed significant changes (23.1±4.8 before the intervention vs 24.9±4.2 afterwards, P=.002); there were no changes on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Yesavage Geriatric Depression scale, and Zarit caregiver burden scale. The study suggests that cognitive stimulation with abacus arithmetic may be used in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy of this kind of programmes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in elderly patients with temporomandibular disorders. Comparison with other age groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yura, Shinya; Mabuchi, Akiko; Izumiyama, Yuri; Deyama, Ayako; Totsuka, Yasunori; Inoue, Nobuo [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Dental Medicine

    2002-12-01

    To estimate the incidence of disc displacement, disc deformity, and bone changes of the temporomandibular joint in elderly patients with temporomandibular disorders, 55 elderly patients (110 joints) were examined by magnetic resonance imaging. The ages of the patients ranged from 65 to 89 years (average, 70 years). They consisted of 13 men and 42 women. Normal disc position was found in 40 joints (36.4%), anterior disc displacement with reduction in 17 joints (15.5%), and anterior disc displacement without reduction in 53 joints (48.2%) on magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-eight (71.6%) of the 53 joints with anterior disc displacement without reduction had disc deformity and 33 (62.3%) had bone changes. The frequency of bone changes in the elderly group was higher than that in the younger group. Women had a higher incidence of bone changes than men. (author)

  1. Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvado; Barbara Lohse; Tricia Psota; Ramon Estruch; Itziar Zazpe; Jose V. Sorli; Merce Serra; Jodi Stotts Krall; Fabiola Ma´rquez; Emilio Ros; PREDIMED Study Investigators

    2010-01-01

    Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile. Eating competence (EC), a bio-psychosocial model for intrapersonal approaches to eating and food-related behaviors, is associated with less weight dissatisfaction, lower BMI, and increased HDL-cholesterol in small U.S. studies, but its relationship to nutrient quality and overall cardiovascular risk have not been examined. Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PRE...

  2. Reliability and statistical power analysis of cortical and subcortical FreeSurfer metrics in a large sample of healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Franziskus; Mérillat, Susan; Bezzola, Ladina; Hirsiger, Sarah; Philipp, Michel; Madhyastha, Tara; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    FreeSurfer is a tool to quantify cortical and subcortical brain anatomy automatically and noninvasively. Previous studies have reported reliability and statistical power analyses in relatively small samples or only selected one aspect of brain anatomy. Here, we investigated reliability and statistical power of cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and the volume of subcortical structures in a large sample (N=189) of healthy elderly subjects (64+ years). Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of cortical and subcortical parameters is generally high (cortical: ICCs>0.87, subcortical: ICCs>0.95). Surface-based smoothing increases reliability of cortical thickness maps, while it decreases reliability of cortical surface area and volume. Nevertheless, statistical power of all measures benefits from smoothing. When aiming to detect a 10% difference between groups, the number of subjects required to test effects with sufficient power over the entire cortex varies between cortical measures (cortical thickness: N=39, surface area: N=21, volume: N=81; 10mm smoothing, power=0.8, α=0.05). For subcortical regions this number is between 16 and 76 subjects, depending on the region. We also demonstrate the advantage of within-subject designs over between-subject designs. Furthermore, we publicly provide a tool that allows researchers to perform a priori power analysis and sensitivity analysis to help evaluate previously published studies and to design future studies with sufficient statistical power. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Outcomes of the Nutritional Status in Patients Qualified for Aortic Valve Replacement in Comparison to Healthy Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Wernio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe aortic stenosis (AS is associated with the reduction of muscle mass and may be associated with deterioration of nutritional status. Furthermore, malnourished cardiac patients are characterized by a higher risk of postoperative complications and mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation and comparison of nutritional status, appetite and body composition in older people with severe aortic stenosis before aortic valve replacement and healthy elderly volunteers. One hundred and one patients, aged >65 years old with severe AS were included in the study. Nutritional status was assessed. Body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Concentrations of albumin, prealbumin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and C-reactive protein were measured, and a complete blood count was done. About 40% of AS patients were at risk of malnutrition. They had decreased hand grip strength and they lost more body mass than the control group. Malnourished AS patients were older, had lower body mass indexes (BMIs and lower aortic valve areas in comparison to well-nourished patients. Older AS patients, like their peers, show excessive body mass and, at the same time, the features of malnutrition. They have additional factors such as unintentional weight lost and decreased muscle strength which may be associated with worse outcomes.

  4. Functional outcomes of inpatient rehabilitation in very elderly patients with stroke: differences across three age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutai, Hitoshi; Furukawa, Tomomi; Wakabayashi, Ayumi; Suzuki, Akihito; Hanihara, Tokiji

    2018-05-01

    Background As the population continues to age rapidly, clarifying the factors affecting the prognosis in very elderly stroke patients is essential to enhance the quality of their rehabilitation. Objectives To compare the functional recovery of elderly stroke patients classified into three age groups and to identify the predictors of functional recovery in the very elderly following acute inpatient rehabilitation. Methods Observational study: We collected data on 461 stroke patients in the neurology and neurosurgery ward and classified them into three age groups (65-74, 75-84, and ≥ 85 years). Functional recovery was compared among groups using the functional independence measure (FIM) at discharge and ADL recovery rate was compared using the Montebello rehabilitation factor score (MRFS). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify and compare the factors associated with functional recovery in each age group. Results Functional recovery in the ≥ 85 years group was lower than that in other age groups. Factors associated with activities of daily living (ADL) status (FIM at discharge) in the ≥ 85 years group were premorbid dependence (β = -0.183, p = 0.011), motor paralysis (β = -0.238, p = 0.001), and cognitive function (β = 0.586, p age increased. Factors associated with ADL recovery rates (MRFS) in the ≥ 85 years group were non-paretic limb function (β = -0.294, p = 0.004) and cognitive function (β = 0.201, p = 0.047). Conclusions This study identified the factors associated with functional recovery among very elderly stroke patients. Effective forms of rehabilitation for very elderly stroke patients that take these factors into consideration need to be investigated.

  5. The use of focus groups in evaluating quality of life components among elderly Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kai-Kuen; Wu, En-Chang; Lue, Bee-Horng; Tang, Li-Yu

    2004-02-01

    In Taiwan, to measure the quality of life (QOL) of elderly Chinese, one must rely on instruments developed in other Chinese or Western populations and not specifically for the elderly. The purpose of this study is to understand the components of QOL for elderly Chinese from Taiwan living in residential homes or in their communities. Forty-four elderly men and women divided into six focus groups were interviewed on video tape and the resultant recording was analyzed qualitatively by six independent researchers. The study yielded 15 QOL domains grouped into six dimensions: physical health (physical well-being, impact of illness, medical care), psychological health (mood states, life attitude and retrospection, philosophy of living, self-efficacy), social function (connectedness, exercise and leisure activities, social activities and services), living environment (living environment and arrangements, institutional factors), economic status, and religion and death (religion, death). For elderly Chinese in Taiwan, positive and negative life domains are equally important in the perception of life quality; person-environment interaction is a major consideration in the evaluation of QOL; family ties are an important component of QOL; traditional Chinese beliefs exert a positive influence on perceived QOL; and social functioning and vitality have a different meaning in Chinese compared to Western cultures.

  6. The Use of Facebook Advertising to Recruit Healthy Elderly People for a Clinical Trial: Baseline Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background This report provides data on the use of social media advertising as a clinical trial recruitment strategy targeting healthy volunteers aged 60 years and older. The social media advertising campaign focused on enrollment for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Traditional means of recruiting—billboards, newspaper advertising, word of mouth, personal referrals, and direct mail—were not producing enough qualified participants. Objective To demonstrate the effectiveness of using targeted advertising on the social networking site Facebook to recruit people aged 60 years and older for volunteer clinical trial participation. Methods The trial sponsor used a proactive approach to recruit participants using advertising on social media. The sponsor placed and monitored an Institutional Review Board-approved advertising campaign on Facebook to recruit potential candidates for a Phase 1 clinical trial. The clinical trial required a 10-day residential (overnight) stay at a clinic in Michigan, with one follow-up visit. The sponsor of the clinical trial placed the advertising, which directed interested respondents to a trial-specific landing page controlled by the Contract Research Organization (CRO). The CRO provided all follow-up consenting, prescreening, screening, and enrollment procedures. The campaign was waged over an 8-week period to supplement recruiting by the CRO. Results A total of 621 people responded to a Facebook advertising campaign by completing an online form or telephoning the CRO, and the clinical trial was fully enrolled at 45 subjects following an 8-week Facebook advertising campaign. Conclusions An 8-week Facebook advertising campaign contributed to 868 inquiries made regarding a Phase 1 clinical trial seeking to enroll healthy elderly subjects. Over the initial 11 weeks of recruitment, 178 inquiries were received using traditional methods of outreach. Respondents to the Facebook advertising campaign described in this report engaged with the sponsored

  7. The Use of Facebook Advertising to Recruit Healthy Elderly People for a Clinical Trial: Baseline Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Julie M; Gurney, Mark E

    2018-01-24

    This report provides data on the use of social media advertising as a clinical trial recruitment strategy targeting healthy volunteers aged 60 years and older. The social media advertising campaign focused on enrollment for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Traditional means of recruiting-billboards, newspaper advertising, word of mouth, personal referrals, and direct mail-were not producing enough qualified participants. To demonstrate the effectiveness of using targeted advertising on the social networking site Facebook to recruit people aged 60 years and older for volunteer clinical trial participation. The trial sponsor used a proactive approach to recruit participants using advertising on social media. The sponsor placed and monitored an Institutional Review Board-approved advertising campaign on Facebook to recruit potential candidates for a Phase 1 clinical trial. The clinical trial required a 10-day residential (overnight) stay at a clinic in Michigan, with one follow-up visit. The sponsor of the clinical trial placed the advertising, which directed interested respondents to a trial-specific landing page controlled by the Contract Research Organization (CRO). The CRO provided all follow-up consenting, prescreening, screening, and enrollment procedures. The campaign was waged over an 8-week period to supplement recruiting by the CRO. A total of 621 people responded to a Facebook advertising campaign by completing an online form or telephoning the CRO, and the clinical trial was fully enrolled at 45 subjects following an 8-week Facebook advertising campaign. An 8-week Facebook advertising campaign contributed to 868 inquiries made regarding a Phase 1 clinical trial seeking to enroll healthy elderly subjects. Over the initial 11 weeks of recruitment, 178 inquiries were received using traditional methods of outreach. Respondents to the Facebook advertising campaign described in this report engaged with the sponsored advertising at a higher rate than is typical for

  8. The relationship between jaw-opening force and the cross-sectional area of the suprahyoid muscles in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisa, E; Tohara, H; Nakane, A; Wakasugi, Y; Hara, K; Yamaguchi, K; Yoshimi, K; Minakuchi, S

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a clinical cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between jaw-opening force and the cross-sectional area of the suprahyoid muscles and whole skeletal muscle mass. Subjects were healthy 39 males and 51 females without dysphagia and sarcopenia, aged 65 years and older. Jaw-opening force was measured three times using a jaw-opening sthenometer; the maximum of these three was taken as the measurement value. The cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric muscles were evaluated using ultrasonography. The skeletal muscle mass index, gait speed and grip strength were evaluated according to the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. For each sex, a multiple regression analysis determined the factors that affect jaw-opening force. Jaw-opening force was associated with the cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid muscle in males (regression coefficient [β] = 0.441, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.28-56.09) and females (β = 0.28, 95% CI = 3.10-54.57). Furthermore, in females only, jaw-opening force was associated with the skeletal muscle mass index (β = 0.40, 95% CI = 3.67-17.81). In contrast, jaw-opening force was not associated with the cross-sectional area of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle in either sex. In healthy elderly males and females, jaw-opening force was positively associated with the cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid muscle. However, the jaw-opening force was positively associated with the skeletal muscle mass index only in females. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The identification of fall history using maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensors in healthy, recreationally active elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Thiele, Ryan M; Williams, Katherine B; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Douglas B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-08-01

    Maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles play an important role in fall prevention and other balance-related performances; however, few studies have investigated the ability of these variables at identifying fall-history status in healthy, recreationally active elderly adults. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles to differentiate between healthy, recreationally active elderly females with (fallers) and without (non-fallers) a history a falls. Six elderly female fallers (mean ± SD: age = 73 ± 7 year; mass = 68 ± 16 kg; height = 160 ± 5 cm) and nine elderly female non-fallers (age = 71 ± 7 year; mass = 66 ± 16 kg; height = 157 ± 6 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at the early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms were greater (P = 0.039 and 0.011, respectively) in the non-fallers compared to the fallers. However, no group-related differences (P = 0.160-0.573) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms. Early rapid strength production of the hip extensor muscles may be a sensitive and effective measure for discriminating between elderly females of different fall histories. These findings may provide important insight regarding implications for the assessment of fall risk and in the development of proper training programs aimed at minimizing the occurrence of falls and other balance-related injuries in the elderly.

  10. Modifications in resting state functional anticorrelation between default mode network and dorsal attention network: comparison among young adults, healthy elders and mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Roberto; Cieri, Filippo; Chiacchiaretta, Piero; Cera, Nicoletta; Lauriola, Mariella; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Tartaro, Armando; Ferretti, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Resting state brain activity incorporates different components, including the Default Mode Network and the Dorsal Attention Network, also known as task-negative network and task-positive network respectively. These two networks typically show an anticorrelated activity during both spontaneous oscillations and task execution. However modifications of this anticorrelated activity pattern with age and pathology are still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate differences in resting state Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network functional anticorrelation among young adults, healthy elders and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients. We retrospectively enrolled in this study 27 healthy young adults (age range: 25-35 y.o.; mean age: 28,5), 26 healthy elders (age range: 61-72 y.o.; mean age: 65,1) and 17 MCI patients (age range 64-87 y.o.; mean age: 73,6). Mild Cognitive Impairment patients were selected following Petersen criteria. All participants underwent neuropsychological evaluation and resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spontaneous anticorrelated activity between Default Mode Network and Dorsal Attention Network was observed in each group. This anticorrelation was significantly decreased with age in most Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network connections (p Default Mode Network and the right inferior parietal sulcus node of the Dorsal Attention Network was significantly decreased when comparing Mild Cognitive Impairment with normal elders (p Default Mode Network and Dorsal Attention Network is part of the normal aging process and that Mild Cognitive Impairment status is associated with more evident inter-networks functional connectivity changes.

  11. Community Resilience throughout the Lifespan--The Potential Contribution of Healthy Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Odeya; Geva, Diklah; Lahad, Mooli; Bolotin, Arkady; Leykin, Dima; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the exposure and predisposition of civilian populations to disasters has been recorded in the last decades. In major disasters, as demonstrated recently in Nepal (2015) and previously in Haiti (2010), external aid is vital, yet in the first hours after a disaster, communities must usually cope alone with the challenge of providing emergent lifesaving care. Communities therefore need to be prepared to handle emergency situations. Mapping the needs of the populations within their purview is a trying task for decision makers and community leaders. In this context, the elderly are traditionally treated as a susceptible population with special needs. The current study aimed to explore variations in the level of community resilience along the lifespan. The study was conducted in nine small to mid-size towns in Israel between August and November 2011 (N = 885). The Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM), a validated instrument for community resilience assessment, was used to examine the association between age and community resilience score. Statistical analysis included spline and logistic regression models that explored community resiliency over the lifespan in a way that allowed flexible modeling of the curve without prior constraints. This innovative statistical approach facilitated identification of the ages at which trend changes occurred. The study found a significant rise in community resiliency scores in the age groups of 61-75 years as compared with younger age bands, suggesting that older people in good health may contribute positively to building community resiliency for crisis. Rather than focusing on the growing medical needs and years of dependency associated with increased life expectancy and the resulting climb in the proportion of elders in the population, this paper proposes that active "young at heart" older people can be a valuable resource for their community.

  12. Community Resilience throughout the Lifespan--The Potential Contribution of Healthy Elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeya Cohen

    Full Text Available An increase in the exposure and predisposition of civilian populations to disasters has been recorded in the last decades. In major disasters, as demonstrated recently in Nepal (2015 and previously in Haiti (2010, external aid is vital, yet in the first hours after a disaster, communities must usually cope alone with the challenge of providing emergent lifesaving care. Communities therefore need to be prepared to handle emergency situations. Mapping the needs of the populations within their purview is a trying task for decision makers and community leaders. In this context, the elderly are traditionally treated as a susceptible population with special needs. The current study aimed to explore variations in the level of community resilience along the lifespan. The study was conducted in nine small to mid-size towns in Israel between August and November 2011 (N = 885. The Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM, a validated instrument for community resilience assessment, was used to examine the association between age and community resilience score. Statistical analysis included spline and logistic regression models that explored community resiliency over the lifespan in a way that allowed flexible modeling of the curve without prior constraints. This innovative statistical approach facilitated identification of the ages at which trend changes occurred. The study found a significant rise in community resiliency scores in the age groups of 61-75 years as compared with younger age bands, suggesting that older people in good health may contribute positively to building community resiliency for crisis. Rather than focusing on the growing medical needs and years of dependency associated with increased life expectancy and the resulting climb in the proportion of elders in the population, this paper proposes that active "young at heart" older people can be a valuable resource for their community.

  13. Examination of validity of fall risk assessment items for screening high fall risk elderly among the healthy community-dwelling Japanese population

    OpenAIRE

    DEMURA, Shinichi; SATO, Susumu; YAMAJI, Shunsuke; KASUGA, Kosho; NAGASAWA, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine the validity of fall risk assessment items for the healthy community-dwelling elderly Japanese population. Participants were 1122 healthy elderly individuals aged 60 years and over (380 males and 742 females). The percentage who had experienced a fall was 15.8%. This study used fall experience and 50 fall risk assessment items representing the five risk factors (symptoms of falling, physical function, disease and physical symptom, environment, and behavior and character), ...

  14. Memory complaints are frequent but qualitatively different in young and elderly healthy people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginó, Sandra; Mendes, Tiago; Maroco, João; Ribeiro, Filipa; Schmand, Ben A.; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. OBJECTIVE: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective

  15. Memory complaints are frequent but qualitatively different in young and elderly healthy people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginó, S.; Mendes, T.; Maroco, J.; Ribeiro, F.; Schmand, B.A.; de Mendonca, A.; Guerreiro, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. Objective: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective

  16. Cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release in the fasted and fed state in elderly healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Krauwinkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The effect of food on the cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release (MR) capsules 0.4 mg in elderly subjects was assessed both after single and multiple dosing. Methods: Thirty-six elderly (age greater than or equal to 60 years) male volunteers were recruited and after a

  17. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p men: -3.7 ± 5.4 vs. 0.4 ± 5.4 kg, women: -3.6 ± 5.5 vs. 0.3 ± 5.2 kg, both p men: -3.6 ± 3.3 vs. -0.4 ± 2.7 kg, women: -1.8 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 2.5 kg, both p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age.

  19. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  20. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  1. Effect of repeated gaboxadol administration on night sleep and next-day performance in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Stefan; Zihl, Josef; Steiger, Axel; Lancel, Marike

    2005-04-01

    Aging is associated with dramatic reductions in sleep continuity and sleep intensity. Since gaboxadol, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist, has been demonstrated to improve sleep consolidation and promote deep sleep, it may be an effective hypnotic, particularly for elderly patients with insomnia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of subchronic gaboxadol administration on nocturnal sleep and its residual effects during the next days in elderly subjects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study in 10 healthy elderly subjects without sleep complaints. The subjects were administered either placebo or 15 mg gaboxadol hydrochloride at bedtime on three consecutive nights. Sleep was recorded during each night from 2300 to 0700 h and tests assessing attention (target detection, stroop test) and memory function (visual form recognition, immediate word recall, digit span) were applied at 0900, 1400, and 1700 h during the following days. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol significantly shortened subjective sleep onset latency and increased self-rated sleep intensity and quality. Polysomnographic recordings showed that it significantly decreased the number of awakenings, the amount of intermittent wakefulness, and stage 1, and increased slow wave sleep and stage 2. These effects were stable over the three nights. None of the subjects reported side effects. Next-day cognitive performance was not affected by gaboxadol. Gaboxadol persistently improved subjective and objective sleep quality and was devoid of residual effects. Thus, at the employed dose, it seems an effective hypnotic in elderly subjects.

  2. Self-awareness of cognitive efficiency: Differences between healthy elderly and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiadaki, Stella; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikolaos; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2016-12-01

    Self-estimation of performance implies the ability to understand one's own performance with relatively objective terms. Up to date, few studies have addressed this topic in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The aim of the present study was to compare objective measures of performance with subjective perception of specific performance on cognitive tests and investigate differences in assessment between MCI patients and healthy elderly. Thirty-five participants diagnosed with MCI (women = 16, men = 19, mean age = 65.09 years ±SD = 7.81, mean education = 12.83 years ±SD = 4.32) and 35 control subjects similar in terms of age and education (women = 20, men = 15, mean age = 62.46 years ± SD = 9.35, mean education = 14.26 ± SD = 2.84) were examined with an extended battery of neuropsychological tests. After every test they were asked to self-evaluate their performance by comparing it to what they considered as average for people of their age and educational level. This self-evaluation was reported on a scale ranging from -100 to +100. Significant differences were found in the self-assessment patterns of the two groups in memory measures of verbal and visual delayed recall, visuospatial perception, and tests of attention. MCI patients overestimated their performance on every cognitive domain while control participants underestimated their performance on measures of verbal memory. The present results indicate that accuracy of self-report is not uniform across groups and functional areas. The discrepancies in the MCI patients indicate unawareness of their memory deficits, which is contradictory to subjective memory complaints as being an important component for clinical diagnosis.

  3. Protocol group education for family caregivers of elderly dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anguita Carpio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Family is the main care source for the dependent person. The act of looking after somebody, involves the development of multiple tasks, apart from spending a lot of time. This implies a series of requirements that would be able to damage the family caregivers’ quality of life, and definitively, their health. Objetive: training for family caregivers to provide quality care, in order to succeed in this project, we establish three specific aims: improving the information and training, increase self-care abilities and focus on resources and support services for informal caregivers. Methods: We are going to implement an educative intervention in a group of 12 informal caregivers of people over 65 years, dependent on chronic diseases and develop home care. The program will be composed of 10 sessions, each one of two-hour-long. The first session will consist of an introduction and the last session will be reserved to solve doubts and to deal with the assessment of the program. Throughout the rest of sessions, contents about training, self, resources and assistance services for caregivers will be proposed. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the program, a multiple choice questionnaire will be taken both al the beginning and at the end of the different sessions. In order to evaluate the human resources and the applied methodology, another questionnaire will be passed.

  4. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  5. Effects of a health promotion and fall prevention program in elderly individuals participating in interaction groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lays Cavallero Pagliosa

    Full Text Available Introduction Falls in elderly people are an increasing public health problem resulting in high costs to health services. Thus, it is essential to invest in the development of actions and programs focused on decreasing such risks. Objective To verify the effects of a program of health promotion and prevention of falls in relation to balance and functional abilities in elderly people participating in interaction groups in Caxias do Sul City, RS State. Materials and methods For this purpose, 14 elderly people were selected for assessment and reassessment through the following instruments: the Barthel Index, Timed Up and Go Test (TUG, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and a questionnaire to characterize the sample. Over the course of 2 months, group activities were conducted in a multi-sensory and proprioceptive circuit with a frequency of 2 times per week, totaling 14 meetings. Results The average age of participants was about 72 years old, mostly women (78.6%; 64.3% of them had experienced falls, and 92.9% had already practiced physical activities. After the intervention, there was an average increase of 9.14 points in the BBS (p = 0.000 and an average reduction of 4.4 seconds in gait speed on the TUG test (p = 0.000. Conclusion The application of the proposed program resulted in increasing balance and gait performance of the elderly, reducing the risk of falls.

  6. Cognitive Improvement and Brain Changes after Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training in Healthy Elderly and Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hohenfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCognitive decline is characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease (AD and also for healthy ageing. As a proof-of-concept study, we examined whether this decline can be counteracted using real-time fMRI neurofeedback training. Visuospatial memory and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG were targeted.MethodsSixteen healthy elderly subjects (mean age 63.5 years, SD = 6.663 and 10 patients with prodromal AD (mean age 66.2 years, SD = 8.930 completed the experiment. Four additional healthy subjects formed a sham-feedback condition to validate the paradigm. The protocol spanned five examination days (T1–T5. T1 contained a neuropsychological pre-test, the encoding of a real-world footpath, and an anatomical MRI scan of the brain. T2–T4 included the fMRI neurofeedback training paradigm, in which subjects learned to enhance activation of the left PHG while recalling the path encoded on T1. At T5, the neuropsychological post-test and another anatomical MRI brain scan were performed. The neuropsychological battery included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA; the Visual and Verbal Memory Test (VVM; subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS; the Visual Patterns Test; and Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B.ResultsHealthy elderly and patients with prodromal AD showed improved visuospatial memory performance after neurofeedback training. Healthy subjects also performed better in a working-memory task (WMS backward digit-span and in the MoCA. Both groups were able to elicit parahippocampal activation during training, but no significant changes in brain activation were found over the course of the training. However, Granger-causality-analysis revealed changes in cerebral connectivity over the course of the training, involving the parahippocampus and identifying the precuneus as main driver of activation in both groups. Voxel-based morphometry showed increases in grey matter volumes in the precuneus and frontal cortex. Neither cognitive

  7. Effectiveness of the mHealth technology in improvement of healthy behaviors in an elderly population-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changizi, Maryam; Kaveh, Mohammad H

    2017-01-01

    Demographic changes in the 21st century, increased population of the elderly and high prevalence of related diseases call for new healthcare strategies that can change the behavior and lifestyle of elderly individuals. Innovative information and communication technology, such as mobile health (mHealth), can play a significant role. The present study was conducted aiming to assess the effectiveness of mHealth in improving health behaviors among an elderly population. This paper presents a systematic review involving a search of PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, Science Direct and Embase databases from [2012-2016]. Our search resulted after initial evaluations 12 articles. Inclusion criteria mostly revolved around interventional studies, other studies were excluded because of their methodology, non-elderly target groups and irrelevant to the subject. Findings showed that mHealth can improve care, self-management, self-efficacy, behavior promotion (quality of sleep, diet, physical activity mental health) and medication adherence. The mHealth technology has proven effective for disease prevention, lifestyle changes, management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and is a suitable tool for elderly people. In conclusion, it seems that mHealth can facilitate behavioral changes; although, further research is necessary in this regard.

  8. The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Group Rehabilitation Program on the Psychosocial Functioning of Elderly People Who Are Visually Impaired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Suurmeijer, Theodorus; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pilot study reported here determined the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation program, Visually Impaired Elderly Persons Participating (VIPP), on psychosocial functioning. Methods: The single-group pretest-posttest pilot study included 29 persons with visual

  9. Effects of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme on participation of the visually impaired elderly : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To pilot test the newly developed multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme Visually Impaired elderly Persons Participating (VIPP). Method: A single group pretest-posttest design pilot study included 29 visually impaired persons (>= 55 years). The intervention (20 weekly meetings)

  10. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0±3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8±3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females

  11. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0{+-}3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8{+-}3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females.

  12. Multisite longitudinal reliability of tract-based spatial statistics in diffusion tensor imaging of healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicich, Jorge; Marizzoni, Moira; Bosch, Beatriz; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arnold, Jennifer; Benninghoff, Jens; Wiltfang, Jens; Roccatagliata, Luca; Picco, Agnese; Nobili, Flavio; Blin, Oliver; Bombois, Stephanie; Lopes, Renaud; Bordet, Régis; Chanoine, Valérie; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Aiello, Marco; Ragucci, Monica; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvadori, Nicola; Tarducci, Roberto; Floridi, Piero; Tsolaki, Magda; Constantinidis, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo; Otto, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Galluzzi, Samantha; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2014-11-01

    Large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies with diffusion imaging techniques are necessary to test and validate models of white matter neurophysiological processes that change in time, both in healthy and diseased brains. The predictive power of such longitudinal models will always be limited by the reproducibility of repeated measures acquired during different sessions. At present, there is limited quantitative knowledge about the across-session reproducibility of standard diffusion metrics in 3T multi-centric studies on subjects in stable conditions, in particular when using tract based spatial statistics and with elderly people. In this study we implemented a multi-site brain diffusion protocol in 10 clinical 3T MRI sites distributed across 4 countries in Europe (Italy, Germany, France and Greece) using vendor provided sequences from Siemens (Allegra, Trio Tim, Verio, Skyra, Biograph mMR), Philips (Achieva) and GE (HDxt) scanners. We acquired DTI data (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3), b = 700 s/mm(2), 5 b0 and 30 diffusion weighted volumes) of a group of healthy stable elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) in two separate sessions at least a week apart. For each subject and session four scalar diffusion metrics were considered: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity. The diffusion metrics from multiple subjects and sessions at each site were aligned to their common white matter skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics. The reproducibility at each MRI site was examined by looking at group averages of absolute changes relative to the mean (%) on various parameters: i) reproducibility of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the b0 images in centrum semiovale, ii) full brain test-retest differences of the diffusion metric maps on the white matter skeleton, iii) reproducibility of the diffusion metrics on atlas-based white matter ROIs on the white matter skeleton. Despite the differences of MRI scanner

  13. The role of group brain checkups using magnetic resonance imaging in pre-elderly with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai-Iwai, Eri; Ogawa, Fumiaki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Naruse, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    Care of elderly people is an important socio-economical issue for industrial nations. Stroke is the leading cause of elderly care and its major risk facters are silent brain infarcts and metabolic disorders such as hypertension. Recent progress in brain imaging techniques has enabled early detection of cerebrovascular disease. However, brain imaging of numerous patients is not feasible because the test is time consuming and costly. Furthermore, the epidemiology of silent cerebrovascular disease in hypertensive elderly people is not well-known. Thus, the present study aims to establish whether group brain check-up is effective and to assess the incidence of silent cerebrovascular disease in pre-elderly individuals with hypertension. We randomly enrolled 224 participants, aged 50- to 65-years-old, with hypertension detected during routine medical check-ups. All participants were free of neurological symptoms, or dementia as determined by the Mini Mental Status Examination. MRI was carried out by the simplified method of fast spin echo (FSE)-T2-weighted image (T2WI) and 3D-time of flight (TOF) MRA with Toshiba VISART1.5T, and diagnosed by 3 radiologists. Each imaging test required only 10 minutes and the cost was reduced to about 40-80% number of the usual cost for brain MRIs. The detection rate of abnormal findings was 77.6% (n=174) and that of cerebrovascular changes was 70.1% (n=159; 102 lacunae, 64 intracranial artery stenosis, and 27 cerebral aneurysm), which was much higher than previously reported in a study of random participants. In addition, follow-up questionnaires after the brain check-ups revealed that 86% of participants improved their awareness about health-related life-style. These findings indicate that the pre-elderly population with hypertension is at high-risk for silent cerebrovascular disease, and mass screening of this group using our simplified MRI may be an effective medical health strategy in aging society. (author)

  14. Lower-limb hot-water immersion acutely induces beneficial hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses in peripheral arterial disease and healthy, elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kate N; van Rij, André M; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain, and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb, hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71 ± 6 yr, 7 male, 4 female) and 10 controls (age 72 ± 7 yr, 8 male, 2 female) underwent hot-water immersion (30-min waist-level immersion in 42.1 ± 0.6°C water). Before, during, and following immersion, brachial and popliteal artery diameter, blood flow, and shear stress were assessed using duplex ultrasound. Lower-limb perfusion was measured also using venous occlusion plethysmography and near-infrared spectroscopy. During immersion, shear rate increased ( P Lower-limb blood flow increased significantly in both groups, as measured from duplex ultrasound (>200%), plethysmography (>100%), and spectroscopy, while central and peripheral pulse-wave velocity decreased in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by 22 ± 9 mmHg (main effect P lower 3 h afterward. In PAD, popliteal shear profiles and claudication both compared favorably with those measured immediately following symptom-limited walking. A 30-min hot-water immersion is a practical means of delivering heat therapy to PAD patients and healthy, elderly individuals to induce appreciable systemic (chronotropic and blood pressure lowering) and hemodynamic (upper and lower-limb perfusion and shear rate increases) responses. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Assessment of and Improvement Strategies for the Housing of Healthy Elderly: Improving Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ming Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Global population is aging, particularly in developed countries and cities. Through the “Friendly Elderly Cities” and “Aging in Place” initiatives, various countries are making great efforts to improve the welfare and quality of life of the elderly, with the aim of catering to the physical and spiritual health as well as social welfare of the elderly. In this regard, the improvement of the housing environment of the elderly is one of the key factors in their quality of life and health. This study aims to effectively assess and improve the housing environment of the elderly in order to enhance their quality of life; it also aims to contribute the knowledge about improving elderly housing by applying an assessment framework using expert interviews and data collected from relevant literature. Using a mixed Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis model, a combination of the DEMATEL (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory-based ANP (Analytic Network Process (DANP and the modified VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR methods, and the investigations and assessments in the case study, this study proposes strategies and directions for improving elderly housing. The study results indicate that, as distinct from using traditional methodologies where the hypothesis criteria are mutually independent, the proposed hybrid model (examining real-life problems by considering the mutual influences of factors identifies a priority sequence wherein emphasis is placed on improving ventilation and air quality rather than adjustment of temperature. The systemic way of thinking shifts the focus from the most apparent problems to the root cause of the problems. Doing so avoids any mismatch of resource allocation in decision-making and thus maximizes the efficiency and sustainability of the improvement.

  16. Effectiveness of group music therapy versus recreational group singing for depressive symptoms of elderly nursing home residents: pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jasmin; Wosch, Thomas; Gold, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have suggested positive effects of music therapy in dementia, but research on age-related depression has been limited and of insufficient quality. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of interactive group music therapy versus recreational group singing on depressive symptoms in elderly nursing home residents. Residents of two German nursing homes with sufficient length of stay who were not bedridden were invited to participate in a pragmatic trial. A total of 117 participants, grouped into four clusters (based on their wards), were randomised to interactive group music therapy (n = 62; 20 units of 40 minutes, 2×/week) or recreational group singing (n = 55; 10 units of 90 minutes, 1×/week). The level of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale at baseline (47% with at least mild depression) and follow-up in the 6th and 12th weeks. There was no blinding of assessors. The level of depressive symptoms improved significantly more in those assigned to music therapy (n = 60) than in recreational singing (n = 53), both in 6th week (mean difference 3.0 scores, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.79, p = 0.001) and 12th week (mean difference 4.50 scores, 95% CI 2.51 to 6.50, p elderly people in nursing homes more effectively than recreational singing.

  17. Longitudinal assessment of cerebral 5-HT2A receptors in healthy elderly volunteers: an [18F]-altanserin PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Knudsen, Gitte M; Haugbøl, Steven

    2009-01-01

    patients with neuropsychiatric diseases on a longitudinal basis. METHODS: [(18)F]-Altanserin PET was used to quantify 5-HT(2A) receptors in 12 healthy elderly individuals at baseline and at 2 years in six volumes of interest. A bolus/infusion protocol was used to achieve the binding potential, BP(P...... of our measurements over 2 years with the stability of data from an earlier study with 2-week test-retest measurements. RESULTS: BP(P) was unaltered at follow-up without the use of PV correction and when applying two-tissue PV correction, test-retest reproducibility was 12-15% and reliability 0...

  18. A study of group reminiscence therapy and emotional intelligence among elderly members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Bazooband

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of group reminiscence therapy on elderly’s emotional intelligence. A quasi-experimental research with a pre-test-post-test control group was conducted in July 2015, with a sample of 40 elderly members referring to an (anonymous Community Center in the city of Shiraz, Iran. A predesigned instrument, i.e., the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire developed by Schering, was applied to collect data. SPSS Statistics v. 22.0 (Released 2013; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA was used to analyze data, with a 95% confidence level and a measurement error of α=0.05. Hypothesis tests were mainly conducted to examine whether group reminiscence therapy correlates with emotional intelligence among the respondents. Findings revealed that the applied intervention i.e., group reminiscence therapy significantly associates with various dimensions of emotional intelligence including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation, empathy and social skills in the older adults within the experiment group; i.e., the mean scores of the variables for the post-test administered on the experimental group were significantly higher than those on the control group. Group reminiscence therapy has the potential to enhance emotional intelligence in the elderly by helping them control their thoughts and emotions and learn problem-solving skills.

  19. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (ppostural control performance (ppostural control shown by these women.

  20. Hematological and nutritional parameters in apparently healthy elderly individuals Parâmetros hematológicos e nutricionais em idosos aparentemente saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza D'Agord Schaan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-probabilistic study in an elderly free living community was performed. The first analysis was cross-sectional in design and the additional analysis, a case-control design. In the first analysis, 745 subjects were enrolled. Additional analyses, made in 46 apparently healthy elderly subjects (AHE and 33 young adults (YA included: clinical, hematological and biochemical analyses, 24-hours nutritional recall and diet frequency questionnaire. The AHE were selected using the Senieur test protocol. To avoid selection bias in the AHE sample, additional analysis comparing cultural, socioeconomic, and health variables were compared between AHE and non-selected elderly with same dysfunction or morbidity (DE. The prevalence of AHE was 6.17% (n=46 among whom 4.3% were anemic. There were no statistically differences in hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocytes and vitamin B12 levels between AHE and YA groups. Mean values of MCV, RDW, eosinophils, folate and ferritin were higher in the AHE than the YA group. On the other hand, platelets were higher in the YA group. No statistically significant difference occurred between the AHE and DE groups when nutritional indicators were compared. The comparison between nutritional indicators of anemic and non-anemic apparently healthy elderly people showed statistically significant differences in vitamin B12 and protein intake, which were lower in the anemic elderly. The results suggest independent biological differences between hematological parameters of elderly and young individuals.Foi realizado um estudo não probabilístico em idosos que vivem na comunidade. A primeira análise teve um delineamento transversal e análises adicionais um delineamento caso-controle. Na primeira análise foram incluídos 745 indivíduos. Análises adicionais foram feitas em 46 idosos saudáveis (HE e em 33 adultos jovens (YA incluindo: análises clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas, recordatório nutricional de 24 horas e question

  1. Dose-dependent effects of fish oil on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Hu, Manjiang; Li, Cheng; Yang, Bo; Ding, Qing; Wang, Chunhong; Mao, Limei

    2018-06-20

    n-3PUFA consumption has been widely accepted as a nutritional strategy for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the dose-response relationship between dietary n-3PUFA and serum biomarkers associated with cardiovascular health in the general population. The present study involved a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial to explore the effects of fish oil with different doses (0.31, 0.62 and 1.24 g d-1 of EPA and DHA) on serum fatty acids and cardio-metabolic biomarkers including adiponectin, inflammatory markers, lipid profiles and fasting glucose in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people. 240 volunteers met our inclusion criteria. A total of 39 subjects dropped out and 201 finally completed the intervention. No significant differences in baseline characteristics and daily intakes of dietary nutrients were detected among all groups. After a 12-week intervention, fish oil dose-dependently enhanced serum EPA, DHA, n-3PUFA and adiponectin (except for 0.31 g d-1), but decreased serum n-6/n-3PUFA, TG and fasting glucose. Changes in the above indicators from the baseline to week 12 in fish oil groups significantly differed from those in the control. Meanwhile, all the doses of EPA and DHA led to decreases in serum CRP; only 1.24 g d-1 led to an increase in HDL-C with a concurrent decrease in TC/HDL-C even though these changes were not significantly different among all groups. All the findings suggested that fish oil dose-dependently regulated serum PUFA and cardio-metabolic biomarkers including adiponectin, CRP, lipid profiles and fasting glucose in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people who consumed insufficient dietary n-3PUFA, and the most desirable changes were observed for 1.24 g d-1.

  2. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the World Health Organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Streppel, Martinette T; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Orfanos, Philippos; van den Hooven, Edith H; Pikhart, Hynek; Boffetta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bobak, Martin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kee, Frank; Franco, Oscar H; Park, Yikyung; Hallmans, Göran; Tjønneland, Anne; May, Anne M; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Růžena; Amiano, Pilar; Kampman, Ellen; Feskens, Edith J

    2014-11-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuhiro; Marotta, Francesco; Kantah, Makoto K; Zerbinati, Nicola; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Illuzzi, Nicola; Sapienza, Chiara; Takadanohara, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Riyichi; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

  4. Analysis of static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan versus ballroom dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antônio Rahal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. METHODS: We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master¯ force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test. RESULTS: In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. CONCLUSION: The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test.

  5. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL in women (P body fat or lipid measures, except for a positive correlation of IGF-I with triglycerides in men. Thus, endogenous nocturnal GH secretion predicts total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels independently of total or abdominal fat, suggesting that it is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor in healthy elderly people.

  6. Comparison of performance on three neuropsychological tests in healthy Turkish immigrants and Danish elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate neuropsychological tests for cross-cultural assessment of dementia in elderly ethnic and linguistic minorities are generally lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the Recall of Pictures Test (RPT), Clock Reading Test (CRT...

  7. Short-term practice effects and variability in cognitive testing in a healthy elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Siersma, V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline in the elderly is a subject of intense focus. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding definition of significant decline in connection with repeated testing and the interpretation of cognitive tests results must take into account the practice effect...

  8. [The elderly, nursing homes and life voyages: a psychodrama group study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan Oğuzhanoğlu, Nalan; Osman, Ozdel

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the applicability of psychodrama orientated group work among the elderly living in nursing homes, and effect of this group work on coping with psychological and behavioral problems. Eleven male volunteers were chosen for the group. None of them had any negative features on communicating with others or had somatic or serious psychological problems. Eighteen psychodrama orientated group work sessions were held. Each was 2.5 to 3 hours long and took place only once a week. The staff of the nursing home became involved in the process after the twelfth session. Therapists registered their observations at every meeting. To evaluate the anxiety-depression levels the Geriatric Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were used. Due to a late warm up among the members in this group, dramatization took place in later sessions. During the study, an increase in the members' spontaneity, creativity and empathy and consequently an improvement in communicating with and helping others, and coping with problems were observed. Articulation of emotions and thoughts improved gradually during the study. Somatic and total anxiety scores decreased significantly. This study shows that psychodrama group work can be used with the elderly and it may be helpful for improving psychological and behavioral areas, and for discovering the meaning of life.

  9. Study and Comparison of Different Aspects Healthy Lifestyle of the Elderly People Residing in Nursing Homes, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shahnazi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the study results, it is suggested that health policymakers make appropriate plans to promote elderly lifestyle in nursing homes. With regard to seclusion and loneliness of old people, using strategies to alleviate stress and depression and also prevention of its physical and mental effects, seems to be absolutely needed. It can be a step toward promotion of health status of this vulnerable group.

  10. An educational strategy that promotes healthy habits in elderly people with hypertension in a municipality of Colombia: a participatory action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mateus, María Carolina; Hernández-Rincón, Erwin Hernando; Correal-Muñoz, Camilo Alejandro; Cadena-Buitrago, Gina Paola; Galvis-Díaz, Ingrid Johanna; Romero-Prieto, Génesis Esmeralda

    2017-10-30

    To identify resources of the municipality of Sopó-Cundinamarca, Colombia, that are also opportunities to strengthen the development of an educational strategy that promotes healthy habits (healthy diet and exercise) as part of the comprehensive management of hypertension in the elderly. A qualitative study of a participatory-action research initiative in the Community Day Center of Sopó in the second semester of 2015. It was developed in three stages: first, a community diagnosis showed the need to integrate the culture, traditions and resources of the municipality as inputs that allow the adherence of healthy styles by the elderly for the control of hypertension; in the second stage, a work plan was established based on actions provided by the community; and in the third stage, we reflected on the results. An effective and sustainable intervention for the elderly can be achieved through the following activities: appropriation of the agricultural resources, the strengthening of dance as a form of exercise, use of motivational strategies, support of institutions that work with the welfare of the elderly, and the empowerment of facilitators. Interventions aimed at supporting the adherence of healthy lifestyles to the elderly should include and preserve the context of the community of which they are part, where community resources are the inputs that allow health promotion.

  11. CHANGED, EVERYTHING CHANGED IN MY LIFE: ELDERLY EXPERIENCES IN COEXISTENCE GROUPS AT IJUÍ/RS COMMUNITY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseila Sonego

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objectivity to know the reasons that make elderly regular visitors of groups andtheir life changes. A study with qualitative, explorative and descriptive nature. A piece of information occurred by aparticipating observant and a structural interview made with mixed recording questions: what were the reasons thatmade you participate with this group? Did you make any change in your life since you ‘ve started to frequent it?About eight elderly were interviewed in these coexistence groups here in Ijuí/RS. Analysis, classified thoseinformation’s in two categories. The reasons pointed were personal interaction, the act of share joy, love, sadnessand knowledge. Needless to say, rescue vanity, pleasure, satisfaction, and joy of being with other people. Thegroup is considered a social space; in witch they realize activities like the act of speaking, laughing, dancing andstrengthening. When participating in these groups, they have physical and mental changes. They even have afamiliar support and encourage continuing at these groups.

  12. Structural brain changes after traditional and robot-assisted multi-domain cognitive training in community-dwelling healthy elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Ha Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if multi-domain cognitive training, especially robot-assisted training, alters cortical thickness in the brains of elderly participants. A controlled trial was conducted with 85 volunteers without cognitive impairment who were 60 years old or older. Participants were first randomized into two groups. One group consisted of 48 participants who would receive cognitive training and 37 who would not receive training. The cognitive training group was randomly divided into two groups, 24 who received traditional cognitive training and 24 who received robot-assisted cognitive training. The training for both groups consisted of daily 90-min-session, five days a week for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the changes in cortical thickness. When compared to the control group, both groups who underwent cognitive training demonstrated attenuation of age related cortical thinning in the frontotemporal association cortices. When the robot and the traditional interventions were directly compared, the robot group showed less cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortices. Our results suggest that cognitive training can mitigate age-associated structural brain changes in the elderly.ClnicalTrials.gov NCT01596205.

  13. Comparison of the prognosis among different age groups in elderly patients with hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagino Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcome of treatment of hip fractures in different age groups in the elderly population is largely unknown. Hence, we stratified elderly patients with hip fracture into age groups and compared the prognosis in various age groups. Materials and Methods: Among 459 patients with hip fracture treated at our hospital from 1997, 430 patients aged 65 years or above at the time of injury were studied. The patients comprised 98 males and 332 females and the ages at injury ranged from 65 to 103 years (mean 83.4 years. There were 167 cases of femoral neck fracture and 263 cases of trochanteric fractures. Surgery was performed in 383 cases, while 47 cases were treated conservatively. The subjects were classified by age into young-old for those aged 65-74 years (group A, n = 55, middle-old for those aged 75-84 years (group B, n = 172, old-old for those aged 85-94 (group C, n = 180, and oldest-old for those aged 95 years or above (group D, n = 23. The functional and survival prognosis at discharge in each group was investigated. Results: Numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those ambulatory before injury were 43 of 49 (87.8% in group A, 113 of 152 (74.3% in group B, 86 of 138 (62.3% in group C, and 5 of 14 (35.7% in group D, showing worse recovery of walking ability as age advanced. Among those ambulatory before injury, 42 patients in group A, 139 patients in group B, 130 patients in group C, and 12 patients in group D underwent surgery and of these patients, 38 patients (90.5% in group A, 109 patients (78.4% in group B, 83 patients (63.8% in group C, and 5 patients (41.7% in group D were ambulatory at discharge. On the other hand, the numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those receiving conservative treatment were 5 of 7 (71.4% in group A, 4 of 13 (30.8% in group B, 3 of 8 (37.5% in group C, and 0 of 2 (0% in group D, showing better walking ability in surgical patients than in conservatively treated

  14. Yoga reduces perceived stress and exhaustion levels in healthy elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Eric; Tilton, Katherine; Eickholt, Nicole; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether a 7-week yoga intervention could improve physical function, perceived stress, and mental/emotional wellness in elderly participants. 8 participants (66.5 ± 0.3 years) attended 2 60-min Hatha yoga sessions/week for 7 weeks, and performed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Balance was assessed using a 5-test battery. Flexibility was measured by sit-and-reach and shoulder flexibility tests. Functional mobility tests included 8-ft up-and-go, 5 chair stands, and 4-m walk. Participants completed SF-12, exhaustion level, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires. SF-12 Mental Component Summary scores, exhaustion levels, and PSS scores improved post-intervention. No differences were found for physical function measures. Yoga participation can improve mental/emotional wellness, exhaustion levels, and stress levels in elderly individuals, even without measurable improvements in physical function. Clinicians and health practitioners who work with the elderly should consider yoga as a potential therapeutic modality for improving important aspects of quality of life in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory training in healthy elders: outcomes and possible mechanisms of improvement / Treino de memória no idoso saudável: benefícios e mecanismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sanches Yassuda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies document a change in memory during the process of aging. However, studies report the possibility of improvement after training. OBJECTIVE: To replicate international findings regarding the effects of memory training with a sample of Brazilian elders and to investigate mechanisms, such as the use of strategies, that can explain its benefits. METHODS: 69 healthy Brazilian elders were randomly divided into an experimental group (EG and a control group (CG, and received four sessions of training (CG received training after pos-test. Training included information on memory and the process of aging, instruction and practice in organizing grocery lists and the underlining of main ideas in short texts. RESULTS: There was superior improvement for prose recall and greater use of strategies (organizing lists and underlining texts for the EG at post-test. Both groups reported fewer memory complaints (assessed with the MAC-Q and faster information processing (WAIS-R Digit Symbols sub-test. CONCLUSIONS: After training, elders intensify the use of strategies, however, this fact does not guarantee a better performance (there was no significant improvement in list recalls. List recall results suggest the presence of the utilization deficiency: elders used the strategy but failed to benefit from it.

  16. Characteristics and Changes in Health Status and Life Function among Female Elderly Participants of Group Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiromi; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of female elderly participants of a group exercise organized by the participants themselves and the changes in their physical, mental, and social health, and life function. Findings of this study will be used for promoting effective preventive care. The subjects whose characteristics were analyzed were 394 participants and 757 nonparticipants of the group exercise. Those whose changes in health were analyzed were 52 participants and 114 nonparticipants. Locomotion Check and self-rated health score were used as indices of physical health. World Health Organization-Five well-being (S-WHO-5-J) index and self-rated life satisfaction level were used as indices of mental health. Satisfaction level of social activities was one of indices of social health. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence was used as an index of life function. The health-examination data analyzed were Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and HbA1c level. In the participant group, the proportions of those who lived alone, who were affluent, and who had no job were higher than those in the nonparticipant group. The indices of physical, mental and social health and life function were higher in the participant group. There was no significant difference in the 5-year trend of health-examination data between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the yearly change in the indices of physical health and life function. The S-WHO-5-J index, self-rated life satisfaction level, and satisfaction level of social activities were maintained or improved in the participant group. The results suggest the possible usefulness of the group exercise for maintaining the mental and social health of elderly women.

  17. Clinical and cognitive trajectories in cognitively healthy elderly individuals with suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (SNAP) or Alzheimer's disease pathology: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Samantha C; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Doré, Vincent; Savage, Greg; Brown, Belinda; Laws, Simon; Maruff, Paul; Salvado, Olivier; Ames, David; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L

    2016-09-01

    Brain amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and neurodegeneration have been documented in about 50-60% of cognitively healthy elderly individuals (aged 60 years or older). The long-term cognitive consequences of the presence of Alzheimer's disease pathology and neurodegeneration, and whether they have an independent or synergistic effect on cognition, are unclear. We aimed to characterise the long-term clinical and cognitive trajectories of healthy elderly individuals using a two-marker (Alzheimer's disease pathology and neurodegeneration) imaging construct. Between Nov 3, 2006, and Nov 25, 2014, 573 cognitively healthy individuals in Melbourne and Perth, Australia, (mean age 73·1 years [SD 6·2]; 58% women) were enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle (AIBL) study. Alzheimer's disease pathology (A) was determined by measuring Aβ deposition by PET, and neurodegeneration (N) was established by measuring hippocampal volume using MRI. Individuals were categorised as A(-)N(-), A(+)N(-), A(+)N(+), or suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (A(-)N(+), SNAP). Clinical progression, hippocampal volume, standard neuropsychological tests, and domain-specific and global cognitive composite scores were assessed over 6 years of follow-up. Linear mixed effect models and a Cox proportional hazards model of survival were used to evaluate, compare, and contrast the clinical, cognitive, and volumetric trajectories of patients in the four AN categories. 50 (9%) healthy individuals were classified as A(+)N(+), 87 (15%) as A(+)N(-), 310 (54%) as A(-)N(-), and 126 (22%) as SNAP. APOE ε4 was more frequent in participants in the A(+)N(+) (27; 54%) and A(+)N(-) (42; 48%) groups than in the A(-)N(-) (66; 21%) and SNAP groups (23; 18%). The A(+)N(-) and A(+)N(+) groups had significantly faster cognitive decline than the A(-)N(-) group (0·08 SD per year for AIBL-Preclinical AD Cognitive Composite [PACC]; p<0·0001; and 0·25; p<0·0001; respectively). The A (+)N

  18. A Lower-Limb Training Program to Improve Balance in Healthy Elderly Women Using the T-Bow (R) Device

    OpenAIRE

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Colado, Juan Carlos; Pablos Abella, Carlos; Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando José; Garcia-Massó, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Ageing impairs balance, which increases the risk of falls. Fall-related injuries are a serious health problem associated with dependency and disability in the elderly and results in high costs to public health systems. This study aims to determine the effects of a training program to develop balance using a new device called the T-Bow (R). A total of 28 women > 65 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) (n = 18; 69.50 [0.99] years), or a control group (CG) (n = 10; 70.70 [2...

  19. The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self esteem, and life satisfaction of elderly nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Chiu-Yen; Jin, Suh-Fen; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Huang, Tzu-Shin; Clark, Mary Jo

    2006-03-01

    The need to provide quality mental health care for elders in nursing home settings has been a critical issue, as the aging population grows rapidly and institutional care becomes a necessity for some elders. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to describe the effect of participation in reminiscence group therapy on older nursing home residents' depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who met the study criteria. Residents of one ward were assigned to the reminiscence therapy group intervention, while residents of the other ward served as controls. Nine weekly one-hour sessions were designed to elicit reminiscence as group therapy for 12 elders in the experimental group. Another 12 elders were recruited for a control group matched to experimental subjects on relevant criteria. Depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were measured one week before and after the therapy. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 10.0) was used to analyze data. Results indicated that group reminiscence therapy significantly improved self-esteem, although effects on depression and life satisfaction were not significant. Reminiscence groups could enhance elders' social interaction with one another in nursing home settings and become support groups for participants. The model we created here can serve as a reference for future application in institutional care.

  20. Association between exercise habits and subcortical gray matter volumes in healthy elderly people: A population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mikie; Wada-Isoe, Kenji; Yamashita, Fumio; Nakashita, Satoko; Kishi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Yamawaki, Mika; Nakashima, Kenji

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between exercise and subcortical gray matter volume is not well understood in the elderly population, although reports indicate that exercise may prevent cortical gray matter atrophy. To elucidate this association in the elderly, we measured subcortical gray matter volume and correlated this with volumes to exercise habits in a community-based cohort study in Japan. Subjects without mild cognitive impairment or dementia (n = 280, 35% male, mean age 73.1 ± 5.9 years) were evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an exercise habit questionnaire, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Subcortical gray matter volume was compared between groups based on the presence/absence of exercise habits. The MMSE was re-administered 3 years after the baseline examination. Ninety-one subjects (32.5%) reported exercise habits (exercise group), and 189 subjects (67.5%) reported no exercise habits (non-exercise group). Volumetric analysis revealed that the volumes in the exercise group were greater in the left hippocampus (p = 0.042) and bilateral nucleus accumbens (left, p = 0.047; right, p = 0.007) compared to those of the non-exercise group. Among the 195 subjects who received a follow-up MMSE examination, the normalized intra-cranial volumes of the left nucleus accumbens (p = 0.004) and right amygdala (p = 0.014)showed significant association with a decline in the follow-up MMSE score. Subjects with exercise habits show larger subcortical gray matter volumes than subjects without exercise habits in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. Specifically, the volume of the nucleus accumbens correlates with both exercise habits and cognitive preservation.

  1. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Michelle S; Agyemang, Charles O; Smalbrugge, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative health outcomes. The goal of this article was to identify effective interventions that improve social participation, and minimise social isolation and loneliness in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. An electronic database (PubMed) was systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for intervention studies in English, French, Dutch of German, without time limit. Additional articles were found using references. Articles were included if they studied an intervention aimed to improve social participation or minimise social isolation or loneliness and were focusing on community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Data regarding studies characteristics and results were extracted. Six studies (three randomized controlled trials, three non-controlled intervention studies) were included in the review. All studies were group-based interventions and had a theoretical basis. Five out of six studies showed improvement on a social participation, -isolation or loneliness outcome. Type of intervention included volunteering-, educational- and physical activities. In three studies active participation of the participant was required, these interventions were not more effective than other interventions. Some interventions improved the included social determinants of health in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Investment in further development and implementation of these interventions may help to improve social determinants of health in these populations. It is necessary to evaluate these interventions in the European setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood, sleep, and depression in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Rentero-Blanco, Manuel; Laredo-Aguilera, Jose Alberto; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood state, sleep, and depression in older adults. In this study, 52 elderly adults from different areas of Spain participated in a social hydrotherapy programme created by the government's Institute for Elderly and Social Services, known as IMSERSO; participants included 23 men (age, 69.74 ± 5.19 years) and 29 women (age, 70.31 ± 6.76 years). Pain was analyzed using the visual analogue scale. Mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood Status. Sleep was assessed using the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The balneotherapy programme was undertaken at Balneario San Andrés (Jaén, Spain). The water at Balneario San Andrés, according to the Handbook of Spanish Mineral Water, is a hypothermic (≥20°C) hard water of medium mineralization, with bicarbonate, sulfate, sodium, and magnesium as the dominant ions. Balneotherapy produced significant improvements (P balneotherapy programme has a positive effect on pain, mood, sleep quality, and depression in healthy older people. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  3. Increased mental slowing associated with the APOE epsilon4 allele after trihexyphenidyl oral anticholinergic challenge in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Nunzio; Belzer, Ken; Hernando, Raymundo; De La Pena, Corazon; Sidtis, John J

    2008-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between APOE epsilon4 and subjective effects of trihexyphenidyl on measures reflecting sedation and confusion and to investigate the relationship between trihexyphenidyl-induced subjective effects and objective memory performance. This study comprised 24 cognitively intact, health elderly adults (12 APOE epsilon4 carriers) at an outpatient geriatric psychiatry research clinic. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, crossover experimental design. All participants received 1.0 mg or 2.0 mg trihexyphenidyl or placebo administered in counterbalanced sequences over a period of three consecutive weeks. Bond and Lader's visual analog scales and alternate versions of the Buschke Selective Reminding Test were administered in a repeated measures design at baseline, 1, 2.5, and 5 hours postdrug administration. A 2.0-mg oral dose of trihexyphenidyl resulted in increased subjective ratings of mental slowness in carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele only. Drug effects as determined by difference scores between 2.0 mg trihexyphenidyl and placebo on ratings of mental slowness significantly correlated with total and delayed recall on the Buschke Selective Reminding Test in carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele only. However, no significant effects were found with other visual analog scales reflecting subjective sedation and clear-headedness. The epsilon4 allele in healthy elderly was associated with increased subjective mental slowing after trihexyphenidyl anticholinergic challenge.

  4. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L -1 ) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  5. Termination of dobutamine infusion causes transient rebound left heart diastolic dysfunction in healthy elderly women but not in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2013-01-01

    Men and women are known to react differently to stress. Thus, stress cardiomyopathy almost solely strikes women. Stress cardiomyopathy is suggested to relate to sex differences in catecholamine reaction. Left heart function during dobutamine stress is well described, but sex-specific inotropic...... and lusitropic response to abrupt termination of dobutamine stress is not. We aimed to investigate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) function during and after dobutamine stress. We enrolled 20 healthy elderly subjects (60-70 yr, 10 females) and measured their LV and LA volumes throughout......, and conduit volumes. Sex differences were not observed at rest or during dobutamine stress. Compared with prestress values, at T15 a rebound decrease in LV peak filling rate was observed in women (-22 ± 3%, P...

  6. Yogurt supplemented with probiotics can protect the healthy elderly from respiratory infections: A randomized controlled open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fangfang; Guo, Yue; Li, Ming; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Shijie; Shen, Xi; He, Miao; Huang, Chengyu; He, Fang

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain could protect middle-aged and elderly people from acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) using a randomized, blank-controlled, parallel-group design. Two hundred and five volunteers aged ≥45 years were randomly divided into two groups. The subjects in the intervention group were orally administered 300 mL/d of yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 (N1115), 3.6×10 7 CFU/mL for 12 weeks, while those in the control group retained their normal diet without any probiotic supplementation. The primary outcome was the incidence of URTI, and changes in serum protein, immunoglobulins, and the profiles of the T-lymphocyte subsets (total T-cells [CD3 + ], T-helper cells [CD4 + ], and T-cytotoxic-suppressor cells [CD8 + ]) during the intervention were the secondary outcomes. Compared to the control group, the number of persons diagnosed with an acute URTI and the number of URTI events significantly decreased in the intervention group ( P =0.038, P =0.030, respectively). The risk of URTI in the intervention group was evaluated as 55% of that in the control group (relative risk =0.55, 95% CI: 0.307-0.969). The change in the percentage of CD3 + cells in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group ( P =0.038). However, no significant differences were observed in the total protein, albumin, globulin, and prealbumin levels in both groups ( P >0.05). The study suggested that yogurt with selected probiotic strains such as N1115 may reduce the risk of acute upper tract infections in the elderly. The enhancement of the T-cell-mediated natural immune defense might be one of the important underlying mechanisms for probiotics to express their anti-infective effects.

  7. Effectiveness of Group Logotherapy on Death Anxiety and Life Expectancy of the Elderly Living in Boarding Houses in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Hajiazizi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion Overall, based on the results of this research, group therapy was found to reduce death anxiety and life expectancy in elderly people living in boarding houses and subsequently, improve their mental health. Due to the special emphasis of logotherapy on the present and the meaning of suffering for the elderly, it is important to use it for promoting social well-being of older people.

  8. Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with temporal and hippocampal atrophy rates in healthy elderly adults: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex; Lee, Grace J; Lee, Agatha; Yanovsky, Igor; Parikshak, Neelroop; Khoo, Theresa; Wu, Stephanie; Geschwind, Daniel; Bartzokis, George

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype is a strong risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, the presence of the ε2 allele has been shown to mitigate cognitive decline. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM), a novel computational approach for visualizing longitudinal progression of brain atrophy, was used to determine whether cognitively intact elderly participants with the ε4 allele demonstrate greater volume reduction than those with the ε2 allele. Healthy "younger elderly" volunteers, aged 55-75, were recruited from the community and hospital staff. They were evaluated with a baseline and follow-up MRI scan (mean scan interval = 4.72 years, s.d. = 0.55) and completed ApoE genotyping. Twenty-seven participants were included in the study of which 16 had the ε4 allele (all heterozygous ε3ε4 genotype) and 11 had the ε2ε3 genotype. The two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic characteristics and all subjects were cognitively "normal" at both baseline and follow-up time points. TBM was used to create 3D maps of local brain tissue atrophy rates for individual participants; these spatially detailed 3D maps were compared between the two ApoE groups. Regional analyses were performed and the ε4 group demonstrated significantly greater annual atrophy rates in the temporal lobes (p = 0.048) and hippocampus (p = 0.016); greater volume loss was observed in the right hippocampus than the left. TBM appears to be useful in tracking longitudinal progression of brain atrophy in cognitively asymptomatic adults. Possession of the ε4 allele is associated with greater temporal and hippocampal volume reduction well before the onset of cognitive deficits.

  9. Investigation the Response of Some Proteins That Involved in Cachexia Syndrome to Acute Resistance Exercise in Healthy Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of plasma Myostatin and insulin growth factor like-1 (IGF-1, as two most important proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome, to acute resistance exercise in healthy elderly people. Methods & Materials: Twelve healthy older men (Age=67±1.3 years, BMI=25±1.4 kg/m2 volunteered for participation in this study. 72 hours after the determination of muscular maximal strength (by 1-RM test, subjects participated in acute resistance exercises via 75% 1-RM. In this research, two blood samples were collected at before and immediately after the exercise from Antecubital vein. Plasma Myostatin and serum levels of IGF-1 were measured by ELISA methods. Paired T-Test used for statical analyses of research data. Significant level was set at P≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that plasma Myostatin significantly decreased in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. Also the serum levels of IGF-1 increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. In turn, the results reveled that the IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resistance exercise through increases of IGF-1 and decreases of Myostatin causes increment of IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio. According to the results of this study it seems prescription of resistance exercise could positive changes in proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome in elderly people. Presumably, through this way we can prevent from Cachexia and its many physiological and physical related dysfunctions in theses people. Although more study is needed to clear its mechanisms.

  10. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  11. The influence of music on exercise in a group of sedentary elderly women: an important tool to help the elderly to stay active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, B; D'Ottavio, S; Padua, E; Tonelli, C; Pantanella, L

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify how listening to instrumental asynchronous music, with tempo of 90 bpm, can affect the aerobic physical performance in elderly women engaged in a continuous and constant exercising, predominantly aerobic, consisting of walking routines. Twenty women (N.=20, age=75.8±4.2 years) volunteered to the study and underwent a six-week period of physical exercising. All women were previously sedentary, as they had not trained systematically within the last 5 years. The experimental group (Eg=10) performed all the exercise sessions and tests listening to music. The control group (Cg=10) performed the same program without listening to music. Total distances covered, heart rates before and after the tests and the rates of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Significant differences between groups (Pmusic may be considered an important tool in supporting elderly people involved in physical exercising.

  12. Behavioural and magnetoencephalographic evidence for the interaction between semantic and episodic memory in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Valentina; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Garnero, Line; George, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between episodic and semantic memory systems has long been debated. Some authors argue that episodic memory is contingent on semantic memory (Tulving 1984), while others postulate that both systems are independent since they can be selectively damaged (Squire 1987). The interaction between these memory systems is particularly important in the elderly, since the dissociation of episodic and semantic memory defects characterize different aging-related pathologies. Here, we investigated the interaction between semantic knowledge and episodic memory processes associated with faces in elderly subjects using an experimental paradigm where the semantic encoding of famous and unknown faces was compared to their episodic recognition. Results showed that the level of semantic awareness of items affected the recognition of those items in the episodic memory task. Event-related magnetic fields confirmed this interaction between episodic and semantic memory: ERFs related to the old/new effect during the episodic task were markedly different for famous and unknown faces. The old/new effect for famous faces involved sustained activities maximal over right temporal sensors, showing a spatio-temporal pattern partly similar to that found for famous versus unknown faces during the semantic task. By contrast, an old/new effect for unknown faces was observed on left parieto-occipital sensors. These findings suggest that the episodic memory for famous faces activated the retrieval of stored semantic information, whereas it was based on items' perceptual features for unknown faces. Overall, our results show that semantic information interfered markedly with episodic memory processes and suggested that the neural substrates of these two memory systems overlap.

  13. Cognitive deficit and depressive symptoms in a community group of elderly people: a preliminary study

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    Silberman Claudia

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the number and proportion of old people increases worldwide, health professionals and systems should be made aware and prepared to deal with their problems. Cognitive deficit and symptoms of depression are commom among the elderly, and may occur in relation to various risk factors such as health conditions and psychosocial variables. In order to study cognitive deficit and the presence of signs and symptoms of depression, 62 elderly community subjects enrolled at a Community Health Unit in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were interviewed. They were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Exam, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression rating scale, and a questionnaire on health conditions, living arrangements and social variables. Higher levels of symptoms of depression were observed among subjects exposed to major risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases (diabetes and coronary disease, while impaired cognitive performance was seen among individuals who could not count on the presence of a confidant (social network variable. The results suggest that the early identification of major risk groups among old people can help to prevent institutionalization and keep individuals in the community.

  14. The effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugbeer, Nivash; Ramklass, Serela; Mckune, Andrew; van Heerden, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly. One hundred participants were recruited for voluntary participation from five aged care facilities, with inclusion being based on the outcome of a medical assessment by a sports physician. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effect of a 12 week group exercise programme on two groups of participants using pre-test and post-test procedures. A significant difference was noted in social function post training 2X/week (MD = -13.85, 95% CI [-24.66, -3.38], p = 0.017, d = 0.674) and 3X/week (MD = -13.30, 95% CI [-21.81, -5.59], p = 0.003, d = 0.712) a week. Training 3X/week a week provided an additional benefit in vitality (MD = -7.55, 95% CI [-13.16, -1.91], p = 0.018, d =0. 379). Improvements in mental component summary scale post training 2X/week (MD = -4.08, 95% CI [-7.67, -0.42], p = 0.033, d = 0.425) and 3X/week (MD = -6.67, 95% CI [-10.92, -2.33], p = 0.005, d = 0.567) a week was further noted. Mental health and social health benefits can be obtained irrespective of exercise frequency 2X/week or 3X/week. The exercise intervention at a frequency 3X/ week was more effective in improving mental component summary due to a larger effect size obtained compared to the exercise frequency of 2X/week. Additional benefits in vitality were achieved by exercising 3X/week. This may assist the elderly in preserving their independence.

  15. The Use of Facebook Advertising to Recruit Healthy Elderly People for a Clinical Trial: Baseline Metrics

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    Cowie, Julie M; Gurney, Mark E

    2018-01-01

    Background This report provides data on the use of social media advertising as a clinical trial recruitment strategy targeting healthy volunteers aged 60 years and older. The social media advertising campaign focused on enrollment for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Traditional means of recruiting—billboards, newspaper advertising, word of mouth, personal referrals, and direct mail—were not producing enough qualified participants. Objective To demonstrate the effectiveness of using targeted adverti...

  16. Relationship between protein and mitochondrial DNA oxidative injury and telomere length and muscle loss in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunout, Daniel; Backhouse, Claudia; Leiva, Laura; Barrera, Gladys; Sierralta, Walter; de la Maza, María Pía; Hirsch, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A blood sample and muscle biopsies were obtained from 54 elderly subjects. Twenty-seven subjects aged 77+/-3 years, had experienced a change in fat free mass (FFM) of +194+/-282g/year (lean body mass maintainers) and 27 subjects aged 78+/-3 years, had a change in FFM of -487+/-209g/year (lean body mass losers). Muscle biopsies were also obtained from 10 healthy subjects aged 34+/-4 years. In muscle, the ratio of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to nuclear DNA (nDNA) and telomere length were assessed and deposition of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts (4HNE) was visualized by electron microscopy. In FFM maintainers, losers and young controls, the ratio of mtDNA to nDNA was 2.1 (95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.1-31.7), 1.5 (95% CI, 0.2-15.7) and 18.6 (95% CI, 2.8-46.2), respectively. 4HNE deposition was 5.9 (95% CI, 1.5-28), 4.9 (95% CI, 0.9-13) and 3.4 (95% CI, 1.1-4.6) gold particles/microm(2), respectively. Telomere length, expressed as T/S ratio, was 0.06 (95% CI, 0.01-0.16), 0.06 (95% CI, 0.03-0.27) and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.1-1.34), respectively (p<0.02 or less for all comparisons between elderly and young subjects).

  17. Renal hemodynamic changes with aging: a preliminary study using CT perfusion in the healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Gong, Jingshan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zuoquan; Qin, Peixin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate renal blood flow perfusion parameter changes associated with aging using multislice spiral computed tomography (CT). This prospective study was approved by the institute's ethics committee for clinical study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Forty-two consecutive patients who underwent abdominal CT without obvious renal abnormality at plain scanning were enrolled in this study. The renal perfusion scan was carried out using 16-slice spiral CT. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between perfusion parameter changes with aging. In both the cortex and medulla, blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) were negatively correlated with age, while time-to-peak (TTP) value and mean transit time (MTT) showed a positive correlation with age. Changes in BF, TTP, and MTT were found to have a statistically significant correlation with age in both the cortex and medulla, while the correlation between BV and age showed no statistical significance. It is feasible to assess renal hemodynamics changes with aging in the elderly using the current clinically available CT perfusion imaging technology in vivo. It may be helpful in the management of aged patients to familiarize with the renal hemodynamics changes in clinical work-up. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attitudes, barriers and facilitators for health promotion in the elderly in primary care. A qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badertscher, Nina; Rossi, Pascal Olivier; Rieder, Arabelle; Herter-Clavel, Catherine; Rosemann, Thomas; Zoller, Marco

    2012-07-11

    Effective health promotion is of great importance from clinical as well as from public health perspectives and therefore should be encouraged. Especially regarding health promotion in the elderly, general practitioners (GPs) have a key role. Nevertheless, evidence suggests a lack of health promotion by GPs, especially in this age group. The aim of our study was to assess self-perceived attitudes, barriers and facilitators of GPs to provide health promotion in the elderly. We performed a qualitative focus group study with 37 general practitioners. The focus group interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed literally and analysed with ATLAS.ti, a software program for qualitative text analysis. Among the participating GPs, definitions of health promotion varied widely and the opinions regarding its effectiveness were very heterogeneous. The two most important self-perceived barriers for GPs to provide health promotion in the elderly were lack of time and insufficient reimbursement for preventive and health promotion advice. As intervention to increase health promotion in the elderly, GPs suggested, for example, integration of health promotion into under and postgraduate training. Changes at the practice level such as involving the practice nurse in health promotion and counselling were discussed very controversially. Health promotion, especially in the elderly, is crucial but in the opinion of the GPs we involved in our study, there is a gap between public health requirements and the reimbursement system. Integration of health promotion in medical education may be needed to increase knowledge as well as attitudes of GPs regarding this issue.

  19. [Dietary factors associated with daytime somnolence in healthy elderly of Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Sánchez Reyes, Hugo; Díaz Narváez, Víctor; Araya Pérez, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of mild and excessive somnolence and the associated factors with the presence of daytime sleepiness in the elderly. A total of 1780 independent individuals 60 years and older of both sexes (70.9±7.9 years old; females 62%), were included, of which 1704 of them completed all the information. All of them were assessed using an Epworth sleepiness scale (ESE), an Pittsburgh sleep quality index, plus information of cigarettes smoking, dinner time, and an anthropometric evaluation. An ESE score>10 was considered drowsiness and scores>15 excessive or severe drowsiness. Among the population under 80 years, 5.3% showed ESE score>15 and 26.2% an ESE score>10. For over 80 years, the prevalence of sleepiness was 6.3% for an ESE score>15 and 32.5% for an ESE score>10. In the adjusted model, the factors associated with increased risk of sleepiness (ESE>10) were age older than 80 years (OR=1.58; 95% CI=1.14 to 2.19) and dinner after 21 hours (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.01 to 1.68). By contrast, only age older than 80 years was independently associated with severe sleepiness (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.01 to 3.29). Meals after 21 hours and age above 80 years are associated with increased likelihood of daytime sleepiness. Instead, only older than 80 years is associated with severe daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  2. Healthy lifestyle: Perceptions and attitudes of students (the results of a focus group research

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    Zh V Puzanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research conducted in December 2013 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia with the method of focus groups. The study aimed at identification not only the differences in understanding healthy lifestyles among students and their attitudes to a healthy lifestyle, but also its components, obstacles for the realization and opportunities to overcome them. The focus group research was just another stage of the project aimed at studying health and healthy lifestyles as values and the characteristics of the formation and manifestation of a health-preserving behavior. Despite many opportunities to motivate a health-preserving behavior among students, we still see obstacles for its formation due to both social and cultural characteristics. The study revealed that the value of health at this stage of life is rather declarative: only a small percentage of respondents are fully aware of the necessity of a health-preserving behavior and do really adopt a healthy lifestyle. The basic factors influencing the formation of the healthy lifestyle among the youth are the family, social environment and mass media. The respondents, in particular, confirm the significant impact of their social circle on the commitment to the bad habits as well as to healthy hobbies. The main factors hindering the healthy lifestyles among students include lack of free time, welfare, Internet addiction, lack of sufficient motivation and self-organization.

  3. The impact of group music therapy on depression and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsin; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Lin, Yu; Ou, Keng-Liang; Lee, Tso-Ying; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of group music therapy for improving depression and delaying the deterioration of cognitive functions in elderly persons with dementia. The study had a prospective, parallel-group design with permuted-block randomization. Older persons with dementia (N = 104) were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group music therapy (two 30-min sessions per week for 6 weeks), and the control group received usual care. Data were collected 4 times: (1) 1 week before the intervention, (2) the 6th session of the intervention, (3) the 12th session of the intervention, and (4) 1 month after the final session. Group music therapy reduced depression in persons with dementia. Improvements in depression occurred immediately after music therapy and were apparent throughout the course of therapy. The cortisol level did not significantly decrease after the group music therapy. Cognitive function significantly improved slightly at the 6th session, the 12th session, and 1 month after the sessions ended; in particular, short-term recall function improved. The group music therapy intervention had the greatest impact in subjects with mild and moderate dementia. The group music intervention is a noninvasive and inexpensive therapy that appeared to reduce elders' depression. It also delayed the deterioration of cognitive functions, particularly short-term recall function. Group music therapy may be an appropriate intervention among elderly persons with mild and moderate dementia.

  4. Group fitness activities for the elderly: an innovative approach to reduce falls and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Patti, Antonino; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Sahin, Fatma Nese; Paoli, Antonio; Cataldo, Maria Concetta; Mammina, Caterina; Palma, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the opportunity to adopt, for the elderly, already validated function ability tests to better understand how to prevent falls and injuries and to better plan group fitness activities like ballroom dance classes (e.g., Valzer, Polka, Mazurka). A cross-sectional study was conducted. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Barthel Index (BI) were administered and the occurrence of falls during the previous 2 years was evaluated by anamnesis. One hundred and twenty-two elderly subjects living in Palermo city participated to the study. According to the anamnesis, subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). The EG consisted of 75 subjects attending classes of ballroom dancing (73.0 ± 5.6 years 26.1 ± 3.9 BMI), while the CG included 47 volunteers (74.3 ± 5.4 years, 26.8 ± 4.4 BMI). A threshold of 70 % for both scales (BBS-70 and BI-70 %) was set, according to the aims of the study. STATISTICA software was adopted to perform an unpaired t test. A P value lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically relevant. The BI and BBS of CG were 76.7 ± 33.08 and 30.9 ± 14.9, respectively, while the BI and BBS of EG were 98.1 ± 6.9 and 50.5 ± 54. In EG the BBS-70 % showed 96.0 % of cases compared to 27.6 % of the CG. The BI showed a similar trend to BBS. In EG the BI-70 % showed 98.6 % of cases, while the BI-70 % of CG showed 70.2 % of cases. Moreover, only 36.0 % of EG reported falls previously, while CG reported 53.2 % of falls during the same period of time. The BBS seems to be a valid and reliable tool able to be adopted also by professionals of the ballroom dancing sector (e.g., Valzer, Polka and Mazurka classes). Instructors may evaluate the functional ability of their attendees through BBS to easily obtain more information and better plan ballroom dance classes. Moreover, we highlight that these conclusions need to be supported by other studies with different

  5. MR spectroscopy detection of lactate and lipid signals in the brains of healthy elderly people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijens, P.E.; Heijboer, R.J.J.; Oudkerk, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Groningen (Netherlands); Heijer, T. den; Leeuw, F.E. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.; Breteler, M.M.B. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus University Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Achten, E. [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance, Gent University Hospital (Belgium)

    2001-08-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess the presence of brain lactate and lipid signals, frequently associated with the presence of pathology, in healthy persons of 60-90 years old (n=540). Lactate and lipid signals were observed in, respectively, 25 and 6% of women, and 18 and 2% of men. Upon adjustment for age, and for MRI-detected cerebral atrophy and white matter lesions, the gender differences in lactate and lipid remained the same (p=0.05 and p=0.03, respectively). Brain lactate and lipid signals appear to be intrinsic to aging. However, the presence of these metabolites in very focal areas only, rather than in any distributed fashion within the brain (the latter generally the case with cerebral atrophy and white matter lesions), strongly suggests the existence of asymptomatic focal pathology not shown on MRI. (orig.)

  6. Aerobic Activity in the Healthy Elderly Is Associated with Larger Plasticity in Memory Related Brain Structures and Lower Systemic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Kärgel, Christian; Müller, Bernhard W.; Rasche, Ina; Genius, Just; Bus, Boudewijn; Maderwald, Stefan; Norris, David G.; Wiltfang, Jens; Tendolkar, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive abilities decline over the time course of our life, a process, which may be mediated by brain atrophy and enhanced inflammatory processes. Lifestyle factors, such as regular physical activities have been shown to counteract those noxious processes and are assumed to delay or possibly even prevent pathological states, such as dementing disorders. Whereas the impact of lifestyle and immunological factors and their interactions on cognitive aging have been frequently studied, their effects on neural parameters as brain activation and functional connectivity are less well studied. Therefore, we investigated 32 healthy elderly individuals (60.4 ± 5.0 SD; range 52–71 years) with low or high level of self-reported aerobic physical activity at the time of testing. A higher compared to a lower level in aerobic physical activity was associated with an increased encoding related functional connectivity in an episodic memory network comprising mPFC, thalamus, hippocampus precuneus, and insula. Moreover, encoding related functional connectivity of this network was associated with decreased systemic inflammation, as measured by systemic levels of interleukin 6. PMID:28082894

  7. Nintendo Wii Balance Board is sensitive to effects of visual tasks on standing sway in healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslucher, Frank; Wade, Michael G; Nelson, Brent; Lim, Kelvin; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Research has shown that the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) can reliably detect the quantitative kinematics of the center of pressure in stance. Previous studies used relatively coarse manipulations (1- vs. 2-leg stance, and eyes open vs. closed). We sought to determine whether the WBB could reliably detect postural changes associated with subtle variations in visual tasks. Healthy elderly adults stood on a WBB while performing one of two visual tasks. In the Inspection task, they maintained their gaze within the boundaries of a featureless target. In the Search task, they counted the occurrence of designated target letters within a block of text. Consistent with previous studies using traditional force plates, the positional variability of the center of pressure was reduced during performance of the Search task, relative to movement during performance of the Inspection task. Using detrended fluctuation analysis, a measure of movement dynamics, we found that COP trajectories were more predictable during performance of the Search task than during performance of the Inspection task. The results indicate that the WBB is sensitive to subtle variations in both the magnitude and dynamics of body sway that are related to variations in visual tasks engaged in during stance. The WBB is an inexpensive, reliable technology that can be used to evaluate subtle characteristics of body sway in large or widely dispersed samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SUITABILITY OF MEDICATIONS USED BY THE ELDERLY PARTICIPANTS OF A SOCIAL GROUP, ACCORDING TO THE BEERS CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Donária de Miranda Mascarenhas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process defined as aging progressively reduces the functional capacity of the elderly and added to the lifestyle, they can to testify to the high number of pathologies. Thus, pharmacotherapy for this age group requires special care, keeping in view its peculiarities. Given this need, a group of researchers has developed criteria that allowed the identification of inappropriate medications. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of medications used by the elderly participants of a social group, in Vitória da Conquista, BA, according to the Beers criteria. This research was an exploratory descriptive study and data collection conducted through semi - structured interviews. It was asked to bring all the elderly who were using medications and / or prescriptions. It was found that 12.7% of the drugs used by the elderly appeared in the list of inappropriate medicines and 42% of respondents make use of polypharmacy. Among the most prescribed inappropriate medications, there is acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, diazepam, piroxicam, ibuprofen and amitriptyline. The class of inappropriate drugs most used by seniors was anti - inflammatory drugs. Given this, all health professionals need to put into practice the criteria for selecting medications this age group as the reality of existing drugs in Brazil.

  9. Suitability of medications used by the elderly participants of a social group, according to the Beers criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Donária de Miranda Mascarenhas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process defined as aging progressively reduces the functional capacity of the elderly and added to the lifestyle, they can to testify to the high number of pathologies. Thus, pharmacotherapy for this age group requires special care, keeping in view its peculiarities. Given this need, a group of researchers has developed criteria that allowed the identification of inappropriate medications. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of medications used by the elderly participants of a social group, in Vitória da Conquista, BA, according to the Beers criteria. This research was an exploratory descriptive study and data collection conducted through semi - structured interviews. It was asked to bring all the elderly who were using medications and / or prescriptions. It was found that 12.7% of the drugs used by the elderly appeared in the list of inappropriate medicines and 42% of respondents make use of polypharmacy. Among the most prescribed inappropriate medications, there is acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, diazepam, piroxicam, ibuprofen and amitriptyline. The class of inappropriate drugs most used by seniors was anti - inflammatory drugs. Given this, all health professionals need to put into practice the criteria for selecting medications this age group as the reality of existing drugs in Brazil.

  10. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Adriana de Oliveira; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Dantas, Marciano Moacir; Oliveira Marques, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Barbosa, Bruno Teixeira; Dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Andrade, Maria do Amparo; Jaguaribe-Lima, Anna Myrna; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis) and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline) and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver). Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac sympathetic activity compared to physically active older adult subjects at baseline (63.13±3.31 vs 50.45±3.55 nu, P=0.02). The variance (heart rate variability index) was increased in active older adults (1,438.64±448.90 vs 1,402.92±385.14 ms, P=0.02), and cardiac sympathetic activity (symbolic analysis) was increased in sedentary older adults (5,660.91±1,626.72 vs 4,381.35±1,852.87, P=0.03) during isometric handgrip exercise. Sedentary older adults showed higher cardiac sympathetic activity (spectral analysis) (71.29±4.40 vs 58.30±3.50 nu, P=0.03) and lower parasympathetic modulation (28.79±4.37 vs 41.77±3.47 nu, P=0.03) compared to physically active older adult subjects during isometric handgrip exercise. Regarding muscle vasodilation response, there was an increase in the skeletal muscle blood flow in the second (4.1±0.5 vs 3.7±0.4 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.01) and third minute (4.4±0.4 vs 3.9±0.3 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.03) of handgrip exercise in active older adults. The results indicate that

  11. Some epidemiological aspects of elderly participants of a relationship group in the city of Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Santos Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic aging, followed by longevity, provided morbimortality alterations showing a significant part of elderly attacked by noncommunicable chronic-degenerative diseases. In this perspective this study of descriptive exploratory character with transversal delineation aimed to identify the epidemiological profile of 25 elderly and characterize them inside a third age relationship group in the city of Jequié/BA. The majority of the elderly was of the female sex, 68% of the interviewed ones are retired and 32% still carry through professional activities. About the educational level, 20% are illiterate, literate 28%, 44% have the Elementary Degree and 8% the High School Degree. The health problems most cited were disc herniation, cerebrovascular accident, tendinitis, fistulous, arthrosis and others. The pain prevalence was present in 80% of the subjects, and 77% presented pain for more than 6 months. The most frequent localizations were in low back column (44,4%, right shoulder/superior thorax and knee (29.6%.

  12. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    or potential behavioural change in terms of healthier eating, discussing pre-selected healthy and unhealthy food categories. The revised Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical framework. Results: The study suggests that the main obstacles to change can be grouped into motivational and implementation......), "liking" remains the main food choice criterion, including the healthy foods. Conclusion: The study presented a number of barriers to healthy eating identified by older people and children/adolescents. Based on the results of the study, further investigations should be undertaken in this area...... barriers. The motivational barriers are unwillingness to change eating habits, satisfaction with current diets and misconception about their healthiness; relatively low health consciousness and unwillingness to become excessively health-oriented. Implementation barriers include remembering the change...

  13. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...

  14. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento AO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento,1–3 Amilton da Cruz Santos,1,4 Ivani Credidio Trombetta,2,5 Marciano Moacir Dantas,1 Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques,1,4 Leone Severino do Nascimento,1,4 Bruno Teixeira Barbosa,1,2 Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos,2 Maria do Amparo Andrade,3 Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima,3,6 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos1,3,4 1Laboratory of Physical Training Studies Applied to Health, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 2Unit of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology – Heart Institute (InCor/HC-FMUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Graduate Program in Physiotherapy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 4Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil; 5Graduate Program in Medicine, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver. Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac

  15. Relationship between cardiac function and resting cerebral blood flow: MRI measurements in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja; Larsson, Henrik B W; Rostrup, Egill

    2014-11-01

    Although both impaired cardiac function and reduced cerebral blood flow are associated with ageing, current knowledge of the influence of cardiac function on resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cardiac function on CBF. CBF and cardiac output were measured in 31 healthy subjects 50-75 years old using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Mean values of CBF, cardiac output and cardiac index were 43.6 ml per 100 g min(-1), 5.5 l min(-1) and 2.7 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in males, and 53.4 ml per 100 g min(-1), 4.3 l min(-1) and 2.4 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in females. No effects of cardiac output or cardiac index on CBF or structural signs of brain ageing were observed. However, fractional brain flow defined as the ratio of total brain flow to cardiac output was inversely correlated with cardiac index (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.008) and furthermore lower in males than in females (8.6% versus 12.5%, P = 0.003). Fractional brain flow was also inversely correlated with cerebral white matter lesion grade, although this effect was not significant when adjusted for age. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability showed a gender-related inverse association of increased low-to-high-frequency power ratio with CBF and fractional brain flow. The findings do not support a direct effect of cardiac function on CBF, but demonstrates gender-related differences in cardiac output distribution. We propose fractional brain flow as a novel index that may be a useful marker of adequate brain perfusion in the context of ageing as well as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Smart Insole to Promote Healthy Aging for Frail Elderly Individuals: Specifications, Design, and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piau, Antoine; Charlon, Yoann; Campo, Eric; Vellas, Bruno; Nourhashemi, Fati

    2015-05-25

    Older individuals frequently experience reversible "frailty syndrome,", increasing incidence of disability. Although physical exercise interventions may delay functional decline, there are difficulties in implementing them and performing seamless follow-up at home. Very few technological solutions attempt to address this challenge and improve individual participation. Our objectives are to (1) develop a technological solution designed to support active aging of frail older persons, (2) conduct a first laboratory evaluation of the device, and (3) design a multidimensional clinical trial to validate our solution. We conducted a first phase of multidisciplinary meetings to identify real end users and health professional's unmet needs, and to produce specifications for the architecture of the solution. In a second phase, we performed laboratory tests of the first proposed prototype (a smart insole) with 3 healthy volunteers. We then designed an ongoing clinical trial to finalize the multidimensional evaluation and improvement of the solution. To respond to the needs expressed by the stakeholders (frailty monitoring and adherence improvement), we developed a prototype of smart shoe insole to monitor key parameters of frailty during daily life and promote walking. It is a noninvasive wireless insole, which automatically measures gait parameters and transmits information to a remote terminal via a secure Internet connection. To ensure the solution's autonomy and transparency, we developed an original energy harvesting system, which transforms mechanical energy produced by the user's walking movement into electrical energy. The first laboratory tests of this technological solution showed good reliability measures and also a good acceptability for the users. We have planned an original iterative medical research protocol to validate our solution in real life. Our smart insole could support preventive strategies against disability in primary care by empowering the older

  17. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of the Serotonin 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonist, SUVN-502, in Healthy Young Adults and Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Muddana, Nageswara Rao; Goyal, Vinod Kumar; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Palacharla, Raghava Choudary

    2018-05-01

    SUVN-502, a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist, was found to be active in preclinical models of cognitive deterioration suggesting a potential role in the treatment of dementia related to Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study was to characterize the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of SUVN-502 in healthy young adults and elderly subjects following single and multiple oral doses. Single doses (5, 15, 50, 100 and 200 mg SUVN-502) and multiple doses (50, 100 and 130 mg SUVN-502 once daily for 7 days) were evaluated in healthy young adults and multiple doses (50 and 100 mg SUVN-502 once daily for 14 days) were evaluated in elderly subjects using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study designs. The effect of food, gender and age on SUVN-502 pharmacokinetics (100 mg single dose) was evaluated using an open-label, two-period, randomized, fed and fasted in a crossover design. SUVN-502 and M1 (major metabolite of SUVN-502) were monitored using validated analytical methods. SUVN-502 is safe and well tolerated up to the highest tested single dose of 200 mg in healthy young adults and multiple doses up to 130 mg for 7 days and 100 mg for 14 days in healthy young adults and elderly subjects, respectively. Exposures of SUVN-502 and M1 were more than dose-proportional over the evaluated dose range. Food and gender did not have a clinically meaningful effect on SUVN-502 exposure. The mean SUVN-502 total (AUC 0-∞ , and AUC 0-last ) and peak exposures (C max ) were 2.9- and 2.2-fold higher, respectively, in elderly subjects compared to young subjects. Steady-state was achieved for SUVN-502 and M1 within 7 days after once-daily dosing of SUVN-502. SUVN-502 exhibited an acceptable safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile in healthy young adults and elderly subjects. Based on the above results, 50 and 100 mg once-daily doses of SUVN-502 were advanced to Phase 2 evaluation in patients with moderate AD.

  19. A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tih-Shih; Goh, Siau Juinn Alexa; Quek, Shin Yi; Phillips, Rachel; Guan, Cuntai; Cheung, Yin Bun; Feng, Lei; Teng, Stephanie Sze Wei; Wang, Chuan Chu; Chin, Zheng Yang; Zhang, Haihong; Ng, Tze Pin; Lee, Jimmy; Keefe, Richard; Krishnan, K Ranga Rama

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) training system in improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system with a new game that incorporates memory training in improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one healthy elderly were randomized into intervention (n = 15) and waitlist control arms (n = 16). Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered at the end of training. Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse events after every session. Efficacy of the system was measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) before and after training. Feedback on the usability and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse events were reported for all participants across all sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change scores between arms was not statistically significant, an effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential clinical utility according to Simon's randomized phase II trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that the median change in total scores pre and post-training was statistically significant (Mdn = 4.0; pattention (p = 0.039), and delayed memory (pattention in healthy elderly, and appears to be safe, user-friendly and acceptable to senior users. Given the efficacy signal, a phase III trial is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01661894.

  20. Efectos del ejercicio físico sobre la memoria episódica en ancianas chilenas sanas (Effects of Physical Exercise on the Episodic Memory in Healthy Elderly Chileans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el efecto de un programa de actividad física regular sobre la memoria episódica verbal y visuoespacial en ancianas chilenas mentalmente sanas. Participaron 74 ancianas sin deterioro cognitivo, divididas en un grupo de intervención, integrado por 34 de ellas, que realizaron actividad física por seis meses; y un grupo control integrado por 40 sedentarias. Se utilizó el Test de Aprendizaje Auditivo Verbal de Rey (TAAVR y el Test de la Figura Compleja de Rey (TFCR para la evaluación de la memoria episódica. Asimismo, se realizaron análisis inter e intragrupales con t student y d de Cohen para medir el tamaño de efecto de las pruebas t. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el postest entre el grupo de intervención (GI y grupo control (GC, observándose mejor rendimiento en las pruebas de memoria episódica verbal y visual del GI con un tamaño de efecto alto. Se concluye que la actividad física regular aumenta la capacidad de procesamiento, retención y evocación de la información verbal y visual episódica en mujeres ancianas sanas. Abstract: Our objective was to analyze the effect of a regular physical activity program on the verbal and visuospatial episodic memory on mentally healthy elderly Chileans. Participated 74 elderly women without cognitive impairment – divided into an intervention group = 34 elderly women, who carried out physical activity for six months; and a control group = 40 sedentary women. We used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, and the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT for the evaluation of the episodic memory. Analysis were performed inter- and intra-group with t student and d of Cohen to measure the effect size of t-tests. The results showed statistically significant differences in the post-test between the Intervention Group (IG and Control Group (CG; noticing better yields in the verbal and visual episodic

  1. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie

    2012-09-01

    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Static postural balance in healthy individuals: Comparisons between three age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanne Salviano Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare static postural balance of healthy individuals of three age groups in different conditions of support and vision. Seventy one individuals, divided into 3 groups, were analyzed: young group (YG: 22.2 ± 2.1 years, middle aged group (MAG: 50.7 ± 5.7 years and older individuals group (EG: 66.8 ± 5.4 years. Their balance was tested on a force platform, under 3 support and 3 visual conditions. Measures included: total (TD, anterior-posterior (APD and mediolateral displacement (MLD of the center of pressure (CoP. ANOVA revealed significant differences for interactions between group X support conditions and group X visual conditions for the 3 variables (p<0.01, with greater displacements for the MAG and EG groups during single-leg stance with partial and occluded vision (p<0.05. Static postural balance decreased over time in healthy individuals, and conditions of support and visual negatively affected balance with the increment of age.

  3. Youth understanding of healthy eating and obesity: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Hennink, Monique; Comeau, Dawn; Welsh, Jean A; Hardy, Trisha; Matzigkeit, Linda; Swan, Deanne W; Walsh, Stephanie M; Vos, Miriam B

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, we aimed to investigate youth's understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibility to obesity and its co-morbidities. A marketing firm contracted by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta facilitated a series of focus group discussions (FGD) to test potential concepts and sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness campaign. Data were collected in August and September of 2010 with both overweight and healthy weight 4th-5th grade and 7th-8th grade students. We conducted a secondary analysis of the qualitative FGD transcripts using inductive thematic coding to identify key themes related to youth reports of family eating habits (including food preparation, meal frequency, and eating environment), perceived facilitators and barriers of healthy diet, and knowledge about obesity and its complications. Across focus group discussions, mixed attitudes about healthy eating, low perceived risk of being or becoming obese, and limited knowledge about the health consequences of obesity may contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity among youth in Georgia. Most youth were aware that obesity was a problem; yet most overweight youth felt that their weight was healthy and attributed overweight to genetics or slow metabolism. Our analysis suggests that urban youth in Georgia commonly recognize obesity as a problem, but there is less understanding of the link to lifestyle choices or the connection to future morbidities, suggesting a need for education to connect lifestyle behaviors to development of obesity.

  4. Self-Management Group Exercise Extends Healthy Life Expectancy in Frail Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Minoru; Arai, Hidenori

    2017-05-15

    Preventing frailty and its adverse health outcomes is crucial in countries with a large elderly population, such as Japan. Since the long-term care insurance (LTCI) system was launched, the number of certified older adults with LTCI service requirement has continued to increase. This is a serious problem, because the LTCI service requirement certification is equivalent to disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a self-management group intervention on new LTCI service requirement certifications in community-dwelling older adults in Japan. We analyzed the cohort data from a prospective study. In this study, we recruited community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older who were independent in a city in Kyoto prefecture in 2012. The subjects in the participation group (n = 1620) attended 60-min group training sessions once or twice every two weeks from December 2012 to December 2016. The exercise sessions consisted of mild-intensity aerobic exercise, mild strength training, flexibility and balance exercises, and cool-down activities. These exercise classes were facilitated by well-trained volunteer staff. The outcome measure was the number of new LTCI requirement certifications during a four-year follow-up period. During the four-year follow-up period, 247 subjects (15.2%) in the participation group and 334 (20.6%) in the control group were newly certified for LTCI service requirements. The hazard ratio for new LTCI service requirements in the participation group compared with the control group was 0.73 (95% CI = 0.62-0.86) in the four-year follow-up period. These results indicate the usefulness of self-management group exercise to reduce the incidence of disability in older adults. Thus, increasing self-management group activities in each community should be encouraged.

  5. Longitudinal assessment of cerebral 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in healthy elderly volunteers: an [{sup 18}F]-altanserin PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Haugboel, Steven [University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Neurobiology Research Unit, N9201, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Holm, Soeren [Rigshospitalet, PET and Cyclotron Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Baare, William [Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hasselbalch, Steen G. [University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Neurobiology Research Unit, N9201, Copenhagen O (Denmark)]|[Memory Disorders Research Unit, The Neuroscience Center, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-02-15

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT{sub 2A}) receptor is of interest in several psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the present study we investigated the longitudinal stability of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors and the stability of the quantification procedure in the elderly in order to be able to study elderly patients with neuropsychiatric diseases on a longitudinal basis. [{sup 18}F]-Altanserin PET was used to quantify 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in 12 healthy elderly individuals at baseline and at 2 years in six volumes of interest. A bolus/infusion protocol was used to achieve the binding potential, BP{sub P}. The reproducibility as assessed in terms of variability and the reliability as assessed in terms of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to compare inter- and intraobserver stability and to evaluate the effects of increasing complexity of partial volume (PV) corrections. We also compared the stability of our measurements over 2 years with the stability of data from an earlier study with 2-week test-retest measurements. BP{sub P} was unaltered at follow-up without the use of PV correction and when applying two-tissue PV correction, test-retest reproducibility was 12-15% and reliability 0.45-0.67 in the large bilateral regions such as the parietal, temporal, occipital and frontal cortices, while orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortical regions were less stable. The use of PV correction decreased the variability but also decreased the between-subject variation, thereby worsening the reliability. In healthy elderly individuals, brain 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor binding remains stable over 2 years, and acceptable reproducibility and reliability in larger regions and high intra- and interobserver stability allow the use of [{sup 18}F]-altanserin in longitudinal studies of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  6. Performances on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample--reference data and validity issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    . The RCFT copy score was significantly related to age and the DART score. On RCFT recall a highly significant difference was found between persons who could make a faultless copy and persons with incomplete copy performance. Thus, this study presents separate data for RCFT recall scores according...... to the subjects' copying performance (in separate tables for age and education groups). For all measures on both RAVLT and RCFT wide distributions of scores were found and the impact of this broad score range on the tests' discriminative validity is discussed. RAVLT performances for elderly were similar...... to previous published meta-norms, but the included sample of elderly Danes performed better on RCFT (copy and recall) than elderly from the United States....

  7. Self-Care and Self-Help Groups for the Elderly: A Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This document notes that, as health care costs continue to rise, the elderly are monitoring themselves as a means of cost containment, and as a way of enhancing their sense of well-being and their ability to lead active lives. It points out that more and more organizations are sponsoring health programs that promote the concept of self-care and…

  8. Effectiveness of group reminiscence for improving wellbeing of institutionalized elderly adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Scaratti, Chiara; Morganti, Luca; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Agostoni, Monica; Spatola, Chiara A M; Molinari, Enrico; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-10-25

    Group reminiscence therapy is a brief and structured intervention in which participants share personal past events with peers. This approach has been shown to be promising for improving wellbeing and reducing depressive symptoms among institutionalized older adults. However, despite the considerable interest in reminiscence group therapy, controlled studies to determine its specific benefits as compared to generic social interactions with peers (group conversations about everyday subjects) are still lacking. We have designed a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the effects of group reminiscence therapy with those of group recreational activity on the psychological wellbeing of an institutionalized sample of older adults. The study includes two groups of 20 hospitalized elderly participants: the experimental group and the control group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive six sessions of group reminiscence therapy, while the control group will participate in a recreational group discussion. A repeated-measures design will be used post-intervention and three months post-intervention to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and quality of life from baseline. The protocol of a study aimed at examining the specific effects of group reminiscence therapy on psychological wellbeing, depression, and quality of life among institutionalized elderly people is described. It is expected that the outcomes of this trial will contribute to our knowledge about the process of group reminiscence, evaluate its effectiveness in improving psychological wellbeing of institutionalized individuals, and identify the best conditions for optimizing this approach. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number: NCT02077153) on 31 January 2014.

  9. Reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculation intervention (Learning therapy improves inhibition, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eNouchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious reports have described that simple cognitive training using reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations, so-called learning therapy, can improve executive functions and processing speed in the older adults. Nevertheless, it is not well-known whether learning therapy improve a wide range of cognitive functions or not. We investigated the beneficial effects of learning therapy on various cognitive functions in healthy older adults.MethodsWe used a single-blinded intervention with two groups (learning therapy group: LT and waiting list control group: WL. Sixty-four elderly were randomly assigned to LT or WL. In LT, participants performed reading Japanese aloud and solving simple calculations training tasks for 6 months. WL did not participate in the intervention. We measured several cognitive functions before and after 6 months intervention periods.ResultsCompared to WL, results revealed that LT improved inhibition performance in executive functions (Stroop: LT (Mean = 3.88 vs. WL (Mean = 1.22, adjusted p =.013 and reverse Stroop LT (Mean = 3.22 vs. WL (Mean = 1.59, adjusted p =.015, verbal episodic memory (logical memory: LT (Mean = 4.59 vs. WL (Mean = 2.47, adjusted p =.015, focus attention(D-CAT: LT (Mean = 2.09 vs. WL (Mean = -0.59, adjusted p =.010 and processing speed compared to the waiting list control group (digit symbol coding: LT (Mean = 5.00 vs. WL (Mean = 1.13, adjusted p =.015 and symbol search: LT (Mean = 3.47 vs. WL (Mean = 1.81, adjusted p =.014.DiscussionThis RCT can showed the benefit of learning therapy on inhibition of executive functions, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people. Our results were discussed under overlapping hypothesis.Trial registrationThis trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000006998.

  10. Worsening diastolic function is associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose and increased left ventricular mass in a supra-additive fashion in an elderly, healthy, Swedish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were associated with worsening left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, independently of LV mass index (LVMI) in elderly, otherwise healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested cross-sectional associations between...... echocardiographically determined averaged E/é ratio/diastolic function, LVMI, cardiovascular risk factors, and FPG categorized as normal (NFG), impaired (IFG), and new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), in 483 men and 208 women aged 56-79years without overt cardiovascular disease, who received no cardiovascular, anti...

  11. Corneal clarity measurements in healthy volunteers across different age groups: Observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Carley, Fiona; Brahma, Arun; Morley, Debbie; Hillarby, M Chantal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize and investigate the changes in corneal clarity with age. Densitometry software for the Oculus Pentacam was used to examine corneal clarity at different age groups.A total of 192 eyes from 97 healthy participants were included in this cohort comparative nonrandomized, cross-sectional study. An Oculus Pentcam was used to image the cornea of healthy participants grouped by age (between 10 and 70 years old). Data from the densitometry output have been used to determine clarity in concentric zones and different depths of the cornea.Corneal densitometry (CD) across all ages showed significant differences between groups when divided into the following layers: anterior, central, and posterior or divided into 0 to 2, 2 to 6, and 6 to 10 mm concentric zones (P age in all 3 layers of the periphery (6-10 mm) (P age group had lower clarity than the 20 to 30-age group (P age is differed when the cornea is divided into layers and zones. This study suggests that there are other factors that may play an essential role in corneal clarity as well as age.

  12. Neuromuscular taping application in counter movement jump: biomechanical insight in a group of healthy basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Marcolin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinesiologic elastic tape is widely used for both clinical and sport applications although its efficacy in enhancing agonistic performance is still controversial. Aim of the study was to verify in a group of healthy basketball players whether a neuromuscular taping application (NMT on ankle and knee joints could affect the kinematic and the kinetic parameters of the jump, either by enhancing or inhibiting the functional performance. Fourteen healthy male basketball players without any ongoing pathologies at upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk volunteered in the study. They randomly performed 2 sets of 5 counter movement jumps (CMJ with and without application of Kinesiologic tape. The best 3 jumps of each set were considered for the analysis. The Kinematics parameters analyzed were: knees maximal flexion and ankles maximal dorsiflexion during the push off phase, jump height and take off velocity. Vertical ground reaction force and maximal power expressed in the push off phase of the jump were also investigated. The NMT application in both knees and ankles showed no statistically significant differences in the kinematic and kinetic parameters and did not interfere with the CMJ performance. Bilateral NMT application in the group of healthy male basketball players did not change kinematics and kinetics jump parameters, thus suggesting that its routine use should have no negative effect on functional performance. Similarly, the combined application of the tape on both knees and ankles did not affect in either way jump performance.

  13. Neuromuscular Taping Application in Counter Movement Jump: Biomechanical Insight in a Group of Healthy Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Buriani, Alessandro; Giacomelli, Andrea; Blow, David; Grigoletto, Davide; Gesi, Marco

    2017-06-24

    Kinesiologic elastic tape is widely used for both clinical and sport applications although its efficacy in enhancing agonistic performance is still controversial. Aim of the study was to verify in a group of healthy basketball players whether a neuromuscular taping application (NMT) on ankle and knee joints could affect the kinematic and the kinetic parameters of the jump, either by enhancing or inhibiting the functional performance. Fourteen healthy male basketball players without any ongoing pathologies at upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk volunteered in the study. They randomly performed 2 sets of 5 counter movement jumps (CMJ) with and without application of Kinesiologic tape. The best 3 jumps of each set were considered for the analysis. The Kinematics parameters analyzed were: knees maximal flexion and ankles maximal dorsiflexion during the push off phase, jump height and take off velocity. Vertical ground reaction force and maximal power expressed in the push off phase of the jump were also investigated. The NMT application in both knees and ankles showed no statistically significant differences in the kinematic and kinetic parameters and did not interfere with the CMJ performance. Bilateral NMT application in the group of healthy male basketball players did not change kinematics and kinetics jump parameters, thus suggesting that its routine use should have no negative effect on functional performance. Similarly, the combined application of the tape on both knees and ankles did not affect in either way jump performance.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BLOOD GROUPING IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONOR USING GEL CARD TECHNIQUE AND TUBE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood grouping is a vital test in pre-transfusion testing. Both tube and gel agglutination assays are used for ABO grouping. The main object of this study was to compare ABO grouping and D typing on tube and gel agglutination assay in order to assess the efficacy of each technique. A total of 100 healthy blood donors irrespective of age and sex were included in this study. Results showed that there is no significant difference between these two techniques. However, in 10 samples it was detected that the reaction strength in serum ABO grouping by gel agglutination assay is varied by only one grade when compared to tube agglutination assay. Due to numerous positive effects of gel assay it is more beneficial to implement this technique in the setups where blood banks bear heavy routine work load.

  15. Comparison of serum lead level in oral opium addicts with healthy control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hossein; Sayadi, Ahmad Reza; Tashakori, Mahnaz; Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Soltanpoor, Narges; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmood

    2009-11-01

    Drug abuse and its consequences are major health problems in Middle-East countries such as Iran. Salesmen and smugglers may add lead to opium during the process of opium preparation to increase the weight of opium for more profit. Several reports have found lead poisoning symptoms in opium addicted patients and there are many nonspecific symptoms mimicking lead poisoning in opium addicted patients. As far as the literature review is concerned, there is no comparative study about blood lead level (BLL) in addicted patients with healthy controls. Therefore, it seems evaluation of blood lead level in opium addicted patients to be important. In this study, the BLL of forty-four subjects in two patient and control groups was evaluated. The patient group (22 subjects) was comprised of patients who used oral opium. Control group (22 subjects) was matched with the patient group for age and sex, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria with a mean age of 38.8+/-6.7. For blood lead assay, 3 mL of whole blood was obtained from both groups by venipuncture and BLL was assessed immediately using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The BLL in patient group had a range of 7.2 to 69.9 g/dL with a mean of 21.9+/-13.2. In the healthy control group, BLL was between 4.1 to 17.4 g/dL with a mean of 8.6+/-3.5. The mean difference of both groups (t=4.56) was statistically significant (Popium ingested (r=0.65, Popium ingestion in the patient group. It would be concluded that opium addicts have an elevated BLL compared to healthy controls. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium addicted people especially with non-specific symptoms. In this regard, a similar investigation with a larger sample size of opium addicted patients (including both oral and inhaled) and a control group is suggested to confirm the findings of this research.

  16. Efeitos de um treino cognitivo na qualidade de vida e no bem-estar psicológico de idosos Effects of a cognitive training on the quality of life and well-being of healthy elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A funcionalidade cognitiva de idosos está relacionada à sua saúde, à qualidade de vida e ao bem-estar psicológico, sendo considerada um indicador importante de envelhecimento ativo e longevidade. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos de um treino cognitivo na qualidade de vida e no bem-estar psicológico de idosos. MÉTODOS: 76 idosos saudáveis, divididos em grupo experimental (GE e grupo controle (GC. O GE recebeu doze sessões de treino cognitivo, que envolvia a instrução e prática de exercícios. RESULTADOS: Após o treino, os idosos do GE apresentaram melhor desempenho cognitivo, melhor percepção de qualidade de vida e maiores índices de bem-estar psicológico. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que intervenções cognitivas que incluem tarefas de atenção, memória e funções executivas podem contribuir para a melhora da qualidade de vida e do bem-estar psicológico de idosos.INTRODUCTION: The cognitive functioning of the elderly is related to their health, quality of life and psychological well-being and is considered an important indication of active aging and longevity. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of a cognitive training program on the quality of life and psychological well-being of the elderly. METHODS: 76 healthy elderly individuals were divided into experimental group (EG and control group (CG. The EG received 12 sessions of cognitive training that involved exercise instruction and practice. RESULTS: After training, the elderly from EG presented better cognitive performance, better perception of quality of life and better scores of psychological well-being. CONCLUSION: We conclude that cognitive interventions that include attention, memory and executive function tasks can contribute to the improvement of quality of life and psychological well-being of the elderly.

  17. The effects of 16-week group exercise program on physical function and mental health of elderly Korean women in long-term assisted living facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kiwol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 16-week group exercise program on the physical function (ie, strength, flexibility, and balance) and mental health (ie, self-esteem and depression) of older elderlyl women (>or=75 years old) compared with younger elderly women (Self-esteem (using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (using Yesavage's Geriatric Depression Scale) were assessed. Two-way analysis of variance was used to examine the differences between the 2 age groups. The intervention program was effective in improving body strength, flexibility, static balance, and self-esteem, regardless of age. Furthermore, older elders receiving the intervention program demonstrated greater improvement in self-esteem than younger elders did, although there were intervention effects in both age groups. Elderly women can realize benefits from a group exercise program that can improve their functional ability and self-esteem, both important to cardiovascular health.

  18. Youth Understanding of Healthy Eating and Obesity: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison C. Sylvetsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, we aimed to investigate youth's understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibility to obesity and its co-morbidities. Methods. A marketing firm contracted by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta facilitated a series of focus group discussions (FGD to test potential concepts and sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness campaign. Data were collected in August and September of 2010 with both overweight and healthy weight 4th-5th grade and 7th-8th grade students. We conducted a secondary analysis of the qualitative FGD transcripts using inductive thematic coding to identify key themes related to youth reports of family eating habits (including food preparation, meal frequency, and eating environment, perceived facilitators and barriers of healthy diet, and knowledge about obesity and its complications. Results. Across focus group discussions, mixed attitudes about healthy eating, low perceived risk of being or becoming obese, and limited knowledge about the health consequences of obesity may contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity among youth in Georgia. Most youth were aware that obesity was a problem; yet most overweight youth felt that their weight was healthy and attributed overweight to genetics or slow metabolism. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that urban youth in Georgia commonly recognize obesity as a problem, but there is less understanding of the link to lifestyle choices or the connection to future morbidities, suggesting a need for education to connect lifestyle behaviors to development of obesity.

  19. Evaluation of Salivary Vitamin C and Catalase in HIV Positive and Healthy HIV Negative Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Vaziri-Amjad, Samaneh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV-positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group. Forty-nine HIV-infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary catalase levels were 7.99±2.40 and 8.37±1.81 in the case and control groups, respectively. Catalase level was lower in the case group but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.380). Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3.76±1.92 and 4.87±2.20, respectively (P=0.009). HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tih-Shih Lee

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI training system in improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system with a new game that incorporates memory training in improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one healthy elderly were randomized into intervention (n = 15 and waitlist control arms (n = 16. Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered at the end of training. Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse events after every session. Efficacy of the system was measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS before and after training. Feedback on the usability and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse events were reported for all participants across all sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change scores between arms was not statistically significant, an effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential clinical utility according to Simon's randomized phase II trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that the median change in total scores pre and post-training was statistically significant (Mdn = 4.0; p<0.001. Specifically, there were significant improvements in immediate memory (p = 0.038, visuospatial/constructional (p = 0.014, attention (p = 0.039, and delayed memory (p<0.001 scores. Our BCI-based system shows promise in improving memory and attention in healthy

  1. Asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes in the white matter in the healthy elderly: a tract-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukusumi Masami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes have been reported for the human brain. Meanwhile it was still unclear the presence of the asymmetry or sex differences in the human brain occurred whether as a normal development or as consequences of any pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes by using a tract-based analysis in the nerve bundles. Methods 40 healthy elderly subjects underwent magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, and we calculated fractional anisotropy (FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values along the major white matter bundles. Results We identified hemispherical asymmetry in the ADC values for the cingulate fasciculus in the total subject set and in males, and a sex difference in the FA values for the right uncinate fasciculus. For age-related changes, we demonstrated a significant increase in ADC values with advancing age in the right cingulum, left temporal white matter, and a significant decrease in FA values in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. Conclusion In this study, we found hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes in particular regions of the white matter in the healthy elderly. Our results suggest considering these differences can be important in imaging studies.

  2. Postural tasks are associated with center of pressure spatial patterns of three-dimensional statokinesigrams in young and elderly healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracat, Patrícia Junqueira Ferraz; de Sá Ferreira, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the association between postural tasks and center of pressure spatial patterns of three-dimensional statokinesigrams. Young (n=35; 27.0±7.7years) and elderly (n=38; 67.3±8.7years) healthy volunteers maintained an undisturbed standing position during postural tasks characterized by combined sensory (vision/no vision) and biomechanical challenges (feet apart/together). A method for the analysis of three-dimensional statokinesigrams based on nonparametric statistics and image-processing analysis was employed. Four patterns of spatial distribution were derived from ankle and hip strategies according to the quantity (single; double; multi) and location (anteroposterior; mediolateral) of high-density regions on three-dimensional statokinesigrams. Significant associations between postural task and spatial pattern were observed (young: gamma=0.548, p<.001; elderly: gamma=0.582, p<.001). Robustness analysis revealed small changes related to parameter choices for histogram processing. MANOVA revealed multivariate main effects for postural task [Wilks' Lambda=0.245, p<.001] and age [Wilks' Lambda=0.308, p<.001], with interaction [Wilks' Lambda=0.732, p<.001]. The quantity of high-density regions was positively correlated to stabilogram and statokinesigram variables (p<.05 or lower). In conclusion, postural tasks are associated with center of pressure spatial patterns and are similar in young and elderly healthy volunteers. Single-centered patterns reflected more stable postural conditions and were more frequent with complete visual input and a wide base of support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Elderly Participants and Geriatric Outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, E.M.; Trappenburg, M.C.; Leter, M.J.; Blauw, G. J.; Sipila, S.; Sillanpaa, E.; Narici, M.V.; Hogrel, J.Y.; Butler-Browne, G.; McPhee, J.S.; Gapeyeva, H.; Paasuke, M.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A consensus on the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, a common syndrome in the elderly, has not been reached yet. Prevalence rates vary between studies due to the use of different criteria encompassing different measures, correction factors and cutoff points. Objective: This study

  4. Circulating microRNAs disclose biology of normal cognitive function in healthy elderly people – a discovery twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Feddersen, Søren; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Neurobiology is regulated by miRNA. Here circulating plasma miRNAs were assayed on a 754 miRNA OpenArray platform using 90 monozygotic elderly twins (73–95 year of age) and associated with mini mental state examination (MMSE) and a five-component cognitive score (CCS) in an explorative study. Bot...

  5. The role of sex and autonomy-connectedness in internalizing and externalizing personality pathology, coping and axis-I pathology: among psychiatric and healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Nathan; Croon, Marcel; Bekker, Marrie

    2017-06-01

    In the current study we investigated the relationship of sex and autonomy-connectedness with internalizing and externalizing personality disorder symptoms (PDS), coping and axis-I pathology in older age. A path model was tested which was based on neo-analytical object relation, attachment- and primary-personality theory, among 100 clinical and 106 non-clinical elderly. In line with our model, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness and capacity of managing new situations) was strongly associated to internalizing PDS in both groups. In both groups, neither sex nor autonomy-connectedness predicted externalizing PDS. Sex, internalizing as well as externalizing PDS and reactive defensive coping were associated to axis-I psychopathology. We conclude that sex and autonomy-connectedness were, similarly as in adult populations, associated to internalizing PDS and axis-I pathology. Treatment of elderly with internalizing PDS and axis-I psychopathology should therefore focus on enhancing autonomy-connectedness.

  6. Comparing the Effects of Group and Home-based Physical Activity on Mental Health in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyede Salehe; Shati, Mohsen; Ardebili, Hassan Eftekhar; Mohammad, Kazem; Beni, Reza Dorali; Keshteli, A H

    2013-11-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the effects of home-based (HB) and group-based (GB) physical activity on mental health in a sample of older adults in Shahr-e-kord. In this quasi-experimental study, a twice-weekly physical activity program for 2 months was provided either individually at home or in a group format for 181 people who were divided into two groups (HB and GB). The outcome, mental health, was measured with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Mental health status improved after participation in the physical activity program. The decrease in GHQ-28 total score in GB group, 3 months after intervention, was 3.61 ± 2.28 (P effects of GB physical activity on mental health compared with HB physical activity, adjusted for related baseline variables, were significant. These findings reveal the probable effects of GB rather than HB physical activity on mental health among the elderly.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2017-01-01

    The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract of relat......The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract...... of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole......, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clindamycin, respectively. Eighteen additional studies reporting susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group bacteria were identified by conducting a literature search. Heterogeneity among results from studies of B. fragilis group antimicrobial susceptibility rates...

  8. Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus groups with Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish

    2016-08-01

    This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Promoting healthy diets and active lives to hard-to-reach groups: market research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Maloney, S K

    1990-01-01

    Continued progress over the next decade in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from chronic disease will require that health communication efforts target a significant proportion of the American public that has not been influenced by the health promotion efforts of the 1980s. Focus groups conducted with members of the hard-to-reach American public showed that while being healthy seemed to be important to participants, and they were generally aware of what to do to stay healthy, they had a different operational definition of health than that used in health promotion programs. Participants seemed to believe that better health behaviors would build their resistance to acute illnesses, that is, keep them healthy, but that chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, were due to fate and heredity and beyond their individual control. The focus group results show that participants had not made the link between chronic disease prevention and the importance of diet, exercise, and weight control. Although most of them seemed to express a genuine interest in "doing better," they were not able to supply more than superficial examples of how such changes might be made. Surprisingly, there were more similarities than differences in participants' attitudes and beliefs, with the similarities cutting across boundaries of race-ethnicity, age, and sex. Interest in changing behaviors was only slightly more pronounced among female rather than male, and older rather than younger, participants. However, there was not much evidence from the participants that they were actively seeking health information or trying to reconcile conflicting knowledge and beliefs.

  10. Nutritional status in mexican elderlys: comparative study between groups with different social assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Armando Osuna-Padilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study were to determine the prevalence of undernutrition and obesity in older people with various types of social support from Sinaloa, México.Material and methods: Comparative, observational, prospective and cross-sectional study in 91 elderly. Determined body weight, height and anthropometric measurements. Applied the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA. Means and standard deviations are estimated. Chi-square2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyzed data. Pearson correlation were utilized for evaluated the correlation between antropomethric indicators and MNA. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05.Results: 91 elderlies were evaluated: 35 users of a day House, 28 members of a cultural centre, and 28 residents of two nursing homes. There was a prevalence of malnutrition of 32.1% in the institutionalized, 14.3% on the day house, and 3.5% in independent adult. Obesity were diagnosed in 93.2% of people by Waist/Height Ratio. Good correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and calf circumference (CC with MNA (p<0.05.Conclusions: High prevalences of undernutrition were found in nursing homes and user of day homes, with major risks in womans and people major of 80 years. The implementation of nutritional interventions depending on the type of social assistance received is required.

  11. [Relationship between anthropometric health indexes with food consumption in physically active elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Badilla, Pablo Antonio; Godoy-Cumillaf, Andrés; Ortega-Spuler, Jenny; Díaz-Aravena, Daniela; Castro-Garrido, Nibaldo; Sandoval-Muñoz, Luis; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; López-Fuenzalida, Antonio; Vargas-Vitoria, Rodrigo; Durán-Aguero, Samuel

    2017-10-24

    Programs focused on active aging do not always have actions to guide the elderly about healthy eating. Therefore, the concordance between the feeding habits and the morphological characteristics of this population group is little known. To correlate the anthropometric health indexes with the frequency of food consumption in physically active elderly (PAE). The sample consisted of 307 physically active Chilean elders of both sexes (8.4% males), with a mean age of 70.2 years. The studied variables corresponded to nutritional status, abdominal adiposity, cardiovascular risk and frequency of food consumption. A logistic regression model was applied, considering alpha active Chilean elderly who exhibit less healthy eating behavior.

  12. Acceptability of financial incentives and penalties for encouraging uptake of healthy behaviours: focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2015-01-31

    There is evidence that financial incentive interventions, which include both financial rewards and also penalties, are effective in encouraging healthy behaviours. However, concerns about the acceptability of such interventions remain. We report on focus groups with a cross-section of adults from North East England exploring their acceptance of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviours amongst adults. Such information should help guide the design and development of acceptable, and effective, financial incentive interventions. Eight focus groups with a total of 74 adults were conducted between November 2013 and January 2014 in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Focus groups lasted approximately 60 minutes and explored factors that made financial incentives acceptable and unacceptable to participants, together with discussions on preferred formats for financial incentives. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and analysed in Nvivo 10. Participants largely distrusted health promoting financial incentives, with a concern that individuals may abuse such schemes. There was, however, evidence that health promoting financial incentives may be more acceptable if they are fair to all recipients and members of the public; if they are closely monitored and evaluated; if they are shown to be effective and cost-effective; and if clear health education is provided alongside health promoting financial incentives. There was also a preference for positive rewards rather than negative penalties, and for shopping vouchers rather than cash incentives. This qualitative empirical research has highlighted clear suggestions on how to design health promoting financial incentives to maximise acceptability to the general public. It will also be important to determine the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives in a range of stakeholders, and in particular, those who fund such schemes, and policy-makers who are likely to be involved with the design

  13. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L

    2009-06-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r [44] = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r [44] = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions.

  14. Safety and Immunogenicity Testing of an Intranasal Group B Meningococcal Native Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine in Healthy Volunteers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drabick, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    An intranasal vaccine composed of native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV) not exposed to detergent or denaturing agents was prepared from the group B meningococcal strain and tested in 32 healthy adult volunteers...

  15. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Nazroo, James; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    We aim to develop robust estimates of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) for ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001 and to examine observed variations across ethnic groups. DFLE and HLE by age and gender for five-year age groups were computed for 16 ethnic groups by combining the 2001 Census data on ethnicity, self-reported limiting long-term illness and self-rated health using mortality by ethnic group estimated by two methods: the Standardised Illness Ratio (SIR) method and the Geographically Weighted Method (GWM). The SIR and GWM methods differed somewhat in their estimates of life expectancy (LE) at birth but produced very similar estimates of DFLE and HLE by ethnic group. For the more conservative method (GWM), the range in DFLE at birth was 10.5 years for men and 11.9 years for women, double that in LE. DFLE at birth was highest for Chinese men (64.7 years, 95% CI 64.0-65.3) and women (67.0 years, 95% CI 66.4-67.6). Over half of the ethnic minority groups (men: 10; women: 9) had significantly lower DFLE at birth than White British men (61.7 years, 95% CI 61.7-61.7) or women (64.1 years, 95% CI 64.1-64.2), mostly the Black, Asian and mixed ethnic groups. The lowest DFLE observed was for Bangladeshi men (54.3 years, 95% CI 53.7-54.8) and Pakistani women (55.1 years, 95% CI 54.8-55.4). Notable were Indian women whose LE was similar to White British women but who had 4.3 years less disability-free (95% CI 4.0-4.6). Inequalities in DFLE between ethnic groups are large and exceed those in LE. Moreover, certain ethnic groups have a larger burden of disability that does not seem to be associated with shorter LE. With the increasing population of the non-White British community, it is essential to be able to identify the ethnic groups at higher risk of disability, in order to target appropriate interventions.

  16. Swallowing frequency in elderly people during daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Nohara, K; Kotani, Y; Matsumura, M; Sakai, T

    2013-10-01

    Disuse atrophy of swallowing-related organs due to an excessive decrease in swallowing frequency is suspected to occur in patients with poor oral intake, especially elderly people. However, swallowing frequency in daily life has not previously been examined in the elderly. This study examined swallowing frequency in elderly people and compared these findings to those in a younger population and differences in the degree of activity in daily life. (i) We compared swallowing frequency in 20 elderly people (82·0 ± 8·3 year) and 15 healthy young people (26·5 ± 3·5 year). (ii) 20 elderly people were divided into two groups according to the degree of activity in daily life: a semi-bedridden group and bedridden group; the swallowing frequency was compared between these groups. (i) The swallowing frequency in the elderly people was 2-19 times per hour and the mean was 9·4 ± 4·9, and that in the healthy young people was 16-76 times per hour and the mean was 40·7 ± 19·5. Swallowing frequency in elderly people was significantly lower than that in young healthy people (P bedridden group was 2-11 times per hour and the mean was 6·8 ± 3·3, and that in semi-bedridden group was 3-19 times per hour and the mean was 11·9 ± 5·1. Swallowing frequency in bedridden group was significantly lower than that in semi-bedridden group (P elderly people tend to swallow less frequently than young people. In addition, swallowing frequency was lower in elderly subjects with a low degree of activity in daily life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Investigating the Usability and Acute Effects of a Bedside Video Console to Prefrontal Cortical Activity Alterations: A Preclinical Study in Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knols, Ruud H; Swanenburg, Jaap; De Bon, Dino; Gennaro, Federico; Wolf, Martin; Krüger, Bernard; Bettex, Dominique; de Bruin, Eling D

    2017-01-01

    Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON). Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model) were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in-) correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play. Further, prefrontal cortical involvement of the regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation (rS02%) assessed with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) ( n = 5) and EEG power ( n = 10) was analyzed. All participants completed the study without any adverse events. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (TAM scores range 1-7) of the system varied between 3.9 and 6.3. The game levels reached for awareness varied between 9 and 11 (initial score 8-10), for reaction speed between 439 and 469 ms, and for correct responses between 74.1 and 78.8%. The highest level for the selective attention games was 2 (initial score 1), where reaction speed varied between 439 and 469 ms, correct responses between 96.2 and 98.5%, respectively. The decrease of rS02% in the right prefrontal cortex during gameplay was significantly ( p games ( p games. EEG recordings of theta power significantly decreased in the averaged ~0.25-0.75 time interval for the left prefrontal cortex sensor across the cognitive game levels between the ALERT 1 and SELECT 1, as well as between SELECT 1 and 2 games. Participants rated the usability of the COPHYCON training positively. Further results indicate that video gaming may be an effective measure to affect prefrontal cortical functioning in elderly. The results warrant a clinical explorative study investigating the

  18. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a phase I open label study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Hibberd

    Full Text Available Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly.The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 1×1010 colony forming units (CFU of LGG administered orally twice daily to elderly volunteers for 28 days. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of LGG on the gastrointestinal microbiome, host immune response and plasma cytokines.Fifteen elderly volunteers, aged 66-80 years received LGG capsules containing 1×1010 CFU, twice daily for 28 days and were followed through day 56. Volunteers completed a daily diary, a telephone call on study days 3, 7 and 14 and study visits in the Clinical Research Center at baseline, day 28 and day 56 to determine whether adverse events had occurred. Assessments included prompted and open-ended questions.There were no serious adverse events. The 15 volunteers had a total of 47 events (range 1-7 per volunteer, 39 (83% of which were rated as mild and 40% of which were considered related to consuming LGG. Thirty-one (70% of the events were expected, prompted symptoms while 16 were unexpected events. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (bloating, gas, and nausea, 27 rated as mild and 3 rated as moderate. In the exploratory analysis, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 decreased during LGG consumption, returning towards baseline one month after discontinuing LGG (p = 0.038 while there was no difference in other pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines.Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 is safe and well tolerated in healthy adults aged 65 years and older.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01274598.

  19. Study of skin and nail Candida species as a normal flora based on age groups in healthy persons in Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat, Z; Hashemi, S J; Ahamdikia, K; Daie Ghazvini, R; Bazvandi, F

    2017-12-01

    The skin is the body's largest organ that hosts heterogeneous inhabitants. Until now, the diversity of the cutaneous microbiome was mainly investigated for bacteria and there is a little information about the skin fungal flora. Also, among skin fungal flora, Candida is found as a main member whose distribution is affected by sex, age, climate. In this study, differences in Candida community structure associated with 9 different skin sites of 238 healthy people during 10 months from July to March 2016, are described. These subjects were divided by age into 4 groups: infants, children, adults and geriatrics. The collected samples were examined by culture on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol Agar and CHROM-agar Candida. For precise identification of species ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 rDNA regions were sequenced where needed. The frequency of Candida species was significantly different between age groups. The most Candida isolations were related to the elderly age group and the fewest in the infants. C. parapsilosis virtually, was the predominant isolated species in all age groups. This study showed no statistically significant effect of the subject's sex on Candida population resident on human skin surface. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Comparison of Walking, Muscle Strength, Balance, and Fear of Falling Between Repeated Fall Group, One-time Fall Group, and Nonfall Group of the Elderly Receiving Home Care Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, MiYang; Gu, Mee Ock; Yim, JongEun

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information to develop a program to prevent repeated falls by analyzing the difference in gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling according to their fall experience. The study subjects were 110 elderly individuals aged over 60 years who agreed to their participation in this research. The study participants were categorized into a repeated fall group (n = 40), a one-time fall group (n = 15), and a nonfall group (n = 46) of the elderly. Measurements of gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling were taken in each group. With regard to gait, there were significant differences among three groups in gait cycle (F = 3.50, p = .034), speed (F = 13.06, p balance, the nonfall group had significantly greater results than the one-time fall group and repeated fall group in dynamic balance (F = 10.80, p balance (F = 8.20, p = .001). In the case of the fear of falling, the repeated fall group had significantly higher score than other two groups (F = 20.62, p fall risk factors to enhance gait and balance and lower body muscle strength and reduce the fear of falling to prevent repeated incidences of falls in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Clinical relevance of specific cognitive complaints in determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Avila Villanueva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective memory complaints in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ.Material and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI. The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI.Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely forgetfulness of immediate information, executive functions and prospective memory proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10.Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  2. Main biomarkers associated with age-related plasma zinc decrease and copper/zinc ratio in healthy elderly from ZincAge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacconi, R; Costarelli, L; Piacenza, F; Basso, A; Rink, L; Mariani, E; Fulop, T; Dedoussis, G; Herbein, G; Provinciali, M; Jajte, J; Lengyel, I; Mocchegiani, E; Malavolta, M

    2017-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) plays an essential role in many biological processes including immune response. Impaired Zn status promotes immune dysfunction, and it has been associated with enhanced chronic inflammation during aging. It has been suggested that the measurement of circulating Zn by itself could not reflect the real Zn status of an individual. It is therefore necessary to identify other determinants associated with plasma Zn to better understanding how physiopathological conditions during aging may affect the concentration of this metal. We have investigated the association between Zn levels and some biomarkers in 1090 healthy elderly from five European countries to increase the accuracy in the assessment of the Zn status. Stepwise multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the influence of factors such as age, dietary intake, inflammatory mediators, laboratory parameters and polymorphisms previously associated with Zn homeostasis. Plasma Zn decrement was most strongly predicted by age, while positive correlations were found with albumin, RANTES and Zn intake after adjustment for multiple confounders. HSP70 +1267 AA genotype was an independent factor associated with Zn plasma concentrations. Cu/Zn ratio was positively associated with markers of systemic inflammation and age and negatively associated with albumin serum levels. Our findings show the most important independent determinants of plasma Zn concentration and Cu/Zn ratio variability in elderly population and suggest that the decline with age of Zn circulating levels is more dependent on physiopathological changes occurring with aging rather than to its nutritional intake.

  3. Respiration monitoring by Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) Technique in a group of healthy males. Calibration equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balleza, M; Vargas, M; Delgadillo, I; Kashina, S; Huerta, M R; Moreno, G

    2017-01-01

    Several research groups have proposed the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in order to analyse lung ventilation. With the use of 16 electrodes, the EIT is capable to obtain a set of transversal section images of thorax. In previous works, we have obtained an alternating signal in terms of impedance corresponding to respiration from EIT images. Then, in order to transform those impedance changes into a measurable volume signal a set of calibration equations has been obtained. However, EIT technique is still expensive to attend outpatients in basics hospitals. For that reason, we propose the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technique to monitor respiration behaviour. The aim of this study was to obtain a set of calibration equations to transform EBI impedance changes determined at 4 different frequencies into a measurable volume signal. In this study a group of 8 healthy males was assessed. From obtained results, a high mathematical adjustment in the group calibrations equations was evidenced. Then, the volume determinations obtained by EBI were compared with those obtained by our gold standard. Therefore, despite EBI does not provide a complete information about impedance vectors of lung compared with EIT, it is possible to monitor the respiration. (paper)

  4. Vitamin D Levels and the Risk of Cognitive Decline in Chinese Elderly People: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchar, David B; Chei, Choy-Lye; Yin, Zhao-Xue; Koh, Victoria; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Zeng, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D has a neuroprotective function, potentially important for the prevention of cognitive decline. Prospective studies from Western countries support an association between lower vitamin D level and future cognitive decline in elderly people. No prospective study has examined this association in Asia. This community-based cohort study of elderly people in China follows 1,202 cognitively intact adults aged ≥60 years for a mean duration of 2 years. Plasma vitamin D level was measured at the baseline. Cognitive state of participants was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was defined as an MMSE score vitamin D levels with cognitive decline and incidence of cognitive impairment. Participants with low vitamin D level had an increased risk of cognitive decline. Compared with the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the multivariable odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval) for cognitive decline were 2.1 (1.3-3.4) for the second highest quartile, 2.2 (1.4-3.6) for the third highest quartile, and 2.0 (1.2-3.3) for the lowest quartile. The multivariable ORs of incident cognitive impairment for the second highest, third highest, and lowest versus highest quartiles of vitamin D levels were 1.9 (0.9-4.1), 2.6 (1.2-5.6), and 3.2 (1.5-6.6), respectively. This first follow-up study of elderly people, including the oldest-old, in Asia shows that low vitamin D levels were associated with increased risk of subsequent cognitive decline and impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Prevalence of Types of Cancers in the Elderly Covered by Insurance of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Company in 2015 - Comparison with Younger Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, Zahra; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Shati, Mohsen; Sahaf, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the world population of the elderly is growing. By improving health hygiene and welfare indicators, mortality and birth rates decrease and life expectancy increases, making the present century the century of elderly. Aging is one of the main risk factors for development of cancer, which itself is the second cause of death in old people. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cancer in the elderly covered by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) insurance program and to obtain suitable programs for cancer screening and early detection, increase patient survival, improve elderly care and to reclaim the cost of treatment in comparison to the national and international statistics. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on all elderly patients diagnosed with malignancy based on their pathology reports. In this study, of the total 75,500 patients covered by IRIB insurance, 17.2% belonged to the elderly group, males accounting for 53.3%. The most common cancers in old men were prostatic cancer (61.3%), colon cancer (10.3%) cancer of the hematologic system, bladder cancer (9.6%), lung cancer (9.1%), thyroid cancer (3.9%) and brain tumors (1.3%). In the elderly women, the most common cancers were breast cancer (80.1%), colon cancer (5.1%), thyroid cancers (4.4%), bladder and hematologic system malignancies (3.6), lung cancer (2.9%) and brain tumors (0.7%). In addition, the prevalence of cancer was almost the same as national and international statistics. With the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer no difference was shown in prevalence of cancer between IRIB elderly patients and the other groups of cancer patients in Iran.

  6. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pruner Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP. The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1. The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  7. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Larissa Pruner; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-22

    The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP). The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1). The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  8. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent......Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  9. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of group-mediated lifestyle physical activity (glpa) program for health benefit in physical activity among elderly people at rural thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethisan, P.; Chapman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Elderly population is considered as a vulnerable group and prone to develop multiple medical problems. This aging population is rapidly increasing in developing countries especially in Thailand. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly people by using validated and reliable Global Physical Activity Questionnaire-GPAQv2. The study was conducted in Phranakhonsiayutthaya district, Ayutthaya province due to its population being the second highest elderly in the Central Region of Thailand. A total of 102 persons of age 60 and over who could read and write Thai language were selected purposively. However, 52 elderly were enrolled in the intervention group and 50 were enrolled for the control group. General Linear Model repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity (GLPA) program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly. Results: Overall health benefit at baseline were similar between intervention and control group and found statistically non-significant with p-value 0.638 (>0.05). However, the mean score of health benefit was 23.21 ± 29.23 in intervention group and 20.74 ± 23.18 in control group. One third of participants of intervention group had not found health benefit due to physical activity while in control group this number was more than half. After elderly received Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program intervention for 6 month found significant statistical differences as compared with mean score at baseline (health benefit 6 month, intervention group =40.7 ± 34.28 and control group =4.56 ± 8.79). Conclusion: The effect of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program change intervention was statistically significant in health benefit after intervention program between intervention and control group. Our study

  11. Effect of computer mouse gain and visual demand on mouse clicking performance and muscle activation in a young and elderly group of experienced computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Jensen, Bente R.

    2005-01-01

    and three levels of target size were used. All subjects demonstrated a reduced working speed and hit rate at the highest mouse gain (1:8) when the target size was small. The young group had an optimum at mouse gain 1:4. The elderly group was most sensitive to the combination of high mouse gain and small...

  12. Low-income children's reported motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Lillian B; Tucker, Carolyn M; Bragg, Marie A; Estampador, Angela C

    2011-01-01

    Despite national attention to the childhood obesity epidemic, there are few US-based studies that directly ask children--especially children from low-income families and from multiple racial/ethnic groups--why they do or do not engage in healthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors, as reported by black, Hispanic, and white children from low-income families. Six gender- and race/ethnicity-concordant focus groups were conducted with 37 children who were aged 9 to 12 years and from families with an annual household income of $40000 or less. Multiple strategies were used to employ a culturally sensitive approach to both data collection and data analysis (eg, a team of culturally diverse researchers utilized inductive qualitative analysis to analyze focus group transcripts). The motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors most commonly reported across the 6 focus groups included social influence, taste, issues of availability, weight concerns, and the desire to be healthy. A variety of less commonly reported motivators and barriers were also discussed. Findings were generally similar across gender and race/ethnicity. Children in this age range can indeed identify a variety of motivators and barriers that influence their engagement in healthy eating behaviors. Interventions targeting obesity and eating behaviors should include an assessment of children's own perceived motivators of and barriers to healthy eating.

  13. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part I: Resting distal blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    pressure and DBPtoe - DBPankle) were found in the new reference data compared to the old. No significant difference between the mean values of the gradient (DBPankle - systolic arm blood pressure) was found between the old and new reference data, although the variation was significantly wider in the new......Objective. Most patients referred to our department for distal blood pressure (DBP) determination on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd) are more than 60 years of age, whereas the only available reference data for resting pressure are based on data from healthy individuals aged....... Material and methods. Group I comprised 31 healthy persons aged between 61 and 87 years and group II 14 healthy middle-aged hospital staff members aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results. For group I, significantly greater gradients (DBPtoe - systolic arm blood...

  14. Attempted suicide in the elderly: characteristics of suicide attempters 70 years and older and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Runeson, Bo; Skoog, Ingmar; Ostling, Svante; Waern, Margda

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors associated with attempted suicide in the elderly. Social, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics were compared in suicide attempters (70 years and older) and a representative population sample. Emergency departments at five hospitals in western Sweden and a representative sample of the elderly population. Persons with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score age 80 years). Comparison subjects matched for gender and age group (N = 408) were randomly selected among participants in our general population studies. Symptoms were rated with identical instruments in cases and comparison subjects. The examination included the MMSE and tests of short- and long-term memory, abstract thinking, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and major and minor depressions were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, using symptom algorithms. Factors associated with attempted suicide included being unmarried, living alone, low education level, history of psychiatric treatment, and previous suicide attempt. There was no association with dementia. Odds ratios were increased for both major (odds ratio [OR]: 47.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1-117.7) and minor (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) depressions. An association was observed between perceived loneliness and attempted suicide; this relationship was independent of depression (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). Observed associations mirrored those previously shown for completed suicide. Results may help to inform clinical decisions regarding suicide risk evaluation in this vulnerable and growing age group.

  15. Effect of 8-Week of Selected Aerobic Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Elderly Inactive Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirmoezzi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that regular aerobic exercise improves dynamic balance in elderly men. We also found that jogging and walking improved dynamic balance. The improvement in balance may be due to the increase in nervous compatibility (due to exercise; increase in fitness, strength, and motion domain; improvement in aerobic status, response time and mental status; improvement in neuromuscular control, including a decrease in changing movement units; and improvement in simultaneous movement units. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between body composition and movement with balance. Therefore, regular aerobic activities are recommended as a suitable training method for improving balance.

  16. Eat Smart! Ontario's Healthy Restaurant Program: focus groups with non-participating restaurant operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John J M; Macaskill, Lesley A; Uetrecht, Connie L; Dombrow, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Eat Smart! Ontario's Healthy Restaurant Program is a standard provincial health promotion program. Public health units give an award of excellence to restaurants that meet nutrition, food safety, and non-smoking seating standards. The purpose of this study was to determine why some restaurant operators have not applied to participate in the program, and how to get them to apply. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 35 operators who didn't apply to participate. The analysis of responses yielded various themes. The participants' perceived barriers to participation were misunderstandings about how to qualify for the program, lack of time, concern about different non-smoking bylaw requirements, and potential loss of revenue. Their perceived facilitators to participation were convenience of applying to participate, franchise executives' approval to participate, a 100% non-smoking bylaw, flexibility in the assessment of restaurants, the opportunity for positive advertising, alternative payment for food handler training, and customer demand. Program staff can use the findings to develop and use strategies to encourage participation.

  17. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (poral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans.

  18. [The Effect of Structured Group Reminiscence Therapy on the Life Satisfaction of Institutionalized Elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Mei; Kuo, Chien-Lin; Chen, Mei-Rong; Lee, Lai-Ling; Lee, Pi-Yueh; Wang, Shu-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Long-term care institutions have become an option for older people who are dependent in daily living. However, insufficient attention has been focused on assessing the life satisfaction of those currently residing in these institutions in Taiwan. Previous research indicates that group reminiscence may improve the life satisfaction of older adults. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the implementation and evaluation of reminiscence interventions. To examine the effect of a structured group reminiscence protocol on the life satisfaction of institutionalized older adults. The study used a quasi-experimental design. A total of 48 older adults were conveniently recruited from two long-term care institutions in southern Taiwan. The experimental group (n = 23) received 8 weeks of structured-group reminiscence for 40 minutes weekly, while the control group (n = 25) received routine care from the institution. Both groups were evaluated using a life-satisfaction questionnaire before and after the intervention and again four weeks later. Life satisfaction scores were statistically similar on the pre-test and significantly different on both post-test questionnaires for the two groups. The scores for the experimental and control groups were pre-test: 24.22 vs 23.36 (p = .063); post-test I: 27.22 vs 23.32 (p < .001); and post-test II: 26.43 vs 23.00 (p < .001). The mean post-test scores for the experimental group were significantly higher than the pre-test score (p < .001). The generalized estimating equation test showed that the overall score of life satisfaction for the experimental group increased by 0.85-points (p = .042) more than the control group, which is a significant difference. The results support that the 8-week structured group reminiscence protocol effectively enhances life satisfaction in older adults. The results of this study may be referenced in the continuing education of nurses working in long-term care institutions in the context of helping

  19. Quality of life in Arab Muslim cancer survivors following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: comparison with matched healthy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaloul, Fawwaz; Brockopp, Dorothy Y; Andrykowski, Michael A; Hall, Lynne A; Al Nusairat, Taghreed S

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if quality of life (QOL) among Arab Muslim hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors differs from that of a healthy matched comparison group and to examine the relationships of demographic and medical variables and perceived social support with post-HSCT QOL. HSCT survivors (n = 63) were recruited from the King Hussein Cancer Center outpatient clinic. A matched (age, gender, education), healthy comparison group (n = 63) was recruited through public advertisements. Participants completed the EORTC-30 QOL scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. Differences were found between the Arab Muslim HSCT survivor and healthy comparison groups for physical functioning (p Western HSCT survivors in the social and emotional QOL domains. Given growing numbers of Arab and Muslim cancer survivors in the USA and other Western countries, future research is warranted.

  20. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Michelle S.; Agyemang, Charles O.; Smalbrugge, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative

  1. The gut mycobiome of elderly danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Kot, Witold

    mycobiome on health and disease in elderly remain sparsely investigated. Consequently, the aim of this study was to characterise the feacal mycobiota in relation to host health parameters.Feacal samples from 99 healthy individuals ranging from 65 to 81 years old were collected, and fungal composition...... categories associated with the clinical features among individuals.The elderly gut is home to three main phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota, with genera Penicillium, Candida, and Aspergillus being particularly common. Based on HbA1c-levels, the individuals could be clustered into 3 groups, High...... glucose level.Collectively, these findings suggest that the presences of specific gut mycobiome member is associated with glycemic behaviours among the healthy individuals of the elderly Danes population....

  2. Healthy Reasoning: The Role of Effective Argumentation for Enhancing Elderly Patients' Self-management Abilities in Chronic Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for doctors working in chronic care is the correct management of the argumentation phases during the encounters with their patients. During these phases doctors should provide patients with acceptable reasons for being adherent to treatment and for changing certain unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles, something which is particularly difficult for elderly patients, for whom changing life long habits can be extremely hard. However, the medical literature on the subject of communication in the chronic care encounter shows lack of theoretical models and methodological approaches that can highlight which specific linguistic structures or elements in different communication styles favor or impede patient commitment, trust in the relationship and adherence to treatment. The contribution describes ongoing research on argumentative strategies in the encounter with diabetes patients. I describe one recently concluded research project on the argumentation phases of medical encounters in diabetes care, which highlighted critical areas in need of improvement. I also describe the design and aims of a new research project, aimed at testing the effectiveness and usability of certain argumentation schemes in the medical encounter.

  3. Investigating the Usability and Acute Effects of a Bedside Video Console to Prefrontal Cortical Activity Alterations: A Preclinical Study in Healthy Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud H. Knols

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON. Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in- correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play. Further, prefrontal cortical involvement of the regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation (rS02% assessed with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS (n = 5 and EEG power (n = 10 was analyzed. All participants completed the study without any adverse events. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (TAM scores range 1–7 of the system varied between 3.9 and 6.3. The game levels reached for awareness varied between 9 and 11 (initial score 8–10, for reaction speed between 439 and 469 ms, and for correct responses between 74.1 and 78.8%. The highest level for the selective attention games was 2 (initial score 1, where reaction speed varied between 439 and 469 ms, correct responses between 96.2 and 98.5%, respectively. The decrease of rS02% in the right prefrontal cortex during gameplay was significantly (p < 0.001 lower, compared to the left prefrontal cortex. Four participants yielded significant lower rS02% measures after exergaming with the ALERT games (p < 0.000, but not with the SELECT games. EEG recordings of theta power significantly decreased in the averaged ~0.25–0.75 time interval for the left prefrontal cortex sensor across the cognitive game levels between the ALERT 1 and SELECT 1, as well as between SELECT 1 and 2 games. Participants rated the usability of the COPHYCON training positively

  4. ABO Blood Group and Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia in the Elderly Population: An Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP)-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Seyfizadeh, Narges; Negahdar, Hajar; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Nooreddini, Hajighorban; Parsian, Hadi

    Osteoporosis is known as a degenerative disease of the skeletal system and its main complication is fracture, which influences quality of life in the elderly. There are 4 major blood groups in humans based on the presence of A and B antigens. According to the investigations, there are reported relations between blood types and some diseases. In this study, the association between the ABO blood group and the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in an elderly population was investigated. Medical records of 990 elderly people were investigated in a cross-sectional study and the association between their blood group and the incidence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The results showed that ABO blood groups had no association with the prevalence of osteoporosis in both elderly men and women. The association between age and osteoporosis was significant and the association between this disorder and gender was significant too. The results also indicate that there is no association between RH + and RH - blood types and osteoporosis and osteopenia in both men and women. Based on this finding, it would be reasonable to conduct extensive studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Cerebral Microbleeds and White Matter Hyperintensities in Cognitively Healthy Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study Evaluating the Effect of Arterial Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Märta Gustavsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial stiffness reflects the ageing processes in the vascular system, and studies have shown an association between reduced cognitive function and cerebral small vessel disease. Small vessel disease can be visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH and lacunar infarcts but also as cerebral microbleeds on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We aimed to investigate if arterial stiffness influences the presence of microbleeds, WMH and cognitive function in a population of cognitively healthy elderly. Methods: The study population is part of the Swedish BioFinder study and consisted of 208 individuals without any symptoms of cognitive impairment, who scored >27 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. The participants (mean age, 72 years; 59% women underwent MRI of the brain with visual rating of microbleeds and WMH. Arterial stiffness was measured with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV. Eight cognitive tests covering different cognitive domains were performed. Results: Microbleeds were detected in 12% and WMH in 31% of the participants. Mean (±standard deviation, SD cfPWV was 10.0 (±2.0 m/s. There was no association between the presence of microbleeds and arterial stiffness. There was a positive association between arterial stiffness and WMH independent of age or sex (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.40, p 0.05. Cognitive performance was not associated with microbleeds, but individuals with WMH performed slightly worse than those without WMH on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (mean ± SD, 35 ± 7.8 vs. 39 ± 8.1, p Conclusions: Arterial stiffness was not associated with the presence of cerebral microbleeds or cognitive function in cognitively healthy elderly. However, arterial stiffness was related to the presence of WMH, but the association was attenuated when multiple adjustments were made. There was a weak negative association between WMH and performance in one specific test of attention

  6. Metabolic syndrome in Iranian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the youth and middle aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Iranian elderly METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the information from the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan who aged over 19 years were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001. It was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005. Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001. Based on the findings of this study, the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significantly more prevalent in men and women over 60 years. T-test and Mann-Whitney were used for quantitative data and the square-chi test is performed for qualitative data.    CONCLUSION: This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people (especially in women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group. Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Elderly, Iran

  7. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-07-01

    Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.

  8. Can sleep quality and wellbeing be improved by changing the indoor lighting in the homes of healthy, elderly citizens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Birgit; Markvart, Jakob; Kessel, Line

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of bright blue-enriched versus blue-deprived indoor light on sleep and wellbeing of healthy participants over 65 years. Twenty-nine participants in 20 private houses in a uniform settlement in Copenhagen were exposed over 3 weeks to blue-enriched (280 Lux) and 3...... weeks to blue-deprived (240 Lux) indoor light from 8 to 13 pm in a randomized cross-over design. The two light epochs were separated by one week neutral indoor light. Participants were examined at baseline and at the end of each light epoch. The primary endpoint was sleep duration during the last week...... of each light epoch measured by diary. Sleep quality was assessed using Pittsburg sleep questionnaire index (PSQI). Circadian rhythm was measured by Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire (MEscore), chromatic pupillometry and melatonin sampling. Actiwatches were used to monitor light exposure and activity...

  9. Primary prevention of stroke by a healthy lifestyle in a high-risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Åkesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-06-02

    To examine the impact of a healthy lifestyle on stroke risk in men at higher risk of stroke because of other cardiovascular diseases or conditions. Our study population comprised 11,450 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men who had a history of hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, heart failure, or atrial fibrillation. Participants had completed a questionnaire about diet and lifestyle and were free from stroke and ischemic heart disease at baseline (January 1, 1998). We defined a healthy lifestyle as a low-risk diet (≥5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables and 0 to ≤30 g/d). Ascertainment of stroke cases was accomplished through linkage with the National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, we ascertained 1,062 incident stroke cases. The risk of total stroke and stroke types decreased with increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. The multivariable relative risk of total stroke for men who achieved all 5 healthy lifestyle factors compared with men who achieved 0 or 1 factor was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.55). The corresponding relative risks (95% confidence interval) were 0.31 (0.15-0.66) for ischemic stroke and 0.32 (0.04-2.51) for hemorrhagic stroke. A healthy lifestyle is associated with a substantially reduced risk of stroke in men at higher risk of stroke. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Complexity in cognitive assessment of elderly British minority ethnic groups: Cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farooq; Tadros, George

    2014-07-01

    To study the influence of cultural believes on the acceptance and accessibility of dementia services by patients from British Minority Ethnic (BME) groups. It is noted that non-White ethnic populations rely more on cultural and religious concepts as coping mechanisms to overcome carer stress. In British Punjabi families, ageing was seen as an accepted reason for withdrawal and isolation, and cognitive impairment was rarely identified. Illiteracy added another complexity, only 35% of older Asians in a UK city could speak English, 21% could read and write English, while 73% could read and write in their first language. False positive results using Mini Mental State Examination was found to be 6% of non-impaired white people and 42% of non-impaired black people. Cognitive assessment tests under-estimate the abilities in BME groups. Wide range of variations among white and non-White population were found, contributors are education, language, literacy and culture-specific references. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Sexuality in the perception and experience of elderly women members of a living group - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.10700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice do Carmo Jhan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a result of a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, aiming to examine the perception and experience of women participating in elderly groups about sexuality in the oldness. The study was conducted with 29 old women members of five different elderly groups located in the northern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The data were collected through interviews with semi-structured open questions. The survey resulted in two analytical categories. The first one is associated with the participants’ understanding about sexuality in the oldness. The second one is related to new relationships as consequence of group insertion. The results indicate the importance of the awareness and the recognition of the main aspects that affect positively and negatively the practice of sexuality in the oldness, allowing the development of strategies for health education targeted to this population, considering the physical, emotional and cultural aspects of the group.  

  12. Agreement among Goldmann applanation tonometer, iCare, and Icare PRO rebound tonometers; non-contact tonometer; and Tonopen XL in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshitake; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Matsuo, Naoko; Yoshitomi, Kayo; Handa, Marina; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the inter-device agreement among the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), iCare and Icare PRO rebound tonometers, non-contact tonometer (NCT), and Tonopen XL tonometer. Sixty healthy elderly subjects were enrolled. The intraocular pressure (IOP) in each subject's right eye was measured thrice using each of the five tonometers. Intra-device agreement was evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Inter-device agreement was evaluated by ICC and Bland-Altman analyses. ICCs for intra-device agreement for each tonometer were >0.8. IOP as measured by iCare (mean ± SD, 11.6 ± 2.5 mmHg) was significantly lower (p tonometers (all ICCs tonometers ranged from 14.94 to 16.47 mmHg. Among the other tonometers, however, the widths of 95% limits of agreement ranged from 7.91 to 9.24 mmHg. There was good inter-device agreement among GAT, rebound tonometers, and NCT. Tonopen XL shows the worst agreement with the other tonometers; therefore, we should pay attention to its' respective IOP. Japan Clinical Trials Register; number: UMIN000011544.

  13. Focus Groups in Elderly Ophthalmologic Patients: Setting the Stage for Quantitative Preference Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Marion; Vennedey, Vera; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Fauser, Sascha; Stock, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are rarely actively involved in decision-making, despite facing preference-sensitive treatment decisions. This paper presents a qualitative study to prepare quantitative preference elicitation in AMD patients. The aims of this study were (1) to gain familiarity with and learn about the special requirements of the AMD patient population for quantitative data collection; and (2) to select/refine patient-relevant treatment attributes and levels, and gain insights into preference structures. Semi-structured focus group interviews were performed. An interview guide including preselected categories in the form of seven potentially patient-relevant treatment attributes was followed. To identify the most patient-relevant treatment attributes, a ranking exercise was performed. Deductive content analyses were done by two independent reviewers for each attribute to derive subcategories (potential levels of attributes) and depict preference trends. The focus group interviews included 21 patients. The interviews revealed that quantitative preference surveys in this population will have to be interviewer assisted to make the survey feasible for patients. The five most patient-relevant attributes were the effect on visual function [ranking score (RS): 139], injection frequency (RS: 101), approval status (RS: 83), side effects (RS: 79), and monitoring frequency (RS: 76). Attribute and level refinement was based on patients' statements. Preference trends and dependencies between attributes informed the quantitative instrument design. This study suggests that qualitative research is a very helpful step to prepare the design and administration of quantitative preference elicitation instruments. It especially facilitated familiarization with the target population and its preferences, and it supported attribute/level refinement.

  14. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    -cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms...... design is potentially safer to healthy cells....

  15. Clinical trial: single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) in healthy young and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, R W; Nix, L C; Chavira, R E; Cleveland, M Vb; Stetson, P

    2008-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG-3350) have not been fully described because of lack of a sufficiently sensitive analytical method. To describe the pharmacokinetics of PEG-3350 in humans. A highly sensitive, high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method was developed for PEG-3350 in urine, plasma and faeces with quantification limits of 30 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL and 500 microg/g respectively. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetics methods were used and the effects of gender, age, renal status and dosing frequency were examined after the oral administration of 17 g to healthy volunteers. Peak PEG-3350 plasma concentrations occurred at 2-4 h and declined to nonquantifiable levels usually within 18 h after single and multiple doses, with a half-life of about 4-6 h. Steady state was reached within 5 days of dosing. Mean urinary excretion of the administered dose ranged from 0.19% to 0.25%. Age, gender or mild kidney impairment did not alter the pharmacokinetics of PEG-3350. Mean faecal excretion of the administered dose was 93% in young subjects. For the first time, a highly sensitive assay allowed comprehensive pharmacokinetics studies of PEG-3350 in humans. These studies confirmed that orally administered PEG-3350 is minimally absorbed, rapidly excreted and primarily eliminated via faeces.

  16. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  17. Terapia de la risa en un grupo de mujeres adultas/ Laughter therapy in a group of elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Villam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: explorar los beneficios de la terapia de la risa en un grupo de mujeres adultas pertenecientes a un centro gerontológico del Municipio de Envigado (Colombia. Metodología: estudio con enfoque cualitativo mediante entrevista semiestructurada a 10 adultas entre 59 y 97 años de edad, antes y después de la aplicación de 5 sesiones, una semanal, de terapia de la risa por parte del grupo Mediclaun “payasos hospitalarios”. Resultados: muchos de los cambios percibidos en las adultas coinciden con la literatura en lo que respecta a una actitud más positiva, incremento de la confianza en el otro y la aceptación; expresan el pasado con menos dolor y un mayor agrado frente al acompañamiento familiar. Conclusiones: La terapia de la risa permite al adulto mayor encontrar fortalezas que puedan ayudarle a mejorar su presente, a su vez, lograr cambios en el individuo que se le revierten positivamente y a su relación con el entorno Objective: to explore the benefits of laughter therapy in a group of elderly women belonging to a gerontology center (Envigado, Colombia. Methodology: a qualitative study using a semi-structured interview with 10 adult women aged 59 to 97. The participants were interviewed before and after applying 5 weekly sessions of laughter therapy. Said therapy was administered by the Mediclaun "hospital clowns" group. Results: many of the changes observed in adult women are consistent with the results described in the literature in relation to a more positive attitude, increased confidence in people and acceptance; the participants expressed the past with less pain and had a greater liking towards family support. Conclusions: laughter therapy allows seniors to find the strength to improve their present situation, thus causing positive changes in their own self and in their relationship with their surroundings

  18. Healthy Ageing: prevention of loneliness among elderly people : evaluation of a complex intervention in public health practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honigh - de Vlaming, R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction
    Concerns about the ageing population and formal responsibilities of local governments to promote social cohesion and to enhance participation of vulnerable groups in society placed loneliness prevention high on the local policy agenda of Dutch municipalities in the past decade.

  19. Reference values of reticulocyte counts in five age groups of healthy infants at rawalpindi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, K.T.; Zafar, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the reference range values of reticulocyte counts among various infantile age groups at tertiary care hospitals. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the Haematology Department of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from March 2010 to March 2011. The sample size was 2000 which was equally distributed between males and females across five age groups. <27 days Group I; 03 months Group II; 06 months Group III; 09 months Group IV; and 1 year Group V. Each group had 400 patients. Reticulocyte staining was used to calculate the percentage of reticulocyte in all the groups. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Gender had no effect on reticulocyte count in all the five groups. The average range of reticulocyte count was 5.1 to 7.5 in Group I, observed in 272 (68%) infants, with a mean value of 1.58+-0.65. For all the remaining groups, 7.6 to 10 was the average range. The mean reticulocyte count value in Group II was 0.73+-0.37, while the values were 0.83+-0.44, 0.82+-0.44 and 0.80+-0.43 in Group III, Group IV and Group V respectively. A significant difference was seen between Group I and the remaining four (p <0.05). Conclusion: Reference values of reticulocyte counts currently used in our region were somewhat different from those currently used. (author)

  20. Can sleep quality and wellbeing be improved by changing the indoor lighting in the homes of healthy, elderly citizens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Birgit; Markvart, Jakob; Kessel, Line; Argyraki, Aikaterini; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of bright blue-enriched versus blue-suppressed indoor light on sleep and wellbeing of healthy participants over 65 years. Twenty-nine participants in 20 private houses in a uniform settlement in Copenhagen were exposed to two light epochs of 3 weeks with blue-enriched (280 lux) and 3 weeks blue-suppressed (240 lux) indoor light or vice versa from 8 to 13 pm in a randomized cross-over design. The first light epoch was in October, the second in November and the two light epochs were separated by one week. Participants were examined at baseline and at the end of each light epoch. The experimental indoor light was well tolerated by the majority of the participants. Sleep duration was 7.44 (95% CI 7.14–7.74) hours during blue-enriched conditions and 7.31 (95% CI 7.01–7.62) hours during blue-suppressed conditions (p = 0.289). Neither rest hours, chromatic pupillometry, nor saliva melatonin profile showed significant changes between blue-enriched and blue-suppressed epochs. Baseline Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was significantly worse in females; 7.62 (95% CI 5.13–10.0) versus 4.06 (95% CI 2.64–5.49) in males, p = 0.009. For females, PSQI improved significantly during blue-enriched light exposure (p = 0.007); no significant changes were found for males. The subjective grading of indoor light quality doubled from participants habitual indoor light to the bright experimental light, while it was stable between light epochs, although there were clear differences between blue-enriched and blue-suppressed electrical light conditions imposed. Even though the study was carried out in the late autumn at northern latitude, the only significant difference in Actiwatch-measured total blue light exposure was from 8 to 9 am, because contributions from blue-enriched, bright indoor light were superseded by contributions from daylight. PMID:26181467

  1. Promoting Healthy Pregnancies Through Perinatal Groups: A Comparison of CenteringPregnancy® Group Prenatal Care and Childbirth Education Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Deborah S.; Worrell, Renee

    2008-01-01

    CenteringPregnancy® group prenatal care is growing in popularity and has commonalities with childbirth education classes. In order for leaders of childbirth education classes to best serve their clients' needs, it is important to be aware of new, emerging models of prenatal care such as CenteringPregnancy. This article provides an overview of CenteringPregnancy and similarities and differences between CenteringPregnancy and childbirth education classes. Providers of prenatal education, whethe...

  2. [The influence of the advertising in the medication use in a group of elderly attended in a primary health care unit in Aracaju (Sergipe, Brasil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lyra, Divaldo Pereira; Neves, Aline Souza; Cerqueira, Karine Santos; Marcellini, Paulo Sergio; Marques, Tatiane Cristina; de Barros, José Augusto Cabral

    2010-11-01

    The growth of the Brazilian elderly people has led to a trend to an increase in the medication use. The inadequate use of drugs can be induced by some factors, like advertisement, with the risk of damaging the user's health. The objective of the study was to evaluate the advertisement influence in medication use in a group of elderly patients in a primary health care unit in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. 230 elderly aging over 60 years with both genders had been interviewed from April to June of 2007. The majority of the interviewees (73%) has at least a chronic health condition and 73.9% consumed regularly at least one medication. 17.8% of the sample informed to use medication motivated by publicity influence; 2.2% had considered that the medication never cause damages and 6.5% believed that always it makes well. In this study, correlations have been made and demonstrated that those who presented a higher level of consumption influenced by advertising also think that drugs used are always beneficial and vice versa (p= 0.04). The data showed that part of elderly suffered influence of advertisement to medication use, and are not conscious of risks involved.

  3. Home care robot for socially supporting the elderly: focus group studies in three European countries to screen user attitudes and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsiga, Katalin; Edelmayer, Georg; Rumeau, Pierre; Péter, Orsolya; Tóth, András; Fazekas, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    The growing number of elderly individuals presents new challenges for society. Many elderly individuals have physical or cognitive impairments and require support from caregivers. An attempt to overcome the limitations caused by the lack of human caregivers is the inclusion of assistive technology such as socially active robots. The Domeo-project of the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme of the European Union aims to develop a new companion robotic system that would allow assistance to the elderly. The requirements and attitude of the potential users and caregivers have been assessed in Austria, France and Hungary. The robot functions were demonstrated to the participants. Three focus groups were formed: potential end users, older caregivers and younger caregivers. The discussions were recorded and processed according to six aspects: (i) acceptability and privacy, (ii) pertinence of services, (iii) possible obstacles, (iv) motivation level to use the proposed services, (v) organizational issues and (vi) recommendations. Minor differences were observed between the countries, but there were considerable differences regarding the age of the participants. The younger caregivers want to be assured of the safety of their client and to receive immediate notification in case of an emergency. As for the elderly, the most important aspect is to gain a companion and a physical helper. Many of the recommendations can be taken into consideration during robot development, but some of them are not realistic at present.

  4. Perceptions on the use of pricing strategies to stimulate healthy eating among residents of deprived neighbourhoods: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidell Jacob C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pricing strategies are mentioned frequently as a potentially effective tool to stimulate healthy eating, mainly for consumers with a low socio-economic status. Still, it is not known how these consumers perceive pricing strategies, which pricing strategies are favoured and what contextual factors are important in achieving the anticipated effects. Methods We conducted seven focus groups among 59 residents of deprived neighbourhoods in two large Dutch cities. The focus group topics were based on insights from Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and consisted of four parts: 1 discussion on factors in food selection; 2 attitudes and perceptions towards food prices; 3 thinking up pricing strategies; 4 attitudes and perceptions regarding nine pricing strategies that were nominated by experts in a former Delphi Study. Analyses were conducted with Atlas.ti 5.2 computer software, using the framework approach. Results Qualitative analyses revealed that this group of consumers consider price to be a core factor in food choice and that they experience financial barriers against buying certain foods. Price was also experienced as a proficient tool to stimulate healthier food choices. Yet, consumers indicated that significant effects could only be achieved by combining price with information and promotion techniques. In general, pricing strategies focusing on encouraging healthy eating were valued to be more helpful than pricing strategies which focused on discouraging unhealthy eating. Suggested high reward strategies were: reducing the price of healthier options of comparable products (e.g., whole meal bread compared to unhealthier options (e.g., white bread; providing a healthy food discount card for low-income groups; and combining price discounts on healthier foods with other marketing techniques such as displaying cheap and healthy foods at the cash desk. Conclusion This focus group study provides important new insights

  5. Perceptions on the use of pricing strategies to stimulate healthy eating among residents of deprived neighbourhoods: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; de Mul, Anika; Schuit, Albertine J; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm

    2010-05-19

    Pricing strategies are mentioned frequently as a potentially effective tool to stimulate healthy eating, mainly for consumers with a low socio-economic status. Still, it is not known how these consumers perceive pricing strategies, which pricing strategies are favoured and what contextual factors are important in achieving the anticipated effects. We conducted seven focus groups among 59 residents of deprived neighbourhoods in two large Dutch cities. The focus group topics were based on insights from Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and consisted of four parts: 1) discussion on factors in food selection; 2) attitudes and perceptions towards food prices; 3) thinking up pricing strategies; 4) attitudes and perceptions regarding nine pricing strategies that were nominated by experts in a former Delphi Study. Analyses were conducted with Atlas.ti 5.2 computer software, using the framework approach. Qualitative analyses revealed that this group of consumers consider price to be a core factor in food choice and that they experience financial barriers against buying certain foods. Price was also experienced as a proficient tool to stimulate healthier food choices. Yet, consumers indicated that significant effects could only be achieved by combining price with information and promotion techniques. In general, pricing strategies focusing on encouraging healthy eating were valued to be more helpful than pricing strategies which focused on discouraging unhealthy eating. Suggested high reward strategies were: reducing the price of healthier options of comparable products (e.g., whole meal bread) compared to unhealthier options (e.g., white bread); providing a healthy food discount card for low-income groups; and combining price discounts on healthier foods with other marketing techniques such as displaying cheap and healthy foods at the cash desk. This focus group study provides important new insights regarding the use of pricing strategies to stimulate healthy eating

  6. Effects of experience-based group therapy on cognitive and physical functions and psychological symptoms of elderly people with mild dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwan-hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experience-based group therapy consisting of cooking and physical activities for elderly people with mild dementia on their cognitive and physical function, as well as on their psychological symptoms. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 12 older adults with mild dementia (3 males, 9 females; 76.75 ? 3.61?years) who voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] In total, 12 subjects received experience-b...

  7. Development and Validation of an Interactive Internet Platform for Older People: The Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongstra, Susan; Beishuizen, Cathrien; Andrieu, Sandrine; Barbera, Mariagnese; van Dorp, Matthijs; van de Groep, Bram; Guillemont, Juliette; Mangialasche, Francesca; van Middelaar, Tessa; Moll van Charante, Eric; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Richard, Edo

    2017-02-01

    A myriad of Web-based applications on self-management have been developed, but few focus on older people. In the face of global aging, older people form an important target population for cardiovascular prevention. This article describes the full development of an interactive Internet platform for older people, which was designed for the Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly (HATICE) study. We provide recommendations to design senior-friendly Web-based applications for a new approach to multicomponent cardiovascular prevention. The development of the platform followed five phases: (1) conceptual framework; (2) platform concept and functional design; (3) platform building (software and content); (4) testing and pilot study; and (5) final product. We performed a meta-analysis, reviewed guidelines for cardiovascular diseases, and consulted end users, experts, and software developers to create the platform concept and content. The software was built in iterative cycles. In the pilot study, 41 people aged ≥65 years used the platform for 8 weeks. Participants used the interactive features of the platform and appreciated the coach support. During all phases adjustments were made to incorporate all improvements from the previous phases. The final platform is a personal, secured, and interactive platform supported by a coach. When carefully designed, an interactive Internet platform is acceptable and feasible for use by older people with basic computer skills. To improve acceptability by older people, we recommend involving the end users in the process of development, to personalize the platform and to combine the application with human support. The interactive HATICE platform will be tested for efficacy in a multinational randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN48151589).

  8. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eDuriez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65 to 80 years. MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and hippocampus (HIP volumes at study entry time (baseline, N=1,451, and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N=1,111. Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(COVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either current or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate gender- and tissue specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy. They indicate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with notable effects on the hippocampus annualized-rate of atrophy after the age of 65.

  9. Working Memory and Motor Activity: A Comparison Across Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Healthy Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Sarah E; Matt Alderson, R; Patros, Connor H G; Tarle, Stephanie J; Arrington, Elaine F; Grant, DeMond M

    2018-05-01

    Converging findings from recent research suggest a functional relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related hyperactivity and demands on working memory (WM) in both children and adults. Excessive motor activity such as restlessness and fidgeting are not pathognomonic symptoms of ADHD, however, and are often associated with other diagnoses such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Further, previous research indicates that anticipatory processing associated with anxiety can directly interfere with storage and rehearsal processes of WM. The topographical similarity of excessive motor activity seen in both ADHD and anxiety disorders, as well as similar WM deficits, may indicate a common relationship between WM deficits and increased motor activity. The relationship between objectively measured motor activity (actigraphy) and PH and visuospatial WM demands in adults with ADHD (n = 21), adults with GAD (n = 21), and healthy control adults (n = 20) was examined. Although all groups exhibited significant increases in activity from control to WM conditions, the ADHD group exhibited a disproportionate increase in activity, while activity exhibited by the GAD and healthy control groups was not different. Findings indicate that ADHD-related hyperactivity is uniquely related to WM demands, and appear to suggest that adults with GAD are no more active relative to healthy control adults during a cognitively demanding laboratory task. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The association between serum uric acid and blood pressure in different age groups in a healthy Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wenjuan; Wen, Shiling; Wang, Yutang; Qian, Zhiping; Tan, Yuyao; Li, Hongying; Hou, Yueli; Hu, Haiyang; Golledge, Jonathan; Yang, Guang

    2017-12-01

    High serum uric acid (sUA) has been reported to be a risk factor for hypertension however, whether this is the case for all age groups is not clear. We examined the association between sUA concentrations and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in different age groups in a cohort of healthy Chinese participants.A total of 1082 healthy participants aged from 41 to 70 years were included. sUA concentration was measured by the uricase-peroxidase method. SBP and DBP were assessed using mercury sphygmomanometry. Hypertension was defined as SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Hyperuricemia (HUA) was defined as sUA concentration of >7 mg/dL in men and >6 mg/dL in women. The association between sUA concentration and SBP and DBP was examined using Pearson's correlation test, multivariate linear regression, and logistic regression analysis.The prevalence of hypertension and HUA increased with age (P age, sex, total cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and fasting plasma glucose). HUA was also a risk factor for hypertension in this age group (odds ratio 1.425, 95% confidence interval, 1.217-1.668, P age groups.In this population of healthy Chinese participants, sUA concentration was positively associated with hypertension only in the 41- to 50-year-old group. Lowering uric acid in this age group may help to reduce the incidence of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-perception of women after mastectomy as an ego defence mechanism. Comparison with a group of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mącik, Dorota; Ziółkowska, Patrycja; Kowalska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of changes in self-perception in post-mastectomy patients and its comparison with self-perception of healthy women. The subjects of this study were 50 women. The main group was post-mastectomy patients involved in the meetings of the Amazons Club (25 women). The reference group consisted of 25 healthy women. The method used in the study was the ACL (Adjective Check List) test, identifying 37 dimensions of self-image. Oncological patients completed a test twice (for current and pre-cancer self-image), and healthy women once - for current self. Both groups were selected similarly in respect of education level for the purpose of ensuring a similar level of insight. Retrospective self-image and the current one in the Amazon women group were highly convergent. Existing differences include a reduced need for achievement and dominance, and a lower level of self-confidence. However, the comparison of current self-images in both groups showed a large discrepancy of the results. The Amazon women assess themselves in a much more negative way. Also, their self-image is self-contradictory in certain characteristics. Mastectomy is a difficult experience requiring one to re-adapt and to accept oneself thereafter. The way of thinking about oneself is a defence mechanism helping to cope. The work with patients programmes must, therefore, focus on identifying their emotions and thoughts, especially on those they do not want to accept because of the perceived pressure from the environment to effectively and quickly deal with this difficult situation. The increasing acceptance of personal limitations may help the affected women to adjust psychologically faster and easier.

  12. Focus groups as a tool to collect data in a community informatics project involving elderly rural women

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the extended project is to identify and investigate the aspects that will encourage elderly women in rural areas to use the ICT platform, and to determine what the physical design, content and applications should look like...

  13. The Effect of Consuming Ambon Banana (Musa paradisiaca Var. Sapientum on Sleep Latency of Elderly Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Ria Ristania

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elderly hypertension often reported that their latency elongated was less compared to healthy elderly. The increase of latency impact on health, it causes susceptibility to illness, stress, confusion, disorientation, mood disorders, less fresh, decrease ability to make decisions. The aim of this research was to explain the effect of consuming Ambon banana on sleep latency of elderly hypertension in Mulyorejo, Surabaya. Time series one group pre-test post test design was used in this research. Affordable population in this research was elderly hypertension in RW 2 and RW 3 Mulyorejo Surabaya. Total sample was 15 respondents and taken by total sampling technique. The independent variable was consuming Ambon banana, and dependent variable was sleep latency of elderly hypertension. Every day the latency and blood pressure on elderly was monitored. Data was collected using questionnaire, and then analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The result showed that consuming Ambon banana affect sleep latency (p=0.009.

  14. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2 and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4 and control (n =4 conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1 eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2 develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE, and 3 promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach. Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2 were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2 children

  15. Effect of interaction between dynapenic component of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people sarcopenia criteria and obesity on activities of daily living in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Kim, Sun; Joh, Ju-Youn; Hwang, Hwan-Sik

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effects of interaction between dynapenic component of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) sarcopenia and obesity (dynapenia × obesity) on activities of daily living (ADL) in older participants. Cross-sectional analysis of the Validity and Reliability of Korean Frailty Index and the Validity and Reliability of the Kaigo-Yobo Checklist in Korean Elderly studies. Six welfare facilities operated by government in South Korea. Four hundred eighty-seven community-dwelling individuals (157 males, 330 females) >65 years of age. Dynapenic component of the EWGSOP sarcopenia was defined as usual gait speed sarcopenia and obesity in the elderly is associated with multiplicative interactions rather than additive interactions in ADL. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. “Conviv\\^{e}ncia” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups.

  17. Enhancing memory for lists by grouped presentation and rehearsal: a pilot study in healthy subjects with unexpected results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Christian; Stojanovic, Jelena; Elger, Christian E

    2009-12-01

    List learning is probably the most established paradigm for the psychometric evaluation of episodic memory deficits in different neuropsychiatric conditions including epilepsy. Strategies which are capable of increasing the test performance might be promising candidates for a therapeutic improvement of daily memory performance. Based on the classical 'temporal grouping effect' we wanted to evaluate the memory-enhancing potential of disentangling perceiving, rehearsing and encoding by temporally grouped presentation and group-wise reproduction during acquisition. According to the ethical principle of subsidiary the study was performed in healthy adolescents (N=126) before setting-up a patient study. Subjects had to learn a list of 12 semantically unrelated nouns and a list of 12 figures during two acquisition trials under one of four experimental conditions defined by the size of presented item groups (GS): GS=1 (single items, i.e., 12 x 1 item), GS=3 (4 x 3 items), GS=6 (2 x 6 items), and GS=12 (standard presentation mode, i.e., 1 x 12 items). Repeated measures MANOVA confirmed a positive effect of smaller GS on acquisition performance but the grouping condition obtained no effect on immediate and delayed free recall or on yes/no recognition. For verbal retention, GS=12 even showed a tendency toward an advantage as compared to GS=3. Although appearing reasonable and promising, facilitating acquisition during list learning by temporal grouping and grouped overt rehearsal turned out to be ineffective with regard to long-term memory encoding and retrieval. A strategy however which fails in healthy subjects is unlikely to obtain a therapeutic potential in patients with memory deficits.

  18. Determination of the energy requirements in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients in different BMI groups using the Harris–Benedict equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Hui Hsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to studies on calorie requirement in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients are few, and indirect calorimetry (IC is not available in every intensive care unit (ICU. The aim of this study was to compare IC and Harris–Benedict (HB predictive equation in different BMI groups. Methods: A total of 177 mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients (≧65 years old underwent IC for measured resting energy expenditure (MREE. Estimated calorie requirement was calculated by the HB equation, using actual body weight (ABW and ideal body weight (IBW separately. Patients were divided into four BMI groups. One-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analyses. Results: The mean MREE was 1443.6 ± 318.2 kcal/day, HB(ABW was 1110.9 ± 177.0 kcal/day and HB(IBW was 1101.5 ± 113.1 kcal/day. The stress factor (SFA = MREE ÷ HB(ABW was 1.43 ± 0.26 for the underweight, 1.30 ± 0.27 for the normal weight, 1.20 ± 0.19 for the overweight, and 1.20 ± 0.31 for the obese. The SFI (SFI = MREE ÷ HB(IBW was 1.24 ± 0.24 for the underweight, 1.31 ± 0.26 for the normal weight, 1.36 ± 0.21 for the overweight, and 1.52 ± 0.39 for the obese. MREE had significant correlation both with REE(ABW = HB(ABW × SFA (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001 and REE(IBW = HB(IBW × SFI (r = 0.43; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: IC is the best accurate method for assessing calorie requirement of mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients. When IC is not available, using the predictive HB equation is an alternative choice. Calorie requirement can be predicted by HB(ABW × 1.20–1.43 for critically ill elderly patients according to different BMI groups, or using HB(IBW × 1.24–1.52 for patients with edema, ascites or no available body weight data. Keywords: Body Mass Index, Elderly critical care, Harris–Benedict equation, Indirect calorimetry

  19. Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Jahromi, Fatemeh Nikhalat

    2013-09-01

    The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy female students (24.3 ± 2.6 years) completed three testing session with a break period of at least 2 days. During each session, postural control was assessed during two 30-s trials of bipedal stance with eyes close before and after the fatigue protocol. Fatigue protocols were performed by 60% of their unfatigued Maximum Voluntary Contraction of unilateral ankle plantar flexors, bilateral lumbar extensors and bilateral neck extensors. One of the three fatigue protocols was performed on each session. The result showed that fatigue had a significant effect on COP velocity and it increase COP velocity but there was not found any difference in postural sway between muscle groups. Localized muscle fatigue caused deficits in postural control regardless of the location of fatigue. Authors suggest the possibility of the contributions of central mechanisms to postural deficits due to fatigue and it seems that difference was not between muscle groups due to central fatigue.

  20. Comparative assessment of study groups of elderly female computer users from four European countries: questionnaires used in the NEW study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandsjö, L; Larsman, P; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R

    2006-01-01

    There is a lack of consistent and comprehensive questionnaire forms for the studies of factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders at the European level. One of the results of the EU-funded project, neuromuscular assessment in the elderly worker (NEW), is a set of questionnaires...... for the screening of musculoskeletal status and the studies of factors that are believed to affect musculoskeletal health. The questionnaires have been used among elderly women (45+) in different occupations and organisations in Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. The aim of this short communication...... is to present the questionnaires used in the NEW study and to evaluate the appropriateness of pooling data gathered in each participating country into a common database. It is concluded that although differences exist among the study samples, these are not of such a magnitude or pattern that data from the four...

  1. "Stay Tuned": The Role of ICTs in Elderly Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Fausto; Aroldi, Piermarco; Carlo, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Ageing in western society has become a key issue in political and academic debate: politicians, sociologists, doctors, demographers, psychologists, economists are trying to understand how ageing will impact our future society. In this frame, media and communication technologies seem to be more and more relevant for the elderly, thanks to those services and devices helping people to grow old actively. Technologies, the Internet and ICTs could help the elderly to improve their quality of life, to be healthy and independent and to get better assistance. Our ongoing research investigates the relationship between the elderly and use of technologies, and explores the role played by media and ICTs in building a friendly and positive environment for the elderly, and in constructing and maintaining social relations and promoting healthy ageing. Specifically, the research will investigate the use of ICTs by the elderly by taking into account two different perspectives: a) Exchanges between generations: lengthening of life corresponds to a longer period of cohabitation between at least three generations (grandparents, children, grandchildren), and also of co-use of digital media. The research wants to investigate relations between two age groups (grandparents and grandchildren; young people and older people) to understand the dynamics of intergenerational mutuality in the use of technologies and ICTs. b) Media, ICTs, Health: the Western world is increasingly populated by elderly population. Technologies and ICTs can help elderly people to improve their quality of life, to be healthy and independent and to get better assistance. ICTs should encourage active ageing and, in the case of health technologies, new models of care. The project, lasting 1 year, is based on (1) a survey on young elderly (65-74 yrs) population in Italy, and (2) a field-work which consists of family interviews and ethnographical sections in natural contexts.

  2. Knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly regarding protein-enriched functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-09-01

    Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N = 24, Mage = 67 years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N = 18, Mage = 83 years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Youth Understanding of Healthy Eating and Obesity: A Focus Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvetsky, Allison C.; Hennink, Monique; Comeau, Dawn; Welsh, Jean A.; Hardy, Trisha; Matzigkeit, Linda; Swan, Deanne W.; Walsh, Stephanie M.; Vos, Miriam B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, we aimed to investigate youth's understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibility to obesity and its co-morbidities. Methods. A marketing firm contracted by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta facilitated a series of focus group discussions (FGD) to test potential concepts and sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness cam...

  4. Burnt sugarcane harvesting - cardiovascular effects on a group of healthy workers, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Galvão Barbosa

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugarcane. Harvest is predominantly manual, exposing workers to health risks: intense physical exertion, heat, pollutants from sugarcane burning.Panel study to evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on blood markers and on cardiovascular system.Twenty-eight healthy male workers, living in the countryside of Brazil were submitted to blood markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, sympathetic nerve activity evaluation and forearm blood flow measures (venous occlusion plethysmography during burnt sugarcane harvesting and four months later while they performed other activities in sugar cane culture.Mean participant age was 31 ± 6.3 years, and had worked for 9.8 ± 8.4 years on sugarcane work. Work during the harvest period was associated with higher serum levels of Creatine Kinase - 136.5 U/L (IQR: 108.5-216.0 vs. 104.5 U/L (IQR: 77.5-170.5, (p = 0.001; plasma Malondialdehyde-7.5 ± 1.4 µM/dl vs. 6.9 ± 1.0 µM/dl, (p = 0.058; Glutathione Peroxidase - 55.1 ± 11.8 Ug/Hb vs. 39.5 ± 9.5 Ug/Hb, (p<0.001; Glutathione Transferase- 3.4±1.3 Ug/Hb vs. 3.0 ± 1.3 Ug/Hb, (p = 0.001; and 24-hour systolic blood pressure - 120.1 ± 10.3 mmHg vs. 117.0 ± 10.0 mmHg, (p = 0.034. In cardiopulmonary exercise testing, rest-to-peak diastolic blood pressure increased by 11.12 mmHg and 5.13 mmHg in the harvest and non-harvest period, respectively. A 10 miliseconds reduction in rMSSD and a 10 burst/min increase in sympathetic nerve activity were associated to 2.2 and 1.8 mmHg rises in systolic arterial pressure, respectively.Work in burnt sugarcane harvesting was associated with changes in blood markers and higher blood pressure, which may be related to autonomic imbalance.

  5. Healthy Parent Carers programme: development and feasibility of a novel group-based health-promotion intervention

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    Aleksandra J. Borek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parent carers of disabled children report poor physical health and mental wellbeing. They experience high levels of stress and barriers to engagement in health-related behaviours and with ‘standard’ preventive programmes (e.g. weight loss programmes. Interventions promoting strategies to improve health and wellbeing of parent carers are needed, tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Methods We developed a group-based health promotion intervention for parent carers by following six steps of the established Intervention Mapping approach. Parent carers co-created the intervention programme and were involved in all stages of the development and testing. We conducted a study of the intervention with a group of parent carers to examine the feasibility and acceptability. Standardised questionnaires were used to assess health and wellbeing pre and post-intervention and at 2 month follow up. Participants provided feedback after each session and took part in a focus group after the end of the programme. Results The group-based Healthy Parent Carers programme was developed to improve health and wellbeing through engagement with eight achievable behaviours (CLANGERS – Connect, Learn, be Active, take Notice, Give, Eat well, Relax, Sleep, and by promoting empowerment and resilience. The manualised intervention was delivered by two peer facilitators to a group of seven parent carers. Feedback from participants and facilitators was strongly positive. The study was not powered or designed to test effectiveness but changes in measures of participants’ wellbeing and depression were in a positive direction both at the end of the intervention and 2 months later which suggest that there may be a potential to achieve benefit. Conclusions The Healthy Parent Carers programme appears feasible and acceptable. It was valued by, and was perceived to have benefited participants. The results will underpin future refinement of the

  6. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,7...

  7. Comparison of seropositivity of HCV between oral lichen planus and healthy control group in Hamedan province (west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Mobaien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the skin, nail, hair and mucous membranes. Oral lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the oral mucous membranes with a variety of clinical presentations. Various etiologies include HCV suggested for LP, and the aim of this study was comparison of seropositivity of HCV in LP patients and control group. Methods: All oral LP patients that were referred to dermatology clinic of farshchian hospitalwere entered in the study. Five cc of clot blood was taken from each patient and tested for anti-HCVand when anti-HCV tested positive another 2cc clot bloodwas taken for HCV-Rt-PCR test. The results were analyzed with SPSS 16. Results: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 oral lichen planus patients [males 13(43.3% females 17(56.7%] with mean ages of 46±13.7years and 60 healthy individual [males 26(43.3% females 34(56.7%]. There was no oral lichen planus patients who had anti-HCV positive whiles 2 males(3.3% of healthy group had anti-HCV positive which was confirmed by HCV-Rt-PCR. Conclusions: This study showed that there is no correlation between seropositivity of HCV and oral lichen planus in our patients in the west of Iran.

  8. Health education in self-help groups to promote healthy lifestyles

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    Bruno López de la Vega

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the formation of self-help groups (GAM in order to help to counteract diseases, illnesses or conditions assertively, effective and above all positive, this in order to integrate health education in its multidisciplinary approach to create GAM that provide viable alternatives to modify unhealthy lifestyles or unhealthy. It is important the introduction of health education in the creation and sustenance of the same, as it provides a different perspective on the implementation of plans, programs and projects open to meet learning needs and changes in lifestyle with the help of support networks and psycho-emotional aspects intervention, which aims to achieve stability at individual and collective level.

  9. Immobilization induces changes in presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    immobilized the left foot and ankle joint for 2 weeks in 12 able-bodied subjects. Disynaptic reciprocal inhibition of soleus (SOL) motoneurones and presynaptic control of SOL group Ia afferents was measured before and after the immobilization as well as following 2 weeks of recovery. Following immobilization...... maximal voluntary plantar- and dorsiflexion torque (MVC) was significantly reduced and the maximal SOL H-reflex amplitude increased with no changes in Mmax. Decreased presynaptic inhibition of the Ia afferents likely contributed to the increase of the H-reflex size, since we observed a significant...... decrease in the long-latency depression of the SOL H-reflex evoked by peroneal nerve stimulation (D2 inhibition) and an increase in the size of the monosynaptic Ia facilitation of the SOL H-reflex evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. These two measures provide independent evidence of changes in presynaptic...

  10. Sarcopenia and falls in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan: Defining sarcopenia according to criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Junko

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the association between sarcopenia (using the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People) and fall in the past year among community-dwelling Japanese elderly. Subjects were 1110 community-dwelling Japanese aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance in a baseline study. "Sarcopenia" was characterized by low muscle mass and low muscle strength or low physical performance. "Presarcopenia" was characterized only by low muscle mass. Subjects who did not have any of these deficiencies were classified as "normal." We then administered a questionnaire assessing age, sex, household status, chronic illness, lifestyle-related habits, and fall. This study showed the prevalence of fall was 16.9% and 21.3% in men and women, respectively, while that of sarcopenia was 13.4% and 14.9% in men and women, respectively. In men and women, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher among those who had fallen. A logistic regression analysis using age, body fat, current drinker status, and physical inactivity for men, and age, body fat, smoking, and diabetes for women as covariate variables revealed that sarcopenia was significantly associated with a history of fall. The odds ratio for fall in the sarcopenia group relative to the normal group was 4.42 (95%CI 2.08-9.39) in men and 2.34 (95%CI 1.39-3.94) in women. This study revealed sarcopenia to be associated with falling in elderly Japanese. Sarcopenia prevention interventions may help prevent falls among elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

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    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  12. Gait analysis comparing Parkinson's disease with healthy elderly subjects Comparação da doença de Parkinson com idosos saudáveis através da análise da marcha

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    Roberta de Melo Roiz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies comparing the kinematics data of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD patients with healthy elder (HE subjects, and when there is such research, it is not correlated to clinical measures. OBJECTIVE: To compare the spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters of Parkinsonian gait with the HE subjects group and measure the relation between these parameters and clinical instruments. METHOD: Twelve patients with IPD and fifteen HE subjects were recruited and evaluated for clinical instruments and gait analysis. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between HE group and the IPD group, in stride velocity, in stride length (SL, and in the hip joint kinematic data: on initial contact, on maximum extension during terminal contact and on maximum flexion during mid-swing. Regarding the clinical instruments there were significant correlated with in stride velocity and SL. CONCLUSION: Clinical instruments used did not present proper psychometric parameters to measure the IPD patient's gait, while the 3D system characterized it better.Poucos estudos comparam os dados cinemáticos de pacientes com doença de Parkinson idiopática (DPI com indivíduos idosos saudáveis, e quando realizam não correlacionam com medidas clínicas. OBJETIVO: Comparar os parâmetros espaço-temporais e cinemáticos da marcha na DP com os de idosos saudáveis (IS e avaliar a relação entre estes parâmetros com os instrumentos clínicos. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com DPI e quinze IS foram recrutados e avaliados por instrumentos clínicos e de análise de marcha. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças estatísticas significantes entre o grupo de IS e o de DPI na velocidade da marcha e no comprimento do passo (CP, nos dados cinemáticos das articulações do quadril: no contato inicial, na máxima extensão no apoio e na máxima flexão na oscilação. No que diz respeito aos instrumentos clínicos houve significativa correlação com a velocidade da

  13. No differences in performance on test of working memory and executive functioning between healthy elderly postmenopausal women using or not using hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorova, M; Sherwin, B B

    2006-06-01

    On average, ovarian function ceases at the age of 52 years so that estrogen (E) levels are chronically low following the menopause. Numerous studies have found that hormone therapy (HT) helps to protect verbal memory, a hippocampal function. Estrogen receptors are also found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), suggesting that estrogen may modulate executive and working memory functions, both mediated by the PFC. The possible role of progesterone (P) on executive functions and working memory is unknown. To examine the relationship between neuropsychological performance, age of initiation of HT, and duration of HT use. In this cross-sectional study, the neuropsychological performance of 37 postmenopausal women (mean age, 65 years) who used either estrogen-only or sequential E + P (E-alone group)(n = 22) or E + P continuously (n = 15) was compared to that of 28 healthy postmenopausal women matched for age and education who had never used HT. It was hypothesized that the E-only users would perform better then the E + P and the never-users on neuropsychological tests of verbal memory, executive function and working memory. Results showed only minor between-group differences on working memory scores such that the E + P users were slowest to generate a response on the N-Back test of working memory. No group differences on tests of executive functions were found. There was no relationship between neuropsychological performance, age of initiation of HT, or duration of HT use.

  14. Left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Rao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young males.A prospective trial was conducted in Szechwan and Tibet from June to August, 2012. By Doppler echocardiography, left ventricular function was examined in 139 healthy young Chinese men at sea level; within 24 hours after arrival in Lhasa, Tibet, at 3700 m; and on day 7 following an ascent to Yangbajing at 4400 m after 7 days of acclimatization at 3700 m. The resting oxygen saturation (SaO2, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were also measured at the above mentioned three time points.Within 24 hours of arrival at 3700 m, the HR, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and left ventricular (LV Tei index were significantly increased, but the LV end-systolic dimension (ESD, end-systolic volume (ESV, SaO2, E/A ratio, and ejection time (ET were significantly decreased compared to the baseline levels in all subjects. On day 7 at 4400 m, the SV and CO were significantly decreased; the EF and FS Tei were not decreased compared with the values at 3700 m; the HR was further elevated; and the SaO2, ESV, ESD, and ET were further reduced. Additionally, the E/A ratio was significantly increased on day 7 but was still lower than it was at low altitude.Upon acute high-altitude exposure, left ventricular systolic function was elevated with increased stroke volume, but diastolic function was decreased in healthy young males. With higher altitude exposure and prolonged acclimatization, the left ventricular systolic function was preserved with reduced stroke volume and improved diastolic function.

  15. [Measurement of functional capacity and health related quality of life in an elderly group following a walking program: pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuño Godes, Jesús; Romea Viñets, Jordi; Guerra Balic, Myriam; Sainz Pardo, Gregorio; Queralt Zueras, Josep

    2011-01-01

    This pre-experimental study analyses the Functional Capacity (FC), Body Mass Index (BMI), Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and Health Capital Stock (HCS) of elderly people participating in a Walking program in Granollers (Barcelona). One hundred and seventy-three participants were invited to participate. One hundred and one of them were users of the Municipal Program for Elderly People, and 72 received information by the communication media. One hundred and thirty-one (76.3%) of the participants completed the Program. The intervention consisted of a 6-month program, supervised by a specialist instructor once a week and controlled daily by a pedometer. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was analysed for the FC, and the EuroQoL for the HRQoL. The preferences derived from the EuroQoL scores and the Life Expectancy were used to calculate the FC. The monetary data were obtained using a fixed value. An increase in the average number of steps was observed after the program, especially in men. The results also showed a decrease in the BMI. The participants showed a improvement in overall health perception at the end of the program. The HCS scores confirmed the improvement in the HRQoL in men. The Program was positive for increasing the number of steps and improving physical condition and health. The usefulness of the pedometer as a motivational tool of physical exercise is discussed. Copyright © 2010 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a Phase I Open Label Study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed since the mid 1990s by between 2 and 5 million people daily, the scientific literature lacks rigorous clinical trials that describe the potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this open label...

  17. Left atrial and ventricular function during dobutamine and glycopyrrolate stress in healthy young and elderly as evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2012-01-01

    but not in the young. At rest, LVPFR was lower in the elderly, and during PS this difference was augmented. The aging heart has reduced LVPFR, which is reflected in reduced LA passive and compensatory increased LA active volumetric contribution to LV stroke volume. These age-related differences are evident at rest...

  18. Human methanogen diversity and incidence in healthy and diseased colonic groups using mcrA gene analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlan Pauline D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and diversity of human methanogens are insufficiently characterised in the gastrointestinal tract of both health and disease. A PCR and clone library methodology targeting the mcrA gene was adopted to facilitate the two-fold aim of surveying the relative incidence of methanogens in health and disease groups and also to provide an overview of methanogen diversity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Results DNA faecal extracts (207 in total from a group of healthy controls and five gastrointestinal disease groups were investigated. Colorectal cancer, polypectomised, irritable bowel syndrome and the control group had largely equivalent numbers of individuals positive for methanogens (range 45–50%. Methanogen incidence in the inflammatory bowel disease groups was reduced, 24% for ulcerative colitis and 30% for Crohn's disease. Four unique mcrA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were identified and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the majority of all sequences (94% retrieved from libraries were 100% identical to Methanobrevibacter smithii mcrA gene. In addition, mcrA gene sequences most closely related to Methanobrevibacter oralis and members of the order Methanosarcinales were also recovered. Conclusion The mcrA gene serves as a useful biomarker for methanogen detection in the human gut and the varying trends of methanogen incidence in the human gut could serve as important indicators of intestinal function. Although Methanobrevibacter smithii is the dominant methanogen in both the distal colon of individuals in health and disease, the diversity of methanogens is greater than previously reported. In conclusion, the low incidence of methanogens in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the functionality of the methanogens and impact of methane production in addition to competitive interactions between methanogens and other microbial groups in the human gastrointestinal tract warrants further

  19. The Attitudes, Needs, and Requirements at End of Life in the Republic of Georgia (Comparative Analysis of Groups of Patients With Cancer and Elders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhladze, Nana; Tebidze, Nino; Chabukiani, Tamar; Chabukiani, Nana; Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Jincharadze, Memed; Kordzaia, Dimitri

    2018-01-01

    In developing a model of palliative care, the attitudes, needs, and requirements of its beneficiaries recognizing the limited remaining life expectancy need to be met. We aimed to map and compare these issues at the end of life in the groups of patients with advanced cancer and elderly individuals. The prospective study based on the analysis of semistructured interviews was conducted. Fifty individuals aged older than 85 and 50 incurable patients with advanced cancer were studied. Transcripts of interviews were analyzed qualitatively (the interviews were divided into logically completed themes, and the compliance of each with one of the levels of Abraham Maslow pyramid was determined) and quantitatively (data comparisons of 2 groups were tested in bivariate analysis using Pearson χ 2 or Fisher exact test. Two-sided significance tests were used; P value of Maslow pyramid. Their comparison showed small differences in the narratives of the patients with advanced cancer and elderly individuals aged 85 and older-concerning the past, present, and future terms of lives. In studied themes explicitly prevail the stories that are consistent with satisfaction of the upper levels of the hierarchy of needs and demands of Maslow: social relation (belonging), love, esteem, and transcendence. The attitudes, needs, and requirements at the end of life of the people are basically similar, regardless of what determined the sense of limitation of the remaining life-incurable disease or advanced age.

  20. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K J; Reitelseder, S; Petersen, S G

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...... protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake...

  1. Efeitos de um treino de atenção, memória e funções executivas na cognição de idosos saudáveis Effects of an attention, memory and executive functions training on the cognition of healthy elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos mostram declínio significativo em funções cognitivas, como memória, atenção e funções executivas ao longo do processo de envelhecimento normal. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos de um treino de atenção, memória e funções executivas na cognição de idosos saudáveis. MÉTODOS: 76 idosos saudáveis, divididos em grupo experimental (GE e grupo controle (GC, cada um com 38 indivíduos. O GE recebeu doze sessões de treino de atenção, memória e funções executivas. RESULTADOS: O GE no pós-teste apresentou melhor desempenho em tarefas de atenção, memória de trabalho, linguagem (inferências e escrita espontânea, praxia construcional, resolução de problemas e funções executivas. Conclusão: O treino revelou resultados significativos para uma intervenção de doze sessões, indicando que idosos saudáveis podem melhorar seu desempenho cognitivo.INTRODUCTION: Studies show there is a significant decrease in cognitive functions such as attention, memory and executive functions throughout the normal aging process. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of an attention, memory and executive functions training on the cognition of healthy elderly people. METHODS: 76 healthy elderly subjects were divided into experimental (EG and control groups (CG, both were composed by 38 participants each. The EG received 12 training sessions in attention, memory and executive functions. RESULTS: In the post-test, the EG presented better performance in tasks of attention, working memory, language (inferences and spontaneous writing, constructional praxia, problems solving, and executive functions. CONCLUSION: The training revealed significant results for a 12-session intervention, indicating that healthy elderly individuals may improve their cognitive functions.

  2. An investigation on drug resistance of viridance group streptococci isolated from 3-12 years healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Borji

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, dental and oral infections are regarded as major threats to human health whose treatments are always prime concern of dental surgeons. Staphylococci, streptococci, actinomycetes and mycoplasma are the most common causative agents of such infections.The objective of this study was to investigate drug resistance of viridance group streptococci (VGS isolated from healthy children between 3-12 years old versus common antibiotics utilized in dentistry. The findings of this study can help dentists using the antibiotic of choice in remedial practices as well as assessment of sensitivity or resistance of VGS.Materials and Method: In this cross sectional study saliva samples from of 213 healthy children aged between 3-12 years from their buccal surface of posterior teeth were collected and after culture. species were isolated. Next, drug sensitivity test was carried out by disc diffusion technique to find out sensitivity or resistance of VGS to penicillin, erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin, cephotaxim and cephteriaxon.Result: Our findings revealed that resistance of VGS to antibiotics including: clindamycin, penicillin, cephteriaxon, erythromycin, vancomycin and cephotaxim was 59.6%, 52.6%, 30.5%, 12.2%, 10.8% and 1.5% and sensitivity of VGS to such antibiotics was 19.7%, 29.6%, 23%, 13.4%, 4.5% and 29.6% respectively.Conclusion: The results showed widespread resistance of VGS against chosen antibiotics, this indicates considerable use of antibiotics in this region.Controlled use and prescription of different antibiotics as well as increasing people knowledge about misuse of antibiotics in order to decrease the drug resistance is important

  3. A prospective study of factors associated with risk of turnover among care workers in group homes for elderly individuals with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzumura, Miwa; Fushiki, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Kota; Oura, Asae; Suzumura, Shigeo; Yamashita, Masafumi; Mori, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to assess factors associated with risk of turnover among care workers in group homes (GHs) for elderly individuals with dementia. In January, 2010, 51 out of 238 GHs in Sapporo City responded to our request for participation in a survey. During February and March of 2010, 438 out of 700 care workers (62.6%) in the GHs returned a completed questionnaire to us. They were followed up with until March of 2012, and 395 subjects (90.1%) responded to our survey, which was conducted twice. Over the course of 2 years, 91 subjects left their jobs. Cox's proportional hazards model was used for analysis, adjusting for gender and age. Less provision of social support by supervisors, colleagues, family or friends was significantly associated with increased risk of turnover. Financial aids for off-the-job training was marginally significantly associated with reduced risk of turnover. Longer duration of working for frail elderly care was significantly associated with decreased risk of turnover. Habitual smoking was significantly associated with increased risk of turnover. Social support in the workplace may be important to reduce the risk of turnover in care workers at GHs. Further prospective studies are required in other areas in Japan.

  4. "Go Girls!": psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with a group-based healthy lifestyle program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Jung, Mary E; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing cognitions and behaviors targeted by the Go Girls! group-based mentorship lifestyle program. Three hundred and ten adolescent girls (nested within 40 Go Girls! groups) completed questionnaires that assessed cognitions (attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy, and intentions) and behaviors (physical activity and dietary) at four time points (two pre-program, one at the end of the program, and one at 7-week follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in the outcome variables among Go Girls! participants (M age = 11.68 years, SD = 0.80). No significant changes occurred in the outcome variables during the baseline comparison period (Time 1-2). When compared to the average of the baseline assessments, 7 weeks after completing the program, girls reported significant improvements in physical activity (M Baseline PAtotal = 3.82, SD = 3.49; M T4 PAtotal = 4.38, SD = 3.75) and healthy eating (M Baseline = 10.71, SD = 1.13; M T4 = 11.35, SD = 1.05) behavior and related cognitions (d values ≥0.65). Findings provide preliminary support for programs that foster belongingness and target health behaviors through mentorship models.

  5. Healthy Body Image Intervention Delivered to Young Women via Facebook Groups: Formative Study of Engagement and Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Day, Ashley K; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-02-20

    There is increasing interest in using social media sites such as Facebook to deliver health interventions so as to expose people to content while they are engaging in their usual social media habit. This formative intervention development study is novel in describing a preliminary test of using the secret group feature of Facebook to deliver a behavioral intervention targeting users of indoor tanning beds to reduce their risk of skin cancer. Intervention content was designed to challenge body image-related constructs associated with indoor tanning through the use of dissonance-inducing content. To evaluate engagement with and acceptability of using a secret Facebook group to deliver a healthy body image intervention to young women engaged in indoor tanning. Seventeen young women completed a baseline survey and joined a secret Facebook group with intervention content delivered via daily posts for 4 weeks. Engagement data was extracted and acceptability was measured via a follow-up survey. The study had a high retention rate (94%, [16/17]). On average, posts were viewed by 91% of participants, liked by 35%, and commented on by 26%. The average comment rate was highest (65%) for posts that elicited comments by directly posing questions or discussion topics to the group. Average intervention acceptability ratings were highly positive and participants reported feeling connected to the group and its topic. Average rates of past 1-month indoor tanning reported following the intervention were lower than the baseline rate (P=.08, Cohen d=0.47). This study is novel in demonstrating participant engagement with and acceptability of using Facebook secret groups to deliver a dissonance-inducing intervention approach that utilizes group-based discussions related to body image. The study is also unique within the field of skin cancer prevention by demonstrating the potential value of delivering an indoor tanning intervention within an interactive social media format. The findings

  6. Healthy Body Image Intervention Delivered to Young Women via Facebook Groups: Formative Study of Engagement and Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Day, Ashley K; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in using social media sites such as Facebook to deliver health interventions so as to expose people to content while they are engaging in their usual social media habit. This formative intervention development study is novel in describing a preliminary test of using the secret group feature of Facebook to deliver a behavioral intervention targeting users of indoor tanning beds to reduce their risk of skin cancer. Intervention content was designed to challenge body image-related constructs associated with indoor tanning through the use of dissonance-inducing content. Objective To evaluate engagement with and acceptability of using a secret Facebook group to deliver a healthy body image intervention to young women engaged in indoor tanning. Methods Seventeen young women completed a baseline survey and joined a secret Facebook group with intervention content delivered via daily posts for 4 weeks. Engagement data was extracted and acceptability was measured via a follow-up survey. Results The study had a high retention rate (94%, [16/17]). On average, posts were viewed by 91% of participants, liked by 35%, and commented on by 26%. The average comment rate was highest (65%) for posts that elicited comments by directly posing questions or discussion topics to the group. Average intervention acceptability ratings were highly positive and participants reported feeling connected to the group and its topic. Average rates of past 1-month indoor tanning reported following the intervention were lower than the baseline rate (P=.08, Cohen d=0.47). Conclusions This study is novel in demonstrating participant engagement with and acceptability of using Facebook secret groups to deliver a dissonance-inducing intervention approach that utilizes group-based discussions related to body image. The study is also unique within the field of skin cancer prevention by demonstrating the potential value of delivering an indoor tanning intervention within

  7. Increased walking variability in elderly persons with congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  8. [Trauma in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, José Antonio Gomes; Iglesias, Antonio Carlos R G

    2002-01-01

    The populational growth of the elderly, associated to a healthier and more active life, make this group of people more exposed to accidents. In some countries, trauma in the elderly is responsible for a high mortality rate, disproportionately higher than in the adults. This fact consumes a great portion of health care resources and implies in a high social cost. The distinct physiologic characteristics of the elderly and the frequent presence of associated diseases make that these patients behave differently and in a more complex way than patients of other ages. These particularities make that health care to the elderly victims of trauma have to be different. The present revision is about aspects of epidemiology, prevention, physiology, health care and rehabilitation of the elderly victims of trauma.

  9. [Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test: useful for the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, M; Berg, I; Deelman, B

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of the SON-R 5 1/2-17, a non-verbal intelligence test for deaf children, was investigated in a group of older adults, with a view to the future use of the test in older neurological patients. In a group of 58 healthy elderly persons intelligence was measured with the SON, the Raven Progressive Matrices and a Dutch reading test. The subjects were also asked for their subjective judgements of the tests. The SON-R 5 1/2-17 appears to be a user-friendly test. The high correlations between the subtests, and between the SON and other measures of intelligence suggest that the SON is a valid test for measuring fluid intelligence in elderly persons. The existing norms are not suitable when the SON is used in elderly people, new norms for adults should therefore be developed.

  10. Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  11. Socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics of groups of community and institutionalized elderly Quechua Indians of Peru, and their association with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Laura; Drusini, Andrea G

    2005-06-01

    Socio-demographic, behavioral, functional and anthropometric data for groups of elderly Quechua Indians of Peru were used to investigate the effects of gender and lifestyle patterns on nutritional status. Two community-dwelling samples were selected for study, representative of divergent lifestyles in terms of their combination of socio-economic, demographic and cultural contexts, plus an ad-hoc sample of institutionalized individuals with controlled food intake and reduced physical activity. Results suggest that differences in socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics exist between the sexes and across settings (low- vs. highland) and lifestyles (institutionalized vs. community-dwelling; semi-urban vs. rural). These factors are likely to be related to diverging dietary and physical activity patterns, and have considerable effects on the nutritional status of the respondents.

  12. Whole-brain in-vivo measurements of the axonal g-ratio in a group of 37 healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siawoosh eMohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The g-ratio, quantifying the ratio between the inner and outer diameters of a fiber, is an important microstructural characteristic of fiber pathways and is functionally related to conduction velocity. We introduce a novel method for estimating the MR g-ratio non-invasively across the whole brain using high-fidelity magnetization transfer (MT imaging and single-shell diffusion MRI. These methods enabled us to map the MR g-ratio in vivo across the brain’s prominent fiber pathways in a group of 37 healthy volunteers and to estimate the inter-subject variability. Effective correction of susceptibility-related distortion artifacts was essential before combining the MT and diffusion data, in order to reduce partial volume and edge artifacts. The MR g-ratio is in good qualitative agreement with histological findings despite the different resolution and spatial coverage of MRI and histology. The MR g-ratio holds promise as an important non-invasive biomarker due to its microstructural and functional relevance in neurodegeneration.

  13. Reduction in cortical IMP-SPET tracer uptake with recent cigarette consumption in a young group of healthy males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rourke, S.B.; Dupont, R.M.; Grant, I.; Lehr, P.P.; Lamoureux, G.; Halpern, S.; Yeung, D.W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Functional brain imaging techniques are being used increasingly to infer disturbances in brain function in various neuropsychiatric disorders, but the specificity of such findings is not always clear. We retrospectively examined the effects of one possible confound - cigarette smoking - on cortical uptake of iodine-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) using single-photon emission tomographic imaging in a young (mean age=35 years) healthy group of male controls divided according to their smoking history. Subjects who had never smoked (n=17), or those with a history of smoking but no recent smoking (n=8), had equivalent and significantly higher mean cortical uptake of IMP than subjects with a history of smoking and who were current smokers (n=8). There were no differences in the cortical distribution of IMP. Our results indicate that cigarette smoking has an acute effect on global cerebral blood flow. This potential confound must be considered before abnormalities in cortical tracer uptake are attributed to some neuropsychiatric disorder of interest. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP; Determinacao de Cl, K e Na em soro sanguineo de idosos saudaveis da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: natsouzaraujo@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L{sup -1}) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  15. The relationship between sarcopenia,undernutrition, physical mobility and basic activities of daily living in a group of elderly women of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Alva, María del Consuelo; Irigoyen Camacho, Maria Esther; Delgadillo Velázquez, Jaime; Lazarevich, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome, which affects the functional status and mobility of individuals. To identify the prevalence of sarcopenia and undernutrition, and to assess the association between sarcopenia and mobility, and sarcopenia and basic activities of daily living (ADL) in a group of elderly women. A cross-sectional study was performed in patients attending a geriatric service at a government hospital in Mexico City. Sarcopenia was identified applying Baumgartner's equation by obtaining skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and undernutrition was diagnosed using mini-nutritional assessment instrument (MNA). The SENECA questionnaire and Katz index were used to evaluate mobility and ADL, respectively. lineal regression models were constructed fitting SMI as a dependent variable and SENECA, and ADL scores as independent variables, adjusted for age. 90 women with a mean age of 78.2 (± 6.8) were studied. Undernutrition was identified in 15.5% of the patients. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 41.1%. Patients with sarcopenia presented a high prevalence of undernutrition (p Sarcopenia was associated with difficulty in climbing stairs (OR = 2.63, p = 0.03), adjusted for age. The mobility score was associated with sarcopenia, in the group without sarcopenia the mean score was 16.3, and with sarcopenia it was 18.3, (p = 0.04). Regarding ADL, 64.9% of the patients with intermediate independence and dependence had sarcopenia, while 35.1% with total independence presented sarcopenia (p elder women with sarcopenia had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. Sarcopenia was associated with difficulties in mobility, particularly difficulties in climbing stairs. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological Effects of Light Exercise for Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 裕章; 峰松, 修; 冷川, 昭子; 吉川, 和利; 緒方, 道彦

    1987-01-01

    Psychological effects of light exercise were evaluated in healthy elderly, middle aged women and elderly with borderline hypertension. The exercises were walking and stretching for healthy elderly, elderly with hypertension and playing beginner's tennis for healty middle aged women. The subjects took exercise three hours a day, twice a week during three months period. Psychometric test battery was used Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventry (Y-G test). Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS), Maudsely Per...

  17. Perceived barriers to achieving a healthy weight: a qualitative study using focus groups at public and private schools in Guatemala City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Madrigal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight prevalence among Guatemalan girls is higher in public than in private schools. Little is known about adolescent girls’ perceptions of the right ways to achieve a healthy weight. This study examines public and private school adolescent girls’ perceptions of a “healthy weight,” and barriers and facilitators to achieving it. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in public and private schools in Guatemala City with girls from 13 to 15 years old. The discussion guide included open-ended questions and activities aimed at examining perceptions of “healthy weight” and barriers and motivators to achieving it within the school environment. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analyses followed established methods of content analysis. Results Twenty-eight girls (private school, n = 12; public school, n = 16 of ages ranging from 13.1 to 15.9 years (median, 14, IQR, 13.6–14.9 participated in the study. Girls identified images of thin and fit women as healthy. They cited healthy eating and physical activity as ways to achieve a healthy weight. Within the school environment, barriers to maintaining a healthy weight included a lack of healthy food options and the prioritization of sports for boys over girls. In public schools, facilities were less than optimal; in private schools, girls’ access to facilities was limited. Public school girls stated that their uniforms were inappropriate for exercising. Conclusion Our findings support the need to provide more healthy food options in Guatemalan schools. In addition, physical activity for girls should be promoted and facilities made available for their use.

  18. Effects of experience-based group therapy on cognitive and physical functions and psychological symptoms of elderly people with mild dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan-Hee

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experience-based group therapy consisting of cooking and physical activities for elderly people with mild dementia on their cognitive and physical function, as well as on their psychological symptoms. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 12 older adults with mild dementia (3 males, 9 females; 76.75 ± 3.61 years) who voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] In total, 12 subjects received experience-based group therapy for 2 hours per session once per week, totaling 10 sessions. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination-Korean (MMSE-K), and physical function was evaluated using the Geriatric Physical health condition measurement Tool (GPT). The Geriatric Depression Scale Korean Version (GDS-K) and Geriatric Quality of Life-Dementia (GQOL-D) were used to measure psychological symptoms. [Results] There were significant differences between the MMSE-K, GPT, GDS-K, and GQOL-D scores of before and after group therapy. [Conclusion] In conclusion, it is regarded that cognitive function, physical function, and psychological health improved through experience-based group therapy.

  19. Factors associated with protein consumption in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália GASPARETO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective We evaluated factors associated with protein consumption by the elderly. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in a sample of 295 elderly consumers of health facilities in São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. Protein consumption data (g and g/kg were obtained through 24-hour dietary recalls, which was reapplied in a 30% sub-sample to estimate habitual consumption, with an interval of two weeks. The association between protein consumption and sociodemographic, economic, health, and dietary variables was tested using multiple linear regression. Results There was a positive association between protein consumption (g and g/kg and better Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised, between protein consumption (g and male sex, and a negative association between protein consumption (g/kg and greater calf circumference. Higher average protein consumption (g or g/kg was observed among married elderly, individuals with higher income and schooling, who were economically active, eutrophic, without dyslipidemia and symptoms of dysphagia, who consumed three main meals and an intermediate snack. Conclusion The results showed that protein consumption was associated with diet quality, sex, and calf circumference. The identification of elderly groups prone to protein inadequacy may direct individual and collective interventions to prevent muscle mass reduction and its implications, such as sarcopenia and other adverse outcomes.

  20. SPARED RECOGNITION CAPACITY IN ELDERLY AND CLOSED-HEAD-INJURY SUBJECTS WITH CLINICAL MEMORY DEFICITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    This study describes the performance of three groups of subjects on a pictorial forced-recognition task, the Hundred Pictures Test. The aim was to determine whether subjects with memory deficits (elderly and closed-head-injured subjects) would perform as well as healthy young subjects, both on

  1. Depressive symptoms and health problems among Chinese immigrant elders in the US and Chinese elders in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Chi, Iris; Plassman, Brenda L; Guo, Man

    2010-08-01

    Researchers speculate that depression tends to be more prevalent among immigrant elders due to their lack of resources, acculturation stress, language problems, and social isolation. However, other characteristics of elderly immigrants, such as the healthy immigrant effect, may counteract these potential risk factors. This study examined whether depressive symptoms differed between Chinese immigrant elders and their counterparts in China and whether health conditions were similarly associated with depressive symptoms in these two samples. Depression and health information was collected from 177 Chinese immigrant elders in Boston, the US in 2000 and from 428 education and gender-matched elders in Shanghai, China in 2003. Chinese immigrants had a significantly lower score on the modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and its subscales: somatic symptoms and depressive affect. The association remained for the subscale depressive affect in multivariate analyses. Arthritis and back or neck problems were associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms among Chinese immigrants, while problems in walking were associated with depression among their counterparts in China. Pain was an underlying contributor to the association between depression and these health problems in both the groups. This study suggests that Chinese immigrant elders might be more resilient than their counterparts despite many challenges they face after moving abroad. With the growing number of older Chinese immigrants in the US, a better understanding of depressive symptoms is essential to provide culturally competent services to better serve this population.

  2. National survey of the Portuguese elderly nutritional status: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Teresa; Peixoto-Plácido, Catarina; Goulão, Beatriz; Mendonça, Nuno; Alarcão, Violeta; Santos, Nuno; de Oliveira, Rita Machado; Yngve, Agneta; Bye, Asta; Bergland, Astrid; Lopes, Carla; Nicola, Paulo; Santos, Osvaldo; Clara, João Gorjão

    2016-07-16

    Worldwide we are facing a serious demographic challenge due to the dramatic growth of the population over 60 years. It is expected that the proportion of this population will nearly double from 12 to 22 %, between 2015 and 2050. This demographic shift comes with major health and socio-economic concerns. Nutrition is a fundamental determinant of both health and disease and its role in extending a healthy lifespan is the object of considerable research. Notably, malnutrition is one of the main threats to health and quality of life among the elderly. Therefore, knowledge about nutritional status among the elderly is essential for the promotion and maintenance of healthy ageing and to support the development of health protection policies and equity in elderly health care. This is a nationwide nutrition survey of the Portuguese population over 65 years old, with data collection through face-to-face interviews. A representative and random sample of community dwelling elderly and nursing homes residents will be obtained by multistage sampling stratified per main Portuguese regions, sex and age groups. Minimum sample size was estimated to be 2077 elderly (979 in the community and 1098 in nursing homes). Data will be collected on food habits and eating patterns, nutritional status, food insecurity, lifestyle, self-rated general health status and self-reported diseases, functionality, loneliness, cognitive function, emotional status and demographic and socio-economic characterization. This is the first national survey to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition of the Portuguese population above 65 years old, including those living in nursing homes. It will allow the identification of population subgroups of elderly with increased odds of malnutrition and nutritional risk. In addition, this survey will contribute to the identification of psychosocial and clinical predictors of malnutrition among elderly, which is an important risk factor for other

  3. [Cytokine changes in community-acquired pneumonia in elderly and intervention of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shanghe; Gong, Guolang; Zheng, Haiwen; Hu, Guohua; Xia, Tao

    2010-06-01

    To make a study of the cytokine changes in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the elderly and the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine that can clear away the lung-heat and dissipate blood stasis (Qingfeihuayu soup). The 82 cases with CAP in the elderly were divided at random into two treatment group and control group. Based on heteropathy, the treatment group was given Qingfeihuayu soup two times a day. The control group was given Rocephin 2 g once daily for 7 days. The clinical effect and the changes in TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 were observed before and after the treatment. A healthy group was also set up. Before treatment, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in both groups were higher than the healthy group (P soup has obviously have regulating and clinical effect.

  4. Subtle imitation behaviour in convenience samples of normal, demented, and currently depressed elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Armin; Duc, René

    2007-06-01

    The clinical significance of imitation behaviour (IB) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of subtle naïve and obstinate IB in convenience samples of normal elderly, demented, and depressed subjects. Subtle IB was assessed using a protocol constructed ad hoc in 146 patients, consecutively referred to a memory clinic having received an ICD-10 diagnosis of either dementia or depression, and in 241 healthy subjects. The prevalence of IB in the three groups was determined and the association with possible demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables analysed. Subtle naïve IB was frequent in the elderly with dementia, intermediate in the depressed, and rare in the normal elderly except that the latter frequently stretched out their arms. Obstinate IB never occurred in the normal elderly. IB was predicted by none of the variables used. The groups included were convenience samples with the depressed being a small group precluding further distinction of depressive subtypes. Although naïve IB is a frequent clinical feature in the demented, it also accompanies depressive disorders in the elderly. It can be observed as context-specific IB in the normal elderly. Obstinate IB does not occur in the normal elderly. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Sintomas de estresse e estratégias de coping em idosos saudáveis Síntomas de estrés y estrategias de coping en ancianos saludables Stress symptoms and coping strategies in healthy elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nery de Souza Talarico

    2009-12-01

    enfocado en la emoción están asociados a niveles semejantes de estrés.Elderly subjects may present stress symptoms due to physical, psychological and social changes during aging process. The aim of this study was to identify stress symptoms in elderly subjects and the coping strategies they used, verifying the relationship between these variables. The Stress Symptoms List (SSL and the Jalowiec Coping Scale were administered to 41 healthy elderly subjects. Elderly subjects presented stress symptoms with a mean score of 42.8. Although problem-focused coping was predominantly observed, no significant difference was observed between mean SSL scores among elderly subjects who used problem-focused or emotion-focused coping. Although elderly subjects mainly elected problem-focused coping, stress intensity was independent of the coping style, showing that both problem- and emotion-focused coping are associated with similar stress levels.

  6. Epilepsy in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-An Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people are the largest and continuously fastest growing population among patients with epilepsy. Elderly patients with epilepsy are very different from other age groups in many respects and clinicians shouldn’t treat them in the same way as younger adults. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy in the elderly is much more difficult and atypical manifestations and misdiagnoses are certainly not the exception. Syncope is probably the most important differential diagnosis. High clinical suspicion and proper investigation are the best tools for prompt diagnosis. Etiologies of late-onset epilepsy are mainly symptomatic and cerebrovascular diseases are the most common causes in this age group, followed by degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is appropriate to consider starting antiepileptic drug (AED treatment at the first-ever seizure in elderly patients who have remote symptomatic causes such as stroke and dementia. According to the high recurrence rate of seizure and the good response to AEDs in elderly patients, the proper choice from various AEDs for seizure control is very important. Decision-making for AED choice depends on many different factors, including pharmacological properties, efficacy, tolerability from side effects, drug interactions, and medical comorbidities. The newer AEDs with lesser adverse effects and fewer drug interactions appear to be reasonable treatment options for elderly patients. However, more evidence from clinical trials in this specific age group is warranted.

  7. Designing and Determining Psychometric Properties of the Elder Neglect Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majideh Heravi-Karimooi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a checklist for assessing domestic elder neglect. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the meaning of domestic elder neglect explored using the qualitative method of phenomenology. In the second phase, a checklist was created, based on the results obtained in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third and fourth phases, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and Inter- rater reliability were measured. 110 elderly people participated in the this study. Results: The initial 26 item checklist designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 11 items and 2 factors including the health and care needs neglect, and neglect in providing healthy environment in the process of determining the face and content validity. Acceptable convergent validity was identified in the elder neglect checklist and care neglect scale of the domestic elder abuse questionnaire (r=0.862. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this checklist could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the index of re-hospitalization. The internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was 0.824. Inter- rater reliability of the checklist was 0.850. Conclusion: The elder neglect checklist with 11 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect neglect among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care providers and researchers.

  8. Effects of Soluble Corn Fiber Alone or in Synbiotic Combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and the Pilus-Deficient Derivative GG-PB12 on Fecal Microbiota, Metabolism, and Markers of Immune Function: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Elderly (Saimes Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Rasinkangas, Pia; Korpela, Katri; de Vos, Willem M; Gibson, Glenn R

    2017-01-01

    The aging process leads to a potential decline in immune function and adversely affects the gut microbiota. To date, many in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the application of synbiotics (prebiotics combined with probiotics) as a promising dietary approach to affect gut microbiota composition and improved functioning of the immune system. However, studies using synbiotic preparations often have the limitation that it remains unclear whether any effect observed is a result of the prebiotic or probiotic or a synergistic effect of the combined supplement. We investigated the effects of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and pilus-deficient L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 combined with Promitor™ Soluble Corn Fiber (SCF, a candidate prebiotic) on fecal microbiota, metabolism, immunity, and blood lipids in healthy elderly persons. A prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized, single-centered, crossover study in 40 healthy elderly subjects (aged 60-80 years) was carried out. Volunteers were randomized to consume either probiotic and prebiotic as synbiotic, prebiotic or placebo (maltodextrin) during 3 weeks. Three-week washout periods separated all the treatments. We assessed effects upon blood lipids, glucose, cytokines, natural killer (NK) cell activity, phenotype, and intestinal microbiota composition. SCF decreased IL-6, which was not observed with the synbiotics. Consumption of L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF increased NK cell activity compared to baseline in females and the older group. In the fecal microbiota analyses, the strongest community shifts were due to L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF and SCF treatments. L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF and L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 combined with SCF significantly increased the genus Parabacteroides . L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF and SCF increased concentrations of Ruminococcaceae Incertae Sedis . Oscillospira and Desulfovibrio slightly decreased in the L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF group, whereas

  9. ARTISTIC ACTIVITY AMONG THE ELDERLY AS A FORM OF LIFELONG LEARNING, BASED UPON THE OPINIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WROCŁAW’S UNIVERSITY OF THE THIRD AGE HANDICRAFT GROUP MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Działa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topic of creativity and artistic activity among elderly people in the context of claims related to the idea of lifelong learning. It discusses the phenomenon of creativity and how senior citizens can benefit from it. The artistic activity of people in the age of late adulthood is also discussed in that context. In the last part of the text, theoretical claims are collated with what the artistic groups’ elderly members themselves said during a focus group interview

  10. Serum profiling of healthy aging identifies phospho- and sphingolipid species as markers of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.

  11. Low intensity vibration of ankle muscles improves balance in elderly persons at high risk of falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane

    2018-01-01

    In our study we examined postural performance of young healthy persons (HY), elderly healthy persons (HE), and elderly persons at high risk of falling (FR). Anterio-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) ankle and hip angular deviations, as well as linear displacements of the center of mass (COM) were assessed in persons standing with eyes either open or closed, while none, and 40 and 30 Hz vibrations were applied bilaterally to the ankle muscle gastrocnemius. During quiet standing with eyes open, balance parameters in FR group differed from those in healthy groups. ML ankle and hip angular deviations, as well as COM linear displacements were noticeably larger in FR group. During quiet standing with eyes closed, all balance parameters in participants of all groups had a clear trend to increase. During standing with eyes open, 40 Hz vibration increased all but one balance parameter within HY group, ankle angular deviations in HE group, but none in FR group. In response to 30 Hz vibration, only ankle angular deviations and COM linear displacements increased in HY group. There were no changes in both elderly groups. During standing with eyes closed, 40 and 30 Hz vibrations did not produce consistent changes in balance parameters in HY and HE groups. In FR persons, 40 Hz vibration did not change balance parameters. However, in FR groups, 30 Hz vibration decreased ankle and hip angular deviations, and COM linear displacements. The major result of the study is a finding that low intensity vibration of ankle muscles makes balance better in elderly persons at high risk of falling. This result is clinically relevant because it suggests that applying mild vibration to ankle muscles while standing and walking might benefit elderly persons, improving their postural performance and reducing a risk of unexpected falls. PMID:29579098

  12. Comparison of the clinical features and outcomes in two age-groups of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao XH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xing-Hui Shao,1 Yan-Min Yang,1 Jun Zhu,1 Han Zhang,1 Yao Liu,1 Xin Gao,1 Li-Tian Yu,1 Li-Sheng Liu,1 Li Zhao,2 Peng-Fei Yu,3 Hua Zhang,4 Qing He,5 Xiao-Dan Gu6 1Emergency and Intensive Care Center, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2Department of Emergency, Fu Xing Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Cardiology, Pingdu People’s Hospital, Pingdu, 4Department of Emergency, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, 5Department of Emergency, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 6Department of Emergency, Sixth People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF disproportionately affects older adults. However, direct comparison of clinical features, medical therapy, and outcomes in AF patients aged 65–74 and ≥75 years is rare. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis in these two age-groups of geriatric patients with AF.Materials and methods: A total of 1,336 individuals aged ≥65 years from a Chinese AF registry were assessed in the present study: 570 were in the 65- to 74-year group, and 766 were in the ≥75-year group. Multivariable Cox hazards regression was performed to analyze the major adverse cardiac events (MACEs between groups.Results: In our population, the older group were more likely to have coronary artery disease, hypertension, previous stroke, cognitive disorder, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the 65- to 74-year group were more likely to have valvular heart disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or sleep apnea. The older patients had 1.2-fold higher mean CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes, stroke scores, but less ­probability of being prescribed drugs. Compared with those aged 65–74 years, the older group had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio 2

  13. Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data on Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients Compared With Younger Patients Who Participated in US National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Zhang, Ying; Vokes, Everett E; Schiller, Joan H; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Curran, Walter J; Schild, Steven E; Movsas, Benjamin; Clamon, Gerald; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Blumenschein, George R; Socinski, Mark A; Ready, Neal E; Akerley, Wallace L; Cohen, Harvey J; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Elderly patients may experience increased rates of adverse events (AEs) or less benefit from concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods Individual patient data were collected from 16 phase II or III trials conducted by US National Cancer Institute-supported cooperative groups of concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone or with consolidation or induction chemotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer from 1990 to 2012. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and AEs were compared between patients age ≥ 70 (elderly) and those younger than 70 years (younger). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for survival time and CIs were estimated by single-predictor and multivariable frailty Cox models. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for AEs and CIs were obtained from single-predictor and multivariable generalized linear mixed-effect models. Results A total of 2,768 patients were classified as younger and 832 as elderly. In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly patients had worse OS (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31 and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.29, respectively). In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly and younger patients had similar progression-free survival (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10 and HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.09, respectively). Elderly patients had a higher rate of grade ≥ 3 AEs in unadjusted and multivariable models (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.70 and OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.74, respectively). Grade 5 AEs were significantly higher in elderly compared with younger patients (9% v 4%; P < .01). Fewer elderly compared with younger patients completed treatment (47% v 57%; P < .01), and more discontinued treatment because of AEs (20% v 13%; P < .01), died during treatment (7.8% v 2.9%; P < .01), and refused further treatment (5.8% v 3.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Elderly patients in concurrent

  14. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  16. Subjective well-being amongst community-dwelling elders: what determines satisfaction with life? Findings from the Dublin Healthy Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Mhaoláin, Aine M; Gallagher, Damien; O Connell, Henry; Chin, A V; Bruce, Irene; Hamilton, Fiona; Teehee, Erin; Coen, Robert; Coakley, Davis; Cunningham, Conal; Walsh, J B; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-02-01

    Life satisfaction is a subjective expression of well-being and successful aging. Subjective well-being is a major determinant of health outcomes in older people. The aim of this study was to determine which factors predicted well-being in older people living in the community as measured by their satisfaction with life. The relationship between life satisfaction, as measured by the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-A) and physical, cognitive and demographic variables was examined in 466 older people living in the community using a stepwise regression model. Depression, loneliness, neuroticism, extraversion, recent participation in physical activity, age and self-reported exhaustion, were the independent predictors of life satisfaction in our elderly cohort. Subjective well-being, as measured by the Life Satisfaction Scale, is predicted by depression, loneliness, personality traits, recent participation in physical activity and self-reported exhaustion. The mental and emotional status of older individuals, as well as their engagement in physical activity, are as important as physical functionality when it comes to life satisfaction as a measure of well-being and successful aging. These areas represent key targets for intervention.

  17. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K J; Reitelseder, S; Petersen, S G

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...... protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake...... and caseinate feeding immediately after heavy resistance exercise in elderly individuals, and MPS is similar with caseinate ingestion before and after exercise....

  18. Motivators and barriers to a healthy postpartum lifestyle in women at increased cardiovascular and metabolic risk: a focus-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Duvekot, Johannes J; Oenema, Anke; Steegers, Eric A P; Raat, Hein

    2012-01-01

    To describe the motivators and barriers to the adoption of a healthy postpartum lifestyle after a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and/or gestational diabetes. Thirty-six women with complicated pregnancies participated in six focus-group interviews that aimed to explore the perceptions of modifiable determinants of postpartum lifestyle. Although women expressed that they intended to live a healthy postpartum lifestyle, it was generally not achieved. The motivators included improving their own current health condition as well as modeling a healthy lifestyle for their children. Important barriers were reported to be lack of knowledge, poor recovery, and lack of professional support after delivery. The reported motivators and barriers can be used to develop a postpartum lifestyle intervention.

  19. The use of adjuvant radiotherapy in elderly patients with early-stage breast cancer: changes in practice patterns after publication of Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9343.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Manisha; Palta, Priya; Bhavsar, Nrupen A; Horton, Janet K; Blitzblau, Rachel C

    2015-01-15

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9343 randomized phase 3 trial established lumpectomy and adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen alone, rather than both radiotherapy and tamoxifen, as a reasonable treatment course for women aged >70 years with clinical stage I (AJCC 7th edition), estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. An analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was undertaken to assess practice patterns before and after the publication of this landmark study. The SEER database from 2000 to 2009 was used to identify 40,583 women aged ≥70 years who were treated with breast-conserving surgery for clinical stage I, estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer. The percentage of patients receiving radiotherapy and the type of radiotherapy delivered was assessed over time. Administration of radiotherapy was further assessed across age groups; SEER cohort; and tumor size, grade, and laterality. Approximately 68.6% of patients treated between 2000 and 2004 compared with 61.7% of patients who were treated between 2005 and 2009 received some form of adjuvant radiotherapy (P < .001). Coinciding with a decline in the use of external beam radiotherapy, there was an increase in the use of implant radiotherapy from 1.4% between 2000 and 2004 to 6.2% between 2005 to 2009 (P < .001). There were significant reductions in the frequency of radiotherapy delivery over time across age groups, tumor size, and tumor grade and regardless of laterality (P < .001 for all). Randomized phase 3 data support the omission of adjuvant radiotherapy in elderly women with early-stage breast cancer. Analysis of practice patterns before and after the publication of these data indicates a significant decline in radiotherapy use; however, nearly two-thirds of women continue to receive adjuvant radiotherapy. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  20. Sarcopenia according to the european working group on sarcopenia in older people (EWGSOP) versus Dynapenia as a risk factor for disability in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Alexandre, T; de Oliveira Duarte, Y A; Ferreira Santos, J L; Wong, R; Lebrão, M L

    2014-05-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as low muscle mass (LMM), and dynapenia have been associated with adverse outcomes in elderly. Contrast the association of sarcopenia versus dynapenia with incidence of disability. A four-year prospective study (2006-2010). São Paulo, Brazil. 478 individuals aged 60 and older from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE) study who were non-disabled at baseline. Sarcopenia, measured according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), includes: LMM assessed by skeletal muscle mass index ≤8.90kg/m2 (men) and ≤6.37kg/m2 (women); low muscle strength (LMS) assessed by handgrip strength sarcopenia required LMM plus LMS or LPP. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength sarcopenia or dynapenia status. After controlling for all covariates, sarcopenia was associated with mobility or IADL disability (relative risk ratio = 2.23, 95%Confidence Interval: 1.03-4.85). Dynapenia was not associated with disability. Sarcopenia according to the EWGSOP definition can be used in clinical practice as a screening tool for early functional decline (mobility or IADL disability).

  1. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  2. Effect of bright light and melatonin on cognitive and noncognitive function in elderly residents of group care facilities: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma-Van der Lek, R.F.; Swaab, D.F.; Twisk, J.W.; Hol, E.M.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cognitive decline, mood, behavioral and sleep disturbances, and limitations of activities of daily living commonly burden elderly patients with dementia and their caregivers. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with these symptoms. Objective: To determine whether the

  3. Effect of bright light and melatonin on cognitive and noncognitive function in elderly residents of group care facilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma-Van der Lek, R.F.; Swaab, D.F.; Twisk, J.; Hol, E.M.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Cognitive decline, mood, behavioral and sleep disturbances, and limitations of activities of daily living commonly burden elderly patients with dementia and their caregivers. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with these symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the

  4. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  5. Calidad de vida y hábitos saludables en la alimentación de personas mayores (Quality of life and healthy food habits of elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vicente Amador Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo realiza un estudio en el que se recogen los procesos más relevantes para conseguir una buena calidad de vida en las personas mayores. Principalmente se centra la relación entre el desarrollo de actividad física y la buena alimentación lograr  un envejecimiento lo más satisfactorio y saludable. Se concluye plantándose la necesidad de una educación centrada en el aprendizaje de hábitos saludables en la alimentación de las personas mayores a con el fin de mantener un estado nutricional adecuado para aumentar la longevidad y para mejorar la calidad de vida.Abstract: The present article realizes a study in which the most relevant processes are gathered to obtain a good quality of life in the major persons. Principally it centres on the relation between the development of physical activity and the good supply an aging achieves the most satisfactory and healthy thing. He concludes reaching the need of an education centred on the learning of healthy habits the supply of the major persons to in order to keep a nutritional condition adapted to increase the longevity and to improve the quality of life.

  6. Earlier and greater hand pre-shaping in the elderly: a study based on kinematic analysis of reaching movements to grasp objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Yoshiki; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Elderly people are less able to manipulate objects skilfully than young adults. Although previous studies have examined age-related deterioration of hand movements with a focus on the phase after grasping objects, the changes in the reaching phase have not been studied thus far. We aimed to examine whether changes in hand shape patterns during the reaching phase of grasping movements differ between young adults and the elderly. Ten healthy elderly adults and 10 healthy young adults were examined using the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions and kinetic analysis of hand pre-shaping reach-to-grasp tasks. The results were then compared between the two groups. For kinetic analysis, we measured the time of peak tangential velocity of the wrist and the inter-fingertip distance (the distance between the tips of the thumb and index finger) at different time points. The results showed that the elderly group's performance on the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions was significantly lower than that of the young adult group, irrespective of whether the dominant or non-dominant hand was used, indicating deterioration of hand movement in the elderly. The peak tangential velocity of the wrist in either hand appeared significantly earlier in the elderly group than in the young adult group. The elderly group also showed larger inter-fingertip distances with arch-like fingertip trajectories compared to the young adult group for all object sizes. To perform accurate prehension, elderly people have an earlier peak tangential velocity point than young adults. This allows for a longer adjustment time for reaching and grasping movements and for reducing errors in object prehension by opening the hand and fingers wider. Elderly individuals gradually modify their strategy based on previous successes and failures during daily living to compensate for their decline in dexterity and operational capabilities. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. The elderly as a market--challenges to evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Roger P

    2014-02-01

    To review the role of the oral care industry in the oral health of elders and opportunities for partnership with other key stakeholders. The elder population is growing at a faster rate than any other segment of the population. This is coupled with a greater probability of maintaining the dentition into later life and an increase in complex restorative work. If an elder's situation changes, they are highly vulnerable to a rapid onset of oral disease that can be devastating and extremely difficult to address. This manuscript reviews the role of the oral care industry in understanding this population as a market and the different approaches that might be used in promoting health. Two key market segments were identified, the vulnerable elders with high levels of chronic oral disease, systemic complications, medications and often inability to maintain good standards of oral hygiene and a wealthier, health and beauty conscious group with a keen interest in maintaining a healthy, aesthetically pleasing and functional dentition throughout their lives. It is likely that within current healthcare models, the oral care of elders will be unsustainable, with a smaller working population funding ever-increasing health care needs. 'Home care' combined with effective professional preventive and effective therapeutic options are essential. Partnerships between the oral care industry and oral care providers, to deliver education and engagement of care workers, medical practitioners, pharmacists and social services, are essential over the next few decades. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. On-the-Road Driving Performance the Morning after Bedtime Use of Suvorexant 20 and 40 mg: A Study in Non-Elderly Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Annemiek; Sun, Hong; Vuurman, Eric F P M; Jongen, Stefan; Van Leeuwen, Cees J; Van Oers, Anita C M; Palcza, John; Li, Xiadong; Laethem, Tine; Heirman, Ingeborg; Bautmans, An; Troyer, Matthew D; Wrishko, Rebecca; McCrea, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate next-morning driving performance in adults younger than 65 years, after single and repeated doses of suvorexant 20 and 40 mg. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-period crossover study. Maastricht University, The Netherlands. 28 healthy volunteers (15 females), aged 23 to 64 years. Suvorexant (20 and 40 mg) for 8 consecutive nights; zopiclone 7.5 mg nightly on day 1 and 8; placebo. Performance on day 2 and 9 (9 h after dosing) using a one-hour standardized highway driving test in normal traffic, measuring standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). Drug-placebo changes in SDLP > 2.4 cm were considered to reflect meaningful driving impairment. Mean drug-placebo changes in SDLP following suvorexant 20 and 40 mg were 1.01 and 1.66 cm on day 2, and 0.48 and 1.31 cm on Day 9, respectively. The 90% CIs of these changes were all below 2.4 cm. Symmetry analysis showed that more subjects had SDLP changes > 2.4 cm than driving tests--all following suvorexant--stop prematurely due to self-reported somnolence. As assessed by mean changes in standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), there was no clinically meaningful residual effect of suvorexant in doses of 20 and 40 mg on next-morning driving (9 h after bedtime dosing) in healthy subjects < 65 years old. There may be some individuals who experience next-day effects, as suggested by individual changes in SDLP and prematurely stopped tests. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01311882. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. DNA-based culture-independent analysis detects the presence of group a streptococcus in throat samples from healthy adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Aikawa, Chihiro; Nozawa, Takashi; Murase, Kazunori; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2016-10-11

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) causes a range of mild to severe infections in humans. It can also colonize healthy persons asymptomatically. Therefore, it is important to study GAS carriage in healthy populations, as carriage of it might lead to subsequent disease manifestation, clonal spread in the community, and/or diversification of the organism. Throat swab culture is the gold standard method for GAS detection. Advanced culture-independent methods provide rapid and efficient detection of microorganisms directly from clinical samples. We investigated the presence of GAS in throat swab samples from healthy adults in Japan using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Two throat swab samples were collected from 148 healthy volunteers. One was cultured on selective medium, while total DNA extracted from the other was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified with two GAS-specific primer pairs: one was a newly designed 16S rRNA-specific primer pair, the other a previously described V-Na + -ATPase primer pair. Although only 5 (3.4 %) of the 148 samples were GAS-positive by the culture-dependent method, 146 (98.6 %) were positive for the presence of GAS DNA by the culture-independent method. To obtain serotype information by emm typing, we performed nested PCR using newly designed emm primers. We detected the four different emm types in 25 (16.9 %) samples, and these differed from the common emm types associated with GAS associated diseases in Japan. The different emm types detected in the healthy volunteers indicate that the presence of unique emm types might be associated with GAS carriage. Our results suggest that culture-independent methods should be considered for profiling GAS in the healthy hosts, with a view to obtaining better understanding of these organisms. The GAS-specific primers (16S rRNA and V-Na + -ATPase) used in this study can be used to estimate the maximum potential GAS carriage in people.

  10. Results of Screening of Apparently Healthy Senior and Geriatric Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, A.; Paepe, D.; Marynissen, S.; Smets, P.; Van de Maele, I.; Picavet, P.; Duchateau, L.; Daminet, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in health care of elderly dogs; however, scientific information about physical and laboratory examination findings in this age group is limited.OBJECTIVES: To describe systolic blood pressure (SBP), and results of physical examination and laboratory tests in senior and geriatric dogs that were judged by the owner to be healthy.ANIMALS: Hundred client-owned dogs.METHODS: Dogs were prospectively recruited. Owners completed a questionnaire. SBP measurement...

  11. Outbreak of Late-onset Group B Streptococcal Infections in Healthy Newborn Infants after Discharge from a Maternity Hospital: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Soo Young; Seo, Won Hee; Choi, Byung Min; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kee Hyoung; Eun, Baik Lin; Kim, Hai Joong

    2006-01-01

    During a four-week period, four healthy term newborn infants born at a regional maternity hospital in Korea developed late-onset neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections, after being discharged from the same nursery. More than 10 days after their discharge, all of the infants developed fever, lethargy, and poor feeding behavior, and were subsequently admitted to the Korea University Medical Center, Ansan Hospital. GBS was isolated from the blood cultures of three babies; furthermore, G...

  12. The relationship between AGT gene polymorphism and carotid ultrasound changes in elderly patients with hypertension and type-2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Jianhong; Li Jianzhong; Wu Xiuying; Qian Huiying; Liu Jian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the relation between angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphism and carotid ultrasound change in the elderly hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Two hundred and three cases of hospitalization of the elderly were divided into three groups, 105 cases of elderly patients with hypertension; 38 cases of elderly hypertensive patients with T2DM; 60 cases of healthy elderly subjects (the control group) and lipids were measured after admission and carotid ultrasonography were performed. The M235T polymorphism detection was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results: (1) TT genotype of AGT gene and elderly hypertensive with T2DM group carotid ultrasound abnormal rate increased and multi vessel disease was the main occurrence. (2) Multiple vessel disease of the carotid artery ultrasound and their blood lipid level were significantly increased. Conclusion: Hypertension and T2DM in elderly patients, carotid artery ultrasound abnormalities are significantly increased, while the elevated lipid levels and the TT genotype of the AGT gene artery atherosclerosis is further enhanced. (authors)

  13. Study on the correlation between KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Liu, Ning; Chen, Xiao Zhuang; Han, Kun Yuan; Zhu, Cai Zhong

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in elderly patients. From January 2014 to January 2015, 54 elderly patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in this study as the observation group. During the same period, 46 healthy elderly individuals were enrolled in this study as the control group. KCNJ11 gene polymorphism (rs28502) was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The expression levels of mRNA in different genotypes were detected using FQ-PCR. ELISA was used to evaluate the KCNJ11 protein expression in different genotypes. KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome was studied by measuring the blood pressure levels in patients with different genotypes. Three genotypes of KCNJ11 gene in rs28502 were CC, CT and TT. The CC, CT and TT genotype frequencies in healthy population were 8.5, 9.2 and 82.2%, respectively, while the genotype frequencies in patients with metabolic syndrome were 42.4, 49.8 and 7.8%, respectively. There were significant differences between groups (P≤0.05). However, the genotype frequencies of C/T in healthy individuals and metabolic syndrome patients were 35.3 and 38.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups (P>0.05). FQ-PCR results showed that the KCNJ11 mRNA expression levels in the control and observation groups had no significant differences (P>0.05). However, the results obtained from ELISA analysis revealed that KCNJ11 protein expression level in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (Pmetabolic syndrome in the elderly. Elderly patients with the CC and TT genotypes are more likely to develop metabolic syndrome.

  14. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way K. W. Lau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III. Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning.

  15. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Way K. W.; Leung, Mei Kei; Law, Andrew C. K.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III). Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning) were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV) of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV) of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning. PMID:28596732

  16. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  17. Design and implementation of an empowerment model to prevent elder abuse: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Mostafaei, Davoud; Khanjani, Narges; Khalifehkandi, Zahra Rahimi; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Aghababaeian, Hamidreza; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Older adults are more vulnerable to health risks than younger people and may get exposed to various dangers, including elder abuse. This study aimed to design and implement an empowerment educational intervention to prevent elder abuse. This parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2014-2016 for 18 months on 464 older adults aged above 60 years who visited health houses of 22 municipalities in Tehran. Data were collected using standard questionnaires, including the Elder Abuse-Knowledge Questionnaire, Health-Promoting Behavior Questionnaire, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, Barriers to Healthy Lifestyle, Perceived Social Support, Perceived Self-Efficacy, Loneliness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the SCARED (stress, coping, argument, resources, events, and dependence) tool. The intervention was done in twenty 45- to 60-minute training sessions over 6 months. Data analysis were performed using χ 2 tests, multiple linear and logistic regression, and structural equation modeling (SEM). The frequency of knowledge of elder abuse, self-efficacy, social support and health promoting lifestyle before the intervention was similar in the two groups. However, the frequency of high knowledge of elder abuse (94.8% in the intervention group and 46.6% in the control group), high self-efficacy (82.8% and 7.8%, respectively), high social support (97.0% and 10.3%, respectively) and high health promoting lifestyle (97.0% and 10.3%, respectively) was significantly higher ( P elder abuse risk (28.0% and 49.6%, respectively) was significantly less in the intervention group after the intervention. SEM standardized beta (Sβ) showed that the intervention had the highest impact on increase social support (Sβ=0.80, β=48.64, SE=1.70, P elder abuse risk was indirect and significant (Sβ=-0.406, β=-0.340, SE=0.03, P elder abuse.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of virulence genes, phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel-calves in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessalah, Salma; Fairbrother, John Morris; Salhi, Imed; Vanier, Ghyslaine; Khorchani, Touhami; Seddik, Mouldi Mabrouk; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of virulence genes, serogroups, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel calves in Tunisia. From 120 fecal samples (62 healthy and 58 diarrheic camel calves aged less than 3 months), 70 E. coli isolates (53 from diarrheic herds and 17 from healthy herds) were examined by PCR for detection of the virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli in animals. A significantly greater frequency of the f17 gene was observed in individual camels and in herds with diarrhea, this gene being found in 44.7% and 41.5% of isolates from camels and herds with diarrhea versus 22.5% and 11.7% in camels (p=0.05) and herds without diarrhea (p=0.02). The aida, cnf1/2, f18, stx2 and paa genes were found only in isolates from camels with diarrhea, although at a low prevalence, 1.8%, 3.7%, 1.8%, 3.7% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of afa8, cdtB, eae, east1, iroN, iss, kpsMTII, paa, sfa, tsh and papC genes did not differ significantly between herds with or without diarrhea. Genes coding for faeG, fanC, f41, estI, estII, CS31a and eltA were not detected in any isolates. All isolates were sensitive to amikacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ceftiofur and the highest frequency of resistance was observed to tetracycline, and ampicillin (52.8% and 37.1% respectively). The phylogenetic groups were identified by conventional triplex PCR. Results showed that E. coli strains segregated mainly in phylogenetic group B1, 52.8% in diarrheic herds and 52.9% in healthy herds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of incontinence on the characteristic properties of the skin in bedridden elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Makino, Mayumi; Takagi, Miyuki; Maki, Kumiko; Murakami, Emiko; Tasaka, Yoshiko; Sato, Noriko; Akiba, Shunichi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Ando, Kikue

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of skin breakdown induced by incontinence have been proposed from a variety of experimental studies. However, studies on the influence of skin properties caused by incontinence of bedridden subjects are very limited. This work was conducted to reveal how incontinence influences skin properties by comparing bedridden incontinent elderly subjects with age-matched healthy continent elderly and middle-aged subjects. Bedridden incontinent elderly subjects (n = 35, 83.5 ± 9.7 years, mean age ± SD), healthy continent elderly (n = 41, 75.9 ± 5.6 years), and middle-aged (n = 20, 41.3 ± 2.8 years) were recruited for this study. Skin surface pH, capacitance/hydration, transepidermal water loss, and bacteria on forearm and buttock skin were measured. Hydration and transepidermal water loss values between healthy elderly subjects and incontinent elderly subjects were significantly different on buttock skin. Significant differences between those two groups were also observed regarding pH and total bacteria levels on buttock skin. The forearm skin showed no significant difference in these parameters. No significant influence was observed between with and without urination at the measurement time except for the pH of buttock skin. No significant correlation was observed except between pH and bacteria levels on buttock skin of incontinent elderly subjects. In this study, we clarified the characteristic features of skin induced by incontinence. Our results indicate that these parameters are adequate not only to evaluate the characteristic skin features of bedridden incontinent subjects but also to develop new diapers to avoid the diaper dermatitis caused by incontinence. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Feasibility of an expressive-disclosure group intervention for post-treatment colorectal cancer patients: results of the Healthy Expressions study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Cindy L; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Yuan, Ying; Greisinger, Anthony; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel; Wolff, Robert A; Barker, Trina; Baum, George; Pennebaker, James W

    2011-11-01

    Adjusting to cancer requires effective cognitive and emotional processing. Written and verbal disclosure facilitate processing and have been studied independently in cancer survivors. Combined written and verbal expression may be more effective than either alone, particularly for patients with difficult to discuss or embarrassing side effects. Thus, the authors developed and tested the efficacy of a 12-session combined written and verbal expression group program for psychologically distressed colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Forty post-treatment patients with CRC (stages I-III) identified as psychologically distressed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were randomized to an intervention group (Healthy Expressions; n = 25) or standard care (control group; n = 15). Assessments were completed at baseline, Month 2, and Month 4 (postintervention). Primary outcomes were psychological functioning and quality of life (QOL). Most participants were women (63%), white (63%), and non-Hispanic (75%). The Healthy Expressions group demonstrated significantly greater changes in distress compared with the control group at Month 2 on the BSI Global Severity Index (GSI) and the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) scores (P psychological functioning in CRC patients who reported experiencing distress. Findings demonstrate the program's feasibility and provide strong support for conducting a larger randomized trial. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  1. Low intensity magnetic field influences short-term memory: A study in a group of healthy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Enrique A; Gomez-Perretta, Claudio; Montes, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes if an external magnetic stimulus (2 kHz and approximately 0.1 μT applied near frontal cortex) influences working memory, perception, binary decision, motor execution, and sustained attention in humans. A magnetic stimulus and a sham stimulus were applied to both sides of the head (frontal cortex close to temporal-parietal area) in young and healthy male test subjects (n = 65) while performing Sternberg's memory scanning task. There was a significant change in reaction time. Times recorded for perception, sustained attention, and motor execution were lower in exposed subjects (P short-term working memory, as well as perception, binary decision, motor execution, and sustained attention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cholecystectomy for the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liv Bjerre Juul; Harboe, Kirstine Moll; Bardram, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The number of Danish inhabitants older than 65 years is increasing, and cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed for this age group. This study aimed to analyze the role of age as an independent predictor of outcome for elderly cholecystectomy patients....

  3. Effect of bright light and melatonin on cognitive and noncognitive function in elderly residents of group care facilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemersma-van der Lek, Rixt F; Swaab, Dick F; Twisk, Jos; Hol, Elly M; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2008-06-11

    Cognitive decline, mood, behavioral and sleep disturbances, and limitations of activities of daily living commonly burden elderly patients with dementia and their caregivers. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with these symptoms. To determine whether the progression of cognitive and noncognitive symptoms may be ameliorated by individual or combined long-term application of the 2 major synchronizers of the circadian timing system: bright light and melatonin. A long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial randomized trial performed from 1999 to 2004 with 189 residents of 12 group care facilities in the Netherlands; mean (SD) age, 85.8 (5.5) years; 90% were female and 87% had dementia. Random assignment by facility to long-term daily treatment with whole-day bright (+/- 1000 lux) or dim (+/- 300 lux) light and by participant to evening melatonin (2.5 mg) or placebo for a mean (SD) of 15 (12) months (maximum period of 3.5 years). Standardized scales for cognitive and noncognitive symptoms, limitations of activities of daily living, and adverse effects assessed every 6 months. Light attenuated cognitive deterioration by a mean of 0.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-1.71) on the Mini-Mental State Examination or a relative 5%. Light also ameliorated depressive symptoms by 1.5 points (95% CI, 0.24-2.70) on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia or a relative 19%, and attenuated the increase in functional limitations over time by 1.8 points per year (95% CI, 0.61-2.92) on the nurse-informant activities of daily living scale or a relative 53% difference. Melatonin shortened sleep onset latency by 8.2 minutes (95% CI, 1.08-15.38) or 19% and increased sleep duration by 27 minutes (95% CI, 9-46) or 6%. However, melatonin adversely affected scores on the Philadelphia Geriatric Centre Affect Rating Scale, both for positive affect (-0.5 points; 95% CI, -0.10 to -1.00) and negative affect (0.8 points; 95% CI, 0.20-1.44). Melatonin

  4. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination elicits IgG anti-AB blood group antibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Type I diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Wolfram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis: Blood group antibodies are natural antibodies that develop early in life in response to cross-reactive environmental antigens in the absence of antigen encounter. Even later in life structural similarities in saccharide composition between environmental antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides and blood group A/B antigens could lead to changes in serum levels, IgM/IgG isotype and affinity maturation of blood group anti-A/B antibodies. We adressed the question whether immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP vaccine (PPV Pneumovax®23 could have such an effect in patients with with type I diabetes mellitus (DM I, an autoimmune disease where an aberrant immune response to microbial antigens likely plays a role.Methods: Anti-PnP IgM and IgG responses were determined by ELISA and the Diamed-ID Micro Typing System was used to screen anti-A/B antibody titer before and after Pneumovax®23 immunization in 28 healthy individuals and 16 patients with DM I. In addition, surface plasmon resonance (SPR technology using the Biacore® device and a synthetic blood group A/B trisaccharide as the antigen was applied to investigate IgM and IgG anti-A/B antibodies and to measure antibody binding dynamics. Results: All healthy individuals and DM I patients responded with anti-PnP IgM and IgG antibody production four to six weeks after Pneumovax®23 (Pn23 immunization, while no increase in blood group anti-A/B antibody titer was observed when measured by the Diamed-ID Micro Typing System. Interestingly, isotype-specific testing by SPR-technology revealed an increase in blood group anti-A/B IgG, but not IgM, following Pn23 immunization in both patients and controls. No change in binding characteristics of blood group anti-A/B antibodies could be detected following Pn23 vaccination, supporting the assumption of an increase in IgG antibody titer with no or very little affinity maturation.Conclusion: The study provides evidence for epitope sharing

  5. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  6. A double blind parallel group placebo controlled comparison of sedative and mnesic effects of etifoxine and lorazepam in healthy subjects [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, J; Soubrouillard, C; Guet, F; Le Guern, M E; Alquier, C; Bruguerolle, B; Blin, O

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the psychomotor and mnesic effects of single oral doses of etifoxine (50 and 100 mg) and lorazepam (2 mg) in healthy subjects. Forty-eight healthy subjects were included in this randomized double blind, placebo controlled parallel group study [corrected]. The effects of drugs were assessed by using a battery of subjective and objective tests that explored mood and vigilance (Visual Analog Scale), attention (Barrage test), psychomotor performance (Choice Reaction Time) and memory (digit span, immediate and delayed free recall of a word list). Whereas vigilance, psychomotor performance and free recall were significantly impaired by lorazepam, neither dosage of etifoxine (50 and 100 mg) produced such effects. These results suggest that 50 and 100 mg single dose of etifoxine do not induce amnesia and sedation as compared to lorazepam.

  7. Adaptations of prefrontal brain activity, executive functions, and gait in healthy elderly following exergame and balance training: A randomized-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schättin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During aging, the prefrontal cortex (PFC undergoes age-dependent neuronal changes influencing cognitive and motor functions. Motor-learning interventions are hypothesized to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits in older adults. Especially, video game-based physical exercise might have the potential to train motor in combination with cognitive abilities in older adults. The aim of this study was to compare conventional balance training with video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, on the relative power (RP of electroencephalographic (EEG frequencies over the PFC, executive function (EF, and gait performance. Twenty-seven participants (mean age 79.2 ± 7.3 years were randomly assigned to one of two groups. All participants completed 24 trainings including three times a 30min session/week. The EEG measurements showed that theta RP significantly decreased in favor of the exergame group (L(14 = 6.23, p = 0.007. Comparing pre- vs. post-test, EFs improved both within the exergame (working memory: z = -2.28, p = 0.021; divided attention auditory: z = -2.51, p = 0.009; divided attention visual: z = -2.06, p = 0.040; go/no-go: z = -2.55, p = 0.008; set-shifting: z = -2.90, p = 0.002 and within the balance group (set-shifting: z = -2.04, p = 0.042. Moreover, spatio-temporal gait parameters primarily improved within the exergame group under dual-task conditions (speed normal walking: z = -2.90, p = 0.002; speed fast walking: z = -2.97, p = 0.001; cadence normal walking: z = -2.97, p = 0.001; stride length fast walking: z = -2.69, p = 0.005 and within the balance group under single-task conditions (speed normal walking: z = -2.54, p = 0.009; speed fast walking: z = -1.98, p = 0.049; cadence normal walking: z = -2.79, p = 0.003. These results indicate that exergame training as well as balance training positively influence prefrontal cortex activity and/or function in varying proportion.

  8. A focus group study of healthy eating knowledge, practices, and barriers among adult and adolescent immigrants and refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, Kristina; Wieland, Mark L; Meiers, Sonja J; Mohamed, Ahmed A; Formea, Christine M; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Asiedu, Gladys B; Boyum, Ginny; Weis, Jennifer A; Nigon, Julie A; Patten, Christi A; Sia, Irene G

    2014-05-16

    Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., 'junk food is bad'). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating ('Meanings;' 'Motivations;' 'Knowledge Sources'), Eating Practices ('Family Practices;' 'Americanized Eating Practices' 'Eating What's Easy'), Barriers ('Taste and Cravings;' 'Easy Access to Junk Food;' 'Role of Family;' Cultural Foods and Traditions;' 'Time;' 'Finances'), and Preferences for Intervention ('Family Counseling;' Community Education;' and 'Healthier Traditional Meals.'). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Our study demonstrates how personal, structural, and societal/cultural factors influence meanings of food and dietary

  9. Improving data availability for brain image biobanking in healthy subjects: Practice-based suggestions from an international multidisciplinary working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Pernet, Cyril; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Matthews, Paul M; van der Lugt, Aad; Mackay, Clare; Lanyon, Linda; Mazoyer, Bernard; Boardman, James P; Thompson, Paul M; Fox, Nick; Marcus, Daniel S; Sheikh, Aziz; Cox, Simon R; Anblagan, Devasuda; Job, Dominic E; Dickie, David Alexander; Rodriguez, David; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-06-01

    Brain imaging is now ubiquitous in clinical practice and research. The case for bringing together large amounts of image data from well-characterised healthy subjects and those with a range of common brain diseases across the life course is now compelling. This report follows a meeting of international experts from multiple disciplines, all interested in brain image biobanking. The meeting included neuroimaging experts (clinical and non-clinical), computer scientists, epidemiologists, clinicians, ethicists, and lawyers involved in creating brain image banks. The meeting followed a structured format to discuss current and emerging brain image banks; applications such as atlases; conceptual and statistical problems (e.g. defining 'normality'); legal, ethical and technological issues (e.g. consents, potential for data linkage, data security, harmonisation, data storage and enabling of research data sharing). We summarise the lessons learned from the experiences of a wide range of individual image banks, and provide practical recommendations to enhance creation, use and reuse of neuroimaging data. Our aim is to maximise the benefit of the image data, provided voluntarily by research participants and funded by many organisations, for human health. Our ultimate vision is of a federated network of brain image biobanks accessible for large studies of brain structure and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a food group-based diet score and its association with bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de E.A.L.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Voortman, T.; Schoufour, J.D.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Rivadeneira, F.

    2015-01-01

    No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the

  11. Robot services for elderly with cognitive impairment: testing usability of graphical user interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, C; Pino, M; Legouverneur, G; Vidal, J-S; Bidaud, P; Rigaud, A-S

    2013-01-01

    Socially assistive robotics for elderly care is a growing field. However, although robotics has the potential to support elderly in daily tasks by offering specific services, the development of usable interfaces is still a challenge. Since several factors such as age or disease-related changes in perceptual or cognitive abilities and familiarity with computer technologies influence technology use they must be considered when designing interfaces for these users. This paper presents findings from usability testing of two different services provided by a social assistive robot intended for elderly with cognitive impairment: a grocery shopping list and an agenda application. The main goal of this study is to identify the usability problems of the robot interface for target end-users as well as to isolate the human factors that affect the use of the technology by elderly. Socio-demographic characteristics and computer experience were examined as factors that could have an influence on task performance. A group of 11 elderly persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment and a group of 11 cognitively healthy elderly individuals took part in this study. Performance measures (task completion time and number of errors) were collected. Cognitive profile, age and computer experience were found to impact task performance. Participants with cognitive impairment achieved the tasks committing more errors than cognitively healthy elderly. Instead younger participants and those with previous computer experience were faster at completing the tasks confirming previous findings in the literature. The overall results suggested that interfaces and contents of the services assessed were usable by older adults with cognitive impairment. However, some usability problems were identified and should be addressed to better meet the needs and capacities of target end-users.

  12. Working memory in healthy aging and in Parkinson's disease: evidence of interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Elisa; Pischedda, Doris; Cherubini, Paolo; Mapelli, Daniela; Tamburin, Stefano; Burigo, Michele

    2017-05-01

    Focusing on relevant information while suppressing the irrelevant one are critical abilities for different cognitive processes. However, their functioning has been scarcely investigated in the working memory (WM) domain, in both healthy and pathological conditions. The present research aimed to study these abilities in aging and Parkinson's disease (PD), testing three groups of healthy participants (young, older and elderly) and one of PD patients, employing a new experimental paradigm. Results showed that the transient storing of irrelevant information in WM causes substantial interference effects, which were remarkable in elderly individuals on both response latency and accuracy. Interestingly, PD patients responded faster and were equally accurate compared to a matched control group. Taken together, findings confirm the existence of similar mechanisms for orienting attention inwards to WM contents or outwards to perceptual stimuli, and suggest the suitability of our task to assess WM functioning in both healthy aging and PD.

  13. Reduced Risk-Taking After Prior Losses in Pathological Gamblers Under Treatment and Healthy Control Group but not in Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Nicolao; Grecucci, Alessandro; Nicolè, Manuel; Savadori, Lucia

    2018-06-01

    A group of pathological gamblers and a group of problem gamblers (i.e., gamblers at risk of becoming pathological) were compared to healthy controls on their risk-taking propensity after prior losses. Each participant played both the Balloon Analogue Risk Taking task (BART) and a modified version of the same task, where individuals face five repeated predetermined early losses at the onset of the game. No significant difference in risk-taking was found between groups on the standard BART task, while significant differences emerged when comparing behaviors in the two tasks: both pathological gamblers and controls reduced their risk-taking tendency after prior losses in the modified BART compared to the standard BART, whereas problem gamblers showed no reduction in risk-taking after prior losses. We interpret these results as a sign of a reduced sensitivity to negative feedback in problem gamblers which might contribute to explain their loss-chasing tendency.

  14. Influence of matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms in healthy North Indians compared to variations in other ethnic groups worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Kapoor, Rakesh; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases have a range of biological functions, including the liberation of cytokines and membrane-bound receptors, with roles in promotion of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Several polymorphisms in MMPs have been implicated in the development of cancer as well as other diseases. Since their frequency distributions in the general North Indian population is not known the present study was conducted with the focus on MMP-1(-519) Aandgt; G, MMP-1(-1607) 1Gandgt; 2G, and MMP-7(-181) Aandgt; G gene polymorphisms. PCR-based analysis was conducted for 200 normal healthy individuals of similar ethnicity. Allelic frequencies in wild type of MMP-1(-519) Aandgt; G were 71.2% A; MMP-1(-1607) 1Gandgt; 2G 48.2% 1G; MMP-7(-181) Aandgt; G 60.7% A. The variant allele frequencies were 29% A in MMP-1(-519) Aandgt; G; 52% 2G in MMP-1(-1607) 1Gandgt; 2G; and 39.3% G in MMP-7(-181) Aandgt; G respectively. We further compared frequency distribution for these genes with various published studies in different ethnicity globally. Our results suggest that frequency in these MMP genes exhibit distinctive patterns in India that could perhaps be attributed to ethnic variation. This study is important as it can form a baseline for screening individuals who are at high risk when exposed to environmental carcinogens. More emphasis is needed on evaluating polymorphisms, alone or in combination, as modifiers of risk from relevant environmental/lifestyle exposures.

  15. Improvement of defecation in healthy individuals with infrequent bowel movements through the ingestion of dried Mozuku powder: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study

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    Masaki Matayoshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Okinawa mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranu is a type of edible seaweed of the family Chordariaceae that typically contains the polysaccharide fucoidan as a functional ingredient. In Okinawa, raw mozuku is eaten as vinegared mozuku together with vinegar or as tempura (deep-fried in batter. Polysaccharides such as fucoidan are generally known to regulate intestinal function, which is why we have used Okinawa mozuku to investigate this intestinal regulatory effect. Methods: The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study. Dried Okinawa mozuku powder at a dose of 2.4 g/day (1.0 g/day of fucoidan and a placebo not containing any dried Okinawa mozuku powder were each made into capsules and given to healthy men and women with infrequent weekly bowel movements (2–4 movements a week to ingest for eight weeks. We then investigated changes in the defecation situation, blood tests, and adverse events. Results: In the group that ingested the capsules containing dried Okinawa mozuku powder, the number of days with a bowel movement significantly increased compared with the placebo group after four weeks of ingestion (p < 0.05. Furthermore, after eight weeks of ingestion, the same increasing trend was seen compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0964. The volume of stool also increased significantly in the dried Okinawa mozuku powder group after eight weeks compared with the placebo group. In terms of blood tests and adverse events, no adverse events occurred that were the result of the test food. Conclusions: Ingestion of Okinawa mozuku was found to have a regulatory effect on intestinal function by promoting defecation in healthy individuals with a tendency for constipation. This demonstrated that Okinawa mozuku is a functional food capable of making defecation smoother and increasing the volume of stool.

  16. Self-esteem and psychiatric features of Turkish adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a comparative study with epilepsy and healthy control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Gokçe N; Tasdemir, Haydar A; Akbas, Seher; Yüce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and epilepsy are known to have psychosocial problems. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychosocial difficulties, history of stressful life events/abuse, psychiatric diagnosis, and self-esteem of adolescents with PNES to the ones with epilepsy and healthy controls at a tertiary care center in Turkey. Thirty-four adolescents with PNES diagnosed by video-EEG were compared with 23 adolescents that have epilepsy and 35 healthy volunteers. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses of participants were examined by semi-structured interviews using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). Self-esteem of adolescents was evaluated by Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). No differences in sociodemographic features were observed between the groups. The PNES group showed significantly higher rates of parental conflicts, difficulties in relationship with siblings/peers, school under-achievement, and history of stressful events/abuse. The rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders were 64.7% in PNES and 47.8% in epilepsy group. The most common disorders in both groups were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorder. The rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly increased in the PNES group. Additionally, adolescents with PNES displayed significantly lower levels of self-esteem than the other groups. It could be concluded that both disorders involved a high risk for developing psychiatric disorders; additionally, adolescents with PNES have higher rates of stressors and lower levels of self-esteem. Findings from this investigation point to the importance of psychiatric interventions in pediatric PNES and also epilepsy.

  17. Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brima, Eid I.; Haris, Parvez I.; Jenkins, Richard O.; Polya, Dave A.; Gault, Andrew G.; Harrington, Chris F.

    2006-01-01

    Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 μg/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 μg/kg) are significantly (P 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 μg/kg), Asians (117.4 μg/kg) and Whites (141.2 μg/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group

  18. Daily consumption of fermented soymilk helps to improve facial wrinkles in healthy postmenopausal women in a randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyoshi Kano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soymilk fermented by lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria is attracting attention due to the excellent bioavailability of its isoflavones. We investigated the effects of fermented soymilk containing high amounts of isoflavone aglycones on facial wrinkles and urinary isoflavones in postmenopausal women in a randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial. Healthy Japanese women were randomly divided into active (n = 44, mean age 56.3 ± 0.5 or control (n = 44, mean age 56.1 ± 0.5 groups, who consumed or did not consume a bottle of soymilk fermented by Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and Lactobacillus mali for 8 weeks. Maximum depth of wrinkles around the crow’s feet area and other wrinkle parameters were evaluated as primary and secondary endpoints respectively at weeks 0, 4, and 8 during the consumption period. Urinary isoflavone levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The active group demonstrated significant improvements in the maximum depth (p=0.015 and average depth (p=0.04 of wrinkles, and significantly elevated urinary isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and glycitein; each p < 0.001 compared with the control during the consumption period. No serious adverse effects were recorded. Conclusion: These findings suggest that fermented soymilk taken daily may improve facial wrinkles and elevate urinary isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women.

  19. A FOCAL GROUP STUDY OF PATIENT’S EXPERIENCES, PERCEPTIONS AND OPINIONS ABOUT NON-HEALTHY BEHAVIORS RESULTING IN LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "S. S. Tavafian

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic low back pain hold various perceptions, experiences and beliefs about their pain which are based on prior learning and social influence. This study was employed to earn perceptions and beliefs of patients regarding low back pain to apply in health education planning. Eight focus group discussions including 6-10 people taking part in each of them was performed. Subjects included volunteers who recruited from Rheumatology Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Science and met the criteria of being women, 18 years of age or older, having chronic low back pain diagnosed by physician and not having experience of surgical operation in last two years. Participants were interviewed regarding two themes: experiences of subjects about non-healthy behaviors resulted in low back pain and the causes of non-healthy behaviors. The results showed that the most common non healthy behavior was hard manual work with improper posture. About 50% of participants stated they had performed hard manual work because they did not have any knowledge about the effects and consequences of it. The rest of participants mentioned other factors such as lack of belief, positive attitude, skills and social support. This study proposes that in addition to knowledge, factors such as attitude, perceptions and beliefs of patients should be considered in health education planning.

  20. Role of inflammatory markers in Elderly Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Salwa S; Bahaaeldin, Ahmed M; Khater, Mohamed S; Bekhet, Meram M; Hebah, Hayam A; Hasanin, Ghada A

    2018-04-22

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. The etiology of cognitive impairment in people with T2DM is uncertain but, chronic hyperglycemia, cerebral micro vascular disease, severe hypoglycemia, and increased prevalence of macro vascular disease are implicated. to determine the serum levels of soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in elderly type 2 diabetics with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our study was conducted on 90 elderly subjects (aged 60 years old or more). They were divided into Group І, 30 patients with T2DM and mild cognitive impairment, group ІІ, 30 patients with T2DM without cognitive impairment and group III, 30 healthy subjects as a control group. They were subjected to history taking, full clinical examination, anthropometric measurement, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE---III 2012), Fasting plasma glucose, 2 hours plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, protein/creatinine ratio, serum sVCAM-1 and hs-CRP. Serum levels of sVCAM-1 in diabetic elderly patients with MCI were significantly higher (946.7 ± 162.01 ng/ml) than diabetic elderly patients without cognitive impairment (479.06 ± 65.27 ng/ml) and control (263.7 ± 72.05 ng/ml) with (P=0.002). Serum levels of Hs-CRP in diabetic elderly patients with MCI were significantly higher than as diabetic elderly patients without cognitive impairment and control with (P=0.005). Elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment, have higher levels of soluble adhesion molecules and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation than other groups. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Dietary habits and physical activity patterns among Slovenian elderly: cross-sectional survey with cluster analysis

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    Joca Zurc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and a healthy diet are significant predictors of healthy ageing—they help the elderly maintain their physical and mental health, and prevent chronic diseases. Methods: The data for the empirical quantitative survey were collected on the sample of 218 elderly community-dwelling participants (aged 65 years or more, using a structured questionnaire for self-reporting. Data analyses were proceed with the bivariate statistics, and multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most respondents reported good dietary habits (83.1% and a satisfactory physical activity level (60.5%. On average, the elderly eat 3-4 meals per day (59.8% and engage in physical activity at least three times a week (58.6%, with interventions lasting 15 minutes or more (84.4 % and non-organized activity prevailing (96.2%. Ward’s method yielded three clusters with homogenous dietary and physical activity patterns: ‘Health Conscious’ (30.8%, ‘At Risk’ (42.7% and ‘Special Requirements’ (26.5%. Significant differences were identified between clusters and educational level (p = 0.001. Discussion and conclusions: In the future, special attention should be placed on the elderly group with a lower educational level and special dietary and physical activity requirements. Additional studies on representative samples are required for a comprehensive investigation into the lifestyle behaviours of elderly individuals.

  2. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

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    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  3. Vaccines for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Dietary quality, lifestile factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional status


    The contribution

  5. Hormonal determinants of erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in diabetic men. The aim of this study was to investigate hormonal determinants, the prevalence and severity of ED and LUTS in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes (PD). We investigated 176 men with PD and 184 healthy peers. PD was defined according American Diabetes Association. ED according IIEF scale and LUTS according IPSS scale were assessed. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of ED in patients with PD was higher than in control group (30 versus 24%) as well as the prevalence and severity of ED and LUTS in elderly (60-80 years) and middle-aged (40-59 years) men with PD was higher than in healthy peers. In middle-aged pre-diabetic men, the more severe LUTS symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS, while in elderly men with low cFT and DHEAS. The higher prevalence of ED in middle-aged men with PD was associated with cFT and DHEAS, while in elderly pre-diabetic men with TT and IGF-1. The prevalence and severity of LUTS and ED symptoms were higher in pre-diabetic men than in healthy peers. Hormonal determinants of these symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients with PD.

  6. Epilepsy and Pregnancy: For healthy pregnancies and happy outcomes. Suggestions for service improvements from the Multispecialty UK Epilepsy Mortality Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J P; Smith, P E; Craig, J; Bagary, M; Cavanagh, D; Duncan, S; Kelso, A R C; Marson, A G; McCorry, D; Nashef, L; Nelson-Piercy, C; Northridge, R; Sieradzan, K; Thangaratinam, S; Walker, M; Winterbottom, J; Reuber, M

    2017-08-01

    Between 2009 and 2012 there were 26 epilepsy-related deaths in the UK of women who were pregnant or in the first post-partum year. The number of pregnancy-related deaths in women with epilepsy (WWE) has been increasing. Expert assessment suggests that most epilepsy-related deaths in pregnancy were preventable and attributable to poor seizure control. While prevention of seizures during pregnancy is important, a balance must be struck between seizure control and the teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A range of professional guidance on the management of epilepsy in pregnancy has previously been issued, but little attention has been paid to how optimal care can be delivered to WWE by a range of healthcare professionals. We summarise the findings of a multidisciplinary meeting with representation from a wide group of professional bodies. This focussed on the implementation of optimal pregnancy epilepsy care aiming to reduce mortality of epilepsy in mothers and reduce morbidity in babies exposed to AEDs in utero. We identify in particular -What stage to intervene - Golden Moments of opportunities for improving outcomes -Which Key Groups have a role in making change -When - 2020 vision of what these improvements aim to achieve. -How to monitor the success in this field We believe that the service improvement ideas developed for the UK may provide a template for similar initiatives in other countries. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10). The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy). Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  8. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vandeweghe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children’s eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14, family child care providers (n = 9, and daycare assistants (n = 10. The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Results Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy. Conclusions Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  9. Cortical and Subcortical Brain Morphometry Differences Between Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: Results From the ENIGMA ASD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Arango, Celso; Auzias, Guillaume; Behrmann, Marlene; Busatto, Geraldo F; Calderoni, Sara; Daly, Eileen; Deruelle, Christine; Di Martino, Adriana; Dinstein, Ilan; Duran, Fabio Luis Souza; Durston, Sarah; Ecker, Christine; Fair, Damien; Fedor, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Jackie; Freitag, Christine M; Gallagher, Louise; Gori, Ilaria; Haar, Shlomi; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; Jahanshad, Neda; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Janssen, Joost; Lerch, Jason; Luna, Beatriz; Martinho, Mauricio Moller; McGrath, Jane; Muratori, Filippo; Murphy, Clodagh M; Murphy, Declan G M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Oranje, Bob; Parellada, Mara; Retico, Alessandra; Rosa, Pedro; Rubia, Katya; Shook, Devon; Taylor, Margot; Thompson, Paul M; Tosetti, Michela; Wallace, Gregory L; Zhou, Fengfeng; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2018-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group. The sample comprised 1,571 patients with ASD and 1,651 healthy control subjects (age range, 2-64 years) from 49 participating sites. MRI scans were preprocessed at individual sites with a harmonized protocol based on a validated automated-segmentation software program. Mega-analyses were used to test for case-control differences in subcortical volumes, cortical thickness, and surface area. Development of brain morphometry over the lifespan was modeled using a fractional polynomial approach. The case-control mega-analysis demonstrated that ASD was associated with smaller subcortical volumes of the pallidum, putamen, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (effect sizes [Cohen's d], 0.13 to -0.13), as well as increased cortical thickness in the frontal cortex and decreased thickness in the temporal cortex (effect sizes, -0.21 to 0.20). Analyses of age effects indicate that the development of cortical thickness is altered in ASD, with the largest differences occurring around adolescence. No age-by-ASD interactions were observed in the subcortical partitions. The ENIGMA ASD working group provides the largest study of brain morphometry differences in ASD to date, using a well-established, validated, publicly available analysis pipeline. ASD patients showed altered morphometry in the cognitive and affective parts of the striatum, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Complex developmental trajectories were observed for the different

  10. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parkinson's disease as community health problem: study in Norwegian nursing homes. The Norwegian Study Group of Parkinson's Disease in the Elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, J P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the extent of under-diagnosis and overdiagnosis of Parkinson's disease and to determine quality of treatment in a defined population. DESIGN--Clinical evaluation of an elderly population. SETTING--40 Norwegian nursing homes. SUBJECTS--3322 residents of nursing homes, of whom 500 were selected by nursing staff for evaluation on the basis of a structured information programme on Parkinson's disease and 269 were examined in detail by neurologists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Pat...

  12. A 12-week resistance training program elicits positive changes in hemodynamic responses in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a resistance training program in hemodynamic responses and adaptations in 60 yr. old elderly. Volunteers were 60 healthy-elderly who underwent a training program 3 times/wk. for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group, an exercise group who trained at 30% intensity of 5 maximal repetitions (5RM (30% of 5RM or an exercise group at an intensity of 70% (70% of 5RM. Hemodynamic variables measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP, calculated before and immediately after the training session, and rate pressure product (RPP, estimated once a month and before and after finishing the program. Results indicated that resistance exercise training at 30% and 70% of 5RM, with a total exercise work of 872.7 and 890.9 kg did not elicited cardiovascular risks for the elderly. A 12-wk resistance exercise training reduced the cardiovascular strain as shown by the RPP (~16% and the MAP (~9%, with no adverse effects throughout the program. Unfortunately, all the hemodynamic benefits were reverted 6 days following completion of the program. In conclusion, a healthy elderly population must perform resistance training exercises to significantly reduce the cardiovascular stress. We suggest to conduct further research that looks into different exercise intensities in longer program duration and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of the detraining by using physiological, biochemical and biomechanical variables.

  13. Exploring the Role of Cognitive Factors in a New Instrument for Elders' Financial Capacity Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsolaki, Magda

    2018-01-01

    The influence of cognitive factors on financial capacity across the dementia spectrum of cognitive aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been little investigated, while it has not been investigated at all in other types of dementia as well as in extended samples of elders in Greece. The aim of this study is to investigate financial capacity, to develop a tool, test its psychometric properties, validate, and then test the tool in groups of healthy controls compared to elders with dementia, while examining other facets of their cognitive performance. 719 elders from Greece including healthy participants and patients with different types of dementia were examined with Legal Capacity for Property Law Transactions Assessment Scale (LCPLTAS) and a battery of neuropsychological tests concerning various cognitive functions. Significantly different profiles in the scores and subscores of LCPLTAS for all the groups of dementia patients were found, with a general incapacity finding for all the dementia groups including the MCI patients. Logistic regression showed that Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale, and Trail Making Part B predicted competence on LCPLTAS for the dementia patients. Persons with MCI and dementia had lower financial knowledge scores than those without cognitive impairment, with MMSE scores below 27 suggestive as an indication of financial incapacity. The LCPLTAS provides information for a strong positive correlation with MMSE, while the use both of MMSE and LCPLTAS as adequate measures of financial (in)capacity is discussed for the Greek legal procedures regarding elder guardianship cases.

  14. Cervical cancer screening in young and elderly women of the Xingu Indigenous Park: evaluation of the recommended screening age group in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Pinheiro, Juliana da Silva; Pereira, Erica Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Douglas; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of atypia in the cytology/histology examinations of young women under the age of 25 years and of elderly women aged over 64 years, in the Xingu Indigenous Park and to evaluate, in a subjective manner, if the age range for screening established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is appropriate for this population. The Xingu/UNIFESP Project, in partnership with the Center for Gynecological Disease Prevention, develops programs to prevent cervical cancer. The exploratory, retrospective and descriptive study of cytological and histopathological examinations of young (12-24 years) and elderly (aged 64 and over) women of the Xingu Indigenous Park, between 2005 and 2011. There was low occurrence of cytological atypia in the elderly female population, but there were occasional high-grade lesions in the indigenous youth. Interrupting screening at the limit age of 64 years, as established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is justified. However, screening of young women should begin at an earlier age.

  15. A Social Media Peer Group Intervention for Mothers to Prevent Obesity and Promote Healthy Growth from Infancy: Development and Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruver, Rachel S; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T; Lieberman, Alexandra; Gerdes, Marsha; Virudachalam, Senbagam; Suh, Andrew W; Kalra, Gurpreet K; Magge, Sheela N; Shults, Justine; Schreiner, Mark S; Power, Thomas J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Fiks, Alexander G

    2016-08-02

    Evidence increasingly indicates that childhood obesity prevention efforts should begin as early as infancy. However, few interventions meet the needs of families whose infants are at increased obesity risk due to factors including income and maternal body mass index (BMI). Social media peer groups may offer a promising new way to provide these families with the knowledge, strategies, and support they need to adopt obesity prevention behaviors. The aim of this study is to develop and pilot test a Facebook-based peer group intervention for mothers, designed to prevent pediatric obesity and promote health beginning in infancy. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 29 mothers of infants and focus groups with 30 pediatric clinicians, to inform the development of a theory-based intervention. We then conducted a single-group pilot trial with 8 mothers to assess its feasibility and acceptability. All participants were recruited offline at pediatric primary care practices. Participants in the pilot trial joined a private Facebook group, moderated by a psychologist, with a weekly video-based curriculum, and also had the option to meet at a face-to-face event. Within the Facebook group, mothers were encouraged to chat, ask questions, and share photos and videos of themselves and babies practicing healthy behaviors. Consistent with the literature on obesity prevention, the curriculum addressed infant feeding, sleep, activity, and maternal well-being. Feasibility was assessed using the frequency and content of group participation by mothers, and acceptability was measured using online surveys and phone interviews. Based on preferences of mothers interviewed (mean BMI 35 kg/m(2), all Medicaid-insured, mean age 27, all Black), we designed the intervention to include frequent posts with new information, videos showing parents of infants demonstrating healthy behaviors, and an optional face-to-face meeting. We developed a privacy and safety plan that met the needs

  16. Presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a visuo-motor skill in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Sensory information continuously converges on the spinal cord during a variety of motor behaviours. Here, we examined presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a novel motor skill. We tested whether repetition of two motor tasks with different degrees of difficulty......, a novel visuo-motor task involving the ankle muscles, and a control task involving simple voluntary ankle movements, would induce changes in the size of the soleus H-reflex. The slope of the H-reflex recruitment curve and the H-max/M-max ratio were depressed after repetition of the visuo-motor skill task...... of the monosynaptic Ia facilitation of the soleus H-reflex evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. The D1 inhibition was increased and the femoral nerve facilitation was decreased following the visuo-motor skill task, suggesting an increase in presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. No changes were observed...

  17. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  18. Evaluation of diet quality of the elderly and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Dalila; Duarte, Maria Sônia Lopes; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies suggest healthy dietary patterns are associated with risk reduction and better control of various chronic diseases. However, few Brazilian studies have focused on evaluating the quality of the elderly diet and its relationship with diseases. This study aimed to estimate the association between diet quality and socioeconomic factors, health and nutrition of the elderly. This is a cross-sectional population-based study whose target population were non-institutionalized elderly residents in the city of Viçosa, Brazil. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, health conditions, lifestyle and food consumption variables were obtained from a semi-structured questionnaire. The quality of the diet was assessed by the revised Healthy Eating Index classified into tertiles, considering the first tertile as "Poor diet quality," the second as 'Intermediate diet quality' and the third as "Better diet quality." To identify factors independently associated with diet quality model, the works used multinomial logistic regression. In the results of the multivariate analysis, the factors independently associated with "better diet quality" included female gender, higher education, history of one to five medical visits in the past year, history of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and the use of polypharmacy. Our results show that most seniors need to improve the quality of their diet and those of male gender with no or little education, and those who do not seek medical services constitute the group that needs attention concerning the measures to improve the quality of their diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A focus group study of healthy eating knowledge, practices, and barriers among adult and adolescent immigrants and refugees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Methods Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., ‘junk food is bad’). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating (‘Meanings;’ ‘Motivations;’ ‘Knowledge Sources’), Eating Practices (‘Family Practices;’ ‘Americanized Eating Practices’ ‘Eating What’s Easy’), Barriers (‘Taste and Cravings;’ ‘Easy Access to Junk Food;’ ‘Role of Family;’ Cultural Foods and Traditions;’ ‘Time;’ ‘Finances’), and Preferences for Intervention (‘Family Counseling;’ Community Education;’ and ‘Healthier Traditional Meals.’). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Conclusions Our study

  20. Achalasia in the elderly patient: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana B. Schechter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder secondary to the degeneration of ganglion cells of the inhibitory intramural myenteric plexus. It affects both sexes similarly and has two peaks of incidence, one in the 3rd to 4th decades of life and the other after 60 years of age. The effect of age on esophageal motility of patients with achalasia is not well known. Studies have shown that healthy older people, when compared to the young, have: a a lower number of ganglion cells in the intramural myenteric plexus; b a reduced normal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter; and c a reduced esophageal peristalsis. Thus, as both age and achalasia can produce comparable degenerative changes in the intramural myenteric plexus, it is possible that advanced age could be an important factor in enhancing the clinical and manometric abnormalities commonly found in patients with achalasia. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical, radiological and manometric findings in young as compared to elderly (>60 years old achalasia patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of a group of patients with untreated achalasia separated into young and elderly patients. Demographic, clinical, serology for Chagas' disease, radiological and manometric data were compared between these groups. The level of significance was P<0.05. RESULTS: The study included 105 patients, 52 young (25 M/27 F, mean age 40 years old and 53 elderly (21 M/32 F, mean age 70 years old. The elderly group had a higher prevalence of Chagas' disease (P = 0.004 and a lower pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter [26.4 mm Hg vs 31.9 mm Hg] P = 0.001, a difference that persisted when analyzed only elderly and young patients with idiopathic achalasia. Younger patients had a higher prevalence of heartburn (P = 0.001 and chest pain (P = 0.012 than the elderly. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with achalasia had a lower esophageal sphincter pressure than the young, even when we excluded patients with

  1. Electrophysiological Evidence for Elimination of the Positive Bias in Elderly Adults with Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDepressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs.MethodsParticipants were 14 community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. We collected event-related potentials of their brain compared to that of 14 healthy aged-matched adults. The late positive potential (LPP was used to examine cognitive-affective processes associated with judgment of emotional facial expressions between the two groups.ResultsOld adults with depressive symptoms have much smaller amplitude than healthy older adults irrespective of the prime types. When processing the targets, the two groups showed different patterns regarding the LPP. The healthy control group revealed no differences between ambiguous and happy primes, irrespective of whether the targets were sad or happy facial expressions. However, significant differences were found between happy and sad and between ambiguous and sad primes. Such a pattern indicates a positive bias in healthy elderly adults. Regarding the elderly with depressive symptoms, there were no significant differences between ambiguous versus happy, ambiguous versus sad primes, and happy versus sad primes. Concerning reaction times, there was no group difference. Thus, the findings provide some support for cognitive theories of depression.ConclusionThe current study shows that there is an association

  2. Diabetes in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mordarska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of both type 2 diabetes and prediabetes increases with advancing age. The most important factors leading to hyperglycaemia are as follows: deficiency of insulin secretion developing with age, and growing insulin resistance caused by a change in body composition and sarcopaenia. Clinical features of diabetes in the elderly could be different. Diabetes in elderly people is often diagnosed with delay due to atypical symptoms (dementia, urinary incontinence and occurrence of mainly postprandial hyperglycaemia. Elderly people are more exposed to diabetes complications, have more risk of myocardial infarction and end-stage renal disease, and are hospitalised more often due to hypoglycaemia than are younger patients. Elderly people with diabetes are a heterogeneous group with different life expectancy, concomitant of chronic diseases, and the ability to self-control blood glucose or give themselves an injection. The therapy should be individualised. Older people with long-term diabetes and numerous chronic complications need a more liberal approach to reach specific goals of therapy. Additional goals should be avoiding hypoglycaemia, safety of the therapy, and its acceptance by the patient.

  3. Comparison of Anti-Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Antibodies (ASCA in Behcet’s Disease Patients with Three Groups of Oral Aphthosis, other Rheumatologic Diseases and Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kerdari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behcet’s Disease (BD is a general and progressive vasculitis and involves various organs. Its main etiology is not yet understood; however, immunologic and infectious causes and genetic predisposition have been proposed. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae is a type of yeast which is used in the bread and wine industries. Antibodies against this yeast have a well-proven role in inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of Anti-Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Antibody (ASCA and its relation to clinical symptoms and disease activity index in patients afflicted by BD. Materials and Methods: Serum ASCA levels, determined by ELISA, were Studied in Behcet’s disease along with oral aphthosis, other rheumatologic diseases and healthy volunteers (n=30 in each group. In the BD group the disease activity index and different clinical symptoms were recorded during the study course. Results:Serum level of ASCA in the four studied groups of BD, oral aphthosis, other rheumatologic disease and healthy volunteers was 9.18±9.69, 10.90±10.40, 11.29±17.96 and 8.86±5.31IU/ml, respectively;  indicating no meaningful difference (p=0.811. The ASCA titer was not related to Behcet’s disease severity (p=0.399. Serum level of ASCA in BD patients with oral aphthosis or with gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly higher than the other Behcet’s Disease patients (p=0.012, p=0.014. Conclusion: ASCS is not a valuable test for distinguishing BD from recurrent oral aphthosis or other connective tissue disorders. It also cannot be used for determining disease severity. However, it has a higher level in BD patients with oral aphthous ulcers and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  4. Analysis of parameters cardiopulmonary after exercises of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Luiz Rodrigues de Jesus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposed verify whether the exercises PNF influence on the variation in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP and peak expiratory flow (PEF in healthy elderly women.: We collected information present in the evaluation sheets of medical records related to anthropometry, blood pressure and peak expiratory flow of 15 elderly women who underwent exercise in upper and lower limb patterns in the diagonals of the PNF. The immediate effect was after exercise an increase in SBP and DBP and a decrease in PEF. The late effect of exercise in PEF, observed a significant increase. It is observed that an exercise program using PNF techniques is beneficial to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, providing health psychosocial benefits; besides promoting wellness in here involved elderly, it causes a socialization of these old, making them part of the experiences of a group, reducing its isolation, certainly thereby contributes to a better quality of life for them.  

  5. Healthy Eating Index-2010 and food groups consumed by US adults who meet or exceed fiber intake recommendations NHANES 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proportion of the US adult population who meet fiber intake recommendations is very low. Information about food groups consumed and diet quality for the adults who consume recommended amounts of fiber are scarce. Objective: To examine food groups consumed and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores for US adults meeting the fiber adequate intake (AI based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data 2001–2010. Design: A secondary analysis of NHANES data from 2001 to 2010. Participants included adults aged 19 and older (n=24,807 with complete day 1 dietary records. Variables measured were food group sources of fiber and HEI-2010 scores. Sample-weighted data were used to calculate least square means (LSM±standard error of the mean (SEM by fiber intake quartile along with HEI-2010 scores. Significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Major fiber food sources for US adults meeting the AI were grain products, vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The top grain products consumed were grain mixtures, ready-to-eat (RTE cereals, and breads/rolls. The mean HEI-2010 score for adults meeting the AI for fiber was significantly (P<0.001 higher compared with all adult participants. The mean HEI-2010 score increased with increasing fiber intake in both groups. Conclusions: Adults who meet the AI for fiber have a higher quality diet. Fiber may be an important dietary component that predicts diet quality.

  6. Pharmacodynamic effects of steady-state fingolimod on antibody response in healthy volunteers: a 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Craig; Meiser, Karin; David, Olivier J; Schmouder, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Fingolimod, a first-in-class oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, is approved in many countries for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, at a once-daily 0.5-mg dose. A reduction in peripheral lymphocyte count is an expected consequence of the fingolimod mechanism of S1PR modulation. The authors investigated if this pharmacodynamic effect impacts humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In this double-blind, parallel-group, 4-week study, 72 healthy volunteers were randomized to steady state, fingolimod 0.5 mg, 1.25 mg, or to placebo. The authors compared T-cell dependent and independent responses to the neoantigens, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine (PPV-23), respectively, and additionally recall antigen response (tetanus toxoid [TT]) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to KLH, TT, and Candida albicans. Fingolimod caused mild to moderate decreases in anti-KLH and anti-PPV-23 IgG and IgM levels versus placebo. Responder rates were identical between placebo and 0.5-mg groups for anti-KLH IgG (both > 90%) and comparable for anti-PPV-23 IgG (55% and 41%, respectively). Fingolimod did not affect anti-TT immunogenicity, and DTH response did not differ between placebo and fingolimod 0.5-mg groups. Expectedly, lymphocyte count reduced substantially in the fingolimod groups versus placebo but reversed by study end. Fingolimod was well tolerated, and the observed safety profile was consistent with previous reports.

  7. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  8. Working memory training in healthy young adults: Support for the null from a randomized comparison to active and passive control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cameron M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M

    2017-01-01

    Training of working memory as a method of increasing working memory capacity and fluid intelligence has received much attention in recent years. This burgeoning field remains highly controversial with empirically-backed disagreements at all levels of evidence, including individual studies, systematic reviews, and even meta-analyses. The current study investigated the effect of a randomized six week online working memory intervention on untrained cognitive abilities in a community-recruited sample of healthy young adults, in relation to both a processing speed training active control condition, as well as a no-contact control condition. Results of traditional null hypothesis significance testing, as well as Bayesian factor analyses, revealed support for the null hypothesis across all cognitive tests administered before and after training. Importantly, all three groups were similar at pre-training for a variety of individual variables purported to moderate transfer of training to fluid intelligence, including personality traits, motivation to train, and expectations of cognitive improvement from training. Because these results are consistent with experimental trials of equal or greater methodological rigor, we suggest that future research re-focus on: 1) other promising interventions known to increase memory performance in healthy young adults, and; 2) examining sub-populations or alternative populations in which working memory training may be efficacious.

  9. The prevention of falls in later life. A report of the Kellogg International Work Group on the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Although falls among the elderly carry high costs to individuals and society, the prevention of falls in later life has not received adequate attention from health care professionals. The prevalence of falls appears to involve roughly one-third of persons aged 65 and over, and the risk of falling and suffering serious injury increases substantially up to the eighth decade of life. The proportion of falls which result in fracture is low, but the absolute number of older people who suffer fractures is high and places heavy demands on health care systems. Even falls which result in no physical injury often have serious social and psychological consequences for the elderly, including loss of confidence and restrictions in mobility, and high proportions of older people report fears of falling. There is a need to provide accurate information about the causes and prevention of falls in later life. Falls are not part of the normal aging process. Rather, they are due to underlying physical illnesses, medications, and environmental hazards, often in interaction. This report provides an overview of the elderly population at risk of falling and suffering serious injury, some of the reasons older people fall, and the methods to prevent falls which have been developed in both community and institutional settings. In addition, it suggests some of the practical steps which can be taken by health and social care professionals and by older people and their families in order to prevent falls. Empirical knowledge about the causes of falls by the elderly and the most effective methods of prevention remains limited. Major barriers to research have been the lack of a clear definition of a fall and the fact that falls are not included in medical diagnostic indices. It is recommended that falls be recorded as a disease entity in Index Medicus and in the International Classification of Diseases Xth Revision. To facilitate future comparisons of research findings on falls, a definition of a

  10. Effects of Mental Practice on Balance in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Fallah-Pour

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mental practice refers to "The symbolic rehearsal of a physical activity in the absence of any gross muscular movements." It has been shown in a remarkable number of studies that the use of mental practice like physical practice can produces significant improvements in motor skills. Thus this therapeutic technique can be used in elderly rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mental practice on balance in the elderly. Materials & Methods: Thirty healthy old subject over the age of 60 years took part in this study. Subjects solicited from two senior-citizen centers in Tehran and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Balance of subjects was assessed in four stage include baseline, pre-treatment, post-treatment and follow-up. Subjects in experimental group performed mental practice of a motor and balance skill for 3 weeks and control group did not perform any practice in that period. Results: The results of this study indicate significant improvement in the motor skill that mentally performed and also in balance of subjects. Conclusion: Mental Practice that performed on the mental skill not only was mentaly effective but also meaningly cause the improvement of balance in elderly.

  11. Outbreak of late-onset group B streptococcal infections in healthy newborn infants after discharge from a maternity hospital: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Soo Young; Seo, Won Hee; Choi, Byung Min; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kee Hyoung; Eun, Baik Lin; Kim, Hai Joong

    2006-04-01

    During a four-week period, four healthy term newborn infants born at a regional maternity hospital in Korea developed late-onset neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections, after being discharged from the same nursery. More than 10 days after their discharge, all of the infants developed fever, lethargy, and poor feeding behavior, and were subsequently admitted to the Korea University Medical Center, Ansan Hospital. GBS was isolated from the blood cultures of three babies; furthermore, GBS was isolated from 2 cerebral spinal fluid cultures. Three babies had meningitis, and GBS was isolated from their cerebral spinal fluid cultures. This outbreak was believed to reflect delayed infection after early colonization, originating from nosocomial sources within the hospital environment. This report underlines the necessity for Korean obstetricians and pediatricians to be aware of the risk of nosocomial transmissions of GBS infection in the delivery room and/or the nursery.

  12. Real-time social support through a mobile virtual community to improve healthy behavior in overweight and sedentary adults: a focus group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Kamitani, Emiko; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Lindgren, Teri

    2011-07-14

    The onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus can be prevented or delayed by lifestyle changes. Communication technologies such as a mobile phone can be used as a means of delivering these lifestyle changes. The purposes of this analysis were to explore applicability of potential components of a mobile phone-based healthy lifestyle program and to understand motivators and barriers to continued engagement in a mobile phone healthy lifestyle program. We conducted 6 focus groups (4 female and 2 male groups) in May and June 2010 with 35 focus group participants. The qualitative data were analyzed by 3 researchers using a qualitative description method in an ATLAS.ti software program. Inclusion criteria for enrollment in a focus group were as follows: (1) being aged from 30 to 69 years, (2) speaking and reading English, (3) having a sedentary lifestyle at work or during leisure time (screened by the Brief Physical Activity Survey questionnaire), and (4) having a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2) (Asian >23 kg/m(2)) based on self-reported weight and height or 5) having a self-reported prediabetic condition. The mean age was 51 (SD 10.6) years; 54% (n = 19) were white; 71% (n = 25) used a mobile phone at least once a week during the last month prior to the study enrollment; and mean BMI was 32.5 (SD 6.5) kg/m(2). In the qualitative analyses, the following 4 major themes and their subthemes emerged: (1) real-time social support (real-time peer support from participants who are similarly engaged in a diet or physical activity program, and professional support from health care providers or a researcher), (2) tailoring of mobile phone programs (3) self-monitoring and motivation, and (4) potential barriers and sustainability of the program (fear of failing, age and mobile technologies, and loss of interest over time). Participants from a wide range of age and racial groups expressed interest in a mobile phone-based lifestyle program. Such a program that incorporates the themes that we

  13. Social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, their unaffected first degree relatives and healthy controls. Comparison between groups and analysis of associated clinical and sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sosa, Juana Teresa; Gil Santiago, Hiurma; Trujillo Cubas, Angel; Winter Navarro, Marta; León Pérez, Petra; Guerra Cazorla, Luz Marina; Martín Jiménez, José María

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, healthy first-degree relatives and controls, by studying the relationship between social cognition and nonsocial cognition, psychopathology, and other clinical and sociodemographic variables. The total sample was comprised of patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (N = 29), healthy first-degree relatives (N = 21) and controls (N = 28). All groups were assessed with an ad hoc questionnaire and a Social Cognition Scale, which assessed the domains: emotional processing, social perception and attributional style in a Spanish population. The patient group was also assessed with the Scale for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Mini-mental state examination. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 15.0. Patients scored significantly worse in all domains of social cognition assessed, compared with controls, and mastery attributional style, compared with relatives. The type of psychopathology correlated negatively and statistically significantly with different domains of social cognition: negative symptoms with emotional processing and attributional style, and positive symptoms with social perception. Basic cognition scores correlated positively and statistically significantly with the domains social perception and attributional style. Social cognition has become an interesting object of study, especially in how it relates to non-social cognition, psychopathology and global functioning of patients, bringing new elements to be considered in the early detection, comprehensive treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of patients. Its conceptualization as trait variable, the consideration of the existence of a continuum between patients and relatives are plausible hypotheses that require further research. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Dao De Xin Xi Exercise on Balance and Quality of Life in Thai Elderly Women

    OpenAIRE

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Chintanaprawasee, Pantipa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week Dao De Xin Xi exercise, modified short forms of Tai Chi, on balance and quality of life in Thai elderly population. Quasi-Experimental research, pretest-posttest one group design was done at Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Phramongkutklao Hospital. Thai healthy elderly women over the age of 60, requiring regular Dao De Xin Xi exercise were recruited from either patients or workers in the hospital. A 60-minut...

  15. Decreased Taxon-Specific IgA Response in Relation to the Changes of Gut Microbiota Composition in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirosuke Sugahara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is known to change with aging; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been well elucidated. Immunoglobulin A (IgA is the dominant class of antibody secreted by the intestinal mucosa, and are thought to play a key role in the regulation of the gut microbiota. T cells regulate the magnitude and nature of microbiota-specific IgA responses. However, it is also known that T cells become senescent in elderly people. Therefore, we speculated that the age-related changes of IgA response against the gut microbiota might be one of the mechanisms causing the age-associated changes of gut microbiota composition. To prove our hypothesis, fecal samples from 40 healthy subjects (adult group: n = 20, an average of 35 years old; elderly group: n = 20, an average of 76 years old were collected, and the gut microbiota composition and the response of IgA to gut microbiota were investigated. The relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was significantly lower, whereas those of Clostridiaceae, Clostridiales;f__ and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the adult group. There was no significant difference in the fecal IgA concentration between the adult and elderly groups. However, the taxon-specific IgA response to some bacterial taxa was different between the adult and elderly groups. To evaluate inter-group differences in the taxon-specific IgA response to each bacterial taxon, the IgA-indices were calculated, and the IgA-indices of Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were found to be significantly lower in the elderly group than the adult group. In addition, Clostridiales;f__ and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly enriched in the IgA+ fraction in the adult group but not in the elderly group, whereas Clostridiaceae was significantly enriched in the IgA- fraction in the elderly group but not in the adult group. Some species assigned to Clostridiaceae or Enterobacteriaceae are known to be pathogenic

  16. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity in young and elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Yujin; Chou, Chinmei; Takeshita, Junko; Murakami, Motoko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2006-05-01

    In order to compare the physiological and the subjective responses to low relative humidity of elderly and young men, we measured saccharin clearance time (SCT), frequency of blinking, hydration state of the skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum level recovery and skin temperatures as physiological responses. We asked subjects to evaluate thermal, dryness and comfort sensations as subjective responses using a rating scale. Eight non-smoking healthy male students (21.7+/-0.8 yr) and eight non-smoking healthy elderly men (71.1+/-4.1 yr) were selected. The pre-room conditions were maintained at an air temperature (Ta) of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of 50%. The test-room conditions were adjusted to provide 25 degrees C Ta and RH levels of 10%, 30% and 50%. RH had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous gland or change of mean skin temperature. SCT of the elderly group under 10% RH was significantly longer than that of the young group. In particular, considering the SCT change, the nasal mucous membrane seems to be affected more in the elderly than in the young in low RH. Under 30% RH, the eyes and skin become dry, and under 10% RH the nasal mucous membrane becomes dry as well as the eyes and skin. These findings suggested that to avoid dryness of the eyes and skin, it is necessary to maintain greater than 30% RH, and to avoid dryness of the nasal mucous membrane, it is necessary to maintain greater than 10% RH. On the thermal sensation of the legs, at the lower humidity level, the elderly group felt cooler than the young group. On the dry sensation of the eyes and throat, the young group felt drier than the elderly group at the lower humidity levels. From the above results, the elderly group had difficulty in feeling dryness in the nasal mucous membrane despite being easily affected by low humidity. On the other hand, the young group felt the change of humidity sensitively despite not being severely affected by low humidity. Ocular mucosa and

  17. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  18. Investigation of auditory brainstem function in elderly diabetic patients with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacií, Jelena; Lajtman, Zoran; Ozegović, Ivan; Knezević, Predrag; Carić, Tomislav; Vlasić, Ana

    2009-01-01

    We performed brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations in 100 patients older than 60 years and having type I diabetes mellitus and presbycusis. The aim of our investigation was to compare the BAEP results of this group with those of healthy controls with presbycusis and to look for possible correlations between alteration of the auditory brainstem function and the aging of elderly diabetic patients. Absolute and interpeak latencies of all waves were prolonged significantly in the study group of diabetic patients. The amplitudes of all waves I through V were diminished in the study group as compared to those in the control group, with statistical significance present for all waves. Analysis of the latencies (waves I, II, I, and V), interpeak latencies (I-V), and amplitudes (I, II, III, and V) of BAEP revealed a significant difference between those of diabetics and those of healthy elderly controls with presbycusis. These data support a hypothesis that there is a brainstem neuropathy in diabetes mellitus that can be assessed with auditory brainstem response testing even in the group of elderly patients with sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. Plasma incorporation, apparent retroconversion and β-oxidation of 13C-docosahexaenoic acid in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenna J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher fish or higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake normally correlates positively with higher plasma DHA level, but recent evidence suggests that the positive relationship between intake and plasma levels of DHA is less clear in the elderly. Methods We compared the metabolism of 13C-DHA in six healthy elderly (mean - 77 y old and six young adults (mean - 27 y old. All participants were given a single oral dose of 50 mg of uniformly labelled 13C-DHA. Tracer incorporation into fatty acids of plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesteryl esters and phospholipids, as well as apparent retroconversion and β-oxidation of 13C-DHA were evaluated 4 h, 24 h, 7d and 28d later. Results Plasma incorporation and β-oxidation of 13C-DHA reached a maximum within 4 h in both groups, but 13C-DHA was transiently higher in all plasma lipids of the elderly 4 h to 28d later. At 4 h post-dose, 13C-DHA β-oxidation was 1.9 times higher in the elderly, but over 7d, cumulative β-oxidation of 13C-DHA was not different in the two groups (35% in the elderly and 38% in the young. Apparent retroconversion of 13C-DHA was well below 10% of 13C-DHA recovered in plasma at all time points, and was 2.1 times higher in the elderly 24 h and 7d after tracer intake. Conclusions We conclude that 13C-DHA metabolism changes significantly during healthy aging. Since DHA is a potentially important molecule in neuro-protection, these changes may be relevant to the higher vulnerability of the elderly to cognitive decline.

  20. [Static posturography versus clinical tests in elderly people with vestibular pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño-Cortés, Miguel A; Martín-Sanz, Eduardo; Barona-de Guzmán, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Balance can be quantified by clinical tests and through instrumental studies. The objective of this paper is to determine the correlation between static posturography and 4 clinical tests of balance in elderly people with vestibular disorders and to identify its capability to discriminate the groups studied. 60 patients with vestibular disorders and 60 healthy subjects performed 4 clinical tests (one leg standing with opened eyes, Timed Up and Go, Tinetti and Berg tests) and a static posturography analysis (NedSVE/IBV system) under 4 conditions: Romberg Test, Eyes Open (REO), Romberg Test, Eyes Closed (REC), Romberg Test on Foam with Eyes Open (RFEO), and Romberg Test on Foam with Eyes Closed (RFEC). RFEO correlated best with the clinical tests and RFEC was the worst. RFEO distinguished between healthy individuals and decompensated patients. RFEO gave the best information about postural balance in the elderly. RFEC was not useful. Static posturography can be useful to distinguish vestibular compensation status.

  1. An Elderly Employment Model For The Thai Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornrat Sadangharn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at studying an elderly employment model for the Thai automotive industry. Mixed methods with a sequential exploratory strategy were utilized. Grounded theory was employed by using in-depth interviews to investigate the characteristics of elderly employment in the Thai automotive industry. For this stage of the research, theoretical and purposive sampling was used to select 32 key informants from four groups of stakeholders: (1 elderly workers, (2 employers or human resource managers, (3 government officers, and (4 academics. The findings were then validated using a quantitative approach with structural equation modelling (SEM. A total of 308 elderly workers and human resource managers were surveyed regarding their opinion about elderly employment. Based on the survey, the elderly employment model in the Thai automotive industry, which is comprised of the approach to elderly employment, elderly employment preparation, and key success factors for elderly employment, was revealed to be a good fit. 

  2. Healthy Aging and Compensation of Sentence Comprehension Auditory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lima Silagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze the effect of aging on sentence auditory comprehension and to study the relationship between this language skill and cognitive functions (attention, working memory, and executive functions. Methods. A total of 90 healthy subjects were divided into three groups: adults (50–59 years, young-old (60–69 years, and old-old (70–80 years. Subjects were assessed using the Revised Token Test. The measures used for performance analysis were number of correct answers (accuracy and execution time of commands on the different subtests. Results. Regarding accuracy, groups showed similar performance on the first blocks, but the young-old and old-old performed worse than adults on blocks 9 and 10. With respect to execution time, groups differed from block 2 (i.e., the groups differed for all blocks, except for block 1, with the worst performance observed in the old-old group, followed by that of the young-old group. Therefore, the elderly required more time to attain performance similar to that of adults, showing that time measurements are more sensitive for detecting the effects of age. Sentence comprehension ability is correlated with cognitive test performance, especially for global cognition and working memory tests. Conclusions. Healthy aging is characterized by the ability to compensate for difficulties in linguistic processing, which allows the elderly to maintain functional communication.

  3. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-11-28

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995-2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17,000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Making Healthy Eating Policy Practice: A Group Randomized Controlled Trial on Changes in Snack Quality, Costs, and Consumption in After-School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, R Glenn; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy; Hutto, Brent; Moore, Justin B; Beighle, Aaron

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to assist after-school programs (ASPs) in meeting snack nutrition policies that specify that a fruit or vegetable be served daily and sugar-sweetened beverages/foods and artificially flavored foods eliminated. The study used a 1-year group-randomized controlled trial. The study took place in ASPs operating in South Carolina, United States. Twenty ASPs serving over 1700 children were recruited, match-paired postbaseline on enrollment size and days fruits/vegetables were served per week, and randomized to either intervention (n = 10) or control (n = 10) groups. The study used Strategies To Enhance Practice for Healthy Eating (STEPs-HE), a multistep adaptive intervention framework that assists ASP leaders and staff to serve snacks that meet nutrition policies while maintaining cost. Direct observation of snacks served and consumed and monthly snack expenditures as determined by receipts were used. The study used nonparametric and mixed-model repeated measures. By postassessment, intervention ASPs increased serving of fruits/vegetables to 3.9 ± 2.1 vs. 0.7 ± 1.7 d/wk and decreased serving sugar-sweetened beverages to 0.1 ± 0.7 vs. 1.8 ± 2.4 d/wk and sugar-sweetened foods to 0.3 ± 1.1 vs. 2.7 ± 2.5 d/wk compared to controls, respectively. Cost of snacks increased by $0.02/snack in the intervention ASPs ($0.36 to $0.38) compared to a $0.01 per snack decrease in the control group ($0.39 to $0.38). Across both assessments and groups, 80% to 100% of children consumed FVs. The STEPs-HE intervention can assist ASPs in meeting nationally endorsed nutrition policies with marginal increases in cost. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  5. Two Principles of good elderly care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Eskelinen, Leena; Boll Hansen, Eigil

    ) which is a possibility for the elderly to choose a private provider. Stressing the self-determination of the elderly and the help provided as service is potentially at odds with one of the existing principles of elderly care, namely the professional principle of help-to-self help. It aims at activating...... the elderly person to manage as much as possible themselves and is based upon a socio-pedagogical culture, where the professional is teaching elderly people about the proper behavior. It’s based upon a formal knowledge of aging and upon different techniques to motivate and involve the elderly....... These are clearly different logics. However, no research has so far studied how these concepts are translated from a national to the municipal level to groups of home helpers and to individual home helpers. And how are these principles played out in different contexts of private firms and public providers...

  6. Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) protection against serum oxidative stress in elderly humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Philip, Sarah J; Riaño, Annia; Sánchez, Carlos; Viada, Carmen; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Delgado, René

    2006-01-01

    We searched for the protective effect of a natural extract from stem bark of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on age-related oxidative stress. Healthy subjects were classified in two groups, elderly (>65 years) and young group (Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, before meals) for 60 days. Serum concentration of lipid peroxides, serum peroxidation potential, extracellular superoxide dismutase activity (EC-SOD), glutathione status (GSH, GSSG, GSSG/GSH ratio)) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined before (both experimental groups) and 15, 30, and 60 days after treatment (only elderly group). We confirmed the existence of an age-associated oxidative stress in human serum as documented by an age-related increase in serum lipoperoxides and GSSG and a decrease in serum antioxidant capacity and EC-SOD activity. Vimang tablet supplementation increased EC-SOD activity (p Vimang tablets prevent age-associated oxidative stress in elderly humans, which could retard the onset of age-associated disease, improving the quality of life for elderly persons.

  7. The golden opportunities for physiotherapists in frail elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Frailty is a complex phenomenon which is a result of a decline in reserve capacity. Although it is generally known that movement has a positive influence on a diversity of health outcomes in relatively healthy elderly, the effect on frail elderly is less known. Key elements in the clinical

  8. The Health Heterogeneity of and Health Care Utilization by the Elderly in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A good understanding of the health heterogeneity of elderly people, their characteristics, patterns of health care utilization and subsequent expenditures is necessary to adequately evaluate the policy options and interventions aimed at improving quality and efficiency of care for older people. This article reviews studies that used Latent Class Analysis to identify four health profiles among elderly people in Taiwan: High Comorbidity (HC, Functional Impairment (FI, Frail (FR, and Relatively Healthy (RH. Variables associated with increased likelihood of being in the FR group were older age, female gender, and living with one’s family, and these also correlated with ethnicity and level of education. The HC group tended to use more ambulatory care services compared with those in the RH group. The HC group tended to be younger, better educated, and was more likely to live in urban areas than were people in the FI group. The FI group, apart from age and gender, was less likely be of Hakka ethnicity and more likely to live with others than were individuals in the RH group. The FI group had relatively high probabilities of needing assistance, and the FR group had higher healthcare expenditures. A person-centered approach would better satisfy current healthcare needs of elderly people and help forecast future expenditures.

  9. Evidências da contribuição dos programas de assistência ao idoso na promoção do envelhecimento saudável no Brasil Evidence of the contribution of elderly support programs to healthy aging in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Fortunato Araújo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Buscar na literatura evidências relativas à contribuição dos programas de promoção da saúde no processo de envelhecimento saudável no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se as bases de dados Science Direct, SciELO, LILACS, IBECS, Biblioteca Cochrane e MEDLINE em busca de artigos que enfocassem iniciativas voltadas para a população idosa e o envelhecimento saudável, que avaliassem multidimensionalmente a qualidade de vida do idoso e que tratassem de aspectos relativos às práticas profissionais específicas em promoção da saúde. Para definir a eficácia das iniciativas, adotaram-se os seguintes critérios: ter metas que incluíssem a melhoria da saúde e do bem-estar; ter foco na saúde holística; usar o empoderamento como mecanismo central; atender os pré-requisitos da saúde e realizar ações nas áreas prioritárias da Carta de Ottawa. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 10 artigos que se referiam a cinco programas de promoção da saúde do idoso no Brasil. Pode-se afirmar que todos os programas apresentados demonstraram elementos que vão ao encontro da promoção da saúde no envelhecimento por abranger características que permitem a inserção dos idosos na sociedade por meio da criação do ambiente de suporte para prevenção de agravos, aumento da capacidade funcional e melhoria da qualidade de vida, tendo sido atendidos os critérios de eficácia. CONCLUSÕES: É preciso produzir evidências científicas acerca da efetividade, eficiência e eficácia dos programas para a terceira idade para que se possa a